WorldWideScience

Sample records for european union eu

  1. Relatedness and diversification in the European Union (EU-27) and European Neighbourhood Policy countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron; Capone, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the process of industrial diversification in the countries that were part of the European Union (EU-27) and those that were the target of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) in the period 1995–2010 by means of world trade data derived from the BACI database (elaborated UN

  2. Data Resource Profile: The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vishal S; Karanikolos, Marina; Clair, Amy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Social and economic policies are inextricably linked with population health outcomes in Europe, yet few datasets are able to fully explore and compare this relationship across European countries. The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey aims to address this gap using microdata on income, living conditions and health. EU-SILC contains both cross-sectional and longitudinal elements, with nationally representative samples of individuals 16 years and older in 28 European Union member states as well as Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Data collection began in 2003 in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Greece, Luxembourg and Austria, with subsequent expansion across Europe. By 2011, all 28 EU member states, plus three others, were included in the dataset. Although EU-SILC is administered by Eurostat, the data are output-harmonized so that countries are required to collect specified data items but are free to determine sampling strategies for data collection purposes. EU-SILC covers approximately 500,000 European residents for its cross-sectional survey annually. Whereas aggregated data from EU-SILC are publicly available [http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/income-and-living-conditions/data/main-tables], microdata are only available to research organizations subject to approval by Eurostat. Please refer to [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/microdata/eu_silc] for further information regarding microdata access. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  3. The European Union and Crisis Management: Will the Lisbon Treaty Make the EU More Effective?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ramses A.; Blockmans, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The European Union's security and defence policy (ESDP) was invented 10 years ago and has been operational for more than five years. During this period the EU has launched over 20 ESDP missions allowing the organization to be engaged in international crisis management in various ways. The coming

  4. 25 years of European Union (EU) quality schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs across EU Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Tânia G; Oliveira, M Beatriz Pp; Costa, Helena S

    2018-05-01

    Consumers are increasingly turning their attention to the quality and origin of products that they consume. European Union (EU) quality schemes are associated with a label, which was introduced to allow consumers to perform an informed choice and to protect producers from unfair practices. This present study provides an overview of the last 25 years of EU quality schemes [Protected Designations of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indications (PGI) and Traditional Specialities Guaranteed (TSG)] on agricultural products and foodstuffs across the 28 EU Member States. According to the results, it was possible to conclude that Southern European countries have the highest number of registered products. The most used EU quality scheme is PGI, followed by PDO. Concerning the analysis of the evolution in the last 25 years, the number of registered products among EU Member States has increased significantly. The fruit, vegetables and cereals (fresh or processed) category is the one that accounts for the highest percentage (26.8%) of registered products, followed by cheeses and meat products (cooked, salted, smoked) categories, with 17.2% and 13.5%, respectively. Further investigations should address consumer preferences, knowledge and attitudes, especially Northern European countries with a lower number of registered products. Moreover, the investigation and registration of products should be encouraged among all EU Member States to allow the maintenance of important elements of the history, culture and heritage of the local areas, regions and countries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. THE STATUS OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS CONCLUDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE EU LEGAL ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agoston Mohay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is a member of the international community and is a party to numerous international agreements. The status of these international agreements in the EU legal order however is not made expressly clear by the Treaties. The most pertinent question that arises is whether secondary EU law may be reviewed in the light of international agreements in annulment procedures or preliminary ruling procedures before the Court of Justice of the EU. In its jurisprudence the Court of Justice has tied the possibility of review to the question of the direct effect of international treaties, but there are some issues of consistency in this regard. This problem is a part of the broader question of the relationship of international law and EU law, including the question whether this relationship is more akin to a monist or a dualist approach.

  6. Alcolocks : factors influencing implementation, participation and compliance : literature review contributed to the EU project Alcolock Implementation in the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, M.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004-2005, a series of alcolock field trials were conducted in four European countries, in the framework of the EU research project Alcolock Implementation in the European Union. This project was granted by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Energy and Transport (DG-TREN). As part

  7. European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) Futures Liquidity Effects: Evidence from the European Energy Exchange (EEX)

    OpenAIRE

    Ibikunle, Gbenga; Gregoriou, Andros

    2011-01-01

    We examine liquidity effects after the onset of trading in phase II of the EU-ETS for European Union Allowance (EUA) futures contracts. We obtain evidence of long-term improvement in liquidity of the EEX EUA December 2008 futures contract after the commencement of trading in phase II. Our results suggest the application of a new regime of trading rules in Phase II led to the improvements in liquidity.

  8. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  9. Radiation sources in the EU. A review of steps in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciani, V.

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the role and activities of the European Union concerning safety of radiation sources. A brief presentation is given of the results from a recent study of the management of radiation sources in EU Member Sates. A Number of legal texts which apply to radiation sources are cited as well. In 1998, the EC co-sponsored together with the IAEA, the International Criminal Police Organization and the World Customs Organization, a Conference on the safety of radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Materials in France. Commission supports follow-up actions to that Conference and welcomes the IAEA initiative to develop an action plan that would address the international dimensions of the safety of radiation sources

  10. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  11. European [Security] Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three...... of these policies involved the navigation and negotiation of security, borders and governance in and by the European Union (EU). This article analyses these practices of bordering and governance through a five-fold security framework. The article argues that a richer understanding of EU security discourses can...

  12. European Union, 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-01-01

    The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017). At the same time, he cautioned...

  13. European Union, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017. At the same time, he cautioned that the fair weather conditions would not last long - there was no room for complacency. The EU had to act to protect, empower and defend its citizens. The EU moved forward on a number of policy fronts in the wake of the Brexit vote and also concluded high-profile international trade deals in an effort to fill the vacuum left by the protectionist policies of the Trump administration.

  14. CONVERGENCE AND DIVERGENCE IN EUROPEAN UNION: EVIDENCE FOR BETA CONVERGENCE AMONG NEW EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Sorina Mihuț

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Convergence may be considered a central issue of the current economic literature, and not only, concentrating upon income distribution within different economies, but also focusing on different aspects of polarity and inequality that characterize especially the emerging economies. Testing convergence within economies may serve as a useful instrument for the validation of the economic growth models. While convergence was considered a defining element of the neoclassical growth models, the majority of the new endogenous growth models argue in favour of divergence across different economies. Testing convergence among European Union is even more challenging due to the high degree of heterogeneity that characterizes these economies. The recent accessions with ten new countries in 2004 and with another two in 2007 were considered only the first step towards assuring a sustainable convergence and finally adopting a common currency-the euro. A series of empirical studies concentrated upon testing convergence among EU, using as benchmark the real convergence quantified by the level of GDP/capita as an indicator for the living standards of every economy. The most popular approach rely on Beta and Sigma convergence, the first one being and indicator of the GDP/capita dispersion between different economies, and the later one being an estimator of the reverse relationship between GDP/capita and its initial level. The main purpose of this paper is to test Beta converge among the new EU member states, in order to obtained more information about the fact whether the poor countries are trying to catch-up with the more developed one. Also Beta convergence indicator embodies useful information about conditional and un-conditional convergence, two leading hypothesis within the neoclassical and endogenous growth models. For Beta convergence hypothesis to be valid it should be taken into consideration a ”catch-up” mechanism over a longer period of time

  15. Controlling the EU Executive? The Politics of Delegation in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsma, Gijs Jan; Blom-Hansen, Jens

    Every year the EU Commission issues thousands of rules based on powers delegated by the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament. But delegation is carefully controlled. Traditionally, control has been exerted through a system of committees of member state representatives (‘comitology......’). However, this system was contested by the European Parliament which was left without any influence. The Lisbon Treaty introduced a new control regime for delegated powers, the so-called delegated acts system, which was meant to supplement the existing system. The new system involves direct control...... by the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament and thus for the first time gave the European Parliament real influence over delegated powers. However, the choice over which delegation regime to use in practice has turned into one of the most vehement institutional conflicts in the EU political system...

  16. Rawls and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Menno R.

    2014-01-01

    Renowned political philosopher John Rawls once expressed skepticism about the moral status of the European Union (EU). Yet generally EU scholars have either ignored Rawls or rather uncritically established positive links between his theory of domestic and international justice and the EU. This

  17. 6. Analisis Implementasi Cyber Security Di Uni Eropa: Studi Kasus Carbon Credits Hacking Dalam European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) Tahun 2010-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Aisya, Naila Sukma; Putranti, Ika Riswanti; Wahyudi, Fendy Eko

    2017-01-01

    Since the last two decades in the 20th century, the European Union (EU) has presented itself as a leader in climate change issues. The leadership manifested in the formation of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) as an effort to fulfill the commitments of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce emissions in the region. But the existence of the EU ETS has been challenged by the emergence of carbon credits hacking case in some national registration systems in the EU ETS. This study discuss...

  18. Osteoporosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svedbom, A; Hernlund, E; Ivergård, M

    2013-01-01

    the burden of osteoporosis in each of the EU27 countries in 2010 and beyond. METHODS: The data on fracture incidence and costs of fractures in the EU27 were taken from a concurrent publication in this journal (Osteoporosis in the European Union: Medical Management, Epidemiology and Economic Burden......UNLABELLED: This report describes epidemiology, burden, and treatment of osteoporosis in each of the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). INTRODUCTION: In 2010, 22 million women and 5.5 million men were estimated to have osteoporosis in the EU; and 3.5 million new fragility fractures were...

  19. CNOSSOS-EU: Development of a common environmental noise assessment method in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspuru Soloaga, I.; Segues Echazarreta Segues, F.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the main aspects of the work undertaken in the development of the common european method of environmental noise assessment CNOSSOS-EU. It summarizes the design, structure and content, and the methodological basis on which it is based. Taking into account the experience gained in the first round of strategic noise mapping, some conclusions are settled about its applications for the third round, and tits implications for the Spanish case. (Author) 9 refs.

  20. Fossil and renewable energy consumption, GHGs (greenhouse gases) and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of EU (European Union) countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bölük, Gülden; Mert, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Recently a great number of empirical research studies have been conducted on the relationship between certain indicators of environmental degradation and income. The EKC (Environmental Kuznets Curve) hypothesis has been tested for various types of environmental degradation. The EKC hypothesis states that the relationship between environmental degradation and income per capita takes the form of an inverted U shape. In this paper the EKC hypothesis was investigated with regards to the relationship between carbon emissions, income and energy consumption in 16 EU (European Union) countries. We conducted panel data analysis for the period of 1990–2008 by fixing the multicollinearity problem between the explanatory variables using their centered values. The main contribution of this paper is that the EKC hypothesis has been investigated by separating final energy consumption into renewable and fossil fuel energy consumption. Unfortunately, the inverted U-shape relationship (EKC) does not hold for carbon emissions in the 16 EU countries. The other important finding is that renewable energy consumption contributes around 1/2 less per unit of energy consumed than fossil energy consumption in terms of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in EU countries. This implies that a shift in energy consumption mix towards alternative renewable energy technologies might decrease the GHG emissions. - Highlights: • We investigate the EKC (Environmental Kuznets Curve) hypothesis for 16 EU (European Union) countries. • We fix the multicollinearity problem between explanatory variables. • We found no evidence to support the EKC hypothesis in EU between 1990 and 2008 periods. • Renewable energy contributes less to GHGs (greenhouse gases) around ½ that of a unit of fossil energy

  1. European Union. Court of Justice of the European Union: EU Law and Fundamental Rights Preclude Requested Filtering Injunction against Hosting Provider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, K.

    2012-01-01

    On 16 February 2012, the Court of Justice of the European Union delivered its preliminary ruling in the case of SABAM v. Netlog NV. The judgment was issued on a request made by the Court of First Instance of Brussels.

  2. Comparison of Domestic Safety Review and European Union(EU) Stress Test After Nuclear Accident in Fukushima Daiichi NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hwa Sung; Kim, Jin Weon [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The European Union(EU) nuclear regulators group established stress test criteria and procedures, and utilities performed a self-review in accordance with those criteria and procedures. For Wolsung nuclear unit-1,the stress test was additionally conducted for deciding the continued operation of NPP, even though the safety review had been conducted after Fukushima NPP accident. Thus, this study is to compares the process, criteria, and results of the safety review performed in domestic NPPs and EU stress test performed in Cernavoda NPP. From the comparisons, the effectiveness and necessity of the stress test to decide the continued operation of NPPs is discussed. and the improvement items for safety enhancement are derived. The comparison showed that the process and review criteria of EU stress test was more systematic and specific than those used in domestic NPPs. But it was indicated that the improvement items resulted from the safety review performed in domestic NPPs are more comprehensive and powerful than EU stress tests (Cernavoda NPP) results. EU stress test for Cernavoda NPP evaluated in 3 fieldsand derived 13 design change items. The 50 improvement items derived from domestic safety review were including the contents of these 13 items.

  3. Administrative Aspects of Alternative Consumer Dispute Resolution in the European Union (EU, Slovenia and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeretina Urša

    2016-06-01

    would lead us closer towards a common European Administrative Space. However, so far such EU initiatives have left many questions unanswered regarding the supervision and financing of CADR schemes, as well as the administrative issues about the purely internal harmonization of “administrative” CADR practices in Member States. An example of the substantial administrative dilemmas in CADR practices, mostly in the field of universal services, can be recognized in existing CADR systems in selected EU countries, e.g. Slovenia and Croatia.

  4. Panorama 2016 - Overview of the refining industry in the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, Paula; Jalard, Matthieu

    2015-12-01

    Since 2008, emissions from the refining sector have fallen by more than 12%, reaching 128 MtCO 2 e in 2014. Germany was the largest emitter of CO 2 e for the 2005- 2014 period. With Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, France and the Netherlands, these six countries accounted for 71% of the industry's emissions in the EU ETS for 2014. During the 2008-2014 period, the European refining sector had a surplus of 74 MtCO 2 e, but since 2013 has had an annual deficit. Estimates show that the overall surplus of 74 MtCO 2 e should vanish by 2015. In the future, European demand for petroleum products will drop, and forecasts for crude processing are expected to decline. IFPEN estimates that, by 2035, this decline should reach 30%, leading to a 20% drop in the sector's emissions. Against this background, the amount of free allowances in the refining sector will fall, from 80% in 2014 to nearly 75% in 2020, leading to compliance costs for the European refining sector of approximately euro 600 million for 2020 alone, compared with the $6 billion needed for investment in Europe by 2035. Due to the great disparity in efficiency among European refineries (difference when compared with the benchmark), it is clear that it will be extremely costly for certain refineries to remain in operation. This will lead to the likely closure of refineries that are less efficient in terms of GHG emissions. (authors)

  5. The share of renewable energy in the EU. Country Profiles. Overview of Renewable Energy Sources in the Enlarged European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The promotion of renewable energy has an important role to play in addressing the growing dependence on energy imports in Europe and in tackling climate change. Since 1997, the Union has been working towards the ambitious target of a 12% share of renewable energy in gross inland consumption by 2010. In 1997, the share of renewable energy was 5.4%; by 2001 it had reached 6%. This Staff Working Document gives an overview of the different situations of renewable energy sources in the European Union. It includes part of the formal report that the Commission is required to make under Article 3 of Directive 2001/77/EC on electricity from renewable energy sources, and it completes the overall picture with information at a country level on the heat produced from renewable energies and biofuels in the transport sector. This Staff Working Document complements the Communication on 'The share of Renewable Energy sources in the EU'. Data is based on different sources. Firstly, on the reports from Member States on national progress in achieving the targets on electricity from renewable energy sources. Secondly, on a study launched by the Commission on the evolution of renewable energy sources. And thirdly, on a variety of sources like the European Barometer of renewable energies, data from the industry, etc. With the enlargement of the European Union, the new Member States are required to adopt the RES-E Directive (renewable energy sources for electricity) by 1 May 2004. In the accession treaty, national indicative targets are set and the overall renewable electricity target for the enlarged Union will therefore be 21% of gross electricity consumption by 2010. The Commission has the legal obligation to report on the degree of achievement of new Member States' targets by 2006. Although it is too early to assess RES-policy in the new Member States due to very recently adopted regulations, this document also includes national information on the States now joining the European Union

  6. Contribution of the EU Budget to the Implementation of the Social Cohesion Policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Stabryła-Chudzio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study is to examine whether the European Union budget comprises significant resources for financing measures relating to social cohesion. The analysis is based on the contents of the Europe 2020 Strategy. Given the constraints of space and for the sake of clarity of the argument, the author focuses on the role of the EU budget rather than all measures aimed at social cohesion undertaken by EU institutions or targeted by policies of individual Member States.Methodology: Documents, studies and reports published by the European Commission constitute the main source of information. In addition, the author has taken into account macroeconomic data demonstrating the deterioration of the social situation since 2009, as well as the instruments that the European Commission has deployed since 2013 in order to respond to post-crisis challenges.Conclusions: It can be roughly estimated that more than 40 percent of total resources within the Multiannual Financial Framework 2014–2020 shall be allocated to the social cohesion policy. Opportunities afforded by the implementation of the Europe 2020 Strategy include primarily the definition of objectives whose priority is indisputable and the introduction of the hitherto neglected analysis of certain socio-economic indicators, classified by country or region and, in certain cases, examined in more detail than required by the European Commission. The monitoring of objectives is conducive to the introduction of new solutions and implementation tools, as exemplified by the new instruments within the Multiannual Financial Framework 2014–2020, as well as the adjustment of available funds in light of the most pressing challenges. The European Semester has facilitated the task of comparing progress in strategy implementation by individual Member States, as well as the provision of recommendations for each of them and an individualized approach.Research implications: This article

  7. Coordination in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Feldstein

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the sources of current conflict within the EU and the EMU. The topics discussed include the recent ECB policy of bond buying (the OMT policy), the attempts to advance the "European Project" of stronger political union (the fiscal compact, the banking union, and the proposals for budget supervision). Contrary to the claims of the European leadership, the progress that has been made has been by individual countries and not by coordinated action. The special problems of Franc...

  8. European Union Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdalbero, D.R.; Schmitz, B.; Raldow, W.; Poireau, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an extensive state of the art of the energy research conducted at European Union level between 1984 and 2006, i.e. from the first to the sixth European Community Framework Programmes (FP1-FP6) for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (RTD and D). The FP is the main legal tool and financial instrument of EU RTD and D policy. It sets the objectives, priorities and budgets for a period of several years. It has been complemented over time with a number of policy oriented initiatives and notably with the launch of the European Research Area. FP7 will cover the period 2007-2013 and will have a total budget of more than euros 50 billion. Energy has been a main research area in Europe since the founding Treaties (European Coal and Steel Community, European Atomic Energy Community-Euratom and European Economic Community), and energy RTD and D has always been a substantial part of common EU research. Nevertheless, when inflation and successive European enlargements are taken into account, over time the RTD and D effort in the field of energy has decreased significantly in relative terms. In nominal terms it has remained relatively stable at about euros 500 million per year. For the next years (FP7), it is expected that energy will still represent about 10 % of total EU research effort but with an annual budget of more than euros 800 million per year. This article presents a detailed review of the thematic areas and budget in both European nuclear energy research (fusion and fission) and non-nuclear energy research (energy efficiency/rational use of energy, fossil fuels, CO 2 capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen, renewable energy sources, strategic energy research/socio-economy). (authors)

  9. Political Strategies and Language Policies: The European Union Lisbon Strategy and Its Implications for the EU's Language and Multilingualism Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wodak, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the politics and policies of multilingualism by looking at the role of political macro-strategies in shaping language and multilingualism policies within the European Union. The paper focuses on the relationship between the European Union's 2000-2010 Lisbon Strategy on the European Knowledge-Based Economy…

  10. Trade Union Channels for Influencing European Union Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Larsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes what channels trade unions in Europe use when trying to influence European Union (EU policies. It compares and contrasts trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the degree to which they cooperate with different actors to influence EU policies, while also touching on the importance of sector differences and organizational resources. The study is based on survey data collected in 2010–2011 from unions affiliated with the European Trade Union Confederation and from below peak unions in 14 European countries. Results of the survey show that the ‘national route’ is generally the most important for trade unions in influencing EU policies in the sense that this channel is, on average, used to the highest degree. In addition, the survey delineates some important differences between trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the balance between the national route and different access points in the ‘Brussels route’.

  11. Introduction: Company Tax Integration in the European Union – A Necessary Step to Neutralise ‘Excessive’ Behaviour within the EU?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.G.A.C. de Graaf (Arnaud); K. Heine (Klaus)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This special issue of the Erasmus Law Review is the result of an interdisciplinary workshop on ‘Company Tax Integration in the European Union – a Necessary Step to Neutralise “Excessive” Behaviour within the EU?’, held at the Erasmus School of Law in June

  12. Peter Van Elsuwege and Roman Petrov, eds. Legislative Approximation and Application of EU Law in the Eastern Neighbourhood of the European Union: Towards a Common Regulatory Space?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Tyushka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Peter Van Elsuwege and Roman Petrov, eds. Legislative Approximation and Application of EU Law in the Eastern Neighbourhood of the European Union: Towards a Common Regulatory Space? London and New York: Routledge, 2014. xxx, 268 pp. Notes on Contributors. Preface by Marc Maresceau. Foreward by Kostiantyn Yelisieiev. Illustrations. Informative table and list. Index. $145.00, cloth.

  13. Road safety policy of the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is important for national road safety policies. The EU has several policymaking instruments, such as binding regulations and directives, and non-binding recommendations. An important element in the EU policy plans on road safety are the non-binding European road safety

  14. A comprehensive analysis of the current and future role of biofuels for transport in the European Union (EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni1

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biofuels is strongly supported all over the world as a renewable energy source for reducing dependence on the unstable oil market. Bioethanol, the main biofuel produced in the world, is widely used to power vehicles in both the USA and Brazil, but concerns exist in both places regarding its sustainability. In Brazil, it is produced from a by-product of the sugar cane industry, while in the USA it is manufactured from food crops. The production of biogas and biodiesel is growing rapidly, but neither has outpaced the production of bioethanol. The European Union (EU is greatly interested in this issue, and in 2011 adopted an extensive strategy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions related to transport by 60% by the year 2050. In order to achieve this result, the current European transportation system must be transformed. This ambitious goal will require the implementation of complex measures including the reduction of fossil fuels in favor of renewable fuels. This program has various options regarding the development of biofuels (e. g., biogas, bioethanol and biodiesel and their related technologies, which are still on trial (mainly regarding the bioethanol production, and must also analyze their sustainability from a social and economic standpoint. The paper discusses the use of biofuels for transport in the European setting, and shows that their sustainability may result in relevant negative social effects due mainly to the use of land for energy crops (e.g., change of food price and world food shortage.

  15. Brexit and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly

    2018-01-01

    When on 23 June 2016 a majority voted in favour of the United Kingdom (UK) leaving the European Union (EU), it generated a host of unknowns. Prior to the referendum, scholars had already started to anticipate the implications of a potential Brexit from different perspectives, including considering...... lie and suggesting where Britain’s exit will leave the greatest strategic vacuums. The subsequent analysis centres on the actors that will likely win and lose from the UK’s exit from the Union....

  16. Denmark and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan, K...... of this book, two of Kelstrup’s most important intellectual contributions come from his work on Denmark’s relations with the European Union, and his use of systems theory to understand the EU.......Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan...

  17. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years, there has been an international debate on whether and to what extent small member states can influence the common external policies of the European Union. Recent research on the role of small EU states concludes that these states are neither per se political dwarfs nor power...... including North–South and specifically Africa policies. Five separate analyses are carried out addressing the question of Nordicization and Europeanization. Based on the empirical analyses, it is not possible to confirm the hypothesis that a Nordicization of the European Union's Africa policy has taken...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  18. Decomposition of useful work intensity: The EU (European Union)-15 countries from 1960 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrenho, André Cabrera; Sousa, Tânia; Warr, Benjamin; Ayres, Robert U.; Domingos, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    Energy intensity measures, defined as the ratio of energy use to gross domestic product of a country, are widely used to study the productivity of energy use in an economy. Unlike conventional primary and/or final energy intensities, useful work intensity (useful work/gross domestic product) addresses the problem of aggregating in a single measure the different energy forms used, and allows for a clear distinction between thermodynamic efficiencies and structural changes in the demand for energy end-uses. Here, our aim is twofold: (1) Disclose the factors that control the useful work intensities across the EU-15 countries over the deindustrialization process, performing a decomposition of the useful work intensities from 1960 to 2009. (2) Describe a methodology for the automatization of useful work accounting, based on a general mapping of energy end-uses from IEA (International Energy Agency) energy balances. We show that, in contrast to the other conventional energy intensity measures, useful work intensity depends only on the intensity of high temperature heat uses and the relative size of residential energy needs. Aggregate thermodynamic efficiencies slightly increased as a consequence of technological improvements, but were negatively affected by deindustrialization, as a consequence of a transition to less efficient and productive energy uses. - Highlights: • We provide an automated useful work accounting methodology from IEA energy balances. • We provide an estimation of 2nd law efficiencies for EU-15 countries since 1960. • This methodology is applied to EU-15 from 1960 to 2009. • Useful work intensity depends only on high temperature heat and residential uses. • Thermodynamic 2nd law efficiencies were negatively affected by deindustrialization

  19. EU Commission participation in the Troika mission: is there a European Union price to pay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Goucha Soares

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is intended to debate two questions regarding the involvement of the Commission in the Troika's action: firstly, considering the nature of financial assistance programs, it aims to discuss the effect of the Commission's participation in Troika negotiations on the balance of power of the EU institutions; and secondly, the article raises the issue of the Commission's liability for the results achieved by the financial assistance program, taking into account the extent of the conditions imposed, as well as the intensity of scrutiny by the Troika.

  20. The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe.

  1. The Euro Zone Crisis and Differentiation in the European Union: a Threat to the Goals of the EU or an Instrument of Managing the Divergence of National Interests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilpišauskas Ramūnas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the institutional evolution of the European Union (EU in reacting to the euro zone crisis and the new forms of differentiation in the EU. It presents and elaborates several arguments. First, despite calls to complete the creation of the “genuine Economic and Monetary Union“ and to make a step towards federal structure of the Union with single currency and single central budget used to react to asymmetric shocks, most decisions actually agreed upon by member states since the start of the crisis can be seen as attempts to avoid exactly such a scenario. Second, although the divide between the “Northern“ and “Southern“ groups of the EU member states seems attractive in its simplicity, it is a gross simplification of the current situation and hides important differences of member state preferences within each of the groupings. Third, it is also too simplistic to see the membership in the euro zone as the main characteristic defining the state of differentiation in the EU. As it is discussed in the text, both euro zone member states and EU countries outside the euro zone participate in different initiatives of integration and show different national preferences. Finally, the text concludes with a formulation of the main policy dilemmas for Lithuania in terms of ongoing process of complex differentiation and taking into account the prospect of joining the euro zone in 2015.

  2. THE JURISDICTION OF THE COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION TO DELIVER A CANCELLATION JUDGMENT REGARDING THE INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS TO WHICH THE EU IS PARTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana-Mariana POPESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the case where international agreements are treated as legal acts of EU institutions, they may be subject to judicial review exercised by the Court in Luxembourg. Given the fact that we assimilate international agreements to legal acts of the European Union, we would be tempted to ask ourselves the following questions: to what extent declaring an agreement, by a judgment of the Court of Justice of the EU delivered in the action for cancellation, as being inapplicable to the EU legal order, affects the security of international relationships? If these relationships are affected, is it possible to exclude the subsequent verification conducted by the Court? In the study below, our purpose is to find answer to these questions.

  3. Harmful effect of arbitration dispute settlement EU intra bits to the legal order of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Radovan D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of interpreting and applying intra BITs, especially in cases where their solutions conflict with EU law or international law, are a reflection of the still unresolved relationship between EU law and international law. Despite the exceptional theoretical significance, the issue of hierarchy is, first and foremost, a political issue. The answer to it defines the legal nature of the EU and the direction of its further development: as a sui generis federal community or a regional community of a confederal type. In the legal theory, the opinion on sui generis and the autonomous legal order of the EU is prevalent. This was also confirmed by the Court of Justice in a series of cases. However, the analyzed decisions of investment arbitrations engaged on the basis of the ISDS mechanism call into question such a position. Arbiters believe that the rights and obligations of the BIT should be interpreted in accordance with the rules of international law and that, in the event of a conflict with EU law, priority should be given to the rules of international public law. For this reason, the European Commission and the Court of Justice only see the existence of ISDS clauses in the BITs as a threat to the preservation of the unity and autonomy of the EU legal order, because their activation is jeopardized by the 'interpretative monopoly' of the Court of Justice entrusted with the decision of previous issues to ensure unity of rights EU. The fact that the question of the effect of the ISDS mechanism is not only of theoretical importance is testified by the fact that the EU negotiations on a new generation of trade and investment agreements are examining proposals to establish a more democratic and transparent multilateral international judicial mechanism in place of the existing mechanism.

  4. European Union: fears and hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles ROUET

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution analyses some data from Eurobarometer 83, spring 2015, especially to draw a map of Fears. The European Union is a divided space and one of the main consequences of the budget (financial crisis of Greece, followed by the crisis caused by the arrival of thousands of immigrants is an enhanced communication difficulty between the Western and Eastern parts of the EU But all citizens have some new rights with the European Citizenship, which are additional. One of the main issues for the future could be to change the fundamental basis of the Union, thus trying to organize a new articulation between local and supranational, with another role for States, for example to change the organisation of European elections, and to pursue the connection of public spaces with mobility.

  5. The EU and ‘Enlargement Fatigue’: Why Has the European Union Not Been Able to Counter ‘Enlargement Fatigue’?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szolucha

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an up-to-date overview of the problems connected with European integration. It focuses on the phenomenon of ‘enlargement fatigue’ and examines its meaning as utilised by the media, EU officials and academics. The article argues that ‘enlargement fatigue’ is not a new concept since the EU has witnessed many 'symptoms' of fatigue at multiple times in its history. The two main arguments that are often presented in order to explain why the EU has not been able to counter ‘enlargement fatigue’, namely the insufficiently tight conditionality applied to prospective members and the EU's crisis of confidence and accountability after the failed attempt to introduce the Constitutional Treaty and prolonged Lisbon Treaty ratification process, are insufficient to explain why fatigue has been so persistent a phenomenon. This article argues that the EU's failure to develop a new vision of the organisation and adjust its structural design accordingly is a reason why the Union has not dealt successfully with fatigue. Such a vision would encompass notions of “variable geometry”, “avant-garde groups” and make European borders flexible and fuzzy.

  6. IMPORTANCE OF THE EUROPEAN BANKING UNION NEW DIRECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION; Irina-Elena Chirtoc

    2014-01-01

    European Banking Union has set new rules on monetary market especially for credit institutions and for financial banking groups in general. Economic and monetary union requires accomplishment of political and monetary union and democratic control of the European institutions on a single financial market. In this respect through its management organisms, EU has designed a series of unique mechanisms of financial union and called for a fiscal union. Union of European financial marke...

  7. Multiple inequalities, intersectionality and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloo, M.M.T.

    2006-01-01

    The European Union (EU), a pioneer in gender equality policies, is moving from predominantly attending to gender inequality, towards policies that address multiple inequalities. This article argues that there are tendencies at EU level to assume an unquestioned similarity of inequalities, to fail to

  8. 76 FR 18198 - European Union-United States Atlantis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION European Union-United States Atlantis Program AGENCY: Office of...)--Special Focus Competition: European Union-(EU) United States (U.S.) Atlantis Program Notice inviting... and Culture, European Commission for funding under a separate but parallel EU competition. Within this...

  9. Protecting Animals and Enabling Research in the European Union: An Overview of Development and Implementation of Directive 2010/63/EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, I Anna S; Silva, Sandra Pinto da; Townend, David; Sandøe, Peter

    2016-05-01

    In 1986, European Directive 86/609/EEC, regulating the use of animals in research, was one of the first examples of common legislation to set standards for animal protection across the Member States of the former European Economic Community, now the European Union, with the aim of securing a level European playing field. Starting in 2002, a process of revising European animal experimentation legislation was undertaken, with one of its key aims being to ensure high standards of welfare for laboratory animals across Europe. This resulted in Directive 2010/63/EU, which has regulated this activity in Europe since 2013. Since this is a European Union Directive, transposition into national legislation is a necessary and important part of the implementation of the new legislation. This paper gives an overview of the transposition process followed by an analysis of the potential to reach the different objectives of the directive, particularly with a focus on securing the same high standards of animal protection across member countries. The analysis focuses on three separate issues: (1) minimum standards for laboratory animal housing and care, (2) restrictions on the use of certain animal species, and (3) project review and authorization. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Communication of 19 May 2004 from the Council of the European Union concerning EU strategy for the fight against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-27

    The Director General has received a letter from Mr. Javier Solana, Secretary General/High Representative of the Council of the European Union, dated 19 May 2004, attaching a copy of the 'Council Joint Action on support for IAEA activities under its Nuclear Security Programme and in the framework of the implementation of the EU Strategy against Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction' of 12 May 2004, which was adopted by the Council on 17 May 2004. The Council document is attached herewith for the information of Member States.

  11. CZECH REPUBLIC BEHIND THE STEERING WHEEL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: EXPLORING CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE FIRST CZECH EU PRESIDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Král

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic will be only the second of the EU members that joined in 2004 to preside over what is viewed as the most powerful and influential institution within the European structures – the Council. While technical preparations have been well underway for several years, the current political constellation inside the EU seems to be leaving certain signs of nervousness among Prague-based decision makers. The uncertainty surrounding the future of the Lisbon Treaty with the Irish ‘no’ and uncompleted ratification in the Czech Republic itself, recent controversy between the EU and Russia and not least highly complicated political situation at home are all likely to have an impact on the first, and – in the current form – perhaps also the last Czech presidency of the EU. This article will try to have a look at a critical assessment of the preparations for the Czech presidency, various factors, both internal and external, that are likely to influence its execution, as well as at its priorities as they are tabled at the moment.

  12. Sustainability Begets Unsustainability?: The European Union's Drive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mandatory target for the European Union (EU) for the use of renewable energy in transport by the year 2020 has created a situation where the African continent has witnessed a number of European agricultural firms gaining access to large tracts of land in order to grow crops for the production of agrofuels. This article ...

  13. European Union Legal Methods - Moving Away From Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckes, C.; Neergaard, U.; Nielsen, R.

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding the permanent state of crises of the European Union (EU or Union) in the past seven years, EU law continues to govern the legal relationships of individuals and Member States in ever more areas. Union law is self-reinforcing in the sense that it is constructed to increase in scope

  14. It’s not the Fish that Stinks! EU Trade Relations with Morocco under the Scrutiny of the General Court of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hummelbrunner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s international agreements with Morocco on trade in agricultural and fishery products have drawn criticism due to their application to the disputed territory of Western Sahara, a territory that remains on the list of non-self-governing territories to be decolonised in accordance with the right of self-determination of the indigenous Sahrawi people. Recently, the Sahrawi liberation movement Front Polisario brought an action for annulment before the General Court of the European Union (GC against the Council Decision approving the conclusion of one such agreement, alleging multiple violations of European and international legal norms. Interestingly, although the GC concurred by annulling the Decision insofar as it applies to Western Sahara, it chose to exclusively base its judgment on EU fundamental rights, invoking the EU’s failure to ensure that the fundamental rights of the Sahrawi people were not infringed by applying the agreements to Western Sahara. By summarily setting aside Front Polisario’s other claims, several relevant questions of applicable international and European law, which warrant further discussion, remain. This article examines these questions using the GC’s judgment in Front Polisario, thereby combining general matters of international and European law with the specific circumstances of the EU-Morocco relations and Western Sahara.

  15. INNOVATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR-CODRIN IONESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary knowledge-based society, innovation, as a vector used for the application and promotion of inventions and innovations, is one of the main sources used for obtaining a sustainable competitive advantage. The present paper points out the main directions which the European Commission aims to develop in the sphere of innovation, within the context of the Initiative: “A Union of Innovation”, which is part of the Europe 2020 Strategy. The paper analyses the performances accomplished by the EU states in the area of innovation while developing an international perspective that may represent the starting point in identifying solutions whereby the EU could reduce the gaps that exist in relation to the main international competitors, i.e. South Korea, USA and Japan.

  16. INNOVATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir-Codrin IONESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary knowledge-based society, innovation, as a vector used for the application and promotion of inventions and innovations, is one of the main sources used for obtaining a sustainable competitive advantage. The present paper points out the main directions which the European Commission aims to develop in the sphere of innovation, within the context of the Initiative: “A Union of Innovation”, which is part of the Europe 2020 Strategy. The paper analyses the performances accomplished by the EU states in the area of innovation while developing an international perspective that may represent the starting point in identifying solutions whereby the EU could reduce the gaps that exist in relation to the main international competitors, i.e. South Korea, USA and Japan.

  17. Federal and European Union Policy Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    By using the policy cycle approach, this paper compares the policy-process in a number of Anglo-Saxon type federations with the policy-process in continental-European style federations from within the European Union (EU) area.  The comparison would reveal: a) distinct different styles of policy...... making in European style federations in relation with the Anglo-Saxon ones. b) that the policy-process in the EU resembles that of the European style federations, and c) the Constitutional Treaty (CT) or a possible CT-light would strengthen the federal policy-making characteristics already present...

  18. Hospital care for persons with AIDS in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Tolley, K; Leidl, R M; Downs, A M; Beck, E J; Tramarin, A M; Flori, Y A; Santin, M; Antoñanzas, F; Kornarou, H; Paparizos, V C; Dijkgraaf, M G; Borleffs, J; Luijben, A J; Jager, J C

    This study estimates the current and future hospital resources for AIDS patients in the European Union (EU), using multinational scenario analysis (EU Concerted Action BMH1-CT-941723). In collaboration with another EU-project ('Managing the Costs of HIV Infection'), six national European studies on

  19. The Rise of a European Healthcare Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare has only slowly appeared on the European Union’s (EU) policy agenda. EU involvement in policies concerning the organization, financing and the provision of diagnosis, care and cures to ill people developed along three fragmented tracks: (a) EU public health policies concerning the well......-being of all people; (b) the application of the free movement principle to national healthcare systems in particular by the EU’s Court of Justice (CJEU); and (c) the austerity packages and the stricter EU surveillance of national budgets since the debt crises. The key questions of this special issue...... are whether this fragmented EU involvement has now developed into a distinct European healthcare union, and if so what its driving forces have been. Thus, it explores how European integration in healthcare has moved forward despite widespread reluctance. It also examines the underexplored political dynamics...

  20. European Union security policy through strategic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriša Hatidža

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we shall pay attention to the security policy of the European Union, through the strategic culture, starting from the existing various options for cooperation in the field of security and defense. Our goal is to look at the implementation of the Strategic Culture of the European Union (EU SK, research ways to improve the international position of the Union and its impact on policy cooperation and trust with other collectives. Analysis of flexible cooperation between the European Union, as well as access to special procedures in the field of security and defense policy, we will follow the ambition and capacity in implementing the same. Paper aims to introduce the idea of the European Union, which allows its members to rationally consider and check the box of options available to decision makers. In this regard, the EU seeks to build its own armed forces to protect the association of interests-investment terms. Reviewing and understanding the strategic culture of the EU by countries that are not its members can be seen as reasons for strengthening the capacity of the Union for the realization of the impact of the global security as well as predicting its future steps.

  1. The new architecture of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty has brought significant changes into the architecture of the European Union. The most important novelty, however, is the establishment of a full unity of the Union structure achieved by creating new and strengthening the existing elements. The new elements of this unity are the disappearance of the European Community, the 'independence' of the European Atomic Energy Community, constituting the European Union as a single entity and the introduction of EU values. At the same time, the Lisbon Treaty has strengthened the existing elements of the common institutional mechanisms, rules on amending the founding treaties and EU membership. However, constituting the Union as a single entity which has replaced and succeeded the European Communities has not abolished the EU elements of diversity. In the areas that differed, even before the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty, from the community pillar, there remain significant differences in the nature and the scope of competences of the Union institutions. This mainly regards the common foreign and security policy, which now includes the defense policy, where the existing model of inter-state cooperation has been only slightly interfered with. In contrast, in the field of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, which has become part of a larger Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, the inter-state model of cooperation has been abandoned in some of its most important elements. However, the implementation of some of the important elements of the supranational model has been postponed.

  2. SPECIALIZED COURTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nely Militaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Treaty of Lisbon entered into force on 1 December 2009, improved functioning judicial system European Union ( EU. Court of Justice of the EU has been reformed, said Treaty changing the EU courts so very name : Court of Justice of the EU, the Court referred to above, the Court of First Instance, and specialized courts, known previously, judicial panels. The paper shows the first part of his creation, composition and competence of the specialized courts, and as a manifestation of them in the second part examines the Civil Service Tribunal, the same point of view. EU specialized courts may be set up in specific areas, specializing in some technical disputes. These specialized courts have jurisdiction to hear and decide the cases in the first instance with the possibility that their decision subject to appeal to the General Court . In this context, to resolve disputes between the Union and its officials was established Tribunal.

  3. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  4. European union standards for tuberculosis care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, G B; Zellweger, J P; Abubakar, I; Ibraim, E; Caminero, J A; De Vries, G; D'Ambrosio, L; Centis, R; Sotgiu, G; Menegale, O; Kliiman, K; Aksamit, T; Cirillo, D M; Danilovits, M; Dara, M; Dheda, K; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Kluge, H; Lange, C; Leimane, V; Loddenkemper, R; Nicod, L P; Raviglione, M C; Spanevello, A; Thomsen, V Ø; Villar, M; Wanlin, M; Wedzicha, J A; Zumla, A; Blasi, F; Huitric, E; Sandgren, A; Manissero, D

    2012-04-01

    The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) jointly developed European Union Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ESTC) aimed at providing European Union (EU)-tailored standards for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of tuberculosis (TB). The International Standards for TB Care (ISTC) were developed in the global context and are not always adapted to the EU setting and practices. The majority of EU countries have the resources and capacity to implement higher standards to further secure quality TB diagnosis, treatment and prevention. On this basis, the ESTC were developed as standards specifically tailored to the EU setting. A panel of 30 international experts, led by a writing group and the ERS and ECDC, identified and developed the 21 ESTC in the areas of diagnosis, treatment, HIV and comorbid conditions, and public health and prevention. The ISTCs formed the basis for the 21 standards, upon which additional EU adaptations and supplements were developed. These patient-centred standards are targeted to clinicians and public health workers, providing an easy-to-use resource, guiding through all required activities to ensure optimal diagnosis, treatment and prevention of TB. These will support EU health programmes to identify and develop optimal procedures for TB care, control and elimination.

  5. CNOSSOS-EU: Development of a common environmental noise assessment method in the European Union; CNOSSOS-EU: desarrollo de un metodo comun de evaluacion del ruido ambiental en la Union Europea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspuru Soloaga, I.; Segues Echazarreta Segues, F.

    2011-07-01

    This article presents the main aspects of the work undertaken in the development of the common european method of environmental noise assessment CNOSSOS-EU. It summarizes the design, structure and content, and the methodological basis on which it is based. Taking into account the experience gained in the first round of strategic noise mapping, some conclusions are settled about its applications for the third round, and tits implications for the Spanish case. (Author) 9 refs.

  6. EUROPEAN UNION POLICIES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Canter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most important challenges that humanity faces in the 21st century, and for the European Union, combating this phenomenon represents an important element, which is reflected both in the actions carried out in recent years, domestically and internationally, as well as in the EU policy on climate change. Within the EU, regulations were adopted, that demonstrate the importance that the Union confers to the limitation of this phenomenon, stressing at the same time the need for an integrated policy framework to ensure the security for potential investors and a coordinated approach between Member States. This paper will present recent developments for the most important policies to combat and mitigate climate change in the European Union, starting with "20-20-20" objectives, which are to be met through the package "Energy-Climate Change", continuing with 2030 and 2050 timeframes, and finally presenting the main lines of action to combat climate change.

  7. EU External Relations Law and the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vooren, Bart

    -historical context of political Union, this thesis first argues why coherence is an issue at all in EU external relations, and why law is integral to attaining the ever-enigmatic single voice of the European Union. Subsequently, the text examines the role of EU external relations law in attaining a coherent...

  8. Economic relations EU-China - the mechanism that the European Union outlines the position of the economic actor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana JITARU

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Both the EU and China face a number of challenges. The EU has reached the pinnacle of international identity and is going through a rather difficult process of rethinking it. Regarding China, this actor goes through a phase of rethinking its economic growth model, namely the transition from an economy based, in greater extent on exports and investment to an economic growth based on stimulating domestic consumption. In this context, in order to meet the challenges of the third millennium and beyond, the two actors need to strengthen their cooperative relations as they are vital in solving the challenges of this millennium. This paper aims to provide an overview of EU-China economic relations and to analyse the impact of these relations on the EU economy.

  9. 2009 energy prices in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the natural gas price fell down in the European Union (EU). This drop was of about -5% (excluding taxes) as an average for companies, and of about -3% for households (including taxes). On the other hand, the electricity prices raised by 3% for companies and by 5% for households. In France, only the gas price for companies has dropped between 2008 and 2009. The electricity prices remain significantly lower than the EU average: -29% for companies and -30% for households. The gas price in France remains close to the European average but is significantly lower than the average price in the euro area. (J.S.)

  10. The Limits of Agencification in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Mira; van Rijsbergen, Marloes

    2014-01-01

    Although not explicitly regulated by the EU treaties, EU agencies not only exist but also have increased in number and power. In addition, while EU agencies may exercise very similar functions to those of the Commission, Articles 290 and 291 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

  11. Underlying Paradox in the European Union's Multilingualism Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fern L.

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has developed comprehensive policies in recent years to promote multilingualism. In this article, major EU policy statements on multilingualism are analyzed to demonstrate how their underlying language ideology produces paradox by both encouraging multilingualism and regulating its definition within the EU. The first…

  12. Managing Transboundary Crises : The Emergence of European Union Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boin, Arjen; Rhinard, Mark; Ekengren, Magnus

    The European Union (EU) has modest but promising capacities to assist member states overwhelmed by disaster through its Civil Protection Mechanism. The EU also routinely sends civil and military missions to hotspots outside EU territory. But these capacities do not suffice in the face of

  13. Further development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme in Germany and the European Union under consideration of experiences in other EU Member States; Weiterentwicklung des Emissionshandels - national und auf EU-Ebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wartmann, S; Klaus, S; Scharte, M; Harnisch, J [Ecofys GmbH, Nuernberg (Germany); Heilmann, S; Bertenrath, R [FiFo Koeln (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    The study analyses options for further development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) after 2012. The first analysis focuses on the effects of the EU-ETS on companies, power prices, competitiveness and employment. It is followed by an analysis of overlaps or lacking coverage regarding the climate policies EU-ETS, Eco-Tax (Oekosteuer) resp. Energy Tax, the Renewable Energy Sources Act and the Combined Heat and Powert Act. These instruments are analysed with regards to their coherence. As a next step, the national allocation plans of France, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Poland are evaluated and recommendations are developed. Best practice recommendations for further developing the EU-ETS after 2012 both at the European and the national level are developed from the comparison of these European national allocation plans. Finally, design features of certificate systems relevant for international linking of such systems are addressed. In the analysis such design features are identified and approaches for problems potentially arising when certificate systems are linked, are developed. (orig.)

  14. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  15. Time for EU Matters: The Europeanization of Dutch Central Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, E.; Princen, S.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    To what extent does the European Union (EU) affect national governments? This article seeks to answer this question by assessing the Europeanization of Dutch central government. Using data from a large-scale survey among civil servants, we assess to what extent the EU affects the structure and

  16. NATO and EU/European Defense Initiatives: Competitive or Complementary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muckel, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    .... This paper analyzes the current status of NATO and the European Union (EU) defense initiatives examines national objectives and interests of European key-players and the US and evaluates the aspects of competitiveness or complement of NATO and EU defense initiatives.

  17. CSIR and its activities in the European Union's (EU) framework programmes (FPs): special focus on FP6

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meese, G

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available for human health 1 Fraunhofer Institute, Germany www.pharma-planta.org FLOSSWorld Free/Libre/Open Source Software: Worldwide impact study 2 University of Maastricht - UNU-MERIT, The Netherlands http://www.flossworld.org/ index.php IST...-Africa Regional Impact of Information Society Technologies in Africa 2 International Information Management Corporation Limited, Ireland http://www.ist-africa. org/2005/ EUDEVLAS A framework for innovation comprising EU and Developing...

  18. The Determinants of European Union (EU Foreign Direct Investments in the EU Countries from Central and Eastern Europe During 1994–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Donny

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the CEECs’ financial market development can explain the EU FDI in the CEECs during 1994–2012. The higher bank credit flows had a positive effect on the FDI in 2005–2012. This can be attributed to the major banking sector reforms undertaken before the CEECs’ EU accession. Second, the stock market size had a positive effect in 1997–2004. This is due to the fact that the EU membership announcement facilitated deeper stock market integration. Third, the higher country income, in interaction with a higher bank credit flow, had only a small positive effect in 2005–2012. The higher income CEECs have pursued much deeper bank liberalization through large-scale privatization of state-owned banks. Finally, the higher country income, in interaction with a larger stock market size, had a negative effect in 2005–2012. A possible reason for this is that the EU countries have started to divert their new FDI to the non-EU countries.

  19. Unity in Diversity. The Language Policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the connections between the law and language in the European Union. The paper concerns the language policy of the European Union (EU and English language priority. The EU faces challenges of finding a common ground for respecting the diversity of its members. So many different states are gathered in one organisation which establishes the law for diversified legal orders. The research question is - which language(s is or should be used in the EU? Does English become lingua franca of the EU?

  20. ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION ON TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBINCEA Lilia;

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On June 27, 2014 there was signed an Association Agreement between the Republic of Moldova, on one hand and the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and its Member States, on the other hand (hereinafter - the Association Agreement. The Association Agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016. The signing of the Association Agreement was as a result of the close ties between the parties established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, on the one hand, and the Republic of Moldova on the other hand, which develops within the European Neighborhood policy and the Eastern Partnership, as well as recognition of the shared desire of the parties to further develop, strengthen and expand their relationships. The Association Agreement contributes to the development of trade and economic relations between the parties. The Republic of Moldova is obliged to take necessary measures to ensure compliance with the objectives of Union's regulations and to follow the principles and practices set out in the relevant acquis of the Union. The Republic of Moldova will also gradually include relevant acquis of the Union in its legislation, in accordance with the provisions of the Association Agreement. The legislative background regulatory EU trade is subject studies only a small circle of researchers, approaches and sequential episodic in character, without being integrated into a systemic study, complex, integrated. The objectives of the research are to analyze the most important EU regulations on trade.

  1. Policy-making in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Mark A; Young, Alasadair R

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving, and with far-reaching implications, European Union policy-making is of central importance to the politics of the European Union. From defining the processes, institutions and modes through which policy-making operates, the text moves on to situate individual policies within these modes, detail their content, and analyse how they are implemented, navigating policy in all its complexities. The first part of the text examines processes, institutions, and the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of policy-making, while the second part considers a wide range of policy areas, from economics to the environment, and security to the single market. Throughout the text, theoretical approaches sit side by side with the reality of key events in the EU, including enlargement, the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and the financial crisis and resulting euro area crisis, exploring what determines how policies are made and implemented. In the final part, the editors consider trends in EU policy-makin...

  2. Opting Out of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    controversial cases of differentiated integration: the British and Danish opt-outs from Economic and Monetary Union and European policies on borders, asylum, migration, internal security and justice. Drawing on over one hundred interviews with national representatives and EU officials, the author demonstrates......European integration continues to deepen despite major crises and attempts to take back sovereignty. A growing number of member states are reacting to a more constraining EU by negotiating opt-outs. This book provides the first in-depth account of how opt-outs work in practice. It examines the most...... how representatives manage the stigma of opting out, allowing them to influence even politically sensitive areas covered by their opt-outs. Developing a practice approach to European integration, the book shows how everyday negotiations transform national interests into European ideals. It is usually...

  3. The making of a European healthcare union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; van de Bovenkamp, Hester M.; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2016-01-01

    that federalism offers the most fruitful way to do so because of its sensitivity to the EU’s institutional settings and to the territorial dimension of politics. The division of competences and national diversity of healthcare systems have been major obstacles for the formation of a healthcare union. However......, the EU obtained a role in healthcare through the impact of non-healthcare legislation, voluntary co-operation, court rulings, governments’ joint-decision traps, and fiscal stress of member states. The emerging European healthcare union is a system of cooperative federalism without much cost-sharing...

  4. Energy corridors European Union and Neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Hafner, Manfred; Vailati, Ricardo; Wietschel, Martin

    2007-08-01

    The ENCOURAGED (Energy corridor optimisation for European markets of gas, electricity and hydrogen) project has been launched in beginning 2005 to identify and assess the economically optimal energy corridors between European Union (EU) and neighbouring countries. The objectives of the project are to: Assess the economic optimal energy (electricity, gas and hydrogen) corridors and related network infrastructure for connecting the EU with its neighbouring countries and regions; Identify, quantify and evaluate the barriers to and potential benefits of building optimal energy corridors connecting the EU with its neighbours; Propose necessary policy measures to implement the recommended energy corridors with a focus on investment and the geopolitical framework; Organise stakeholder workshops and seminars to discuss the results and findings and reach consensus among scientists, stakeholders and non-governmental organizations and validate project results

  5. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The European Union aims to achieve a 20% share (with legally binding national targets) of its final energy consumption from RES by 2020, and at least a 27% share (not broken down into nationally binding targets) by 2030. Key instruments at EU level to promote RES include directives, such as the 2009 Renewable Energy Directive. The EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is also intended to support RES. The European Commission has also adopted state aid guidelines to ensure that support schemes to promote RES at national level are compatible with EU competition law and internal market rules. Further instruments are research, development and innovation funding programmes, such as Horizon2020, the Innovation Fund, and the NER300 programme. RES are also supported through regional development funds as well as through grants and loans for RES projects and related infrastructure from the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI). A recast directive on the promotion of RES in the period 2020- 2030 is to be adopted along with governance rules to ensure that the EU-wide RES target for 2030 is met

  6. Trade Union Cooperation in the EU: Views Among Swedish Trade Unions and Their Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Furåker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article compares views among Swedish trade unions with those of their members regarding cross-national union cooperation in Europe or the EU. Data are derived from two different surveys, one among trade unions in 2010–2011 and the other among employees in 2006. It turns out that trade unions are generally more affirmative than their members to transnational union cooperation. In the employee survey, differences appear between members of the three peak-level organizations—the LO (manual workers, the TCO (white-collar workers, and Saco (professionals. However, controlling for education, these differences cannot be verified statistically. Higher education—which above all Saco members have—is linked to more positive attitudes toward transnational union cooperation. The gap between the organizations and their affiliates concerning engagement in European issues appears to be larger in the LO than in Saco, with the TCO somewhere in the middle.

  7. Kazakh Initiatives on Cooperation with European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem S. Kurmanguzhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article presents initiatives of the Republic of Kazakhstan to develop cooperation with the European Union that was initiated through 2000 - 2009. In 2000 the Republic of Kazakhstan proposed to EU Comment cooperation doctrine in Central Asia. The purpose of the doctrine lied in expanding cooperation in the areas of trade, economy and investment; in granting access to commodities and services from European markets; in developing collaboration in the areas of energy, transport, communication, finance and banking. In 2006 Kazakhstan introduced a new set of prepossess to the new European Union Strategy for Central Asian 2007-2013 that was developed under the chairmanship of Germany of the EU in the first half of 2007. The Strategy covered areas of cooperation such as regional integration, economic development, democratization, energy and security. In 2008 under the instructions of the President of Kazakhstan Ministry of Foreign Affairs in cooperation with other ministries developed a state programme "Path to Europe" for 2009 - 2011, which aided the priorities of cooperation between Kazakhstan and the European Union. "Path to Europe" has become a key initiative of the Kazakh foreign policy that was successfully implemented, as well as the most important document aimed at modernization of the national economy and the Kazakh society. In the beginning of2009 using the accumulated positive experience of cooperation with the EU and experience of a number of countries in Europe and Asia, Kazakhstan devised and submitted a concept of a new treaty which was supposed to replace the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement of 1995. The Republic of Kazakhstan's influence eventually persuaded the European Union to agree on the necessity of devising the Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement.

  8. European Union: US Hegemonic Competitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellar, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    .... Intergovernmentalism in the European Community has evolved into an economic form of supranationalism with the persona change form Community to Union after ratification of the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993...

  9. IEA energy policies review: the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-04

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? This publication addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy and Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R and D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  10. European Union: Gender and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Political representation is the central issue in contemporary debates on the level of democracy in political institutions and processes in the European Union. Underrepresentation of particular groups in political institutions, decision-making and policy-making processes is perceived as the problem of justice, legitimacy and effectiveness in democratic societies. In this paper, the author analyzes the gender aspects of democratic decision-making processes and political representation of women in the EU member states. The social, historical and political dimension of women's efforts to obtain and promote their civil status and political rights have been the framework for developing the principle of gender equality as one of the founding EU principles. In the past hundred years, one of the most significant trends in politics has been the expansion of formal political representation of women. Yet, even though it has been more than a hundered years since women won their political rights in the 19th and the 20th century (the right to vote and the right to be voted, gender differences in political rights are still a substantial part of debate. Today, women's political representation is still inadequate and their political capacity and power have not been exercised to a sufficient extent (or proportionally through their actual representation in parliament. In March 2012, the European Commisision published a report on gender equality in different areas of social life; the Eurobarometer survey shows that women are generally underrepresented in politics. In national parliaments, only one out of four MPs is a woman. In the European Parliament, three out of ten parliamentarians are women. The statistics shows a huge discrepancy among the EU Member States in terms of women's representation in parliament (44.7% in Sweden as contrasted to 13.3% in Romania. The prevailing view in many studies is that post-industrial democracies are deficient as they have failed

  11. RENEWABLE ENERGY STRATEGIES: WHERE EUROPEAN UNION HEADED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The states from European Union must take advantage from renewable energy sources in order to revive the economy. Climate change creates new jobs and could reduce energy imports which would stimulate the economy of those states. The European Union should support research in the field, apply more efficient policies in energy, and create economies of scale to get an integrated European energy market in which the main actors can reduce the cost of production of renewable energy. In addition, it is possible to use the comparative advantages of the Member States and not only, like Greece, through solar energy, Southern Mediterranean, through distribution networks interconnections with EU, Russia and Ukraine, through biomass and the North Sea, through wind energy. This paper refers to the evolution and trends of the renewable energy sources and presents some scenarios of it.

  12. LEGAL PERSONALITY AND POWERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin FUEREA

    2010-01-01

    Based on legal personality, EU won through Treaty of Lisbon, in accordance with the system of division of competences between the Union and the Member States as provided for in the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, competences not conferred upon the Union in the Treaties remain with the Member States. When the Treaties confer on the Union a competence shared with the Member States in a specific area, the Member States shall exercise their compet...

  13. Zoonoses in the European Union: origin, distribution and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahuerta, A.; Westrell, T.; Takkinen, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a summary of the main findings of the latest report of the European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control on zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in the European Union (EU), based on data from 2009. Zoonoses are prevalent and widely...... distributed across several countries in the EU. The most important highlight of this report was the continuous decrease of human salmonellosis since 2005, probably due to effective control programmes in livestock....

  14. The principle of empowerment in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nelly MILITARU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Delimitation of competences in the EU is governed by the principle of conferral. Based on the content of these provisions work in the first three parts of it, defining and classifying skills appropriate attribution Treaties underlying the European Union (Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and the Court of Justice. The next three parts of the paper detailing each classification in hand, highlighting, clear delineation of the Union competences of the Member States carried out by the Lisbon Treaty and the amendments made by this treaty.

  15. Distance Training in the European Union. ZIFF Papiere 96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Desmond

    A study examined distance training in the European Union (EU) countries. First, recent literature on the following topics was reviewed: technology-supported learning, flexible and distance learning, development of open distance learning, and teleconferencing and distance learning. Next, enrollments and trends in distance learning in the EU as a…

  16. Expert advice and political choice in constructing European banking union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donnelly, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    International actors promoted the transfer of regulatory authority and financial resources from national governments to the European Union (EU) in the context of establishing the prerequisites for financial stability in Europe through banking union. It was supplied, however, by a political process

  17. Direct Tax Applications in Relationship Between European Union and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    YAZARKAN, Hakan; MEZARARKALI, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    European Union (EU) is an economic union that exstipulates common tax policy within the union without interfering the taxes which collected by the members. On the other hand union doesn’t put tax systems of member states to harmonization but has a positive look on efforts convergence. The reason of this is the difference between international tax ratio causes limiting even hindering the capital activities. Turkey which made an application at 31st of July 1959 still can’t become member of EU. ...

  18. The European Fiscal Union creation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Sharov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents evolution of the European Union fiscal system creation process as well as outlines problems in functioning thereof that have arisen during recent years and the main reforming (modification trends. The analysis is primarily focused on creation of the fiscal union within the EU. In this regard, the idea of two different groups of countries moving to the common goal at different paces is becoming ever increasingly much-talked-about in the EU. The first group comprises donor countries that adhere to all treaties and fiscal discipline, while demonstrating respective positive macroeconomic indicators. The second group implies countries of Euro-periphery, where the above processes take place along with significant complications or do not occur at all. In these countries Eurosceptic positions are also quite strong, which often leads to taking measures contrary to the jointly adopted decisions. Currently, there is no clear understanding within the EU as to which way out of the crisis should be taken. However, profound understanding of the crisis causes and active work on preparation and implementation of measures to overcome the negative effects of this crisis suggest availability of sufficiently favorable prospects for further development of the EU fiscal system (including formal creation of the Fiscal Union. Based on the conducted analysis conclusions have been made as to potential vectors of action aimed at improving EU fiscal system, while specific recommendations on actions to be taken by Ukraine have been developed (particularly, as regards budget forecasting and planning with the purpose of harmonizing Ukrainian financial institutions and mechanisms with the EU fiscal system.

  19. European Union and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  20. The impact of European Union law on the possibilities of European Union Member States to adapt international tax rules to the business models of multinational enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, S.; Kardachaki, A.

    2016-01-01

    European Union (EU) law has played a key role in enforcing the EU BEPS agenda, while also introducing limits to the application thereof. The European Commission (EC) sees a clear link between aggressive tax planning and competition law. Against this background, EU State aid law has been employed to

  1. Un-National Normative Justification for European Union Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between...... descriptive interests and normative ethics is unsustainable in European Union (EU) foreign policy. What are needed are normative justifications that can help inform political choices about foreign policy in the EU's democratic political order. In other words, what are the un-national normative justifications...

  2. COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION - INTERNATIONAL COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nely Militaru

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU performs according to its competence, the position of International Justice in solving disputes between two or more subjects of international law. International jurisdiction of the Court of Justice of the EU is - mandatory that each Member State has the opportunity to seize this court if it considers that another state violated an obligation incumbent upon it under Union Treaties; - optional in disputes between Member States in connection with the subject Union Treaties.

  3. Trade With the European Union: Recent Trends and Electronic Commerce Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... trade with the European Union (EU). As major trading partners, the United States and the EU are currently addressing several trade-related issues, including their approach to electronic commerce, or e-commerce...

  4. AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regulations governing the production and use of genetically modified organisms have been developed in the United Kingdom since 1976. Regulations covering the release of transgenic organisms into the environment were initially voluntary. Since 1990, the European Economic Commission (EEC) Directive. 90/219 and ...

  5. The future of energy in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, C.

    1997-01-01

    Two of the three European Union founding treaties have a marked energy nature but, however, at the present time, the EU lacks a Common Energy Policy, Starting with this paradox, the European Parliament Member Robles Piquer uses this article, which reproduces the lecture he gave at the CSN, to proffer his view of the future of energy which the EU will have and that which it should have, in this opinion. (Author)

  6. European Union's public fishing access agreements in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Le Manach, F.; Chaboud, Christian; Copeland, D.; Cury, Philippe; Gascuel, D.; Kleisner, K.M.; Standing, A.; Sumaila, U.R.; Zeller, D.; Pauly, D.

    2013-01-01

    The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU) and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them. We find that the EU has subsidized these agreem...

  7. EUROPEAN UNION SUPPORT AND TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE PROCESSES IN KOSOVO

    OpenAIRE

    Remzije Istrefi

    2017-01-01

    The legacy of systematic human rights violations committed during 1999 violent conflict and the previous repressive rule still impact the everyday life of Kosovo citizens. That is why transitional justice processes are a necessary component in Kosovo’s state building efforts. With the end of the 1999 conflict, Kosovo has been administered by the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and also supported by European Union (EU) presences: the EU Special Representative in Kosovo, and European U...

  8. Vocation or Vocational? Reviewing European Union Education and Mobility Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Amelia; Summerby-Murray, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role that education plays in European Union (EU) integration. We ask whether efforts which historically have been designed to endow European students with a "knowledge of Europe" in terms of an understanding of culture, politics and sensibility have been circumscribed by, or augmented, by the recently…

  9. US - European Union Relations: Economic Change and Political Transition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kramer, Steven

    1999-01-01

    .... ̂ The introduction of the euro as the currency of the EMU will aid participating European Union (EU) member states by eliminating transaction costs, exchange rate risks, and interest rate spreads across the 11 European currencies early in the coming century...

  10. Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.R.; Bryan Endres, A.

    2000-01-01

    To be successful, laws that regulate genetically modified organisms (GMOs) must help society decide rationally when to pause and when to proceed in adopting new biotechnological developments. In the context of European Union (EU) institutions and lawmaking procedures, this article examines European

  11. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address...

  12. Labour Force Migration Effects within European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mihaela Tudorache

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the EU, there is no common policy on migration; there are common policies on certain aspects of migration. The Member States fear of migration, but their economies and societies will further need migrant workers. Labour force migration have positive, but also negative consequences for all parties involved: receiving countries, origin countries and migrant workers. Within this framework, a common approach of the migration management and the harmonization of the economic migration policies of the Member States represent already one of the most important challenges for the European Union and will be further emphasized.

  13. Political public relations in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the state of political public relations in the European Union by specifically focusing on reputation management and relationship management. Its arguments are based on a theoretical review of the literature of political public relations, reputation and relationship management......, and EU communication. The article suggests an in-depth examination of the nature of some of the EU’s major problems in political public relations, and contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the possibilities and limitations of applying reputation and relationship management constructs...

  14. Research Methods in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian; Löfgren, Karl

    Research on the European Union over the past few years has been strongly implicated in the crises that currently grip Europe with a failure to ask the pertinent questions as well as a perceived weakness in the methods and evidence used by researchers providing the basis for these allegations....... This volume moves the study of EU research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new agenda for research on Europe through a rich diversity of problem-solving based research. This new agenda acknowledges the weaknesses of the past and moves beyond them towards greater openness and awareness...

  15. European Union of Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    After a very brief introduction to history and memory in Europe after 1989, as seen by Aleida Assmann, I will give a short introduction to the EP and to their adoption of resolutions and declarations. Then I will define some concepts central to my study before I proceed to the analysis. Finally I...... these changes have come about. Moreover, I show that there seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right and I suggest that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory....

  16. The European Union and its Neighbours:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Chilosi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the status of the European Neighbourhood Policy in the light of the new Financial Perspective 2007-2013 and of the present internal state of the European Union. Even if in theory the ENP could have been a valid substitute for enlargement, it does not seem to have reached its aim of providing an adequate surrogate for full membership. Considering the figures of the new Financial Perspective 2007-2013, the issue of market access, and the internal power dynamics of the EU, we see that it is hardly conceivable that the ENP could ever give to its neighbours the same economic advantages that membership gives to the poorer members of the EU. Another controversial aspect is the clear asymmetric nature of the ENP, whereby the payoff for neighbours is conditioned on their “good behaviour”, thus amounting to a form of soft imperialism. While ENP tries to establish a comprehensive and coherent framework of the EU’s relations with its neighbourhood, the actual behaviour of EU towards its neighbours is shown to present some inconsistences due to political expedience and pragmatic concerns. The consideration of some related basic issues of EU institutional reform, such as the weakening of the powers of the member states, or the introduction of some intermediate forms of partial membership, concludes the paper.

  17. Management of electricity markets in European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamfir, A.; Florescu, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    The challenges facing energy markets in Europe were discussed with particular reference to the need to integrate and interconnect national energy markets. The Romanian power market evolution since 2000 was also analyzed, taking into account the fact that the strategic objective of the Romanian Government is to assume the role of Regional Exchange in the South-East European region. A common approach to energy is needed to enable the European Union (EU) to compete in global markets, to improve sustainability in the EU and to secure energy supply. An overall framework is needed in order to achieve these objectives. This paper presented the general measures needed to complete the internal gas and electricity markets in Europe. It also proposed measures to ensure that the EU's internal energy market guarantees security of supply and solidarity between Member States. The guiding principles that an approach to information management and market transparency should be based on were described. The authors suggested that an integrated and competitive electricity and gas markets should be established to promote efficient energy services and diversify the energy mix. The measures needed in order to achieve the goal of a genuine single market at EU level were described along with the actions needed to stimulate investments in infrastructure and generation capacity. Measures to prevent or manage energy supply crises were also proposed. 4 refs., 1 tab

  18. The new European Energy Union - Toward a consistent EU energy and climate policy? A report for the French Commissariat General a la Strategie et a la Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    In his opening statement in the European Parliament in July 2014, the new European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker highlighted 10 key priorities for his mandate. One of these consists in 'reform(ing) and reorganis(ing) Europe's energy policy into a new European Energy Union'. Does this imply that this Energy Union will mark the beginning of a new approach toward European energy policy, or is it merely a re-framing of the debate? We argue in this paper that the new Energy Union will need a radically new approach to European energy and climate policy. A sound European energy and climate policy should be based on a set of well-defined objectives, and rely on well-articulated instruments to deliver in the most efficient way on these objectives. The current European energy and climate policy framework has major flaws on both fronts. The paper does not aim to provide a comprehensive list of the issues at stake with European energy and climate policy, which would be a daunting task, and builds on previous work conducted for the for the Commissariat General a la Strategie et a la Prospective (CGSP) in 2013.5 Instead, we focus on some key areas with the objective to make a series of concrete proposals for reform. This paper takes a practitioners' perspective, recognizing that a 'first best' economic approach is often not practical, and therefore putting forward policy recommendations which recognize the policy and institutional constraints that characterize European policy making. We start by discussing issues with the European Commission (EC) energy and climate policy objectives, and then suggest some potential reforms to the regulatory framework to deliver on these objectives. We successively cover in session 2 and 3 the policy levers for decarbonization and for security of supply, before discussing the necessary changes to the power market framework. We conclude by discussing how the financing and governance challenges associated

  19. Nuclear Energy and European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picamal, B.

    2010-01-01

    The interest shown by the European Institutions in the energy debates, in which the nuclear energy is included as a key component within the energy mix, is obvious. Climate change and energy supply have pushed some countries to publicly express their interest for developing the nuclear energy. These positions are however in contradiction with some others within the European Union which are a lot more critical towards this type of energy and where face-out policies still prevail. Despite the fact that the use of the nuclear energy will remain within the competence of each Member State, the European Union will continue to play a prominent role in the development of an energy strategy based on a low carbon economy. (Author)

  20. The Political Economy of Joining the European Union : Iceland's Position at the Beginning of the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnason, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Iceland can consider its participation in the European Economic Area (EEA) as an associate membership of the European Union (EU). Under the EEA agreement, Iceland participates in the EU free movement of capital, persons, services and industrial goods, along with cooperation in social policy and related fields. However, Iceland does not participate in the EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), or in the EU Cust...

  1. Sensitive products and services in the light of the law of the European Union. Chances and limits of common EU export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janik, M.

    1995-01-01

    The invasion of Kuwait by the Iraq has made it very clear to the world at large that international exports of sensitive products and services is an urgent international problem. This war demonstrated the absurdity of the fact that the troups of the allied coalition under the roof of the UN had to fight against a military potential of Iraq that these nations themselves had been building up by trade with the Iraq in the years before, having sold not only weaponry but also other technical systems and equipment and technologies to which the term ''sensitive products and services'' applies. Having become aware of the international dimension of this problem, the approach to solutions starts from the following questions: How can the international community prevent unwanted support of political regimes or groups judged to be potentially aggressive in their efforts towards building up a dangerous military potential? What are the instruments to be implemented at an international level, and to which foreign relations, as for example trade relations, and to which objects of trade, shall these instruments and controls apply? These questions show the essential importance of the definition of ''dual-use products''. The book analyses and explains the current legal framework within the EU and the approaches elaborated by working groups and bodies of the EU for the purpose of establishing a Single European exports control system, presenting the survey in five main chapters entitled as follows: Rationale, outline conditions and characteristic features of export controls; Legal basis of export controls for sensitive products and services; Admissibility of national controls of the export of sensitive products and services within the EU; Common EU controls of exports to third countries; EU action and means for harmonization of controls of exports of dual-use products to countries not members of the EU. (orig./CB) [de

  2. Three proposals for revitalising the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Widespread perception that convergence on the current set of rules is not capable of producing convergence on results, or anyway generally better results, has increased the socio-political fragmentation inside the European Union. The result has been an increasing demand for a partial re-nationalisation of sovereign powers, whose physiology comes from the necessity of higher national flexibility. Asking how feasible changes in the current set of rules could accommodate the increased demand of national flexibility, the paper focuses on the euro area and proposes to revise the monetary operations of the European Central Bank, current fiscal rules, and the financial regulatory approach. The proposed new design is based on the premise that no changes in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union are possible at the moment, even though a minimum political convergence is necessary. If successfully implemented, the proposal would contribute to give a viable perspective to the design of the Economic and Monetary Union, capable of attracting those EU non-euro area countries that consider the mismanagement of the recent crisis and of its after-effects reason enough for resisting further losses of sovereignty. JEL: E52, E62, F33, F36, F45, G28

  3. Economic Cooperation Between The European Union And Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzymała Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show the history of economic relations between the European Union and Japan. This economy is very important to the EU and the countries of the EU are interested in further deepening areas of cooperation. Therefore it seems important to indicate the political will to continue mutual economic relations through the signing of contracts and bilateral agreements, as well as meetings at various levels, including SPA and EPA negotiations and summits. The course of the current economic cooperation will be shown through trade volume and foreign direct investment outflows from the European Union to Japan.

  4. Reindustrialization Process in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Prisecaru

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the economic growth and empolyment in EU European institutions have launches ambitious initiatives for a reindustrialization process based on new technologies and green energies. The aim is to increase the share of processing industry in GDP from 15.1% in 2013 to 20% in 2020 according to the objectives of Europe 2020 Strategy and also with those of other EU strategies and common policies. The focus will be laid on innovation and research activites, on supporting/financing SMEs and their internationalization, on the integration of EU firms into global value chains, on developing green energies, bio and key enabling technologies, on smart networks and on free trade and sustainable development.

  5. Laboratory medicine in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Zerah, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The profession of laboratory medicine differs between countries within the European Union (EU) in many respects. The objective of professional organizations of the promotion of mutual recognition of specialists within the EU is closely related to the free movement of people. This policy translates to equivalence of standards and harmonization of the training curriculum. The aim of the present study is the description of the organization and practice of laboratory medicine within the countries that constitute the EU. A questionnaire covering many aspects of the profession was sent to delegates of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) and Union Européenne de Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) of the 28 EU countries. Results were sent to the delegates for confirmation. Many differences between countries were identified: predominantly medical or scientific professionals; a broad or limited professional field of interest; inclusion of patient treatment; formal or absent recognition; a regulated or absent formal training program; general or minor application of a quality system based on ISO Norms. The harmonization of the postgraduate training of both clinical chemists and of laboratory physicians has been a goal for many years. Differences in the organization of the laboratory professions still exist in the respective countries which all have a long historical development with their own rationality. It is an important challenge to harmonize our profession, and difficult choices will need to be made. Recent developments with respect to the directive on Recognition of Professional Qualifications call for new initiatives to harmonize laboratory medicine both across national borders, and across the borders of scientific and medical professions.

  6. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  7. Soft Power and Hard Measures: Large-Scale Assessment, Citizenship and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, David; Engel, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) with particular emphasis on the European Union's (EU's) involvement in the regional portion. Using the ICCS, the EU actively combines hard measures with soft power, allowing the EU to define and steer cross-national rankings of values of EU citizenship. The…

  8. IMPORTANCE OF THE EUROPEAN BANKING UNION NEW DIRECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available European Banking Union has set new rules on monetary market especially for credit institutions and for financial banking groups in general. Economic and monetary union requires accomplishment of political and monetary union and democratic control of the European institutions on a single financial market. In this respect through its management organisms, EU has designed a series of unique mechanisms of financial union and called for a fiscal union. Union of European financial market is possible through a new regulation of the markets. In this project, monetary union of the EU member countries is possible by implementing single mechanism of supervision (Single Supervisory Mechanism and single mechanism of resolution (Single Resolution Mechanism. European Banking Union may be made by monitoring of a single banking supervisor based on a common system for managing and resolving banking crises and a uniform system of protecting people's savings. Romania opted for these unique mechanisms of macro-prudential supervision of the financial system. And by performing the real convergence criteria of integration, Romania will have all conditions of integration in the ,,euro area,,.

  9. The Second Look in European Union Competition Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob B; Torp, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Under European Union (EU) law, arbitrators and national courts are obligated to apply, ex officio, EU competition law. Also according to EU law, any failure by an arbitral tribunal to apply such rules, or any erroneous interpretation or application hereof, constitute grounds for setting aside...... the subsequent award, if and when such measure is dictated by the Member State’s procedural rules. This article examines the relevant procedural rules in Denmark and Sweden based on two recent decisions by the national Supreme Courts. It concludes that under Scandinavian procedural law, courts will generally...... a framework for understanding the interplay between national and EU law, at least in the Scandinavian countries....

  10. The World Trade Organization and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Ladefoged

    2008-01-01

    developments within foreign policy, this volume adopts a novel perspective on the EU as an international player. Seeking to move the focus of study beyond the European Union as itself an international organization, contributors set out to demonstrate EU aspirations to act within international organizations.......Analysing the way in which the EU engages in some of the most important international organizations, this book outlines a framework for analysis within this thriving subject of study. By demonstrating how the EU supports ‘effective multilateralism' and global governance, as well as furthering...

  11. The Employment Policies and the Combat against Unemployment in the European Union. The EU Strategy for the Employment Growth and the Unemployment Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ligia Dumitrescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Financial and economic crisis has brought to the fore the issues of unemployment, which is a constant concern of the EU. The study analyzes the European Employment Strategy, which aims to create a common framework for action based on the agreement of the Member States relating in order to a set of objectives and targets for employment. The research examines the impact of employment policies on labor market developments and measures taken to minimize imbalances in the labor market, reduce unemployment and increase employment.

  12. The integration of Poland into the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    FAUCOMPRET, Erik; KONINGS, Jozef

    2001-01-01

    Poland was among the first Eastern European countries to apply for membership of the European Union. In view of Poland’s tragic history and the economic liberalisation that has taken place since 1989, we believe that the EU should adopt a generous approach toward its application. Unfortunately it looks as if the EU wants Poland to conform with all its laws before it can join. Our research suggests that the EU should pursue an open trade, labour and investment policy. Poland’s membership will ...

  13. Reforms to the European Union Financial Supervisory and Regulatory Architecture and Their Implications for Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Darvas (Zsolt); D. Schoenmaker (Dirk); N. Véron (Nicolas)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractEuropean Union (EU) countries offer a unique experience of financial regulatory and supervisory integration, complementing various other European integration efforts following the Second World War. Financial regulatory and supervisory integration was a very slow process before 2008,

  14. Photovoltaic remuneration policies in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarasa-Maestro, Carlos J.; Dufo-López, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustín, José L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the development of photovoltaic (PV) systems in some countries of the European Union (EU). We establish the stage of development of each country, their short- and long-term degree of compliance and the trends of international investors favouring one market or another. EU countries employ four major types of programs to encourage PV use: (1) feed in tariffs (FIT), (2) green certificates with a quota system, (3) investment and tax incentives, and (4) bids on the quota system. The FIT is the most widely used program to create incentives for the use of PV systems. During the past two years, PV tariffs have been reduced in many European countries. Investments in PV are still attractive, in some cases even overly generous with respect to the financial landscape in the world. This paper shows, for each country, the type of incentive and the trends in and forecast for installed capacity and calculates the internal rate of return (IRR) for investment in grid-connected PV systems. - Highlights: ► This work shows the EU positioning on development of photovoltaic (PV) systems. ► The installed power and the internal rate of return have been used as reference. ► The existing programs in relation to pay and incentives have been reviewed

  15. European Union concerns with its energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commeau, N.

    2001-01-01

    European Union (E.U.) produces only half its needs concerning energy. It is expected that by 2030, the energy balance will be 86% for fossil energies, 8% for renewable energies and 6% for nuclear energy. Different scenario show that the dependence of E.U will worsen and reach 70% unless a common strategy is launched to curb the tendency. E.U is elaborating a common policy concerning energy, this policy rests on 4 axis: 1) monitoring the increase of the energy consumption by promoting energy savings in housing and transport, 2) directing the energy demand towards less polluting energy by using taxes, public funding and European regulations as incentive tools, 3) sustaining a constant dialogues with energy exporting countries in order to get a more stable energy market and have a benefiting influence on prices, and 4) developing new routes of importation of energy by for instance contributing to the construction of new oil or gas pipeline networks. (A.C.)

  16. THE NEW ARCHITECTURE OF ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina Ioana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis that began in 2007-2008 has highlighted the need for a stronger economic coordination at EU level, to ensure financial stability. The new architecture of economic governance in the European Union is based on Fiscal Pact, on Macroeconomic Imbalances Identification Mechanism, on European Stability Mechanism and on Banking Union. Since the banking system is the most significant component of the financial system, we will give more importance to the analysis of Banking Union, which is based on three pillars: The Single Supervisory Mechanism, The Single Resolution Mechanism and The Deposit Guarantee Schemes.

  17. Knowledge based economy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Stănculescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we assist at a fundamental change from the economy based mainly on resources to the one based mostly on knowledge. The concept has been launched in the last decade of the past century. The knowledge became a production agent and a value creation instrument for whatever country and of course for an entire community like European Union which is constantly concerned by its development and competitiveness. This paper presents the principal characteristics of the present EU preoccupations with the expansion of a knowledge based economy through the 2020 European Development Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive economy, and especially for the Framework Programs (Framework Programme 7 and Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme.

  18. European Union's environmental strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, Jean-Paul; Laurent, Eloi; Le Cacheux, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Environmental policy is an art of execution. Hence the fact that European Union member states have recently managed to agree on targets of emissions to fight climate change leaves open the question of how they will meet them. Economics cannot but embrace the scientific consensus on climate change and cannot say much about the efficiency of alternative technologies. Yet, its expertise is valuable to calculate economic effects and fairness of policies and to assess the relevance of incentives structures and effectiveness of institutions put into place to convert scientific consensus into action. This article is concerned with this latter point: does the EU have the right institutions to fight climate change? We claim that such is not the case, and offer to institute a 'European Community of Environment, Energy and Research' to go forward. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE' No. 102

  19. Affordability of medicines in the European Union.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zaprutko

    Full Text Available Medications and their prices are key issues for healthcare. Although access to medicines at affordable prices had been specified as a key objective of the European Health Policy, it seems that these goals have not been achieved. Therefore, we attempted an evaluation of affordability of selected medicines at full prices.The analysis concerned 2012 and was conducted between 2013 and 2015 in all the European Union (EU countries divided into 3 groups depending on the date of their accession to the EU. Finally, we considered 9 originators used in the treatment of schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Information on drug prices were collected from pharmacies. Participation in the study was voluntary and anonymous in order to avoid accusations of advertising. To evaluate affordability, several factors were used (e.g. minimum earnings and Gini coefficient. Due to unavailability in some countries, the exact number of analyzed medicines varies.Drug prices vary significantly between EU Member States. Almost eleven fold difference was observed between Germany (EUR 1451.17 and Croatia (EUR 132.77 in relation to Interferone beta-1a 22 μg. Generally, prices were the highest in Germany. The cheapest drugs were found in various countries but never in the poorest ones like Bulgaria or Romania. Discrepancies in wages were observed too (the smallest minimum wage was EUR 138.00 in Bulgaria and the highest EUR 1801.00 in Luxembourg. Full price of olanzapine 5mg, however, was higher in Bulgaria (EUR 64.53 than, for instance, in Belgium (EUR 37.26.Analyzed medications are still unaffordable for many citizens of the EU. Besides, access to medicines is also impaired e.g. due to parallel trade. Unaffordability of medications may lead to the patients' non-compliance and therefore to increased direct and indirect costs of treatment. Common European solutions are needed to achieve a real affordability and accessibility of medications.

  20. Energy Relations between the European Union and North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kilpeläinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses European Union (EU-North Africa energy relations with a special focus on renewables in North Africa, arguing that the research so far has not taken due account of North African perceptions of EU external energy policy. It is argued that current research on EU-North African relations has not taken sufficient note of the multidimensionality of energy or addressed the inconsistent nature of EU policy making. However, addressing these issues is vital in approaching EU-North Africa energy relations and EU policy towards North Africa in general. The study of perceptions is introduced as one way to develop research further, to give further impetus on understanding how EU-North African energy relations develop and to understand energy relations in their complexity.

  1. Environment in the European Union 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission......The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission...

  2. Families and the European Union : law, politics and pluralism.

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, C.M.S.

    2006-01-01

    In the first book to offer a comprehensive analysis of family law in the European Union, McGlynn argues that a traditional concept of 'family' which has many adverse effects - on individuals, on families (in all their diverse forms), and indeed on the economic ambitions of the EU is forming the basis for the little-recognised and under-researched field of EU family law. This book examines three different aspects of family life - childhood, parenthood and partnerships - and critically analyses...

  3. Meat export competitiveness of European Union countries on global markets

    OpenAIRE

    Štefan Bojnec; Imre Fertő

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the export competitiveness of meat products of the European Union (EU-27) member states on global markets. The revealed comparative advantage index is used to analyze the levels, compositions, and evolutions in patterns of development in the export competitiveness of meat products and their levels of stability at the product level. Except for some niche meat products, a larger number of the EU-27 member states have experienced comparativ...

  4. IDENTITY AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Cristina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to throw some light on the question of identity in the European Union. The challenge is to understand how identity formation takes place in the contemporary world. The European integration has to be understood both as a process of socio-economic convergence among European states but also as a process of co-operation on different other levels, too. It seems that cultures, traditions and interests are more and more interconnected as societies become increasingly multicultural. This is the reason why people are concerned with the concept of identity and the recognition of their uniqueness in terms of traditions, values and ways of lives.

  5. Emerging Administrations under European Union Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Berceanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of emergence is generally used to indicate the appearance of patterns, structures, orproperties that cannot be adequately explained by referring only to the system’s pre-existing componentsand their interactions. The term “emergence” has an interdisciplinary approach specific to administrativesciences, too. In this article, the concept of “emergence” signifies lato sensu a kind of change and it will beused to refer to countries that have a high volatility and that are in transition and to define the changes thatsuffer the public administrations of the countries which are part of the European construction. EuropeanUnion through its policies and legislation has a great impact on economic and social conditions in MemberStates. The aim of the paper is to present a theoretical approach on the dimension of emergingadministrations understood as changes and reforms that suffer the institutions from the EU member statesunder the pressure of the European Union rules. The study is using the concept of emergence to researchand to analyze the nature of the changes in the public administration starting from the approach of thesystems theory.

  6. The European Union: Challenges and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botescu Ion

    2017-01-01

    If to all these we add the protectionist measures that the new president of the United States wishes to implement, as well as some deterioration in the European Union credibility generated by Brexit, the bureaucratic aspects that characterize the European institutions, etc., we can outline the context of the European Union, which requires a series of measures to ensure the progress of the European Union as a whole and, in particular, the effective integration of each Community country.

  7. The European Union and sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that aspirations of maintaining a dominant influence over sub-Saharan security issues has spurred the French and British leadership of European Union (EU) foreign and security policy integration, just as it has informed military capability expansions by the armed forces...

  8. Financial integration in the European Union. Measurement and determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, J.J.G.

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this study addresses the measurement of financial integration in the European Union (EU). First, we present empirical evidence on the degree of financial integration as measured with interest parity conditions. Second, the study applies an error-correction model of

  9. Species Protection in the European Union : How Strict is Strict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoukens, Hendrik; Bastmeijer, Kees; Born et al., Charles-Hubert

    2015-01-01

    European Union law to protect wild species of plants and animals is generally considered as ‘strict’. Opponents of nature conservation law often pick the species protection components of the EU Bird Directive and Habitat Directive as a prime example of an unnecessary strict regulatory scheme that

  10. Exploring central governments' coordination of European Union affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the coordination mechanisms managed by the central governments of the European Union (EU) in order to develop negotiation positions for their plenipotentiaries in the Council. Utilizing novel data from an expert survey, the first part examines the relationships within and betw...

  11. The disposal of wastes in the European union including the mining industry wastes in the context of the European Union environmental protection requirements. A challenge not only for the new member states; Die Entsorgung von Abfaellen in der Europaeischen Union einschliesslich der Bergbauabfaelle im Rahmen der EU-Umweltschutzanforderungen. Eine Herausforderung nicht nur fuer die neuen Mitgliedsstaaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asenbaum, Peter [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg, Dueren (Germany). Abt. Bergbau und Energie in NRW

    2009-11-15

    The target of the European Union is the adjustment of the legal relations and living conditions within the member states. In particular in the area of environmental protection, the framework defaults are specified by the European Union. The individual defaults form a dependent network. In particular social changes and the jurisdiction of the European Union lend certain dynamics to this network. There always exists a demand of adjustment. The defaults of the European Union influence the private living conditions such as the separate collection of paper, bio waste, glass and remainder garbage. Since the year 2006, a European Union guideline (2006/21/EG) exists for the mass wastes of the mineral producing industry, i.e. the mining industry wastes in the form of waste rock and tailings. The conversion to national law took place in the range of validity of federal mining industry law with the introduction paragraph 22a of the general federal mountain regulation and production waste regulation. Now the operators of mines and companies of the mineral producing industry are obligated to a comprehensive documentation of the refuse economy. There is a permission reservation with public participation. The deposit on waste dumps or sludge lagoons is subject to a special safety engineering view.

  12. European Union definitely introduces common taxes on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenweisner, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper taxes of the European Union on energy are reviewed. European Union Ministers of environment Council definitely ratified new common system of minimal energy taxes in last week. Council introduces par excellence minimal all-European size of an electricity, coal and natural gas consumption tax. New directive according to European Commission will improve operation of internal market and eliminate deformation of competitive environment among individual members as well as among mineral oils and the other energy sources. Slovak Republic taxes all motor fuel types by higher charge as is minimal level demanded by EU according to new directive after rising of consumable tax from mineral oils in August 2003. According to Minister of Finances Slovak Republic demanded European Union for a temporary 10-year period for utilizing electricity, coal, coke, and natural gas consumption tax. According to Ministry, Utilizing new taxes and rising of tax load is not in interest of started tax reform in Slovak Republic

  13. Possible Outcomes of Brexit for European Union Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Y. Kaveshnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some implications of the Brexit referendum for institutional and political development of the European Union and for relations between the EU and the UK. The most obvious consequence of the referendum is the collapse of ideology of continuous and progressing development of integration. Instead of endless, irreversible, a priori beneficial for everyone integration process, the European Union has become an organization that does not have a Messianic goal and obliged to prove its usefulness in everyday life. EU systemic crisis will inevitably lead to a profound transformation of its institutional and political structure. After the British referendum, only two options are possible. First of all, partial deconstruction of the European Union. The idea that European integration has gone too far lies in the basis of this strategy. According to this logic, the single market is the main EU achievement. Return to the basics - this is a pragmatic approach to integration, which should replace attempts to fix rotten projects (like Euro or to achieve the unattainable (political Union. This option is hardly probable. Second option is transformation of the EU into the "core and periphery" system having the basis flexible integration. Over the past 20 years, flexibility transformed from temporary phenomenon into a permanent and formalized mechanism; its elements exist in many EU politics. Brexit would be able to accelerate significantly the formation of a cohesive core within the Eu. The core will not be homogeneous; it will include as governing structures: the German-French axis and a group of EU founding countries.

  14. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? IEA Energy Policies Review: The European Union - 2008 addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy & Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R&D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  15. EUROPEAN UNION SUPPORT AND TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE PROCESSES IN KOSOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remzije Istrefi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The legacy of systematic human rights violations committed during 1999 violent conflict and the previous repressive rule still impact the everyday life of Kosovo citizens. That is why transitional justice processes are a necessary component in Kosovo’s state building efforts. With the end of the 1999 conflict, Kosovo has been administered by the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK and also supported by European Union (EU presences: the EU Special Representative in Kosovo, and European Union Rule of Law Mission known as EULEX. In the course of implementation of their mandates transitional justice processes were not a priority for UNMIK and EU presences. With the signing of the Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA the EU made transitional justice part of the Kosovo accession demands. In December 2015, the Government of Kosovo approved its National Action Plan for the Implementation of the Stabilization and Association Agreement (NAPISAA. The General Principles of the SAA, included within the NAPISAA oblige Kosovo Government to approve a National Transitional Justice Strategy. This paper analyses EU peace and institution-building support and their impact in transitional justice processes in Kosovo. Through analysing the mandate and actions on the ground it draws conclusions if EU is an active participant in transitional justice process in Kosovo or transitional justice policies are promoted by EU only as part of its enlargement strategy. Finally, the paper gives recommendations as a basis for future elaboration of an EU approach to transitional justice.

  16. Mass Media Perception of the European Union in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakyt Ospanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the mass media perception of the European Union (EU in Kazakhstan through the content analysis of major mass media outlets. This paper examines news reports and periodical articles from four major national Kazakh newspapers: “Yegemen Kazakhstan”, “Kazakhstanskaya Pravda”, “Zhas Alash” and “Vremya” at three measurement points. The first measurement point covers early 1990s when Kazakhstan became an independent state and started to build its foreign relations. The second measurement point covers years before and after introduction of the EU Strategy for Central Asia, namely years between 2006 and 2008. The third measurement point covers last three years (2011-2013 associated with implementation with the EU Strategy and assessing its results. The research suggests that the mass media generally positively perceives the EU, as most publications emphasize the positive role played by the EU in the region and Kazakhstan. Additionally, the initiation of the EU strategy for Central Asia led to wider coverage and therefore wider public recognition of the EU in Kazakhstan. However, discourse analysis of publications authored by the EU and Kazakhstanian elites indicates substantial variation in depiction of the European Union and its engagement in Central Asia and Kazakhstan in particular.

  17. Abatement of CO2 emissions in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.; Keppler, J.H.; Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite; Smeers, Yves; Bouttes, Jean-Paul; Trochet, Jean-Michel; Dassa, Francois; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    This first monograph of the Ifri program on European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy is devoted to the control of carbon dioxide emissions within the European Union. Since it is almost unanimously accepted that Greenhouse Gas emissions constitute the main cause of the observed increase of the world average temperature, the system implemented by the European Union to limit and decrease the CO 2 emissions is a significant pillar of the EU energy policy, the two others being the acceptance by the Member States of long-term commitments (for instance on the future share of renewable energy sources in their energy balance sheet) and the establishment of an internal market for electricity and gas. Though simple in principle, the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is in fact rather complex, and only experts really understand its merits and its deficiencies. These deficiencies are real and will have to be corrected in the future for the system to be effective. At this moment, when the 2005-2007 trial phase of the EU ETS is ending, the monograph has the purpose to stimulate the discussion between experts and to enable all those interested in the topic to understand the issues and to take part in the public debates on the subject. The monograph contains five papers: - 'An Overview of the CO 2 Emission Control System in the European Union' by Jacques Lesourne and Maite Jaureguy-Naudin. - 'Description and Assessment of EU CO 2 Regulations' by Yves Smeers. - 'Assessment of EU CO 2 Regulations' by Jean-Paul Bouttes, Jean-Michel Trochet and Francois Dassa. - 'Investment in Low Carbon Technologies, Policies for the Power Sector' by Karsten Neuhoff. - 'Lessons Learned from the 2005-2007 Trial Phase of the EU Emission Trading System' by Jan Horst Keppler

  18. From Representation to Participation: A More Democratic European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Monica Stoica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes the evolution and characteristics of the democratic process in theEuropean Union from the perspective of political science using the recent theories in this field. Following theentry into force, the Treaty of Lisbon establishes the principle of participatory democracy that puts the focusof the European citizen, a citizen who is actively involved in European Union life, strengthening EU - citizenrelationship. The essence of participatory democracy is the destruction of political apathy and the maximizingof active participation of citizens in the democratic tasks. So, the basic principle of the participatorydemocracy is solidarity. The results of this analysis show that although participatory democracy is establishedin the European law, citizens are less involved in the decision-making in EU and are more and moreindividual, contradicting thus the very foundations of this type of democracy.

  19. The European Climate Change Programme. EU Action against Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The European Union has long been committed to international efforts to tackle climate change and felt the duty to set an example through robust policy-making at home. At European level a comprehensive package of policy measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has been initiated through the European Climate Change Programme (ECCP). Each of the 25 EU Member States has also put in place its own domestic actions that build on the ECCP measures or complement them. The European Commission established the ECCP in 2000 to help identify the most environmentally effective and most cost-effective policies and measures that can be taken at European level to cut greenhouse gas emissions. The immediate goal is to help ensure that the EU meets its target for reducing emissions under the Kyoto Protocol. This requires the 15 countries that were EU members before 2004 to cut their combined emissions of greenhouse gases to 8% below the 1990 level by 2012

  20. Age Discrimination Against Older Workers in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Drury

    1994-01-01

    This paper aims to define the concept of age discrimination, to illustrate examples of age discriminatory practices across the European Union, and to describe some positive public policy measures to combat age discrimination.It draws on the results of the first European-wide study of age discrimination against older workers.1 National experts from 11 Member States of the EU examined various forms of age discrimination in their own country. More detailed information is needed, particularly on ...

  1. ROMANIAN SME-S AFTER INTEGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Ana BORCOŞI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available According with the White Charter of Romanian SME-s 2007, Romanian integration in European Union was considered a great opportunity for the 46,67% of SME-s, just 9,18% of SME-s consider it like a major threatening. Romanian integration in European Union gave us much benefits and big responsibilities for all participants to this complex and long action, which is integration. The influence of integration in EU for SME-s was manifested in some special directions like: human resource, quality and competitiveness, ethics in business.

  2. On Law and Policy in a European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Petersen, Clement Salung

    On 4 December 2009, the European Council unanimously adopted conclusions on an enhanced patent system in Europe, which inter alia intends to establish a new EU patent as well as a new common patent judiciary - the European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC). The EEUPC will constitute a new sui...... generis, transnational court system with exclusive jurisdiction in respect of civil litigation related to the infringement and validity of European patents and EU patent. This paper considers this proposal for the establishment of the EEUPC under two basic observations, namely that substantive law...

  3. On Law and Policy in a European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2010-01-01

    On 4 December 2009, the European Council unanimously adopted conclusions on an enhanced patent system in Europe, which inter alia intends to establish a new EU patent as well as a new common patent judiciary – the European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC). The EEUPC will constitute a new sui...... generis, transnational court system with exclusive jurisdiction in respect of civil litigation related to the infringement and validity of European patents and EU patent. This paper considers this proposal for the establishment of the EEUPC under two basic observations, namely that substantive law...

  4. The political economy of a tradable GHG permit market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, P.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2002-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to meet an 8% greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target level following the Kyoto agreement. Therefore, the EU Commission has just proposed a new directive establishing a framework for GHG emissions trading within the European Union. This proposal is the outcome of a policy...... that the dominant interest groups indeed influenced the final design of an EU GHG market....

  5. 76 FR 15279 - Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other Countries Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...] Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other Countries Into the Continental United States AGENCY... measures under which garlic may be imported into the continental United States from the European Union and..., Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. In this document, we refer to them as the European Union (EU) and other countries...

  6. 75 FR 67970 - Notice of Inquiry; An Analysis of the European Union Repeal of the Liner Conference Block Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Notice of Inquiry; An Analysis of the European Union Repeal of the... information and comments concerning the effects on international liner shipping of the European Union's (``E.U.... The adoption by the European Union of Regulation 1419/2006 (``Repeal''), on September 25, 2006...

  7. The European Union in International Financial Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh Moloney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the role of the European Union in international financial governance after the institutional reforms it undertook in connection with the global financial crisis. It suggests that the new administrative actors that support the governance of the European Union's single financial market, notably the European Supervisory Authorities, have the potential to reshape how the European Union engages with international financial governance. It finds that the European Union’s effectiveness in influencing international financial governance—and the effectiveness of international financial governance more generally—is likely to strengthen as a result.

  8. The European Union Training Mission in Mali: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicke Rachel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For several years, the European Union (EU has been increasing its international presence and moving into the role of a global security actor. To support the goal of greater crisis management capabilities, European security integration (ESI has been deepening. This article therefore examines an Ell operation - the European Union Training Mission in Mali (EUTM Mali - with the aim of gauging the success of the EU's efforts at ESI. To determine the success of EUTM Mali and thus of ESI, three propositions are examined: if EUTM Mali is a security operation showing successful security integration, there will be evidence of (i broad participation, (ii financial burden-sharing and (iii the successful incorporation of troops and equipment. The first and third propositions are supported whereas the second does not receive as much support. Overall, EUTM Mali shows considerable success and bodes well for further ESI.

  9. Sustainable development and energy in the european union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable development represents a core objective of the European Union, being embodied through out its major polices. In the field of energy, the EU objectives, commonly known as ä20-20-20ö initiative, aim at ensuring a competitive, secure and sustainable energy for European households and industries by reducing the emissions of green house gases, an efficient use on energy and increasing the use of renewable energy. The present paper draws a review on the most important aspects of EU energy policy, its measures, results and costs from the perspective of security of supply, competitiveness of price and green house gases emissions. The aim is to highlight the trade offs which are involved in the orientation towards a sustainable path of the energetic sector of the European Union. (authors)

  10. Winston Churchill And The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given Winston Churchill’s influence and achievement as a writer, historian, adventurer, soldier, artist, and politician, his participation in the European integration process is crucial to understanding the entire scope of the project in its origins. Churchill was a fundamental voice promoting the Franco-British Union, a promoter of the European Communities, and an active participant of the Congress of Europe, embryo of the Council of Europe. This article analyzes Churchill’s view of European integration through his political speeches, in particular those delivered in Zurich and in The Hague, his ideas about the League of Nations and the United Nations, his understanding of the British Empire, and the special relations between the UK and the USA. His participation in the process of uniting Europe in its early stages provides us with essential information about the original plans for the creation of a united Europe and understanding the traditional British approach to the EU, including the current position of the conservative government led by Cameron.

  11. Some Considerations Regarding the European Banking Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Eugen Radu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Union Bank is a surveillance system and an EU bank resolution, which operates on the basis of EU wide rules. It aims to ensure that the banking sector in the euro area and the EU in general is safe and reliable and viable banks benefiting from resolution without recourse to taxpayer funds and with minimal impact on the real economy. Banking union members are all euro-zone countries and EU Member States that have chosen to participate. All countries will adopt the euro in the future will automatically become members of the banking union. Countries that are not part of the euro area can join by establishing a close cooperation agreement.

  12. Pension reform in the European periphery: the role of EU reform advocacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stepan, M.; Anderson, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: This paper analyzes the impact of international reform advocacy on national pension reforms. We analyze European Union (EU) reform advocacy in two EU member states: Greece and Hungary. Although the EU has articulated a fairly coherent template for sustainable pensions, its use of soft

  13. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    -only inspection of slaughtered cattle in order to reduce the potential for cross-contamination with bacteria that are of greatest public health risk, is expected in the European Union in the near future. With this system, the detection sensitivity for bovine cysticercosis that is already low with the current meat...... of bovine cysticercosis in the European Union....

  14. Fighting Human Trafficking in the European Union: A master’s thesis on the ability of EU law to fight trafficking in women for sexual exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Stine Piilgaard Porner

    2011-01-01

    Human trafficking is considered to be modern day slavery. The EU continuously seeks to strengthen its fight against this crime, latest with the Directive on Prevention, Combat and Protection adopted in April 2011. But to what extent is the EU able to fight human trafficking through law? Human trafficking is a complex problem which can be assessed from different perspectives. The EU primarily addresses the fight against human trafficking through criminal law, and this thesis investigates the e...

  15. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while taking in new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and Western Balkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU. Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform in WBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership only if they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected to enlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albania will bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiary funds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. This presentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albania inspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EUcoordination system, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania. Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge for the future of EU.

  16. The european union as subjects of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fila R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the international level it is recognized that development and progress of the new and unique international organization – European Union – is one of the appropriate form of the international organization’s integration. Although European Union was establish as international economic organization, it has gradually integrated the various “best practices” ideas from different governmental systems. Encouragement and motives for cooperation of Member states indicate that member states give more competences of government to the international organization’s institutes. Wherewith, it is observed that the economic and political internationalization has led to disappearance of integrity of territory of member states. The above mentioned opinion is not based on research of the European Union as international organization from standpoint of international law, but from standpoint of theory law – could give juridical estimate regarding executive power in European Union and who could define particular source and entity of administrative law of European Union.

  17. CFC legislation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  18. 5 June 2013 - European Union Ambassador to Switzerland and the Principality of Liechtenstein R. Jones in the ATLAS cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Wengler, in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department Head F. Bordry and signing the guest book with Director-General R. Heuer. Head of the EU Projects Office S. Stavrev present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    5 June 2013 - European Union Ambassador to Switzerland and the Principality of Liechtenstein R. Jones in the ATLAS cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Wengler, in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department Head F. Bordry and signing the guest book with Director-General R. Heuer. Head of the EU Projects Office S. Stavrev present.

  19. The Harmonization of Public Sector Accounting in European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny

    accounting standards in Member States. The suitability of IPSAS for the Member States” (European Commission, 2013b). This report takes into account the Public Consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States. The European Commission (2013b, p. 8) considers that IPSASs cannot easily......The European Commission is working on several fronts to achieve the implementation of uniform and comparable accruals-based accounting practices for the European Union Member States and for all the sectors of General Government, that is, Central Government, State Government, Local Government...... and Social Security, considering that at the same time it can help ensure high quality statistics (European Commission, 2013a). In 2012 Eurostat issued a Public Consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States, later publishing the report “Towards implementing harmonised public sector...

  20. Legislative Co-decision in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume takes stock of twenty years of practising and studying codecision in the European Union (EU) and examines the procedure’s long-term implications for the EU’s institutions, politics and policies. The introduction of co-legislation between the Council of Ministers and the European...... the extent to which codecision has delivered the expected gains and to review the unexpected effects that have followed from its introduction, such as the growing informalisation of EU decision-making. Using a combination of in-depth qualitative case studies, wider quantitative analyses, practitioners......’ insights and a review of the procedure’s democratic legitimacy the contributions offer a holistic assessment of the effect of co-decision on the political system of the EU. This book was published as a special issue of the Journal of European Public Policy....

  1. European Union's public fishing access agreements in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Manach, Frédéric; Chaboud, Christian; Copeland, Duncan; Cury, Philippe; Gascuel, Didier; Kleisner, Kristin M; Standing, André; Sumaila, U Rashid; Zeller, Dirk; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU) and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them. We find that the EU has subsidized these agreements at an average of 75% of their cost (financial contribution agreed upon in the agreements), while private European business interests paid the equivalent of 1.5% of the value of the fish that was eventually landed. This raises questions of fisheries benefit-sharing and resource-use equity that the EU has the potential to address during the nearly completed reform of its Common Fisheries Policy.

  2. European Union's public fishing access agreements in developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Le Manach

    Full Text Available The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them. We find that the EU has subsidized these agreements at an average of 75% of their cost (financial contribution agreed upon in the agreements, while private European business interests paid the equivalent of 1.5% of the value of the fish that was eventually landed. This raises questions of fisheries benefit-sharing and resource-use equity that the EU has the potential to address during the nearly completed reform of its Common Fisheries Policy.

  3. Do European Union Defense Initiatives Threaten NATO? Strategic Forum. Number 184, August 2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schake, Kori

    2001-01-01

    ...) Although transatlantic policies will be colored by issues such as the Kyoto treaty, missile defenses, and relations with Russia, ESDP is likely to dominate defense debates as the European Union (EU...

  4. European Union's Arms Control Regime and Arms Exports to China: Background and Legal Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F; Papademetriou, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    In recent months, discussions have been held within the European Union (EU) on the question of lifting the embargo on arms exports to the People's Republic of China that was imposed on China on June 27, 1989...

  5. Vocational Training in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BALCI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union requires some standards in all areas. Today, the importance of training qualified individuals which holds an important place in the development of countries increases and certain standards are adopted creating common European Union tools in the field of vocational and technical education. In this study, vocational education and training policies system and the standards adopted by the European Union are discussed. Furthermore, this study was accepted as a European Union project in 2010 and the results obtained from the Leonardo Da Vinci Life Learning European Union project called “Web Based Basic Vocational Training” between the years 2010-2012 were presented. Since the partners of these projects are Turkey, Spain and Germany, the structure of vocational education, institutions of public and private vocational education and the diplomas and certificates entitled after these educations are included. As Turkey is on its way to become a European Union member, a number of advices are presented for Turkey to reach its destination about vocational education standards that European Union has aimed. The purpose of the study is not only to be a guide for the young who want to get professional training in the countries that are European Union members or candidates about how and where to have education opportunities but also to give a chance for trainers and training managers, participating in vocational training, so as to glimpse different practices from different countries and compare these practices between the countries of European Union and their countries. The study is also very important as it has the opportunities for training managers to see if their countries' vocational education is close enough to vocational education in European Union.

  6. European Union gas market liberalization: a windfall effect for Russia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riviere, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Natural gas has a growing importance in the European Union energy. However, because of the lack of resources in its territory, the EU is highly dependent on imports to meet its gas needs. In parallel, since 1998 the EU seeks the creation of a single and liberalized natural gas market. The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether the gas market liberalization can create a risk for importers' bargaining power and more widely to the gas security of supply of the EU. The first chapter provides an overview of the European gas market. It deals with the implementation of the process of gas market liberalization, the external dependency of the EU and the weakness of gas supply diversity. Using findings from the previous chapter, the second one proposes a model from the cooperative game theory to analyze the effects of the EU natural gas market liberalization on importers' bargaining power. It shows that the liberalization weakens importers' bargaining power vis-a-vis external suppliers, where Russia is the leader. It also shows that the implementation of a European gas purchasing agency offers a counter-power to the EU that balances bargaining power. The third chapter focuses on the development of LNG in the world and more specifically in the EU market. The development of LNG in Europe allows the entry of new operators on the upstream and, thus, increases competition among the EU's suppliers for the benefit of importers' bargaining power. The last chapter analyzes the impact of US shale gas development on the EU gas market. Thus, it shows that development is accompanied by an uncertainty about the future gas demand in the EU and by a reconsideration of the EU's long-term contracts. (author)

  7. Main Developments and Perspectives of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Constantin ANGHELACHE PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors have analyzed the main economic-financial evolutions of the European Union member countries. First, we have performed the study regarding the evolution of the Gross Domestic Product growth in the European Union, by total and by comparison with other countries that play an important role in the global evolution of the economy. There are emphasized comparative data regarding the economic growth of China, which is the highest in the world. The growth rate of China is net superior to the rates recorded by USA, Japan and European Union (28 members. There can be observed a significant decrease of economic growth during the period 2008-2010, with a negative peak in 2009 (-2%-6% in the case of the United States, EU-28 and Japan. Even if China itself has felt the effects of the economic-financial crisis, the growth rate has reduced from 14% in 2007 to 9% in 2008, the decrease continued in the subsequent period, reaching some 8.5% in 2014. Then, we have analyzed the financial evolution, the exchange rate of the main currencies, the evolution of the inflation and the balance of foreign payments and international commercial exchanges. Particular attention was granted to direct foreign investments in and out the EU member states. The study is focused on the comparison of the foreign investments’ evolution during 2009-2014 for the main 10 partners of the European Union. Through this study, the results achieved by the EU during the specified periods were outlined, at each specific item within the internal, but also external relationships with other states in Europe or on wider global plan. The authors have put additional emphasis on the analysis of the period after 2007, since Romania has become member of the European Union.

  8. State of Diabetes Self-Management Education in the European Union Member States and Non-EU Countries: The Diabetes Literacy Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Riemenschneider

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetes self-management education (DSME is considered essential for improving the prevention and care of diabetes through empowering patients to increase agency in their own health and care processes. However, existing evidence regarding DSME in the EU Member States (EU MS is insufficient to develop an EU-wide strategy. Objectives. This study presents the state of DSME in the 28 EU MS and contrasts it with 3 non-EU countries with comparable Human Development Index score: Israel, Taiwan, and the USA (ITU. Because type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM disproportionately affects minority and low-income groups, we paid particular attention to health literacy aspects of DSME for vulnerable populations. Methods. Data from multiple stakeholders involved in diabetes care were collected from Feb 2014 to Jan 2015 using an online Diabetes Literacy Survey (DLS. Of the 379 respondents (249 from EU MS and 130 from ITU, most were people with diabetes (33% in the EU MS, 15% in ITU and care providers (47% and 72%. These data were supplemented by an expert survey (ES administered to 30 key informants. Results. Access to DSME varies greatly in the EU MS: an average of 29% (range 21% to 50% of respondents report DSME programs are tailored for people with limited literacy, educational attainment, and language skills versus 63% in ITU. More than half of adult T2DM patients and children/adolescents participate in DSME in EU MS; in ITU, participation of T1DM patients and older people is lower. Prioritization of DSME (6.1 ± 2.8 out of 10 and the level of satisfaction with the current state of DSME (5.0 ± 2.4 out of 10 in the EU MS were comparable with ITU. Conclusion. Variation in availability and organization of DSME in the EU MS presents a clear rationale for developing an EU-wide diabetes strategy to improve treatment and care for people with diabetes.

  9. Safeguarding values in the European Union: : The European Parliament, Article 7 and Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonelli, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The recent constitutional crisis in Hungary and other political developments in several EU member states have raised concerns over the capacity of the European Union to safeguard its fundamental values: democracy, the rule of law and human rights. Mechanisms in the hands of the institutions are

  10. The burden of COPD across the European Union: development of the European COPD Atlas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boven, Job FM; Gaughan, Jules; Soriano, Joan B.; de Sousa, Jaime Correia; Baxter, Noel; Román Rodriguez, Miguel; Vilaro, Jordi; Williams, Siân; Fitch, Shane; Kishore, Kamal; Chaudhury, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating current and future impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) within the European Union (EU) is essential for targeted and well-informed policy making, however, current global and regional estimates are contradictory, and comparable standardised data is lacking.

  11. Fiscal policy in the European Union – present and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Ramona Mara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the main trends of fiscal policy in the European Union, following the economic crisis impact and fiscal policy measures that were applied in this economic context. The study is focused in a few key areas: the evolution of fiscal policy captured by indicators measuring tax burden, public sector size analysis by quantifying public expenditure share in GDP and the evolution of budget deficits. Finally, the study watched correlations between fiscal policy and macroeconomic developments, identifying trends and anticipating possible solutions of fiscal policy to achieve the required coordinates of fiscal governance in the European Union. For realizing this study we use annual data from Eurostat Database for 2000-2010 for EU countries. The major findings of the study are the negative impact of the size of public sector on economic growth for EU and also for Romania and the increase of the tax revenue if the economic growth rates increase.

  12. Environmental protection law of the European Community (EU). Source index and content index including the jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice with actual jurisdiction service and special literature according to the individual legal regulations. 34. ed.; Umweltschutzrecht der Europaeischen Union (EU). Fundstellen- und Inhaltsnachweis, einschliesslich der Rechtsprechung des Europaeischen Gerichtshofes - EuGH; mit aktuellem Rechtsprechungsdienst und Spezialliteratur zu den einzelnen Rechtsvorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Bernd

    2009-07-01

    The 34th edition of the source index of the environment law of the European Union contains the documentary evidence of the total jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice (Luxemburg) with respect to the following topics: (a) General infrastructure / integral environment law; (b) Nature protection, landscape protection as well as protection of species; (c) Dangerous materials and preparations; (d) Waste management law; (e) Water legislation; (f) environmental traffic law; (g) law of air pollution control of climate protection; (h) noise control; (i) environmental commercial law; (j) environmental law of energy.

  13. EUROPEAN UNION IN GLOBAL CLIMATE GOVERNANCE: TO PARIS AND BEYOND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savorskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, the European Union is aspiring global leadership in the area of climate change, which is refl ected in its active participation in the negotiations on the international climate change regime. However, those ambitions have not always turned out to be appropriate or justifi ed. Despite the fact that the European Union was able to achieve certain results during the Kyoto Protocol negotiations and even more signifi cant results in the process of its ratifi cation, for the most part EU negotiation strategy based on normative considerations, had not been successful, it was especially evident during the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen. Partly the disappointing results of EU performance during the Copenhagen negotiations are to be blamed on some of the key features of EU functioning logic, for example, the overall tendency to rely on scientifi c evidence in policy-making, which did not allow the EU to assess other parties’ interests adequately. As the results of the negotiations of parties to the UNFCCC in December 2015 in Paris have shown, the European Union did manage to work out its previous mistakes and build a broad informal international coalition. Contrary to the pessimistic expectations, the agreement was adopted and it took into account quite a few of the EU proposals. However, the Paris Treaty has a number of fl aws and inaccuracies, so the ability to eliminate them in a timely manner by the international community and the EU in particular, will determine the future of the new international climate change regime.

  14. Unsustainable Public Debt in a European Fiscal Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Kutasi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Some EU members faced years of crisis in the first half of the 2010s with an excessive initial public debt, but several others had broad room for fiscal timulus. However, the prolonged duration of the European economic depression expended public budgets, while exhausting stimulus policies and sovereign solvency. Meanwhile, one of the ways out of depression is a proposed centralization of the EU through fiscal union. Are the eurozone countries readyto participate in a risk pool in public finances? The study seeks to answer this question. The article presents the hypothesis that the sustainability of public finances deteriorated during the global and euro crisis in the majority of the eurozone member countries and in the EU, and this phenomenon is discouragingthe core countries from seeking the fiscal union. The analysis uses the Blanchard indicators of fiscal sustainability and the sovereign risk rating of the EURO-18 and EU-28 countries. The analysis presents as results a theoretical summary of fiscal sustainability, the development of fiscal sustainability in the EU member states, indicators of convergence or divergence of fiscal sustainability in the Community, and conclusions based on the indicators of the likelihood of a fiscal union.

  15. European Union Financial Crisis: A Marxist Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus Kanisius Farneubun, P.

    European financial crisis poses a serious challenge to the fundamental structure of the European Union, political and financial institutions, as well as the values that bind European together. Different factors have been suggested as the causes of the crisis notably the failure of national

  16. The dilemmas of tax coordination in the enlarged European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Jens; Jensen, Jesper; Svensson, Patrik

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic effects of corporate tax coordination in the enlarged European Union (EU) using a computable general equilibrium model. Our main findings are as follows: (i) Corporate tax coordination can yield modest aggregate welfare gains. The 2004 enlargement of the EU has...... elaborate compensation mechanisms. (iii) The large and diverse country effects suggest that Enhanced Cooperation for a subset of the Member States may be the most likely route towards tax coordination. (iv) Identifying winners and losers from coordination for the purpose of a compensation mechanism may...

  17. Turkish-Greek relations within the European Union framework

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, Özlem; Kilic, Ozlem

    2009-01-01

    Turko-Greek relations have been strained by a number of conflicting issues such as Cyprus, Continental Shelf, Territorial Waters, the Öcalan affair, and the S-300 Missiles crisis on Cyprus. Until the December 1999 Helsinki Summit, Greece was one of the strong opponents of Turkey's membership in the European Union (EU). However, at the Helsinki Summit of 1999, Greece dropped her negative position permitting Turkey to be declared by the EU as a candidate country. This shift in foreign policy ha...

  18. In-Depth Study Of European Union Fiscal Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Roxana TOMI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents a viewpoint on the EU fiscal policy contents, advocating the need for an in-depth understanding and acceleration of the 27 national fiscal system components and the creation of the EU Tax System that would enable the Single Market operation and the enforcement of the four fundamental liberties within the European Union. In the author’s opinion, the extant common fiscal policy elements are only marginal, while the actions aimed at an in-depth understanding of a broad fiscal policy are essential to the extent they point at both direct and indirect taxation aspects whose approximation is a priority.

  19. Tuberculosis treatment outcome monitoring in European Union countries: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hest, Rob; Ködmön, Csaba; Verver, Suzanne; Erkens, Connie G.M.; Straetemans, Masja; Manissero, Davide; de Vries, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Treatment success measured by treatment outcome monitoring (TOM) is a key programmatic output of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We performed a systematic literature review on national-level TOM in the 30 European Union (EU)/European Economic Areas (EEA) countries to summarise methods used to collect and report data on TOM. Online reference bibliographic databases PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify relevant indexed and non-indexed literature published between January 2000 and August 2010. The search strategy resulted in 615 potentially relevant indexed citations, of which 27 full-text national studies (79 data sets) were included for final analysis. The selected studies were performed in 10 EU/EEA countries and gave a fragmented impression of TOM in the EU/EEA. Publication year, study period, sample size, databases, definitions, variables, patient and outcome categories, and population subgroups varied widely, portraying a very heterogeneous picture. This review confirmed previous reports of considerable heterogeneity in publications of TOM results across EU/EEA countries. PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE indexed studies are not a suitable instrument to measure representative TOM results for the 30 EU/EEA countries. Uniform and complete reporting to the centralised European Surveillance System will produce the most timely and reliable results of TB treatment outcomes in the EU/EEA. PMID:22790913

  20. The European Union – Caribbean Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Morten

    2016-01-01

    EU diplomats consider the Caribbean countries to be allies and therefore expect these countries to support the EU in international affairs – but they find that this support has been waning in recent years. Caribbean diplomats and politicians do not share the European viewpoint. Rather, they take ...

  1. AN OVERVIEW OF FISCAL CONSOLIDATION PROCESS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Andreea Bucur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore, based on theoretical and empirical research in the field and on data available on Eurostat and European Commission, in the context of financial significant imbalances and thus of the financial stress in the EU countries and especially in the Euro area, the main developments in the fiscal consolidation process given the fiscal effort of each country towards fiscal union. Since the financial crisis started in 2008, many EU Member States demonstrates an obvious macroeconomic imbalance which requires increased responsibility regarding fiscal developments. The impact of the crisis and the causes of sovereign debt high levels trends varied between EU countries as well as the budget deficit levels. Thus, the main priority for EU members must be the continuation of differentiated fiscal consolidation, given the specificities of each economy, favoring growth. The medium-term fiscal policy needs to focus on consolidating public finances along with restoring long-term sustainability.

  2. Dossier for marketing authorization in the European union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida Todić

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensive and complete documentation must be presented for marketing authorization of a medicinal product in the EU. Presented documentation should prove quality, safety and efficacy of the medicinal product. It is ensured that the applicant supplies the authorities with complete information. The legislation in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has also taken more steps towards those European directions.The presentation and content of the dossier in the European Union has been redefined. The “old” EU format will be replaced with the Common Technical Document (EU CTD format agreed in 2000, within the International Conference on Harmonization framework. These two formats are intended to coexist during the transition period until July 2003. The CTD is an internationally agreed upon format for the preparation of a well structured presentation for applications to be submitted to regulatory authorities in the three ICH regions of Europe, US and Japan.

  3. The Impact of European Economic Integration on Migration in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent enlargement of the EU (since 2004 and the United Kingdom's decision to leave the European Union have prompted a growing research interest in the political and academic environment because of the causes and consequences of migration between the CEE countries and those in the Western Europe. In this study, the effects of European economic integration on the number of EU-15 immigrants from the newly integrated EU countries were assessed by econometric techniques. According to panel data models, in the period 2000-2015, the number of migrants from the new member states of the EU has increased, in average, with more than 2200 people only due to their EU membership. This result reflects the positive impact of European economic integration on the number of emigrants from the CEE countries that chose the EU-15 states as destination countries. Moreover, according to some ridge Bayesian regressions, during the period 2004-2015, the EU-15 immigrants coming from the EU-13 states did not negatively affect the economic growth of the EU-15 countries.

  4. SOME CRITICAL ASPECTS CONCERNING THE INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timofte Claudia Simona

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we want to clarify and understand the decisional process in European which is related to the determination of the identity of the Union, answering to several questions concerning the implementation of the European Union into an organization, the different relations with other organizations and with the international law. In the family of the international organizations, the European Union has its own place because it realizes an economic integration project and a political one, a supranational but refusing the traditional categories of constitution and the international law. Qualifying as an international organization sui generis, EU developed a new legal order, deciding to create a supranational organization, formed by Member States and their citizens. The integration process is a permanent challenge opened to a new and developing process for solving all the internal and external problems of the EU. The States have an international "sensitivity" when the application of EU rules exceeds their obligations laid down in the Treaties to third countries and international organizations to which they have not exempted obligations. It was argued that the concept of "demos" or acting people is intrinsically linked to that of the nation-State. The issue of democratic deficit of the European Union is bound to four basic problems: the construction as a whole and therefore of the institutional system, under the principle of conferral, the Union shall act only within the limits that Member States have been conferred in the Treaties to attain the objectives that they set, The Treaty of Lisbon reinforces the legitimacy of the operation of the Union based on free and democratic will expressed by Member States. European construction is achieved through a democratic transfer of competences of the democratic States to a Commission subject to a weak democratic control, while the European Central Bank preserves absolute dominion over its monetary policy

  5. The 1997 Protocol and the European Union (European Union and '2nd generation' responsibility conventions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handrlica, Jakub; Novotna, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    The issue of accession of the Eastern European Member States to the 1997 Protocol is discussed with focus on the European Union's authority and enforcement powers. Following up the article published in the preceding issue of this journal, the present contribution analyses the relations of the '2nd generation' responsibility conventions to the law of the European Union. (orig.)

  6. A European union (EU) co-operation program: Integral, innovative, industrial product design and development, I3PD(2) and project led education (PLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Hvid

    2007-01-01

    and society. Other primary objectives are to ensure high-quality research and education and to enhance technology transfer and to stimulate industry-university partnerships within the EU and stimulate Inter-University co-operation programmes. In this project we are focusing on the importance of curriculum...... development, teachers mobility, exchange of students and industrial co-operation....

  7. Radioactive waste management in European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vico, E.

    2002-01-01

    Although the Euratom Treaty does not assign direct authorities to the European Union in the Field of radioactive waste, the Commission has developed a series of activities related to this type of waste. The article deals with these Community initiatives, and the problems of radioactive waste management in the different Member States, and future plans in the field in the light of forthcoming European Union enlargement in 2004. (Author)

  8. Crossroads in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Löfgren, Karl; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades the educational practices within EU studies have been challenged by the lack of comprehensive texts on research strategy, design and method useful for study programmes. Since the ‘comparative turn’ of the 1990s, where we saw a shift towards applying theories, analytical......, at best, empirical examples derived from actual research projects in EU affairs. Yet, this otherwise pragmatic approach has become increasingly difficult. In this sense EU studies is at a crossroads of the meeting place between many disciplinary interests in Europe, as well as the point in time where...... frameworks and research methods known from the study of national political systems, EU studies programs have been faced with two choices when putting together curricula: either to downplay issues of research methodology in the curriculum, or to embark on the troublesome journey of putting together discrete...

  9. The European Union and Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle; Bilgic, Ali

    2017-01-01

    In this commentary, we argue that the EU faces a decision about its fate, Europe’s fate for that matter, in the way in which it deals with protection-seeking migration flows from the Global South.......In this commentary, we argue that the EU faces a decision about its fate, Europe’s fate for that matter, in the way in which it deals with protection-seeking migration flows from the Global South....

  10. Implementation of renewable energy in the European Union until 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmelink, M.; Voogt, M.; Joosen, S.; De Jager, D. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Palmers, G.; Shaw, S. [3E, Brussels (Belgium); Cremer, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    PRETIR is the acronym for Progress of Renewable Energy: Target Setting, Implementation and Realisation. The PRETIR project aims at developing a monitoring protocol, including a set of transparent indicators, through which monitoring of policy development with regard to renewable energy sources in the 15 European Union (EU) Member States can take place; i.e. the degree to which the national and European targets are translated to national action plans and policy instruments to realise the targeted implementation of renewable energy sources. By analysing the results of this monitoring process conclusions can be drawn on the likeliness of achieving the goals as set in the White Paper, the Directive on electricity from renewable energy sources, the draft Directive on biofuels and the Campaign for Take-Off. This report holds the results of the monitoring of renewable energy policies for the European Union. Chapters 2 and 3 start with a brief outline of the used definitions and monitoring methodology. A more detailed description of the methodology is available in the monitoring report, published separately. Chapter 4 provides an overview of the renewable energy policies in the EU Member States and is followed by chapters dealing with each of the distinguished renewable energy sources. Finally, chapter 11 holds the conclusions on the progress on implementation of renewable energy sources in the European Union.

  11. Fiscal policy surveillance in the enlarged European Union: Procedural checks or simple arithmetic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico; Batten, Jonathan A.; Kearney, Colm

    2006-01-01

    In its recommendation on the 2004 update of the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines (BEPGs), the European Commission (2004) issued country-specific recommendations for fiscal policy in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries that have recently joined the European Union (EU) (henceforth the

  12. Reduction in undiagnosed HIV infection in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2012 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sighem, Ard; Pharris, Anastasia; Quinten, Chantal; Noori, Teymur; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J

    2017-11-01

    It is well-documented that early HIV diagnosis and linkage to care reduces morbidity and mortality as well as HIV transmission. We estimated the median time from HIV infection to diagnosis in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) at 2.9 years in 2016, with regional variation. Despite evidence of a decline in the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV in the EU/EEA, many remain undiagnosed, including 33% with more advanced HIV infection (CD4 < 350 cells/mm3).

  13. European Union Climate Change Policy: in the nexus of internal policy-making and itnernational negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the dissertation is to examine the European Union s climate policy in the nexus of domestic policy-making and international negotiations. I firstly test the EU s internal climate policy-making by applying the rational choice institutionalism on the model of institution and preference affect EU s policy outcomes and conclude that: as the EU has a convergent preference, the EU s unique decision-making procedure, the entrepreneurship and EU s membership had been driving EU s climate...

  14. TAXATION INFLUENCE ON ECONOMIC STABILITY IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol IBADULA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the taxation system in Romania and European Union. The first part is concentrated on the theoretical and general aspects regarding the European fiscal policies with a focus on the conditions that member states should respect. Our research continues with the comparison between the share of indirect taxes and direct taxes at the EU level. We discovered that there are some fiscal connections between countries with similar economies. At the end, we emphasized the conclusions obtained with our article.

  15. Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengochea-Morancho, A.; Martinez-Zarzoso, I.; Higon-Tamarit, F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between economic growth and CO 2 emissions in the European Union. A panel data analysis for the period 1981 to 1995 is applied in order to estimate the relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth and CO 2 emissions in ten selected European countries. The analysis shows important disparities between the most industrialised countries and the rest. The results do not seem to support a uniform policy to control emissions; they rather indicate that a reduction in emissions should be achieved by taking into account the specific economic situation and the industrial structure of each EU member state. 20 refs

  16. New institutional assemblages for borderless customs control in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, A.C.; Hofman, W.; Enserink, B.; Kotterink, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on a use case proposing a Single Window implementation for borderless customs control in the European Union (EU). This EU e-Customs initiative proposes to combine trade facilitation from a customs perspective with secure trade based on supply chain risk analysis. To achieve

  17. Values, identities and social constructions of the European Union among Turkish university youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hortacsu; N. Cem-Ersoy (Nevra)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe present study aimed to investigate Turkish university youth’s constructions concerning the European Union (EU) and their reactions to the EU’s December 2002 Copenhagen summit decision to delay discussion of Turkey’s entry to the EU. Specifically it aimed to show that

  18. Leaving an emissions trading scheme : Implications for the United Kingdom and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Richard S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) may opt to leave the European Union (EU) emissions trading system (ETS) for greenhouse gases. This policy brief examines the implications. The UK is a large importer of emission permits. Thus, meeting its climate policy targets would be much more difficult without the EU ETS,

  19. Final report of coordination and cooperation with the European Union on embankment failure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been an emphasis in the European Union (EU) community on the investigation of extreme flood processes and the uncertainties related to these processes. Over a 3-year period, the EU and the U.S. dam safety community (1) coordinated their efforts and collected information needed to integrate...

  20. Overview FLEGT related stakeholder processes and initiatives in the European Union and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van A.J.; Hijweege, W.L.

    2006-01-01

    This review gives an overview of FLEGT related stakeholder processes and initiatives in the European Union and The Netherlands. The EU and Malaysia are in a process of preparing a Voluntary Partnership Agreement within the FLEGT process that is aimed at guarantied supply to the EU of legal timber.

  1. Hazardous substances in electronics: the effects of European Union risk regulation on China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biedenkopf, K.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that European Union (EU) risk regulation of hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) was both a trigger and formative factor in the development of similar Chinese regulation. The attractiveness and global interdependence of the EU market in EEE impelled a

  2. The European Union as a Comprehensive Police Actor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Anthony Rozée

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has responded to changing security threats by seeking to increase cooperation between the law enforcement agencies of the Member States, granting further powers to Europol and other intelligence-sharing institutions, and by undertaking police missions beyond EU borders. The literature relating to EU policing is generally focused on the ‘internal’ and ‘external’ dimensions, or on specific aspects of police activity. This tendency to concentrate on narrow or isolated areas of policing has led to a significant gap regarding the broader analysis of the EU as a comprehensive police actor. Important questions about the nature of EU policing as a whole, as well as the contribution of policing activities to the EU’s security agenda, remain unexplored in the literature. This article aims to define what is meant by ‘comprehensive policing’ and to indentify criteria by which the comprehensiveness of EU-level policing may be measured. In addition to this, an integrated actorness/police comprehensiveness framework will be presented as a tool for assessing the EU as a comprehensive police actor.

  3. Nuclear power and European Union enlargement challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, Teodor; Bilegan, Constantin

    2001-01-01

    From 1991 through 1996 the European Union signed the Association Agreements with ten East European countries (EE10), namely: Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Romania. In the period 1994-1996 European Union received membership applications from all ten countries. The paper analyzes the approach of complying the requirements and regulations for European Union accession in the field of the Romanian nuclear power based on the CANDU technology. In this process, the real challenge is represented by the preparation and implementation of new regulations aiming to improve the general business environment by introducing International Accounting Standards simplification of bankruptcy laws, reform of taxation procedures and secureness of financial instruments. A new stand-by agreement with the International Monetary Fund and World Bank was set out in late April 1999 for an one-year loan of 475 million dollars. (authors)

  4. The European Union's Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    this period it became increasingly clear that the study of the EU in world politics needed to engage with both critical social theory and normative international theory. This chapter represents a return to critical social theory - a holistic research programme that works within a cosmopolitical understanding...

  5. Strategies for public health research in European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Olivier; McCarthy, Mark; Conceição, Claudia

    2013-11-01

    'Health' is an identifiable theme within the European Union multi-annual research programmes. Public Health Innovation and Research in Europe (PHIRE), led by the European Public Health Association, sought to identify public health research strategies in EU member states. Within PHIRE, national public health associations reviewed structures for health research, held stakeholder workshops and produced reports. This information, supplemented by further web searches, including using assisted translation, was analysed for national research strategies and health research strategies. All countries described general research strategies, outlining organizational and capacity objectives. Thematic fields, including health, are mentioned in some strategies. A health research strategy was identified for 15 EU countries and not for 12. Ministries of health led research strategies for nine countries. Public health research was identified in only three strategies. National research strategies did not refer to the European Union's health research programme. Public health research strategies of European countries need to be developed by ministries of health, working with the research community to achieve the European Research Area.

  6. Voluntary health insurance in the European Union: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah M S

    2002-01-01

    The authors examine the role and nature of the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union and review the impact of public policy, at both the national and E.U. levels, on the development of this market in recent years. The conceptual framework, based on a model of industrial analysis, allows a wide range of policy questions regarding market structure, conduct, and performance. By analyzing these three aspects of the market for voluntary health insurance, the authors are also able to raise questions about the equity and efficiency of voluntary health insurance as a means of funding health care in the European Union. The analysis suggests that the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union suffers from significant information failures that seriously limit its potential for competition or efficiency and also reduce equity. Substantial deregulation of the E.U. market for voluntary health insurance has stripped regulatory bodies of their power to protect consumers and poses interesting challenges for national regulators, particularly if the market is to expand in the future. In a deregulated environment, it is questionable whether this method of funding health care will encourage a more efficient and equitable allocation of resources.

  7. EU issue voting: asset or liability? How European integration affects parties' electoral fortunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    This study develops and tests arguments about how political parties’ electoral fortunes in national elections are influenced by voters’ preferences regarding the European Union (EU). To date, there is increasing evidence demonstrating the impact of EU issues on vote choice in national elections — a

  8. Meat export competitiveness of European Union countries on global markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Bojnec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the export competitiveness of meat products of the European Union (EU-27 member states on global markets. The revealed comparative advantage index is used to analyze the levels, compositions, and evolutions in patterns of development in the export competitiveness of meat products and their levels of stability at the product level. Except for some niche meat products, a larger number of the EU-27 member states have experienced comparative disadvantages on global markets over the analysed years of 2000 to 2011. The revealed comparative advantages on the global markets are the most robust for Ireland, Spain, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Denmark, Poland, Cyprus and Hungary. The revealed comparative advantage indices and their survival rates differ across the meat product groups. The heterogeneity in export competitiveness of the EU-27 member states suggests the importance of the differentiation of meat products in competitive export specialization on global markets.

  9. Supranational Governance in Changing Societies of European Union in the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulus Warsito

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As a supranational organization The European Union (EU seems to compete the UN’s reputations. UNO has more members since its scope is worldly, but UN does not issue its own currency while EU has Euro. The Euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. The currency is also used in a further many European countries and consequently used daily by some 332 million Europeans. Additionally, over 175 million people worldwide - including 150 million people in Africa - use currencies which are pegged to the Euro. No other transnational organization has such a specific currency. Although not as a unified military conventional power, EU has such a “Battlegroups” initiative, each of which is planned to be able to deploy quickly about 1500 personnel. EU forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from Africa to the former Yugoslavia and the Middle East. EU military operations are supported by a number of bodies, including the European Defense Agency, European Union Satellite Centre and the European Union Military Staff. In an EU consisting of 27 members, substantial security and defense cooperation is increasingly relying on great power cooperation.Despite those organizational strengths, only 27 of 57 European states are members of EU. And only 17 of 27 EU state members are using Euro is their official currency. One prominent EU member like British stay tough with their own Pound-sterling.This paper is set to learn more about: why as a Europe continent based organization, EU state members are still less than half of European states? And why only 17 EU state members are using Euro as their official currency?

  10. Agriculture of central and eastern European countries in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžepagić Srđan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture posed considerable tensions for the processes of enlargement of the European Union, because of its continuing importance both in the economies of the applicant countries of Central and Eastern European countries which have joined EU on the 1st may 2004., and in the EU budget and acquits communautaire. The preparation of agriculture in the candidate countries to join the EU was rendered more complex by the fact that the Community's Common Agricultural Policy was a moving target. The aim of this paper is to show the bases elements of the Common Agricultural Policy, but also to provide a survey of recent developments relating to agriculture in the EU and new member states of the EU before their accession to EU and their preparation to access on the enlarged market, in order to indicate the main challenges and difficulties posed by enlargement. It seems likely that agricultural policy in the enlarged EU will attach increased priority to objectives such as rural development and the environment. However, these new priorities may be expensive to realize, and may impose a growing burden on the national budgets of EU member states.

  11. Economic Burden of Bladder Cancer Across the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Jose; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Sullivan, Richard; Witjes, J Alfred

    2016-03-01

    More than 120,000 people are diagnosed annually with bladder cancer in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU). With >40,000 people dying of it each year, it is the sixth leading cause of cancer. However, to date, no systematic cost-of-illness study has assessed the economic impact of bladder cancer in the EU. To estimate the annual economic costs of bladder cancer in the EU for 2012. Country-specific cancer cost data were estimated using aggregate data on morbidity, mortality, and health care resource use, obtained from numerous international and national sources. Health care costs were estimated from expenditures on primary, outpatient, emergency, and inpatient care, as well as medications. Costs of unpaid care and lost earnings due to morbidity and early death were estimated. Bladder cancer cost the EU €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion (59%) and representing 5% of total health care cancer costs. Bladder cancer accounted for 3% of all cancer costs in the EU (€143 billion) in 2012 and represented an annual health care cost of €57 per 10 EU citizens, with costs varying >10 times between the country with the lowest cost, Bulgaria (€8 for every 10 citizens), and highest cost, Luxembourg (€93). Productivity losses and informal care represented 23% and 18% of bladder cancer costs, respectively. The quality and availability of comparable cancer-related data across the EU need further improvement. Our results add to essential public health and policy intelligence for delivering affordable bladder cancer care systems and prioritising the allocation of public research funds. We looked at the economic costs of bladder cancer across the European Union (EU). We found bladder cancer to cost €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion. Our study provides data that can be used to inform affordable cancer care in the EU. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Nuclear power and European Union enlargement challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Bilegan, C.; Pall, S.; Sandru, P.

    2000-01-01

    In the nuclear power sector, the main concern for the candidate countries entering the European Union, remains the nuclear safety. New standards and regulation will be issued for improving the general quality of life in a sound environment. For the candidate countries entering the European Union, this situation represents a real challenge. Their national legislation must be improved to meet the European standards. The conditions are different from country to country, and more difficult for those, which operate ''non west European reactor type''. The paper also present the actual status of the Romanian legislation related to nuclear power and environment. There are presented the principles, terms and responsibilities contained in this legislation. The authors discuss some aspects related to the possibilities to improve the national legislation to meet the actual European Commission or EURATOM standards. (author)

  13. The Role of European Union Funds in Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PĂUN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union project initially started as a peaceful solution for war reconstruction in Europe. European countries decided to cooperate rather than compete in an aggressive way. At the beginning, this project supposed (involved market liberalization, trade barriers removals, market access improvement (initially for coal, steel, energy and, later, for all goods, services, workforce and capital. Unfortunately, in the last decades, all these Single Market facilities have been backed by redistributive schemes, protectionist mechanisms, social engineering, subsidies and facilities packed in so-called ”EU policies”. New ”European” institutions have been created, more and more funds have been involved to financially support this very complex redistributive intervention. The political dimension of the European Union project enhanced the economic dimension and constantly suffocated private markets and the economy. The “incomes” of the European Union that fuel its financial support are coming from taxes and/or inflation (better administered after the introduction of a Single Currency – the Euro. This paper will discuss the relevance of European Funds for economic development, especially for new members in this project.

  14. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  15. [European Union and blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, P

    2003-06-01

    Blood transfusion is progressing, Europe is growing, European blood transfusion organisations are developing rapidly. The first step was the publication of a new directive (2002/98/CE). The directive is the result of a compromise between technocracy, lobbying and blood transfusion professionals. European blood transfusion must be based on medical, scientific and social criteria. Two imperatives must be considered: the respect of ethics and; independence from the commercial system. The primary objective is to give satisfaction to patients while respecting blood donors.

  16. Consumer protection in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlová, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    The consumer protection is a very actual topic in the european policy. It is necessary for the right function of the internal market. The document mentions the development of the consumer protection policy - the past and the future strategy. The valid legislation is listed and also mentioned is the Proposal for a Directive on Consumer Rights. It gives an overview of european consumer organisations and their function . There are also mentioned some alternatives of the consumer's redress. Docum...

  17. The costs of the Kyoto Protocol in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viguier, Laurent L.; Babiker, Mustafa H.; Reilly, John M.

    2003-01-01

    We estimate reference CO 2 emission projections in the European Union, and quantify the economic impacts of the Kyoto commitment on Member States. We consider the case where each EU member individually meets a CO 2 emissions target, applying a country-wide cap and trade system to meet the target but without trade among countries. We use a version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, here disaggregated to separately include 9 European Community countries and commercial and household transportation sectors. We compare our results with that of four energy-economic models that have provided detailed analyses of European climate change policy. In the absence of specific additional climate policy measures, the EPPA reference projections of carbon emissions increase by 14% from 1990 levels. The EU-wide target under the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change is a reduction in emissions to 8% below 1990 levels. EPPA emissions projections are similar to other recent modeling results, but there are underlying differences in energy and carbon intensities among the projections. If EU countries were to individually meet the EU allocation of the Community-wide carbon cap specified in the Kyoto Protocol, we find using EPPA that carbon prices vary from $91 in the United Kingdom to $385 in Denmark; welfare costs range from 0.6% to 5%

  18. The role of the European Union in environmental taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.

    1995-01-01

    The role of the European Union (EU) in environmental taxation is examined in this chapter. As is well-known, the EU has proposed a carbon/energy tax to contribute to the stabilization of CO 2 emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000. The discussion is organized around the 'subsidiarity principle', which involves a presumption in favor of decentralizing policy functions to the member states. Exceptions are allowed only if economies of scale or cross-country spillover effects warrant EU involvement. The author persuasively argues that environmental policy is such an exception. In particular, in a single market such as the EU, the enforcement of taxes and regulations gives rise to important international externalities. Independent policy and administration would either interfere with free trade or lead to widespread evasion. Hence, the EU should have a substantial and legitimate interest in not only environmental targets and objectives, but also in the form of environmental policy (e.g. in the choice between environmental taxes and regulation). Furthermore, it is argued that environmental tax policies should be coordinated both with other environmental tax policies and with other fiscal policies. This implies that the decisions about environmental tax rates should be taken by the level of government responsible for other, related, environmental policies, whilst the revenues from environmental taxes should accrue in general to member states, in preference to the EU. 16 refs

  19. Transfer Pricing in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MATEI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The transfer pricing mechanism is a tool commonly used to transfer the tax base from countries with high taxation in countries with low taxation. In the European Union, this financial operations generate significant tax revenue losses. In an attempt to limit the handling of corporate tax systems, many public authorities have introduced regulations on transfer pricing, but the effectiveness of these rules has proved limited, and they contributed to the increasing complexity of tax laws and to the appearance of additional costs for companies. A solution to the solving of the transfer pricing problem in the European Union is represented by the introduction of the common consolidated corporate tax base.

  20. European monetary union: limits to growth or bifurcation point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Sharov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the background and process of the EU monetary union establishment with regard to historical experience of European countries involving previous attempts of currency integration between separate countries. The author also analyzes methods of solving various theoretical and practical problems arising during the process. In particular, it is pointed out that the majority of the problems were caused by neglecting monetary integration principles, the need for observing which had been clearly stated yet at the preliminary stages of the integration process. Special emphasis is made on reviewing current development stage of the monetary union, in particular, with regard to problems caused by the financial crisis in "peripheral countries" of the Union as well as by concurrent intensification of cooperation in the field of banking and fiscal issues. In this context, the trends of further European monetary integration development are also considered. As resulted from analysis, the author concludes that the European Monetary Union had exhausted its energy for development along previously assigned trajectory and reached the bifurcation point, whereas its further improvement or gradual preservation and decline depend upon the direction in which the point is passed.

  1. EU Banking Union: Lessons for non-eurozone transition countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoškić Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurozone has gone through turmoil of sovereign debt crisis just after the detrimental effect of global financial crises of 2007/2008. Sovereign debt crisis of the eurozone was caused by bank-sovereign interdependence and lack of fiscal union in the eurozone. Financial fragmentation in the eurozone financial markets was an immediate outcome. Banking union of the EU is a regulatory and institutional remedy for main financial problems of the eurozone post global financial crisis. It is clear signal that lessons have been learned from the two crises. Stricter regulation (single rule book aims to increase the quality of banks. Single Supervisory Mechanism (SRM, and Single Resolution Mechanism (SRM aim to unify and better the standards of supervision and resolution in the EU. With emphasis on bail-ins, and EU level backstops, bank-sovereign interdependence should be dismantled and chances of financial crisis reoccurrence with huge costs for taxpayers should be significantly lower. There are important elements of Banking Union that could be introduced in non-eurozone transition countries both members and nonmembers of the EU.

  2. Europe at the frontline: analysing street-level motivations for the use of European Union migration law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dörrenbächer, N.

    2017-01-01

    This contribution investigates what motivates the use of European Union (EU) law at the street level of migration law implementation. The street level is a crucial venue for EU implementation because lower-level implementers critically influence the level of EU compliance eventually achieved.

  3. Humanities in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Lasse Gøhler; Vikman, Jutta Maria; Liljenstrøm, Andreas Jan

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyze the publication strategies of researchers in the humanities, including their choices of language, publication type and co-authorship. Based on data from Denmark, we compare the publication profile of the humanities with the other major fields of science in 2012 an...... conjuncture of the European Union’s internationalization policies in the 1990s and 2000s and a change in the international scientific hierarchy during the 20th century has contributed to the universalization of English in the Danish (and European) scientific field....

  4. European citizenship and the constitutionalisation of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijken, Hanneke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314133992

    2014-01-01

    The concept of citizenship in relatively new legal order of the European Union has its own meaning and dynamics compared to national citizenship. One of the important questions regarding this transnational form of citizenship is how to place this European citizenship in a constitutional context in

  5. The Post-9/11 European Union Counterterrorism Response: Legal-Institutional Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    library/ biblio /publications/2011/fin_report/fin_report_11_en.pdf. 427 Heading 3a: Freedom, security and justice did not exist in the Financial Framework...European Union, 2012. Accessed November 8,2012. http://ec.europa.eu/budget/library/ biblio /publications/2011/fin_report/fin_report_1 1_en.pdf. European

  6. European Social Union: a political necessity and an urgent research programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, F.

    2013-01-01

    Progressive economic analysis should contribute to a coherent conception of the reasons behind, the agenda for, and the governance of a European Social Union. I use the words ‘European Social Union’ deliberately, for the following reasons. First, it would be wrong to assert that the EU has no social

  7. Distribution of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in Agricultural topsoils of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix Da Graca Silva, V.A.; Montanarella, L.; Jones, Arwyn; Fernandez-Ugalde, Oihane; Mol, J.G.J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2018-01-01

    Approval for glyphosate-based herbicides in the European Union (EU) is under intense debate due to concern about their effects on the environment and human health. The occurrence of glyphosate residues in European water bodies is rather well documented whereas only few, fragmented and outdated

  8. The issue of energy security in relations between the European Union and Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Shabelnikova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on cooperation between the European Union and the Republic of Azerbaijan on energy issues. The author analyzes the EU initiatives and projects for the Black Sea and Caspian Sea region as well as the questions of delivery diversification of the Azerbaijani gas to the European markets.

  9. The regional and urban policy of the European Union : Cohesion, results-orientation and smart specialisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The regional and urban development policy of the European Union, or more precisely, EU Cohesion Policy, is undergoing change. This development is driven by the enormous transformations in European regions and by shifts in thinking and analysis. The issues raised by the changes to regional and urban

  10. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...

  11. DEVELOPMENT STAGE OF RETAIL TRADE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catana Adina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Karel De Gucht, Trade Commissioner from the European Commission, trade is working for Europe's economic recovery by ensuring growth and jobs. The European renewed trade strategy will open markets and connect Europe to the main sources and regis of global growth. The aim is to ensure that European business gets a fair deal and that countries’ rights are respected so that all can enjoy the benefits of trade. Thanks to the ease of modern transport and communications, it is now easier to produce, buy and sell goods around the world which gives European companies of every size the potential to trade outside Europe. This paper’s objective is to analyse the development stage of the European Union’s retail, and its member countries. The study is based on the research taken in the project of PhD research with the theme: The impacts of Economic Integration on Romanian Retail. For my research I used data from Eurostat, National Statistical Institute, European Union official website In the past 10 years, the volume of retail trade in EU member states has increased, but the extent of the changes varies substantially from one country to another.

  12. A virtual capital for the European Union?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamadouh, V.

    2000-01-01

    This article explores the websites of the key institutions of the European Union to consider whether these applications of the new information and communication technologies may become a functional equivalent of the national capital city in the emerging supranational political arena. Three functions

  13. The European Union: a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Fransen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has developed policies and instruments that address – both directly and indirectly – sexual violence in conflict and beyond. Policy areas that are important in this respect include human rights, gender equality, development cooperation, humanitarian aid and conflict prevention.

  14. Biomass energy: progress in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, J. [CPL Scientific Limited, Newbury (United Kingdom)

    1996-05-01

    A brief overview of the progress in the use of biomass energy in the European Union is presented. Wood fuel, support for renewable energy research, liquid biofuel, wastes and residues, and non-food use of crops such as the production of fuels from lignocellulosic materials are examined. (UK)

  15. The demographic situation in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, N.; van der Erf, R.F.; Heering, E.L.; van Nimwegen, N.; van der Erf, R.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the recent demographic situation and related population trends in the 27 Member States of the European Union. Some attention will also be paid to its two Candidate Countries, Croatia and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, as well as to the EFTA Countries (Iceland,

  16. Education, employment, and sustainable development in the European union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaballah, I.; Dufourg, A.; Tondeur, D.

    2002-11-01

    This paper examines the current and prospective status of education, employment, and sustainable development in the European Union (EU). Due to the decrease of the birth rate and the increase of life expectation, the size of the labor force is decreasing and its average age is increasing. Moreover, rapid technological evolution will necessitate “long-life learning” for the old workers and young people. It will be a challenge to supply the EU’s labor market with an adequate number of workers with the appropriate skill ad tempus. This will change profoundly the classical education system that will become the largest economic sector in the next decade.

  17. Financial Supervision and Banking Competition in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Stoica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are reviewing their financial supervisory structures and show a trend of consolidation in financial supervision. Using a sample of 27 countries from European Union, we find that the dependent variables taken into consideration (Herfindahl-Hirschman index and share of the five largest credit institutions in total assets have no significant effects on different types of supervisory integration. In addition, there aren’t any differences in the impact of distinct types of financial supervision even if the country is already an EU member or a candidate.

  18. Analysis of Lithuanian Direct Investment into European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Zigmantavičiūtė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the valuation of macroeconomic factors influencing the Lithuanian direct investment into European Union was conducted. The problem of this paper is the different chosen macroeconomic factors influencing foreign direct investment. The object of this paper is Lithuanian direct investment. The methods of this paper include: comparative literature analysis, correlation regression analysis, paired regression analysis. After conducting a research of dependency of Lithuanian direct investment to EU countries from price changes, government sector income, gross domestic product, inflation, jobless rate results, it is found that gross domestic product and government sector income have the most influence on the changes of Lithuanian direct investment.

  19. Management of migration flows in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Larisa Drugă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available International migration can contribute to the economic growth of the European Union (EU as a whole, as well as provide resources for migrants and their home countries, and thus contribute to their development. It can be an opportunity, because it is a factor of human and economic exchange and enables people to achieve what they aspire to. However, there is a need to manage migration in a manner that takes account of Europe's reception capacity in terms of its labour market, housing and health, education and social services, while protecting migrants against possible exploitation by criminal networks.

  20. The political economy of joining the European Union: Iceland’s position at the beginning of the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjarnason, M

    2010-01-01

    Iceland can consider its participation in the European Economic Area (EEA) as an associate membership of the European Union (EU). Under the EEA agreement, Iceland participates in the EU free movement of capital, persons, services and industrial goods, along with cooperation in social policy and

  1. Governance beyond the European Consensus on Development: What Drives EU Aid Selectivity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hout (Wil)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the ‘governance turn’ in the development policies of the European Union, represented in particular by the adoption of the ‘European Consensus on Development’ in 2005. The main assumption inherent in the EU approach to development is that the quality of governance in

  2. GOVERNING EUROPEAN UNION TO FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion-Lucian CATRINA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last four years, a significant part of the European Union members has recorded a real decline in the sustainability of their public debt. The failure of Greece, Italy, Belgium or Spain to easily find funding at previous interest rates has induced the fear that the European Monetary Union would disintegrate. Such as scenario is not realistic because does not take into account the economic interdependencies that have been created between the countries participating at the monetary zone. Nevertheless, we can say that the Stability and Growth Pact which aimed towards the coordination of national fiscal policies for ensuring the stability and prudence of the budgetary climate, has failed. This failure was primarily due to the lack of specific sanctions for those members that have not fought against the fiscal imbalances and secondly to the stopping the steps forward towards a common fiscal policy. Thus, we can say that the European Monetary Union is driven now by the wrong rule of “no taxation with representation”. For these reasons, this paper aims at showing that the European fiscal federalism is still far away from becoming reality and that the new instruments chosen for the new stability of the European Monetary Union will be the task of the Member States themselves. This paper will also review the main rules that are projected to be the source for the future European financial stability and growth: the balanced budgets and the deficits built only on the “Golden Rule” premises, for which other amendments on European Treaties are expected.

  3. Food Safety in the Context of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is a component of food security. According to Codex Alimentarius, food safety is “assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use”. Food products ‒ processed or fresh ‒ sold to final consumers must not affect their health as a result of direct consumption or processing, depending on the intended purpose of each. In order for a food product ‒ unprocessed, partially or totally processed or newly created ‒ to be safe, it must necessarily fulfil three conditions: to have innocuousness, to be salubrious, not to endanger the human body, that is the normal and healthy consumer; to have nutritional and energy value; food nutrients to be available for the body. Both the European and the national general regulatory frameworks on food safety set the consumer’s right to a safe diet. The normative acts adopted by the European Union (EU are aimed at harmonizing national food safety standards so that the free movement of food products can be achieved as efficiently as possible. In this respect, the European Union has developed a rich legislative body on food safety, animal health and welfare, and plant health, which is binding in all EU countries.

  4. Has the Action for Failure to Act in the European Union Lost its Purpose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daukšienė Inga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the purpose of the action for failure to act under article 265 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU. The statements are derived from the analysis of scientific literature, relevant legislation, practice of the European Union Court of Justice (CJEU and the European Union General Court (EUGC. Useful information has also been obtained from the opinions of general advocates of the CJEU. The article of TFEU 265, which governs the action for failure to act, is very abstract. For this reason, a whole procedure under the article 265 TFEU was developed by the EU courts. The original purpose of the action for failure to act was to constitute whether European Union (EU institution properly fulfilled its obligations under the EU legislation. However, in the course of case-law, a mere EU institution’s express refusal to fulfill its duties became sufficient to constitute that the EU institution acted and therefore action for failure to act became devoid of purpose. This article analyzes whether the action for failure to act has lost its purpose and become an ineffective legal remedy in the system of judicial review in the EU. Additionally, the action for failure to act is compared to similar national actions.

  5. Book Review: Lobbying the European Union: Institutions, Actors and Issues, David Coen and Jeremy Richardson (eds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Pop

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The volume "Lobbying the European Union: Institutions, Actors and Issues", collects 16 articles on interest group politics at EU level, focusing on the main elements of European lobbying - the existing relations between the EU institutions and the special interests, the main differences between NGO and business lobbying, the specific lobbying strategies adopted in EU's main policy sectors or lobbying regulations. The volume captures the main changes that took place on the European lobbying scene in the last two decades, period in which most EU institutions developed new points of access for lobbyists, while the interest groups became more specialized. The success of an EU lobbying campaign seems to be determined by a combination of various factors such as: a good knowledge of the EU environment, a wise usage of both financial resources and expertise, direct lobbying complemented by an efficient usage of domestic routes and the capability of creating smart alliances.

  6. LABOUR TAXATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau-Popa Liviu Mihai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis, which we consider extremely useful in the current economic context, of the evolution of labour income fiscality, more precisely, the effect of the public debt growth on the tax wedge for the labour income. The share of fiscal revenues from direct taxes, indirect taxes and social contributions is relatively close in the old member states of the European Union in comparison with the new member states, which register a lower level of income from direct taxes. The low level of income from direct taxes is compensated by more significant shares of the social contributions or indirect taxes. The main motivations of cross-border migration are: a successful career in a multinational corporation, high variations of the tax rate, of the salary income between states and, last but not least, the level of the net salary. To this day, there are no plans to harmonize across the European Union the legislation regarding the taxes wages and the social security contributions. Still, the European Union had in view the coordination of the national tax systems to make sure that the employees and the employers do not pay several times the social contributions in their movement across the community space. Despite the fact that some states tax the labour income at a low level, the labour fiscality remains high in the European Union in comparison with other industrialized economies, probably also due to the fact that the majority of the member states have social market economies. The increase of the fiscality level for the labour income determines the decrease of the employment rate and the raise of the unemployement rate. The solution to guarantee a higher employment rate, which is a target of the European Union Strategy Europe 2020 could be the relaxation of the labour income fiscality by transferring the tax wedge on the labour income towards property or energy taxation.

  7. Information technology law and health systems in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah; Ter Linden, Annemarie

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of European Union (EU) law relating to information technology (IT) on health systems. The study identifies EU directives relating to IT, analyzes them in terms of their impact on the use of IT in health systems, and outlines their implications for health technology assessment (HTA). Analysis is based on a review of literature identified through relevant databases and Internet searches. Developments in IT have serious implications for EU health systems, presenting policy makers with new challenges. The European Commission has adopted a range of legal measures to protect consumers in the "information society" However, as few of them are health-specific, it is not evident that they have implications for health, health systems, or HTA, and they may not be effective in protecting consumers in the health sector. In light of the growing importance of IT in the health sector, legal and nonlegal measures need to be further developed at EU and international level. Where possible, future initiatives should pay attention to the particular characteristics of health goods and services and health systems. Although definitions of HTA usually recognize the importance of evaluating both the indirect, unintended consequences of health technologies and the legal aspects of their application, it seems that, in practice, HTA often overlooks or underestimates legislative matters. Those involved in HTA should be aware of the legal implications of using IT to provide health goods and services and compile, store, transfer, and disseminate health information electronically.

  8. The European Space Agency and the European Union: The Next Step on the Road to the Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Christian Hoerber

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the outlook, the main questions considered in this article are whether a European position on a genuine common space policy is developing. If so, why is this happening now?; and what kind of potentials do these developments hold for the European integration process as a whole? This article will approach these questions through an analysis of past European collaboration in space affairs. It will describe the recent process of closer involvement between European Space Agency (ESA and the European Union (EU. It will identify the motivations underlying this process. It will also try to gauge the strategic potential of an intensification of the coordination of national space efforts in ESA and the involvement of the EU. In the conclusion, the ever closer relationship between the EU and ESA will be considered against the larger picture of European politics and the ongoing process of European integration

  9. The future of small hydropower within the European union. An environmental policy study based on the European Water framework directive and the renewable energy directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabbruwee, Kees

    2006-01-01

    Small hydropower facilities according to European Union (EU) standards have an installed capacity of less than 10 MW. The Renewable Energy Directive has set targets for installed capacity and electricity produced by small hydropower facilities to be reach

  10. The price of cigarettes in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, A; Villalbí, J R

    2001-06-01

    A major factor influencing tobacco use is its price. Fiscal policies on tobacco are a key ingredient of any comprehensive control strategy, as they can be used to raise prices. The European Union (EU) developed directives to ensure some harmonisation of the fiscal pressure on tobacco across its member states. To provide a simple comparison of tobacco prices in the EU, adjusting for the purchasing power of each currency. For price comparisons, a 20 units pack of Marlboro was the reference product, and data refer to April 2000. Purchasing power parities (PPP) for each member state currency have been compiled. These are currency conversion rates, which convert to a common currency and equalise the purchasing power of different currencies. Nominal prices of a Marlboro pack for each member state, and a price index, estimated taking as reference the EU mean. Adjusted prices and an adjusted price index have been estimated using PPP. Nominal prices show wide variation, with the cheapest pack in Portugal (59) and the most expensive in the UK (196); the range of variation is three-fold. However, PPP adjusted prices reveal a different distribution. In three countries adjusted prices are outliers, but all other countries make two clusters, one around the average EU index of 100, the other around a lower value of 85. These results suggest that fiscal harmonisation policies in the EU do not have an even effect at reducing availability by its impact in price.

  11. The specificity and scope of European Union finance law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Tyniewicki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Basically, Polish science of financial law quite broadly takes the problems concerning public finance of the European Union (EU. However, it should be noticed that the considerations largely refer to the detailed issues within the confines of individual branches of EU financial law, eg. in areas of tax harmonization or single financial market. At the same time there is an insufficiency or even minuteness publications with doctrinal and theoretical nature referring to the general and fundamental issues of financial law of the EU. There may be numbered such issues among others as definitions, scope and internal structure of this law, its legal sources etc. Generally two areas should be object of the basic scientific researches in reference to the issues mentioned above. First one is financial law of the EU and the second one – its influence and effect of this influence on Polish financial law. In this article there will be undertaken considerations referring to the first area aimed at defining the specifity and scope of EU financial law.

  12. GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF LAFFER'S THEORY FOR EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA BUNESCU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most times the current situation of one or another country depends on the historical development of own tax system. A practical question of any governance is to determine the optimal taxation rate level, bringing to the state the highest tax revenues. A good place to start is with what is popularly known as the Laffer curve. This paper aims to determine in graphical terms the level where European economies ranks by using Laffer curve based on the data series provided by the European Commission and the World Bank. Graphical analysis of Laffer's theory can emphasize only the positioning on one or another side of point for maximum tax revenues, a position that can influence fiscal policy decisions. Conclusions at European Union level are simple. Value of taxation rate for fiscal optimal point varies from one Member State to another, from 48.9% in Denmark to 28% in Romania, with an average of 37.1% for the EU-27.

  13. FACTORING PERSPECTIVE: CROATIA VS EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ivanovic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper points out the problems of liquidity, disposal and obtaining funds, inability to collect receivables, delayed payments in times of economic and financial instability and dynamic business upheavals and uncertainty. As a contribution to resolve these issues new alternative methods of financing for business are imposing, one of them is factoring. Although most countries don’t have adequate legal framework, factoring has emerged as the dominant form of financing, whose current status and development points to the prospects of development in the future. In terms of measures and actions which are taken to combat these issues, as well as legislation, many efforts are made at international level in European Union and in Croatia. Overview and description of the factoring development, and indications for further development are presented in relation to the world, the European Union and the Republic of Croatia. This paper also describes factoring comparison among European countries.

  14. The New European and/or EU Studies Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Brie, Mircea; Dolghi, Dorin; Pantea, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In this part we will present turn by turn the evolution of the curriculum in four domains which are developing in the area of European and/or EU Studies: EU Intercultural Dialogue Studies, EU International Relations and Diplomacy Studies, EU Communication and Information Studies, EU and Comparative Regionalism, from several points of view. First, we will take into consideration the perspective that each curriculum from the four domains has in the ensemble of European and/or EU Studies, t...

  15. BANKING SUPERVISION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences can be fatal. To ensure long-term stability of the banking system, supervisory regulations were constituted in order to prevent banks focusing on achieving rapidly high profits and protect the interests of depositors. Starting from this point, this paper will carry out a study on existing models of supervision in the European Union’s Member States. A comparison between them will support identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.

  16. Citizenship of the European Union under the Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nely MILITARU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is structured in two parts. The first part covers history, "Union citizenship, according to previous Treaties Lisbon Treaty, and the second refers to the privileges which they have as citizens of the Union Treaty as a result of reforming the European Union, referring to documents on which this Treaty adhere it recognizes as having the same legal force, treaties, (Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

  17. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution’s pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy. - Highlights: ► We examine the development of EU energy security policy, focusing on gas. ► We examine changes in European Commission competence in energy policy. ► The European Commission has gained increased competence in the internal market. ► In the external dimension of EU energy policy Member States retain competence. ► The European Commission has had qualified success as a policy entrepreneur

  18. EUROPEAN UNION AND THE PROCESS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail CARADAICĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available What is the relation between globalization and the process of European integration? Does the European integration have its own way, or is it deeply dependent on globalization? Those are the main questions I will try to answer in this paper by using an alternative critical approach: neo-gramscianism. Neo-gramscianism is a historical materialist view on the European integration process and international political economy which offers a better understanding of the social changes in terms of social forces agency and super structural influence (the neoliberal ideology of globalization and European integration. My aim is to analyze the globalization process through a neo-gramscian theoretical framework and to observe how its main components affect European Integration. I will do this by assuming the definition of globalization provided by Andreas Bieler, who understands this process through three main pillars: transnationalization of finance, transnationalization of production and ideological shift from Keynesianism to neoliberalism. Finally I will try to formulate some conclusions regarding the emergence of European Round Table of Industrialists – the first lobby group of big capital at the European Union level – and Economic and Monetary Union – the internal market program that symbolizes the shift to neo-liberalism.

  19. The Future of the European Union: A Critical Trade Union View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Medhurst

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a radical critique of the current framework of economic policy within the European Union and its negative effect on social cohesion. It defends the aspirations of the “Social Europe” model but suggests this model is now withering on the vine, not least because employers and governments no longer support it and have withdrawn from genuine social partnership. The paper asserts that the undemocratic nature of European policy making institutions is a fundamental bloc to progressive reform of the EU, and criticises the economic philosophy inherent in the Lisbon Agenda and recent controversial European Court of Justice decisions that have expanded that agenda. Lastly, it sketches some alternatives to this direction of travel, drawn from successful models within and outside Europe.

  20. The Crisis of the European Union and its Reflection in the Romanian Public Sphere. Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bârgăoanu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the implications of the euro crisis, which turned from „a Greek mess" to a political, institutional, economic and confidence crisis of the European Union. In our view, the EU public sphere is relevant for the current debate surrounding the crisis because it represents the setting where solidarity among EU citizens and EU states is created. Given our interest in the concept of the EU public sphere and the way the crisis of the European Union influences the debates in the public sphere, the way in which solidarity among EU citizens and EU states is imagined and enacted, we carried out a research project focused on the Romanian public sphere in the context of the crisis. The research project was carried out around a crucial event in the process of crisis resolution: the signing of the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union by 25 EU member states at the beginning of March 2012. The results show that in Romania, for the moment at least, the "EU" has not fallen victim to the crisis. There is a considerable drop in public trust in the EU, but it is our assessment that the descending trend could be reversed, provided a clear vision, accompanied by strong leadership, emerges.

  1. Estimation of European Union residential sector space cooling potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubcionis, Mindaugas; Carlsson, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Data on European residential space cooling demands are scarce and often of poor quality. This can be concluded from a review of the Comprehensive Assessments on the energy efficiency potential in the heating and cooling sector performed by European Union Member States under Art. 14 of the Energy Efficiency Directive. This article estimates the potential space cooling demands in the residential sector of the EU and the resulting impact on electricity generation and supply systems using the United States as a proxy. A georeferenced approach was used to establish the potential residential space cooling demand in NUTS-3 regions of EU. The total potential space cooling demand of the EU was estimated to be 292 TW h for the residential sector in an average year. The additional electrical capacity needed was estimated to 79 GW. With proper energy system development strategies, e.g. matching capacity of solar PV with cooling demand, or introduction of district cooling, the stresses on electricity system from increasing cooling demand can be mitigated. The estimated potential of space cooling demand, identified in this paper for all EU Members States, could be used while preparing the next iteration of EU MS Comprehensive Assessments or other energy related studies. - Highlights: • An estimation of EU space cooling demand potential in residential sector is presented. • An estimate of space cooling demand potential is based on using USA data as a proxy. • Significant cooling demand increase can be expected. • Cooling demand increase would lead to increased stress in energy supply systems. • Proper policies and strategies might measurably decrease the impact on energy systems.

  2. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odone, Anna; Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report 'Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA' commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. In 2010, of the 73,996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants' vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  3. Why withdrawal from the European Union is undemocratic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents; Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2017-01-01

    The Lisbon Treaty from 2009 introduced the possibility for individual member states to withdraw from the European Union (EU) on the basis of a unilateral decision. In June 2016 the UK decided to leave the EU invoking article 50 of the treaty. But is withdrawal democratically legitimate? In fact......, the all affected principle suggests that it is undemocratic for subunits to leave larger political units when it adversely affects other citizens without including them in the decision. However, it is unclear what the currency of this affectedness is and, hence, why withdrawal would be undemocratic. We...... argue that it is the effect of withdrawal on the status of citizens as free and equal that is decisive and that explains why unilateral withdrawal of subunits from larger units is democratically illegitimate. Moreover, on the ‘all affected status principle’ that we develop, even multilaterally agreed...

  4. European Union and diaspora engagement policy within changing realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violina MARDARI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the European Union and diaspora engagement policy within changing realities. The author focuses on the main research question concerning how the new, uncontrolled migration flows may influence the approach on diaspora engagement policy within member states. This process could have positive as well as negative implications for the Community space even if the EU attempts to develop a new legal framework on migration. The interdisciplinary approach and methods as empirical analysis, comparison and observation on some good practices and new issues gave the possibility to estimate the results of how changing diaspora role perception reduces the gap between different migrants in the EU and improves the diaspora engagement dialogue on institutional and civil society level.

  5. Transparency in the Council of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    with information and thereby act as day-to-day facilitators of transparency of the Council’s activities. Although these communicators see themselves as contributing substantially to the transparency of the Council’s work and thereby as enabling the media to provide EU citizens with information about one......The Council of the European Union is often described as the least transparent of the three big EU institutions although steps have been taken to improve the transparency of its activities during the last couple of decades. This article focuses on the Council’s press officers who provide journalists...... of the most powerful political forums in Europe, transparency in the Council has its limits. This study explores institutional factors which hinder Council press officers from being as transparent as journalists would like them to be. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with Council press officers...

  6. The European Union's Role in the Development of Global Environmental Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    This article is focused on the role that the European Union (EU) is playing as a global actor when it is using its 'internal' regulatory power as well as its parallel market power 'externally' to strengthen and to fill out gaps in the global environmental law.......This article is focused on the role that the European Union (EU) is playing as a global actor when it is using its 'internal' regulatory power as well as its parallel market power 'externally' to strengthen and to fill out gaps in the global environmental law....

  7. STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available European Union is one of the largest markets in the world for the import of goods and services, especially those with high added value, is the area with the biggest investment of foreign companies and one of area with the largest number of foreign investments abroad. The European Union is still a market with a huge attractiveness for investors. EU and US seek to strengthen mutually beneficial economic partnership and have the ability to consolidate the two economies. Through strategic partnerships, EU seeks to create alliances to achieve its foreign policy objectives globally.

  8. CSR and Social Entrepreneurship: The Role of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano AMELIO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the status of non-financial information disclosure in the European Union in order to evaluate the level of acceptance of social responsibility practices. The research is divided into two sections and the approach used is mainly theoretical and qualitative. In the first part the UE financial and non-financial information regulations are analyzed; the European Union launched a process of harmonization then subsequently it moved to the standardization process: the Regulation (EC No. 1606/2002 is part of the standardization process (It must be applied in its entirety across the EU while the Directive 2014/95/EU is part of the harmonization process (it sets out a goal that all EU countries must achieve. The Directive 2014/95/EU states that “large undertakings […] shall include in the management report a non-financial statement […]” thus making mandatory the preparation of non-financial statements. In the second part of the research, not considering the firm only as a system for the production of financial/economic value but also as an economic social actor which operates in a social environment to which it belongs and with which it interacts, the concept of social entrepreneurship is explained. Social entrepreneurship belongs to the entrepreneurs who draw up the social balance, required or permitted by the UE legislation. For this reason, the introduction of obligations in disclosing non-financial information could lead to the increase of entrepreneurship, with positive consequences in the creation of tangible benefits to both the business community and the global community.

  9. Budget perspective in Croatia after accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Sopek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Upon accession to the European Union, the New Member State’s budget undergoes significant structural changes due to the appearance of new categories of revenues and expenditures. The aim of this paper is to estimate the possible effects of Croatian membership in the EU on changes in the structure and size of budget revenues and expenditures upon the country’s accession to the EU in the second half of 2013, as well as to indicate the possibilities for utilization of EU funds in the new financial perspective up to 2020. It is shown that in 2013 Croatia might realize a positive net financial position in transactions with the EU budget in the amount of approximately 0.28% of GDP, i.e. EUR 136 m. The total net financial position of Croatia due to EU accession, which includes some additional costs and benefits like different harmonization and the need for project co-financing at state and local levels, is also positive in 2013 and amounts to approximately 0.15% of GDP or equivalently EUR 72 m. Total amount of all funds that Croatia might receive in the new EU financial perspective covering the period from 2014 to 2020 amounts to EUR 6.34 bn, whereby annual amounts increase from EUR 0.7 bn in 2014 up to EUR 1.2 bn in 2020. By using exponential regression analysis it is estimated that in 2020 Croatia should be a net recipient of funds from the EU budget in total amount of 1.72% of GDP, i.e. EUR 1.13 bn.

  10. European Union response to Fukushima. European stress tests and peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamet, Philippe [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire (ASN), Paris (France)

    2012-07-01

    Following the severe accidents which started in the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP on 11 March 2011, the European Council requested that a comprehensive safety and risk assessment, in light of preliminary lessons learned, be performed on all EU nuclear plants. Therefore, stress tests and peer review assessing natural initiating events, the loss of safety systems and severe accident management have been performed in the 15 European Union countries with nuclear power plants as well as Switzerland and Ukraine. The final peer review report of the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) highlights four main areas for improvement to be explored across Europe: 1. Development by the Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA), with the contribution of the best available EU expertise, of a European guidance on assessment of natural hazards and margins; 2. Importance of Periodic Safety Review to be underlined by ENSREG; 3. Expeditious implementation of the recognised measures to protect containment integrity; 4. Prevention of accidents resulting from natural hazards and limitation of their consequences. The peer review of the European stress tests was completed in April 2012. In their conclusive statement issued 26 April 2012, the national European regulators and the European Commission as European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) required that follow-up would occur by way of an ENSREG action plan. Country specific action plans will be developed and peer review workshop will be organised to share lessons learned on the implementation of post-Fukushima safety improvements.

  11. European Union response to Fukushima. European stress tests and peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Following the severe accidents which started in the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP on 11 March 2011, the European Council requested that a comprehensive safety and risk assessment, in light of preliminary lessons learned, be performed on all EU nuclear plants. Therefore, stress tests and peer review assessing natural initiating events, the loss of safety systems and severe accident management have been performed in the 15 European Union countries with nuclear power plants as well as Switzerland and Ukraine. The final peer review report of the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) highlights four main areas for improvement to be explored across Europe: 1. Development by the Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA), with the contribution of the best available EU expertise, of a European guidance on assessment of natural hazards and margins; 2. Importance of Periodic Safety Review to be underlined by ENSREG; 3. Expeditious implementation of the recognised measures to protect containment integrity; 4. Prevention of accidents resulting from natural hazards and limitation of their consequences. The peer review of the European stress tests was completed in April 2012. In their conclusive statement issued 26 April 2012, the national European regulators and the European Commission as European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) required that follow-up would occur by way of an ENSREG action plan. Country specific action plans will be developed and peer review workshop will be organised to share lessons learned on the implementation of post-Fukushima safety improvements.

  12. National responsibility in an enlarged European Union?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, Per; Stendahl, Sara; Erhag, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    -proliferation aspects. The political decision to take part in such international cooperation lies however without any doubt within the national competence. In the European Union the question about responsibility for spent nuclear fuel is not directly regulated. Common legislation initiatives from the commission concerning methods for disposal and storage of spent nuclear fuel has been blocked by member states. The EURATOM-treaty and the EU treaty have a potential reach to national regulation about handling of nuclear wastes and spent nuclear fuel. It should also be noted that there is no binding community legislation where the principle of national responsibility comes to expressions, although the the national legislation competence in the area is expressed in miscellaneous political documents. There exists a hypothetical possibility that the question about the member states' right to maintain a principle of national responsibility can be examined of the EU Court of Justice

  13. Directive 96/ EC of the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union, as of 25 July 1996, announcing their common regulations for the EU internal electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The supplement to this issue of the journal, RdE 5/96, presents the German version of the full authentic text of the EU Directive 96/EC. This Directive lays down the regulations applicable within the EU, relating to electric power generation, transmission, and distribution in the EU internal electricity sector, as well as access to the internal market, criteria and procedures for bids and tenders, granting of license, and network operation. The text is also accessible under the following www address: http://www.heymanns.com. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Tre proposte per rivitalizzare l’Unione Europea (Three proposals for revitalising the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the EU, the perception that the convergence on the current set of rules is not capable of producing convergence on results, or generally better results, has increased socio-political fragmentation. The result has been an increasing demand for re-nationalisation of sovereign powers. Focusing on the euro area, the paper proposes to revise the monetary operations of the European Central Bank, current fiscal rules and the financial regulatory approach in order to tackle some of the main inconsistencies, rigidities and fragilities in the current design. The new design is thought out to require no changes in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, but at least a minimum political convergence. If successfully implemented, it would contribute to give a viable perspective to the design of the Economic and Monetary Union, capable of attracting those EU non-euro area countries that consider the mismanagement of the recent crisis and of its after-effects reason enough for resisting further losses of sovereignty.JEL codes: E52, E62, F33, F36, F45, G28

  15. Excises Harmonization Stage Within the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Drăcea, Raluca; Buziernescu, Radu

    2007-01-01

    Tax policy in the European Union consists of two components: direct taxation, which remains the sole responsibility of Member States, and indirect taxation, which affects free movement of goods and the freedom to provide services. The most important efforts for the tax harmonization were made in the domain of the indirect taxation, the consumption taxes influence the price supported by the final consumer and prevent the fiscal neutrality necessary for a fair competition on the ...

  16. The European Union stakes on biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffon, M.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union has just published the environmental side of its action in the fight against climatic change. Like the third 'energy batch', these new legislative proposals are the continuation of the January 2007 communication of the commission which aimed at fixing the trends of the energy policy of the European Communities. Some measures of these last legislative proposals, in particular those treating of biofuels, are sometimes considered as too ambitious and even unrealistic. The overall proposals are waiting for the final adoption during the French presidency. (J.S.)

  17. Food and Health Inequalities in European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    Food and Inequalities in European Union Dr. Aileen Robertson, Public Health Nutritionist at the Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen. Dr. Robertson focused on food and inequality in light of the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in Europe. On average over 50% of Europeans...... public procurement; 3) more democratic sustainable food systems with fairer prices to producers; 4) realise that food and nutrition policies are at the heart of achieving all 17 Sustainable Development Goals and the COP21climate goals; 5) a ‘Health in All Policies’ approach applied to CAP reform...

  18. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  19. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in South East European Countries and New Member States of European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardhyl Dauti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper accounts for the main determinants of Foreign Direct Investment flows to 5-SEEC and the 10-New Member States of the EU countries by using an augmented Gravity Model. The study takes into account country specific institutional factors that determine foreign investors’ decisions from 14 core European Union countries to invest into SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries. From the results of the study we find that gravity factors and institutional related determinants like control of corruption, political stability, bilateral FDI agreement, WTO membership and transition progress appear to significantly determine inward FDI flows from core EU countries to host economies of South East European region and new European Union member states.

  20. The Impact of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union on VAT Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaard, Karina Kim Egholm

    2016-01-01

    The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union became legally binding following its entry into force with the Lisbon Treaty on 1 December 2009, and it has the same legal value as the EU Treaties. Since then, the EU fundamental rights aspect of VAT law has not been subject to much academic...... discussion or particular attention from VAT practitioners. This article contributes to further development of research in the area of EU fundamental rights and VAT law by examining; when the Charter is relevant in VAT law and if so how the Charter manifests itself in EU VAT case law, and what special...

  1. THE FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Menon

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In only a decade the European Union has moved from being a new kid on the block in terms of foreign and security policies to being a high profile and surprisingly effective international actor. Certainly, it has failed to match the ambitions of some of its most enthusiastic proponents. Certainly, too, European publics know next to nothing about what the Union does in the international realm. It is because of this that, despite their potential and their effectiveness to date, EU policies in this sphere were widely derided as failures following the moment when the attacks of 11 September 2001 shook the western world to its core. The Convention on the Future of Europe and subsequent intergovernmental conference look set to make significant institutional changes to the Union’s foreign and security policy systems. In undertaking these reforms, Convention members, and national governments are doubtless motivated by the laudable objective of enabling the Union to do more on the international stage. One can only hope that these motives notwithstanding, they do not simply propose reforms for their own sake and, in the process, undermine a system that, to the surprise of many, has continued to function respectably in an ever more complex and ever more dangerous world.

  2. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package to build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure european union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, Emmanuel; Spencer, Thomas

    2011-10-11

    Immediate action to strengthen the European Union Climate and Energy Package (EU CEP) is needed to ensure Europe's sustained growth, competitiveness and energy security. Indeed, the current 20% emissions reduction target is too low to reach the European long-term goal of reducing emissions by at least 80% by 2050 at acceptable costs. But the EU CEP is also inefficient to address sustainable potential competitiveness losses and carbon leakages in some carbon intensive industries, and most importantly to boost fully the competitiveness of firms producing low-carbon products and services. Moving to 30% by 2020 could induce significant long-term GDP gains and only marginal GDP short-term costs, increase the competitiveness of European firms producing innovative low-carbon technologies, and reduce both final energy consumption and EU energy dependency. But for these objectives to be met, the contents of policies to reach this 30% target is as important as the target itself. There are three main areas in which the EU CEP needs strengthening: (1) Improvement of the energy efficiency of the existing building stocks, and limitation of the absolute level of energy consumption in the transport sector are needed to reach the 20% energy efficiency target. Binding targets should only be used when absolutely necessary and when helpful. (2) From an economic, environmental and political perspective, setting a stringent European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) 2030 cap between -45 and -50% from 2005 levels is probably the most relevant, efficient, and realistic option in the short term. It would increase the predictability of the carbon price signal, and therefore the credibility of the regulator. Banking would ensure that this stringent mid-term target translates into a short-term increase of the carbon price. (3) In some cases, direct public financial support is justified and efficient: to overcome market failures and non-market barriers; to support innovation in low

  3. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package to build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure european union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Emmanuel; Spencer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Immediate action to strengthen the European Union Climate and Energy Package (EU CEP) is needed to ensure Europe's sustained growth, competitiveness and energy security. Indeed, the current 20% emissions reduction target is too low to reach the European long-term goal of reducing emissions by at least 80% by 2050 at acceptable costs. But the EU CEP is also inefficient to address sustainable potential competitiveness losses and carbon leakages in some carbon intensive industries, and most importantly to boost fully the competitiveness of firms producing low-carbon products and services. Moving to 30% by 2020 could induce significant long-term GDP gains and only marginal GDP short-term costs, increase the competitiveness of European firms producing innovative low-carbon technologies, and reduce both final energy consumption and EU energy dependency. But for these objectives to be met, the contents of policies to reach this 30% target is as important as the target itself. There are three main areas in which the EU CEP needs strengthening: (1) Improvement of the energy efficiency of the existing building stocks, and limitation of the absolute level of energy consumption in the transport sector are needed to reach the 20% energy efficiency target. Binding targets should only be used when absolutely necessary and when helpful. (2) From an economic, environmental and political perspective, setting a stringent European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) 2030 cap between -45 and -50% from 2005 levels is probably the most relevant, efficient, and realistic option in the short term. It would increase the predictability of the carbon price signal, and therefore the credibility of the regulator. Banking would ensure that this stringent mid-term target translates into a short-term increase of the carbon price. (3) In some cases, direct public financial support is justified and efficient: to overcome market failures and non-market barriers; to support innovation in low

  4. SOCIAL ECONOMY AS THE MAINSTREAM OF THE EUROPEAN UNION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GAFAROVA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The global community is striving nowadays to find ways to stabilize social processes, as well as to solve the problem of involving socially vulnerable groups in the social and economic life and work out a strategy for reducing long-term unemployment. The development of the social economy has been chosen as the mainstream of the European Union development. A great deal of attention of European Commission is paid to studying and development of recommendations on the introduction of principles of social economy, both in the basic EU countries and in the countries that are becoming the new members of the EU. However the national approach to the legalization and support of social companies is used in each country. So, for example, in Slovakia it is supposed to create social enterprises for inclusion of disadvantaged people to the labour market first of all. Along with support of the traditional actors of the social economy, the EU is also actively developing new forms of social economy actors, social enterprises are primarily among which. The development of the principles of social economy and the activation of social enterprises is relevant for many post-Soviet countries, including Russia. However, so far in Eastern European scientific practice, many researchers do not see the difference between the concepts of social economy, social market economy, solidarity economy. The key characteristics of the social economy are considered in the article, the interrelation of social, social market and solidarity economies is observed, modern trends in the construction of the social economy of the EU are highlighted.

  5. THE IRONY OF SAMENESS EUROPEAN UNION AND INDIA’S COLD RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA PĂDUREANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Trying to establish themselves as global actors, both European Union and India pursue their interest through multiliteralism. Although both of them developed intense relationships with the United States, Russian Federation, China and other regional actors, EU and India do not find profoundly attracted to one another. While EU steers Central Asia or China, India in its part sees the European framework as the sum of its parts at best and prefers bilateral proximity with individual nations once at the time: UK, France Italy, Germany or Poland. The irony of this state of affairs is that both EU and India have similar traits if judged by their effort to bridge ethnic, religious and economic diversity into a single body. Apart from that both EU and Indian economies struggle to shape a compromise between social protection and the neoliberal agenda. In this paper we analyze the relationship between European Union and India by focusing on their foreign policies. Our main hypothesis is that EU and India should cooperate due to their attraction to the same values and norms. As future unfolds along with common challenges such as regulating financial flows or tackling terrorism and environmental issues, European Union and India should try to reach a common language. This relation can also be a test for EU’s aim to become a global actor because an established cooperation with an Asian country would provide the necessary framework to work outside the European space and to demonstrated its commitment to become an important player in IR.

  6. The European Union's potential for strategic emissions trading through permit sales contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyckmans, Johan; Hagem, Cathrine

    2011-01-01

    Strategic market behavior by permit sellers will harm the European Union (EU) as it is expected to become a large net buyer of permits in a follow-up agreement to the Kyoto Protocol. In this paper, we explore how the EU could benefit from making permit trade agreements with non-EU countries. These trade agreements involve permit sales requirement, complemented by a financial transfer from the EU to the other contract party. Such agreements would enable the EU to act strategically in the permit market on behalf of its member states, although each member state is assumed to behave as a price taker in the permit market. Using a stylized numerical simulation model, we show that an appropriately designed permit trade agreement between the EU and China could significantly cut the EU's total compliance cost. This result is robust for a wide range of parameterizations of the simulation model. (author)

  7. Energy policies of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.K.

    1994-09-01

    This report takes stock of what has been achieved and where the European Community is going in terms of energy policy and also looks at the full extent of the Union's energy sector competances. The chapters deal with the European Commission's programme to create an internal energy market through implementing new Directives and by means of an approach through competition. A further two chapters concentrate on environmental policy with respect to emissions control and the greenhouse effect. Two broad policy areas - Community Initiative and trans-European networks - are examined in a consideration of the connections between energy and economic and social cohesion. Security of supply is the fourth and traditional pillar of energy policy to be considered. Three policy areas which do not fit into these first four categories are dealt with in individual chapters. These are: nuclear issues, research and development, and a wider Europe. A concluding chapter suggests that there is an urgent need for a new way of dealing with energy in the European Union which has a myriad of policies affecting energy but no energy policy. The appendices include a document summary for each of the main chapters and a glossary. (UK)

  8. Past and Current Paths to European Union Accession: Romania and Turkey a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Camelia Dogaru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several decades ago, leaders of six European countries with an inclusive vision of Europe and strong courage started a construction without precedent, the European Union. The remarkable construction evolved not only concerning the number of the Member States, but also in terms of institutional and functional development. Nowadays, the European Union is one of the most important changing factor concerning the governance and the policy-making process at European level and not only, and there is no doubt that the EU will continue to grow as an increasing number of countries express interest in membership. This paper reveals in a comparative perspective the path to European Union Accession, and is based on documentary analysis, using strategy-level documents of the countries and the Progress Reports the European Commission provided during the past enlargement.

  9. Tendency for age-specific mortality with hypertension in the European Union from 1980 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Lichan; Pu, Cunying; Shen, Shutong; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xuan, Qinkao; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Tendency for mortality in hypertension has not been well-characterized in European Union (EU). Mortality data from 1980 to 2011 in EU were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, per 100,000), annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC). The Joinpoint Regression Program was used to compare the changes in tendency. Mortality rates in the most recent year studied vary between different countries, with the highest rates observed in Slovakia men and...

  10. Poland's Services Trade with the European Union During the Preaccession Period

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Mongiało

    2004-01-01

    The fact that, since 1 May 2004, Poland has the status of European Union member involves certain consequences for Poland's competitiveness in the international services trade market. What competitive position will Poland finally occupy among the EU countries in the postaccession period will to a large extent depend on Poland's present position in the services trade with the EU countries. So, the paper tries to present, on the basis of the most recent available statistical data published by th...

  11. The Fundamentals of Innovativeness - a Comparative Analysis of European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Tusińska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Innovativeness is one of the key determinants of total output and welfare used by contemporary economists to measure economic performance. The aim of the article is to assess the position of European Union (EU countries in terms of selected indicators characterizing their potential for innovativeness. This paper proposes the application of taxonomic tools for the study of the differentiation within the level of fundamentals of innovativeness in EU countries on the basis of the chosen model

  12. Phytosanitary inspection of woody plants for planting at european union entry points: A practical enquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Eschen, René; Rigaux, Ludovic; Sukovata, Lidia; Vettraino, Anna Maria; Marzano, Mariella; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Phytosanitary import inspections are important to avoid entry of harmful pests on live plants. In the European Union (EU), all consignments of live plants must be inspected at the first point of entry, and plants allowed entry can be moved without further inspection among the 28 Member States and Switzerland. It is important that inspections in EU countries adhere to the same standard to avoid introduction of harmful organisms through countries with weaker methods. We tested whether sampling ...

  13. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi [Departamento de Organizacion de Empresas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  14. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi; Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo

    2009-01-01

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  15. Competition in energy markets - law and regulation in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter Duncanson; Brothwood, Michael

    2002-03-01

    Analysis of the origins, aims and implementation of the EU energy directives is essential to an understanding of the emerging internal market in energy in the European Union. This book provides a detailed and practical account of the legislation and the various developments in the Member States that are leading to a competitive energy market for the first time. It explains the legislation, EU case law and the relevant national laws, regulations and competence of the enforcing authorities. (Author)

  16. THE COMPETITION POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriţa Florea (Ionescu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of European unity dates back to antiquity, the time when the Roman Empire alsopursued such a goal. Attempts to unify European countries have appeared constantly in history, but theirsuccessful culmination crystallized only after the Second World War.Basically, the two wars have led to the downfall of Europe and the loss of its centenary political andmilitary position. The experience of these wars has led the states to initiate a defense mechanism of peace,security and international cooperation - resulted in creating an organization of universal jurisdiction -TheLeague of Nations. However, the successor of this organization, The United Nations - was one thatmanaged thorough its collective security system represented by the Security Council, to ensure andmaintain universal / global peace until now (Stelian Scăunaş, 2005.The creation of the European Union is based on four founding treaties: The Treaty establishingThe European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC - adopted in Paris on April 18, 1951, entered into forcein 1952 - treaty concluded for a period of 50 years and that has terminated in 2002, The Treatyestablishing the European Economic Community (EEC, The Treaty establishing the European AtomicEnergy Community (EAEC or EURATOM, both signed in Rome on March 25, 1947 and entered into forcein 1958 as the Treaties of Rome, and The Treaty on the European Union, which was adopted at Maastrichton 7th of February 1992 and entered into force in 1993. To these institution treaties we can add themodifying treaties of the founding treaties, including: The Merger Treaty - adopted in Brussels on 8 April1965, entered into force in 1967; The Single European Act - signed in Luxembourg and Hague in 1986,entered into force in 1987; The Amsterdam Treaty - signed on October 2, 1997, entered into force in 1999,The Treaty of Nice - signed on February 26, 2001, entered into force in 2003, The Lisbon Treaty signed in2007 and entered into force on December 1st

  17. The Effectiveness of International Financial Reporting Standard on the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarhad Hamza Khdir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of mandatory adoption of IFRS is to enhance the quality of accounting information in worldwide. However, this effort made challenged for European Union as a supranational body to achieve similar advantages of converged the IFRS standards. This study examines the effectiveness of IFRS on the European Union as a supranational body and whether the EU has successfully converged to the IFRS standards. The paper will also analyze if there are any difficulties with switching to the IFRS standards versus the traditional local accounting practices in EU. The results obtained show that the first application of IFRS has adopted among EU countries and the results indicate that the adoption of IFRS leads to improvement in value relevance. The results also imply that the IFRS adoption for EU does not ensure better quality of accounting information and standardized IFRS is not effective to implement for all EU because there is a lot of misperception in terms of these guidelines for preparing financial statement. The culture difference among EU shows that IFRS is not fits size standard for all EU that can lead EU to conform at the same time. The conclusion of this report will provide the answer whether it is or not effective for the EU to fully converge to the IFRS standards as a whole.

  18. THE EUROPEAN UNION AND RUSSIA, COOPERATION OR COMPETITION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Maria SIMIONOV

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The unfolding events in the Ukraine remind us of Georgia 2008 and make us wonder whether their impact and implications on the EU – Russia relations will be as deep and long-lasting. Although it is too soon to ponder on the implications of these events, we can already perceive the wave of tensions and disagreements that is spreading all around the European continent; tensions that once more prove that proper economic cooperation between the two actors is merely impossible to consider without taking into account the political ties between them. How can the EU enhance greater cooperation with Russia and solve Churchill’s "riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma"? Is the European Union vulnerable politically due to its energy dependence on Russia? Is the Russian economy dependent solely on its European consumers? Whose behaviour is more rational? Who holds the upper hand? This paper will focus on answering all these questions by analysing both actors in terms of power and will particularly highlight their paradigms, perceptions, needs and expectations from one another.

  19. THE COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION AND INTERNATIONAL LEGAL ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETYANA KOMAROVA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the relationship between two legal orders: international law and European Union (EU law. The main provisions of this relationship have been established through the precedential practice of the Court of Justice of the European Union – the EU’s main judicial body. This kind of research seems important because of the gap in the theory of international law caused by the immutable dogma of the supremacy of international law. However, modern legal practice demonstrates a certain fragmentation of the international legal order because of the impact of the existence and development of regional supranational legal orders. The EU legal order, with its own special nature (sui generis, is undoubtedly one of the most developed among them. The Court of Justice of the European Union performs a crucial role in the EU legal system concerning application and interpretation of EU law. It provides a uniform interpretation of this law for the purposes of development of supranational integration. In this context the Court of Justice the European Union establishes the status of European law and its relationship with the national legal systems and international law. The Court acts as protector of the EU legal order against the influence of other legal orders. The Court’s precedential practice reveals EU law’s tendency towards its constitutionalization and the development of its autonomy. The latest practice indicates the Court’s powers to review the EU institutions’ acts in relation to the implementation of UN Security Council resolutions. This proves the Court’s ability to establish indirect control even over UN acts.

  20. THE FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND LATIN AMERICA. THE PERUVIAN AND MEXICAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manrique de LUNA BARRIOS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has signed a number of free trade agreements with different countries in Latin America because it is aware of the great importance that this region has gained as a destination for its exports and investments. Furthermore, the European Union wishes to reaffirm its ties with countries in the region because it hopes to consolidate its political and economic position as an international player with its presence in those markets. In this paper we will discuss the free trade agreements that the EU has signed with Mexico and later with Peru, because they are two examples where Latin American countries have achieved significant economic growth and where the trade has generated significant benefits. Additionally they are two major trading partners of the European Union and they have allowed the EU to continue to expand its zone of influence in Latin America.

  1. The status of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the process of accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakić Danijela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the level that Bosnia and Herzegovina has reached in the process of accession to the European union. Since year 2000, it has been included in Stabilization and Accession process, politico-legal framework of the European union for the integration in the Western Balkans. Among the countries in this region, Bosnia and Herzegovina has the slowest advancement on its way to the EU. It has not yet submitted the application for EU membership nor has the Stabilization and Accession Agreement come into force. The EU requires that Bosnia and Herzegovina meet two conditions in order to move forward. The first condition is the implementation of the Sejdić and Finci ruling of The European Court of Human Rights, from 2009, and the second is to create an efficient coordination mechanism on EU issues ( with one voice on EU issues. until the second condition is met, the EU has postponed making the decision on pre-accession assistance to Bosnia and Herzegovina until further notice. According to the assessment of the European Commission, the main cause of this stagnation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the lack of political will, and its specific constitution that does not present the obstacle to succession in the process of European integration.

  2. Is tuberculosis crossing borders at the Eastern boundary of the European Union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Marieke J.; Hollo, Vahur; Noori, Teymur

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Eastern border of the European Union (EU) consists of 10 countries after the expansion of the EU in 2004 and 2007. These 10 countries border to the East to countries with high tuberculosis (TB) notification rates. We analyzed the notification data of Europe to quantify the impact of cross-border TB at the Eastern border of the EU. Methods: We used TB surveillance data of 2010 submitted by 53 European Region countries to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Notified TB cases were stratified by origin of the case (national/foreign). We calculated the contribution of foreign to overall TB notification. Results: In the 10 EU countries located at the EU Eastern border, 618 notified TB cases (1.7% of all notified TB cases) were of foreign origin. Of those 618 TB cases, 173 (28.0%) were from countries bordering the EU to the East. More specifically, 90 (52.0%) were from Russia, 33 (19.1%) from Belarus, 33 (19.1%) from Ukraine, 13 (7.5%) from Moldova and 4 (2.3%) from Turkey. Conclusions: Currently, migrants contribute little to TB notifications in the 10 EU countries at the Eastern border of the EU, but changes in migration patterns may result in an increasing contribution. Therefore, EU countries at the Eastern border of the EU should strive to provide prompt diagnostic services and adequate treatment of migrants. PMID:23813718

  3. Fourth ITER negotiations meeting. Site offers from European Union and Japan join Canada's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rager, J.-P.

    2002-01-01

    The Fourth ITER Negotiations Meeting took place in Cadarache, France on 4-6 June, 2002. The European Union hosted the meeting, which was also attended by delegations from Canada, Japan and Russian Federation. During the Meeting the delegations informed each other of the latest developments concerning the ITER project in their respective countries. ITER potential site offers from EU and Japan were proposed

  4. Effects of climate change on yield potential of wheat and maize crops in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Diepen, van C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Yields of winter wheat, silage maize and grain maize in the main arable areas of the European Union (EU) were calculated with a simulation model, WOFOST, using historical weather data and average soil characteristics. The sensitivity of the model to individual weather variables was determined.

  5. Cultivating nature-based solutions: The governance of communal urban gardens in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt, Alexander P.N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41276086X; Szaraz, Luca R.; Delshammar, Tim; Cvejić, Rozalija; Santos, Artur; Goodness, Julie; Buijs, Arjen

    2017-01-01

    In many countries in the European Union (EU), the popularity of communal urban gardening (CUG) on allotments and community gardens is on the rise. Given the role of this practice in increasing urban resilience, most notably social resilience, municipalities in the Global North are promoting CUG as a

  6. Interest Groups and Strategic Constructivism: Business Actors and Border Security Policies in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, T.E.

    Evidence suggests that business lobbying shapes European Union (EU) border security policies, but there has been no detailed empirical and theoretical work detailing how interest groups exert influence in this domain. Building on strategic constructivist accounts of policy-making, the article argues

  7. Data protection legislation: A very hungry caterpillar: The case of mapping data in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, H.D.; van Loenen, Bastiaan; Kulk, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The European Union's policy on open data aims at generating value through re-use of public sector information, such as mapping data. Open data policies should be applied in full compliance with the principles relating to the protection of personal data of the EU Data Protection Directive. Increased

  8. International diffusion of gains from biotechnology and the European Union's common agricultural policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, van H.; Tongeren, van F.W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of adopting or rejecting genetically modified (GM) crops in the European Union, taking into account the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In this paper the productivity impact of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) differs across crops, taking factor biased

  9. Civil society contributions to a sustainable health workforce in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, Linda; van de Pas, Remco; Marschang, Sascha

    Background: Following the adoption of the World Health Organization’s Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel (WHO Code), eight civil society organizations implemented the European Union (EU) funded project “Health Workers for All and All for Health Workers”

  10. Data protection legislation : A very hungry caterpillar. The case of mapping data in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loenen, Bastiaan; Kulk, Stefan; Ploeger, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The European Union's policy on open data aims at generating value through re-use of public sector information, such as mapping data. Open data policies should be applied in full compliance with the principles relating to the protection of personal data of the EU Data Protection Directive. Increased

  11. A Possible Answer of the European Union to Hybrid Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cîrdei Ionuţ Alin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The international security environment is marked by a certain state of anomy, which in reality does not conceal a state of chaos, but an attempt to restore and redesign spheres of influence, creating a new world order involving both state actors: the US, Russia, China India, supra-states actors: EU, NATO, etc or non-state actors. The European Union is confronted with a series of internal and external challenges that affect the state of security. Challenges are very diverse, difficult to anticipate and counteract, and can be attributed, on the one hand, to the cyclical evolution of society and, on the other hand, to intentional interventions using unconventional methods and means of hybrid type, which are aimed at destabilizing one of the most powerful supra-state structures, enjoying significant economic and political strength, which has a large population and can influence the evolution of events globally. Lately, EU countries have begun to tackle the most diverse issues, such as migration, terrorist threat, radicalization of a part of the population, supporting direct or indirect jihadist organizations, organizing attacks within the union, developing nationalism, separatism, ethnic or religious intolerance, etc.

  12. The European Union prepares an electrical crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article discusses the fact that a lack of electricity production within the EU could not be balanced by imports and would lead to an economic and social catastrophe. He comments the current situation in which European countries tend to close an important number of coal and oil power stations in order to meet commitments regarding emissions and the targeted share of renewable energies. He outlines the consequences of theses trends, and states that these decisions based on ecological objectives do not take economic and market realities into account, and lead to a destruction of the French electricity system

  13. the right to GOOD ADMINISTRATION IN THE Court of Justice of the EUROPEAN Union CASE LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta SLABU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The provisions of the Lisbon Treaty highlight that, at present, the Union has as objectives, not only an unitary economic development, but also strengthening the observance of peoples' fundamental rights, hence, implicitly, the right to good administration. The Court of Justice of the European Union has analyzed over time, in its decisions, the emergence and development of the good administration principle, its fundamental elements, and impossibility of framing it clearly in a definition, and, not least, turning the principle of good administration into a fundamental right through the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. At European level, citizens of the EU member states, but also those from third countries thus benefit from a right to good administration in the relations with European Union institutions and bodies, according to Article 41 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. The same should be the proceeding at internal level. Each Member State of the European Union should concern itself about identifying and promoting the most adequate measures for ensuring good governance and good administration. By identifying and applying at national level the principles governing the public administration activity at European level can be created the requisites for a national public administration that is transparent and efficient, close to the needs and interests of its citizens and that could be considered an integral part of the European public administration.

  14. European social model and the harmonization of Macedonian labour legislation with the European Union community labour law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalamatiev Todor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process accompanied by the harmonization of the EU member states' legislation will inevitably lead to the establishment of a European social model which has a 'sui generis' legal nature. European social model forms a part of the common legal heritage of the European countries and it can be defined as a system of values that include democracy and individual rights, free collective bargaining, market economy, equal opportunities for all, and social protection and solidarity. Subject of analysis in this paper are both, the essential components of the European social model such as: the social 'acquis communautaire' and the European industrial relations. The social 'acquis communautaire' is an integral part of the general 'acquis communautaire' and it encompasses the regulations arising from the primary and secondary labour law legislation of the EU, decisions of the European Court of Justice and other legal measures of the European Union with a binding or non-binding legal nature. European industrial relations encompass the key features of the European trade union models as well as the types of social dialogue in different EU member states. This paper pays attention to a profound elaboration of the harmonization of two EU labour law directives with the Macedonian employment legislation. The first Directive (Directive 91/533/EEC of 14 October 1991 on an employers' obligation to inform employees of the conditions applicable to the contract or employment relationship may be classified in the field of individual employment relations, while the second one (Directive 2002/14/EC of 11 March 2002 establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the European Community can be subsumed within the field of collective employment relations. Finally, the authors illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the Macedonian labour legislation in the process of harmonization with the relevant EU directives

  15. Low-cost airlines in Europe: Network structures after the enlargement of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudas Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization of the European air opened the strictly regulated European market, and contributed to the appearance and quick spread of the Low-Cost Carriers (LCCs. At the beginning of the 21st century the low cost traffic absolutely concentrated on the Western European market but after the enlargement of the European Union (EU LCCs started their operations in Eastern Europe enlarging and enriching the former evolved network structures. The aim of this paper is to trace the evolution of the route network as a result of EU expansion. During the study we came to the conclusion that in the time period after the EU enlargement the European LCC traffic showed dynamic development, route networks widened and the number of accessible destinations doubled. Comparing the LCCs network structures we defined three main characteristics, which represents the North-South flows, the West-East routes and the mixed network structure.

  16. The effect of European integration on exchange rate dependence: the Polish accession to the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, J.H.; van Giersbergen, N.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the Polish accession to the European Union (EU) on the dependence between the euro-US dollar and Polish zloty-US dollar exchange rate. The dependence is estimated by means of copulas as suggested by Patton (2006). This approach allows to first specify and

  17. Manager of financial globalization? The European Union in global anti-money laundering and international accounting standard setting

    OpenAIRE

    Hilgers, Sven

    2014-01-01

    How does the European Union (EU) perform in international financial regulation? According to various scholars the global financial architecture has been shaped by the USA and the EU. But whereas the USA is without doubt the dominant actor or even described as hegemon in writing the rules for the global political economy and global financial markets, the EU seems to be a special kind of actor. The European Union is not only one of the biggest single financial markets in the world but also has ...

  18. Legal frameworks for emissions trading in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeaettae, K.; Anttonen, K. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland)). Email: kalle.maatta@joensuu.fi; Upston-Hooper, K. (GreenStream Networks, Helsinki (Finland)); Mehling, M. (Univ. of Greifswald (Germany)); Perrels, A. (Government Institute for Economic Research VATT, Helsinki (Finland)), email: adriaan.perrels@vatt.fi

    2009-07-01

    The project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. The methodology adopted has been to formulate a comprehensive questionnaire (of approximately 70 questions) to be used as the basis of national reports together with a stand alone analysis by VATT, and in turn use the national reports and VATT study as the building blocks of a comparative overview report. The questionnaire seeks to highlight those significant legal and regulatory issues that impact on the establishment of emission allowance trading arrangements within the respective jurisdictions. The comparative analysis of these issues will focus on 'golden threads' of similarity and difference that impact on the establishment of an internal market within the European Union for the trading of emissions allowances. (orig.)

  19. Legal frameworks for emissions trading in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upston-Hooper, K.; Perrells, A.; Anttonen, K.; Mehling, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The Project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. The methodology adopted has been to formulate a comprehensive questionnaire (of approximately 70 questions) to be used as the basis of national reports together with a stand alone analysis by VATT, and in turn use the national reports and VATT study as the building blocks of a comparative overview report. The questionnaire seeks to highlight those significant legal and regulatory issues that impact on the establishment of emission allowance trading arrangements within the respective jurisdictions. The comparative analysis of these issues will focus on 'golden threads' of similarity and difference that impact on the establishment of an internal market within the European Union for the trading of emissions allowances. (orig.)

  20. The European Union's Mediterranean Policy in the Context of the "Arab Spring"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Latkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the policy of the European Union aimed at the export of its democratic values, acquis communautaire and governance models to the neighbour countries in the Southern Mediterranean. The process of Europeanization reflects a particular case of global megatrend -democratization which in its turn positioned as democracy promotion through soft power instruments. From the EU point of view the goal of the Barcelona process launched in 1995 was to construct Euro-Mediterranean Partnership and common identity in order to promote democratic transitions in Southern Mediterranean. While the EU Foreign Policy in the Mediterranean region was historically conditioned by the security interests of the European Union, it suffered from securitization/democratization dilemma. The article analyses the process of external Europeanization in the Southern Mediterranean as a regional dimension of global democratization process in the context of Union for the Mediterranean development before and after the Arab Spring and new approach in the framework of the ENP Partnership for Democracy and Shared Prosperity with the Southern Mediterranean. The article proposes that the lack of political strategic vision in the EU toward the Arab democratic transition during 2011-2013 narrows its role as a transformative democratic power, hinders Europeanization/ democratization process in the macro-region of North Africa and Middle East and presents the EU with a new dilemma - to continue its traditional democratization policy or to shift towards a more pragmatic approach to cooperating with new Arab regimes.

  1. MEASURES AND INSTRUMENTS USED AS A RESPONSE TO CRISES IN EUROPEAN UNION - AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRTESCU BOGDAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During latest times, financial crises have been a common occurrence in emerging market (and transition countries with negative influence for the economies. Financial crises have had negative effects on real output, work force, poverty and political instability. Latest crises (2008 that struck US become international, its consequence being received in European countries too. This paper wants to discuss some intervention measures taken in the European Union Area and some importants funds used as tools for crises fighting. The European Economic Recovery Plan and EU funding mechanisms (The European Social Fund (ESF and The European Globalization Adjustment Fund (EGF are taken into discussion.

  2. Abatement of CO{sub 2} emissions in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesourne, J.; Keppler, J.H.; Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite; Smeers, Yves; Bouttes, Jean-Paul; Trochet, Jean-Michel; Dassa, Francois; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2008-07-01

    This first monograph of the Ifri program on European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy is devoted to the control of carbon dioxide emissions within the European Union. Since it is almost unanimously accepted that Greenhouse Gas emissions constitute the main cause of the observed increase of the world average temperature, the system implemented by the European Union to limit and decrease the CO{sub 2} emissions is a significant pillar of the EU energy policy, the two others being the acceptance by the Member States of long-term commitments (for instance on the future share of renewable energy sources in their energy balance sheet) and the establishment of an internal market for electricity and gas. Though simple in principle, the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is in fact rather complex, and only experts really understand its merits and its deficiencies. These deficiencies are real and will have to be corrected in the future for the system to be effective. At this moment, when the 2005-2007 trial phase of the EU ETS is ending, the monograph has the purpose to stimulate the discussion between experts and to enable all those interested in the topic to understand the issues and to take part in the public debates on the subject. The monograph contains five papers: - 'An Overview of the CO{sub 2} Emission Control System in the European Union' by Jacques Lesourne and Maite Jaureguy-Naudin. - 'Description and Assessment of EU CO{sub 2} Regulations' by Yves Smeers. - 'Assessment of EU CO{sub 2} Regulations' by Jean-Paul Bouttes, Jean-Michel Trochet and Francois Dassa. - 'Investment in Low Carbon Technologies, Policies for the Power Sector' by Karsten Neuhoff. - 'Lessons Learned from the 2005-2007 Trial Phase of the EU Emission Trading System' by Jan Horst Keppler

  3. Organization and regulation of energy markets in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, J.

    2002-01-01

    The energy regulation policy and the organization of power matters in the European Union as well as the energy markets are discussed in this Keynote Paper. The Council of European Energy Regulators is introduced. The goal of the European Union regarding energy generation and consumption in the future are analyzed. (R.P.)

  4. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-07-06

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  5. EFSA and ECDC (European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Helwigh, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2013 in 32 European countries (28 Member States and four non-Member States). Campylobacter iosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis. After several years of an increasing European Union (EU) trend, the human Campylobacter iosis notification rate has stabilised. In food and animals no EU trends were observed a...

  6. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Porsbo, Lone Jannok; Boysen, Louise; Bager, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2014 in 32 European countries (28 Member States (MS) and four non-MS). Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis with an increase in confirmed human cases in the European Union (EU) since 2008. In food the occurrence of Campylobacter remained high in broiler meat. The decreasing EU trend for conf...

  7. Mitterrand and the Great European Design—From the Cold War to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available François Mitterrand had a leading role in directing the course for the European integration process. While he orchestrated the economic integration of Europe, he remained deeply opposed to further political integration within the Communities. This article researches Mitterrand’s rationale for his clear focus on economic affairs and develops his vision for the institutional setting of the European Union (EU. The focus of the article is allocated to four different perspectives that reflect the four pillars of Mitterrand’s European policy: the common currency, the establishment of a closely integrated and small Western European based EU, the development of the Social Europe and of a free trade area between Europe and Africa. It is argued that although EU institutions have been established based on Mitterrand’s design, today’s reality deviates from the conditions on which his plan was based. For Mitterrand, the ideal EU involved a deep-rooted Western Europe with France at its core and a loose association with Central and Eastern Europe. His perception resembles the current discussions of multi-speed Europe and the determination of France and Germany to proceed to the next stage of the integration process. Importantly, Mitterrand’s print can still be recognised in the EU’s social policy included in the treaties, yet still far from being implemented. Notably, like all of the French Presidents, Mitterrand developed a design for Africa in which an extensive free trade area between Europe and former French colonies were to be established. In this proposal, Germany was to be assigned the part of the economic engine behind the actualisation of the proposal, while France was to carry out the role of a required middle man of the transactions. To further assure France’s political predominance over the Communities, Mitterrand designed a common currency for a small number of homogenous Western-European states.

  8. International Benchmark Renewable Energy. European Union and Norway. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beek, A.; Benner, J.H.B.; Brogtrop, A.C.G.M.; Van Alphen, M.

    2001-12-01

    The main aim of the survey was to generate an actual, realistic and accepted overview of potentials and cost prices for all relevant renewable energy options in the different countries of the European Union. The survey covered electrical options, heat options and combined heat and power options for renewable energy. Survey data were obtained directly from the responsible governments and their energy agencies, not from theoretical model studies. The intention was to improve insight for future decisions and create a useful basis (in the form of definitions, guidelines, etc.) for future perfection. Survey results also help to assess the relative ambition of the different national targets, especially in the EU Member States. The survey thus primarily sought answers to the following questions: (1) What renewable energy potential is available, and to what extent can the potential be exploited and what would be the related costs; and (2) What observations can be made, considering the survey results

  9. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ROTH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Through sustainable development the needs of the current generation are fulfilled without jeopardizing the opportunities of future generations. The concept takes into account economic, social and environmental considerations. It has a wide range of applications from natural resources to population growth and biodiversity. One of its most important themes is energy. In this area, sustainable development relates with resource availability and green house gases emissions. Also it takes into account the needs of people without access to energy, and their legitimate quest for development. For the European Union, sustainable development represents an overarching objective. The present article analyzes the concept from a theoretical perspective, contrasting its strong points and weaknesses. It highlights the relation between sustainable development, energetic resources and climate change. The EU policies results in the field of energy are analyzed from the perspective of resources, energetic dependency and climate change efforts.

  10. Polish Accession to the European Union: Participating Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewski Waldemar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In May 2014 it was aready ten years since Poland’s accession to the European Union. The accession was preceded by a long period of political action and negotiations between the Polish and the EU institutions. The process of integration was extremely complex. It covered almost all areas of economic, legal and civil aspects of the aspiring country’s economy, in which all necessary requirements had to be met. The aim of the article was to present the institutional framework created for efficient implementation of the process of accession. The considerations involved especially an institutional method. The research resulted in poining out both the actually efficient and less efficient bodies participating in the process of integration.

  11. Strategies of Environmental Policy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for achieving environmental policy reinforce the principle of subsidiary ( delegation ofresponsibilities of Member States, while European Union outlines only the general objectives to be taken intoaccount and try replacing the traditional vertical approach, command and control type, by promoting analternative model for achieving the EU average. One can say that these strategies are a kind of “aids”, whichcomplement standard tools and acting as incentives for the adoption of measures for environmental protectionthat emphasizes the trend towards an approach based on the principle of volunteering. In the early '70s, wasrecognized the need and legitimacy of a common environment. In time, will develop a progressiveenvironmental Community law, which includes over 200 directives and regulations. They concern mainlywater protection, air quality, protection of flora and fauna, noise, waste disposal. Environmental legislationhas a particular characteristic; it takes into account economic aspects.

  12. EU Law Autonomy Versus European Fundamental Rights Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Louise Halleskov

    2015-01-01

    In the recently issued Opinion 2/13, the EU Court of Justice ruled that EU accession to the European Convention on Human Rights on the basis of the current Draft Accession Agreement would be incompatible with the EU Treaties. This article examines the impact of Opinion 2/13 on European fundamental...... rights protection. It argues that the concerns for EU law autonomy expressed in the Opinion for the most part are unwarranted and that the Court, through the use of classic constitutionalist language, seeks to position EU law as the superior European fundamental rights regime. The article furthermore...

  13. Migration strategies of the crisis-stricken youth in an enlarged European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Kahanec, Martin; Fabo, Brian

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the migration response of the youth from new EU member states to disparate conditions in an enlarged European Union at the onset of the Great Recession. We use the Eurobarometer data and probabilistic econometric models to identify the key drivers of the intention to work in another member state of European Economic Area (EEA) and their expected duration. We find that migration intentions are high among those not married and among males with children, but both categories ar...

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTEGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION ON THE ROMANIAN FISCAL LEGISLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea Muntean; Doina Pacurari

    2008-01-01

    Fiscal policy constitutes – within the state's economic policy – a system by means of which the taxes and duties owed to the country's consolidated budget are established and collected. Taking into account the role fiscal policy has been playing since Romania's admission in the European Union, one of the goals ceaselessly looked for is its adapting to the international community's acquis through the implementation of the European directives in our context. The EU directives make reference to ...

  15. What direction for the European Council? Institutional reforms and counter-reforms in EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Ciascai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the political and institutional impact of the juridical consecration of the European Council that official institution of European Union by the Lisbon Treaty. Until 1 December 2009, the European Council was a political body with a strong informal role within the european decision making process, but with ambiguous institutional and legal powers. After entry in force of the Lisbon Treaty, European Council becomes an institution that try to exercise a collective leadership in EU.

  16. Study on the Evaluation of the European Union Agency for Network and Information Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attström, Karin; Ludden, Vanessa; Lessmann, Franziska

    The European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA) was established in 2004. The Agency provides advice and recommendations, data analysis, and supports awareness raising and cooperation by the EU bodies and Member States in the field of cybersecurity. ENISA uses its expertise...... and assesses their financial implications. The findings of the evaluation study show that ENISA has made some important achievements towards increasing NIS in the EU. However, a fragmented approach to cybersecurity across the EU and issues internal to the Agency, including limited financial resources, hinder...

  17. E-commerce Analysis in selected European Union Countries: Position of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Kurnoga, Nataša; Slišković, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Computer and mobile technology, Internet use and e-commerce have grown enormously in recent years. The main aim of this paper was to analyse the e-commerce of Croatia, the European Union (EU) countries and the post-transition EU countries. Due to technological progress, the paper among other things, analyses the trend of online purchase at the Croatian and the EU level. The analysis revealed the presence of a linear trend. Furthermore, hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analyses were u...

  18. REASSESSING EUROPEAN UNION LIMITS: WHAT ROLE FOR THE NEW REGIONAL PARTNERSHIPS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Berbec

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As every enlargement brings new neighbours to the European Union, the European Neighbourhood Policy is facing new challenges regarding its policy towards the countries in its proximity. Although the ENP does not offer perspectives for accession, nor does it preclude it, new forms of cooperation between the EU and its neighbours are taken into consideration as an alternative to full membership. This essay will analyze how the latest enlargements have brought new opportunities and challenges to the EU in relation to its new neighbours, the role of the "Eastern Partnership" and the "Union for Mediterranean" initiatives in fostering cooperation with the contiguous countries and whether these community projects, together with the ENP, can have a contribution to the understanding of what the EU limits are.

  19. THE EUROPEAN UNION AS A GLOBAL PLAYER: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Comanescu

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening the external action of the Union has emerged as a powerful expectation shared both by a large majority of members of the Convention on the future of Europe, and more significantly by public opinion when it has been consulted on this issue. Although there is a consensual desire for Europe to speak with a stronger voice in global affairs, the ways and means to achieve this objective still divide those called to clarify the path to be followed. The European Union is already a significant presence in world politics by its considerable share in the international trade, or its dominant contribution to development aid. Many criticise on the other hand the lack of consistency in the more classical dimensions of foreign policy, or the lack of credibility in the capacity to act attributed to the absence of defence capabilities. Such concerns are currently addressed in the larger debate on the future of Europe, either within the dedicated framework, the European Convention convened to design the future of the EU, or outside the Convention, both among politicians and academics. It is generally considered and accepted that Europe will gain in political influence once the unification of the continent is completed, i.e. the current enlargement objectives are achieved. It goes without saying that devising and making operational appropriate instruments and capacities to act coherently outside its borders are a necessity as well. Institutional guarantees that Europe could in the future continue to influence the course of events in world affairs are becoming imperative. This article will explore some of the proposals in that sense. It will also address the place for Romania as a future EU member state in the new architecture of Europe and its possible contribution to the Common Foreign and Security Policy.

  20. The EU Capital Markets Union and Financial Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchuk Igor S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the processes of formation of the EU Capital Markets Union in the context of their influence on stability of the markets and the financial system as a whole. In the course of analyzing the project for the building of a single capital market with respect to financial stability, there determined its positive aspects as well as threats and challenges associated with simplification of information requirements to the prospectus of public offering of securities, low liquidity and higher volatility of the equity markets of small and medium-sized businesses, reduction of the regulatory requirements to investment firms (securities traders, correction of prudential norms for infrastructure investments of banking institutions and insurance companies, introduction of a simple, transparent and standard securitization, a secondary market for distressed banking assets, and a potential spread of financial instability at cross-border investments in securities.

  1. Agreement reached on integrated safeguards in European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in cooperation with the European Commission, has reached agreement on arrangements to implement 'integrated safeguards' in all non-nuclear-weapon States of the European Union with significant nuclear activities. 'This important milestone is the result of the constructive common efforts of all parties concerned. It is a clear signal of the importance attributed by the EU and its Member States, as well as the IAEA, to the reinforcement of the nuclear non-proliferation regime,' said Andris Piebalgs, Member of the European Commission in charge of Energy. 'Once we have sufficient confidence that a State' s nuclear activities are purely peaceful, we can apply safeguards measures in a less prescriptive, more customised manner. This reduces the inspection burden on the State and the inspection effort of the IAEA, while enabling the IAEA to maintain the conclusion that all nuclear material has remained in peaceful activities,' said Olli Heinonen, Deputy Director General and Head of IAEA Safeguards Department. Background The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the main international Treaty prohibiting the spread of nuclear weapons. It entrusts the IAEA to verify that nuclear material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices through the application of 'safeguards'. IAEA safeguards include comprehensive safeguards agreements and additional protocols that enable the IAEA to conclude that all nuclear material has remained in peaceful activities in a State. Integrated Safeguards refers to the optimum combination of all safeguards measures available to the Agency under comprehensive safeguards agreements and additional protocols to achieve maximum effectiveness and efficiency in meeting the Agency ' s safeguards obligations. In the European Union, nuclear safeguards are implemented on the basis of the Euratom Treaty and trilateral agreements between Euratom, its Member States and the IAEA

  2. Evaluating expansion strategies for startup European Union dairy farm businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, R; Shalloo, L; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2013-06-01

    A stochastic whole-farm simulation model was used to examine alternative strategies for new entrant dairy farmers to grow and develop dairy farm businesses in the context of European Union (EU) milk quota abolition in 2015. Six alternative strategies were compared: remain static, natural growth expansion, waiting until after EU milk quota abolition to expand, a full-scale expansion strategy without milk quotas and not incurring super levy penalties, a full-scale expansion strategy with milk quotas and incurring super levy penalties, and once-a-day milking until EU milk quota abolition, followed by full-scale expansion. Each discrete whole farm investment strategy was evaluated over a 15-yr period (2013-2027) using multiple financial stability and risk indicators, including overall discounted farm business profitability, net worth change, return on investment, and financial risk. The results of this study indicate that, although associated with increased risk, dairy farm expansion will ensure the future profitability of the farm business. Within the context of EU milk quotas until 2015, the most attractive expansion strategy is to increase cow numbers while avoiding super levy fines using once-a-day milking techniques, increasing to the full capacity of the dairy farm once milk quotas are removed. In contrast, the results also indicate that dairy farms that remain static will experience a significant reduction in farm profitability in the coming year due to production cost inflation. Cash flow deficits were observed during the initial year of expansion and, therefore, rapidly expanding dairy farm businesses require a significant cash reserve to alleviate business risk during the initial year of expansion. The results of this analysis also indicate that dairy farm businesses that expand using lower cost capital investments and avoid milk quota super levy fines significantly reduce the financial risks associated with expansion. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science

  3. Disease burden of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia within the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Louise; Wyld, Peter; Catovsky, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Whilst Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is considered a rare disease, to our knowledge, the current prevalence of CLL within the European Union (EU) member states is not published. Understanding the number of individuals with CLL is vital to assess disease burden within the wider population. Using 2002 data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, we estimated the number of individuals with CLL (ICD-10 C91.1) from those reported for all leukaemias (C91-95) and extrapolated the figures by the population increase within the EU between 2002 and 2006, the last year with fully updated community population estimates. One- and 5-yr partial prevalence estimates are reported (i.e. the number of individuals still living 1-5 yr post-diagnosis). We then applied proportional estimates from the literature to assess those requiring immediate treatment, those under observation and their likely progression rates. We found that within the 27 EU states plus Iceland, Norway and Lichtenstein, 1- and 5-yr CLL partial prevalence estimates totalled approximately 13,952 and 46,633 individuals respectively in 2006. By applying Binet staging to the 1-yr estimate, 40% of patients will be stage B/C and require immediate treatment. Thus, 5581 individuals may be treated within the first year of diagnosis. Of the 60% (8371) under observation, by 5 yr up to 33% (2763) may have more advanced disease with increased risk of mortality. Whilst CLL is a rare disease, the number of individuals burdened by the disease within the EU is considerable and thousands of patients require treatment and physician care, which has cost implications for member states.

  4. The Clash of Discourses Regarding Relations with Russia: New Fault Lines in the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Naumescu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the annexation of Crimea and the secession war in Eastern Ukraine, the topic of European security has returned as a major benchmark for a number of EU and non-EU countries. For a couple of years, in 2014-2015, the discourse of condemnation and international sanctions against the Russian regime dominated the agenda of the European-Russian relations. Nevertheless, the economic considerations and the ascension of right-wing or left-wing populism(s in the European Union acted as a drag on European unity and solidarity. Thereby a series of political leaders in the EU and its Eastern Neighbourhood began to ask for economic rapprochement with Russia, while others remained very cautious. Based on a comparative qualitative method, this paper explores the clashing discourses about relations with Russia, in light of the discourse theory. The dynamics of divergent positioning regarding Russia after 2016 led to the question of possible new fault lines in the European Union. Inconsistencies on this topic can be seen between West and East, between post-communist countries on the Eastern Flank with Poland, Romania and the Baltic States, on one side, and Hungary, Bulgaria, Slovakia and the Czech Republic on the other side, and between Western chancelleries with rather different views such as Berlin, London or Rome. The aim of this article is to explore the increasing differences and clarify whether conflicting approaches regarding relations with Russia could create real cleavages between EU Member States and threaten European unity.

  5. The crisis as catalyst for reframing health care policies in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helderman, Jan-Kees

    2015-01-01

    Seen from the perspective of health, the global financial crisis (GFC) may be conceived of as an exogenous factor that has undermined the fiscal sustainability of European welfare states and consequently, their (expanding) health systems as well. Being one of the core programs of European welfare states, health care has always belonged to the sovereignty of European Member States. However, in past two decades, European welfare states have in fact become semi-sovereign states and the European Union (EU) no longer is an exogenous actor in European health policy making. Today, the EU not only puts limits to unsustainable growth levels in health care spending, it also acts as an health policy agenda setter. Since the outbreak of the GFC, it does so in an increasingly coercive and persuasive way, claiming authority over health system reforms alongside the responsibilities of its Member States.

  6. Undergraduate teaching of nuclear medicine: a comparison between Central and Eastern Europe and European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, P.; Scheffler, J.; Bandurski, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper overviews the curricula of nuclear medicine (NM) undergraduate training in 34 Central and Eastern European (CEE) and 37 European Union (EU) medical faculties. The data show enormous variation in the number of hours devoted to nuclear medicine, varying between 1-2 to 40 hours and highly differentiated concepts/ideas of nuclear medicine training in particular countries. In most EU countries this teaching is integrated with that of radiology or clinical modules, also with training in clinical physiology. In many CEE countries teaching and testing of NM are independent, although integration with other teaching modules is frequent. The paper discusses the differences in particular approaches to nuclear medicine teaching. (author)

  7. DIREM's prices. Prices and margins of petroleum products in France and in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    This report presents in a series of graphs and tables the prices and margins of petroleum products in France and in the European Union (EU) according to the data compiled by the Direction of energy and mineral resources (DIREM) of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP, Ministry of economy, finances and industry): evolution of crude prices, evolution of Rotterdam's quotation of petroleum products, raw margin of brent refining, French fuel prices (automotive and domestic fuels, evolution, comparison with EU and Rotterdam's prices), comparison with prices in other European countries, evolution of average retail prices in France. (J.S.)

  8. EASTERN EUROPE, A REGION OF INSECURITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION'S VICINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan – Lucian Cumpanasu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During Cold War, the region of Eastern Europe was formed by European states that were behind the Iron Curtain.Once the communism has fallen and former Warsaw's Pact members have joined EU in 2004 and 2007 along with the Baltic republics, a New Eastern Europe comprising Ukraine, Republic of Moldova and the Caucasian Republics emerged at the border of EU. The north, west and south maritime frontiers of European Union are opposite with Eastern territorial one that are more difficult to control and defend against asymmetrical threats as: organized crime, drugs traffic, arms proliferation and illegal immigration. this paper aims to demonstrate that EU's policies initiated in the framework of Eastern Partnership (EaP that wanted to bring peace in the Eastern neighborhood did not succeed to fulfill the desired goals. One explanation is that EU did not take in consideration the Russian dream of redesigning its sphere of influence in Eastern Europe. Another one is that the cultural, political and social differences between EU and its EaP partners led to the failure of the project. Thus, European Union's actions toward Eastern vicinity led to a clash between two civilizations: East and West as well as to a geopolitical competition between Russian Federation and EU over their shared neighborhood.

  9. Europeanization of National Public Spheres? Cross-National Media Debates about the EU's Socio-Economic Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Caroline de la; van Dalen, Arjen

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the Europeanization of media coverage of the European Union's (EU) socio-economic strategy, which is a crucial building block for developing a European Public Sphere. As the EU level increasingly influences public policy in member states, there should correspondingly be a more...... intense and visible media debate with attention for EU-level and cross-national policies and developments. On the basis of a content analysis (2000–2010) in Denmark, France, Poland and the UK, we find that media attention for the EU's growth and jobs strategy is limited, that it does not increase over...... in terms of benchmarking and reporting on criticism and advice to member states. This criticism is more often diffuse than aimed at specific member states. Therefore, we conclude that media coverage of the EU's socio-economic strategy is Europeanized, but that it remains a debate by and for EU...

  10. Migrant crisis and strengthening of the right wing in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Milijana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Migrant crisis, slow economic growth and growing disillusionment with the European Union led to strengthening of far-right parties that have achieved electoral success in a number of European countries. The collapse of the national economy has created a huge number of unemployed. New problems such as migrant crisis foster instability in the EU particularly due to the terrorist acts (Paris, Brussels and other forms of violence (Cologne, Vienna that involved migrants from the Middle East. What could represent the biggest problem is the ability of the European radical right parties to constitute it on the joint basis regardless different political backgrounds. The Alliance of European National Movements was formed in Budapest in 2009. Migrant crisis underlined divisions within the European Union, which led to the radicalization of European political scene.

  11. Towards an Administrative Procedure of the European Union: Issues and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela V. Cărăuşan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at identifying European administrative law principles by mapping the proposal of the European Parliament and assessing the existing principles in the European Union’s rules and jurisprudence. The first section analyses the difficulties to pass from the well-known sectoral procedures to a common procedural framework. It shows, on the one hand, how fragmented is the administrative EU law, and on the other hand, that European Commission tends to support it by derailing the Parliament’s proposal. The second section, is mapping the administrative law principles through an inventory of the Treaties, the Charter, the soft law and the jurisprudence. The last section proposes an assessment of the draft Regulation on the administrative procedure of European Union. The main outcome is that, without the Commission’s involvement the process of making a common administrative procedure for European Union cannot take place.

  12. ANTI-CORRUPTION AND ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING MECHANISMS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Puzyrev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article based on an integrated approach to developed within the European Union mechanisms of preventing crimes, which affect the financial interests of the EU. In terms of specific examples the legal basis of anti-corruption interaction, especially the structural building of the basic institutions of the European Union, are analyzed. The article discusses the information potential to facilitate the implementation of effective cooperation among the competent authorities in the sphere of combating corruption, fraud, money laundering and other economic crimes.

  13. The European Citizens’ Initiative: Transnational Democracy in the EU at last?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Conrad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union’s Lisbon Treaty, in force since December 2009, introduced the European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI as a means of strengthening citizen involvement in EU decision making. A minimum of one million citizens from at least seven of the EU’s current 27 member states can request that the European Commission submit a legislative proposal on the issue of the initiative. But the ECI is not only a means of strengthening participatory democracy in the EU. It also bears the potential for a more fundamental transformation of democracy, namely in the direction of transnational participatory democracy. Starting with a short introduction to how the ECI will work in practice as well as a brief history of participatory democracy in the EU, this article therefore examines the ECI from the perspective of democratic theory. How profound an impact will the ECI have on democracy in the European Union?

  14. The European Union and Iranian Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    On 14 July 2015, after 12 years of repeated crises around the nuclear issue and the ambitions of Iran in that regard, an agreement was finally signed between Tehran and the members of the UN Security Council plus Germany. Restriction on the enrichment of uranium and the production of plutonium, a strengthening of the inspection regime, the lifting of sanctions against Iran from 2016 onwards, maintaining the arms embargo - these are, broadly speaking, the outlines of this agreement. It will become clear over time how it is to be applied. Above and beyond these aspects, it is probably in the negotiation process that led to the agreement that the greatest lessons are to be learned, at least for the European Union. After reminding us of the context and the role played by economic and financial sanctions, Jean-Francois Drevet goes more precisely into the analysis of the new role the Union has assumed in this diplomatic territory, showing the extent to which 'soft power', as seen in this negotiation, could apply to other conflicts, beginning with those in the Middle East. (author)

  15. DEBATE ON ROMANIA INTEGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana M. SÎRBU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current state of Romanian integration into the European Union through the analysis of statistical data related to the absorption way of structural and cohesion funds available in 2007-2013 (absorption indicators and economic competitiveness indicators: Gross Domestic Product, employment rate, unemployment, population. In addition there are analyzed the structural and cohesion funds available for Romania in 2014-2020, for each category of available operational program and also the measures that must be implemented for Romania to adapt in a performance way to Europe 2020. The analysis results are considered as prerequisites for the development of an underlying model of investment decisions in the integrated sustainable development of Romania.

  16. DIRECT TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTĂ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a historical result of the social, political and economic environment in a state. At the same time, the development of a state depends a lot on the history of its own tax system, on the way it is conceived and operates. The establishment of budgetary incomes has to be made in accordance with the requirements related to yield, efficacy, equity. The plurality of these tasks as well as political, economical, administrative constraints have materialized in the application of a gradual reform in Romania after passing to market economy. Its application has not always had the foreseen effects, repeated legislative alterations leading to investors’ discouraging and to difficult enforcement of the legislation at the level of economic agents and fiscal bodies. The paper presents aspects of direct taxation on the economic environment from Romania as well as comparisons with the state of the European Union.

  17. DIRECT TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTĂ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a historical result of the social, political and economic environment in a state. At the same time, the development of a state depends a lot on the history of its own tax system, on the way it is conceived and operates. The establishment of budgetary incomes has to be made in accordance with the requirements related to yield, efficacy, equity. The plurality of these tasks as well as political, economical, administrative constraints have materialized in the application of a gradual reform in Romania after passing to market economy. Its application has not always had the foreseen effects, repeated legislative alterations leading to investors’ discouraging and to difficult enforcement of the legislation at the level of economic agents and fiscal bodies. The paper presents aspects of direct taxation on the economic environment from Romania as well as comparisons with the state of the European Union.

  18. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  19. Scenarios for the implementation of daytime running lights in the European Union : study in the framework of a European Commission project, Work Package 4.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, J.J.F. Mathijssen, M.P.M. Elvik, R. Janssen, W. & Kallberg, V.-P.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the last part of the documentation of a project funded by the European Commission, designed to assess the effects of Daytime Running Lights (DRL) and possible strategies for implementing the use of DRL in the European Union (EU). The general objective of the present report is to

  20. Educational Research Capacity Building in the European Union: A Critique of the Lived Experiences of Emerging Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallet, Fiona; Fidalgo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the extent to which European Union (EU) policies impact upon the activities of associations such as the European Educational Research Association (EERA) and the experiences of emerging researchers aligned to such associations. In essence, the authors explore potential tensions between policy and the lived…

  1. Free movement of People and Cross-Border Welfare in the European Union: Dynamic Rules, Limited Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Pons Rotger, Gabriel; Thierry, Jessica Maria Sampson

    2018-01-01

    For decades, the European legislators and the Court of Justice have extended the rights to free movement and cross-border welfare in the European Union (EU). Strong assumptions on the impact of these rules have been posed, by some held to lead to welfare migration and thus to be a fundamental cha...

  2. THE EUROPEAN UNION MILITARY POWER: THE NEW CHALLENGES WITH OLD DILEMMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerim Ramadani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent crises show clearly that Europeans security depends on external developments. The Common Security and Defense Policy failed to provide security, while the European Union military missions were limited in terms of their scope. This inability threatens the interests and security of the member states. Exactly, this research explores the concept of military power of the EU. In order to elaborate anatomy of military power of the EU, the descriptive-analytic method is used. Military performance analysis proves that the EU is able to have the greatest impact in the global arena. The research shows that with the achievement of a political strategy among the stakeholder, on which the replacement of the consensus mechanism with an ordinary majority is predicted, the EU would be able to lead a proactive and efficient security policy.

  3. State of implementation of directive 2013/59/Euratom regarding radon protection in selected member states of the European Union; Stand der Umsetzung der Richtlinie 2013/59/Euratom hinsichtlich des Radonschutzes in ausgewaehlten Mitgliedstaaten der EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Stephanie [Saechsisches Staatsministerium fuer Umwelt und Landwirtschaft (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Directive 2013/59/Euratom came 6th February 2014 into force. The member states have to implement the directive into national legislation until 6th of February 2018. According to different legal structures in the member states legislation will be comparable with regards to content, but may be implemented in different legal areas. Additionally the different current experience regarding radon regulation as well as different expertise with all aspects of radon protection will affect the implementation. Activities for implementation started in many member states, but at present it is not possible to make a mandatory statement for any member state, which modifications will come until 2018. On the other hand it is assumed that member states who have engaged themselves with radon protection issues since many years will not change their plans basically until 2018. The member states mentioned in the following text are chosen exemplary. A comprehensive compilation of the situation in all member states of the European Union was not possible. The inclusion of Switzerland resulted from the fact, that this European country is basically orientating its radon regulations on the international state of the art and international (also European) legislation.

  4. The Foreign Policies of European Union Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foreign Policies of EU Member States provides a clear and current overview of the motivations and outcomes of EU Member States regarding their foreign policy-making within and beyond the EU. It provides an in-depth analysis of intra-EU policy-making and sheds light, in an innovative and understan......Foreign Policies of EU Member States provides a clear and current overview of the motivations and outcomes of EU Member States regarding their foreign policy-making within and beyond the EU. It provides an in-depth analysis of intra-EU policy-making and sheds light, in an innovative...... prerogative exercised by all EU Member States is to construct their own foreign policies on everything from trade and defence with the rest of the world. This combination of clarity, thematic structure and empirical case studies make this an ideal textbook for all upper-level students of European foreign...

  5. TURKEY’S ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION – PRESENT OR PERSPECTIVES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Voica

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The enlargement of the European Union is a sui generis process, which involves internal preparation of the candidate countries, the European Union and accession negotiations as well. The EU enlargement process is based on the desire to create a close relationschip between the European countries in a common economic and political project. Guided by tha values of the European Union and subject to strict conditions, the enlargement proved to be one of the most effective tools for promoting political, economic and social reforms and to strengthen pceace, stability and democracy across the continent. A controversial topic in the last period is Turkey’s accession to the European Union. Turkey’s European ambitions date back to the 1963 Ankara Agreements, although it has formally submitted the membership application in 1987. Following the Helsinki European Council of 10 – 11 December 1999, accession negotiations between the EU and Romania, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Malta and Bulgaria started on 15 February 2000. Regarding the accession negotiations with Turkey, il was considered that this country does not meet, at this stage, the criteria set by the Copenhagen European Council on the rule of law, democracy and human rights. For Turkey, an Accession Partnership was adopted on 8 March 2001. Currently, Turkey is far from concluding the process of joining the European Union. However, Turkey is a state that can no longer be ignored by anyone in the world politics, being remarked by the infrastructure projects, the developed tourism, the steady economic growth and, last but not least, by the impressive military power, being the second NATO army. Given that, in the framework of the enlargement process, both the candidate states and the old members must be prepared for integration and cohabitation as well as the negative opinion on the Turkish membership of the influential states, such as Germany and France, it remains to be seen whether Turkey will

  6. Information Guide: regionalism and separatism in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    EDC, Cardiff

    2013-01-01

    A brief bibliography of information sources about current issues of regionalism and separatism in the European Union with a particular focus on Catalonia, Flanders and Scotland. This guide was compiled in connection with the event Regionalism and Separatism in the European Union held in the Cardiff EDC on 21 February 2013.

  7. [Analysis of difficult problems on European Union laws and regulations of traditional herbal medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Qun; Xiong, Yan; Wang, Yi-Tao; Zou, Wen-Jun

    2017-10-01

    Registration of Chinese patent medicine in European Union (EU) is of great significance to the internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine as EU market acts as an important position in the global botanical market. In retrospect, the domestic studies on EU regulations of traditional herbal medicinal products have been conducted for more than 10 years, but there is still some cognitive bias and lack of research. In this paper, a review of the relevant research progress and the main misunderstanding problems about Directive 2004/24/EC, like the centralized and decentralized supervision system of traditional herbal medicinal products in the EU, marketing authorization procedures for traditional herbal medicinal products, Community Herbal Monograph and List Entries, would be systematically analyzed, so as to provide reference for the registration of Chinese patent medicine in EU. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Do increasing prices affect food deprivation in the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol García-Germán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The rise of prices of agricultural commodities in global markets during 2007-2012 was followed by increased consumer food prices around the world. More expensive food may have an impact on consumer food access and thus on their welfare, not only in developing countries but also amongst the most vulnerable in developed countries. Using a longitudinal database from the Statistics on Income and Living Conditions and population-averaged models, we tested whether increasing food prices had an impact on household food deprivation in 26 European Union (EU member states. Results revealed a significant relationship between food deprivation and the consumer food price index and disposable income. Households in the lowest income quintile in the member states recently acceded to the EU were the most vulnerable to food deprivation. Results also showed that low-income households in densely populated areas were more vulnerable to food deprivation. This should be taken into account when evaluating food assistance programmes that focus on the segments of the population most at risk of food deprivation.

  9. Do increasing prices affect food deprivation in the European Union?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Germán, S.; Bardají, I.; Garrido, A.

    2018-01-01

    The rise of prices of agricultural commodities in global markets during 2007-2012 was followed by increased consumer food prices around the world. More expensive food may have an impact on consumer food access and thus on their welfare, not only in developing countries but also amongst the most vulnerable in developed countries. Using a longitudinal database from the Statistics on Income and Living Conditions and population-averaged models, we tested whether increasing food prices had an impact on household food deprivation in 26 European Union (EU) member states. Results revealed a significant relationship between food deprivation and the consumer food price index and disposable income. Households in the lowest income quintile in the member states recently acceded to the EU were the most vulnerable to food deprivation. Results also showed that low-income households in densely populated areas were more vulnerable to food deprivation. This should be taken into account when evaluating food assistance programmes that focus on the segments of the population most at risk of food deprivation.

  10. Childhood tuberculosis in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2000 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandgren, A; Hollo, V; Quinten, C; Manissero, D

    2011-03-24

    Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been neglected for decades as a key component of TB control. However, ensuring proper monitoring of childhood TB has recently been given renewed emphasis. A descriptive analysis of surveillance data was performed to assess burden and trends of paediatric TB in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) between 2000 and 2009. From 2000 to 2009, 39,695 notified paediatric (defined as 0–14 years of age) TB cases were reported by the 27 EU countries plus Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. These paediatric cases accounted for 4.3% of all notified cases. However, across the EU/EEA Member States, paediatric case notification rates ranged from 29.6 per 100,000 to 0.3 per 100,000 for the latest reporting year, 2009. Overall,though, these rates dropped from 5.5 per 100,000 in 2000 to 4.2 per 100,000 in 2009. The EU/EEA average annual percent changes (AAPC) in paediatric notification rates decreased between 2000 and 2004 by 1.3%and between 2005 and 2009 by 2.4%, with an overall decrease between 2000 and 2009 of 2.8%. Of all paediatric cases reported from 2000 to 2009, only 16.9%were culture-confirmed, amongst which the overall treatment success was 80.5% for all culture-confirmed pulmonary paediatric TB cases. Childhood TB in the EU/EEA remains a public health issue. Due attention should be paid to assessing paediatric trends as they could provide an insight in recent transmission. Whilst the primary aim of further reducing TB rates among children is paramount, better rates of appropriate diagnosis should also be achieved, along with a further improvement of therapeutic success rates.

  11. Normative Power vs. Political Interest: EU Aid Selectivity beyond the European Consensus on Development, 2008-13

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hout (Wil)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper focuses on the ‘governance turn’ in the development policies of the European Union, represented in particular by the adoption of the ‘European Consensus on Development’ in 2005. The main assumption inherent in the EU approach to development is that the

  12. Draft European resolution on energy transition within the European Union. Nr 597

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michels, Thierry

    2018-01-01

    After references to European and international directives or agreements, this document aims at drawing up new flexible rules to promote energy transition within the EU. It therefore states the French National Assembly opinion on issues related to the reduction of European greenhouse emissions, the revision of the Carbon Emissions Trading Scheme, rules concerning the sharing of the burden to reduce these emissions in sectors not covered by the ETS, the revision of rules concerning energy efficiency and the energy performance of buildings, the revision of rules concerning renewable energies, the revision of rules in the electric power sector, the governance of the Union of energy, the revision of rules concerning the Agency of the Cooperation of Energy Regulators, the consideration of social impacts of energy transition, the Brexit, and the Paris agreement

  13. Coalition Within a Coalition: The Baltics in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina M. Busygina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of small power problem focusing on the behav­iour of small power states within coalitions and their proneness to free riding. To pursue an independent agenda and increase their significance within large associa­tions, the authors argue, small powers tend to create ‘coalitions within coalitions’, essentially acting as free riders and transferring costs and political responsibility for decision-making to larger players. Such an asymmetric strategy makes it possi­ble for small powers to advance their interests within alliances and save resources. The authors test this hypothesis on the behaviour of the Baltics in the European Union. It is demonstrated that Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have created a stable small coalition within the EU and actively form ad hoc alliances with the leading states to push union-level decisions, as it was the case with settling the migrant issue. In other areas, these states tend to benefit from the free rider behaviour.

  14. Comparing pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Croatia to the European Union Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Habl, Claudia; Bogut, Martina; Vončina, Luka

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Croatia and the 27 European Union (EU) Member States. Methods Knowledge about the pharmaceutical systems in Croatia and the 27 EU Member States was acquired by literature review and primary research with stakeholders. Results Pharmaceutical prices are controlled at all levels in Croatia, which is also the case in 21 EU Member States. Like many EU countries, Croatia also applies external price referencing, ie, compares prices with other countries. While the wholesale remuneration by a statutorily regulated linear mark-up is applied in Croatia and in several EU countries, the pharmacy compensation for dispensing reimbursable medicines in the form of a flat rate service fee in Croatia is rare among EU countries, which usually apply a linear or regressive pharmacy mark-up scheme. Like in most EU countries, the Croatian Social Insurance reimburses specific medicines at 100%, whereas patients are charged co-payments for other reimbursable medicines. Criteria for reimbursement include the medicine’s importance from the public health perspective, its therapeutic value, and relative effectiveness. In Croatia and in many EU Member States, reimbursement is based on a reference price system. Conclusion The Croatian pharmaceutical system is similar to those in the EU Member States. Key policies, like external price referencing and reference price systems, which have increasingly been introduced in EU countries are also applied in Croatia and serve the same purpose: to ensure access to medicines while containing public pharmaceutical expenditure. PMID:21495202

  15. Comparing pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Croatia to the European Union Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Habl, Claudia; Bogut, Martina; Voncina, Luka

    2011-04-15

    To perform a comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Croatia and the 27 European Union (EU) Member States. Knowledge about the pharmaceutical systems in Croatia and the 27 EU Member States was acquired by literature review and primary research with stakeholders. Pharmaceutical prices are controlled at all levels in Croatia, which is also the case in 21 EU Member States. Like many EU countries, Croatia also applies external price referencing, i.e., compares prices with other countries. While the wholesale remuneration by a statutorily regulated linear mark-up is applied in Croatia and in several EU countries, the pharmacy compensation for dispensing reimbursable medicines in the form of a flat rate service fee in Croatia is rare among EU countries, which usually apply a linear or regressive pharmacy mark-up scheme. Like in most EU countries, the Croatian Social Insurance reimburses specific medicines at 100%, whereas patients are charged co-payments for other reimbursable medicines. Criteria for reimbursement include the medicine's importance from the public health perspective, its therapeutic value, and relative effectiveness. In Croatia and in many EU Member States, reimbursement is based on a reference price system. The Croatian pharmaceutical system is similar to those in the EU Member States. Key policies, like external price referencing and reference price systems, which have increasingly been introduced in EU countries are also applied in Croatia and serve the same purpose: to ensure access to medicines while containing public pharmaceutical expenditure.

  16. Export competitiveness of dairy products on global markets: the case of the European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojnec, Š; Fertő, I

    2014-10-01

    This paper analyzed the export competitiveness of dairy products of the European Union (EU) countries (EU-27) on intra-EU, extra-EU, and global markets, using the revealed comparative advantage index over the 2000-2011 period. The results indicated that about half of the EU-27 countries have had competitive exports in a certain segment of dairy products. The results differed by level of milk processing and for intra-EU and extra-EU markets, and did so over the analyzed years. Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, and the Netherlands are old EU-15 countries with competitive dairy exports (from the lowest to the highest according to the level of milk processing). The majority of the new EU-12 countries have faced difficulties in maintaining their level of export competitiveness, at least for some dairy products and market segments. The more competitive EU-12 countries in dairy exports were the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and Poland. The duration of export competitiveness differed across the dairy groups of products according to the level of milk processing, indicating the importance of dairy chain product differentiation for export competitiveness and specialization. The export competitiveness of the higher level of processed milk products for final consumption can be significant for export dairy chain competitiveness on global markets. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The challenges facing the European Union Centres of Excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupre, Bruno; )

    2012-10-01

    On 19 April 2012, the United Nation Security Council congratulated the European Union for its initiative on centres of excellence in the nuclear, radiological, biological, and chemical fields. The time for glowing reports is over. Three years after its creation, the support of EU Member Sates, the Security Council, the G8, the IEAE, the WHO, the USA, Interpol, the ICRC, has been obtained. Other diplomatic, organisational, and communicative challenges have now arisen regarding implementation. The manifest challenges include: 1/Political exploitation of the centres. Following a recent round table in Algiers, the Algerian press ran headlines such as 'terrorism, the Malian crisis arrives in Algiers' CBRN centres of excellence' and 'Bouteflika, the centres of excellence slight'. 2/Communication errors. A unanimously approved expert in South East Asia became a persona non grata over the last six months despite not making any fundamental mistake, aside from his inability to evaluate the degree of a country's sensitivity and pride. The countries in the region went so far as to threaten to pull out of the Manila centre as a result of this ultimately minor error in communication. 3/The scope of the centres' role complicates the grasp of its objectives. To date, the focus has essentially been on non-proliferation and the fight against CBRN terrorism, under the well-established theme of Resolution 1540. The shift of CBRN focus, at the behest of certain regions, on to real natural risks (pandemics) or industrial risks (protection of crucial infrastructure following an earthquake, flooding, or a tsunami) fundamentally changes the teams' make-up and the mobilization of resources. The emergency services culture is different to that of nonproliferation. However, they both very much address CBRN risks and threats. 4/The limits of the 'bottom-up' approach. To date, the centres' success has been due to the lack of restrictive rules. The policy is to enlist willing third-party States

  18. RECONCILIATION OF LANGUAGE VERSIONS WITH DIVERGING MEANINGS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Cristiana SPĂTARU-NEGURĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As emphasized in a study published last year, when multiple legal orders and languages co-exist within a single legal regime, there is potential for divergences between the legal texts. The European Union gives rise to such divergences, having in mind that it integrates 28 Member States and 24 official languages. After discovering how the multilingual and multicultural environment of the European Union affects its legislative and judicial processes and arguing the problem of translation divergences between the authentic texts of the European Union, it is nowadays our concern to analyse the reconciliation of language versions with diverging meanings in the EU legal order. The present study is part of a more complex research on this theme and it is meant to approach certain important points of the master thesis prepared in Switzerland for a LL.M. program.

  19. Econometric Assessment of the Degree of Economic Convergence between Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mădălina OPRIȚESCU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the important objectives of the European Union is to support economic growth based on economic, social and territorial cohesion between Member States. Due to the accession of relatively poor countries to the European Union, maintaining cohesion is and will remain a major challenge, with cohesion policy having to support the reduction of imbalances between the old Member States and also support the development of less developed regions. One of the main measures adopted by the European authorities emphasizes the importance of increasing the degree of economic convergence between Member States by promoting a common market along with an economic and monetary union. In addition, increasing productivity and convergence within the EU are the foundations of the Lisbon Strategy and remain an important pillar of the Europe 2020 Growth Strategy.

  20. What energy policy for the European Union?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The energy question is becoming ever more important. Proper management of energy resources is a strategic challenge that will determine our economic development and even the preservation of our way of life. Looking further into the future, failure to grasp energy-related problems could be seriously prejudicial to the future of our planet (global warming). Because of the rise in prices of fossil fuels resulting from the gradual exhaustion of resources and the political instability reigning in the principal production zones, the disputes over gas between Russia and certain former Soviet republics, massive electricity blackouts, etc, public opinion is now particularly sensitive to these new threats and is looking to decision-makers, at both national and European level, to draw up policies capable of responding to these concerns. Over the past two years, European institutions have in fact taken an increasing number of initiatives in the energy field. This work has, in particular, identified the following three major objectives: - combating global warming, which implies the definition of an energy mix compatible with environmental constraints (reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases), - ensuring security of supply, an ever-growing concern, given the growing dependency of EU Member States on imports of energy, and - safeguarding the competitiveness of the European economy. Despite this work, the only tangible achievement in the energy field in Europe, and one that is still incomplete, concerns the liberalisation of the gas and electricity markets. Apart from the fact that this policy is sometimes badly perceived by European populations, being regarded as responsible for the current rise in prices, Europe cannot be satisfied with tackling just this aspect of affairs. In this respect, energy provides an opportunity to re-launch the construction of Europe both internally (drawing up of a joint agreement regarding energy options, R and D programmes, energy saving, etc

  1. Limits of an "Energy Union": only pragmatic progress on EU energy market regulation expected in the coming months

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Severin; Geden, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Since the Juncker Commission took office in late 2014, the idea of an »Energy Union« has been a central theme of the EU energy policy debate. Today, the Energy Union concept covers every area of current European energy and climate policy. Its primary objective is to create a coherent, overarching policy framework. From a political perspective, the Commission’s aim is to prevent any further renationalization of energy policy. But although the Member State governments constantly refer to the en...

  2. [European Union regulatory and quality requirements for botanical drugs and their implications for Chinese herbal medicinal products development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, You-Ping

    2017-06-01

    This paper introduces regulatory pathways and characteristic quality requirements for marketing authorization of herbal medicinal products in the European Union(EU), and the legal status and applications of "European Union list of herbal substances, preparations and combinations" and "European Union herbal monographs". Also introduced are Chinese herbs that have been granted the EU list entry, those with EU herbal monographs, and registered EU traditional herbal medicinal products with Chinese herbs as active ingredients. Special attention is paid to the technical details of three authorized EU herbal medicinal products (Veregen, Sativex and Episalvan) in comparison with Andrographis paniculata extract HMPL-004 that failed the phase Ⅲ clinical trial for ulcerative colitis. The paper further emphasizes the importance of enriching active fractions of herbal extracts and taking regulatory and quality considerations into account in early stage of botanical drug development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Analysis of European Union Economy in Terms of GDP Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona VINEREAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the crises on national economies represented a subject of analysis and interest for a wide variety of research studies. Thus, starting from the GDP composition, the present research exhibits an analysis of the impact of European economies, at an EU level, of the events that followed the crisis of 2007 – 2008. Firstly, the research highlighted the existence of two groups of countries in 2012 in European Union, namely segments that were compiled in relation to the structure of the GDP’s components. In the second stage of the research, a factor analysis was performed on the resulted segments, that showed that the economies of cluster A are based more on personal consumption compared to the economies of cluster B, and in terms of government consumption, the situation is reversed. Thus, between the two groups of countries, a different approach regarding the role of fiscal policy in the economy can be noted, with a greater emphasis on savings in cluster B. Moreover, besides the two groups of countries resulted, Ireland and Luxembourg stood out because these two countries did not fit in either of the resulted segments and their economies are based, to a large extent, on the positive balance of the external balance.

  4. Future Trajectories of Renewable Energy Consumption in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cucchiella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources (RESs are able to reduce the European Union (EU’s dependence on foreign energy imports, also meeting sustainable objectives to tackle climate change and to enhance economic opportunities. Energy management requires a quantitative analysis and the European Commission follows the performance of each Member State (MS in order to define the corrective measures towards 2020 targets. Starting from historical data reported in the Eurostat database and through a mathematical model, this work proposes future trajectories towards 2020 of the share of energy from renewables (REs in terms of gross final energy consumption (GFEC. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis based on two indices—(i the share of REs in GFEC, and (ii gross final renewable energy consumption (GFREC per capita—permits a comparison among 28 MSs. The share of REs in GFEC in EU 28 varies from 19.4% to 21.8% in future trajectories towards 2020. Sweden and Finland occupy the top part of the ranking, while six MSs (Belgium, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, and the United Kingdom are not able to reach the 2020 targets.

  5. European union mission for the rule of law in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Bejtush Gashi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we have studied the international circumstances that have affected the deployment of the EULEX Mission in Kosovo. The EULEX mission is the European Union Mission for the Rule of Law in Kosovo. Its main goal is to advise, assist and support the Kosovo authorities in issues of the rule of law, especially in the field of police, judiciary and customs performance. Also this mission has the responsibility to develop and further strengthen the independent multi-ethnic justice system in Kosovo, by ensuring that the rule of law institutions are not politically influenced and that they meet the known international standards and best European practices. This mission was foreseen to be deployed to Kosovo, based on the Ahtissari Comprehensive Status Proposal for Kosovo, but due to its non-approval by the UN Security Council, its full implementation was delayed until December 2008. EULEX acts within the framework of Resolution 1244 of the UN Security Council and under a single chain of command in Brussels. EULEX officials have supported Kosovo Police, the Judiciary system and Kosovo Customs, through MMA actions for achieving objectives and goals that are foreseen by the program strategy of EULEX. But in terms of efficiency, EULEX has only achieved modest results. In the northern part of Kosovo, EULEX has failed, as a result of its ambivalent mandate and incoherence of EU Foreign and Security Policy.

  6. Relevant Market in Commercial Aviation of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kociubiński

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the issue of definition of relevant market in civil aviation within the European Union. The liberalization of the market since the early 1990s has led to a rapid increase in the number of airlines operating in the EU. The increase in the competitiveness of the market has brought many positive changes for passengers, such as lower fares and a better network of connections. At the same time it has created a risk that the airlines, in order to gain a competitive edge, would infringe the rules of competition. This is especially important in the context of the phenomenon that is the development of the airline alliances, which could lead to an abuse of a dominant position. A clear definition of the relevant market is a first step in an assessment of whether such an abuse occurred. This paper focus on the elements that Internal Market regulator, the European Commission, takes into consideration when defining relevant market in the airline industry.

  7. CHALLENGES AND DILLEMAS WITHIN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Maria Simionov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Every EU enlargement signified a step towards Central and Eastern Europe, therefore, the 2004 „big bang enlargement”, followed by the one in 2007, modified the geopolitical context within the „old continent” and also increased the importance of the European Union regionally, as well as globally. Integrating the ex-soviet countries into the EU meant taking them out of the Russian sphere of influence, as well as attempting to super size the EU territory in order to increase the European power on a long term. Despite the weakening of Russia after the Cold War, the federation still represents a challenge regarding „pax europea”, as Russia still has an amazing military capacity, as well as important natural resources. The entrance into the Russian sphere of influence, the European energetic dependency on Russia, the conflicts within the separatist regions situated at the EU eastern borders are just few of the many challenges regarding the relations between the European Union and Russia.

  8. Transitional Democracy, Legitimacy and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kaplánová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the ongoing global crisis has triggered an issue how to set up a theoretical framework of global governance. The integration to a supranational level of governance has been a contemporary process of democratization in recent decades. To analyze the institutionalization of global governance means to recognize a normative idea of democracy. The theory of international relations demonstrates that there are four normative models of democracy at the supranational level of governance. In my opinion, a crucial difference of the institutionalization is a concept of legitimacy of global democratic regime. Because of a divided understanding of legitimacy at the transnational level of governance is difficult to find a consensus in which way should be a transnational democracy framed. A dual legitimacy in a supranational organization like the European Union also triggers a specific democratic deficit. My point of view corresponds with the division of transnational orders in normative way and its correspondence to legitimacy. Cla rifying the duality of legitimacy can help us not only to solve all globalizing problems but of course to decide in which way we want to make the supranational organizations work.

  9. Progress of Fulfillment of the Kyoto Objectives by the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Calanter

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most important challenges that humanity faces in the 21st century, which is seriously considered by the European Union. In this context, the objective of this paper is to analyze the extent to which the EU has fulfilled its obligations in the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, and also to expose the obligations stipulated for the second period (2013-2020. The approach is to display in the first part of the work the fulfillment by the European Union of the Kyoto objectives, and in the second part, to analyze the successful implementation in the EU of the flexible mechanisms provided through the Protocol.

  10. Designing Supervision under the Preventive Anti-Money Laundering Policy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa van den Broek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2005/60/EC on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering and terrorist financing is currently one of the main instruments which regulates efforts to combat money laundering (and terrorist financing in the European Union. Respecting national procedural autonomy, this directive leaves a high degree of freedom for the Member States in designing their own supervisory architectures under the preventive anti-money laundering policy. This contribution adopts a systematic approach to the institutional differences between the EU Member States and presents four models of supervision that are currently present in the European Union. It explains the main characteristics of these models, categorises the EU Member States accordingly and analyses the potential strengths and weaknesses of each model, thereby providing a first indication of their effectiveness.

  11. The First Steps Towards Harmonizing Public Sector Accounting for European Union Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the process that led the European Commission to the decision to develop European Public Sector Accounting Standards (EPSAS) for harmonizing public sector accounting practices within the European Union. The paper finds that there was limited scope in terms of stakeholder...... participation in the public consultation that served as a basis for the decision. In addition, the decision to adopt EPSAS for EU member states raises questions on the relationship between regional and global governance in the area of public sector accounting....

  12. The Tensions between Internal and External Multilateralism in the Case Law of the Court of Justice of the European Union Concerning International Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cebulak, Pola

    2016-01-01

    The European Union’s (EU) commitment to multilateralism is enshrined in Article 21(1) of the Treaty on the European Union (TEU), which proclaims that the EU “shall promote multilateral solutions to common problems”. It is also reflected in numerous documents and treaties produced within the frame......The European Union’s (EU) commitment to multilateralism is enshrined in Article 21(1) of the Treaty on the European Union (TEU), which proclaims that the EU “shall promote multilateral solutions to common problems”. It is also reflected in numerous documents and treaties produced within...... to multilateralism externally appears problematic. This chapter examines the articulation between this internal and external multilateralism of the EU in the case-law of the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU). It asks the question whether the main tool of legal interpretation deployed by the Court – teleological...

  13. Climate policy in other countries of the European Union. An outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, P.

    2005-08-01

    Within the framework of the second evaluation memorandum on climate policy in the Netherlands an overview is given of the climate policy in 15 other countries of the European Union. The overview is mainly based on progress reports on greenhouse gases emission, issued by the European Environment Agency (EEA) and a database of policy and measures in the field of climatic change, maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA). Next to EU Directives as an important base for policy in the 15 countries, the the covenant on CO2 emission for new cars between ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers Association) and the European Commission is considered to be an important agreement for climate policy in the EU counties [nl

  14. The Ideas of the Students of Education Faculty about the European Union Education and Youth Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, Muammer; Kamer, S. Tunay

    2009-01-01

    The most important issue that Turkey has been dealing with since the beginning of 2000s is the entrance to the European Union and the preparatory activities for this period. No what how it is evaluated, as an opportunity or a threat to which will break us off our cultural values, EU is a reality that our country faces. The programs such as FORCE,…

  15. European Banking Union D: Cross-Border Resolution—Dexia Group

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalind Z. Wiggins; Natalia Tente; Andrew Metrick

    2014-01-01

    In September 2008, Dexia Group, SA, the world’s largest provider of public finance, experienced a sudden liquidity crisis. In response, the governments of Belgium, France, and Luxembourg provided the company a capital infusion and credit support. In February 2010, the company adopted a European Union (EU)-approved restructuring plan that required it to scale back its businesses and cease proprietary trading. In June 2011, Dexia withdrew from the government-sponsored credit support program bef...

  16. The Gender Wage Gaps, 'Sticky Floors' and 'Glass Ceilings' of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Christofides, Louis N.; Polycarpou, Alexandros; Vrachimis, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    We consider and attempt to understand the gender wage gap across 24 EU member states, all of which share the objective of gender equality, using 2007 data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. The size of the gender wage gap varies considerably across countries and selection corrections affect the offered gap, sometimes substantially. Most of the gap cannot be explained by the characteristics available in this data set. Quantile regressions show that, in most cou...

  17. THE IMPACT OF ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION ON THE ROMANIAN CAPITAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoş Mînjină; Andrei Stănculescu

    2007-01-01

    The accession to the European Union has had a significant impact on the Romanian capital market. In this paper are presented some aspects of the capital market which are influenced by the mentioned event, such as a harmonized legislation with EU legislation and restructured capital market architecture. In order to synthesize the accession effect on the Romanian capital market, we have analyzed the specific market indicators (such as market value, turnover, market indexes etc.), computed for t...

  18. Britain, France and Germany: Priorities for the European Union’s Security and Defense Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    David M. Triesman, “A Strong, Competitive Europe is Vital” ( Mansion House, London, 9 January 2007), Denis MacShane, “Enlarging the EU: Peace and...Europe” ( Humboldt University, Berlin, 16 May 2006), http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/newsroom/latest-news/?view=Speech&id=1893537 (accessed 18 April 2009... Humboldt University, Berlin, 16 May 2006. Howorth, Jolyon. Security and Defence Policy in the European Union. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007

  19. Renewable Energies and European Union Law: between (internal) market and general interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvesdu, Carlos Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The various legislative instruments of the European Union related to renewable energy illustrate the complex relationship between the market and the public interest in the EU. How does the European public power articulate the public interest and the market? Such European laws are united by the way of a dialectical common approach. Firstly, it is about using the market to achieve the public interest, namely the protection of the environment. Therefore, the promotion of renewable energies, as a public interest goal, largely depends on the market. However, the market can do wrong. When the market is insufficient, fallible, the European Union will not hesitate to intervene to inflect it, in the name of the public interest

  20. Secondary Education in the European Union: Structures, Organisation and Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This study examines the existing secondary education structures of the European Union member nations, the organization of education, teacher training, and the way in which secondary education is managed in Europe today. The three European Free Trade Association/European Economic Area (EFTA/EEC) countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway) also…

  1. FOREIGN MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES IN THE UNITED STATES/EUROPEAN UNION AGRIBUSINESS TRADE CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lelis Leal Calegario

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study makes an analysis of American’ multinationals foreign market entry strategies in the European Union agribusiness context. We have used a logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equation method to make hypothesis about the multinationals’ choices. Our results suggest that American food companies operating in EU appear not to choose their mode of entry based merely on host country factors, but mostly on firm related factors, including firm-specific factors and firm financial performance. Despite the creation of a common institutional framework for M&As in the EU, they are still subject to peculiarities due mostly to organizational characteristics of investing firms.

  2. Food irradiation in Asia, the European Union, and the United States. A status update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the status of food irradiation in Asia, the European Union, and the United States in 2010. Our results show that quantities of irradiated foods in Asia, the EU, and the US in 2010 were estimated at 285200, 9300, and 103000 tons, respectively. Compared with 2005, the quantity of irradiated foods was 100000 tons higher in Asia and 10000 tons higher in the US but 6000 tons lower in the EU. Thus, commercial food irradiation has increased significantly in Asia during the 5-year period studied. Phytosanitary irradiation of fruits and agricultural products has recently increased with 6 countries having irradiated 18500 tons in 2010. (author)

  3. The European Union renewable directive: The policy-making process and the stakeholders positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Anne Therese

    2011-07-01

    This working paper focuses on the proposal for a renewable energy directive in the European Union (EU), which main aim is to increase the share of renewable energy sources in EU energy consumption from 8.5 to 20 per cent by 2020. It accounts for the legislative process, from the drafting and consultation stage to the final directive was formally adopted in April 2009, and in particular the proposal of binding interim targets and financial penalty. The formal proposals as well as the stakeholders positions on this issue are examined.(auth)

  4. Remarks on the Future of the European Union: Domestic and Global Challenges Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Inotai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the main consequences that the crisis has put on the European Union, regarding four major areas: financial, macroeconomic, social and mental-ideological. Also, it aims to tackle some key challenges for the European Union: the revival of international trade; the prevention of the rise of protectionism on the global scale; the need to find a solution to the dilemma between continued stimulus and financial consolidation in general, and between the ambitious goals of the Europe 2020 project and the current fiscal restrictions; the growth of public support across Europe for a financial consolidation strategy based on cutting spending; the impact of the financial and macroeconomic crisis on several sectors; and the deficiencies of the „European construction” indicated by the global crisis. Furthermore, it proposes four main questions for which EU has to provide clear answers in order to become a real global player. The questions concern the „European identity”, the „European values”, the EU strategy paper establishing its mission for the next period and the importance of a strong leadership implementing the strategy. In the end, the most important challenge seems to be how the EU can remain a global economic actor and become a more influential political player in the network of rapidly changing international power relations.

  5. Trends of mortality from Alzheimer's disease in the European Union, 1994-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, H; Alvarez-Alvarez, I; Guillen-Grima, F; Al-Rahamneh, M J; Aguinaga-Ontoso, I

    2017-06-01

    In many countries, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has gradually become a common disease in elderly populations. The aim of this study was to analyse trends of mortality caused by AD in the 28 member countries in the European Union (EU) over the last two decades. We extracted data for AD deaths for the period 1994-2013 in the EU from the Eurostat and World Health Organization database. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 were computed. Joinpoint regression was used to analyse the trends and compute the annual percent change in the EU as a whole and by country. Analyses by gender and by European regions were conducted. Mortality from AD has risen in the EU throughout the study period. Most of the countries showed upward trends, with the sharpest increases in Slovakia, Lithuania and Romania. We recorded statistically significant increases of 4.7% and 6.0% in mortality rates in men and women, respectively, in the whole EU. Several countries showed changing trends during the study period. According to the regional analysis, northern and eastern countries showed the steepest increases, whereas in the latter years mortality has declined in western countries. Our findings provide evidence that AD mortality has increased in the EU, especially in eastern and northern European countries and in the female population. Our results could be a reference for the development of primary prevention policies. © 2017 EAN.

  6. Food and feed chemical contaminants in the European Union: Regulatory, scientific, and technical issues concerning chemical contaminants occurrence, risk assessment, and risk management in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Marco; Silano, Vittorio

    2017-07-03

    A priority of the European Union is the control of risks possibly associated with chemical contaminants in food and undesirable substances in feed. Following an initial chapter describing the main contaminants detected in food and undesirable substances in feed in the EU, their main sources and the factors which affect their occurrence, the present review focuses on the "continous call for data" procedure that is a very effective system in place at EFSA to make possible the exposure assessment of specific contaminants and undesirable substances. Risk assessment of contaminants in food atances in feed is carried currently in the European Union by the CONTAM Panel of EFSA according to well defined methodologies and in collaboration with competent international organizations and with Member States.

  7. The enlargement of the European Union. Effects on trade and emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xueqin; Van Ierland, Ekko

    2006-01-01

    With the gradual accession of various Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to the European Union (EU), international trade between the EU and the CEECs will change as a result of trade liberalisation and the mobility of production factors within the EU. The EU and most of the CEECs have already committed themselves to reduce by 2008-2012 their emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by 8% compared to the 1990 level. This paper reports on an investigation of the potential consequences of the enlargement of the EU and of the emission reduction target set by the Kyoto Protocol on the sectoral production patterns and international trade. A comparative-static general equilibrium model was developed to examine the impacts under different scenarios. For illustrative purposes, two regions (the EU and the CEECs) and three categories of goods and services (agricultural goods, industrial goods, and services) were included. The model was calibrated by the 1998 data. The model was subsequently applied to study the effects of free trade, the mobility of factors and the environmental constraints on production and international trade in light of the enlargement of the EU. We show that in this specific context, free trade is beneficial to economic welfare and does not necessarily increase emissions of greenhouse gases. The mobility of factors also increases economic welfare, but in the case of fixed production technology it may harm the environment through more emissions of GHGs. (author)

  8. The European Union Counteraction To Israel's Settlement Policy In The Occupied Arab Territories: Myths And Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Krylov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 50 years the European Union member states (the European Economic Community up to 1993 maintain a special relations with Israel particularly in the trade sphere. Only in 2014 the export of Israeli products to Europe increased by 3%, amounting in absolute terms to a third of total exports of Israel. At the same time, the position of the EU with regard to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict is clearly contrary to the real character of the mutual economic, scientific and technical cooperation. After the failure in 2001 of the Palestinian-Israeli negotiations aimed to reach a «Final-Status Agreement» in accordance with the Oslo Accords, the European Union made several attempts to limit the European market penetration of the Israeli products originating from the occupied territories (the West Bank, Gaza Strip, East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights. However, as can be seen from the contents of the article, there is no consensus between the EU member states with regard to the Israeli settlement policy. The study argues that all the decisions made so far in the European Union to limit Israeli export or reduce crediting of programs for scientific and technical cooperation used to be of declarative or vague character.

  9. The political economy of a tradable GHG permit market in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markussen, P.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2002-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to meet an 8% greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target level following the Kyoto agreement. Therefore, the EU Commission has just proposed a new directive establishing a framework for GHG emissions trading within the European Union. This proposal is to outcome a policy process started by the EU Commission and its Green Paper from March 2000. The main industrial stake holders all had the opportunity to comment on the Green Paper and from their directive proposal. Here, we find that the dominant interest groups indeed influenced the final design of an EU GHG market. This industrial rent-seeking most prominently lead to a grand fathered permit allocation rule like the one found in the US tradable permit systems. (au)

  10. Investigation of Economic Impacts of Economic Partnership Agreements between Sub-Saharan Africa and European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Pişkin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to quantify the economic effects of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs which have been negotiating between sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and European Union (EU. The study addresses the following questions:  How are African countries likely to gain or lose from a bilateral trade liberalisation between Africa and the EU?, what are the welfare implications for the African countries from the EPAs?, how will the formation of EPAs affect trade expansion through trade creation and trade diversion effects?, what are the potential fiscal implications of the EPAs. Even though the full reciprocity principle appears to be trade expanding (singularly infavour of EU, this study indicates that it will pose serious implications for deepening of regional integration in Africa because of trade diversion effect between African countries.  Another key finding is welfare effect through the way of trade expantion between EU and SSA.

  11. The political economy of a tradable GHG permit market in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markussen, P; Tinggaard Svendsen, G; Vesterdal, M

    2002-07-01

    The EU has committed itself to meet an 8% greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target level following the Kyoto agreement. Therefore, the EU Commission has just proposed a new directive establishing a framework for GHG emissions trading within the European Union. This proposal is to outcome a policy process started by the EU Commission and its Green Paper from March 2000. The main industrial stake holders all had the opportunity to comment on the Green Paper and from their directive proposal. Here, we find that the dominant interest groups indeed influenced the final design of an EU GHG market. This industrial rent-seeking most prominently lead to a grand fathered permit allocation rule like the one found in the US tradable permit systems. (au)

  12. The banking union and the financial and banking system reform in EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ligia Dumitrescu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Coordination among supervisors in financial and banking system is vital, but the financial crisis has shown that is not enough, and especially in the context of a single currency would require more common actions in EU. Therefore, the European Commission proposed “the creation of a banking union”, in order to place the banking sector on a more solid base and to restore confidence in the single currency, as part of a longer-term vision for the promotion of the economic and fiscal integration. Therefore, the new direction of the reform of the financial sector is "the creation of a banking union", that will help: to strengthen banks supervision, to ensure better deposits security, to recapitalize banks and last but not least to achieve the centralized management of the banking crises.

  13. A decade of African Union and European Union trans-national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first decade of the new millennium saw the European Union deploy nine security missions to the African continent, quoting the European Security and. Defence Policy. Unlike the numerous United Nations security missions that. European states had previously contributed to, these were part of a grand strategy designed ...

  14. The European Union and armed drones: framing the debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Armed drones are an issue extremely relevant for the EU. The recent emergence of targeted killings as a common counter-terrorism technique, the existence of several EU member states using armed and surveillance drones in military scenarios, the presence of member states troops in areas where armed...... drones have been active, the US use of European-originated intelligence to execute targeted killings, and the broader status of international law, are developments that illustrate the importance of the topic. Yet, the EU still does not have an official position on armed drones. In 2014 the European...... Parliament recognized that this is problematic, adopting a Resolution that expressed “grave concern over the use of armed drones outside the international legal framework” and that urged the EU to “develop an appropriate policy response at both European and global level”. This Forum answers to the European...

  15. Corporate Tax in European Union and the Theory of Corporate Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwin-Garzyńska Jolanta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives to be accomplished by the European Union law is to eliminate barriers to the functioning of domestic market and in particular improve the competitiveness of enterprises. After several years of efforts, the European Commission approved a proposal for the directive on a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base which is to remove obstacles to the functioning of internal market and increase tax harmonization. The article is aimed at presenting the essence of CCCTB in the theory of corporate finance and its importance for enterprises, based on the survey of Polish and EU companies. The paper addresses issues relating to tax in corporate finance. Canons of taxation will be discussed and special emphasis will be placed on principles behind formulating fiscal law provisions (including the EU law. Furthermore, the article presents the results of surveys into the importance of taxation cannons for Polish and EU companies.

  16. Democratic Legitimacy and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    This is an introduction to a Special Issue that first considers representative and deliberative conceptions of democratic legitimacy in the EU, and then presents empirical research on how the institutions of the EU are attempting to increase the democratic legitimacy of the multi-level political

  17. Towards a European Position on Armed Drones and Targeted Killing: Surveying EU Counter-Terrorism Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Dorsey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this Research Paper, Jessica Dorsey and Dr. Christophe Paulussen gauge the extent to which European Union Member States share the position of the United States on armed drones and targeted killings. In doing so, it aims to assist in distilling a common EU position on the use of armed drones and a legal framework for counter-terrorism-related uses of force.

  18. Quantifying the prevalence of fuel poverty across the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, Harriet; Snell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    The literature and policy base for fuel poverty in the UK and Ireland is well established, and there is a growing body of single country studies beyond these two EU member states (for example Brunner et al. (2012), Dubois (2012), and Tirado Herrero and Ürge-Vorsatz (2010)), however, on a European level, the last analysis of fuel poverty was conducted in 2004, prior to the enlargement of the EU. Using survey data this paper presents an updated overview of the prevalence of European fuel poverty in the context of the accession of numerous former social states, and rising fuel prices. Analysis reveals the phenomenon of fuel poverty is occurring across the EU, with particularly high levels of fuel poverty found in Eastern and Southern European states. It is argued that there are both EU and national policy frameworks in place that address climate change and these could be used as a starting point for countries to address fuel poverty through improved domestic energy efficiency measures. This paper reflects research undertaken in 2011, supported by eaga Charitable Trust, within the umbrella of work examining issues of poverty and social exclusion across the EU, which has enabled access to the EU-SILC dataset. - Highlights: ► This research is the first comparative analysis of European fuel poverty since 2004. ► Fuel poverty is a particular problem for eastern and southern European member states. ► Recommendations include the improved integration with current EU climate policies.

  19. INNOVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS IN THE EXECUTION OF EUROPEAN UNION BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main reasons invoked to support the use of public funds through financial instruments is that these funds can be used several times: they are therefore "renewable". For example, if a loan granted through such an instrument was repaid after three years, the repaid money could be used later to provide a new loan. Was examined therefore examined whether this renewal effect really materialized. The extent to which funds are renewed in practice depends on the type of financial support but also on the investment period of the instrument concerned. The objective of this article is to highlight that financial instruments have been and are always a way of supporting the attraction and bringing of specific advantages compared to other forms of financing from the European Union The imbalance between the development environment of Central and Eastern Europe countries, candidate countries and EU member states, is quite large and the regions it is even more pronounced. These differences represent serious obstacles in the smooth functioning of the entire Community. The existence of the word "poverty" in some areas of the EU border disrupts the harmony and balance within the community and prevents the creation of an area of equilibrium across the European continent. Essentially, to reduce these imbalances, EU financial support to candidate countries through pre-accession structural instruments, which have a particularly important role in this process. I believe that the Financial Instruments are an effective way of mobilizing cohesion policy resources to achieve the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. Targeting projects with potential economic viability, financial instruments provide support for investment through loans, guarantees, capital investment and other bearing mechanisms of risk, which may be combined with technical assistance, interest rate subsidies or contributions to the guarantee fees in the same operation. In addition to the

  20. An analysis of the sources of competition disipline in the European Union and in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriona Katro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition discipline in the European Union is a substantial component of the EU’s institutional framework. The Lisbon Treaty made the “internal market” a shared competence, while necessary competition rules for the internal market are an exclusive competence of the Union. This paper aims to analyse the sources of the competition discipline in the EU and in Albania focusing more on constitutional sources. From this analyses will emerge that sources of competition discipline are numerous and each of them plays an important role in the development of the competition policy. But arises the question if these sources are all equally important or not? This paper will focus also n the importance of each source in both levels: European Union and Albanian discipline of competition.

  1. The Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership – A Challenge for the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana–Antonia Colibășanu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 2000s, the United States and European Union have discussed the development of bilateral and regional trade agreements. The TTIP – Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership was announced in February 2013 and is currently under negotiation. The initiative aims at establishing a trade agreement between the two blocs, removing all trade barriers, including the non-tariff ones, in a wide range of economic sectors. The paper looks at several key elements that the bilateral negotiations are set to challenge from the European Union perspective. We focus on the main causes for resistance within the EU towards establishing the agreement, seeking to understand the future framework for international trade for the European states. While the EU continues integration to establish a functioning internal market, still continuing the process of diminishing and eliminating non-tariff barriers among the member states, we examine whether liberalisation of trade and investment between the US and the EU will benefit the EU as a whole, considering the current socio-economic trends at the Union’s level.

  2. The determinants of capital structure: the evidence from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mokhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to indicate the influence of several internal determinants on capital structure in different European countries and retrace its tendency taking into consideration the membership of the European Union. Nowadays there are a lot of debates according the future of the European Union. The recent global financial crisis and the following European debt crisis show the significance of the country financial stability and its impact on the private sector. The paper investigates 32 countries of European Union dividing them into three groups as (1 old EU members (15 countries, (2 new EU members (12 countries and (3 EU candidates (4 candidate countries and 1 acceding country.The managers make their financial decisions according to the source of financing and capital structure based on the macroeconomic conditions and country specifics and obviously on company’s advantages and disadvantages, i.e. its internal characteristics. Based on the analysis of previous studies we have chosen several significant internal determinants of capital structure as profitability, tangibility, growth opportunities, non-debt tax shields and firm’s size.The findings show that the country’s specifics, EU membership and corporate debt structure influence the relation between capital structure and its internal characteristics. The capital structure in all countries has tendency to increase, furthermore the old members rely more on debt then candidates or new members.There is no doubt that the majority of countries support Pecking Order Theory then Trade off Theory regarding investigated relations. In most countries the profitability and size have negative and significant influence on corporate capital structure. At the same time tangibility, growth opportunities and non-debt tax shields split up: selected countries experience positive impact, another part negative, supporting different theories.

  3. Exploring integration of care for children living with complex care needs across the European union and European economic area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, Maria; O’Shea, Miriam; Larkin, Philip J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this paper is to report on the development of surveys to explore integration of care for children living with complex care needs across the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Theory and methods: Each survey consists of a vignette and questions adapted...... from the Standards for Systems of Care for Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs and the Eurobarometer Survey. A Country Agent in each country, a local expert in child health services, will obtain data from indigenous sources. Results: We identified ‘in-principle’ complex problems...

  4. Are the EU Member States Ready for the New Union Customs Code: Emerging Legal Issues On the National Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valantiejus Gediminas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, the European Union has launched a new and ambitious project for the future regulation of international trade in the European Union and the rules of its taxation: since the 1 May 2016, the new Union Customs Code (UCC has entered into force. It revokes the old Community Customs Code (CCC, which was applied since 1992, and passed in the form of EU regulation sets brand-new rules for the application of Common Customs Tariff and calculation of customs duties (tariffs in all the EU Member States. It is oriented to the creation of the paperless environment for the formalisation of international trade operations (full electronic declaration of customs procedures and ensuring of a more uniform administration of customs duties in the tax and customs authorities of the Member States in the European Union. Therefore, the article raises and seeks to answer the problematic question whether the Member States of the European Union themselves are ready to implement these ambitious goals and does the actual practice of the Member States support that (considering the practice of the Republic of Lithuania. The research, which is based on the analysis of case law in the Republic of Lithuania (case study of recent tax disputes between the taxpayers and customs authorities that arose immediately before and after the entry into force of the UCC, leads to the conclusion that many problematic areas that may negatively impact the functioning of the new Customs Code remain and must be improved, including an adoption of new legislative solutions.

  5. The Effects of Great Britain's Exit from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarița Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union directly influences the economicdevelopment of Romania, which will force our country to take all the necessary measures in thecurrent economic conjuncture in order to anchor in the international trade relations.

  6. STRATEGIES OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Iamandi Irina Eugenia; Joldes Cosmin

    2009-01-01

    The present paper emphasizes the corporate social responsibility (CSR) state and development strategies in the European Union and at the level of the Romanian business environment. The aim of the paper is to present the similarities and differences in the

  7. The failure of intergovernmentalism in tackling the EU crisis and the European Parliament’s initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaldi Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The EU is facing a multi-faceted, existential, crisis; it is an economic and social crisis in some countries, a political and cultural crisis all over the EU and a geopolitical crisis at the international level. National governments have taken the lead in the crisis management of the EU: the European Council has become the dominant institution and the intergovernmental method has come back into fashion. But intergovernmentalism has failed: since 2008 the crisis keeps getting worse. Intergovernmentalism is leading towards the EU’s disintegration. Among many voices to save the EU, it is interesting that the supranational institutions, and particularly the Parliament, are taking on themselves the responsibility to take the initiative and indicate a possible way forward for the Union.

  8. National Food Safety Systems in the European Union: A Comparative Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hadjigeorgiou

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comparative survey of the National Food Safety Systems (NFSS of the European Union (EU Member-States (MS and the Central EU level. The main organizational structures of the NFSS, their legal frameworks, their responsibilities, their experiences, and challenges relating to food safety are discussed. Growing concerns about food safety have led the EU itself, its MS and non-EU countries, which are EU trade-partners, to review and modify their food safety systems. Our study suggests that the EU and 22 out of 27 Member States (MS have reorganized their NFSS by establishing a single food safety authority or a similar organization on the national or central level. In addition, the study analyzes different approaches towards the establishment of such agencies. Areas where marked differences in approaches were seen included the division of responsibilities for risk assessment (RA, risk management (RM, and risk communication (RC. We found that in 12 Member States, all three areas of activity (RA, RM, and RC are kept together, whereas in 10 Member States, risk management is functionally or institutionally separate from risk assessment and risk communication. No single ideal model for others to follow for the organization of a food safety authority was observed; however, revised NFSS, either in EU member states or at the EU central level, may be more effective from the previous arrangements, because they provide central supervision, give priority to food control programs, and maintain comprehensive risk analysis as part of their activities.

  9. Legislative amendments and informal politics in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cross, James P.; Hermansson, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    the Commission’s proposals and the final legislative outcome passed by the European Union. It does so by implementing minimum edit distance algorithms to measure changes between legislative proposals and outcomes. The findings suggest that legislative amendments are determined by the formal and informal...... institutional structures in which negotiations take place and characteristics of the proposal itself. Our conclusions contribute to the ongoing debate on the nature and distribution of legislative powers in the European Union....

  10. European Union Harmonized Excise Taxation : Occasional Importation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Tanhua, Taina

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was written with the intent to compile the information related to occasional importation process and European Union harmonized taxation into a single package. The process is based on European Union legislation and the aim of it is to unify the taxation within the internal market area. The national excise duties are not part of the occasional importation process but are partly linked to it. The first part of the thesis discusses the occasional importation of goods subject to ha...

  11. a decade of african union and european union trans-regional

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    designed to link the African Union and the European Union in a process of trans- ... terrorism, drug and human trafficking and migration.5 The common value ..... have involved policing, rule of law, border assistance and monitoring and security .... Europe as exemplified by Russia and Ukraine (who provided helicopters and ...

  12. Immigration in the European Union: problems or solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GRIBINCEA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of asylum seekers is rising sharply across the European Union. Given the EU’s ageing population, is a return to selective immigration inevitable. Europe’s history has been shaped by migration. For centuries, merchants, craftsmen and intellectuals crossed the continent to practice their trades or start new lives. Millions emigrated from Europe, first to the colonies and later to the Americas and the Antipodes. Europe also has a long history of forced migration: from the expulsion of the Jews from Spain to the population shifts in southeast Europe caused by the many wars between the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires. Large-scale immigration into western Europe is more recent. From 1960 to 1973, the number of foreign workers in western Europe doubled from 3 to 6% of the workforce. It was highest in places like the UK and France, with relatively open access for citizens of their former colonies; in Germany, too, the number of foreigners (nearly half Turks rose 4m in the 25 years after 1960, although they seldom became citizens. But primary immigration into Europe – driven by labour needs – all but ended with the oil crisis of 1973. The foreign-born population has continued to grow, not least because most countries still issue tens of thousands of residence permits each year for the purposes of family reunification (nearly 80% of the 58,700 people accepted for permanent settlement in the UK in 1997 were wives and children. EU countries also issue thousands of work permits each year. In Britain in 1997, nearly half of the 54,000 permits went to Americans and Japanese mainly in highly skilled jobs; elsewhere in Europe the permits often go to seasonal farm workers. But the proportion of foreign-born residents in the EU remains low, ranging from 9% in Austria, Belgium and Germany, to under 2% in Spain.

  13. International Political Actorness of the European Union: Evaluation Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GNATYUK N.N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is a completely new international entity which is hard to evaluate using traditional criteria of political actorness. Its active international presence stimulates the modeling of international actor features beyond the scope of “state-international organization” scheme. The concept of international actorness serves as a starting point for the development of appropriate analytical model. Unlike the traditional state-centered approaches which define an international actor through its affiliation witch the international system, this concept operates at the internal level of international entity and at the international structure level. Furthermore, both of these levels are treated as ontologically neutral and mutually constitutive. This basic theoretical scheme is used for elaboration of evaluation criteria of political actorness. The proposed system of criteria is based on drawing, synthesizing and developing the main writings on “new international actors” since the times of classic work by Carol A. Cosgrove and Kenneth J. Twitchett. The key elements of actorness assessed in this article include defining of capacity to act on the global scene as well as the acceptance by other actors and by international system as a whole. At the internal level, the EU’s actor capacity is measured by assessing its core elements ranging from core aspects, such as autonomy, authority, actor capability, coherence and cohesion to identity aspects. On the external level, the decisive criteria are recognition and acceptance by others which reflect expectations and perceptions of the EU. The proposed approach of evaluating the international actorness enables us to consider the political activity of the EU on the basis of coordinated system of interaction between the variables of international and domestic levels of the analysis. Furthermore, this contributes to the development of cumulative, coherent, and comprehensive theory of international

  14. Exchange Rate and Trade: J-curve in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lupu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU economy is experiencing a severe recession amid the global crisis, and although in other regions began to appear mild signs of recovery, in EU countries are recorded a continuously worsening. In many European states, the economic contraction is a consequence of the decrease in net exports component of GDP. The aim of the article is to analyze the situation in which the EU chooses to devalue its currency to increase exports. We found that, the depreciation of the Euro, has no influence on exports and that in EU, it is not expressed a J-curve effects.

  15. Environmental policy in the European Union. Fostering the development of pollution havens?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cave, Lisa A. [Institute for Regional Analysis and Public Policy Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Blomquist, Glenn C. [Department of Economics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0034 (United States)

    2008-04-01

    A pollution haven occurs when dirty industries from developed nations relocate to developing nations in order to avoid strict environmental standards or developed nations imports of dirty industries expand replacing domestic production. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the European Union (EU) has increased its imports of 'dirty' goods from poorer, less democratic countries during a period of more stringent environmental standards. Previous empirical studies find evidence that United States imports are responsive to changes in environmental stringency, but the effects of EU policy have not been examined as thoroughly. Our study follows Kahn [Kahn, M.E., 2003. The Geography of USA Pollution Intensive Trade: Evidence from 1958 to 1994. Regional Science and Urban Economics., 33: 383-400.] and examines the impact of industry energy intensity and toxicity, measured by an energy index and a Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) index, on imports into the EU, at the 2-digit industry level from 1970 to 1999. We use the signing of the Maastricht Treaty to signify a period of more uniform and stringent community wide environmental standards (1993-1999), and identify the level of per capita GDP within an EU trading partner. We find an increased amount of EU energy intensive trade with poorer countries during the period with more stringent EU environmental standards. This result is not robust, however, when poorer countries are defined by OECD membership and geographic region. We do not find an increased amount of EU toxic intensive trade with poorer countries although there is some evidence of increased EU imports of toxic goods from poorer OECD and non-EU European countries. For our full sample of trading partners in all regions, the evidence supports the PHH for EU energy intensive trade, but not for toxic intensive trade. Results for regional trade analysis are less clear. (author)

  16. Environmental policy in the European Union. Fostering the development of pollution havens?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cave, Lisa A.; Blomquist, Glenn C.

    2008-01-01

    A pollution haven occurs when dirty industries from developed nations relocate to developing nations in order to avoid strict environmental standards or developed nations imports of dirty industries expand replacing domestic production. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the European Union (EU) has increased its imports of 'dirty' goods from poorer, less democratic countries during a period of more stringent environmental standards. Previous empirical studies find evidence that United States imports are responsive to changes in environmental stringency, but the effects of EU policy have not been examined as thoroughly. Our study follows Kahn [Kahn, M.E., 2003. The Geography of USA Pollution Intensive Trade: Evidence from 1958 to 1994. Regional Science and Urban Economics., 33: 383-400.] and examines the impact of industry energy intensity and toxicity, measured by an energy index and a Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) index, on imports into the EU, at the 2-digit industry level from 1970 to 1999. We use the signing of the Maastricht Treaty to signify a period of more uniform and stringent community wide environmental standards (1993-1999), and identify the level of per capita GDP within an EU trading partner. We find an increased amount of EU energy intensive trade with poorer countries during the period with more stringent EU environmental standards. This result is not robust, however, when poorer countries are defined by OECD membership and geographic region. We do not find an increased amount of EU toxic intensive trade with poorer countries although there is some evidence of increased EU imports of toxic goods from poorer OECD and non-EU European countries. For our full sample of trading partners in all regions, the evidence supports the PHH for EU energy intensive trade, but not for toxic intensive trade. Results for regional trade analysis are less clear. (author)

  17. IAS 40 : The effects of the implementation of IAS 40 for listed investment property companies within the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Aronsson, Robert; Högberg, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Background: The increased globalization and trade over domestic borders within the European Union (EU) has lead to the implementation of new international accounting standards. This is necessary to create an effective capital market, where comparisons between companies located in different countries can be made, due to a more harmonized accounting. Obstacles to overcome when establish a more harmonized accounting in the EU is for example different accounting backgrounds and valuation methods....

  18. Turkey European Union Relations: Great Expectations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aydin, Hanifi

    2000-01-01

    .... Applications submitted prior to December 1999, were rejected by the EU Commission on the basis of poor democracy, human rights abuses, restrictions on political and cultural rights, a high level...

  19. Corporate Migration in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Neville, Mette

    2000-01-01

    The article analysis the existing possibilities for corporations to change their place of registration (and thereby the applicable law) in the EU, and the prospects offered by the proposed 14th Company Law Directive....

  20. Research Strategies in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James; Lynggaard, Kennet; Löfgren, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The contributing chapters of this book all illustrate the richness and diversity of problem-driven research in EU studies. This concluding chapter draws together the insights of this rich diversity in order to move the study of research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new...... agenda for research on Europe. The crisis gripping the EU in the 21st century is not just an economic crisis, it is a crisis of belief in the EU. Research on the EU is deeply implicated in this crisis, not least because of the questions it does not ask, but also because of the pereceived weakness...... of demonstrating the methods and evidence used. A new agenda for research on Europe needs to acknowledge these weaknesses of the past and move beyond dichotomies towards greater awareness and openesss of the importance of research strategies, designs and methods....

  1. Neonicotinoid residues in UK honey despite European Union moratorium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben A Woodcock

    Full Text Available Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21 and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109. Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium. Clothianidin was the most frequently detected neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoid concentrations declined from May to September in the year following the ban. However, the majority of post-moratorium neonicotinoid residues were from honey harvested early in the year, coinciding with oilseed rape flowering. Neonicotinoid concentrations were correlated with the area of oilseed rape surrounding the hive location. These results suggest mass flowering crops may contain neonicotinoid residues where they have been grown on soils contaminated by previously seed treated crops. This may include winter seed treatments applied to cereals that are currently exempt from EU restrictions. Although concentrations of neonicotinoids were low (<2.0 ng g-1, and posed no risk to human health, they may represent a continued risk to honeybees through long-term chronic exposure.

  2. Usage of Online European Union Information Resources 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Joyce

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an explosion of online European Union information resources available to researchers. However, little research into how researchers are accessing and using these resources has been carried out.. The aim of the research which informs this report was to take the first step to begin to rectify this issue. An online survey was conducted, using University of Bristol’s BOS software to which 145 people replied. The survey found that researchers considered themselves proficient at using online services. Surprisingly only 46.4% used them every day though. The Europa website was the most used but also paradoxically the most criticised for problems with search, navigation and transparency. Journals were the next most popular type of resource. Other top services included search engines, news sites and email lists. Web 2.0 has yet to be taken up widely by our sample of researchers, with few individuals having or using blogs or social networking software. The report also highlights that while some researchers are happy with EU online services, many are concerned about poor navigation and the design of websites, bias of information and the increasing abundance of passwords necessary to access multiple information resources.

  3. Union banking a step towards achieving fiscal Union in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Marius Croitoru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Union policy needs in addition to the official language of four major components: a monetary union, a fiscal union, a union diplomatic and military union A stage in the Union is the Union banking tax. Materials and Methods: Union Bank has three pillars: a single banking supervisor (single supervisory mechanism, the only mechanism of bank resolution and a single scheme of bank guarantees. Results and conclusions: Union Bank, strengthen supervision is an inevitable process, and Romania will have to enroll in it. Option Romania is to be part of Romania deaorece bank Union can not remain outside the structures of decision as long as banks operating in Romania are predominantly Eurozone.

  4. Impacts of Cyprus' European Union Accession on Turkish Cypriot Cooperatives = Avrupa Birliği Üyeliği'nin Kuzey Kıbrıs Kooperatifleri Üzerine Etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about Cooperative enterprises in the European Union (EU and how they fulfill the needs and aspiration of their members and stakeholders. It considers the contribution that they make to European economy and society. Additionally, a detailed discussion is provided for the impacts of a probable Cyprus' integration to the EU on the Turkish Cypriot co-operative movement. In this study, the following sections will take place: - Introductory part related to concept and importance of cooperatives.- History of cooperatives in the European Union.- Principles of cooperatives.- Development of cooperatives in the European Union.- Impacts of Cyprus-EU integration on Turkish Cypriot cooperatives.- Conclusion.

  5. Fiscal Revenues in the European Union. A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Hurduzeu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze fiscal revenues registered by the European Union member states in order to determine groups with similar fiscal structures, their composition and to identify the similarities that characterize European countries in this respect. The research conducted in this paper is relevant especially for countries as Romania, which is in the process of adopting the European single currency, as is allows us to determine which countries are similar in terms of fiscal structure so that the comparison is carried out mainly with those countries. The analysis of European fiscal structures allows a better identification of tax preferences within the European Union and highlights the types of taxation that would allow leeway in implementing long term fiscal strategies, which could lead to improvements in macroeconomic dynamics registered by each member state and also at Union level.

  6. Stimulating the use of biofuels in the European Union: Implications for climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Lisa; Convery, Frank; Ferreira, Susana

    2006-01-01

    The substitution of fossil fuels with biofuels has been proposed in the European Union (EU) as part of a strategy to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from road transport, increase security of energy supply and support development of rural communities. In this paper, we focus on one of these purported benefits, the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The costs of subsidising the price difference between European bioethanol and petrol, and biodiesel and diesel, per tonne of CO 2 emissions saved are estimated. Without including the benefits from increased security of energy supply and employment generation in rural areas, the current costs of implementing European domestic biofuel targets are high compared with other available CO 2 mitigation strategies. The policy instrument of foregoing some or all of the excise duty and other taxes now applicable to transport fuels in EU15 on domestically produced biofuels, as well as the potential to import low-cost alternatives, for example, from Brazil, are addressed in this context

  7. THE CITIZENS’ PUBLIC PARTICIPATION UNDER EUROPEAN UNION LAW AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Charlotte ENE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, June 25, 1998 (entered into force Oct. 30, 2001 [hereinafter Aarhus Convention], negotiated under the auspices of the UN/ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, is the result of the efforts to establish international legal standards in the field of citizens’ environmental rights to date. Also, it is the first international document about public participation in environmental matters, developing the principle 10 of the Rio Declaration, which stresses the need for citizen's participation in environmental issues and for access to information on the environment held by public authorities. Public participation, one of the three main pillars provided by Aarhus Convention, could be one of the key factors in involving the citizens in the protection of the environment and strengthening compliance and enforcement of national and European environmental law. Under European Union regulations, the right to participate in environmental decision-making process could be exercise more effectively based on European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI procedure. Therefore, the European Citizens' Initiative (ECI, as introduced by the Lisbon Treaty, allows citizens to request new EU legislation once a million signatures from seven member states have been collected asking the European Commission to do so. This paper explores environmental citizenship within the framework of European Union (EU environmental law.

  8. Recommendations for successful substantiation of new health claims in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pravst, Igor; Kušar, Anita; Žmitek, Katja

    2018-01-01

    Background While functional foods offer promise for public health and innovation in the food industry, the efficiency of such foods should be assured to protect consumers from misleading claims. Globally, many countries regulate the communication of the health effects of such foods to final...... consumers. Scope and approach In the European Union (EU), the use of health claims was harmonized in 2006. All claims need to be scientifically assessed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and pre-approved. Implementing the regulation has involved a steep learning curve for stakeholders, resulting...... recommendations should be seen as a starting point for researchers in the area of nutrition and food technology, and for those dealing with functional foods, including the food industry. Keywords Functional foods; Health claims; Food labelling; Substantiation; Regulation; European Union...

  9. Labour Market Outcomes of Vocational Education in Europe: Evidence from the European Union Labour Force Survey. Research Paper No 32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the outcomes of vocational education and, in particular, on the transition from education to work in the current employment situation for young adults in the European Union. Using anonymised microdata from the EU labour force survey 2009 ad hoc module, this is one of the first studies to undertake a large cross-country…

  10. Building joint capacity: the role of European Union agencies in the management of trans-boundary crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boin, A.; Busuioc, M.; Groenleer, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the growing role of European Union (EU) agencies in the management of trans-boundary crises. It makes this development explicit, demonstrating that the emergence of multiple agencies with specific crisis preparation or response tasks has transformed the EU’s crisis management

  11. Male Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Russ; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Hass, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    attributed to specific EDC exposures in the European Union (EU). Methods: An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated, and biomarker...

  12. Introduction to the special issue on experiences with the impact and prevention of subsoil compaction in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, van den J.J.H.; Arvidsson, J.; Horn, R.

    2003-01-01

    The papers in this special issue present results of the European Union (EU) concerted action ¿Experiences with the impact of subsoil compaction on soil crop growth and environment and ways to prevent subsoil compaction¿. The results and conclusions of earlier research on subsoil compaction are

  13. The Conundrum of Solving ‘Too Big to Fail’ in the European Union: Supranationalization at Different Speeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaglia, Lucia; Spendzharova, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    In the aftermath of the international financial crisis, the European Union (EU) adopted a series of regulatory reforms concerning capital adequacy, bank structures and resolution in order to tackle the risks created by financial institutions that were ‘too big to fail’. This article demonstrates

  14. Argumentative patterns in the European Union directives : An effective tool to foster compliance by the Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andone, C.; Coman-Kund, F.

    This paper provides an account of the arguments advanced by the European Union (EU) legislator in the preamble of directives adopted for harmonization in the internal market, and assesses them as to their potential at convincing the Member States to implement the directive at issue. We show what

  15. Use of Simulation in Nursing Education: Initial Experiences on a European Union Lifelong Learning Programme--Leonardo Da Vinci Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzioglu, Fusun; Tuna, Zahide; Duygulu, Sergul; Boztepe, Handan; Kapucu, Sevgisun; Ozdemir, Leyla; Akdemir, Nuran; Kocoglu, Deniz; Alinier, Guillaume; Festini, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this paper is to share the initial experiences on a European Union (EU) Lifelong Learning Programme Leonardo Da Vinci Transfer of Innovation Project related to the use of simulation-based learning with nursing students from Turkey. The project started at the end of the 2010 involving 7 partners from 3 different countries including…

  16. The Future Development of the European Union Education, Training and Youth Programmes After 2006: A Public Consultation Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document launches a wide public consultation with all those involved in and with an interest in the European Union's (EU's) education, training, and youth programs called Socrates, Tempus, Leonardo da Vinci, and Youth for Europe. It is the first step toward preparing the new generation of programs to start in 2007 and will inform the…

  17. The risk of the introduction of classical swine fever virus at regional level in the European Union: a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de C.J.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent classical swine fever (CSF) epidemics in the European Union (EU) have clearly shown that preventing the introduction of CSF virus (CSFV) deserves high priority. Insight into all the factors contributing to the risk of CSFV introduction is a prerequisite for deciding which preventive actions

  18. An overview of Compassionate Use Programs in the European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Gayathri; Morampudi, Suman; Chhabra, Pankdeep; Gowda, Arun; Zomorodi, Behsad

    2016-11-01

    The past decade witnessed rapid development of novel drugs and therapeutic biological agents. The marketing authorization for novel therapies is often time consuming and distressing for patients. Earlier clinical trials were the only way to access new drugs under development. However, not every patient meets the enrolment criteria, and participation is difficult for patients with life-threatening, long-lasting or seriously debilitating diseases like rare diseases. Early access programs like "Compassionate Use Program (CUP)" have generated alternative channels for such patients. The European Medical Agency provides regulations and recommendations for compassionate use, upon which every European Union (EU) member state has developed its own rules and regulations. Despite previous reviews and studies, the available information is limited and gaps exist. This literature review explores CUP in 28 EU member states. Data was collected through literature review and use of country-specific search terms from the healthcare domain. Data sources were not limited to databases and articles published in journals, but also included grey literature. The results implied that CUP was present in 20 EU member states (71%). Of 28 EU states, 18 (∼64%) had nationalized regulations and processes were well-defined. Overall, this review identified CUP and its current status and legislation in 28 EU member states. The established legislation for CUP in the EU member states suggest their willingness to adopt processes that facilitate earlier and better access to new medicines. Further research and periodic reviews are warranted to understand the contemporary and future regulatory trends in early access programs.

  19. Electric energy restructuring in the European Union: Integration, subsidiarity and the challenge of harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serralles, Roberto J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1996, the European Union (EU) instituted Directive 96/92/EC that aims to establish a competitive, secure and transparent EU-wide internal electric energy market. The process of electricity market restructuring in the EU is being guided primarily by the principle of subsidiarity. As an organizational concept, the principle of subsidiarity allows Member States to establish their own implementation strategies and methods as a means of achieving the EU-mandated goal of electric energy restructuring. Historically, the structure of the electric energy industry in place among the Member States exhibited widely disparate organizational and functional characteristics with regard to ownership, control and regulation. Under these varied and contrasting political and economic conditions, the goal of a EU-wide harmonized electric energy market becomes very challenging. In this paper, I describe the policy mechanisms and the market conditions mandated by the EU directive aimed at liberalizing the electric energy market. I then assess the role of political culture, historical resource endowment and geographical conditions in the utility restructuring strategies of some key Member States and its effects on the overall goals of a harmonized internal electric energy market. Finally, I argue that European electric energy restructuring must be understood within the context of the political and economic milieu that spawned the individual Member States' electric energy industry

  20. Electric energy restructuring in the European Union: integration, subsidiarity and the challenge of harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serralles, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1996, the European Union (EU) instituted Directive 96/92/EC that aims to establish a competitive, secure and transparent EU-wide internal electric energy market. The process of electricity market restructuring in the EU is being guided primarily by the principle of subsidiarity. As an organizational concept, the principle of subsidiarity allows Member States to establish their own implementation strategies and methods as a means of achieving the EU-mandated goal of electric energy restructuring. Historically, the structure of the electric energy industry in place among the Member States exhibited widely disparate organizational and functional characteristics with regard to ownership, control and regulation. Under these varied and contrasting political and economic conditions, the goal of a EU-wide harmonized electric energy market becomes very challenging. In this paper, I describe the policy mechanisms and the market conditions mandated by the EU directive aimed at liberalizing the electric energy market. I then assess the role of political culture, historical resource endowment and geographical conditions in the utility restructuring strategies of some key Member States and its effects on the overall goals of a harmonized internal electric energy market. Finally, I argue that European electric energy restructuring must be understood within the context of the political and economic milieu that spawned the individual Member States' electric energy industry. (author)

  1. Internet Effects in Times of Political Crisis: Online Newsgathering and Attitudes toward the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccini, Leonardo; Sudulich, Laura; Wall, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of online news consumption on attitudes toward the European Union in a context of protracted economic crisis. Using data from the 2011 Irish National Election Study, we combine location-specific information on broadband availability with respondent geo-location data, which facilitates causal inference about the effects of online news consumption via instrumental variable models. Results show that Irish citizens who source political information online are more prone to blame the EU for the poor state of the economy than those who do not. There is evidence of preference reinforcement among those with negative predispositions toward the EU, but not among pro-EU citizens. We complement this analysis with a study of voting behavior in the European Fiscal Compact Referendum, employing a similar methodological approach. The results from this second survey confirm the anti-EU influence of online news consumption among Irish citizens, although evidence suggests a pro-EU effect among voters who browsed the website of the politically neutral Irish Referendum Commission. Our paper contributes to the literature on public opinion, the EU, and political attitudes in times of crisis.

  2. How online sales and promotion of snus contravenes current European Union legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Silvy; Gilmore, Anna B

    2013-07-01

    The European Union (EU) Tobacco Products Directive that bans sales of snus (a form of oral tobacco) in EU countries other than Sweden is currently under review. Major tobacco companies favour the ban being overturned. This study aims to explore compliance with the current ban on snus sales and examines the conduct of online snus vendors, including their compliance with two other EU Directives on excise and tobacco advertising and Swedish legislation banning sales of snus outside Sweden. To determine who is currently distributing snus via the internet in the EU, searches were carried out in Google, followed by searches in the WHOIS and Amadeus databases. Five online test purchases of snus were made in each of 10 EU Member States using a standardised protocol. Feedback from the test purchases and further analysis of the websites accessed for test purchases were used to critically examine snus retailers' conduct. The majority of online vendors operate from Sweden and target non-Swedish EU citizens. Test purchases were successfully made in all 10 EU Member States; of 43 orders placed, only two failed. Age verification relied only on self-report. The majority of sales applied Swedish taxes, contrary to EU requirements. Copious sales promotion activities, many price based, are incorporated in these websites contravening the EU regulation, and three test purchases were delivered with gifts. Snus is currently being sold on the single market via the internet in contravention of Swedish legislation and three EU Directives. The apparent willingness of the tobacco industry to contravene EU and Swedish legislation and profit from unlawful sales raises questions about their status as stakeholders in consultations on future policy developments. The findings highlight how national and regional tobacco control legislation can be undermined in an increasingly globalised world.

  3. Tuberculosis control in big cities and urban risk groups in the European Union: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hest, N A; Aldridge, R W; de Vries, G; Sandgren, A; Hauer, B; Hayward, A; Arrazola de Oñate, W; Haas, W; Codecasa, L R; Caylà, J A; Story, A; Antoine, D; Gori, A; Quabeck, L; Jonsson, J; Wanlin, M; Orcau, Å; Rodes, A; Dedicoat, M; Antoun, F; van Deutekom, H; Keizer, St; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    In low-incidence countries in the European Union (EU), tuberculosis (TB) is concentrated in big cities, especially among certain urban high-risk groups including immigrants from TB high-incidence countries, homeless people, and those with a history of drug and alcohol misuse. Elimination of TB in European big cities requires control measures focused on multiple layers of the urban population. The particular complexities of major EU metropolises, for example high population density and social structure, create specific opportunities for transmission, but also enable targeted TB control interventions, not efficient in the general population, to be effective or cost effective. Lessons can be learnt from across the EU and this consensus statement on TB control in big cities and urban risk groups was prepared by a working group representing various EU big cities, brought together on the initiative of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The consensus statement describes general and specific social, educational, operational, organisational, legal and monitoring TB control interventions in EU big cities, as well as providing recommendations for big city TB control, based upon a conceptual TB transmission and control model.

  4. STATE AID EVOLUTION OVERVIEW IN EUROPEAN UNION CONTEXT DURING THE PERIOD 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca D.B., DODESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the European Union point of view, the fundamental principle of state aid is to ensure that inside the single market, competition is not distorted. In this context, by exception state aid can be justified when they contribute to achieving EU's social and economic goals. This may take place when market forces obstruct the achieving of the proposed objectives or permit their achieving on unacceptable long terms and costs. This article is structured in four parts, focusing on European Union's vision regarding state aid measures. The first part of the article refers to the general context of state aid in EU. The second part of the article tries to define this concept according to European Commission point of view and also studies the state aid information provided by the EU, through its benchmarking instrument regarding state aid expenditure called State Aid Scoreboard. The third part of the article mainly presents the EU state aid evolution during the period 2007 - 2012 and establishes a methodological point of view in order to classify and divide state aid in two main categories: non-crisis state aid and crisis state aid, with the purpose of avoiding the distortion trends regarding state aid expenditure granted for the financial sector. This part of the article also presents different types of state aid at EU27 level and granted by the selected member states (Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria and Germany between 2007 and 2012 and also analysis horizontal aid, sectorial aid and state aid during the economic crisis 2008 - 2012, referring to recapitalization and asset relief measures and guarantees and liquidity measures. The last part of the article presents the conclusions and also states certain recommendations regarding EU state aid practices, based on the results obtained.

  5. Human resource management in change – one reason: the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah HERLEMANN

    2007-01-01

    Times are moving fast, especially if political changes are coming up. Romania’s accession to the European Union is followed by several changes in the Human Resource Management; in Romania itself, but also in the other EU countries. Employees are moving beyond borders to work abroad and need to be caught and imbedded in the new working environment. Motivation is an important issue, but also other appeals for qualified staff to decide upon the move into a foreign European country. Further of im...

  6. The Border-making Policy of the European Union: Eastern Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lika Mkrtchyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Having no internal borders, what is a border for the European Union (EU? Which criteria does this powerful organization pursue in its decision-making on further expansion: geographical, political, cultural, economic or all of these? What is the profi t of the Union in advancing its external borders to the east? And why to the east and not the south or west across the Atlantic? Does it still mean that there is the reason for enlarging eastward based on the geographical belonging to Europe? This paper discusses the expansion of the European Union to the east with the main focus on its political and economic aspects of integration. The fi rst part includes introduction to the concept of Europe, historic background about the formation of the united Europe in terms of geography, culture, politics and economy, juxtaposing opinions and viewpoints of different experts and political scientists on “what is Europe?” and what are the core issues of its enlargement. The second and third parts are dedicated to the advantages and disadvantages of European Integration for both parties concerned – the EU and the candidate/member state, in the case of the former having its own “demarcation policy” towards certain regions of the continent when it comes to unifi cation. And the fourth part is about the communication and miscommunication of the informative bodies of the European Union that are responsible for public awareness on any process that goes on within the European family. The lack of information results in the ignorance of citizens of European and partner countries, which, of course, refl ects on the further processes of expansion on the political level and cultural perception and mentality on the social level. The conclusion sums up the research, and the bibliography lists the books, articles, monographs and Internet sources used in the course of the study.

  7. Mapping the Teaching of Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine in the European Union and European Free Trade Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatridou, Despoina; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; De Briyne, Nancy; Saunders, Jimmy; Bravo, Ana

    2018-06-13

    Developing a common market and allowing free movement of goods, services, and people is one of the main objectives of the European Union (EU) and the European Free Trade Area. In the field of scientific research, Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes aims to improve the welfare of laboratory animals by following the principle of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement). Each breeder, supplier, and user must appoint a designated veterinarian to advise on the well-being and treatment of the animals. In our report we investigate how the undergraduate veterinary curriculum prepares future veterinarians for the role of designated veterinarian, by analyzing data from 77 European veterinary education establishments. Over 80% of them provide training in laboratory animal science and medicine in their curriculum. All countries in the EU and the European Free Trade Area, having national veterinary schools, include such training in the curriculum of at least one of their establishments. Laboratory animal science and medicine courses can be obligatory or elective and are often part of more than one subject in the veterinary curricula. Post-graduate courses or programs are available at more than 50% of those veterinary schools. Most authorities in the European region consider graduate veterinarians ready to seek the role as designated veterinarian immediately after graduation.

  8. A clash of civilizations? Examining liberal-democratic values in Turkey and the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jeffrey C

    2008-12-01

    Turkey's proposed entry into the European Union (EU) has been undermined by Europeans' perceptions of Turkish-European cultural differences, particularly regarding the liberal-democratic values that the EU promotes (democracy, rule of law, and respect for and appreciation of minority/human rights). Yet, cross-national research on values has not focused on Turkey, the EU, and these liberal-democratic values, leaving assumptions of cultural differences and their explanations untested. Through analyses of World and European Values Survey data (1999-2002), this article asks whether people in Turkey have the same values regarding democracy, rule of law (versus religious and authoritarian rule), and minority/human rights as people in EU member and candidate states (as of 2000)? What factors explain these values? I find that people in Turkey support democracy to the same extent as people in EU member and candidate states, but people in Turkey are more supportive of religious and authoritarian rule and are less tolerant of minorities. Although the 'clash of civilizations' thesis expects liberal values to be ordered according to countries' religious traditions, with western Christian the most supportive and Islamic the least, only for tolerance of minorities values is this pattern found. Instead, economic development most consistently explains differences between Turkey and EU member and candidate states in support for these values. I conclude with calls for theoretical refinement, particularly of the clash of civilizations thesis, along with suggestions for future research to examine more Muslim and Orthodox countries; I discuss the debate over Turkey's EU entry.

  9. BUILDING A BANKING UNION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION – A SOLUTION TO THE FINANCIAL CRISIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica (ŞAGUNA FIGHIROAE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2008 highlighted the need for a deeper integration of the banking system, as a warranty to support long-term financial stability. It was argued that the grounds of the crisis lie also in an uncoordinated national response to the failure of banks, in a fragmentation of the Single Market in lending and funding and, therefore, a better regulation and supervision of the financial sector can ensure financial stability and growth in the European Union. In order to restore the proper functioning of the internal market and to avoid future crisis, the European Commission launched a set of initiatives, in order to assure a safer and sounder financial sector for the single market; are included here: stronger prudential requirements for banks, improved depositor protection and rules for managing failing banks and a single rulebook for all the 28 Member States of the European Union. The single rule book is the step towards the Banking Union sits. The banking union consists of three pillars: a Single Supervisory Mechanism, a Single Resolution Mechanism and a joint deposit-insurance scheme. As on 4 November 2014 the European Central Bank assumed responsibility for euro area banking supervision, the Banking Union is still under construction. In this framework, the purpose of my paper is to analyse the process of building a Banking Union in Europe. Therefore, the objectives of my paper are to explore the steps to fulfilling a real integration of the European banking system, as a solution to the financial crisis.

  10. Seroprevalence and susceptibility to hepatitis A in the European Union and European Economic Area: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Santisteve, Paloma; Tavoschi, Lara; Severi, Ettore; Bonfigli, Sandro; Edelstein, Michael; Byström, Emma; Lopalco, Pierluigi

    2017-10-01

    Most of the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) is considered a region of very low hepatitis A virus (HAV) endemicity; however, geographical differences exist. We did a systematic review with the aim of describing seroprevalence and susceptibility in the general population or special groups in the EU and EEA. We searched databases and public health national institutes websites for HAV seroprevalence records published between Jan 1, 1975, and June 30, 2014, with no language restrictions. An updated search was done on Aug 10, 2016. We defined seroprevalence profiles (very low, low, and intermediate) as the proportion of the population with age-specific anti-HAV antibodies at age 15 and 30 years, and susceptibility profiles (low, moderate, high, and very high) as the proportion of susceptible individuals at age 30 and 50 years. We included 228 studies from 28 of 31 EU and EEA countries. For the period 2000-14, 24 countries had a very low seroprevalence profile, compared with five in 1975-89. The susceptibility among adults ranged between low and very high and had a geographical gradient, with three countries in the low susceptibility category. Since 1975, EU and EEA countries have shown decreasing seropositivity; however, considerable regional variability exists. The main limitations of this study are that the studies retrieved for analysis might not be representative of all EU and EEA publications about HAV and might have poor national representativeness. A large proportion of EU and EEA residents are now susceptible to HAV infection. Our Review supports the need to reconsider specific prevention and control measures, to further decrease HAV circulation while providing protection against the infection in the EU and EEA, and could be used to inform susceptible travellers visiting EU and EEA countries with different HAV endemicity levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Climate and energy targets of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolwijk, H.; Veenendaal, P.

    2007-01-01

    Attention is paid to two important parts of the targets for climate and energy which were determined by the European Council in March 2007 for the year 2020: (1) the impact of the emission reduction target and the correlations with the sustainable development targets; and (2) the obstacles for the European Union on the way to thar 20% renewable energy target [nl

  12. Recent Migrants and Education in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadan, Robert; Reid, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    European schools should improve their methods for teaching migrant students. The European Union has been making efforts to meet the needs of migrant students for some time. From the 2009 Eurydice report "Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe," which suggests measures to foster inclusion in the larger community and…

  13. Dividends and share repurchases in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Eije, Henk; Megginson, William L.

    We examine cash dividends and share repurchases from 1989 to 2005 in the 15 nations that were members of the European Union before May 2004. As ill the United States, the fraction of European firms paying dividends declines, while total real dividends paid increase and share repurchases surge. We

  14. Exploring Integration of Care for Children Living with Complex Care Needs across the European Union and European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Maria; O'Shea, Miriam; J Larkin, Philip; Kamionka, Stine Lundstroem; Berry, Jay; Hiscock, Harriet; Rigby, Michael; Blair, Mitch

    2017-04-24

    The aim of this paper is to report on the development of surveys to explore integration of care for children living with complex care needs across the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Each survey consists of a vignette and questions adapted from the Standards for Systems of Care for Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs and the Eurobarometer Survey . A Country Agent in each country, a local expert in child health services, will obtain data from indigenous sources. We identified 'in-principle' complex problems and adapted surveys to capture care integration. We expect to get rich data to understand perceptions and to inform actions for a number of complex health issues. The study has the potential to make a wide contribution to individual countries of the EU/EEA to understand their own integration of services mapped against responses from other member states. Early results are expected in Spring 2017.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of E-Learning Policy Formulation in the European Union and the United States: Discursive Convergence and Divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erichsen, Elizabeth Roumell; Salajan, Florin D.

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a framework that compares the content and purposes of "federal" level European Union (EU) and United States (US) e-learning policy to ascertain trends, patterns, and points of convergence and divergence across the years 1994-2010. It reveals that the EU and US are applying similar rhetoric for policy framing,…

  16. The European Union in the grip of accumulated governance crises: the euro, the reform efforts, and the public-support dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamadouh, V.D.; van der Wusten, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers how the 2008 banking crisis and the subsequent financial and economic crises - more specifically, the sovereign debt crisis of several European Union (EU) member states and the crisis of the euro, the common currency of the euro zone - affect the political geography of the EU.

  17. Transgovernmental networks in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Mogens; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2013-01-01

    -alarm oversight mechanisms by means of transgovernmental networks (TGNs) to its toolbox. This article examines the work mode, horizontalness and effectiveness of such networks as newer governance tools to oversee and monitor the compliance with EU law. It draws on a unique dataset on the Solvit network, enabling...... us to examine effectiveness and variation of a transgovernmental network in operation. The article substantiates the relevance of TGNs in identifying and solving manifold and complex problems of misapplied EU law, finds that the Commission constitutes a focal point in this type of multilevel...... executive and points out that learning in part explains why effectiveness varies across member states....

  18. Global health in the European Union – a review from an agenda-setting perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; Krafft, Thomas; Brand, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    This review attempts to analyse the global health agenda-setting process in the European Union (EU). We give an overview of the European perspective on global health, making reference to the developments that led to the EU acknowledging its role as a global health actor. The article thereby focusses in particular on the European interpretation of its role in global health from 2010, which was formalised through, respectively, a European Commission Communication and European Council Conclusions. Departing from there, and based on Kingdon's multiple streams theory on agenda setting, we identify some barriers that seem to hinder the further establishment and promotion of a solid global health agenda in the EU. The main barriers for creating a strong European global health agenda are the fragmentation of the policy community and the lack of a common definition for global health in Europe. Forwarding the agenda in Europe for global health requires more clarification of the common goals and perspectives of the policy community and the use of arising windows of opportunity. PMID:24560264

  19. Global health in the European Union--a review from an agenda-setting perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; Krafft, Thomas; Brand, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    This review attempts to analyse the global health agenda-setting process in the European Union (EU). We give an overview of the European perspective on global health, making reference to the developments that led to the EU acknowledging its role as a global health actor. The article thereby focuses in particular on the European interpretation of its role in global health from 2010, which was formalised through, respectively, a European Commission Communication and European Council Conclusions. Departing from there, and based on Kingdon's multiple streams theory on agenda setting, we identify some barriers that seem to hinder the further establishment and promotion of a solid global health agenda in the EU. The main barriers for creating a strong European global health agenda are the fragmentation of the policy community and the lack of a common definition for global health in Europe. Forwarding the agenda in Europe for global health requires more clarification of the common goals and perspectives of the policy community and the use of arising windows of opportunity.

  20. Severe accident research in the core degradation area: An example of effective international cooperation between the European Union (EU) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) by the International Science and Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottomley, D., E-mail: paul.bottomley@ec.europa.eu [ITU Institut fuer Transurane, PO box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Stuckert, J.; Hofmann, P. [KIT Campus Nord, Hermann-von-Helmholtz Pl. 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Tocheny, L. [ISTC Krasnoproletarskaya 32-34, PO Box 20, 127473 Moscow (Russian Federation); Hugon, M. [European Commission DG - Research and Tech. Development, Sq. de Meeus, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Journeau, C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, F13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Clement, B. [IRSN PSN-RES/SAG Cadarache, BP3 F13115, St Paul lez Durance (France); Weber, S. [GRS Muenchen, Thermal Hydraulics Div., Garching 85748,Germany (Germany); Guentay, S. [PSI NES/LTH OHSA C11, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Hozer, Z. [AEKI Fuel Department, P.O. Box 49, Budapest H-1525 (Hungary); Herranz, L. [CIEMAT, Energy -Nuclear Fission Division, Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Schumm, A. [EDF - R and D, SINETICS, Avenue du General de Gaulle 1, Clamart 92140 (France); Oriolo, F. [Pisa University, Ing. Mecc. Nucl. Prod., Largo Lazarino 2, Pisa 56126 (Italy); Altstadt, E. [HZDR Structural Matls, Rossendorf, Postfach 51 01 19, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Krause, M. [AECL - Reactor Safety, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada K0J 1J0 (Canada); Fischer, M. [AREVA NP GMBH, Dept. PEPA-G, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Khabensky, V.B. [Alexandrov Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Bechta, S.V. [Kungliga Tekniska Hoegskolan (KTH), AlbaNova University Centre, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Veshchunov, M.S. [Nuclear Safety Institute (IBRAE), Russian Academy of Sciences, 52 B. Tulskaya, Moscow 115191 (Russian Federation); Palagin, A.V. [KIT Campus Nord, Hermann-von-Helmholtz Pl. 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); and others

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ISTC supported successful nuclear safety projects between EU and Russian institutes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two-tier project monitoring has proved to be very successful and flexible. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examples are reactor degradation, corium steel corrosion, and corium thermodynamics. - Abstract: The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) was set up in Moscow to support non-proliferation of sensitive knowledge and technologies in biological, chemical and nuclear domains by engaging scientists in peaceful research programmes with a broad international cooperation. The paper has two following objectives: Bullet to describe the organization of complex, international, experimental and analytical research of material processes under extreme conditions similar to those of severe accidents in nuclear reactors and, Bullet to inform briefly about some results of these studies. The main forms of ISTC activity are Research Projects and Supporting Programs. In the Research Projects informal contact expert groups (CEGs) were set up by ISTC to improve coordination between adjacent projects and to encourage international collaboration. The European Commission was the first to use this. The CEG members - experts from the national institutes and industry - evaluated and managed the projects' scientific results from initial stage of proposal formulation until the final reporting. They were often involved directly in the project's details by joining the Steering Committees of the project. The Contact Expert Group for Severe Accidents and Management (CEG-SAM) is one of these groups, five project groups from this area from the total of 30 funded projects during 10 years of activity are detailed to demonstrate this: (1) QUENCH-VVER from RIAR, Dimitrovgrad and IBRAE, Moscow, and PARAMETER projects (SF1-SF4) from LUCH, Podolsk and IBRAE, Moscow; these concerned a detailed study of bundle quenching from high