WorldWideScience

Sample records for european union based

  1. Knowledge based economy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Stănculescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we assist at a fundamental change from the economy based mainly on resources to the one based mostly on knowledge. The concept has been launched in the last decade of the past century. The knowledge became a production agent and a value creation instrument for whatever country and of course for an entire community like European Union which is constantly concerned by its development and competitiveness. This paper presents the principal characteristics of the present EU preoccupations with the expansion of a knowledge based economy through the 2020 European Development Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive economy, and especially for the Framework Programs (Framework Programme 7 and Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme.

  2. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  3. European [Security] Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three...... of these policies involved the navigation and negotiation of security, borders and governance in and by the European Union (EU). This article analyses these practices of bordering and governance through a five-fold security framework. The article argues that a richer understanding of EU security discourses can...

  4. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  5. Trade Union Channels for Influencing European Union Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Larsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes what channels trade unions in Europe use when trying to influence European Union (EU policies. It compares and contrasts trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the degree to which they cooperate with different actors to influence EU policies, while also touching on the importance of sector differences and organizational resources. The study is based on survey data collected in 2010–2011 from unions affiliated with the European Trade Union Confederation and from below peak unions in 14 European countries. Results of the survey show that the ‘national route’ is generally the most important for trade unions in influencing EU policies in the sense that this channel is, on average, used to the highest degree. In addition, the survey delineates some important differences between trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the balance between the national route and different access points in the ‘Brussels route’.

  6. European Union, 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-01-01

    The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017). At the same time, he cautioned...

  7. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address...

  8. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years, there has been an international debate on whether and to what extent small member states can influence the common external policies of the European Union. Recent research on the role of small EU states concludes that these states are neither per se political dwarfs nor power...... including North–South and specifically Africa policies. Five separate analyses are carried out addressing the question of Nordicization and Europeanization. Based on the empirical analyses, it is not possible to confirm the hypothesis that a Nordicization of the European Union's Africa policy has taken...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  9. European Union Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdalbero, D.R.; Schmitz, B.; Raldow, W.; Poireau, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an extensive state of the art of the energy research conducted at European Union level between 1984 and 2006, i.e. from the first to the sixth European Community Framework Programmes (FP1-FP6) for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (RTD and D). The FP is the main legal tool and financial instrument of EU RTD and D policy. It sets the objectives, priorities and budgets for a period of several years. It has been complemented over time with a number of policy oriented initiatives and notably with the launch of the European Research Area. FP7 will cover the period 2007-2013 and will have a total budget of more than euros 50 billion. Energy has been a main research area in Europe since the founding Treaties (European Coal and Steel Community, European Atomic Energy Community-Euratom and European Economic Community), and energy RTD and D has always been a substantial part of common EU research. Nevertheless, when inflation and successive European enlargements are taken into account, over time the RTD and D effort in the field of energy has decreased significantly in relative terms. In nominal terms it has remained relatively stable at about euros 500 million per year. For the next years (FP7), it is expected that energy will still represent about 10 % of total EU research effort but with an annual budget of more than euros 800 million per year. This article presents a detailed review of the thematic areas and budget in both European nuclear energy research (fusion and fission) and non-nuclear energy research (energy efficiency/rational use of energy, fossil fuels, CO 2 capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen, renewable energy sources, strategic energy research/socio-economy). (authors)

  10. European Union, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017. At the same time, he cautioned that the fair weather conditions would not last long - there was no room for complacency. The EU had to act to protect, empower and defend its citizens. The EU moved forward on a number of policy fronts in the wake of the Brexit vote and also concluded high-profile international trade deals in an effort to fill the vacuum left by the protectionist policies of the Trump administration.

  11. Nuclear Energy and European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picamal, B.

    2010-01-01

    The interest shown by the European Institutions in the energy debates, in which the nuclear energy is included as a key component within the energy mix, is obvious. Climate change and energy supply have pushed some countries to publicly express their interest for developing the nuclear energy. These positions are however in contradiction with some others within the European Union which are a lot more critical towards this type of energy and where face-out policies still prevail. Despite the fact that the use of the nuclear energy will remain within the competence of each Member State, the European Union will continue to play a prominent role in the development of an energy strategy based on a low carbon economy. (Author)

  12. Risk-based decision making and risk management of European Union regional programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalopoulos Evangelos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generalized method for management decision making incorporating risk assessment techniques. The risk based decision making methodology is applied to European Union expenditure programs used to implement its regional policy, such as the community support framework, community initiatives, special initiatives and other European policies. An example is presented for the development of an audit (inspection program in the region of West Macedonia, Greece, during the implementation of the 3rd Community Structural Support Framework Operational Program. The generic nature of the method permits its use in the management of similar European regional programs in Greece and other European countries. It is also applicable to many other industries interested in applying risk-based management decisions to physical or process based systems. .

  13. Invitation strategies and coverage in the population-based cancer screening programmes in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Diama B; Anttila, Ahti; Ponti, Antonio; Senore, Carlo; Sankaranaryanan, Rengaswamy; Ronco, Guglielmo; Segnan, Nereo; Tomatis, Mariano; Žakelj, Maja P; Elfström, Klara M; Lönnberg, Stefan; Dillner, Joakim; Basu, Partha

    2018-03-21

    The aim of this study was to describe the compliance of the population-based cancer screening programmes in the European Union Member States to the invitation strategies enumerated in the European Guidelines and the impact of such strategies on the invitational coverage. Experts in screening programme monitoring from the respective countries provided data. Coverage by invitation was calculated as the proportion of individuals in the target age range receiving a screening invitation over the total number of annualized eligible population. The invitation strategies of 30 breasts, 25 cervical and 27 colorectal national or regional population-based screening programmes are described. Individual mail invitations are sent by 28 breasts, 20 cervical and 25 colorectal screening programmes. Faecal occult blood test kits are sent by post in 17 of the colorectal cancer screening programmes. The majority of programmes claimed to have a population registry, although some use health insurance data as the database for sending invitations. At least 95% invitation coverage was reached by 16 breast, six cervical and five colorectal screening programmes. Majority of the programmes comply with the invitation strategies enumerated in the European guidelines, although there is still scope for improvements. Coverage by invitation is below the desirable level in many population-based cancer screening programmes in European Union.

  14. Possible ways of corporate tax base harmonization in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible ways of corporate tax base harmonization in the European Union are presented in the paper. Present situation when there are 27 different taxation systems used in the EU increases compliance costs of taxation to the companies and therefore decreases their competitiveness. It was proved, that there is negative correlation between the size of the company and the size of the compliance costs of taxation. Based on that, the European Commission has decided for twin-track strategy – to introduce home state taxation in the short term and common consolidated corporate tax base in the long term. In respect to the fact, that the pilot project in the frame of home state taxation system has not started yet, the attention has been turned to the common consolidated corporate tax base. The paper discusses the possible attitudes and methods of consolidated tax base allocation. Based on mentioned arguments the formulary apportionment with factors which generate the taxable income of the group (assets, payroll, turnover, etc. seems to be the best solution. Factors and their weight should become the subject of further discussion in the European Union. The aim of the paper is to present the possible harmonization models and further to discuss the methods which could be used for allocation of the consolidated tax base under CCCTB.

  15. The european union as subjects of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fila R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the international level it is recognized that development and progress of the new and unique international organization – European Union – is one of the appropriate form of the international organization’s integration. Although European Union was establish as international economic organization, it has gradually integrated the various “best practices” ideas from different governmental systems. Encouragement and motives for cooperation of Member states indicate that member states give more competences of government to the international organization’s institutes. Wherewith, it is observed that the economic and political internationalization has led to disappearance of integrity of territory of member states. The above mentioned opinion is not based on research of the European Union as international organization from standpoint of international law, but from standpoint of theory law – could give juridical estimate regarding executive power in European Union and who could define particular source and entity of administrative law of European Union.

  16. Vocational Training in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BALCI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union requires some standards in all areas. Today, the importance of training qualified individuals which holds an important place in the development of countries increases and certain standards are adopted creating common European Union tools in the field of vocational and technical education. In this study, vocational education and training policies system and the standards adopted by the European Union are discussed. Furthermore, this study was accepted as a European Union project in 2010 and the results obtained from the Leonardo Da Vinci Life Learning European Union project called “Web Based Basic Vocational Training” between the years 2010-2012 were presented. Since the partners of these projects are Turkey, Spain and Germany, the structure of vocational education, institutions of public and private vocational education and the diplomas and certificates entitled after these educations are included. As Turkey is on its way to become a European Union member, a number of advices are presented for Turkey to reach its destination about vocational education standards that European Union has aimed. The purpose of the study is not only to be a guide for the young who want to get professional training in the countries that are European Union members or candidates about how and where to have education opportunities but also to give a chance for trainers and training managers, participating in vocational training, so as to glimpse different practices from different countries and compare these practices between the countries of European Union and their countries. The study is also very important as it has the opportunities for training managers to see if their countries' vocational education is close enough to vocational education in European Union.

  17. European Union research in support of environment and health: Building scientific evidence base for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Tuomo; Hoeveler, Arnd; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

    2017-06-01

    Opinion polls show that the European Union citizens are increasingly concerned about the impact of environmental factors on their health. In order to respond and provide solid scientific evidence for the numerous policies related to the protection of human health and the environment managed at the Union level, the European Union made a substantial investment in research and innovation in the past two decades through its Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, including the current programme, Horizon 2020, which started in 2014. This policy review paper analysed the portfolio of forty collaborative projects relevant to environment and health, which received a total amount of around 228 million euros from the EU. It gives details on their contents and general scientific trends observed, the profiles of the participating countries and institutions, and the potential policy implications of the results obtained. The increasing knowledge base is needed to make informed policy decisions in Europe and beyond, and should be useful to many stakeholders including the scientific community and regulatory authorities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. European Union: US Hegemonic Competitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellar, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    .... Intergovernmentalism in the European Community has evolved into an economic form of supranationalism with the persona change form Community to Union after ratification of the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993...

  19. Coordination in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Feldstein

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the sources of current conflict within the EU and the EMU. The topics discussed include the recent ECB policy of bond buying (the OMT policy), the attempts to advance the "European Project" of stronger political union (the fiscal compact, the banking union, and the proposals for budget supervision). Contrary to the claims of the European leadership, the progress that has been made has been by individual countries and not by coordinated action. The special problems of Franc...

  20. European Union and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  1. Brexit and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly

    2018-01-01

    When on 23 June 2016 a majority voted in favour of the United Kingdom (UK) leaving the European Union (EU), it generated a host of unknowns. Prior to the referendum, scholars had already started to anticipate the implications of a potential Brexit from different perspectives, including considering...... lie and suggesting where Britain’s exit will leave the greatest strategic vacuums. The subsequent analysis centres on the actors that will likely win and lose from the UK’s exit from the Union....

  2. Osteoporosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svedbom, A; Hernlund, E; Ivergård, M

    2013-01-01

    the burden of osteoporosis in each of the EU27 countries in 2010 and beyond. METHODS: The data on fracture incidence and costs of fractures in the EU27 were taken from a concurrent publication in this journal (Osteoporosis in the European Union: Medical Management, Epidemiology and Economic Burden......UNLABELLED: This report describes epidemiology, burden, and treatment of osteoporosis in each of the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). INTRODUCTION: In 2010, 22 million women and 5.5 million men were estimated to have osteoporosis in the EU; and 3.5 million new fragility fractures were...

  3. Inclusive Society as a Necessary Condition for Knowledge-Based Competitiveness in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Pelle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest growth strategy of the European Union, the Europe 2020, represents a new approach towards economic growth. From our point of view the most important innovation of the strategy is that, beside intelligent and sustainable growth, it sets out the establishment of an inclusive society as one of its priorities. We believe that member states’ competitiveness is a key factor of their economic growth. For that reason, we included the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Index in our analysis to find the relationship between competitiveness and an inclusive society. We investigate the eu member states’ performance on country group level, and then we set up an inclusive indicator based on the main components of the inclusive pillar of the Europe 2020 strategy. Our findings suggest that an inclusive society is one of the necessary conditions for economic prosperity.

  4. INNOVATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR-CODRIN IONESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary knowledge-based society, innovation, as a vector used for the application and promotion of inventions and innovations, is one of the main sources used for obtaining a sustainable competitive advantage. The present paper points out the main directions which the European Commission aims to develop in the sphere of innovation, within the context of the Initiative: “A Union of Innovation”, which is part of the Europe 2020 Strategy. The paper analyses the performances accomplished by the EU states in the area of innovation while developing an international perspective that may represent the starting point in identifying solutions whereby the EU could reduce the gaps that exist in relation to the main international competitors, i.e. South Korea, USA and Japan.

  5. INNOVATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir-Codrin IONESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary knowledge-based society, innovation, as a vector used for the application and promotion of inventions and innovations, is one of the main sources used for obtaining a sustainable competitive advantage. The present paper points out the main directions which the European Commission aims to develop in the sphere of innovation, within the context of the Initiative: “A Union of Innovation”, which is part of the Europe 2020 Strategy. The paper analyses the performances accomplished by the EU states in the area of innovation while developing an international perspective that may represent the starting point in identifying solutions whereby the EU could reduce the gaps that exist in relation to the main international competitors, i.e. South Korea, USA and Japan.

  6. AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regulations governing the production and use of genetically modified organisms have been developed in the United Kingdom since 1976. Regulations covering the release of transgenic organisms into the environment were initially voluntary. Since 1990, the European Economic Commission (EEC) Directive. 90/219 and ...

  7. Cultivating nature-based solutions: The governance of communal urban gardens in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt, Alexander P.N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41276086X; Szaraz, Luca R.; Delshammar, Tim; Cvejić, Rozalija; Santos, Artur; Goodness, Julie; Buijs, Arjen

    2017-01-01

    In many countries in the European Union (EU), the popularity of communal urban gardening (CUG) on allotments and community gardens is on the rise. Given the role of this practice in increasing urban resilience, most notably social resilience, municipalities in the Global North are promoting CUG as a

  8. Rawls and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Menno R.

    2014-01-01

    Renowned political philosopher John Rawls once expressed skepticism about the moral status of the European Union (EU). Yet generally EU scholars have either ignored Rawls or rather uncritically established positive links between his theory of domestic and international justice and the EU. This

  9. Nuclear power and European Union enlargement challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, Teodor; Bilegan, Constantin

    2001-01-01

    From 1991 through 1996 the European Union signed the Association Agreements with ten East European countries (EE10), namely: Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Romania. In the period 1994-1996 European Union received membership applications from all ten countries. The paper analyzes the approach of complying the requirements and regulations for European Union accession in the field of the Romanian nuclear power based on the CANDU technology. In this process, the real challenge is represented by the preparation and implementation of new regulations aiming to improve the general business environment by introducing International Accounting Standards simplification of bankruptcy laws, reform of taxation procedures and secureness of financial instruments. A new stand-by agreement with the International Monetary Fund and World Bank was set out in late April 1999 for an one-year loan of 475 million dollars. (authors)

  10. European Union of Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    After a very brief introduction to history and memory in Europe after 1989, as seen by Aleida Assmann, I will give a short introduction to the EP and to their adoption of resolutions and declarations. Then I will define some concepts central to my study before I proceed to the analysis. Finally I...... these changes have come about. Moreover, I show that there seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right and I suggest that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory....

  11. European Union: fears and hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles ROUET

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution analyses some data from Eurobarometer 83, spring 2015, especially to draw a map of Fears. The European Union is a divided space and one of the main consequences of the budget (financial crisis of Greece, followed by the crisis caused by the arrival of thousands of immigrants is an enhanced communication difficulty between the Western and Eastern parts of the EU But all citizens have some new rights with the European Citizenship, which are additional. One of the main issues for the future could be to change the fundamental basis of the Union, thus trying to organize a new articulation between local and supranational, with another role for States, for example to change the organisation of European elections, and to pursue the connection of public spaces with mobility.

  12. On the relationship between fiscal plans in the European Union: An empirical analysis based on real-time data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giuliodori, M.; Beetsma, R.M.W.J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the interdependence of fiscal policies, and in particular deficits, in the European Union using an empirical analysis based on real-time fiscal data. There are many potential reasons why fiscal policies could be interdependent, such as direct externalities due to cross-border public

  13. On the relationship between fiscal plans in the European Union: an empirical analysis based on real-time data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giuliodori, M.; Beetsma, R.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the interdependence of fiscal policies, and in particular deficits, in the European Union using an empirical analysis based on real-time fiscal data. There are many potential reasons why fiscal policies could be interdependent, such as direct externalities due to cross-border public

  14. Transfer Pricing in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MATEI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The transfer pricing mechanism is a tool commonly used to transfer the tax base from countries with high taxation in countries with low taxation. In the European Union, this financial operations generate significant tax revenue losses. In an attempt to limit the handling of corporate tax systems, many public authorities have introduced regulations on transfer pricing, but the effectiveness of these rules has proved limited, and they contributed to the increasing complexity of tax laws and to the appearance of additional costs for companies. A solution to the solving of the transfer pricing problem in the European Union is represented by the introduction of the common consolidated corporate tax base.

  15. Denmark and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan, K...... of this book, two of Kelstrup’s most important intellectual contributions come from his work on Denmark’s relations with the European Union, and his use of systems theory to understand the EU.......Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan...

  16. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  17. ESTIMAP: A GIS-BASED MODEL TO MAP ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zulian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Policies of the European Union which affect the use or protection of natural resources increasingly need spatial data on the supply, the flow and the demand of ecosystem services. The model ESTIMAP was developed to this purpose. ESTIMAP departs from land cover and land use maps to which it adds other spatial information with the objective to map various ecosystem services. This study introduces the ESTIMAP map as tool to support the mapping and modelling of ecosystem services at European scale. Examples are provided for three regulating ecosystem services, air quality regulation, coastal protection, and pollination and one cultural ecosystem services, recreation. 

  18. Evidence based policy making in the European Union. The role of the scientific community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majcen, Spela [Euro-Mediterranean Univ. (EMUNI), Portoroz (Slovenia)

    2017-03-15

    In the times when the acquis of the European Union (EU) has developed so far as to reach a high level of technical complexity, in particular in certain policy fields such as environmental legislation, it is important to look at what kind of information and data policy decisions are based on. This position paper looks at the extent to which evidence-based decision-making process is being considered in the EU institutions when it comes to adopting legislation in the field of environment at the EU level. The paper calls for closer collaboration between scientists and decision-makers in view of ensuring that correct data is understood and taken into consideration when drafting, amending, negotiating and adopting new legal texts at all levels of the EU decision-making process. It concludes that better awareness of the need for such collaboration among the decision-makers as well as the scientific community would benefit the process and quality of the final outcomes (legislation).

  19. Evidence based policy making in the European Union: the role of the scientific community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcen, Špela

    2017-03-01

    In the times when the acquis of the European Union (EU) has developed so far as to reach a high level of technical complexity, in particular in certain policy fields such as environmental legislation, it is important to look at what kind of information and data policy decisions are based on. This position paper looks at the extent to which evidence-based decision-making process is being considered in the EU institutions when it comes to adopting legislation in the field of environment at the EU level. The paper calls for closer collaboration between scientists and decision-makers in view of ensuring that correct data is understood and taken into consideration when drafting, amending, negotiating and adopting new legal texts at all levels of the EU decision-making process. It concludes that better awareness of the need for such collaboration among the decision-makers as well as the scientific community would benefit the process and quality of the final outcomes (legislation).

  20. Evidence based policy making in the European Union. The role of the scientific community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majcen, Spela

    2017-01-01

    In the times when the acquis of the European Union (EU) has developed so far as to reach a high level of technical complexity, in particular in certain policy fields such as environmental legislation, it is important to look at what kind of information and data policy decisions are based on. This position paper looks at the extent to which evidence-based decision-making process is being considered in the EU institutions when it comes to adopting legislation in the field of environment at the EU level. The paper calls for closer collaboration between scientists and decision-makers in view of ensuring that correct data is understood and taken into consideration when drafting, amending, negotiating and adopting new legal texts at all levels of the EU decision-making process. It concludes that better awareness of the need for such collaboration among the decision-makers as well as the scientific community would benefit the process and quality of the final outcomes (legislation).

  1. Environment in the European Union 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission......The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission...

  2. IDENTITY AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Cristina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to throw some light on the question of identity in the European Union. The challenge is to understand how identity formation takes place in the contemporary world. The European integration has to be understood both as a process of socio-economic convergence among European states but also as a process of co-operation on different other levels, too. It seems that cultures, traditions and interests are more and more interconnected as societies become increasingly multicultural. This is the reason why people are concerned with the concept of identity and the recognition of their uniqueness in terms of traditions, values and ways of lives.

  3. The European Union: Challenges and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botescu Ion

    2017-01-01

    If to all these we add the protectionist measures that the new president of the United States wishes to implement, as well as some deterioration in the European Union credibility generated by Brexit, the bureaucratic aspects that characterize the European institutions, etc., we can outline the context of the European Union, which requires a series of measures to ensure the progress of the European Union as a whole and, in particular, the effective integration of each Community country.

  4. Methodological Bases for Ranking the European Union Countries in Terms of Macroeconomic Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymoshenko Olena V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental contradictions of existing methodical approaches to assessing the level of the state economic security have been substantiated and proposals on the introduction of a unified methodology for its assessment, which would be acceptable for use at the international level or for a specific cluster of countries, have been developed. Based on the conducted researches it has been found that the there are no unified signs for such classification of countries. To determine the most significant coefficients and critical values of the indicators of economic security, it is appropriate that the countries should be grouped in terms of the level of the economic development proposed by the UN Commission and the IMF. Analysis of the economic security level has been conducted for the countries-members of the European Union as a separate cluster of countries on the example of macroeconomic security indicators. Based on the evaluation it has been found that the proposed list of indicators and their critical values is economically sound and built on the principle of adequacy, representativeness and comprehensiveness. In 2004 the most secure countries of the EU corresponding to the macroeconomic security standards were Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, and as in 2014 the percentage of absolutely secure countries decreased from 14.3 to 7.1%, only Denmark and Sweden remained in the ranking. During the analyzed period Bulgaria and Croatia got into the risk zone, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania were in a danger zone. In 2014 Ukraine in terms of its macroeconomic security was in a critical state, which testified about serious structural and system imbalances in its development.

  5. Cultivating nature-based solutions: The governance of communal urban gardens in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Jagt, Alexander P N; Szaraz, Luca R; Delshammar, Tim; Cvejić, Rozalija; Santos, Artur; Goodness, Julie; Buijs, Arjen

    2017-11-01

    In many countries in the European Union (EU), the popularity of communal urban gardening (CUG) on allotments and community gardens is on the rise. Given the role of this practice in increasing urban resilience, most notably social resilience, municipalities in the Global North are promoting CUG as a nature-based solution (NbS). However, the mechanisms by which institutional actors can best support and facilitate CUG are understudied, which could create a gap between aspiration and reality. The aim of this study is therefore to identify what governance arrangements contribute to CUG delivering social resilience. Through the EU GREEN SURGE project, we studied six CUG initiatives from five EU-countries, representing different planning regimes and traditions. We selected cases taking a locally unique or innovative approach to dealing with urban challenges. A variety of actors associated with each of the cases were interviewed to achieve as complete a picture as possible regarding important governance arrangements. A cross-case comparison revealed a range of success factors, varying from clearly formulated objectives and regulations, municipal support, financial resources and social capital through to the availability of local food champions and facilitators engaging in community building. Municipalities can support CUG initiatives by moving beyond a rigid focus on top-down control, while involved citizens can increase the impact of CUG by pursuing political, in addition to hands-on, activities. We conclude that CUG has clear potential to act as a nature-based solution if managed with sensitivity to local dynamics and context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Economic burden of cancer across the European Union: a population-based cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Leal, Jose; Gray, Alastair; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-11-01

    In 2008, 2·45 million people were diagnosed with cancer and 1·23 million died because of cancer in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU). We aimed to estimate the economic burden of cancer in the EU. In a population-based cost analysis, we evaluated the cost of all cancers and also those associated with breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancers. We obtained country-specific aggregate data for morbidity, mortality, and health-care resource use from international and national sources. We estimated health-care costs from expenditure on care in the primary, outpatient, emergency, and inpatient settings, and also drugs. Additionally, we estimated the costs of unpaid care provided by relatives or friends of patients (ie, informal care), lost earnings after premature death, and costs associated with individuals who temporarily or permanently left employment because of illness. Cancer cost the EU €126 billion in 2009, with health care accounting for €51·0 billion (40%). Across the EU, the health-care costs of cancer were equivalent to €102 per citizen, but varied substantially from €16 per person in Bulgaria to €184 per person in Luxembourg. Productivity losses because of early death cost €42·6 billion and lost working days €9·43 billion. Informal care cost €23·2 billion. Lung cancer had the highest economic cost (€18·8 billion, 15% of overall cancer costs), followed by breast cancer (€15·0 billion, 12%), colorectal cancer (€13·1 billion, 10%), and prostate cancer (€8·43 billion, 7%). Our results show wide differences between countries, the reasons for which need further investigation. These data contribute to public health and policy intelligence, which is required to deliver affordable cancer care systems and inform effective public research funds allocation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The European Union in International Financial Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh Moloney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the role of the European Union in international financial governance after the institutional reforms it undertook in connection with the global financial crisis. It suggests that the new administrative actors that support the governance of the European Union's single financial market, notably the European Supervisory Authorities, have the potential to reshape how the European Union engages with international financial governance. It finds that the European Union’s effectiveness in influencing international financial governance—and the effectiveness of international financial governance more generally—is likely to strengthen as a result.

  8. LEGAL PERSONALITY AND POWERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin FUEREA

    2010-01-01

    Based on legal personality, EU won through Treaty of Lisbon, in accordance with the system of division of competences between the Union and the Member States as provided for in the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, competences not conferred upon the Union in the Treaties remain with the Member States. When the Treaties confer on the Union a competence shared with the Member States in a specific area, the Member States shall exercise their compet...

  9. The principle of empowerment in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nelly MILITARU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Delimitation of competences in the EU is governed by the principle of conferral. Based on the content of these provisions work in the first three parts of it, defining and classifying skills appropriate attribution Treaties underlying the European Union (Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and the Court of Justice. The next three parts of the paper detailing each classification in hand, highlighting, clear delineation of the Union competences of the Member States carried out by the Lisbon Treaty and the amendments made by this treaty.

  10. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    -only inspection of slaughtered cattle in order to reduce the potential for cross-contamination with bacteria that are of greatest public health risk, is expected in the European Union in the near future. With this system, the detection sensitivity for bovine cysticercosis that is already low with the current meat...... of bovine cysticercosis in the European Union....

  11. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  12. [European Union and blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, P

    2003-06-01

    Blood transfusion is progressing, Europe is growing, European blood transfusion organisations are developing rapidly. The first step was the publication of a new directive (2002/98/CE). The directive is the result of a compromise between technocracy, lobbying and blood transfusion professionals. European blood transfusion must be based on medical, scientific and social criteria. Two imperatives must be considered: the respect of ethics and; independence from the commercial system. The primary objective is to give satisfaction to patients while respecting blood donors.

  13. CFC legislation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  14. Three proposals for revitalising the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Widespread perception that convergence on the current set of rules is not capable of producing convergence on results, or anyway generally better results, has increased the socio-political fragmentation inside the European Union. The result has been an increasing demand for a partial re-nationalisation of sovereign powers, whose physiology comes from the necessity of higher national flexibility. Asking how feasible changes in the current set of rules could accommodate the increased demand of national flexibility, the paper focuses on the euro area and proposes to revise the monetary operations of the European Central Bank, current fiscal rules, and the financial regulatory approach. The proposed new design is based on the premise that no changes in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union are possible at the moment, even though a minimum political convergence is necessary. If successfully implemented, the proposal would contribute to give a viable perspective to the design of the Economic and Monetary Union, capable of attracting those EU non-euro area countries that consider the mismanagement of the recent crisis and of its after-effects reason enough for resisting further losses of sovereignty. JEL: E52, E62, F33, F36, F45, G28

  15. Humanities in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Lasse Gøhler; Vikman, Jutta Maria; Liljenstrøm, Andreas Jan

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyze the publication strategies of researchers in the humanities, including their choices of language, publication type and co-authorship. Based on data from Denmark, we compare the publication profile of the humanities with the other major fields of science in 2012 an...... conjuncture of the European Union’s internationalization policies in the 1990s and 2000s and a change in the international scientific hierarchy during the 20th century has contributed to the universalization of English in the Danish (and European) scientific field....

  16. European Union Financial Crisis: A Marxist Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus Kanisius Farneubun, P.

    European financial crisis poses a serious challenge to the fundamental structure of the European Union, political and financial institutions, as well as the values that bind European together. Different factors have been suggested as the causes of the crisis notably the failure of national

  17. European Union: Gender and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Political representation is the central issue in contemporary debates on the level of democracy in political institutions and processes in the European Union. Underrepresentation of particular groups in political institutions, decision-making and policy-making processes is perceived as the problem of justice, legitimacy and effectiveness in democratic societies. In this paper, the author analyzes the gender aspects of democratic decision-making processes and political representation of women in the EU member states. The social, historical and political dimension of women's efforts to obtain and promote their civil status and political rights have been the framework for developing the principle of gender equality as one of the founding EU principles. In the past hundred years, one of the most significant trends in politics has been the expansion of formal political representation of women. Yet, even though it has been more than a hundered years since women won their political rights in the 19th and the 20th century (the right to vote and the right to be voted, gender differences in political rights are still a substantial part of debate. Today, women's political representation is still inadequate and their political capacity and power have not been exercised to a sufficient extent (or proportionally through their actual representation in parliament. In March 2012, the European Commisision published a report on gender equality in different areas of social life; the Eurobarometer survey shows that women are generally underrepresented in politics. In national parliaments, only one out of four MPs is a woman. In the European Parliament, three out of ten parliamentarians are women. The statistics shows a huge discrepancy among the EU Member States in terms of women's representation in parliament (44.7% in Sweden as contrasted to 13.3% in Romania. The prevailing view in many studies is that post-industrial democracies are deficient as they have failed

  18. The future of small hydropower within the European union. An environmental policy study based on the European Water framework directive and the renewable energy directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabbruwee, Kees

    2006-01-01

    Small hydropower facilities according to European Union (EU) standards have an installed capacity of less than 10 MW. The Renewable Energy Directive has set targets for installed capacity and electricity produced by small hydropower facilities to be reach

  19. THE COMPETITION POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriţa Florea (Ionescu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of European unity dates back to antiquity, the time when the Roman Empire alsopursued such a goal. Attempts to unify European countries have appeared constantly in history, but theirsuccessful culmination crystallized only after the Second World War.Basically, the two wars have led to the downfall of Europe and the loss of its centenary political andmilitary position. The experience of these wars has led the states to initiate a defense mechanism of peace,security and international cooperation - resulted in creating an organization of universal jurisdiction -TheLeague of Nations. However, the successor of this organization, The United Nations - was one thatmanaged thorough its collective security system represented by the Security Council, to ensure andmaintain universal / global peace until now (Stelian Scăunaş, 2005.The creation of the European Union is based on four founding treaties: The Treaty establishingThe European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC - adopted in Paris on April 18, 1951, entered into forcein 1952 - treaty concluded for a period of 50 years and that has terminated in 2002, The Treatyestablishing the European Economic Community (EEC, The Treaty establishing the European AtomicEnergy Community (EAEC or EURATOM, both signed in Rome on March 25, 1947 and entered into forcein 1958 as the Treaties of Rome, and The Treaty on the European Union, which was adopted at Maastrichton 7th of February 1992 and entered into force in 1993. To these institution treaties we can add themodifying treaties of the founding treaties, including: The Merger Treaty - adopted in Brussels on 8 April1965, entered into force in 1967; The Single European Act - signed in Luxembourg and Hague in 1986,entered into force in 1987; The Amsterdam Treaty - signed on October 2, 1997, entered into force in 1999,The Treaty of Nice - signed on February 26, 2001, entered into force in 2003, The Lisbon Treaty signed in2007 and entered into force on December 1st

  20. The 1997 Protocol and the European Union (European Union and '2nd generation' responsibility conventions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handrlica, Jakub; Novotna, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    The issue of accession of the Eastern European Member States to the 1997 Protocol is discussed with focus on the European Union's authority and enforcement powers. Following up the article published in the preceding issue of this journal, the present contribution analyses the relations of the '2nd generation' responsibility conventions to the law of the European Union. (orig.)

  1. Political public relations in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the state of political public relations in the European Union by specifically focusing on reputation management and relationship management. Its arguments are based on a theoretical review of the literature of political public relations, reputation and relationship management......, and EU communication. The article suggests an in-depth examination of the nature of some of the EU’s major problems in political public relations, and contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the possibilities and limitations of applying reputation and relationship management constructs...

  2. Research Methods in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian; Löfgren, Karl

    Research on the European Union over the past few years has been strongly implicated in the crises that currently grip Europe with a failure to ask the pertinent questions as well as a perceived weakness in the methods and evidence used by researchers providing the basis for these allegations....... This volume moves the study of EU research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new agenda for research on Europe through a rich diversity of problem-solving based research. This new agenda acknowledges the weaknesses of the past and moves beyond them towards greater openness and awareness...

  3. Radioactive waste management in European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vico, E.

    2002-01-01

    Although the Euratom Treaty does not assign direct authorities to the European Union in the Field of radioactive waste, the Commission has developed a series of activities related to this type of waste. The article deals with these Community initiatives, and the problems of radioactive waste management in the different Member States, and future plans in the field in the light of forthcoming European Union enlargement in 2004. (Author)

  4. Risk based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in broiler meat in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Sanaa, Moez; Havelaar, Arie H.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) allows evaluating the public health impact of food safety targets to support the control of foodborne pathogens. We estimate the risk reduction of setting microbiological criteria (MCs) for Campylobacter on broiler meat in 25 European countries......, applying quantitative data from the 2008 EU baseline survey. We demonstrate that risk based MCs can be derived without explicit consideration of Food Safety Objectives or Performance Objectives. Published QMRA models for the consumer phase and dose response provide a relation between Campylobacter...

  5. Political and Legal Bases of Foreign Policy Activity of the European Union in the Region of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turdimurat M. Tursunmuratov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the European Union’s foreign policy in Central Asia. He indicates the basic tendencies of development of the EU cooperation with the countries of Central Asian region. Further, the author analyzes the implementation of joint projects within the framework adopted by the Partnership Agreements. Based on a critical analysis, the researcher highlights a number of constraints to effective development of relations between the EU and Central Asian states. He carries out a structural analysis of conceptual documents of the European Union for the development of bilateral and multilateral relations with Central Asian countries in the region. Scientific novelty of this work lies in the systematization of stages in the evolution of relations between the European Union and the countries of Central Asia. The author divides the formation of cooperation into four main stages. The first stage of the relations between the EU and the countries of Central Asia includes conceptual framework of the legal regulatory structure of bilateral and multilateral cooperation. The second stage is characterized by the realization of a number of joint projects in the field of transport communications, democratic transformations, regional security and stability. The third stage of the relations is determined by acquiring of special geographical significance of the region of Central Asia resulting from the engagement of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan in 2001. The fourth stage has begun in 2015 with the adoption of the EU Strategy for a New Partnership with Central Asia for 2017-2021. These studies serve as a basis for developing some important proposals and recommendations for the improvement of the effectiveness of cooperation between the parties.

  6. European Union Harmonized Excise Taxation : Occasional Importation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Tanhua, Taina

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was written with the intent to compile the information related to occasional importation process and European Union harmonized taxation into a single package. The process is based on European Union legislation and the aim of it is to unify the taxation within the internal market area. The national excise duties are not part of the occasional importation process but are partly linked to it. The first part of the thesis discusses the occasional importation of goods subject to ha...

  7. Sustainability Begets Unsustainability?: The European Union's Drive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mandatory target for the European Union (EU) for the use of renewable energy in transport by the year 2020 has created a situation where the African continent has witnessed a number of European agricultural firms gaining access to large tracts of land in order to grow crops for the production of agrofuels. This article ...

  8. Road safety policy of the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is important for national road safety policies. The EU has several policymaking instruments, such as binding regulations and directives, and non-binding recommendations. An important element in the EU policy plans on road safety are the non-binding European road safety

  9. Infectious diseases prioritisation for event-based surveillance at the European Union level for the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economopoulou, A; Kinross, P; Domanovic, D; Coulombier, D

    2014-04-17

    In 2012, London hosted the Olympic and Paralympic Games (the Games), with events occurring throughout the United Kingdom (UK) between 27 July and 9 September 2012. Public health surveillance was performed by the Health Protection Agency (HPA). Collaboration between the HPA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) was established for the detection and assessment of significant infectious disease events (SIDEs) occurring outside the UK during the time of the Games. Additionally, ECDC undertook an internal prioritisation exercise to facilitate ECDC’s decisions on which SIDEs should have preferentially enhanced monitoring through epidemic intelligence activities for detection and reporting in daily surveillance in the European Union (EU). A team of ECDC experts evaluated potential public health risks to the Games, selecting and prioritising SIDEs for event-based surveillance with regard to their potential for importation to the Games, occurrence during the Games or export to the EU/European Economic Area from the Games. The team opted for a multilevel approach including comprehensive disease selection, development and use of a qualitative matrix scoring system and a Delphi method for disease prioritisation. The experts selected 71 infectious diseases to enter the prioritisation exercise of which 27 were considered as priority for epidemic intelligence activities by ECDC for the EU for the Games.

  10. THE NEW ARCHITECTURE OF ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina Ioana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis that began in 2007-2008 has highlighted the need for a stronger economic coordination at EU level, to ensure financial stability. The new architecture of economic governance in the European Union is based on Fiscal Pact, on Macroeconomic Imbalances Identification Mechanism, on European Stability Mechanism and on Banking Union. Since the banking system is the most significant component of the financial system, we will give more importance to the analysis of Banking Union, which is based on three pillars: The Single Supervisory Mechanism, The Single Resolution Mechanism and The Deposit Guarantee Schemes.

  11. Reindustrialization Process in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Prisecaru

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the economic growth and empolyment in EU European institutions have launches ambitious initiatives for a reindustrialization process based on new technologies and green energies. The aim is to increase the share of processing industry in GDP from 15.1% in 2013 to 20% in 2020 according to the objectives of Europe 2020 Strategy and also with those of other EU strategies and common policies. The focus will be laid on innovation and research activites, on supporting/financing SMEs and their internationalization, on the integration of EU firms into global value chains, on developing green energies, bio and key enabling technologies, on smart networks and on free trade and sustainable development.

  12. European Union security policy through strategic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriša Hatidža

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we shall pay attention to the security policy of the European Union, through the strategic culture, starting from the existing various options for cooperation in the field of security and defense. Our goal is to look at the implementation of the Strategic Culture of the European Union (EU SK, research ways to improve the international position of the Union and its impact on policy cooperation and trust with other collectives. Analysis of flexible cooperation between the European Union, as well as access to special procedures in the field of security and defense policy, we will follow the ambition and capacity in implementing the same. Paper aims to introduce the idea of the European Union, which allows its members to rationally consider and check the box of options available to decision makers. In this regard, the EU seeks to build its own armed forces to protect the association of interests-investment terms. Reviewing and understanding the strategic culture of the EU by countries that are not its members can be seen as reasons for strengthening the capacity of the Union for the realization of the impact of the global security as well as predicting its future steps.

  13. Education and training initiatives for crisis management in the European Union: a web-based analysis of available programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Foletti, Marco; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Scarone, Piercarlo; Ragazzoni, Luca; Corte, Francesco Della; Kaptan, Kubilay; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Gotz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Heselmann, Deike; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Khorrram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Kostanze; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M; Fisher, Philipp

    2014-04-01

    Education and training are key elements of disaster management. Despite national and international educational programs in disaster management, there is no standardized curriculum available to guide the European Union (EU) member states. European- based Disaster Training Curriculum (DITAC), a multiple university-based project financially supported by the EU, is charged with developing a holistic and highly-structured curriculum and courses for responders and crisis managers at a strategic and tactical level. The purpose of this study is to qualitatively assess the prevailing preferences and characteristics of disaster management educational and training initiatives (ETIs) at a postgraduate level that currently exist in the EU countries. An Internet-based qualitative search was conducted in 2012 to identify and analyze the current training programs in disaster management. The course characteristics were evaluated for curriculum, teaching methods, modality of delivery, target groups, and funding. The literature search identified 140 ETIs, the majority (78%) located in United Kingdom, France, and Germany. Master level degrees were the primary certificates granted to graduates. Face-to-face education was the most common teaching method (84%). Approximately 80% of the training initiatives offered multi- and cross-disciplinary disaster management content. A competency-based approach to curriculum content was present in 61% of the programs. Emergency responders at the tactical level were the main target group. Almost all programs were self-funded. Although ETIs currently exist, they are not broadly available in all 27 EU countries. Also, the curricula do not cover all key elements of disaster management in a standardized and competency-based structure. This study has identified the need to develop a standardized competency-based educational and training program for all European countries that will ensure the practice and policies that meet both the standards of care and

  14. IMPORTANCE OF THE EUROPEAN BANKING UNION NEW DIRECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available European Banking Union has set new rules on monetary market especially for credit institutions and for financial banking groups in general. Economic and monetary union requires accomplishment of political and monetary union and democratic control of the European institutions on a single financial market. In this respect through its management organisms, EU has designed a series of unique mechanisms of financial union and called for a fiscal union. Union of European financial market is possible through a new regulation of the markets. In this project, monetary union of the EU member countries is possible by implementing single mechanism of supervision (Single Supervisory Mechanism and single mechanism of resolution (Single Resolution Mechanism. European Banking Union may be made by monitoring of a single banking supervisor based on a common system for managing and resolving banking crises and a uniform system of protecting people's savings. Romania opted for these unique mechanisms of macro-prudential supervision of the financial system. And by performing the real convergence criteria of integration, Romania will have all conditions of integration in the ,,euro area,,.

  15. The customs issues of the European Union and Serbia: The customs base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranješ Mile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation (EC No 450/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2008 laying down the Community Customs Code (Modernized Customs Code, Council Regulation (EEC No 2913/92 of 12 October 1992 establishing the Community Customs Code, The Customs Law of Serbia of 26 March 2010 in a very detailed and extensive way regulate customs base. These legal documents envisage the methods of determination of customs value: the primary ones, which are based on the transaction value, but also the secondary ones, which are based on other methods for determination of customs value of goods. The customs services of the EU Member States have on their disposal six methods for determination of customs value of goods. Those methods in the mentioned acts of the EU and Serbia are transposed from the Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 and Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994. The fact that mentioned acts of the EU and Serbia request that the customs value of goods must be clearly and precisely determined, that means to be determined in the same way, is understandable because the customs base is one of the most significant elements of customs. There are many reasons for that: in a certain way, the customs base is in relation with all other elements of customs structure; from the procedure in which the customs base is determined, that means from its universality depends the amount of income which will the EU and Serbia, on that ground, collect to finance public expenditure predicted in the budget; and most of the customs on the imported goods in the EU is determined ad valorem.

  16. The new architecture of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty has brought significant changes into the architecture of the European Union. The most important novelty, however, is the establishment of a full unity of the Union structure achieved by creating new and strengthening the existing elements. The new elements of this unity are the disappearance of the European Community, the 'independence' of the European Atomic Energy Community, constituting the European Union as a single entity and the introduction of EU values. At the same time, the Lisbon Treaty has strengthened the existing elements of the common institutional mechanisms, rules on amending the founding treaties and EU membership. However, constituting the Union as a single entity which has replaced and succeeded the European Communities has not abolished the EU elements of diversity. In the areas that differed, even before the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty, from the community pillar, there remain significant differences in the nature and the scope of competences of the Union institutions. This mainly regards the common foreign and security policy, which now includes the defense policy, where the existing model of inter-state cooperation has been only slightly interfered with. In contrast, in the field of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, which has become part of a larger Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, the inter-state model of cooperation has been abandoned in some of its most important elements. However, the implementation of some of the important elements of the supranational model has been postponed.

  17. Energy tax harmonization in the European Union: a proposal based on the internalization of environmental external costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorigoni, S.; Gulli, F.

    2002-01-01

    Energy tax harmonization is a crucial step towards the creation of a single market. In this article the possibility of achieving such an objective is discussed. The paper consists of two sections. In the first the European taxation on energy products is analysed. This analysis is useful in showing the differences that exist between the European countries that account for the difficulties met so far in the process of harmonization. In this respect we comment on the recent proposal of the Directive of the European Union, which lays down the obligation of minimum levels of taxation in all European member states. In the second section, after simulating the effects related to the adoption of a common environmental taxation (a first best solution based on the internalization of environmental external costs), we propose, as a second best solution, an excise tax harmonization model taking into consideration the specificity of each country and being, as far as possible, coherent with the environmental objective. This model proposes: the introduction of a minimum level of taxation on all products equal to the external cost due to the greenhouse effect (a common carbon tax); the possibility, given to the member states, of deviating from such minimum levels, in accordance with their specific requirements, internalizing in the price of the different products, by means of taxes additional to that CO 2 minimum, the external costs associated with other pollutant agents (the same in all countries); the opportunity, in case it should be necessary to exceed the entire external cost, for the member states to apply increases that are in accordance with the environmental objective. (author)

  18. Nuclear power and European Union enlargement challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Bilegan, C.; Pall, S.; Sandru, P.

    2000-01-01

    In the nuclear power sector, the main concern for the candidate countries entering the European Union, remains the nuclear safety. New standards and regulation will be issued for improving the general quality of life in a sound environment. For the candidate countries entering the European Union, this situation represents a real challenge. Their national legislation must be improved to meet the European standards. The conditions are different from country to country, and more difficult for those, which operate ''non west European reactor type''. The paper also present the actual status of the Romanian legislation related to nuclear power and environment. There are presented the principles, terms and responsibilities contained in this legislation. The authors discuss some aspects related to the possibilities to improve the national legislation to meet the actual European Commission or EURATOM standards. (author)

  19. Consumer protection in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlová, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    The consumer protection is a very actual topic in the european policy. It is necessary for the right function of the internal market. The document mentions the development of the consumer protection policy - the past and the future strategy. The valid legislation is listed and also mentioned is the Proposal for a Directive on Consumer Rights. It gives an overview of european consumer organisations and their function . There are also mentioned some alternatives of the consumer's redress. Docum...

  20. IMPORTANCE OF THE EUROPEAN BANKING UNION NEW DIRECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION; Irina-Elena Chirtoc

    2014-01-01

    European Banking Union has set new rules on monetary market especially for credit institutions and for financial banking groups in general. Economic and monetary union requires accomplishment of political and monetary union and democratic control of the European institutions on a single financial market. In this respect through its management organisms, EU has designed a series of unique mechanisms of financial union and called for a fiscal union. Union of European financial marke...

  1. Federal and European Union Policy Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    By using the policy cycle approach, this paper compares the policy-process in a number of Anglo-Saxon type federations with the policy-process in continental-European style federations from within the European Union (EU) area.  The comparison would reveal: a) distinct different styles of policy...... making in European style federations in relation with the Anglo-Saxon ones. b) that the policy-process in the EU resembles that of the European style federations, and c) the Constitutional Treaty (CT) or a possible CT-light would strengthen the federal policy-making characteristics already present...

  2. European citizenship and the constitutionalisation of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijken, Hanneke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314133992

    2014-01-01

    The concept of citizenship in relatively new legal order of the European Union has its own meaning and dynamics compared to national citizenship. One of the important questions regarding this transnational form of citizenship is how to place this European citizenship in a constitutional context in

  3. The European Fiscal Union creation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Sharov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents evolution of the European Union fiscal system creation process as well as outlines problems in functioning thereof that have arisen during recent years and the main reforming (modification trends. The analysis is primarily focused on creation of the fiscal union within the EU. In this regard, the idea of two different groups of countries moving to the common goal at different paces is becoming ever increasingly much-talked-about in the EU. The first group comprises donor countries that adhere to all treaties and fiscal discipline, while demonstrating respective positive macroeconomic indicators. The second group implies countries of Euro-periphery, where the above processes take place along with significant complications or do not occur at all. In these countries Eurosceptic positions are also quite strong, which often leads to taking measures contrary to the jointly adopted decisions. Currently, there is no clear understanding within the EU as to which way out of the crisis should be taken. However, profound understanding of the crisis causes and active work on preparation and implementation of measures to overcome the negative effects of this crisis suggest availability of sufficiently favorable prospects for further development of the EU fiscal system (including formal creation of the Fiscal Union. Based on the conducted analysis conclusions have been made as to potential vectors of action aimed at improving EU fiscal system, while specific recommendations on actions to be taken by Ukraine have been developed (particularly, as regards budget forecasting and planning with the purpose of harmonizing Ukrainian financial institutions and mechanisms with the EU fiscal system.

  4. EUROPEAN UNION POLICIES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Canter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most important challenges that humanity faces in the 21st century, and for the European Union, combating this phenomenon represents an important element, which is reflected both in the actions carried out in recent years, domestically and internationally, as well as in the EU policy on climate change. Within the EU, regulations were adopted, that demonstrate the importance that the Union confers to the limitation of this phenomenon, stressing at the same time the need for an integrated policy framework to ensure the security for potential investors and a coordinated approach between Member States. This paper will present recent developments for the most important policies to combat and mitigate climate change in the European Union, starting with "20-20-20" objectives, which are to be met through the package "Energy-Climate Change", continuing with 2030 and 2050 timeframes, and finally presenting the main lines of action to combat climate change.

  5. Zoonoses in the European Union: origin, distribution and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahuerta, A.; Westrell, T.; Takkinen, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a summary of the main findings of the latest report of the European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control on zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in the European Union (EU), based on data from 2009. Zoonoses are prevalent and widely...... distributed across several countries in the EU. The most important highlight of this report was the continuous decrease of human salmonellosis since 2005, probably due to effective control programmes in livestock....

  6. A virtual capital for the European Union?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamadouh, V.

    2000-01-01

    This article explores the websites of the key institutions of the European Union to consider whether these applications of the new information and communication technologies may become a functional equivalent of the national capital city in the emerging supranational political arena. Three functions

  7. The European Union: a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Fransen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has developed policies and instruments that address – both directly and indirectly – sexual violence in conflict and beyond. Policy areas that are important in this respect include human rights, gender equality, development cooperation, humanitarian aid and conflict prevention.

  8. Biomass energy: progress in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, J. [CPL Scientific Limited, Newbury (United Kingdom)

    1996-05-01

    A brief overview of the progress in the use of biomass energy in the European Union is presented. Wood fuel, support for renewable energy research, liquid biofuel, wastes and residues, and non-food use of crops such as the production of fuels from lignocellulosic materials are examined. (UK)

  9. ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION ON TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBINCEA Lilia;

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On June 27, 2014 there was signed an Association Agreement between the Republic of Moldova, on one hand and the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and its Member States, on the other hand (hereinafter - the Association Agreement. The Association Agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016. The signing of the Association Agreement was as a result of the close ties between the parties established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, on the one hand, and the Republic of Moldova on the other hand, which develops within the European Neighborhood policy and the Eastern Partnership, as well as recognition of the shared desire of the parties to further develop, strengthen and expand their relationships. The Association Agreement contributes to the development of trade and economic relations between the parties. The Republic of Moldova is obliged to take necessary measures to ensure compliance with the objectives of Union's regulations and to follow the principles and practices set out in the relevant acquis of the Union. The Republic of Moldova will also gradually include relevant acquis of the Union in its legislation, in accordance with the provisions of the Association Agreement. The legislative background regulatory EU trade is subject studies only a small circle of researchers, approaches and sequential episodic in character, without being integrated into a systemic study, complex, integrated. The objectives of the research are to analyze the most important EU regulations on trade.

  10. The demographic situation in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, N.; van der Erf, R.F.; Heering, E.L.; van Nimwegen, N.; van der Erf, R.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the recent demographic situation and related population trends in the 27 Member States of the European Union. Some attention will also be paid to its two Candidate Countries, Croatia and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, as well as to the EFTA Countries (Iceland,

  11. Multiple inequalities, intersectionality and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloo, M.M.T.

    2006-01-01

    The European Union (EU), a pioneer in gender equality policies, is moving from predominantly attending to gender inequality, towards policies that address multiple inequalities. This article argues that there are tendencies at EU level to assume an unquestioned similarity of inequalities, to fail to

  12. Laboratory medicine in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Zerah, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The profession of laboratory medicine differs between countries within the European Union (EU) in many respects. The objective of professional organizations of the promotion of mutual recognition of specialists within the EU is closely related to the free movement of people. This policy translates to equivalence of standards and harmonization of the training curriculum. The aim of the present study is the description of the organization and practice of laboratory medicine within the countries that constitute the EU. A questionnaire covering many aspects of the profession was sent to delegates of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) and Union Européenne de Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) of the 28 EU countries. Results were sent to the delegates for confirmation. Many differences between countries were identified: predominantly medical or scientific professionals; a broad or limited professional field of interest; inclusion of patient treatment; formal or absent recognition; a regulated or absent formal training program; general or minor application of a quality system based on ISO Norms. The harmonization of the postgraduate training of both clinical chemists and of laboratory physicians has been a goal for many years. Differences in the organization of the laboratory professions still exist in the respective countries which all have a long historical development with their own rationality. It is an important challenge to harmonize our profession, and difficult choices will need to be made. Recent developments with respect to the directive on Recognition of Professional Qualifications call for new initiatives to harmonize laboratory medicine both across national borders, and across the borders of scientific and medical professions.

  13. GOVERNING EUROPEAN UNION TO FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion-Lucian CATRINA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last four years, a significant part of the European Union members has recorded a real decline in the sustainability of their public debt. The failure of Greece, Italy, Belgium or Spain to easily find funding at previous interest rates has induced the fear that the European Monetary Union would disintegrate. Such as scenario is not realistic because does not take into account the economic interdependencies that have been created between the countries participating at the monetary zone. Nevertheless, we can say that the Stability and Growth Pact which aimed towards the coordination of national fiscal policies for ensuring the stability and prudence of the budgetary climate, has failed. This failure was primarily due to the lack of specific sanctions for those members that have not fought against the fiscal imbalances and secondly to the stopping the steps forward towards a common fiscal policy. Thus, we can say that the European Monetary Union is driven now by the wrong rule of “no taxation with representation”. For these reasons, this paper aims at showing that the European fiscal federalism is still far away from becoming reality and that the new instruments chosen for the new stability of the European Monetary Union will be the task of the Member States themselves. This paper will also review the main rules that are projected to be the source for the future European financial stability and growth: the balanced budgets and the deficits built only on the “Golden Rule” premises, for which other amendments on European Treaties are expected.

  14. LABOUR TAXATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau-Popa Liviu Mihai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis, which we consider extremely useful in the current economic context, of the evolution of labour income fiscality, more precisely, the effect of the public debt growth on the tax wedge for the labour income. The share of fiscal revenues from direct taxes, indirect taxes and social contributions is relatively close in the old member states of the European Union in comparison with the new member states, which register a lower level of income from direct taxes. The low level of income from direct taxes is compensated by more significant shares of the social contributions or indirect taxes. The main motivations of cross-border migration are: a successful career in a multinational corporation, high variations of the tax rate, of the salary income between states and, last but not least, the level of the net salary. To this day, there are no plans to harmonize across the European Union the legislation regarding the taxes wages and the social security contributions. Still, the European Union had in view the coordination of the national tax systems to make sure that the employees and the employers do not pay several times the social contributions in their movement across the community space. Despite the fact that some states tax the labour income at a low level, the labour fiscality remains high in the European Union in comparison with other industrialized economies, probably also due to the fact that the majority of the member states have social market economies. The increase of the fiscality level for the labour income determines the decrease of the employment rate and the raise of the unemployement rate. The solution to guarantee a higher employment rate, which is a target of the European Union Strategy Europe 2020 could be the relaxation of the labour income fiscality by transferring the tax wedge on the labour income towards property or energy taxation.

  15. RENEWABLE ENERGY STRATEGIES: WHERE EUROPEAN UNION HEADED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The states from European Union must take advantage from renewable energy sources in order to revive the economy. Climate change creates new jobs and could reduce energy imports which would stimulate the economy of those states. The European Union should support research in the field, apply more efficient policies in energy, and create economies of scale to get an integrated European energy market in which the main actors can reduce the cost of production of renewable energy. In addition, it is possible to use the comparative advantages of the Member States and not only, like Greece, through solar energy, Southern Mediterranean, through distribution networks interconnections with EU, Russia and Ukraine, through biomass and the North Sea, through wind energy. This paper refers to the evolution and trends of the renewable energy sources and presents some scenarios of it.

  16. FACTORING PERSPECTIVE: CROATIA VS EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ivanovic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper points out the problems of liquidity, disposal and obtaining funds, inability to collect receivables, delayed payments in times of economic and financial instability and dynamic business upheavals and uncertainty. As a contribution to resolve these issues new alternative methods of financing for business are imposing, one of them is factoring. Although most countries don’t have adequate legal framework, factoring has emerged as the dominant form of financing, whose current status and development points to the prospects of development in the future. In terms of measures and actions which are taken to combat these issues, as well as legislation, many efforts are made at international level in European Union and in Croatia. Overview and description of the factoring development, and indications for further development are presented in relation to the world, the European Union and the Republic of Croatia. This paper also describes factoring comparison among European countries.

  17. BANKING SUPERVISION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences can be fatal. To ensure long-term stability of the banking system, supervisory regulations were constituted in order to prevent banks focusing on achieving rapidly high profits and protect the interests of depositors. Starting from this point, this paper will carry out a study on existing models of supervision in the European Union’s Member States. A comparison between them will support identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.

  18. Management of electricity markets in European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamfir, A.; Florescu, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    The challenges facing energy markets in Europe were discussed with particular reference to the need to integrate and interconnect national energy markets. The Romanian power market evolution since 2000 was also analyzed, taking into account the fact that the strategic objective of the Romanian Government is to assume the role of Regional Exchange in the South-East European region. A common approach to energy is needed to enable the European Union (EU) to compete in global markets, to improve sustainability in the EU and to secure energy supply. An overall framework is needed in order to achieve these objectives. This paper presented the general measures needed to complete the internal gas and electricity markets in Europe. It also proposed measures to ensure that the EU's internal energy market guarantees security of supply and solidarity between Member States. The guiding principles that an approach to information management and market transparency should be based on were described. The authors suggested that an integrated and competitive electricity and gas markets should be established to promote efficient energy services and diversify the energy mix. The measures needed in order to achieve the goal of a genuine single market at EU level were described along with the actions needed to stimulate investments in infrastructure and generation capacity. Measures to prevent or manage energy supply crises were also proposed. 4 refs., 1 tab

  19. Citizenship of the European Union under the Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nely MILITARU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is structured in two parts. The first part covers history, "Union citizenship, according to previous Treaties Lisbon Treaty, and the second refers to the privileges which they have as citizens of the Union Treaty as a result of reforming the European Union, referring to documents on which this Treaty adhere it recognizes as having the same legal force, treaties, (Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

  20. EUROPEAN UNION AND THE PROCESS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail CARADAICĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available What is the relation between globalization and the process of European integration? Does the European integration have its own way, or is it deeply dependent on globalization? Those are the main questions I will try to answer in this paper by using an alternative critical approach: neo-gramscianism. Neo-gramscianism is a historical materialist view on the European integration process and international political economy which offers a better understanding of the social changes in terms of social forces agency and super structural influence (the neoliberal ideology of globalization and European integration. My aim is to analyze the globalization process through a neo-gramscian theoretical framework and to observe how its main components affect European Integration. I will do this by assuming the definition of globalization provided by Andreas Bieler, who understands this process through three main pillars: transnationalization of finance, transnationalization of production and ideological shift from Keynesianism to neoliberalism. Finally I will try to formulate some conclusions regarding the emergence of European Round Table of Industrialists – the first lobby group of big capital at the European Union level – and Economic and Monetary Union – the internal market program that symbolizes the shift to neo-liberalism.

  1. Composition, labelling, and safety of food supplements based on bee products in the legislative framework of the European Union - Croatian experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujić, Mario; Pollak, Lea

    2015-12-01

    The European Union market is overflown by food supplements and an increasing number of consumers prefer those where bee products play an important part in their composition. This paper deals with complex European Union legislation concerning food supplements based on bee products, placing a special emphasis on their composition, labelling, and safety. Correct labelling of food supplements also represents a great challenge since, in spite of legal regulations in force, there are still open issues regarding the statements on the amount of propolis, which is not clearly defined by the legal framework. One of the key issues are the labels containing health claims from the EU positive list approved by the European Food Safety Authority. Emphasis will also be placed on informing consumers about food, as statements which imply the healing properties of food supplements and their capacity to cure diseases are forbidden. One of the key elements of product safety is HACCP based on the EU Regulations EC 178/02 and 852/2004. Health safety analyses of food supplements with bee products used as raw materials, which are standardised by legal regulations will also be discussed. In the future, attention should also be paid to establishing the European Union "nutrivigilance" system. Croatian experiences in addressing challenges faced by producers, supervisory entities, and regulatory and inspection bodies may serve as an example to countries aspiring to become part of the large European family.

  2. The making of a European healthcare union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; van de Bovenkamp, Hester M.; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2016-01-01

    that federalism offers the most fruitful way to do so because of its sensitivity to the EU’s institutional settings and to the territorial dimension of politics. The division of competences and national diversity of healthcare systems have been major obstacles for the formation of a healthcare union. However......, the EU obtained a role in healthcare through the impact of non-healthcare legislation, voluntary co-operation, court rulings, governments’ joint-decision traps, and fiscal stress of member states. The emerging European healthcare union is a system of cooperative federalism without much cost-sharing...

  3. Kazakh Initiatives on Cooperation with European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem S. Kurmanguzhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article presents initiatives of the Republic of Kazakhstan to develop cooperation with the European Union that was initiated through 2000 - 2009. In 2000 the Republic of Kazakhstan proposed to EU Comment cooperation doctrine in Central Asia. The purpose of the doctrine lied in expanding cooperation in the areas of trade, economy and investment; in granting access to commodities and services from European markets; in developing collaboration in the areas of energy, transport, communication, finance and banking. In 2006 Kazakhstan introduced a new set of prepossess to the new European Union Strategy for Central Asian 2007-2013 that was developed under the chairmanship of Germany of the EU in the first half of 2007. The Strategy covered areas of cooperation such as regional integration, economic development, democratization, energy and security. In 2008 under the instructions of the President of Kazakhstan Ministry of Foreign Affairs in cooperation with other ministries developed a state programme "Path to Europe" for 2009 - 2011, which aided the priorities of cooperation between Kazakhstan and the European Union. "Path to Europe" has become a key initiative of the Kazakh foreign policy that was successfully implemented, as well as the most important document aimed at modernization of the national economy and the Kazakh society. In the beginning of2009 using the accumulated positive experience of cooperation with the EU and experience of a number of countries in Europe and Asia, Kazakhstan devised and submitted a concept of a new treaty which was supposed to replace the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement of 1995. The Republic of Kazakhstan's influence eventually persuaded the European Union to agree on the necessity of devising the Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement.

  4. Policy-making in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Mark A; Young, Alasadair R

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving, and with far-reaching implications, European Union policy-making is of central importance to the politics of the European Union. From defining the processes, institutions and modes through which policy-making operates, the text moves on to situate individual policies within these modes, detail their content, and analyse how they are implemented, navigating policy in all its complexities. The first part of the text examines processes, institutions, and the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of policy-making, while the second part considers a wide range of policy areas, from economics to the environment, and security to the single market. Throughout the text, theoretical approaches sit side by side with the reality of key events in the EU, including enlargement, the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and the financial crisis and resulting euro area crisis, exploring what determines how policies are made and implemented. In the final part, the editors consider trends in EU policy-makin...

  5. Excises Harmonization Stage Within the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Drăcea, Raluca; Buziernescu, Radu

    2007-01-01

    Tax policy in the European Union consists of two components: direct taxation, which remains the sole responsibility of Member States, and indirect taxation, which affects free movement of goods and the freedom to provide services. The most important efforts for the tax harmonization were made in the domain of the indirect taxation, the consumption taxes influence the price supported by the final consumer and prevent the fiscal neutrality necessary for a fair competition on the ...

  6. The European Union stakes on biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffon, M.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union has just published the environmental side of its action in the fight against climatic change. Like the third 'energy batch', these new legislative proposals are the continuation of the January 2007 communication of the commission which aimed at fixing the trends of the energy policy of the European Communities. Some measures of these last legislative proposals, in particular those treating of biofuels, are sometimes considered as too ambitious and even unrealistic. The overall proposals are waiting for the final adoption during the French presidency. (J.S.)

  7. Food and Health Inequalities in European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    Food and Inequalities in European Union Dr. Aileen Robertson, Public Health Nutritionist at the Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen. Dr. Robertson focused on food and inequality in light of the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in Europe. On average over 50% of Europeans...... public procurement; 3) more democratic sustainable food systems with fairer prices to producers; 4) realise that food and nutrition policies are at the heart of achieving all 17 Sustainable Development Goals and the COP21climate goals; 5) a ‘Health in All Policies’ approach applied to CAP reform...

  8. 2009 energy prices in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the natural gas price fell down in the European Union (EU). This drop was of about -5% (excluding taxes) as an average for companies, and of about -3% for households (including taxes). On the other hand, the electricity prices raised by 3% for companies and by 5% for households. In France, only the gas price for companies has dropped between 2008 and 2009. The electricity prices remain significantly lower than the EU average: -29% for companies and -30% for households. The gas price in France remains close to the European average but is significantly lower than the average price in the euro area. (J.S.)

  9. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  10. Opting Out of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    controversial cases of differentiated integration: the British and Danish opt-outs from Economic and Monetary Union and European policies on borders, asylum, migration, internal security and justice. Drawing on over one hundred interviews with national representatives and EU officials, the author demonstrates......European integration continues to deepen despite major crises and attempts to take back sovereignty. A growing number of member states are reacting to a more constraining EU by negotiating opt-outs. This book provides the first in-depth account of how opt-outs work in practice. It examines the most...... how representatives manage the stigma of opting out, allowing them to influence even politically sensitive areas covered by their opt-outs. Developing a practice approach to European integration, the book shows how everyday negotiations transform national interests into European ideals. It is usually...

  11. Comparison of property taxation systems in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Adam Firlej; Chrystian Firlej

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to characterize theoretical and empirical determinants of property taxation systems in the European Union with particular emphasis on the fiscal functions of property tax. The study was conducted based on the method for the analysis and critique of literature. Within the theoretical framework, this study touches upon such issues as: theoretical considerations of property taxation and the classification of property taxation systems within the European Uni...

  12. Enlargement of the European Union and agricultural policy reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Skovager; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth; Zobbe, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    A connection exists between enlargement of the European Union and reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Based upon rational choice theory, we examine whether the member states’ CAP positions are related to structures in their agricultural sectors. The overall hypothesis...

  13. Energy policies of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.K.

    1994-09-01

    This report takes stock of what has been achieved and where the European Community is going in terms of energy policy and also looks at the full extent of the Union's energy sector competances. The chapters deal with the European Commission's programme to create an internal energy market through implementing new Directives and by means of an approach through competition. A further two chapters concentrate on environmental policy with respect to emissions control and the greenhouse effect. Two broad policy areas - Community Initiative and trans-European networks - are examined in a consideration of the connections between energy and economic and social cohesion. Security of supply is the fourth and traditional pillar of energy policy to be considered. Three policy areas which do not fit into these first four categories are dealt with in individual chapters. These are: nuclear issues, research and development, and a wider Europe. A concluding chapter suggests that there is an urgent need for a new way of dealing with energy in the European Union which has a myriad of policies affecting energy but no energy policy. The appendices include a document summary for each of the main chapters and a glossary. (UK)

  14. European union standards for tuberculosis care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, G B; Zellweger, J P; Abubakar, I; Ibraim, E; Caminero, J A; De Vries, G; D'Ambrosio, L; Centis, R; Sotgiu, G; Menegale, O; Kliiman, K; Aksamit, T; Cirillo, D M; Danilovits, M; Dara, M; Dheda, K; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Kluge, H; Lange, C; Leimane, V; Loddenkemper, R; Nicod, L P; Raviglione, M C; Spanevello, A; Thomsen, V Ø; Villar, M; Wanlin, M; Wedzicha, J A; Zumla, A; Blasi, F; Huitric, E; Sandgren, A; Manissero, D

    2012-04-01

    The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) jointly developed European Union Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ESTC) aimed at providing European Union (EU)-tailored standards for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of tuberculosis (TB). The International Standards for TB Care (ISTC) were developed in the global context and are not always adapted to the EU setting and practices. The majority of EU countries have the resources and capacity to implement higher standards to further secure quality TB diagnosis, treatment and prevention. On this basis, the ESTC were developed as standards specifically tailored to the EU setting. A panel of 30 international experts, led by a writing group and the ERS and ECDC, identified and developed the 21 ESTC in the areas of diagnosis, treatment, HIV and comorbid conditions, and public health and prevention. The ISTCs formed the basis for the 21 standards, upon which additional EU adaptations and supplements were developed. These patient-centred standards are targeted to clinicians and public health workers, providing an easy-to-use resource, guiding through all required activities to ensure optimal diagnosis, treatment and prevention of TB. These will support EU health programmes to identify and develop optimal procedures for TB care, control and elimination.

  15. Comparison of property taxation systems in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Adam Firlej

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to characterize theoretical and empirical determinants of property taxation systems in the European Union with particular emphasis on the fiscal functions of property tax. The study was conducted based on the method for the analysis and critique of literature. Within the theoretical framework, this study touches upon such issues as: theoretical considerations of property taxation and the classification of property taxation systems within the European Union with a distinction between value systems and surface systems. At the practical level characteristics have been established of property taxation volvasystems in the European Union considering the range of subjective and objective methods for determining and updating the tax base, as well as the amount of tax burden. Subsequently, an analysis has been done of the fiscal functions of property tax within the European Union. It has been noted that the role of the property tax in individual Member States of the European Union is different. Results indicate that the key cause of a significant variation in effects of a fiscal nature is the adopted method of determining the so-called tax value of the property (market value or rental value of the property, as determined for the purposes of establishing the tax base as well as accepted rates. It was found that tax revenues in countries where cadastral systems exist are much greater than in the case of surface systems. It should also be noted that, in countries where the dimension of property taxes is made conditional on the data collected in cadastral records, the tax potential varies, and the reasons for this state of affairs are the specific solutions adopted in particular European countries.

  16. SCENARIOS REGARDING THE FUTURE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL-IULIAN NEDELCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work has as purpose to argumentatively identify the future evolution of the European construction, identifying a potential scenario which would settle the current contradiction within the European Union, namely the existence of a true “economic federation” and of only a “political quasi-confederation” , being notorious the fact that in Europe, federalism is mainly known as a specific solution of power assignment between the institutions of a central power and those of the member states (for federal states or as a potential model of transnational integration (for the European Union and even for regionalism within certain states (Spain, Italy, France. It shall be tried the decryption of the philosophical and legal base of federalism as a doctrine able to provide a solution of state’s organisation in the conditions of the European integration.

  17. Health statistics - Atlas on mortality in the European Union: 2009 edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, C.C.; Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Health statistics - Atlas on mortality in the European Union describes the situation regarding mortality in the Member States of the European Union. It is an update of an earlier publication published by Eurostat in 2002, based on data for the years 1994-1996. Since then the number of European

  18. The Rise of a European Healthcare Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare has only slowly appeared on the European Union’s (EU) policy agenda. EU involvement in policies concerning the organization, financing and the provision of diagnosis, care and cures to ill people developed along three fragmented tracks: (a) EU public health policies concerning the well......-being of all people; (b) the application of the free movement principle to national healthcare systems in particular by the EU’s Court of Justice (CJEU); and (c) the austerity packages and the stricter EU surveillance of national budgets since the debt crises. The key questions of this special issue...... are whether this fragmented EU involvement has now developed into a distinct European healthcare union, and if so what its driving forces have been. Thus, it explores how European integration in healthcare has moved forward despite widespread reluctance. It also examines the underexplored political dynamics...

  19. SPECIALIZED COURTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nely Militaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Treaty of Lisbon entered into force on 1 December 2009, improved functioning judicial system European Union ( EU. Court of Justice of the EU has been reformed, said Treaty changing the EU courts so very name : Court of Justice of the EU, the Court referred to above, the Court of First Instance, and specialized courts, known previously, judicial panels. The paper shows the first part of his creation, composition and competence of the specialized courts, and as a manifestation of them in the second part examines the Civil Service Tribunal, the same point of view. EU specialized courts may be set up in specific areas, specializing in some technical disputes. These specialized courts have jurisdiction to hear and decide the cases in the first instance with the possibility that their decision subject to appeal to the General Court . In this context, to resolve disputes between the Union and its officials was established Tribunal.

  20. Emerging Administrations under European Union Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Berceanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of emergence is generally used to indicate the appearance of patterns, structures, orproperties that cannot be adequately explained by referring only to the system’s pre-existing componentsand their interactions. The term “emergence” has an interdisciplinary approach specific to administrativesciences, too. In this article, the concept of “emergence” signifies lato sensu a kind of change and it will beused to refer to countries that have a high volatility and that are in transition and to define the changes thatsuffer the public administrations of the countries which are part of the European construction. EuropeanUnion through its policies and legislation has a great impact on economic and social conditions in MemberStates. The aim of the paper is to present a theoretical approach on the dimension of emergingadministrations understood as changes and reforms that suffer the institutions from the EU member statesunder the pressure of the European Union rules. The study is using the concept of emergence to researchand to analyze the nature of the changes in the public administration starting from the approach of thesystems theory.

  1. Labour Force Migration Effects within European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mihaela Tudorache

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the EU, there is no common policy on migration; there are common policies on certain aspects of migration. The Member States fear of migration, but their economies and societies will further need migrant workers. Labour force migration have positive, but also negative consequences for all parties involved: receiving countries, origin countries and migrant workers. Within this framework, a common approach of the migration management and the harmonization of the economic migration policies of the Member States represent already one of the most important challenges for the European Union and will be further emphasized.

  2. Mental health service users' experiences of an education intervention based on a European Union project: A comparison between nine European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Irja; Kaunonen, Marja

    2018-06-19

    Mental health service users (MHSUs) often face difficulties in achieving successful participation in education; however, the tools that could help them succeed are rarely investigated. This study aimed to illuminate the experiences of MHSUs in an education intervention based on a European Union (EU) project. Their experiences are compared across nine EU countries. The data were collected through individual interviews with MHSUs (n = 47) at day activity centres that provide mental health services. An inductive content analysis was used as the method of analysis. Three main categories, which include seven subcategories, are revealed by the analysis. The main categories are as follows: (i) the factors related to MHSUs' educational preparedness, (ii) the dimensions of the learning environment, and (iii) the effects of training intervention. The MHSUs' experiences with the education intervention were similar across all countries. The findings showed that this education intervention is a multidimensional process. It contains social, mental, and physical dimensions linked to a learner and learning environment. These dimensions influence the MHSUs' ability to participate in the education process. At its best, the education intervention supports the personal growth of MHSUs and prepares them for social integration. An education intervention can be a usable tool in the rehabilitation of MHSUs if the multidimensional nature of education is taken into consideration. Therefore, designing and executing education interventions requires the attendance of the MHSUs in cooperation with mental health and education professionals. Our findings suggest a tentative framework that can be used in designing and executing education for MHSUs. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  3. European Union's environmental strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, Jean-Paul; Laurent, Eloi; Le Cacheux, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Environmental policy is an art of execution. Hence the fact that European Union member states have recently managed to agree on targets of emissions to fight climate change leaves open the question of how they will meet them. Economics cannot but embrace the scientific consensus on climate change and cannot say much about the efficiency of alternative technologies. Yet, its expertise is valuable to calculate economic effects and fairness of policies and to assess the relevance of incentives structures and effectiveness of institutions put into place to convert scientific consensus into action. This article is concerned with this latter point: does the EU have the right institutions to fight climate change? We claim that such is not the case, and offer to institute a 'European Community of Environment, Energy and Research' to go forward. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE' No. 102

  4. Energy corridors European Union and Neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Hafner, Manfred; Vailati, Ricardo; Wietschel, Martin

    2007-08-01

    The ENCOURAGED (Energy corridor optimisation for European markets of gas, electricity and hydrogen) project has been launched in beginning 2005 to identify and assess the economically optimal energy corridors between European Union (EU) and neighbouring countries. The objectives of the project are to: Assess the economic optimal energy (electricity, gas and hydrogen) corridors and related network infrastructure for connecting the EU with its neighbouring countries and regions; Identify, quantify and evaluate the barriers to and potential benefits of building optimal energy corridors connecting the EU with its neighbours; Propose necessary policy measures to implement the recommended energy corridors with a focus on investment and the geopolitical framework; Organise stakeholder workshops and seminars to discuss the results and findings and reach consensus among scientists, stakeholders and non-governmental organizations and validate project results

  5. SOME CRITICAL ASPECTS CONCERNING THE INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timofte Claudia Simona

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we want to clarify and understand the decisional process in European which is related to the determination of the identity of the Union, answering to several questions concerning the implementation of the European Union into an organization, the different relations with other organizations and with the international law. In the family of the international organizations, the European Union has its own place because it realizes an economic integration project and a political one, a supranational but refusing the traditional categories of constitution and the international law. Qualifying as an international organization sui generis, EU developed a new legal order, deciding to create a supranational organization, formed by Member States and their citizens. The integration process is a permanent challenge opened to a new and developing process for solving all the internal and external problems of the EU. The States have an international "sensitivity" when the application of EU rules exceeds their obligations laid down in the Treaties to third countries and international organizations to which they have not exempted obligations. It was argued that the concept of "demos" or acting people is intrinsically linked to that of the nation-State. The issue of democratic deficit of the European Union is bound to four basic problems: the construction as a whole and therefore of the institutional system, under the principle of conferral, the Union shall act only within the limits that Member States have been conferred in the Treaties to attain the objectives that they set, The Treaty of Lisbon reinforces the legitimacy of the operation of the Union based on free and democratic will expressed by Member States. European construction is achieved through a democratic transfer of competences of the democratic States to a Commission subject to a weak democratic control, while the European Central Bank preserves absolute dominion over its monetary policy

  6. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  7. 76 FR 18198 - European Union-United States Atlantis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION European Union-United States Atlantis Program AGENCY: Office of...)--Special Focus Competition: European Union-(EU) United States (U.S.) Atlantis Program Notice inviting... and Culture, European Commission for funding under a separate but parallel EU competition. Within this...

  8. Organization and regulation of energy markets in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, J.

    2002-01-01

    The energy regulation policy and the organization of power matters in the European Union as well as the energy markets are discussed in this Keynote Paper. The Council of European Energy Regulators is introduced. The goal of the European Union regarding energy generation and consumption in the future are analyzed. (R.P.)

  9. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The European Union aims to achieve a 20% share (with legally binding national targets) of its final energy consumption from RES by 2020, and at least a 27% share (not broken down into nationally binding targets) by 2030. Key instruments at EU level to promote RES include directives, such as the 2009 Renewable Energy Directive. The EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is also intended to support RES. The European Commission has also adopted state aid guidelines to ensure that support schemes to promote RES at national level are compatible with EU competition law and internal market rules. Further instruments are research, development and innovation funding programmes, such as Horizon2020, the Innovation Fund, and the NER300 programme. RES are also supported through regional development funds as well as through grants and loans for RES projects and related infrastructure from the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI). A recast directive on the promotion of RES in the period 2020- 2030 is to be adopted along with governance rules to ensure that the EU-wide RES target for 2030 is met

  10. Evaluation of the European Union-United States oil and petroleum-based fuels trade potential in the context of the negotiated TTIP agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkuski Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluates the European Union-United States oil and petroleum-based fuels trade potential. The planned trade structure and balance according to IEA (International Energy Agency and IHS (IHS CERA www.ihs.com scenarios, the projected volume of imports and exports, and differences in price levels and costs are presented. The projected potential of the trade volume, taking into account the possible impact of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP, is also presented. The analysis has shown that the elimination of trade barriers between the European Union and the United States would be more beneficial to US refineries. Due to the higher import tariffs to the EU, the potential benefits of US exporters are higher than those of the EU exporters to the US. This confirms the fears of European negotiators that some aspects of the agreement will have a negative impact on European businesses. However, in the case of petroleum products the TTIP agreement will have a negligible impact on increasing the export volume.

  11. 76 FR 44890 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...] Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other Countries... European Union and other countries. Based on the findings of a commodity import evaluation document, which... associated with the importation into the continental United States of fresh garlic from the European Union...

  12. TWHY CCCTB DISADVANTAGES LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PÎRVU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available From its appearance, the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base generated numerous de-bates and controversies since its effects cannot be precisely measured. Two of the factors in the formula for allocating common consolidated corporate tax base are susceptible to disadvantage some Member States. This paper demonstrates, by a case study in Romania, that the tax sharing mechanism, through the payroll factor, disadvantages less developed countries of the European Union. These countries will record losses of corporate income tax revenues.

  13. The Harmonization of Public Sector Accounting in European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny

    accounting standards in Member States. The suitability of IPSAS for the Member States” (European Commission, 2013b). This report takes into account the Public Consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States. The European Commission (2013b, p. 8) considers that IPSASs cannot easily......The European Commission is working on several fronts to achieve the implementation of uniform and comparable accruals-based accounting practices for the European Union Member States and for all the sectors of General Government, that is, Central Government, State Government, Local Government...... and Social Security, considering that at the same time it can help ensure high quality statistics (European Commission, 2013a). In 2012 Eurostat issued a Public Consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States, later publishing the report “Towards implementing harmonised public sector...

  14. Winston Churchill And The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given Winston Churchill’s influence and achievement as a writer, historian, adventurer, soldier, artist, and politician, his participation in the European integration process is crucial to understanding the entire scope of the project in its origins. Churchill was a fundamental voice promoting the Franco-British Union, a promoter of the European Communities, and an active participant of the Congress of Europe, embryo of the Council of Europe. This article analyzes Churchill’s view of European integration through his political speeches, in particular those delivered in Zurich and in The Hague, his ideas about the League of Nations and the United Nations, his understanding of the British Empire, and the special relations between the UK and the USA. His participation in the process of uniting Europe in its early stages provides us with essential information about the original plans for the creation of a united Europe and understanding the traditional British approach to the EU, including the current position of the conservative government led by Cameron.

  15. Fiscal policies in the European Union during the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreiro Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the fiscal policies implemented in the European Union countries since the beginning of the current crisis. With this aim in mind we have analyzed separately the expansionary fiscal policies implemented at the first stage of the crisis and the fiscal consolidation policies that became widespread at the beginning of the current decade. Studying the content of the national fiscal policies (discretionary measures versus built-in stabilizers, revenue-based versus expenditure-based fiscal policies, the relationship existing between the size of the fiscal impulses-adjustments and the composition of these measures shows the significant differences between the fiscal policies implemented in the European Union countries.

  16. The European Union and Iranian Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    On 14 July 2015, after 12 years of repeated crises around the nuclear issue and the ambitions of Iran in that regard, an agreement was finally signed between Tehran and the members of the UN Security Council plus Germany. Restriction on the enrichment of uranium and the production of plutonium, a strengthening of the inspection regime, the lifting of sanctions against Iran from 2016 onwards, maintaining the arms embargo - these are, broadly speaking, the outlines of this agreement. It will become clear over time how it is to be applied. Above and beyond these aspects, it is probably in the negotiation process that led to the agreement that the greatest lessons are to be learned, at least for the European Union. After reminding us of the context and the role played by economic and financial sanctions, Jean-Francois Drevet goes more precisely into the analysis of the new role the Union has assumed in this diplomatic territory, showing the extent to which 'soft power', as seen in this negotiation, could apply to other conflicts, beginning with those in the Middle East. (author)

  17. DEBATE ON ROMANIA INTEGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana M. SÎRBU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current state of Romanian integration into the European Union through the analysis of statistical data related to the absorption way of structural and cohesion funds available in 2007-2013 (absorption indicators and economic competitiveness indicators: Gross Domestic Product, employment rate, unemployment, population. In addition there are analyzed the structural and cohesion funds available for Romania in 2014-2020, for each category of available operational program and also the measures that must be implemented for Romania to adapt in a performance way to Europe 2020. The analysis results are considered as prerequisites for the development of an underlying model of investment decisions in the integrated sustainable development of Romania.

  18. DIRECT TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTĂ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a historical result of the social, political and economic environment in a state. At the same time, the development of a state depends a lot on the history of its own tax system, on the way it is conceived and operates. The establishment of budgetary incomes has to be made in accordance with the requirements related to yield, efficacy, equity. The plurality of these tasks as well as political, economical, administrative constraints have materialized in the application of a gradual reform in Romania after passing to market economy. Its application has not always had the foreseen effects, repeated legislative alterations leading to investors’ discouraging and to difficult enforcement of the legislation at the level of economic agents and fiscal bodies. The paper presents aspects of direct taxation on the economic environment from Romania as well as comparisons with the state of the European Union.

  19. DIRECT TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTĂ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a historical result of the social, political and economic environment in a state. At the same time, the development of a state depends a lot on the history of its own tax system, on the way it is conceived and operates. The establishment of budgetary incomes has to be made in accordance with the requirements related to yield, efficacy, equity. The plurality of these tasks as well as political, economical, administrative constraints have materialized in the application of a gradual reform in Romania after passing to market economy. Its application has not always had the foreseen effects, repeated legislative alterations leading to investors’ discouraging and to difficult enforcement of the legislation at the level of economic agents and fiscal bodies. The paper presents aspects of direct taxation on the economic environment from Romania as well as comparisons with the state of the European Union.

  20. DEVELOPMENT STAGE OF RETAIL TRADE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catana Adina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Karel De Gucht, Trade Commissioner from the European Commission, trade is working for Europe's economic recovery by ensuring growth and jobs. The European renewed trade strategy will open markets and connect Europe to the main sources and regis of global growth. The aim is to ensure that European business gets a fair deal and that countries’ rights are respected so that all can enjoy the benefits of trade. Thanks to the ease of modern transport and communications, it is now easier to produce, buy and sell goods around the world which gives European companies of every size the potential to trade outside Europe. This paper’s objective is to analyse the development stage of the European Union’s retail, and its member countries. The study is based on the research taken in the project of PhD research with the theme: The impacts of Economic Integration on Romanian Retail. For my research I used data from Eurostat, National Statistical Institute, European Union official website In the past 10 years, the volume of retail trade in EU member states has increased, but the extent of the changes varies substantially from one country to another.

  1. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  2. European Union Legal Methods - Moving Away From Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckes, C.; Neergaard, U.; Nielsen, R.

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding the permanent state of crises of the European Union (EU or Union) in the past seven years, EU law continues to govern the legal relationships of individuals and Member States in ever more areas. Union law is self-reinforcing in the sense that it is constructed to increase in scope

  3. Information Guide: regionalism and separatism in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    EDC, Cardiff

    2013-01-01

    A brief bibliography of information sources about current issues of regionalism and separatism in the European Union with a particular focus on Catalonia, Flanders and Scotland. This guide was compiled in connection with the event Regionalism and Separatism in the European Union held in the Cardiff EDC on 21 February 2013.

  4. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  5. Photovoltaic remuneration policies in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarasa-Maestro, Carlos J.; Dufo-López, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustín, José L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the development of photovoltaic (PV) systems in some countries of the European Union (EU). We establish the stage of development of each country, their short- and long-term degree of compliance and the trends of international investors favouring one market or another. EU countries employ four major types of programs to encourage PV use: (1) feed in tariffs (FIT), (2) green certificates with a quota system, (3) investment and tax incentives, and (4) bids on the quota system. The FIT is the most widely used program to create incentives for the use of PV systems. During the past two years, PV tariffs have been reduced in many European countries. Investments in PV are still attractive, in some cases even overly generous with respect to the financial landscape in the world. This paper shows, for each country, the type of incentive and the trends in and forecast for installed capacity and calculates the internal rate of return (IRR) for investment in grid-connected PV systems. - Highlights: ► This work shows the EU positioning on development of photovoltaic (PV) systems. ► The installed power and the internal rate of return have been used as reference. ► The existing programs in relation to pay and incentives have been reviewed

  6. The European Union and its Neighbours:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Chilosi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the status of the European Neighbourhood Policy in the light of the new Financial Perspective 2007-2013 and of the present internal state of the European Union. Even if in theory the ENP could have been a valid substitute for enlargement, it does not seem to have reached its aim of providing an adequate surrogate for full membership. Considering the figures of the new Financial Perspective 2007-2013, the issue of market access, and the internal power dynamics of the EU, we see that it is hardly conceivable that the ENP could ever give to its neighbours the same economic advantages that membership gives to the poorer members of the EU. Another controversial aspect is the clear asymmetric nature of the ENP, whereby the payoff for neighbours is conditioned on their “good behaviour”, thus amounting to a form of soft imperialism. While ENP tries to establish a comprehensive and coherent framework of the EU’s relations with its neighbourhood, the actual behaviour of EU towards its neighbours is shown to present some inconsistences due to political expedience and pragmatic concerns. The consideration of some related basic issues of EU institutional reform, such as the weakening of the powers of the member states, or the introduction of some intermediate forms of partial membership, concludes the paper.

  7. European Union concerns with its energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commeau, N.

    2001-01-01

    European Union (E.U.) produces only half its needs concerning energy. It is expected that by 2030, the energy balance will be 86% for fossil energies, 8% for renewable energies and 6% for nuclear energy. Different scenario show that the dependence of E.U will worsen and reach 70% unless a common strategy is launched to curb the tendency. E.U is elaborating a common policy concerning energy, this policy rests on 4 axis: 1) monitoring the increase of the energy consumption by promoting energy savings in housing and transport, 2) directing the energy demand towards less polluting energy by using taxes, public funding and European regulations as incentive tools, 3) sustaining a constant dialogues with energy exporting countries in order to get a more stable energy market and have a benefiting influence on prices, and 4) developing new routes of importation of energy by for instance contributing to the construction of new oil or gas pipeline networks. (A.C.)

  8. Affordability of medicines in the European Union.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zaprutko

    Full Text Available Medications and their prices are key issues for healthcare. Although access to medicines at affordable prices had been specified as a key objective of the European Health Policy, it seems that these goals have not been achieved. Therefore, we attempted an evaluation of affordability of selected medicines at full prices.The analysis concerned 2012 and was conducted between 2013 and 2015 in all the European Union (EU countries divided into 3 groups depending on the date of their accession to the EU. Finally, we considered 9 originators used in the treatment of schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Information on drug prices were collected from pharmacies. Participation in the study was voluntary and anonymous in order to avoid accusations of advertising. To evaluate affordability, several factors were used (e.g. minimum earnings and Gini coefficient. Due to unavailability in some countries, the exact number of analyzed medicines varies.Drug prices vary significantly between EU Member States. Almost eleven fold difference was observed between Germany (EUR 1451.17 and Croatia (EUR 132.77 in relation to Interferone beta-1a 22 μg. Generally, prices were the highest in Germany. The cheapest drugs were found in various countries but never in the poorest ones like Bulgaria or Romania. Discrepancies in wages were observed too (the smallest minimum wage was EUR 138.00 in Bulgaria and the highest EUR 1801.00 in Luxembourg. Full price of olanzapine 5mg, however, was higher in Bulgaria (EUR 64.53 than, for instance, in Belgium (EUR 37.26.Analyzed medications are still unaffordable for many citizens of the EU. Besides, access to medicines is also impaired e.g. due to parallel trade. Unaffordability of medications may lead to the patients' non-compliance and therefore to increased direct and indirect costs of treatment. Common European solutions are needed to achieve a real affordability and accessibility of medications.

  9. Voluntary health insurance in the European Union: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah M S

    2002-01-01

    The authors examine the role and nature of the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union and review the impact of public policy, at both the national and E.U. levels, on the development of this market in recent years. The conceptual framework, based on a model of industrial analysis, allows a wide range of policy questions regarding market structure, conduct, and performance. By analyzing these three aspects of the market for voluntary health insurance, the authors are also able to raise questions about the equity and efficiency of voluntary health insurance as a means of funding health care in the European Union. The analysis suggests that the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union suffers from significant information failures that seriously limit its potential for competition or efficiency and also reduce equity. Substantial deregulation of the E.U. market for voluntary health insurance has stripped regulatory bodies of their power to protect consumers and poses interesting challenges for national regulators, particularly if the market is to expand in the future. In a deregulated environment, it is questionable whether this method of funding health care will encourage a more efficient and equitable allocation of resources.

  10. Transitional Democracy, Legitimacy and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kaplánová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the ongoing global crisis has triggered an issue how to set up a theoretical framework of global governance. The integration to a supranational level of governance has been a contemporary process of democratization in recent decades. To analyze the institutionalization of global governance means to recognize a normative idea of democracy. The theory of international relations demonstrates that there are four normative models of democracy at the supranational level of governance. In my opinion, a crucial difference of the institutionalization is a concept of legitimacy of global democratic regime. Because of a divided understanding of legitimacy at the transnational level of governance is difficult to find a consensus in which way should be a transnational democracy framed. A dual legitimacy in a supranational organization like the European Union also triggers a specific democratic deficit. My point of view corresponds with the division of transnational orders in normative way and its correspondence to legitimacy. Cla rifying the duality of legitimacy can help us not only to solve all globalizing problems but of course to decide in which way we want to make the supranational organizations work.

  11. IEA energy policies review: the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-04

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? This publication addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy and Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R and D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  12. GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF LAFFER'S THEORY FOR EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA BUNESCU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most times the current situation of one or another country depends on the historical development of own tax system. A practical question of any governance is to determine the optimal taxation rate level, bringing to the state the highest tax revenues. A good place to start is with what is popularly known as the Laffer curve. This paper aims to determine in graphical terms the level where European economies ranks by using Laffer curve based on the data series provided by the European Commission and the World Bank. Graphical analysis of Laffer's theory can emphasize only the positioning on one or another side of point for maximum tax revenues, a position that can influence fiscal policy decisions. Conclusions at European Union level are simple. Value of taxation rate for fiscal optimal point varies from one Member State to another, from 48.9% in Denmark to 28% in Romania, with an average of 37.1% for the EU-27.

  13. Cell-Based Veterinary Pharmaceuticals - Basic Legal Parameters Set by the Veterinary Pharmaceutical Law and the Genetic Engineering Law of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltus, Timo; Brehm, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based therapies have been in use in veterinary medicine for years. However, the legal requirement of manufacturing, placing on the market and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are not as well developed as the respective requirements of chemical pharmaceuticals. Cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are medicinal products in the sense of the pharmaceutical law of the European Union (EU). For that reason, such medicinal products principally require official approval for their manufacture and an official marketing authorization for their placement on the market before being used by the veterinarian. The manufacture, placing on the market, and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals without manufacturing approval and marketing authorization is permitted only in certain exceptional cases determined by EU and individual Member State law. Violations of this requirement may have consequences for the respective veterinarian under criminal law and under the code of professional conduct in the respective Member State. The regular use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals within the scope of a therapeutic emergency as well as the import of such veterinary pharmaceuticals from non-European countries for use in the EU are currently out of the question in the EU because of a lack of legal bases. Here, we review the general legal requirement of manufacturing, placing on the market, and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals within the EU and point out different implementations of EU law within the different Member States.

  14. Cell-Based Veterinary Pharmaceuticals – Basic Legal Parameters Set by the Veterinary Pharmaceutical Law and the Genetic Engineering Law of the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltus, Timo; Brehm, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based therapies have been in use in veterinary medicine for years. However, the legal requirement of manufacturing, placing on the market and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are not as well developed as the respective requirements of chemical pharmaceuticals. Cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are medicinal products in the sense of the pharmaceutical law of the European Union (EU). For that reason, such medicinal products principally require official approval for their manufacture and an official marketing authorization for their placement on the market before being used by the veterinarian. The manufacture, placing on the market, and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals without manufacturing approval and marketing authorization is permitted only in certain exceptional cases determined by EU and individual Member State law. Violations of this requirement may have consequences for the respective veterinarian under criminal law and under the code of professional conduct in the respective Member State. The regular use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals within the scope of a therapeutic emergency as well as the import of such veterinary pharmaceuticals from non-European countries for use in the EU are currently out of the question in the EU because of a lack of legal bases. Here, we review the general legal requirement of manufacturing, placing on the market, and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals within the EU and point out different implementations of EU law within the different Member States. PMID:27965965

  15. Secondary Education in the European Union: Structures, Organisation and Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This study examines the existing secondary education structures of the European Union member nations, the organization of education, teacher training, and the way in which secondary education is managed in Europe today. The three European Free Trade Association/European Economic Area (EFTA/EEC) countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway) also…

  16. Position of the European Union in the Global Trade System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovićević Mladen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a few decades ago, the main drivers of globalization were the exchange of goods and capital flows, while the global trading system of today, fuelled by rapid technological changes increasingly bases itself on knowledge. The Key events - such as the use of the Internet and the increasingly important role of the rising countries economies - have contributed to a faster global exchange, but to a new nature as well. In order to illustrate the scope of the increase, perhaps it would be the best to mention the fact that in the 1970’s the share of trade in the world GDP amounted to 20%, whereas today it makes about one half. On the other hand, modern products represent compounds of raw materials, components, technologies and services originating from different areas and different continents, which has globalized the products themselves. In such conditions of the market competition, imposed by globalization and liberalization, for the European Union to remain as a leader, it had to prepare a sound and well-founded foreign policy strategy. The aim of this paper is to analyse the current position of the European Union in the global trading system, instruments of foreign trade policy, goals, foreign trade and the main challenges placed before the Union.

  17. A decade of African Union and European Union trans-national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first decade of the new millennium saw the European Union deploy nine security missions to the African continent, quoting the European Security and. Defence Policy. Unlike the numerous United Nations security missions that. European states had previously contributed to, these were part of a grand strategy designed ...

  18. COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION - INTERNATIONAL COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nely Militaru

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU performs according to its competence, the position of International Justice in solving disputes between two or more subjects of international law. International jurisdiction of the Court of Justice of the EU is - mandatory that each Member State has the opportunity to seize this court if it considers that another state violated an obligation incumbent upon it under Union Treaties; - optional in disputes between Member States in connection with the subject Union Treaties.

  19. Energy efficiency in the European Union: What can be learned from the joint application of directional distance functions and slacks-based measures?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Calvet, Roberto; Conesa, David; Gómez-Calvet, Ana Rosa; Tortosa-Ausina, Emili

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze the efficiency of electricity and derived heat generation in the European Union (EU). • We consider both desirable and undesirable outputs. • In our specifications both directional distance functions and slacks-based measure models are used. • Results show remarkable efficiency differences among EU countries. • This would call for further intensification of harmonization environmental policies in the EU. - Abstract: Over the last few years concerns have increased about the energy mix in many countries. These concerns have been of greater magnitude for countries with a common energy regulation such as European Union (EU) member states. An important aspect to take into account when choosing a given energy mix is the efficiency involved in its generation. In this context, the present study analyzes the efficiency with which electricity and derived heat was produced in 25 EU member states over the last decade. This analysis considers not only the inputs and outputs involved but, more importantly, which undesirable by-products were generated during the production process, a relevant issue for EU climate policy. To this end, two nonparametric frontier models are applied: first, a Directional Distance Function (DDF), based on Briec’s (1997) [16] proposal and, second, a modified version of Tone’s (2001) [51] Slacks-Based Measure (SBM) model, both of which are especially appropriate in this particular context due to their treatment of undesirable outputs. Results are partly innovative since, with few exceptions, applications on this issue are relatively scarce. From a policy implications’ point of view, our achievements are also interesting because they reveal remarkable efficiency differences among EU countries: those countries from the latest EU enlargements account for the lowest efficiencies, with large opportunities for improvement in CO 2 abatement and primary energy saving. Results also show stable efficiencies along the

  20. Expert advice and political choice in constructing European banking union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donnelly, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    International actors promoted the transfer of regulatory authority and financial resources from national governments to the European Union (EU) in the context of establishing the prerequisites for financial stability in Europe through banking union. It was supplied, however, by a political process

  1. The Effects of Great Britain's Exit from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarița Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union directly influences the economicdevelopment of Romania, which will force our country to take all the necessary measures in thecurrent economic conjuncture in order to anchor in the international trade relations.

  2. STRATEGIES OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Iamandi Irina Eugenia; Joldes Cosmin

    2009-01-01

    The present paper emphasizes the corporate social responsibility (CSR) state and development strategies in the European Union and at the level of the Romanian business environment. The aim of the paper is to present the similarities and differences in the

  3. The Second Look in European Union Competition Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob B; Torp, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Under European Union (EU) law, arbitrators and national courts are obligated to apply, ex officio, EU competition law. Also according to EU law, any failure by an arbitral tribunal to apply such rules, or any erroneous interpretation or application hereof, constitute grounds for setting aside...... the subsequent award, if and when such measure is dictated by the Member State’s procedural rules. This article examines the relevant procedural rules in Denmark and Sweden based on two recent decisions by the national Supreme Courts. It concludes that under Scandinavian procedural law, courts will generally...... a framework for understanding the interplay between national and EU law, at least in the Scandinavian countries....

  4. Tax competition and tax harmonization in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of tax competition and harmonization within the European Union. It reveals the single difficulties connected with harmonization, identifies the problems arising from tax competition and points out the harmful tax competition as well. Single compulsory harmonized tax base in connection with prevailing tax competition in the area of tax rates is the suggested solution in the scope of direct taxation. As the solution in the area of indirect taxation could serve the introduction of “principle of origin”. This would cause remarkable administrative costs decrease not only for economic subjects but for tax authorities as well.

  5. Legislative amendments and informal politics in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cross, James P.; Hermansson, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    the Commission’s proposals and the final legislative outcome passed by the European Union. It does so by implementing minimum edit distance algorithms to measure changes between legislative proposals and outcomes. The findings suggest that legislative amendments are determined by the formal and informal...... institutional structures in which negotiations take place and characteristics of the proposal itself. Our conclusions contribute to the ongoing debate on the nature and distribution of legislative powers in the European Union....

  6. a decade of african union and european union trans-regional

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    designed to link the African Union and the European Union in a process of trans- ... terrorism, drug and human trafficking and migration.5 The common value ..... have involved policing, rule of law, border assistance and monitoring and security .... Europe as exemplified by Russia and Ukraine (who provided helicopters and ...

  7. Political Strategies and Language Policies: The European Union Lisbon Strategy and Its Implications for the EU's Language and Multilingualism Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wodak, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the politics and policies of multilingualism by looking at the role of political macro-strategies in shaping language and multilingualism policies within the European Union. The paper focuses on the relationship between the European Union's 2000-2010 Lisbon Strategy on the European Knowledge-Based Economy…

  8. Union banking a step towards achieving fiscal Union in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Marius Croitoru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Union policy needs in addition to the official language of four major components: a monetary union, a fiscal union, a union diplomatic and military union A stage in the Union is the Union banking tax. Materials and Methods: Union Bank has three pillars: a single banking supervisor (single supervisory mechanism, the only mechanism of bank resolution and a single scheme of bank guarantees. Results and conclusions: Union Bank, strengthen supervision is an inevitable process, and Romania will have to enroll in it. Option Romania is to be part of Romania deaorece bank Union can not remain outside the structures of decision as long as banks operating in Romania are predominantly Eurozone.

  9. European Union definitely introduces common taxes on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenweisner, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper taxes of the European Union on energy are reviewed. European Union Ministers of environment Council definitely ratified new common system of minimal energy taxes in last week. Council introduces par excellence minimal all-European size of an electricity, coal and natural gas consumption tax. New directive according to European Commission will improve operation of internal market and eliminate deformation of competitive environment among individual members as well as among mineral oils and the other energy sources. Slovak Republic taxes all motor fuel types by higher charge as is minimal level demanded by EU according to new directive after rising of consumable tax from mineral oils in August 2003. According to Minister of Finances Slovak Republic demanded European Union for a temporary 10-year period for utilizing electricity, coal, coke, and natural gas consumption tax. According to Ministry, Utilizing new taxes and rising of tax load is not in interest of started tax reform in Slovak Republic

  10. Fiscal Revenues in the European Union. A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Hurduzeu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze fiscal revenues registered by the European Union member states in order to determine groups with similar fiscal structures, their composition and to identify the similarities that characterize European countries in this respect. The research conducted in this paper is relevant especially for countries as Romania, which is in the process of adopting the European single currency, as is allows us to determine which countries are similar in terms of fiscal structure so that the comparison is carried out mainly with those countries. The analysis of European fiscal structures allows a better identification of tax preferences within the European Union and highlights the types of taxation that would allow leeway in implementing long term fiscal strategies, which could lead to improvements in macroeconomic dynamics registered by each member state and also at Union level.

  11. The European Union prepares an electrical crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article discusses the fact that a lack of electricity production within the EU could not be balanced by imports and would lead to an economic and social catastrophe. He comments the current situation in which European countries tend to close an important number of coal and oil power stations in order to meet commitments regarding emissions and the targeted share of renewable energies. He outlines the consequences of theses trends, and states that these decisions based on ecological objectives do not take economic and market realities into account, and lead to a destruction of the French electricity system

  12. EUROPEAN UNION IN GLOBAL CLIMATE GOVERNANCE: TO PARIS AND BEYOND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savorskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, the European Union is aspiring global leadership in the area of climate change, which is refl ected in its active participation in the negotiations on the international climate change regime. However, those ambitions have not always turned out to be appropriate or justifi ed. Despite the fact that the European Union was able to achieve certain results during the Kyoto Protocol negotiations and even more signifi cant results in the process of its ratifi cation, for the most part EU negotiation strategy based on normative considerations, had not been successful, it was especially evident during the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen. Partly the disappointing results of EU performance during the Copenhagen negotiations are to be blamed on some of the key features of EU functioning logic, for example, the overall tendency to rely on scientifi c evidence in policy-making, which did not allow the EU to assess other parties’ interests adequately. As the results of the negotiations of parties to the UNFCCC in December 2015 in Paris have shown, the European Union did manage to work out its previous mistakes and build a broad informal international coalition. Contrary to the pessimistic expectations, the agreement was adopted and it took into account quite a few of the EU proposals. However, the Paris Treaty has a number of fl aws and inaccuracies, so the ability to eliminate them in a timely manner by the international community and the EU in particular, will determine the future of the new international climate change regime.

  13. Direct Tax Applications in Relationship Between European Union and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    YAZARKAN, Hakan; MEZARARKALI, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    European Union (EU) is an economic union that exstipulates common tax policy within the union without interfering the taxes which collected by the members. On the other hand union doesn’t put tax systems of member states to harmonization but has a positive look on efforts convergence. The reason of this is the difference between international tax ratio causes limiting even hindering the capital activities. Turkey which made an application at 31st of July 1959 still can’t become member of EU. ...

  14. European Union funded project on the development of a whole complement deficiency screening ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würzner, Reinhard; Tedesco, Francesco; Garred, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A whole complement ELISA-based assay kit, primarily designed to screen for deficiencies in components of the complement system was developed during a European Union grant involving more than a dozen European scientists and a small-medium enterprise company (Wieslab, which later merged into Eurodi......A whole complement ELISA-based assay kit, primarily designed to screen for deficiencies in components of the complement system was developed during a European Union grant involving more than a dozen European scientists and a small-medium enterprise company (Wieslab, which later merged...

  15. Controlling Delegated Powers in the Post-Lisbon European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsma, Gijs Jan; Blom-Hansen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Most European Union rules are made by the Commission, not the Council of Ministers or the European Parliament. But although the Commission is an important rule-maker, it is not autonomous. The member states have always taken care to install committees to control the Commission (comitology). However......, the Lisbon Treaty introduced alternative control mechanisms (delegated acts) and a reform of the comitology system (implementing acts). This article investigates how the post-Lisbon control system works in daily legislative practice. It represents the first investigation of the institutional preferences...... of the Council, the Parliament and the Commission in the new system. Further, it utilizes better data than previous studies. The analysis is based on data on the control preferences of all actors before the first trilogue meeting for a large number of cases in the period 2010–13. The results indicate...

  16. BUILDING A BANKING UNION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION – A SOLUTION TO THE FINANCIAL CRISIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica (ŞAGUNA FIGHIROAE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2008 highlighted the need for a deeper integration of the banking system, as a warranty to support long-term financial stability. It was argued that the grounds of the crisis lie also in an uncoordinated national response to the failure of banks, in a fragmentation of the Single Market in lending and funding and, therefore, a better regulation and supervision of the financial sector can ensure financial stability and growth in the European Union. In order to restore the proper functioning of the internal market and to avoid future crisis, the European Commission launched a set of initiatives, in order to assure a safer and sounder financial sector for the single market; are included here: stronger prudential requirements for banks, improved depositor protection and rules for managing failing banks and a single rulebook for all the 28 Member States of the European Union. The single rule book is the step towards the Banking Union sits. The banking union consists of three pillars: a Single Supervisory Mechanism, a Single Resolution Mechanism and a joint deposit-insurance scheme. As on 4 November 2014 the European Central Bank assumed responsibility for euro area banking supervision, the Banking Union is still under construction. In this framework, the purpose of my paper is to analyse the process of building a Banking Union in Europe. Therefore, the objectives of my paper are to explore the steps to fulfilling a real integration of the European banking system, as a solution to the financial crisis.

  17. Climate and energy targets of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolwijk, H.; Veenendaal, P.

    2007-01-01

    Attention is paid to two important parts of the targets for climate and energy which were determined by the European Council in March 2007 for the year 2020: (1) the impact of the emission reduction target and the correlations with the sustainable development targets; and (2) the obstacles for the European Union on the way to thar 20% renewable energy target [nl

  18. Recent Migrants and Education in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadan, Robert; Reid, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    European schools should improve their methods for teaching migrant students. The European Union has been making efforts to meet the needs of migrant students for some time. From the 2009 Eurydice report "Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe," which suggests measures to foster inclusion in the larger community and…

  19. Vocation or Vocational? Reviewing European Union Education and Mobility Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Amelia; Summerby-Murray, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role that education plays in European Union (EU) integration. We ask whether efforts which historically have been designed to endow European students with a "knowledge of Europe" in terms of an understanding of culture, politics and sensibility have been circumscribed by, or augmented, by the recently…

  20. Dividends and share repurchases in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Eije, Henk; Megginson, William L.

    We examine cash dividends and share repurchases from 1989 to 2005 in the 15 nations that were members of the European Union before May 2004. As ill the United States, the fraction of European firms paying dividends declines, while total real dividends paid increase and share repurchases surge. We

  1. US - European Union Relations: Economic Change and Political Transition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kramer, Steven

    1999-01-01

    .... ̂ The introduction of the euro as the currency of the EMU will aid participating European Union (EU) member states by eliminating transaction costs, exchange rate risks, and interest rate spreads across the 11 European currencies early in the coming century...

  2. Hospital care for persons with AIDS in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Tolley, K; Leidl, R M; Downs, A M; Beck, E J; Tramarin, A M; Flori, Y A; Santin, M; Antoñanzas, F; Kornarou, H; Paparizos, V C; Dijkgraaf, M G; Borleffs, J; Luijben, A J; Jager, J C

    This study estimates the current and future hospital resources for AIDS patients in the European Union (EU), using multinational scenario analysis (EU Concerted Action BMH1-CT-941723). In collaboration with another EU-project ('Managing the Costs of HIV Infection'), six national European studies on

  3. Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.R.; Bryan Endres, A.

    2000-01-01

    To be successful, laws that regulate genetically modified organisms (GMOs) must help society decide rationally when to pause and when to proceed in adopting new biotechnological developments. In the context of European Union (EU) institutions and lawmaking procedures, this article examines European

  4. Unsustainable Public Debt in a European Fiscal Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Kutasi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Some EU members faced years of crisis in the first half of the 2010s with an excessive initial public debt, but several others had broad room for fiscal timulus. However, the prolonged duration of the European economic depression expended public budgets, while exhausting stimulus policies and sovereign solvency. Meanwhile, one of the ways out of depression is a proposed centralization of the EU through fiscal union. Are the eurozone countries readyto participate in a risk pool in public finances? The study seeks to answer this question. The article presents the hypothesis that the sustainability of public finances deteriorated during the global and euro crisis in the majority of the eurozone member countries and in the EU, and this phenomenon is discouragingthe core countries from seeking the fiscal union. The analysis uses the Blanchard indicators of fiscal sustainability and the sovereign risk rating of the EURO-18 and EU-28 countries. The analysis presents as results a theoretical summary of fiscal sustainability, the development of fiscal sustainability in the EU member states, indicators of convergence or divergence of fiscal sustainability in the Community, and conclusions based on the indicators of the likelihood of a fiscal union.

  5. Past and Current Paths to European Union Accession: Romania and Turkey a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Camelia Dogaru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several decades ago, leaders of six European countries with an inclusive vision of Europe and strong courage started a construction without precedent, the European Union. The remarkable construction evolved not only concerning the number of the Member States, but also in terms of institutional and functional development. Nowadays, the European Union is one of the most important changing factor concerning the governance and the policy-making process at European level and not only, and there is no doubt that the EU will continue to grow as an increasing number of countries express interest in membership. This paper reveals in a comparative perspective the path to European Union Accession, and is based on documentary analysis, using strategy-level documents of the countries and the Progress Reports the European Commission provided during the past enlargement.

  6. Some Considerations Regarding the European Banking Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Eugen Radu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Union Bank is a surveillance system and an EU bank resolution, which operates on the basis of EU wide rules. It aims to ensure that the banking sector in the euro area and the EU in general is safe and reliable and viable banks benefiting from resolution without recourse to taxpayer funds and with minimal impact on the real economy. Banking union members are all euro-zone countries and EU Member States that have chosen to participate. All countries will adopt the euro in the future will automatically become members of the banking union. Countries that are not part of the euro area can join by establishing a close cooperation agreement.

  7. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach — and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least in a transatlantic perspective....... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States’ disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...

  8. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... mechanism deployable at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach--and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States' disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...

  9. Un-National Normative Justification for European Union Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between...... descriptive interests and normative ethics is unsustainable in European Union (EU) foreign policy. What are needed are normative justifications that can help inform political choices about foreign policy in the EU's democratic political order. In other words, what are the un-national normative justifications...

  10. PPPs IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. GUIDELINES FOR ROMANIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian GORIŢĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Several starting points could be used in an analysis on the possible routes for developing Public-Private Partnership1 (henceforth PPP projects in Romania, regarded as an alternative financing mechanism for public infrastructure. This paper follows a “classical” approach, with a focus on the pros and cons of the Public-Private Partnership concept, legal forms met in the European acquis, the Eurostat view on such projects in terms of the statistical classification of assets, financing and policy directions in the European Union and lessons learnt for practitioners in Romania, while taking into account the recent developments of the PPP market in the European Union

  11. Where the European Union should Multiply its Money: Stimulating Measures in the Economic Monetary Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, A.N.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate in which sectors and countries the European Union should invest to diminish the economic gap between different member states. It answers the question at which sectors and regions the European regional policy should be directed. In an attempt to indicate

  12. The Virtual Enterprise – Citizen of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Davidescu (Vasile

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Virtual Enterprise is a rather young and unclear concept in the business world. A virtual enterprise is a temporary network of companies that share their different resources in order to reach a given goal (the creation of a new product, or the entry on a new market and is a powerful tool in the hands of the business community. The question this article raises is whether European Union's businesses are able to take advantage of this opportunity within the European Union. We discuss several obstacles towards the creation of virtual enterprises: regulatory uncertainties, operational management that dismisses the advantage of an excellent infrastructure, the orientation of innovation creators towards theoretical research and the European business culture. The article also looks at research on the virtual enterprise in the European Union, the legal framework and technologies for virtualization.

  13. ONTOLOGY MAPPING IN THE RESILIENCE STUDY: THE ORGANIZATIONAL PERSPECTIVE FOR EUROPEAN UNION CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu-Tudor SALANŢIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ontology mapping in resilience surveillance on organization level can found utilization in analysis of association between idiosyncrasies and structure adaptability. Starting from the data regarding the economic trends for European Union members from 2014 to 2016 the aim of the research is to analyse the European Union resilience through interpretation of the link between members behaviour and structure convergence. The members positioned in European Union was analysed after organization clusterization of the twenty-eight state members. Two different structures are included into analysis for the studied periods: a structure which incorporates just the state members, and other which also take into account the eurozone blue-chips. In order to analyse the members’ relation in structure a gravity model has been developed, the obtained results for each state members pair are contained in a skew matrix. The values are interpreted through a knowledge-base to highlight the European Union resilience degree.

  14. National responsibility in an enlarged European Union?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, Per; Stendahl, Sara; Erhag, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    -proliferation aspects. The political decision to take part in such international cooperation lies however without any doubt within the national competence. In the European Union the question about responsibility for spent nuclear fuel is not directly regulated. Common legislation initiatives from the commission concerning methods for disposal and storage of spent nuclear fuel has been blocked by member states. The EURATOM-treaty and the EU treaty have a potential reach to national regulation about handling of nuclear wastes and spent nuclear fuel. It should also be noted that there is no binding community legislation where the principle of national responsibility comes to expressions, although the the national legislation competence in the area is expressed in miscellaneous political documents. There exists a hypothetical possibility that the question about the member states' right to maintain a principle of national responsibility can be examined of the EU Court of Justice

  15. Corporate Negative Equity: The Evidence from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mokhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Global Financial Crisis the frequency of reported losses of companies has increased significantly in countries of the European Union. Moreover, the financial leverage of companies have increased and even exceeded 100% in several countries. The reason of this development is negative equity that companies find themselves to report. At first sight negative equities are caused by accumulated losses from prior periods. However, there are some other reasons that can result in increasing negative equities in companies. They remain adequate as long as a company is able to pay its bills. Nevertheless, a company with negative equity is exposed to risks. This paper investigates whether the corporate negative equity is a sign of the future failure of a company. We examine non-financial manufactured companies from selected countries of the European Union within the period 2005–2012 from database Amadeus (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Germany. By the means of comparison between negative and positive equities we applied descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis. We find that in all surveyed countries the size positively influences the equity of companies. Other factors as profitability and growth opportunities do not influence the corporate equity. In addition the binary logistic regression analysis has been conducted based on the evidence from Czech companies. Our results indicate that negative equities are not a sign of bankruptcy or insolvency of a company. But the low profitability or low business activities (that are predictors of bankruptcy might lead to negative equities in the balance sheet.

  16. European union contribution to the solution of the Chornobyl problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuglaris, D.; Konstantinov, N.

    2001-01-01

    The European Union has been the driving force in the development and implementation of the 1995 Memorandum of Understanding between the Governments of the G-7 countries and the European Commission and the Government of Ukraine on the closure of the Chornobyl NPP. Today, it is possible to summarize the past and current European Commission involvement into the solution of this huge problem and to see what the EC can do in future

  17. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanase Diana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analysing the labour market, one of the most complex forms of market in economy. The present work forwards a comparative survey regarding the labour market in Romania and in the other European Union member states. The paper starts by highlighting general aspects related to labour market and continues by the presentation of the European Union countries’ ranking according to the labour market efficiency, top elaborated on the basis of the World Economic Forum data. Furthermore, the paper analyses labour productiveness, employment rate and unemployment rate both in Romania and in the other countries of the European Union. In the end the authors forward conclusions regarding the possibilities of increasing competitiveness on Romania’s labour market.

  18. THE BUSINESS RISK AND ENVIRONMENT SPECIFIC OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBRIN IONEL GABRIEL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The international economy is marked by a multitude of base mutations, which re-shape the intricacy of interdependencies based on which it functions. The development of the informational society and the continuous adaptation of economic structure to the rapid changes that happen globally virtually place all nations in a continuous restructuring and transition process. Two main dynamic and interdependent forces lead this process, that is: the strengthening of the world economy globalisation process and the appearance and development of regional economic arrangements. The treaty regarding the constitution of the European Union comprises a series of regulations which refer directly to ensure of the Community industry's competitively - related conditions. This is achieved through a complex system of open and competitive markets.

  19. Distribution of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in Agricultural topsoils of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix Da Graca Silva, V.A.; Montanarella, L.; Jones, Arwyn; Fernandez-Ugalde, Oihane; Mol, J.G.J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2018-01-01

    Approval for glyphosate-based herbicides in the European Union (EU) is under intense debate due to concern about their effects on the environment and human health. The occurrence of glyphosate residues in European water bodies is rather well documented whereas only few, fragmented and outdated

  20. The impact of Romanian adhesion to European Union on exterior trade

    OpenAIRE

    Craciunas, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the Romanian external trade policies in European integration context underlining the external trade policy of Romania which according with European Union policies after the joining to the European Union, the improvement and adaptation of external trade policy to the European standards through internal and external measures and the commercial effect of the extensions of the European Union over non member countries of Europe and on the European Union position in the international co...

  1. ROMANIAN SME-S AFTER INTEGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Ana BORCOŞI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available According with the White Charter of Romanian SME-s 2007, Romanian integration in European Union was considered a great opportunity for the 46,67% of SME-s, just 9,18% of SME-s consider it like a major threatening. Romanian integration in European Union gave us much benefits and big responsibilities for all participants to this complex and long action, which is integration. The influence of integration in EU for SME-s was manifested in some special directions like: human resource, quality and competitiveness, ethics in business.

  2. Economic Cooperation Between The European Union And Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzymała Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show the history of economic relations between the European Union and Japan. This economy is very important to the EU and the countries of the EU are interested in further deepening areas of cooperation. Therefore it seems important to indicate the political will to continue mutual economic relations through the signing of contracts and bilateral agreements, as well as meetings at various levels, including SPA and EPA negotiations and summits. The course of the current economic cooperation will be shown through trade volume and foreign direct investment outflows from the European Union to Japan.

  3. TOWARDS THE EUROPEAN BANKING UNION-Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos G. TURLIUC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis has made the need for a more integrated regulatory and supervisory framework for the financial services sector evident. An important step towards this aim is the establishment of the Single Supervisory Mechanism. European leaders have committed to moving toward a banking union, in which bank regulation and supervision, deposit guarantees, and the handling of troubled banks will be integrated across at least the euro area and possibly across the wider European Union. This paper provides an overview of research on this topic. We also identify important future research questions that emerge from both the literature and the current debate.

  4. Unity in Diversity. The Language Policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the connections between the law and language in the European Union. The paper concerns the language policy of the European Union (EU and English language priority. The EU faces challenges of finding a common ground for respecting the diversity of its members. So many different states are gathered in one organisation which establishes the law for diversified legal orders. The research question is - which language(s is or should be used in the EU? Does English become lingua franca of the EU?

  5. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... of cattle going through markets is declining. 10. Product quality has been very difficult to control in the beef sector. The cattle supplied for slaughtering is of a very varying quality with regard to important consumer-oriented quality characteristics like tenderness and taste, and the lack...

  6. AN OVERVIEW OF FISCAL CONSOLIDATION PROCESS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Andreea Bucur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore, based on theoretical and empirical research in the field and on data available on Eurostat and European Commission, in the context of financial significant imbalances and thus of the financial stress in the EU countries and especially in the Euro area, the main developments in the fiscal consolidation process given the fiscal effort of each country towards fiscal union. Since the financial crisis started in 2008, many EU Member States demonstrates an obvious macroeconomic imbalance which requires increased responsibility regarding fiscal developments. The impact of the crisis and the causes of sovereign debt high levels trends varied between EU countries as well as the budget deficit levels. Thus, the main priority for EU members must be the continuation of differentiated fiscal consolidation, given the specificities of each economy, favoring growth. The medium-term fiscal policy needs to focus on consolidating public finances along with restoring long-term sustainability.

  7. The European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zupancic, Rok; Pejič, Nina; Grilj, Blaž

    2017-01-01

    different types and levels of effectiveness, considering both means applied and ends achieved. In so doing, the article contributes to the general literature on operational conflict prevention and on the specific case of Kosovo. The empirical analysis is based on fieldwork and semi-structured interviews......This article appraises effectiveness in operational conflict prevention. By focusing on the European Union Rule of Law Mission (EULEX) in Kosovo, it assesses the most extensive civilian Common Security and Defence Policy mission so far. Contrary to prevailing assessments, it posits that EULEX......, despite its challenges and deficiencies, presents positive contributions to operational conflict prevention, and peace-building. This is uncovered through structured focused analysis according to effectiveness criteria and success indicators that allow for identification of and distinction between...

  8. Strategies of Environmental Policy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for achieving environmental policy reinforce the principle of subsidiary ( delegation ofresponsibilities of Member States, while European Union outlines only the general objectives to be taken intoaccount and try replacing the traditional vertical approach, command and control type, by promoting analternative model for achieving the EU average. One can say that these strategies are a kind of “aids”, whichcomplement standard tools and acting as incentives for the adoption of measures for environmental protectionthat emphasizes the trend towards an approach based on the principle of volunteering. In the early '70s, wasrecognized the need and legitimacy of a common environment. In time, will develop a progressiveenvironmental Community law, which includes over 200 directives and regulations. They concern mainlywater protection, air quality, protection of flora and fauna, noise, waste disposal. Environmental legislationhas a particular characteristic; it takes into account economic aspects.

  9. One voice or different choice?: Vote defection of European Union member states in the United Nations General Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmester, Nicolas; Jankowski, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Existing research suggests that European Union member states are increasingly able to act in concert in the United Nations General Assembly. Based on several hundred co-ordination meetings per year, the European Union ‘speaks with one voice’ on most of the resolutions voted upon in the United...... Nations General Assembly. However, little is known about instances where the European Union member states do not vote coherently. Three questions remain unanswered. First, which aspects affect deviating voting behaviour of European Union member states? Second, who are the most frequent defectors from...... the European Union’s majority position? Third, which voting blocs within the European Union can be identified? The article answers these questions in a quantitative design by controlling for domestic factors, issues of resolutions and the position of the United States. The results suggest that domestic aspects...

  10. From Representation to Participation: A More Democratic European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Monica Stoica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes the evolution and characteristics of the democratic process in theEuropean Union from the perspective of political science using the recent theories in this field. Following theentry into force, the Treaty of Lisbon establishes the principle of participatory democracy that puts the focusof the European citizen, a citizen who is actively involved in European Union life, strengthening EU - citizenrelationship. The essence of participatory democracy is the destruction of political apathy and the maximizingof active participation of citizens in the democratic tasks. So, the basic principle of the participatorydemocracy is solidarity. The results of this analysis show that although participatory democracy is establishedin the European law, citizens are less involved in the decision-making in EU and are more and moreindividual, contradicting thus the very foundations of this type of democracy.

  11. The European Union and Military Conflict Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...

  12. The European Union – Caribbean Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Morten

    2016-01-01

    EU diplomats consider the Caribbean countries to be allies and therefore expect these countries to support the EU in international affairs – but they find that this support has been waning in recent years. Caribbean diplomats and politicians do not share the European viewpoint. Rather, they take ...

  13. The Russian-European Union Competition in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    of Germany’s brief triumph during the Great War. The 1918 treaty of Brest -Litovsk created for the first time an independent Ukraine, designed to be a...6North Atlantic Treaty Organization, “Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security between NATO and the Russian Federation signed in Paris ...institution now known as the European Union originated as the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951. Interest in expanding economic cooperation

  14. The future of energy in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, C.

    1997-01-01

    Two of the three European Union founding treaties have a marked energy nature but, however, at the present time, the EU lacks a Common Energy Policy, Starting with this paradox, the European Parliament Member Robles Piquer uses this article, which reproduces the lecture he gave at the CSN, to proffer his view of the future of energy which the EU will have and that which it should have, in this opinion. (Author)

  15. Foreign Trade Dvelopment between Libya and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoor Maitah; Nassir Salim; Abulgasem Bazina

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the analysis of foreign trade development betweenLibyaand the European Union in the recent years. Libya is one of the developing countries with large area, low density of population and large endowment of natural resources, oil and gas. The Libyan economy like a number of other Arab economies, depends heavily on oil revenue, it relies heavily on a single exportable commodity, as the main source of foreign exchange earnings. Trade relations betweenLibyaand the European ...

  16. European Union's public fishing access agreements in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Le Manach, F.; Chaboud, Christian; Copeland, D.; Cury, Philippe; Gascuel, D.; Kleisner, K.M.; Standing, A.; Sumaila, U.R.; Zeller, D.; Pauly, D.

    2013-01-01

    The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU) and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them. We find that the EU has subsidized these agreem...

  17. Legal Framework of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Milto, Yuliya

    2017-01-01

    The thesis analyses the following issues: historical development of energy and renewable energy sources legislation in the European Economic Community (EEC): the role of energy crisis of 1973 – 1974 in development of renewable energy legislation; international cooperation in the field of energy and renewable energy between EEC and third countries and membership of the EEC in international energy organizations dealing with energy; the European Union renewable energy policy and legal fra...

  18. EUROPEAN UNION SUPPORT AND TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE PROCESSES IN KOSOVO

    OpenAIRE

    Remzije Istrefi

    2017-01-01

    The legacy of systematic human rights violations committed during 1999 violent conflict and the previous repressive rule still impact the everyday life of Kosovo citizens. That is why transitional justice processes are a necessary component in Kosovo’s state building efforts. With the end of the 1999 conflict, Kosovo has been administered by the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and also supported by European Union (EU) presences: the EU Special Representative in Kosovo, and European U...

  19. Age Discrimination Against Older Workers in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Drury

    1994-01-01

    This paper aims to define the concept of age discrimination, to illustrate examples of age discriminatory practices across the European Union, and to describe some positive public policy measures to combat age discrimination.It draws on the results of the first European-wide study of age discrimination against older workers.1 National experts from 11 Member States of the EU examined various forms of age discrimination in their own country. More detailed information is needed, particularly on ...

  20. What energy policy for the European Union?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The energy question is becoming ever more important. Proper management of energy resources is a strategic challenge that will determine our economic development and even the preservation of our way of life. Looking further into the future, failure to grasp energy-related problems could be seriously prejudicial to the future of our planet (global warming). Because of the rise in prices of fossil fuels resulting from the gradual exhaustion of resources and the political instability reigning in the principal production zones, the disputes over gas between Russia and certain former Soviet republics, massive electricity blackouts, etc, public opinion is now particularly sensitive to these new threats and is looking to decision-makers, at both national and European level, to draw up policies capable of responding to these concerns. Over the past two years, European institutions have in fact taken an increasing number of initiatives in the energy field. This work has, in particular, identified the following three major objectives: - combating global warming, which implies the definition of an energy mix compatible with environmental constraints (reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases), - ensuring security of supply, an ever-growing concern, given the growing dependency of EU Member States on imports of energy, and - safeguarding the competitiveness of the European economy. Despite this work, the only tangible achievement in the energy field in Europe, and one that is still incomplete, concerns the liberalisation of the gas and electricity markets. Apart from the fact that this policy is sometimes badly perceived by European populations, being regarded as responsible for the current rise in prices, Europe cannot be satisfied with tackling just this aspect of affairs. In this respect, energy provides an opportunity to re-launch the construction of Europe both internally (drawing up of a joint agreement regarding energy options, R and D programmes, energy saving, etc

  1. Short-termism in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Therese

    2016-01-01

    The 2007–08 global financial crisis gave rise to an extensive debate in the United States (US) on short-termism and its influence on agency relationships, incentives, and fiduciary duties. This debate and the consecutive legal creativity of US policymakers display spillover effects and constitute...... an influential source of inspiration for politicians and lawmakers in foreign jurisdictions. The European Commission currently proposes to amend the Shareholder Rights Directive (2007/36/EC) to counterbalance the financial sector’s alleged triumph over industry. The initiative is motivated primarily...... that the short-termism concept, despite its contemporary authority in the post-financial crisis era on both sides of the Atlantic, is misguided, and even more so in the European context. The Article concludes that the proposed amendments should not be expected to solve short-termism problems or alter...

  2. The European Union Response to Regional Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    into force of the Lisbon Treaty. (Cuadernos de Estrategia , 145-B. Spanish Institute for Strategic Studies, 2010), 18. 4 Felix Arteaga, The European...Security and Defense Policy after the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty. (Cuadernos de Estrategia , 145-B. Spanish Institute for Strategic...Lisbon Treaty. (Cuadernos de Estrategia , 145-B. Spanish Institute for Strategic Studies. 2010), 37. 15 ENP regulates the EU’s relations with countries

  3. NEW OFFSHORE LOCATIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The offshore activity provides benefits for the host market and has positive effects on services, and on producers that use intermediate services. FDI in services has an important impact on the offshore activity, especially through transfer of technology. Many transnational companies have recognized the advantages of offshoring and the fact that it becomes a key globalization force. Recently, the Central European countries have become popular destinations among offshoring

  4. The Limits of Agencification in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Mira; van Rijsbergen, Marloes

    2014-01-01

    Although not explicitly regulated by the EU treaties, EU agencies not only exist but also have increased in number and power. In addition, while EU agencies may exercise very similar functions to those of the Commission, Articles 290 and 291 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

  5. The fundamental determinants of financial integration in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, J.J.G.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the fundamental determinants of the degree of financial integration in the European Union over the period 1973-1993. Using closed interest differentials to measure the intensity of capital controls and applying a panel data approach, we find realized inflation rates, government

  6. Underlying Paradox in the European Union's Multilingualism Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fern L.

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has developed comprehensive policies in recent years to promote multilingualism. In this article, major EU policy statements on multilingualism are analyzed to demonstrate how their underlying language ideology produces paradox by both encouraging multilingualism and regulating its definition within the EU. The first…

  7. The European Union, Education Governance and International Education Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volante, Louis; Ritzen, Jo

    2016-01-01

    The European Union--comprising 28 member states with individual sovereignty in the formation and implementation of education policy--has developed research and communication strategies to facilitate the exchange of best practices, gathering and dissemination of education statistics and, perhaps most importantly, advice and support for national…

  8. The European Union and sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that aspirations of maintaining a dominant influence over sub-Saharan security issues has spurred the French and British leadership of European Union (EU) foreign and security policy integration, just as it has informed military capability expansions by the armed forces...

  9. The effect of the European union (MPP6) infrastructural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effect of the European Union infrastructural development on the productivity of food crop farmers and development of rural areas in Imo State. The specific objectives were to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of respondents, determine the extent of infrastructural development in the area ...

  10. Economic freedoms and labour standards in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, J.

    2016-01-01

    The European Union internal market seeks to ensure the free movement of goods, services, capital and citizens. The primacy given to these economic freedoms has culminated in a socio-economic reasoning dominated by competition, bringing about side effects that may pose a threat to working conditions

  11. Managing Transboundary Crises : The Emergence of European Union Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boin, Arjen; Rhinard, Mark; Ekengren, Magnus

    The European Union (EU) has modest but promising capacities to assist member states overwhelmed by disaster through its Civil Protection Mechanism. The EU also routinely sends civil and military missions to hotspots outside EU territory. But these capacities do not suffice in the face of

  12. The Principal-Agent model and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delreux, Tom; Adriaensen, J.

    2017-01-01

    This book assesses the use and limitations of the principal-agent model in a context of increasingly complex political systems such as the European Union. Whilst a number of conceptual, theoretical and methodological challenges need to be addressed, the authors show that the principal-agent model

  13. Inflation convergence within the European Union: a panel data analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen; Papell, D. H.

    1997-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (1997), s. 189-198 ISSN 1076-9307 Keywords : inflation convergence * European Union * panel data Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=16616418&site=ehost-live

  14. The analysis of food products retailing in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapaić Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Author is analyzing a share of food products in the structural profile of retail trade in European Union by presenting areas of retailing in which food, beverages, and tobacco products are predominant. The main task of retailing is to overcome gaps in time and space between production and consumption, in order to meet the needs of consumers. This main task of retailing becomes more difficult considering the fact that the European Union consists of demanding consumers that expect all products, especially food, to be served to them at the most accessible places, in most suitable time, and with prices that coincide with the worth of products. In the structure of retail trade of the European Union, food products can be found in sector of non-specialised in-store retailing (hypermarkets, supermarkets, Cash&Carry stores as well as in sector of specialised in-store food retailing (butcher shops, bakeries, fish markets, etc.. Restructure of retailing, internationalization, and concentration of total retail trade network are only some of the basic trends in contemporary retail sale of food products in the European Union, that are being explored in this text.

  15. Organization and financing of home nursing in the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkstra, A.; Hutten, J.B.F.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the organization and financing of home nursing in the 15 member states in the European Union. Home nursing was defined as the nursing care provided at the patients' home by professional home nursing organizations. Data were gathered by means of

  16. The energy price in the European Union in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document presents and briefly comments data and figures on the prices of natural gas and of electricity for industries and for households, of their evolution in comparison with what they were in 2009 in the different countries of the European Union. These prices are given with VAT included or not

  17. Tough love : the European Union's relations with the Western Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, Steven

    2007-01-01

    As part of the international presence in the Western Balkans, the European Union has adopted sanctions, brokered political agreements, launched its first-ever police and military missions and directed economic, legal and administrative reforms to eradicate the root causes of instability. Yet,

  18. The advantages of a small European Monetary Union

    OpenAIRE

    Menkhoff, Lukas; Sell, Friedrich L.

    1991-01-01

    The question whether European Monetary Union should include all the EC countries from the start or should initially be limited to a few core countries is again being discussed more intensely. What advantages would a small EMU have from an economic point of view? Which countries should be its founder members?

  19. Financial integration in the European Union. Measurement and determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, J.J.G.

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this study addresses the measurement of financial integration in the European Union (EU). First, we present empirical evidence on the degree of financial integration as measured with interest parity conditions. Second, the study applies an error-correction model of

  20. Distance Training in the European Union. ZIFF Papiere 96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Desmond

    A study examined distance training in the European Union (EU) countries. First, recent literature on the following topics was reviewed: technology-supported learning, flexible and distance learning, development of open distance learning, and teleconferencing and distance learning. Next, enrollments and trends in distance learning in the EU as a…

  1. Growth Dynamics of Dairy Processing Firms in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Turi, K.N.; Wijnands, J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the dairy processing industry in the European Union has changed enormously in recent decades. In many countries, the industry is characterized by a few large companies with a big market share accompanied by many small processors that often produce for niche markets. This article

  2. International Environmental Problems, Issue Linkage and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze-Gil, J.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis explores the circumstances under which issue linkage can be applied to achieve cooperation on international environmental problems in general and on environmental problems in the European Union in particular. A major topic in this thesis is the development and analysis of cooperative and

  3. Species Protection in the European Union : How Strict is Strict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoukens, Hendrik; Bastmeijer, Kees; Born et al., Charles-Hubert

    2015-01-01

    European Union law to protect wild species of plants and animals is generally considered as ‘strict’. Opponents of nature conservation law often pick the species protection components of the EU Bird Directive and Habitat Directive as a prime example of an unnecessary strict regulatory scheme that

  4. Parametrization of the Richardson weather generator within the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der P.; Kramer, K.; Diepen, van C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Richardson model for mathematically generating daily weather data was parametrized. Thirty years' time-series of the 355 main meteorological stations in the European Union formed the database. Model parameters were derived from both observed weather station data and interpolated weather data on

  5. Exploring central governments' coordination of European Union affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the coordination mechanisms managed by the central governments of the European Union (EU) in order to develop negotiation positions for their plenipotentiaries in the Council. Utilizing novel data from an expert survey, the first part examines the relationships within and betw...

  6. STRATEGIES OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iamandi Irina Eugenia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper emphasizes the corporate social responsibility (CSR state and development strategies in the European Union and at the level of the Romanian business environment. The aim of the paper is to present the similarities and differences in the

  7. Analysis of European Union Economy in Terms of GDP Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona VINEREAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the crises on national economies represented a subject of analysis and interest for a wide variety of research studies. Thus, starting from the GDP composition, the present research exhibits an analysis of the impact of European economies, at an EU level, of the events that followed the crisis of 2007 – 2008. Firstly, the research highlighted the existence of two groups of countries in 2012 in European Union, namely segments that were compiled in relation to the structure of the GDP’s components. In the second stage of the research, a factor analysis was performed on the resulted segments, that showed that the economies of cluster A are based more on personal consumption compared to the economies of cluster B, and in terms of government consumption, the situation is reversed. Thus, between the two groups of countries, a different approach regarding the role of fiscal policy in the economy can be noted, with a greater emphasis on savings in cluster B. Moreover, besides the two groups of countries resulted, Ireland and Luxembourg stood out because these two countries did not fit in either of the resulted segments and their economies are based, to a large extent, on the positive balance of the external balance.

  8. The EIROforum Collaboration Agreement with the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Collaboration between CERN and the European Union has extended over many years, and the European Commission were granted Observer Status in the CERN Council in 1985 already. In 1994, an Administrative Arrangement was signed between CERN's Director-General, Professor C.H. Llewellyn Smith, and the Commissioner of the European Communities, Professor Antonio Ruberti, "to promote co-operation between the Commission of the European Communities and CERN in research and technological development". (See Annex I). In 2000, the EIROforum was set up composed of the Directors-General of the seven organisations - CERN, EFDA, EMBL, ESA, ESO, ESRF and ILL - whom now meet regularly twice per year. More information is available at the Web site www.eiroforum.org. On 27 October 2003, the EIROforum members signed a joint "Statement of Intent" with the European Commission, represented by Commissioner Philippe Busquin, confirming their common commitment to developing the European Research Area. The goal is to work together to estab...

  9. On Union-Based Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Linda

    1982-01-01

    A course combining English in the workplace, information seeking and job application skills, occupational safety, and other workplace skills conducted by a community college and a major industrial union is described. The very successful program will be continued and developed based on the initial experience. (MSE)

  10. The radiopharmaceutical industry and European Union regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallais, C.J.; Sivewright, S.; Ogle, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    After a brief historical introduction to Council Directives relating to the manufacture of radiopharmaceuticals the work of the Association of Radiopharmaceuticals Producers - Europe (ARPE) is discussed. ARPE has played a significant role as an officially recognized interlocutor with the EEC, influencing decisions on the registration of radiopharmaceuticals and labelling; this role is reviewed and difficulties identified. The future of radiopharmaceuticals is then considered; it is emphasized that harmonization of national laws by the European Council would represent a first step to enabling radiopharmaceutical manufacturers to access the largest possible market for their products. (orig.)

  11. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE COMMITTEES IN EUROPEAN UNION EMERGING ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Dumitrascu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the support committees of European Union emerging economies. The importance of good corporate governance is vital for an organization, especially in the emerging markets, fact that leads to a several perceived improvements of the entity, while being more trustable, open and transparent in relationship with all its stakeholders. In our demarche we started by choosing the emerging economies from European Union, which lead us to a sample consisting of the companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange, Sofia Stock Exchange, Warsaw Stock Exchange, Prague Stock Exchange, Budapest Stock Exchange, without taking into consideration a specific tier. In order to have a heterogeneous sample, we did eliminate the financial institutions from our research. This study is developed at European Union level and takes into consideration the following indices: BET® BUCHAREST EXCHANGE TRADING (Romania, SOFIX (Bulgaria, WIG 20 (Poland, PX (Czech Republic, BUX The Share Index of the Budapest Stock Exchange Co. Ltd. (Hungary. The data are extracted from the Annual Reports, Corporate Governance Codes, Comply or Explain Statement or the websites of the listed companies, from period 2007 - 2011. We choose this period, because we wanted to see the evolution of the corporate governance committees’ implementation from the period when the last countries from our sample joined the European Union since nowadays. Our conclusion is that we can not discuss about good corporate governance practices. Even so, we can observe from our investigation that the trend in this regard is encouraging. Like future research, we thought at developing our study by comparing the emerging economies from European Union with those outside this area. It is an interesting field of investigation, as every country has different regulations.

  12. Main Developments and Perspectives of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Constantin ANGHELACHE PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors have analyzed the main economic-financial evolutions of the European Union member countries. First, we have performed the study regarding the evolution of the Gross Domestic Product growth in the European Union, by total and by comparison with other countries that play an important role in the global evolution of the economy. There are emphasized comparative data regarding the economic growth of China, which is the highest in the world. The growth rate of China is net superior to the rates recorded by USA, Japan and European Union (28 members. There can be observed a significant decrease of economic growth during the period 2008-2010, with a negative peak in 2009 (-2%-6% in the case of the United States, EU-28 and Japan. Even if China itself has felt the effects of the economic-financial crisis, the growth rate has reduced from 14% in 2007 to 9% in 2008, the decrease continued in the subsequent period, reaching some 8.5% in 2014. Then, we have analyzed the financial evolution, the exchange rate of the main currencies, the evolution of the inflation and the balance of foreign payments and international commercial exchanges. Particular attention was granted to direct foreign investments in and out the EU member states. The study is focused on the comparison of the foreign investments’ evolution during 2009-2014 for the main 10 partners of the European Union. Through this study, the results achieved by the EU during the specified periods were outlined, at each specific item within the internal, but also external relationships with other states in Europe or on wider global plan. The authors have put additional emphasis on the analysis of the period after 2007, since Romania has become member of the European Union.

  13. Institutional pioneers in world politics: Regional institution building and the influence of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Tobias; Burilkov, Alexandr

    2017-09-01

    What drives processes of institution building within regional international organizations? We challenge those established theories of regionalism, and of institutionalized cooperation more broadly, that treat different organizations as independent phenomena whose evolution is conditioned primarily by internal causal factors. Developing the basic premise of 'diffusion theory' - meaning that decision-making is interdependent across organizations - we argue that institutional pioneers, and specifically the European Union, shape regional institution-building processes in a number of discernible ways. We then hypothesize two pathways - active and passive - of European Union influence, and stipulate an endogenous capacity for institutional change as a key scope condition for their operation. Drawing on a new and original data set on the institutional design of 34 regional international organizations in the period from 1950 to 2010, the article finds that: (1) both the intensity of a regional international organization's structured interaction with the European Union (active influence) and the European Union's own level of delegation (passive influence) are associated with higher levels of delegation within other regional international organizations; (2) passive European Union influence exerts a larger overall substantive effect than active European Union influence does; and (3) these effects are strongest among those regional international organizations that are based on founding contracts containing open-ended commitments. These findings indicate that the creation and subsequent institutional evolution of the European Union has made a difference to the evolution of institutions in regional international organizations elsewhere, thereby suggesting that existing theories of regionalism are insufficiently able to account for processes of institution building in such contexts.

  14. A decade of marketing approval of gene and cell-based therapies in the United States, European Union and Japan: An evaluation of regulatory decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, D G M; de Wilde, S; Guchelaar, H J; De Bruin, M L; Leufkens, H G M; Meij, P; Hoekman, J

    2018-05-02

    There is a widely held expectation of clinical advance with the development of gene and cell-based therapies (GCTs). Yet, establishing benefits and risks is highly uncertain. We examine differences in decision-making for GCT approval between jurisdictions by comparing regulatory assessment procedures in the United States (US), European Union (EU) and Japan. A cohort of 18 assessment procedures was analyzed by comparing product characteristics, evidentiary and non-evidentiary factors considered for approval and post-marketing risk management. Product characteristics are very heterogeneous and only three products are marketed in multiple jurisdictions. Almost half of all approved GCTs received an orphan designation. Overall, confirmatory evidence or indications of clinical benefit were evident in US and EU applications, whereas in Japan approval was solely granted based on non-confirmatory evidence. Due to scientific uncertainties and safety risks, substantial post-marketing risk management activities were requested in the EU and Japan. EU and Japanese authorities often took unmet medical needs into consideration in decision-making for approval. These observations underline the effects of implemented legislation in these two jurisdictions that facilitate an adaptive approach to licensing. In the US, the recent assessments of two chimeric antigen receptor-T cell (CAR-T) products are suggestive of a trend toward a more permissive approach for GCT approval under recent reforms, in contrast to a more binary decision-making approach for previous approvals. It indicates that all three regulatory agencies are currently willing to take risks by approving GCTs with scientific uncertainties and safety risks, urging them to pay accurate attention to post-marketing risk management. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fairness and cost-effectiveness of CO2 emission reduction targets in the European Union member states. An analysis based on scenario studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Ybema, J.R.; Vos, D.

    1997-06-01

    The Member States of the European Union (EU) have agreed upon a common position in the international negotiations on the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions. The total commitment of the EU is the result of differentiated emission targets for the individual Member States. In this study the results of 4 recent scenario studies on CO2 emission reduction are used to assess the fairness and the cost-effectiveness of the differentiated targets. Here, fairness is measured by the average cost per capita in a country to reach the emission target. Cost-effectiveness is based on the marginal cost of emission reduction. It is noted that there are limitations in the comparability of the country results. Further, the coverage of the EU Member States is not complete in all 4 studies. Robust conclusions could thus not be drawn for all countries. Nonetheless, there are strong indications that the efforts to achieve the emission reduction targets are not evenly distributed. Based on the results the countries can be divided into four groups with different burdens to achieve reduction of CO2 emissions: (a) countries that will probably be faced with above average burdens: Sweden, Italy and the Netherlands; (b) countries that will presumably be faced with above average burdens but for which limited information is available: Austria and Denmark; (c) countries that will probably be faced with average burdens or for which the relative efforts are indistinct: Germany, Portugal, Belgium, Finland and Luxembourg; and (d) countries that will probably be faced with below average burdens: United Kingdom, France, Spain, Ireland and Greece. 1 fig., 12 tabs., 6 refs

  16. 562,3 MWP installed in european union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    In the end, the growth problems that were announced for the European photovoltaic market did not happen. With 170 MWp of additional capacity installed in the European Union 2003 has marked a new record high in installations bringing European installed capacity up to the neighbourhood of 562 MWp. While this sector's expansion has been remarkable (+ 43.4 % with respect to 2002), a lot of questions still remain with respect to the true will of certain countries to develop this form of energy. (author)

  17. Protecting animals and enabling research in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Pinto da Silva, Sandra; Townend, David

    2016-01-01

    In 1986, European Directive 86/609/EEC, regulating the use of animals in research, was one of the first examples of common legislation to set standards for animal protection across the Member States of the former European Economic Community, now the European Union, with the aim of securing a level...... objectives of the directive, particularly with a focus on securing the same high standards of animal protection across member countries. The analysis focuses on three separate issues: (1) minimum standards for laboratory animal housing and care, (2) restrictions on the use of certain animal species, and (3...

  18. EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENT OF ECO‐MANAGEMENT AND AUDIT SCHEME (EMAS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna SŁONIMIEC

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of the Environmental Management and Audit Scheme System (EMAS in Poland and the European Union. It analyzes the existing rules on the implementation and the process of its implementation. It also defines the benefits and costs arising from the registration of organizations in the system. The paper presents the current status of implementation of EMAS in the European Union.

  19. The Role of European Union Funds in Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PĂUN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union project initially started as a peaceful solution for war reconstruction in Europe. European countries decided to cooperate rather than compete in an aggressive way. At the beginning, this project supposed (involved market liberalization, trade barriers removals, market access improvement (initially for coal, steel, energy and, later, for all goods, services, workforce and capital. Unfortunately, in the last decades, all these Single Market facilities have been backed by redistributive schemes, protectionist mechanisms, social engineering, subsidies and facilities packed in so-called ”EU policies”. New ”European” institutions have been created, more and more funds have been involved to financially support this very complex redistributive intervention. The political dimension of the European Union project enhanced the economic dimension and constantly suffocated private markets and the economy. The “incomes” of the European Union that fuel its financial support are coming from taxes and/or inflation (better administered after the introduction of a Single Currency – the Euro. This paper will discuss the relevance of European Funds for economic development, especially for new members in this project.

  20. The European Union Training Mission in Mali: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicke Rachel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For several years, the European Union (EU has been increasing its international presence and moving into the role of a global security actor. To support the goal of greater crisis management capabilities, European security integration (ESI has been deepening. This article therefore examines an Ell operation - the European Union Training Mission in Mali (EUTM Mali - with the aim of gauging the success of the EU's efforts at ESI. To determine the success of EUTM Mali and thus of ESI, three propositions are examined: if EUTM Mali is a security operation showing successful security integration, there will be evidence of (i broad participation, (ii financial burden-sharing and (iii the successful incorporation of troops and equipment. The first and third propositions are supported whereas the second does not receive as much support. Overall, EUTM Mali shows considerable success and bodes well for further ESI.

  1. Sustainable development and energy in the european union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable development represents a core objective of the European Union, being embodied through out its major polices. In the field of energy, the EU objectives, commonly known as ä20-20-20ö initiative, aim at ensuring a competitive, secure and sustainable energy for European households and industries by reducing the emissions of green house gases, an efficient use on energy and increasing the use of renewable energy. The present paper draws a review on the most important aspects of EU energy policy, its measures, results and costs from the perspective of security of supply, competitiveness of price and green house gases emissions. The aim is to highlight the trade offs which are involved in the orientation towards a sustainable path of the energetic sector of the European Union. (authors)

  2. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF TAX COMPETITION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA FELICIA CHIRCULESCU

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of globalization, economic integration and the mobility of production factors at the local and global level have been facilitated. In Europe, the process of economic and monetary integration began when barriers to the free movement of goods, capital and labor were formally abolished, although cultural barriers still exist. The need and justification of tax competition is that it can lead to greater efficiency in the use of public sector resources and more efficient allocation of capital. The main advantages of tax competition are those related to the reduction of tax rates, which can lead to boosting consumption and investment. The method used to achieve the objective is complex, from statistical and economic analyzes of fiscal data to a comparative technique at the level of the European Union. The database used is from Eurostat sources and other European Commission work on taxation in the Member States of the European Union.

  3. FOREIGN FIGHTERS PHENOMENON IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Alexandru LUCA

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid war is a reality; war does not depend only on conventional means, but includes communication and propaganda strategies whose role is increasingly important. In the last few years, terrorist cells have spent and keep spending many energies in a global propaganda business. This activity is a fundamental aspect of the conflict. This promotion campaign serves several purposes: legitimating its authority, recruiting militants and motivating sympathizers, and intimidating and conditioning those whose cells they consider enemies. What draws our attention is the sophisticated level of professionalism they demonstrate in managing propaganda and terror. This paper seeks to provide a broader view of the European Foreign Fighters (FF phenomenon by analyzing this target group from a marketing point of view in order to lay the foundations for a strategy to counteract them.

  4. Future Trajectories of Renewable Energy Consumption in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cucchiella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources (RESs are able to reduce the European Union (EU’s dependence on foreign energy imports, also meeting sustainable objectives to tackle climate change and to enhance economic opportunities. Energy management requires a quantitative analysis and the European Commission follows the performance of each Member State (MS in order to define the corrective measures towards 2020 targets. Starting from historical data reported in the Eurostat database and through a mathematical model, this work proposes future trajectories towards 2020 of the share of energy from renewables (REs in terms of gross final energy consumption (GFEC. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis based on two indices—(i the share of REs in GFEC, and (ii gross final renewable energy consumption (GFREC per capita—permits a comparison among 28 MSs. The share of REs in GFEC in EU 28 varies from 19.4% to 21.8% in future trajectories towards 2020. Sweden and Finland occupy the top part of the ranking, while six MSs (Belgium, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, and the United Kingdom are not able to reach the 2020 targets.

  5. European union mission for the rule of law in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Bejtush Gashi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we have studied the international circumstances that have affected the deployment of the EULEX Mission in Kosovo. The EULEX mission is the European Union Mission for the Rule of Law in Kosovo. Its main goal is to advise, assist and support the Kosovo authorities in issues of the rule of law, especially in the field of police, judiciary and customs performance. Also this mission has the responsibility to develop and further strengthen the independent multi-ethnic justice system in Kosovo, by ensuring that the rule of law institutions are not politically influenced and that they meet the known international standards and best European practices. This mission was foreseen to be deployed to Kosovo, based on the Ahtissari Comprehensive Status Proposal for Kosovo, but due to its non-approval by the UN Security Council, its full implementation was delayed until December 2008. EULEX acts within the framework of Resolution 1244 of the UN Security Council and under a single chain of command in Brussels. EULEX officials have supported Kosovo Police, the Judiciary system and Kosovo Customs, through MMA actions for achieving objectives and goals that are foreseen by the program strategy of EULEX. But in terms of efficiency, EULEX has only achieved modest results. In the northern part of Kosovo, EULEX has failed, as a result of its ambivalent mandate and incoherence of EU Foreign and Security Policy.

  6. Information technology law and health systems in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah; Ter Linden, Annemarie

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of European Union (EU) law relating to information technology (IT) on health systems. The study identifies EU directives relating to IT, analyzes them in terms of their impact on the use of IT in health systems, and outlines their implications for health technology assessment (HTA). Analysis is based on a review of literature identified through relevant databases and Internet searches. Developments in IT have serious implications for EU health systems, presenting policy makers with new challenges. The European Commission has adopted a range of legal measures to protect consumers in the "information society" However, as few of them are health-specific, it is not evident that they have implications for health, health systems, or HTA, and they may not be effective in protecting consumers in the health sector. In light of the growing importance of IT in the health sector, legal and nonlegal measures need to be further developed at EU and international level. Where possible, future initiatives should pay attention to the particular characteristics of health goods and services and health systems. Although definitions of HTA usually recognize the importance of evaluating both the indirect, unintended consequences of health technologies and the legal aspects of their application, it seems that, in practice, HTA often overlooks or underestimates legislative matters. Those involved in HTA should be aware of the legal implications of using IT to provide health goods and services and compile, store, transfer, and disseminate health information electronically.

  7. Between the European Union and Russia. Perspectives on Ukraine’s complex political situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusch Lina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine finds itself in a difficult position between the European Union and the newest Russian-engineered integration project for the post-Soviet space, the Eurasian Union. A thorough understanding of the interdependence between Ukraine and its partners is thus essential for determining "the right way" for Ukraine. The paper, on which this article is based, explores this by applying Complex Interdependence Theory and proposes a cautious foreign policy approach.

  8. Between the European Union and Russia. Perspectives on Ukraine’s complex political situation

    OpenAIRE

    Rusch Lina

    2013-01-01

    Ukraine finds itself in a difficult position between the European Union and the newest Russian-engineered integration project for the post-Soviet space, the Eurasian Union. A thorough understanding of the interdependence between Ukraine and its partners is thus essential for determining "the right way" for Ukraine. The paper, on which this article is based, explores this by applying Complex Interdependence Theory and proposes a cautious foreign policy approach.

  9. European monetary union: limits to growth or bifurcation point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Sharov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the background and process of the EU monetary union establishment with regard to historical experience of European countries involving previous attempts of currency integration between separate countries. The author also analyzes methods of solving various theoretical and practical problems arising during the process. In particular, it is pointed out that the majority of the problems were caused by neglecting monetary integration principles, the need for observing which had been clearly stated yet at the preliminary stages of the integration process. Special emphasis is made on reviewing current development stage of the monetary union, in particular, with regard to problems caused by the financial crisis in "peripheral countries" of the Union as well as by concurrent intensification of cooperation in the field of banking and fiscal issues. In this context, the trends of further European monetary integration development are also considered. As resulted from analysis, the author concludes that the European Monetary Union had exhausted its energy for development along previously assigned trajectory and reached the bifurcation point, whereas its further improvement or gradual preservation and decline depend upon the direction in which the point is passed.

  10. Oral surgery in the European Union: challenges of diversity in training and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseripour, M N; Hervé, C; Meningaud, J-P

    2017-02-01

    At the crossroads of medicine and dentistry, oral surgery with orthodontics are the only recognised dental specialties by the European Union. The goal of our study is to evaluate the current state of oral surgery in Europe from its teaching to its practice, the hypothesis being that a notable diversity persists despite European Union harmonisation process. To understand the impact of this diversity applied to European Union freedom of movement and its ethical implications for the practice of oral surgery, English and French questionnaires were sent by email to universities and organisations delivering authorisation to practise in France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom chosen based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. An analysis of documents on these organisations' official websites was also conducted. Demographic information was obtained from the aforementioned organisations. The profile of practising oral surgeons is different dependent on the country. The university and hospital trainings conform to European recommendations and span 3-4 years. European Board certification is not required. Continuing education is mandatory only in France, Germany and United Kingdom. As for curricula and scope of practice, no consensus can be derived. There is potential conflict of interest between European Union principles of freedom of movement and protection of all citizens, as member countries do not uniformly apply Directives and recommendations. A new survey of all European Union oral surgery programmes as well as organisations delivering authorisation to practise is necessary to implement across the board harmonisation of training and practice to insure patient safety in light of the migration of European Union practitioners. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Community Policy Initiatives. In search of European Union added value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beceiro, Rodriguez A.

    2004-01-01

    The European Commission's proposal, approved in early 2003, contains general requirements more of a political and juridical nature rather than a technical one, and is generally based on the IAEA's Safety Fundamentals and on the Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel and on the safety of radioactive waste, already ratified by nearly all Member States of the European Union. In general terms, it can be said that the proposal aims at creating a common legal framework enabling the harmonization of policies and practices at Community level and, in particular, to motivate the decision-making processes in Member States with the objective to make real progress to implement permanent solutions for spent fuel and radioactive waste. Generally speaking, it can be said that implementing permanent solutions for radioactive waste depends, not only on the availability of technical solutions and economical resources, but also to a great extent on socio-political factors, which requires the development of complex decision-making processes involving concerned stakeholders. These processes are country specific and very difficult to be extrapolated from one country to another, because they largely depend on historical and cultural aspects as well as on the countries' legal and administrative systems. Nevertheless, there exist common elements, which are critical for the development of these processes. On the one hand, there is the need for political willingness to initiate its development and, on the other hand, there are the rules of the game necessary to guide the process. These two elements should conform the objective and driving force of the Directive for the development of national programmes. This is the context in which the Directive can contribute with a positive effect in national programmes and provide real added value on existing international framework. The proposed Directive should provide beneficial effects in national programmes if it keeps to the intentions and

  12. Linking Public Administration and Law Studies within European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela V. Cărăuşan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 1987 represented for us, scholars, the turning point for the Europeanization of highdegree studies. The European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS isa European Union student exchange program which has proved its utility in the last two decade. The publicadministration and law studies are two of the fields of studies which have benefited from the ERASMUSProgramme. In this respect we will try to learn the lesson of internationalization from the European contactthrough ERASMUS programme. The ‘win win’ for students is not just in the increase of knowledge in thearea of administrative sciences and law, but also in the share of cultures. The ERASMUS gives students abetter sense of what it means to be a European citizen. In addition, many employers highly value such aperiod abroad, which increases the students’ employability and job prospects.

  13. THE TAX POLICY WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION: CONCEPTS, INSTITUTIONS, TRENDS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA COJOCARU (BOROVINA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At the basis of conceiving the tax policy of an European Union member state, one must consider, on the one hand, fulfilling the government's own requirements, and on the other hand, achieving the objectives set by the EC Treaty. At present, the European Union has a quite harmonized and coordinated tax policy in the indirect taxes field, and partially in the direct taxes field, based on the free movement principle of goods, services, capital and labour; thus, although the member states have the freedom to set operation rules of their own national tax systems, this freedom is conditioned by the compliance with the priority objectives of the founding treaties of the European Union. The member states should avoid adopting discriminating tax measures (which could lead to a disadvantageous treatment for the persons, goods and services or capitals coming from other member states. Sometimes, the restrictions regarding free movement on the internal market are generated by the differences between the national tax systems, so that a certain degree of tax harmonization at the European Union level is necessary. The tax harmonization can be achieved either spontaneously (by means of the forces of the market, by means of active actions at the level of the European Union (the implementation of common policies, the coordination of the policies, the harmonization of the legislation, etc. or by means of the passive actions of the European Court of Justice (the interdiction of certain types of conduct of the member states that do not comply with the norms of the European Union. In the absence of the tax harmonization, negative effects can occur, such as: the erosion of the national tax bases, provision of public services and goods at a sub-optimal level, unwanted changes in the structure of the taxes which are levied in the member states, and distortions in assigning resources at the level of the single market.

  14. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution’s pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy. - Highlights: ► We examine the development of EU energy security policy, focusing on gas. ► We examine changes in European Commission competence in energy policy. ► The European Commission has gained increased competence in the internal market. ► In the external dimension of EU energy policy Member States retain competence. ► The European Commission has had qualified success as a policy entrepreneur

  15. Implementation of renewable energy in the European Union until 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmelink, M.; Voogt, M.; Joosen, S.; De Jager, D. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Palmers, G.; Shaw, S. [3E, Brussels (Belgium); Cremer, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    PRETIR is the acronym for Progress of Renewable Energy: Target Setting, Implementation and Realisation. The PRETIR project aims at developing a monitoring protocol, including a set of transparent indicators, through which monitoring of policy development with regard to renewable energy sources in the 15 European Union (EU) Member States can take place; i.e. the degree to which the national and European targets are translated to national action plans and policy instruments to realise the targeted implementation of renewable energy sources. By analysing the results of this monitoring process conclusions can be drawn on the likeliness of achieving the goals as set in the White Paper, the Directive on electricity from renewable energy sources, the draft Directive on biofuels and the Campaign for Take-Off. This report holds the results of the monitoring of renewable energy policies for the European Union. Chapters 2 and 3 start with a brief outline of the used definitions and monitoring methodology. A more detailed description of the methodology is available in the monitoring report, published separately. Chapter 4 provides an overview of the renewable energy policies in the EU Member States and is followed by chapters dealing with each of the distinguished renewable energy sources. Finally, chapter 11 holds the conclusions on the progress on implementation of renewable energy sources in the European Union.

  16. Abatement of CO2 emissions in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.; Keppler, J.H.; Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite; Smeers, Yves; Bouttes, Jean-Paul; Trochet, Jean-Michel; Dassa, Francois; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    This first monograph of the Ifri program on European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy is devoted to the control of carbon dioxide emissions within the European Union. Since it is almost unanimously accepted that Greenhouse Gas emissions constitute the main cause of the observed increase of the world average temperature, the system implemented by the European Union to limit and decrease the CO 2 emissions is a significant pillar of the EU energy policy, the two others being the acceptance by the Member States of long-term commitments (for instance on the future share of renewable energy sources in their energy balance sheet) and the establishment of an internal market for electricity and gas. Though simple in principle, the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is in fact rather complex, and only experts really understand its merits and its deficiencies. These deficiencies are real and will have to be corrected in the future for the system to be effective. At this moment, when the 2005-2007 trial phase of the EU ETS is ending, the monograph has the purpose to stimulate the discussion between experts and to enable all those interested in the topic to understand the issues and to take part in the public debates on the subject. The monograph contains five papers: - 'An Overview of the CO 2 Emission Control System in the European Union' by Jacques Lesourne and Maite Jaureguy-Naudin. - 'Description and Assessment of EU CO 2 Regulations' by Yves Smeers. - 'Assessment of EU CO 2 Regulations' by Jean-Paul Bouttes, Jean-Michel Trochet and Francois Dassa. - 'Investment in Low Carbon Technologies, Policies for the Power Sector' by Karsten Neuhoff. - 'Lessons Learned from the 2005-2007 Trial Phase of the EU Emission Trading System' by Jan Horst Keppler

  17. The European Union Policy in the Field of Rare Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner, Antoni Montserrat; Waligora, Jaroslaw

    2017-01-01

    Rare diseases, are defined by the European Union as life-threatening or chronically debilitating diseases with low prevalence (less than 5 per 10,000). The specificities of rare diseases - limited number of patients and scarcity of relevant knowledge and expertise - single them out as a unique domain of very high European added-value.The legal instruments at the disposal of the European Union, in terms of the Article 168 of the Treaties, are very limited. However a combination of instruments using the research and the pharmaceutical legal basis and an intensive and creative use of funding from the Health Programmes has permitted to create a solid basis that Member States have considered enough to put rare diseases in a privileged position in the health agenda.The adoption of the Commission Communication, in November 2008, and of the Council Recommendation, in June 2009, and in 2011 the adoption of the Directive on Cross-border healthcare., have created an operational framework to act in the field of rare disease with European coordination in several areas (classification and codification, European Reference Networks, orphan medicinal products, the Commission expert group on rare diseases, etc.).Rare diseases is an area with high and practical potential for the European cooperation.

  18. TURKEY’S ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION – PRESENT OR PERSPECTIVES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Voica

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The enlargement of the European Union is a sui generis process, which involves internal preparation of the candidate countries, the European Union and accession negotiations as well. The EU enlargement process is based on the desire to create a close relationschip between the European countries in a common economic and political project. Guided by tha values of the European Union and subject to strict conditions, the enlargement proved to be one of the most effective tools for promoting political, economic and social reforms and to strengthen pceace, stability and democracy across the continent. A controversial topic in the last period is Turkey’s accession to the European Union. Turkey’s European ambitions date back to the 1963 Ankara Agreements, although it has formally submitted the membership application in 1987. Following the Helsinki European Council of 10 – 11 December 1999, accession negotiations between the EU and Romania, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Malta and Bulgaria started on 15 February 2000. Regarding the accession negotiations with Turkey, il was considered that this country does not meet, at this stage, the criteria set by the Copenhagen European Council on the rule of law, democracy and human rights. For Turkey, an Accession Partnership was adopted on 8 March 2001. Currently, Turkey is far from concluding the process of joining the European Union. However, Turkey is a state that can no longer be ignored by anyone in the world politics, being remarked by the infrastructure projects, the developed tourism, the steady economic growth and, last but not least, by the impressive military power, being the second NATO army. Given that, in the framework of the enlargement process, both the candidate states and the old members must be prepared for integration and cohabitation as well as the negative opinion on the Turkish membership of the influential states, such as Germany and France, it remains to be seen whether Turkey will

  19. New institutional assemblages for borderless customs control in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, A.C.; Hofman, W.; Enserink, B.; Kotterink, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on a use case proposing a Single Window implementation for borderless customs control in the European Union (EU). This EU e-Customs initiative proposes to combine trade facilitation from a customs perspective with secure trade based on supply chain risk analysis. To achieve

  20. Impact of infectious diseases on population health using incidence-based disability-adjusted life years (DALYs): results from the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe study, European Union and European Economic Area countries, 2009 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassini, Alessandro; Colzani, Edoardo; Pini, Alessandro; Mangen, Marie-Josee J; Plass, Dietrich; McDonald, Scott A; Maringhini, Guido; van Lier, Alies; Haagsma, Juanita A; Havelaar, Arie H; Kramarz, Piotr; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E

    2018-01-01

    Background and aims The Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) study aimed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 31 selected diseases in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Methods: DALYs were estimated using an incidence-based and pathogen-based approach. Incidence was estimated through assessment of data availability and quality, and a correction was applied for under-estimation. Calculation of DALYs was performed with the BCoDE software toolkit without applying time discounting and age-weighting. Results: We estimated that one in 14 inhabitants experienced an infectious disease episode for a total burden of 1.38 million DALYs (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 1.25–1.5) between 2009 and 2013; 76% of which was related to the acute phase of the infection and its short-term complications. Influenza had the highest burden (30% of the total burden), followed by tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/AIDS and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Men had the highest burden measured in DALYs (60% of the total), adults 65 years of age and over had 24% and children less than 5 years of age had 11%. Age group-specific burden showed that infants (less than 1 year of age) and elderly people (80 years of age and over) experienced the highest burden. Conclusions: These results provide baseline estimates for evaluating infectious disease prevention and control strategies. The study promotes an evidence-based approach to describing population health and assessing surveillance data availability and quality, and provides information for the planning and prioritisation of limited resources in infectious disease prevention and control. PMID:29692315

  1. Econometric Assessment of the Degree of Economic Convergence between Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mădălina OPRIȚESCU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the important objectives of the European Union is to support economic growth based on economic, social and territorial cohesion between Member States. Due to the accession of relatively poor countries to the European Union, maintaining cohesion is and will remain a major challenge, with cohesion policy having to support the reduction of imbalances between the old Member States and also support the development of less developed regions. One of the main measures adopted by the European authorities emphasizes the importance of increasing the degree of economic convergence between Member States by promoting a common market along with an economic and monetary union. In addition, increasing productivity and convergence within the EU are the foundations of the Lisbon Strategy and remain an important pillar of the Europe 2020 Growth Strategy.

  2. Relatedness and diversification in the European Union (EU-27) and European Neighbourhood Policy countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron; Capone, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the process of industrial diversification in the countries that were part of the European Union (EU-27) and those that were the target of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) in the period 1995–2010 by means of world trade data derived from the BACI database (elaborated UN

  3. A Monetary Union in Asia? Some European Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyplosz Charles

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Monetary Union in Europe has been the natural response to the combined desire of stabilizing intra-European exchange rates and of lifting permanently all capital controls. The commitment to stable exchange rate has long been rooted in policymakers’ conviction that trade integration requires precise rules which eliminate the risk of misalignments, whether imposed by the markets or arranged by the authorities. The success in maintaining fixed-but-adjustable exchange rates within the EMS and next in adopting a single currency is largely due to the patient and progressive building institutions that became the uneasy repository of those parts of national sovereignty that have been abandoned. This experience suggests three lessons for current discussions about a monetary union in Asia. First, multilateral regional exchange rate arrangements are more conducive to an effective defense than indirect approaches like basket pegs. They probably require some limits to capital mobility. Second, adopting a single currency necessitates elaborate preparations that can only be underpinned by the gradual build up of collective institutions. Third, a monetary union requires some reasonable degree of real convergence. This implies starting with a core of sufficiently homogeneous countries. At this stage, starting with a monetary union in Asia would imply reversing the European sequencing, which started with a common market, moved on to the EMS, and liberalization of capital movements.

  4. Fiscal policy in the European Union – present and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Ramona Mara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the main trends of fiscal policy in the European Union, following the economic crisis impact and fiscal policy measures that were applied in this economic context. The study is focused in a few key areas: the evolution of fiscal policy captured by indicators measuring tax burden, public sector size analysis by quantifying public expenditure share in GDP and the evolution of budget deficits. Finally, the study watched correlations between fiscal policy and macroeconomic developments, identifying trends and anticipating possible solutions of fiscal policy to achieve the required coordinates of fiscal governance in the European Union. For realizing this study we use annual data from Eurostat Database for 2000-2010 for EU countries. The major findings of the study are the negative impact of the size of public sector on economic growth for EU and also for Romania and the increase of the tax revenue if the economic growth rates increase.

  5. ANTI-CORRUPTION AND ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING MECHANISMS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Puzyrev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article based on an integrated approach to developed within the European Union mechanisms of preventing crimes, which affect the financial interests of the EU. In terms of specific examples the legal basis of anti-corruption interaction, especially the structural building of the basic institutions of the European Union, are analyzed. The article discusses the information potential to facilitate the implementation of effective cooperation among the competent authorities in the sphere of combating corruption, fraud, money laundering and other economic crimes.

  6. Financial Supervision and Banking Competition in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu Stoica; Roxana Scantee

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of countries are reviewing their financial supervisory structures and show a trend of consolidation in financial supervision. Using a sample of 27 countries from European Union, we find that the dependent variables taken into consideration (Herfindahl-Hirschman index and share of the five largest credit institutions in total assets) have no significant effects on different types of supervisory integration. In addition, there aren’t any differences in the impact of distinc...

  7. Families and the European Union : law, politics and pluralism.

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, C.M.S.

    2006-01-01

    In the first book to offer a comprehensive analysis of family law in the European Union, McGlynn argues that a traditional concept of 'family' which has many adverse effects - on individuals, on families (in all their diverse forms), and indeed on the economic ambitions of the EU is forming the basis for the little-recognised and under-researched field of EU family law. This book examines three different aspects of family life - childhood, parenthood and partnerships - and critically analyses...

  8. European Union Council Directive 2009/71/Euratom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butragueno, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary of Directive 2009/71, approved by the European Union on June 25th last. This text establishes a new Community framework for the safety of nuclear facilities and includes an analysis of issues such as the reactivation of nuclear programmes, the extension of the operating lifetime of the plants beyond their theoretical period of service and the need for safety requirements accepted by all the Member States. (Author)

  9. Meat export competitiveness of European Union countries on global markets

    OpenAIRE

    Štefan Bojnec; Imre Fertő

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the export competitiveness of meat products of the European Union (EU-27) member states on global markets. The revealed comparative advantage index is used to analyze the levels, compositions, and evolutions in patterns of development in the export competitiveness of meat products and their levels of stability at the product level. Except for some niche meat products, a larger number of the EU-27 member states have experienced comparativ...

  10. FISCAL POLICY'S INFLUENCE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    MIHAIU Diana Marieta; OPREANA Alin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of the fiscal policy on the economic growth for European Union, for the period 2000-2009. This subject represents a very debated problem in the economic literature. Our findings shows that, from the analysis of correlation between economic growth rate and total rate of taxation, there is generally an inverse relationship, meaning that an increase in the tax rate adversely affects economic growth. Continuing the analysis of the correlation between economic gro...

  11. FISCAL SOVEREIGNTY IN ROMANIA – EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATE

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Daniela I. Roman

    2008-01-01

    The Romania`s adhesion to the European Union involves multiple transformations with a direct impact upon many fields, such as law`s field, especially economic, fiscal laws. Taxation system should be both efficient and equitableone of the important problem is sovereignty of state became member of one regional organization, his fiscal sovereignty, state’s atributes in this field. Who can decide fiscal policy, direct taxes or taxes upon consumption? Is it attended by this adhesion to the soverei...

  12. Possible Outcomes of Brexit for European Union Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Y. Kaveshnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some implications of the Brexit referendum for institutional and political development of the European Union and for relations between the EU and the UK. The most obvious consequence of the referendum is the collapse of ideology of continuous and progressing development of integration. Instead of endless, irreversible, a priori beneficial for everyone integration process, the European Union has become an organization that does not have a Messianic goal and obliged to prove its usefulness in everyday life. EU systemic crisis will inevitably lead to a profound transformation of its institutional and political structure. After the British referendum, only two options are possible. First of all, partial deconstruction of the European Union. The idea that European integration has gone too far lies in the basis of this strategy. According to this logic, the single market is the main EU achievement. Return to the basics - this is a pragmatic approach to integration, which should replace attempts to fix rotten projects (like Euro or to achieve the unattainable (political Union. This option is hardly probable. Second option is transformation of the EU into the "core and periphery" system having the basis flexible integration. Over the past 20 years, flexibility transformed from temporary phenomenon into a permanent and formalized mechanism; its elements exist in many EU politics. Brexit would be able to accelerate significantly the formation of a cohesive core within the Eu. The core will not be homogeneous; it will include as governing structures: the German-French axis and a group of EU founding countries.

  13. The integration of Poland into the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    FAUCOMPRET, Erik; KONINGS, Jozef

    2001-01-01

    Poland was among the first Eastern European countries to apply for membership of the European Union. In view of Poland’s tragic history and the economic liberalisation that has taken place since 1989, we believe that the EU should adopt a generous approach toward its application. Unfortunately it looks as if the EU wants Poland to conform with all its laws before it can join. Our research suggests that the EU should pursue an open trade, labour and investment policy. Poland’s membership will ...

  14. Nuclear power. A key contributor to a decarbonised European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-12-15

    The European energy sector is currently facing a new set of challenges in the light of the COP21 Paris agreement, the Energy Union initiative and new market design projections. Nuclear energy sector understands the post COP21 constellation as a unique opportunity for all low carbon technologies which will be basic for transition towards COP21 commitments. A new policy outlook for Europe is needed in order to provide low carbon capacity, lead to the modernisation of technical processes and contribute to the prosperity of Europeans. The benefits of nuclear are highlighted for a low carbon future and for the security of supply and recommend actions for supporting new investments.

  15. TAXATION INFLUENCE ON ECONOMIC STABILITY IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol IBADULA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the taxation system in Romania and European Union. The first part is concentrated on the theoretical and general aspects regarding the European fiscal policies with a focus on the conditions that member states should respect. Our research continues with the comparison between the share of indirect taxes and direct taxes at the EU level. We discovered that there are some fiscal connections between countries with similar economies. At the end, we emphasized the conclusions obtained with our article.

  16. Japanese subsidiaries in the European Union: Entry modes and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tanganelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the European Union and its performance were analysed in this work. Three different FDI or entry modes used by Japanese companies to enter the European market were compared, and the presence of a relationship between the selected entry mode and the performance of the subsidiary was investigated. We found that more than half of the Japanese investments in Europe took the form of new ventures, approximately 40% were joint ventures and less than 6% were acquisitions. We found that no specific entry mode performed better than another.

  17. Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengochea-Morancho, A.; Martinez-Zarzoso, I.; Higon-Tamarit, F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between economic growth and CO 2 emissions in the European Union. A panel data analysis for the period 1981 to 1995 is applied in order to estimate the relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth and CO 2 emissions in ten selected European countries. The analysis shows important disparities between the most industrialised countries and the rest. The results do not seem to support a uniform policy to control emissions; they rather indicate that a reduction in emissions should be achieved by taking into account the specific economic situation and the industrial structure of each EU member state. 20 refs

  18. Towards a new pressure vessel standard in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osweiller, F.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1990 the European Commission has been preparing a new Directive which will regulate the Pressure Equipment sector in the countries of the European Union. CEN Standards devoted to pressure vessels, piping, boilers, are currently being drawn up to complete and implement this Directive. This paper focuses on the European Unfired Pressure Vessel Standard (EPVS) which is in course of development under the responsibility of CEN/TC54. The main aspects of the Standard are outlined: general structure, materials, design, fabrication, inspection and testing. The link with the European Directive is explained in connection with regulatory aspects: conformity assessment, essential safety requirements, classes of vessels, notified bodies, EC mark, status of the standard

  19. The external energy policy of the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesourne, J.; Keppler, Jan Horst; Goetz, Roland; Van der Linde, Coby

    2008-07-01

    This third monograph of the Ifri program on European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy is devoted to the program's first annual conference on the 'External Energy Policy of the European Union'. The conference took place from January 31 to February 1, 2008, at the Palais Egmont, in Brussels, Belgium. Representatives of the European Commission, national governments, academia, and industry examined the European perspectives on the highly topical issue of external energy policy and assessed their relative prospects. The purpose of the conference was to take stock of current policies and to develop perspectives for the future. This monograph comprises five chapters: - A background paper prepared by Jacques Lesourne. A version of this document was given to the speakers prior the conference. It provided a set of questions that were designed to orient their reflection. - Three background papers that introduced some of the questions to be addressed during the three sessions. These papers were written by Jan Horst Keppler, professor at Universite Paris-Dauphine and Senior Research Associate at the Ifri Energy Program; Roland Goetz, Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP), Berlin; and Coby van der Linde, Senior Research Fellow and Director of the Clingendael International Energy Programme (CIEP). - An assessment of the main points raised during the exchanges among the conference participants and an evaluation of the European Union's external energy policy written by J. Lesourne

  20. The external energy policy of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.; Keppler, Jan Horst; Goetz, Roland; Van der Linde, Coby

    2008-01-01

    This third monograph of the Ifri program on European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy is devoted to the program's first annual conference on the 'External Energy Policy of the European Union'. The conference took place from January 31 to February 1, 2008, at the Palais Egmont, in Brussels, Belgium. Representatives of the European Commission, national governments, academia, and industry examined the European perspectives on the highly topical issue of external energy policy and assessed their relative prospects. The purpose of the conference was to take stock of current policies and to develop perspectives for the future. This monograph comprises five chapters: - A background paper prepared by Jacques Lesourne. A version of this document was given to the speakers prior the conference. It provided a set of questions that were designed to orient their reflection. - Three background papers that introduced some of the questions to be addressed during the three sessions. These papers were written by Jan Horst Keppler, professor at Universite Paris-Dauphine and Senior Research Associate at the Ifri Energy Program; Roland Goetz, Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP), Berlin; and Coby van der Linde, Senior Research Fellow and Director of the Clingendael International Energy Programme (CIEP). - An assessment of the main points raised during the exchanges among the conference participants and an evaluation of the European Union's external energy policy written by J. Lesourne

  1. Strategies for public health research in European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Olivier; McCarthy, Mark; Conceição, Claudia

    2013-11-01

    'Health' is an identifiable theme within the European Union multi-annual research programmes. Public Health Innovation and Research in Europe (PHIRE), led by the European Public Health Association, sought to identify public health research strategies in EU member states. Within PHIRE, national public health associations reviewed structures for health research, held stakeholder workshops and produced reports. This information, supplemented by further web searches, including using assisted translation, was analysed for national research strategies and health research strategies. All countries described general research strategies, outlining organizational and capacity objectives. Thematic fields, including health, are mentioned in some strategies. A health research strategy was identified for 15 EU countries and not for 12. Ministries of health led research strategies for nine countries. Public health research was identified in only three strategies. National research strategies did not refer to the European Union's health research programme. Public health research strategies of European countries need to be developed by ministries of health, working with the research community to achieve the European Research Area.

  2. European Union regional policy in Asia-Europe’s meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesús Rocha Pino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1996 the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM was created with the purpose of constituting a mechanism of nonexistent interregional dialogue until that moment and that united the both extremes of the eurasian territorial mass: East Asia (represented by group ANSEA 3 and Europe (represented by the European Union. The expectations erected at the moment of ASEM's creation were many, but with the years it has demonstrated a set of limits that has diminished its effectiveness, at least in the area of the political dialogue. In this paper is described the particular experience of the diplomacy of the European Union in the mechanism of the ASEM, the kind of interregional policy that this one has implemented and the contradictions that it has had to tolerate with respect to his own legal and institutional exigencies. In the paper it is argued that, despite its limits, the ASEM can be a referential case on the reaction of the European Union forehead to the transformation that in historical terms means the political and economic emergency of Asia in the international system.

  3. Book Review: The Crisis of the European Union. A Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bârgăoanu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In his book, Jurgen Habermas explored the options available for the European Union in dealing with the global crisis. The author structured his approach on two essays. The first one, entitled “The Crisis of the European Union in Light of a Constitutionalization of International Law - An Essay on the Constitution for Europe”, emphasizes the fact that while the European decision-makers have focused on solving the currency, banking and debt crises, they omitted the political dimension of the crisis. Moreover, the author considers that in the light of a constitutional treaty for Europe, the transnationalization of the European democracy will be possible if both the public opinion and the politicians can overcome three categories of preconceptions: the dependence of the popular sovereignty to the state sovereignty, the mutually exclusive status of the European citizenship and of the national one, the indivisible nature of the sovereignty. The second essay, entitled “The Concept of Human Dignity and the Realistic Utopia of Human Rights” underlines the imperative nature of the human rights and human dignity interconnected concepts. He states that two conditions must be met in order for the concepts to be valid. Habermas considers that there must be a political community that enacts them and that the two concepts are universally accepted. The Appendix includes three recent political interventions through which Habermas reiterates the uncomfortable and controversial topic of European unification. He concludes that the European Project cannot be allowed to fail because of the raise of German nationalism and the lack of visionary European leadership.

  4. European Union needs agro-bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Twardowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioeconomy, biotechnology and genetically-modified organisms in particular have been the subject of discussion for a long time. Biotechnology is applied in a variety of economic areas which include biopharmaceuticals, biobased products and agriculture. During the last 20 years, innovative biotechnological techniques for plant genome improvement have been developed. Many factors worldwide have led to the status quo : different legislations around the world, the lack of public acceptance in the EU and high expectations for new strategies for sustainability and food security. Therefore, a clear regulatory status for new techniques is crucial for research and development, as well as for their practical implementation. This should be based on solid science which plays a critical role in developing the bioeconomy.

  5. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for the protection and sustainable use of Europeanfreshwater resources. The practical implementation of the WFD with regard to chemical pollution has facedsome challenges. In support of the upcoming WFD review in 2019 the research project SOLUTIONS and the Europeanmonitoring network NORMAN has analyzed these challenges, evaluated the state-of-the-art of the science andsuggested possible solutions. We give 10 recommendations to improve monitoring and to strengthen comprehensiveprioritization, to foster consistent assessment and to support solution-oriented management of surface waters.The integration of effect-based tools, the application of passive sampling for bioaccumulative chemicals and an integratedstrategy for prioritization of contaminants, accounting for knowledge gaps, are seen as important approachesto advance monitoring. Including all relevant chemical contaminants in more holistic “chemical status”assessment, using effect-based trigger values to address priority mixtures of chemicals, to better consider historicalburdens accumulated in sediments and to use models to fill data gaps are recommended for a consistent assessmentof contamination. Solution-oriented m

  6. Trans-European transport networks and urban systems in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2003-01-01

    The trans-European transport network has different effects at interregional macro-regional and mezzo-regional level, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. In that respect the brief review of survies, strategic framework and policies in European Union has been given. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and f...

  7. The Economical Partnership European Union – Mercosur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cîmpeanu Mariana-Aida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1960 the cooperation process between the South America countries was characterized by national strategies to foster the national industries, safeguarded by the intense exports from the developedcountries. This strategy was called by some authors defensive regionalism, as oposed to open regionalism or the offensive one, promoted by CEPAR (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbeans. The Common Market of the South or Mercosur (in Spanish Mercado Comun del Sur, in Portuguese Mercado Comun do Sul, Mercosul , is a commercial block that has as goals: promotion of free exchange of products, people and capital between the countries members, as well as the development of a better integration and trialbetween partners and associates. The first members states were: Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay; Venezuela signed the joining in 17 June 2006. Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Peru have associate estate. Member States consider on November 30, 1985 (when they signed the Declaration of Foz Iguazu the moment of Mercosur appearance. EU-MERCOSUR relations have a broad tradition based on history, culture, political affinity, economic interest and strategic considerations. We may say that Latin America is where Europe canrecognize on a large extent their own political and cultural values. This common heritage, but primarily economic interests led to the need for mutual dialogue between the two organizations. We are now at 15 years after signing the first agreement between EU and Mercosur and 8 years after initiating negotiations for reaching an inter-regional association agreement to establish a free trade area. Negotiations were not linear, but have had many obstacles, and now, in 2010, it seems to be increasingly fewer opportunities to achieveinter-regional agreement. When MS achieves its own identity (not only the legal personality that it was self assumed through Article 34 of the Protocol of Ouro Preto, it will truly be able to sign an

  8. Art of disaster preparedness in European union: a survey on the health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Della Corte, Francesco; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Götz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fischer, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2014-12-17

    Naturally occurring and man-made disasters have been increasing in the world, including Europe, over the past several decades. Health systems are a key part of any community disaster management system. The success of preparedness and prevention depends on the success of activities such as disaster planning, organization and training. The aim of this study is to evaluate health system preparedness for disasters in the 27 European Union member countries. A cross-sectional analysis study was completed between June-September 2012. The checklist used for this survey was a modified from the World Health Organization toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. Three specialists from each of the 27 European Union countries were included in the survey. Responses to each survey question were scored and the range of preparedness level was defined as 0-100%, categorized in three levels as follows: Acceptable; Transitional; or Insufficient. Response rate was 79.1%. The average level of disaster management preparedness in the health systems of 27 European Union member states was 68% (Acceptable). The highest level of preparedness was seen in the United Kingdom, Luxemburg, and Lithuania. Considering the elements of disaster management system, the highest level of preparedness score was at health information elements (86%), and the lowest level was for hospitals, and educational elements (54%). This survey study suggests that preparedness level of European Union countries in 2012 is at an acceptable level but could be improved. Elements such as hospitals and education and training suffer from insufficient levels of preparedness. The European Union health systems need a collective strategic plan, as well as enough resources, to establish a comprehensive and standardized disaster management strategy plan. A competency based training curriculum for managers and first responders is basic to accomplishing this goal. Disaster medicine; Disaster preparedness

  9. Corporate Tax in European Union and the Theory of Corporate Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Iwin-Garzyńska Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    One of the main objectives to be accomplished by the European Union law is to eliminate barriers to the functioning of domestic market and in particular improve the competitiveness of enterprises. After several years of efforts, the European Commission approved a proposal for the directive on a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base which is to remove obstacles to the functioning of internal market and increase tax harmonization. The article is aimed at presenting the essence of CCCTB in the ...

  10. Quality assessments for cancer centers in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Anke; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim H

    2016-09-07

    Cancer centers are pressured to deliver high-quality services that can be measured and improved, which has led to an increase of assessments in many countries. A critical area of quality improvement is to improve patient outcome. An overview of existing assessments can help stakeholders (e.g., healthcare professionals, managers and policy makers) improve the quality of cancer research and care and lead to patient benefits. This paper presents key aspects of assessments undertaken by European cancer centers, such as: are assessments mandatory or voluntary? Do they focus on evaluating research, care or both? And are they international or national? A survey was sent to 33 cancer centers in 28 European Union member states. Participants were asked to score the specifics for each assessment that they listed. Based on the responses from 19 cancer centers from 18 member states, we found 109 assessments. The numbers have steadily increased from 1990's till 2015. Although, a majority of assessments are on patient-care aspects (n = 45), it is unclear how many of those include assessing patient benefits. Only few assessments cover basic research. There is an increasing trend towards mixed assessments (i.e., combining research and patient-care aspects) The need for assessments in cancer centers is increasing. To improve efforts in the quality of research and patient care and to prevent new assessments that "reinvent the wheel", it is advised to start comparative research into the assessments that are likely to bring patient benefits and improve patient outcome. Do assessments provide consistent and reliable information that create added value for all key stakeholders?

  11. Estimation of European Union residential sector space cooling potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubcionis, Mindaugas; Carlsson, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Data on European residential space cooling demands are scarce and often of poor quality. This can be concluded from a review of the Comprehensive Assessments on the energy efficiency potential in the heating and cooling sector performed by European Union Member States under Art. 14 of the Energy Efficiency Directive. This article estimates the potential space cooling demands in the residential sector of the EU and the resulting impact on electricity generation and supply systems using the United States as a proxy. A georeferenced approach was used to establish the potential residential space cooling demand in NUTS-3 regions of EU. The total potential space cooling demand of the EU was estimated to be 292 TW h for the residential sector in an average year. The additional electrical capacity needed was estimated to 79 GW. With proper energy system development strategies, e.g. matching capacity of solar PV with cooling demand, or introduction of district cooling, the stresses on electricity system from increasing cooling demand can be mitigated. The estimated potential of space cooling demand, identified in this paper for all EU Members States, could be used while preparing the next iteration of EU MS Comprehensive Assessments or other energy related studies. - Highlights: • An estimation of EU space cooling demand potential in residential sector is presented. • An estimate of space cooling demand potential is based on using USA data as a proxy. • Significant cooling demand increase can be expected. • Cooling demand increase would lead to increased stress in energy supply systems. • Proper policies and strategies might measurably decrease the impact on energy systems.

  12. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odone, Anna; Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report 'Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA' commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. In 2010, of the 73,996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants' vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  13. Project IVOR - Implementing victim-oriented reform of the criminal justice system in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biffi, Emanuela; Mulder, Eva; Pemberton, Antony; Santos, Manuela; Valério, Mafalda; Vanfraechem, Inge; van der Vorm, Benny

    2016-01-01

    Project IVOR – Implementing victim-oriented reform of the criminal justice system in the European Union (2014-2016) offers an overview of current research into and with victims’ rights and services, identifying lacunas in the knowledge base and offering a model which can serve to connect experience

  14. Corporation taxes in the European Union: Slowly moving toward comprehensive business income taxation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Cnossen (Sijbren)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis paper surveys and evaluates the corporation tax systems of the Member States of the European Union on the basis of a comprehensive taxonomy of actual and potential regimes, which have as their base either profits; profits, interest and royalties; or economic rents. The current

  15. The meta-governance of organic seed regulation in the USA, European Union and Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renaud, Erica; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith; Jiggins, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Seed governance in agriculture is a challenging global issue. This paper analyses the evolution of organic seed regulation in the USA, the European Union and Mexico as model cases of how these challenges are being addressed, based on a study conducted between 2007 and 2014. It highlights how

  16. Legal frameworks for emissions trading in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeaettae, K.; Anttonen, K. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland)). Email: kalle.maatta@joensuu.fi; Upston-Hooper, K. (GreenStream Networks, Helsinki (Finland)); Mehling, M. (Univ. of Greifswald (Germany)); Perrels, A. (Government Institute for Economic Research VATT, Helsinki (Finland)), email: adriaan.perrels@vatt.fi

    2009-07-01

    The project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. The methodology adopted has been to formulate a comprehensive questionnaire (of approximately 70 questions) to be used as the basis of national reports together with a stand alone analysis by VATT, and in turn use the national reports and VATT study as the building blocks of a comparative overview report. The questionnaire seeks to highlight those significant legal and regulatory issues that impact on the establishment of emission allowance trading arrangements within the respective jurisdictions. The comparative analysis of these issues will focus on 'golden threads' of similarity and difference that impact on the establishment of an internal market within the European Union for the trading of emissions allowances. (orig.)

  17. Legal frameworks for emissions trading in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upston-Hooper, K.; Perrells, A.; Anttonen, K.; Mehling, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The Project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. The methodology adopted has been to formulate a comprehensive questionnaire (of approximately 70 questions) to be used as the basis of national reports together with a stand alone analysis by VATT, and in turn use the national reports and VATT study as the building blocks of a comparative overview report. The questionnaire seeks to highlight those significant legal and regulatory issues that impact on the establishment of emission allowance trading arrangements within the respective jurisdictions. The comparative analysis of these issues will focus on 'golden threads' of similarity and difference that impact on the establishment of an internal market within the European Union for the trading of emissions allowances. (orig.)

  18. Mitterrand and the Great European Design—From the Cold War to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available François Mitterrand had a leading role in directing the course for the European integration process. While he orchestrated the economic integration of Europe, he remained deeply opposed to further political integration within the Communities. This article researches Mitterrand’s rationale for his clear focus on economic affairs and develops his vision for the institutional setting of the European Union (EU. The focus of the article is allocated to four different perspectives that reflect the four pillars of Mitterrand’s European policy: the common currency, the establishment of a closely integrated and small Western European based EU, the development of the Social Europe and of a free trade area between Europe and Africa. It is argued that although EU institutions have been established based on Mitterrand’s design, today’s reality deviates from the conditions on which his plan was based. For Mitterrand, the ideal EU involved a deep-rooted Western Europe with France at its core and a loose association with Central and Eastern Europe. His perception resembles the current discussions of multi-speed Europe and the determination of France and Germany to proceed to the next stage of the integration process. Importantly, Mitterrand’s print can still be recognised in the EU’s social policy included in the treaties, yet still far from being implemented. Notably, like all of the French Presidents, Mitterrand developed a design for Africa in which an extensive free trade area between Europe and former French colonies were to be established. In this proposal, Germany was to be assigned the part of the economic engine behind the actualisation of the proposal, while France was to carry out the role of a required middle man of the transactions. To further assure France’s political predominance over the Communities, Mitterrand designed a common currency for a small number of homogenous Western-European states.

  19. Legislative Co-decision in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume takes stock of twenty years of practising and studying codecision in the European Union (EU) and examines the procedure’s long-term implications for the EU’s institutions, politics and policies. The introduction of co-legislation between the Council of Ministers and the European...... the extent to which codecision has delivered the expected gains and to review the unexpected effects that have followed from its introduction, such as the growing informalisation of EU decision-making. Using a combination of in-depth qualitative case studies, wider quantitative analyses, practitioners......’ insights and a review of the procedure’s democratic legitimacy the contributions offer a holistic assessment of the effect of co-decision on the political system of the EU. This book was published as a special issue of the Journal of European Public Policy....

  20. Environmental NGOs : Channels of democracy for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    The notion of democratic deficit has been at the centre of many debates on the European Union for the last 30 years. The reason is, to a certain degree, linked to the lack of legitimacy of the European Commission, which is not elected and remote from the European citizens. However, the Commission...... seems to have found a positive way to increase its legitimacy by the inclusion of civil-society in the decision-making process. The interaction between the Commission and two Environmental NGOs will therefore be analysed in order to make a constructive contribution to the debate. The present paper does...... not limit itself to normative statements on reality and considers that there is more to socio political relations than “true” verifiable facts. Therefore, it is not limited to the formal decision-making process, and goes deeper into the socialisation process at play between the different actors. The outcome...

  1. European Union's public fishing access agreements in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Manach, Frédéric; Chaboud, Christian; Copeland, Duncan; Cury, Philippe; Gascuel, Didier; Kleisner, Kristin M; Standing, André; Sumaila, U Rashid; Zeller, Dirk; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU) and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them. We find that the EU has subsidized these agreements at an average of 75% of their cost (financial contribution agreed upon in the agreements), while private European business interests paid the equivalent of 1.5% of the value of the fish that was eventually landed. This raises questions of fisheries benefit-sharing and resource-use equity that the EU has the potential to address during the nearly completed reform of its Common Fisheries Policy.

  2. European Union's public fishing access agreements in developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Le Manach

    Full Text Available The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them. We find that the EU has subsidized these agreements at an average of 75% of their cost (financial contribution agreed upon in the agreements, while private European business interests paid the equivalent of 1.5% of the value of the fish that was eventually landed. This raises questions of fisheries benefit-sharing and resource-use equity that the EU has the potential to address during the nearly completed reform of its Common Fisheries Policy.

  3. THE FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Menon

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In only a decade the European Union has moved from being a new kid on the block in terms of foreign and security policies to being a high profile and surprisingly effective international actor. Certainly, it has failed to match the ambitions of some of its most enthusiastic proponents. Certainly, too, European publics know next to nothing about what the Union does in the international realm. It is because of this that, despite their potential and their effectiveness to date, EU policies in this sphere were widely derided as failures following the moment when the attacks of 11 September 2001 shook the western world to its core. The Convention on the Future of Europe and subsequent intergovernmental conference look set to make significant institutional changes to the Union’s foreign and security policy systems. In undertaking these reforms, Convention members, and national governments are doubtless motivated by the laudable objective of enabling the Union to do more on the international stage. One can only hope that these motives notwithstanding, they do not simply propose reforms for their own sake and, in the process, undermine a system that, to the surprise of many, has continued to function respectably in an ever more complex and ever more dangerous world.

  4. The Future of the European Union: A Critical Trade Union View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Medhurst

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a radical critique of the current framework of economic policy within the European Union and its negative effect on social cohesion. It defends the aspirations of the “Social Europe” model but suggests this model is now withering on the vine, not least because employers and governments no longer support it and have withdrawn from genuine social partnership. The paper asserts that the undemocratic nature of European policy making institutions is a fundamental bloc to progressive reform of the EU, and criticises the economic philosophy inherent in the Lisbon Agenda and recent controversial European Court of Justice decisions that have expanded that agenda. Lastly, it sketches some alternatives to this direction of travel, drawn from successful models within and outside Europe.

  5. THE "E TRIANGLE": EMPLOYMENT, EMPLOYEE AND EMPLOYER IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest forces of the European Union is its people, people living and working within this Union. This stands not only for the European Union but for every state, as it is well known that people are the ones that can make a state great or poor. For this reason, the matters regarding labor are a continuous concern both for European Union common institutions as well as for every individual state of the European Union. The main interest, on both sides, is to ensure the best for every p...

  6. On Law and Policy in a European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Petersen, Clement Salung

    On 4 December 2009, the European Council unanimously adopted conclusions on an enhanced patent system in Europe, which inter alia intends to establish a new EU patent as well as a new common patent judiciary - the European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC). The EEUPC will constitute a new sui...... generis, transnational court system with exclusive jurisdiction in respect of civil litigation related to the infringement and validity of European patents and EU patent. This paper considers this proposal for the establishment of the EEUPC under two basic observations, namely that substantive law...

  7. Priority for import capacity. The fear of the European Union for a free European energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Brussels (the seat of the European Union in Belgium) is worried about the performance of the liberalized European energy market. The natural gas and electricity networks are suffering from chronic congestion. Some areas are largely or even entirely cut off from the European energy infrastructure. Those problems must be addressed to realize the internal market. A package of reforms has been put forward by the European Commission the end of 2001 and 12 priority projects are identified and briefly discussed in this article [nl

  8. On Law and Policy in a European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2010-01-01

    On 4 December 2009, the European Council unanimously adopted conclusions on an enhanced patent system in Europe, which inter alia intends to establish a new EU patent as well as a new common patent judiciary – the European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC). The EEUPC will constitute a new sui...... generis, transnational court system with exclusive jurisdiction in respect of civil litigation related to the infringement and validity of European patents and EU patent. This paper considers this proposal for the establishment of the EEUPC under two basic observations, namely that substantive law...

  9. Food Safety in the Context of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is a component of food security. According to Codex Alimentarius, food safety is “assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use”. Food products ‒ processed or fresh ‒ sold to final consumers must not affect their health as a result of direct consumption or processing, depending on the intended purpose of each. In order for a food product ‒ unprocessed, partially or totally processed or newly created ‒ to be safe, it must necessarily fulfil three conditions: to have innocuousness, to be salubrious, not to endanger the human body, that is the normal and healthy consumer; to have nutritional and energy value; food nutrients to be available for the body. Both the European and the national general regulatory frameworks on food safety set the consumer’s right to a safe diet. The normative acts adopted by the European Union (EU are aimed at harmonizing national food safety standards so that the free movement of food products can be achieved as efficiently as possible. In this respect, the European Union has developed a rich legislative body on food safety, animal health and welfare, and plant health, which is binding in all EU countries.

  10. The dilemmas of tax coordination in the enlarged European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Jens; Jensen, Jesper; Svensson, Patrik

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic effects of corporate tax coordination in the enlarged European Union (EU) using a computable general equilibrium model. Our main findings are as follows: (i) Corporate tax coordination can yield modest aggregate welfare gains. The 2004 enlargement of the EU has...... elaborate compensation mechanisms. (iii) The large and diverse country effects suggest that Enhanced Cooperation for a subset of the Member States may be the most likely route towards tax coordination. (iv) Identifying winners and losers from coordination for the purpose of a compensation mechanism may...

  11. INDIRECT TAXATION TRENDS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS CRISTIAN MILOŞ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to outline the recent dynamics of the indirect taxation in the European Union member states, with a special focus on the Romanian case. We could notice that indirect taxation continues to play an important role for all the member states, in their attempt to recover from the global economic crisis. Morover, we have presented some of the recent changes in the legislative frameworks, which happened with a rather rapid pace, and contributed to a rather challenging business climate.

  12. Education, employment, and sustainable development in the European union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaballah, I.; Dufourg, A.; Tondeur, D.

    2002-11-01

    This paper examines the current and prospective status of education, employment, and sustainable development in the European Union (EU). Due to the decrease of the birth rate and the increase of life expectation, the size of the labor force is decreasing and its average age is increasing. Moreover, rapid technological evolution will necessitate “long-life learning” for the old workers and young people. It will be a challenge to supply the EU’s labor market with an adequate number of workers with the appropriate skill ad tempus. This will change profoundly the classical education system that will become the largest economic sector in the next decade.

  13. Turkish-Greek relations within the European Union framework

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, Özlem; Kilic, Ozlem

    2009-01-01

    Turko-Greek relations have been strained by a number of conflicting issues such as Cyprus, Continental Shelf, Territorial Waters, the Öcalan affair, and the S-300 Missiles crisis on Cyprus. Until the December 1999 Helsinki Summit, Greece was one of the strong opponents of Turkey's membership in the European Union (EU). However, at the Helsinki Summit of 1999, Greece dropped her negative position permitting Turkey to be declared by the EU as a candidate country. This shift in foreign policy ha...

  14. Financial Supervision and Banking Competition in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Stoica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are reviewing their financial supervisory structures and show a trend of consolidation in financial supervision. Using a sample of 27 countries from European Union, we find that the dependent variables taken into consideration (Herfindahl-Hirschman index and share of the five largest credit institutions in total assets have no significant effects on different types of supervisory integration. In addition, there aren’t any differences in the impact of distinct types of financial supervision even if the country is already an EU member or a candidate.

  15. Gas and electricity price in the European Union in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jean-Philippe

    2012-11-01

    This document indicates and comments the evolution of gas and electricity prices in the different countries of the European Union. As far as natural gas is concerned, it outlines that taxes on gas are higher in Nordic countries, and that prices are increasing everywhere (for industry as well as for households). As far as electricity is concerned, price is rather cheap in France compared to the other countries. Graphs indicate the evolution of electricity prices between 2010 and 2011 in the different countries for industry and households. Even if a decrease has been noticed in some countries, the general trend is to an increase (between 5 and 10% in average)

  16. The World Trade Organization and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Ladefoged

    2008-01-01

    developments within foreign policy, this volume adopts a novel perspective on the EU as an international player. Seeking to move the focus of study beyond the European Union as itself an international organization, contributors set out to demonstrate EU aspirations to act within international organizations.......Analysing the way in which the EU engages in some of the most important international organizations, this book outlines a framework for analysis within this thriving subject of study. By demonstrating how the EU supports ‘effective multilateralism' and global governance, as well as furthering...

  17. Self-Denial in Federalizing Power in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    Because the conflicts that led to the American Revolution mainly arose fromconstitutional issues, the history of these conflicts offers lessons for the design of the newEuropean Union constitution. One lesson is the importance of avoiding needless conflictsbetween federal and member......-state governments. In particular, forcing decisions on wheresovereignty lies may cause great conflict. Another lesson is that a federal system depends ongood will among the federal and member-state governments, and because this good will is easilydissipated, efforts should be made to nurture it. Federal exercise...

  18. In-Depth Study Of European Union Fiscal Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Roxana TOMI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents a viewpoint on the EU fiscal policy contents, advocating the need for an in-depth understanding and acceleration of the 27 national fiscal system components and the creation of the EU Tax System that would enable the Single Market operation and the enforcement of the four fundamental liberties within the European Union. In the author’s opinion, the extant common fiscal policy elements are only marginal, while the actions aimed at an in-depth understanding of a broad fiscal policy are essential to the extent they point at both direct and indirect taxation aspects whose approximation is a priority.

  19. Analysis of Lithuanian Direct Investment into European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Zigmantavičiūtė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the valuation of macroeconomic factors influencing the Lithuanian direct investment into European Union was conducted. The problem of this paper is the different chosen macroeconomic factors influencing foreign direct investment. The object of this paper is Lithuanian direct investment. The methods of this paper include: comparative literature analysis, correlation regression analysis, paired regression analysis. After conducting a research of dependency of Lithuanian direct investment to EU countries from price changes, government sector income, gross domestic product, inflation, jobless rate results, it is found that gross domestic product and government sector income have the most influence on the changes of Lithuanian direct investment.

  20. Management of migration flows in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Larisa Drugă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available International migration can contribute to the economic growth of the European Union (EU as a whole, as well as provide resources for migrants and their home countries, and thus contribute to their development. It can be an opportunity, because it is a factor of human and economic exchange and enables people to achieve what they aspire to. However, there is a need to manage migration in a manner that takes account of Europe's reception capacity in terms of its labour market, housing and health, education and social services, while protecting migrants against possible exploitation by criminal networks.

  1. The solidarity economy: a possible revival of the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel GOUJON

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is in crisis. Economic crisis, but also political crisis and symbolic crisis: the citizens distrust Europe which does not have clear project anymore Our hypothesis is that the solidarity economy can contribute to the emergence of a new European, clear and mobilizing project. A project offering new socioeconomic perspectives to the European citizens and an attractive utopia. This text will take place in four phases. In a first part, we shall describe the exhaustion of paradigm liberal and the limits of paradigm keynesian. Secondly, we shall try hard to demonstrate the theoretical possibility of establishing new one paradigm. In the third time, we shall illustrate this possibility by revisiting, in the light of the European solidarity initiatives, three economic notions keys. Finally, in a last time, we shall try hard to show in what the solidarity economy , which makes some deliberation between equals the best means assign all resources, can contribute to bringout the European construction of the current impasse.

  2. The Economic Development of the Visegrad Four in the Last 15 Years in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Benita Kiss

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Visegrad Four reflects the efforts of the countries of the Central European region to work together in a number of fields of common interest within the all-European integration. This paper focused on an examination of the economic development of the Visegrad Four as the Czech Republic, Hungary, the Republic of Poland and the Slovak Republic. With the most important economic indicators I presented the development of the four countries in the last 15 years in the European Union. I used secondary statistics for comparative analysis. I ranked the countries under examination based on the result.

  3. The role of union support in coping with job insecurity: A study among union members from three European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sjoerd Goslinga; Johnny Hellgren; Antonio Chirumbolo; Hans De Witte; Katharina Näswall; Magnus Sverke

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines the potential moderating role of union support in the relationship between job insecurity and work-related attitudes and well-being of unionised employees. Survey data collected among union members from three European countries (The Netherlands, Italy and Sweden) indicate that job insecurity is associated with reduced levels of job satisfaction, well-being and organisational commitment. Contrary to expectations, union support moderated neither the effect of job inse...

  4. Safeguarding values in the European Union: : The European Parliament, Article 7 and Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonelli, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The recent constitutional crisis in Hungary and other political developments in several EU member states have raised concerns over the capacity of the European Union to safeguard its fundamental values: democracy, the rule of law and human rights. Mechanisms in the hands of the institutions are

  5. The burden of COPD across the European Union: development of the European COPD Atlas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boven, Job FM; Gaughan, Jules; Soriano, Joan B.; de Sousa, Jaime Correia; Baxter, Noel; Román Rodriguez, Miguel; Vilaro, Jordi; Williams, Siân; Fitch, Shane; Kishore, Kamal; Chaudhury, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating current and future impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) within the European Union (EU) is essential for targeted and well-informed policy making, however, current global and regional estimates are contradictory, and comparable standardised data is lacking.

  6. LABOR MOBILITY – EUROPEAN UNION AND NATIONAL RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Catană

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the four fundamental freedoms guaranteed by the Treaty establishing the European Community is the free movement of persons, whose Foundation lies in the Elimination of discrimination between citizens of the Member State in whose territory they reside and operate and citizens of other countries who are working in the territory of the same State. Mobility of labor in terms of the concept of free movement of workers, the term worker referring both to persons carrying on an activity in the wage and the notion of the worker, as these concepts have been determined by the Court of Justice or by the Council (through the provisions of Regulation 1612/68, became his new in the context of Romania's integration in the European Union. Although the movement of workers is free, legal regime of these is different from one Member State to another, which leads to inequities that the Community rules have failed to cover.

  7. Dossier for marketing authorization in the European union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida Todić

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensive and complete documentation must be presented for marketing authorization of a medicinal product in the EU. Presented documentation should prove quality, safety and efficacy of the medicinal product. It is ensured that the applicant supplies the authorities with complete information. The legislation in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has also taken more steps towards those European directions.The presentation and content of the dossier in the European Union has been redefined. The “old” EU format will be replaced with the Common Technical Document (EU CTD format agreed in 2000, within the International Conference on Harmonization framework. These two formats are intended to coexist during the transition period until July 2003. The CTD is an internationally agreed upon format for the preparation of a well structured presentation for applications to be submitted to regulatory authorities in the three ICH regions of Europe, US and Japan.

  8. Motor fuel demand analysis - applied modelling in the European union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorazewiez, S.

    1998-01-01

    Motor fuel demand in Europe amounts to almost half of petroleum products consumption and to thirty percent of total final energy consumption. This study considers, Firstly, the energy policies of different European countries and the ways in which the consumption of motor gasoline and automotive gas oil has developed. Secondly it provides an abstract of demand models in the energy sector, illustrating their specific characteristics. Then it proposes an economic model of automotive fuel consumption, showing motor gasoline and automotive gas oil separately over a period of thirty years (1960-1993) for five main countries in the European Union. Finally, forecasts of consumption of gasoline and diesel up to the year 2020 are given for different scenarios. (author)

  9. EURO UNDER CROSSFIRE. WILL THE EUROPEAN MONETARY UNION SURVIVE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Paraschiv

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The creation of the European Monetary Union was both a political and an economic decision considered to be a success for almost a decade. Starting from 2008-2009, the EMU has been facing the most difficult moments of its existence. This paper aims at analyzing the impact of the current financial crises on the EMU member countries, the measures taken up to the present as a response to the crises and the future perspective for the European single currency. Both the breaking up of the EMU and its maintaining prove to be costly decisions. The recent evolutions have shown the political will to keep the EMU together, but we must ask ourselves at what price and risk.

  10. International Political Actorness of the European Union: Evaluation Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GNATYUK N.N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is a completely new international entity which is hard to evaluate using traditional criteria of political actorness. Its active international presence stimulates the modeling of international actor features beyond the scope of “state-international organization” scheme. The concept of international actorness serves as a starting point for the development of appropriate analytical model. Unlike the traditional state-centered approaches which define an international actor through its affiliation witch the international system, this concept operates at the internal level of international entity and at the international structure level. Furthermore, both of these levels are treated as ontologically neutral and mutually constitutive. This basic theoretical scheme is used for elaboration of evaluation criteria of political actorness. The proposed system of criteria is based on drawing, synthesizing and developing the main writings on “new international actors” since the times of classic work by Carol A. Cosgrove and Kenneth J. Twitchett. The key elements of actorness assessed in this article include defining of capacity to act on the global scene as well as the acceptance by other actors and by international system as a whole. At the internal level, the EU’s actor capacity is measured by assessing its core elements ranging from core aspects, such as autonomy, authority, actor capability, coherence and cohesion to identity aspects. On the external level, the decisive criteria are recognition and acceptance by others which reflect expectations and perceptions of the EU. The proposed approach of evaluating the international actorness enables us to consider the political activity of the EU on the basis of coordinated system of interaction between the variables of international and domestic levels of the analysis. Furthermore, this contributes to the development of cumulative, coherent, and comprehensive theory of international

  11. Agreement reached on integrated safeguards in European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in cooperation with the European Commission, has reached agreement on arrangements to implement 'integrated safeguards' in all non-nuclear-weapon States of the European Union with significant nuclear activities. 'This important milestone is the result of the constructive common efforts of all parties concerned. It is a clear signal of the importance attributed by the EU and its Member States, as well as the IAEA, to the reinforcement of the nuclear non-proliferation regime,' said Andris Piebalgs, Member of the European Commission in charge of Energy. 'Once we have sufficient confidence that a State' s nuclear activities are purely peaceful, we can apply safeguards measures in a less prescriptive, more customised manner. This reduces the inspection burden on the State and the inspection effort of the IAEA, while enabling the IAEA to maintain the conclusion that all nuclear material has remained in peaceful activities,' said Olli Heinonen, Deputy Director General and Head of IAEA Safeguards Department. Background The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the main international Treaty prohibiting the spread of nuclear weapons. It entrusts the IAEA to verify that nuclear material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices through the application of 'safeguards'. IAEA safeguards include comprehensive safeguards agreements and additional protocols that enable the IAEA to conclude that all nuclear material has remained in peaceful activities in a State. Integrated Safeguards refers to the optimum combination of all safeguards measures available to the Agency under comprehensive safeguards agreements and additional protocols to achieve maximum effectiveness and efficiency in meeting the Agency ' s safeguards obligations. In the European Union, nuclear safeguards are implemented on the basis of the Euratom Treaty and trilateral agreements between Euratom, its Member States and the IAEA

  12. A GEOPOLITICAL STAKE: REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE EURASIAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea-Cristian Ghenghea

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the initialling of the Vilnius Agreement from 28-29 November 2013, the Republic of Moldova seemed to have entered the path towards the European integration. The great failure for the Brussels’ leaders was, by far, the Ukraine’s refuse to sign the Association Agreement, a decision placed on the account of Moscow’s influence and which proved once more the fact that the relations between the European Union and the Russian Federation have grown increasingly confrontational over the Eastern Partnership’s countries. In the context of the unrests in Kiev at the beginning of 2014 and subsequently of the pro-Russian movements in the South and East of the Ukrainian state, the Republic of Moldova has acquired a special significance within the geopolitical situation of the region, being regarded as an outpost of what certain analysts already consider to be the “New Cold War”.

  13. EXPERIENCES AND TENDENCIES TO DECENTRALIZE THE CAPABILITIES OF THE ECONOMIC POLICY AT THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodescu Anca

    2011-07-01

    , coordinator: Professor Dr. Valeriu Ioan Franc. The question we intend to answer, in the present phase of our research, based on the comparative analysis of the decentralisation systems of several Member States of European Union, respectively on the analysis of the regional disparities existing at the European Union level and of the effects of the economic integration, is- to what extent the capabilities of the regional policy should rather be concentrated in the hands of regional authorities or of the European Union than to be left individually to the Member States which should conceive their own regional policy? What we intend in this paper, based on the analysis of some experiences to decentralize the capabilities of economic policy at the European Union level, is to identify the regional implications of the interconnection of decentralization, centralization, respectively supra-nationalization tendencies and, implicitly, the analysis of the way to reconfigure the role of state in economy at the regional level, in the context of integration in the European model. The examination of the way to reconfigure the role of state in economy at regional level requires the review of the allocative, distributive, and regulating roles of the state from a regional perspective, the analysis, on one side, of the decentralization of economic policy capabilities from the national level to the regional level (for example, national level: pure public goods supply, for instance, national defence and the centralization of fiscal policy capabilities in order to achieve macroeconomic stability and revenue redistribution; regional level: mixed public goods supply, for instance, waste collection and community policy, on the other hand, the centralization/decentralization of regional capabilities at the European Union level.

  14. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? IEA Energy Policies Review: The European Union - 2008 addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy & Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R&D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  15. CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING AND THE ORIGINS OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Brailean

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many papal encyclicals were not directly concerned about the appearance of European Union due to many historical, political and social contexts. The fundamental principles developed through several encyclicals from early 19th century to the present day reaffirmed the neutrality of the Church regarding to many forms of government. But the most important idea has its root in the restoration of the Christian principles in society. In a time of de-Christianization and secularism, the role of Church as the foundation of peace is also important to notice. It was considered that every modern democracy is the image of the revealed heart of the universal law of charity (Jacques Maritain. That is why between a supranational entity like the European Union and the Catholic Church should be a friendly and close relationship. A unite Europe has its roots in Christianity, especially in Catholicism. The soul of Europe is animated by religious principles. Whether we talk about Schuman or Adenauer, their Christian faith is the engine for their political success. After the Second World War, in Western Europe, the Christian democratic parties had a huge impact for the democratic governance. The socio-economic policies of these parties were anchored in Catholic social teaching.

  16. EUROPEAN UNION SUPPORT AND TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE PROCESSES IN KOSOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remzije Istrefi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The legacy of systematic human rights violations committed during 1999 violent conflict and the previous repressive rule still impact the everyday life of Kosovo citizens. That is why transitional justice processes are a necessary component in Kosovo’s state building efforts. With the end of the 1999 conflict, Kosovo has been administered by the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK and also supported by European Union (EU presences: the EU Special Representative in Kosovo, and European Union Rule of Law Mission known as EULEX. In the course of implementation of their mandates transitional justice processes were not a priority for UNMIK and EU presences. With the signing of the Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA the EU made transitional justice part of the Kosovo accession demands. In December 2015, the Government of Kosovo approved its National Action Plan for the Implementation of the Stabilization and Association Agreement (NAPISAA. The General Principles of the SAA, included within the NAPISAA oblige Kosovo Government to approve a National Transitional Justice Strategy. This paper analyses EU peace and institution-building support and their impact in transitional justice processes in Kosovo. Through analysing the mandate and actions on the ground it draws conclusions if EU is an active participant in transitional justice process in Kosovo or transitional justice policies are promoted by EU only as part of its enlargement strategy. Finally, the paper gives recommendations as a basis for future elaboration of an EU approach to transitional justice.

  17. Biopesticides--towards increased consumer safety in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Katarzyna; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech; Minorczyk, Maria; Łyczewska, Monika; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of new food safety regulations in the European Union has resulted in the withdrawal of many synthetic active substances used in plant protection products, in light of their potential or actual harmful effect on human and animal health, as well as on the environment. Alternatives to these compounds are being developed - naturally occurring pesticides, also referred to as biopesticides. The use of biopesticides in crop protection leads to decreased levels of pesticide residues in foods, and as a result to lower risk levels for the consumer. Biologically active agents defined as biopesticides are varied, and therefore application of the same environmental and consumer safety criteria to all of them is impossible. This presents serious complications in the approval of these pesticides as active plant protection products and in their registration. It needs to be stressed that, in the registration procedure of the European Union, biopesticides are subject to the same regulations as synthetic active substances. This situation has resulted in the need to introduce numerous new provisions in the legislation, as well as the preparation of new guidelines facilitating the registration of biopesticides. These activities aim to promote naturally originating pesticides. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Mass Media Perception of the European Union in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakyt Ospanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the mass media perception of the European Union (EU in Kazakhstan through the content analysis of major mass media outlets. This paper examines news reports and periodical articles from four major national Kazakh newspapers: “Yegemen Kazakhstan”, “Kazakhstanskaya Pravda”, “Zhas Alash” and “Vremya” at three measurement points. The first measurement point covers early 1990s when Kazakhstan became an independent state and started to build its foreign relations. The second measurement point covers years before and after introduction of the EU Strategy for Central Asia, namely years between 2006 and 2008. The third measurement point covers last three years (2011-2013 associated with implementation with the EU Strategy and assessing its results. The research suggests that the mass media generally positively perceives the EU, as most publications emphasize the positive role played by the EU in the region and Kazakhstan. Additionally, the initiation of the EU strategy for Central Asia led to wider coverage and therefore wider public recognition of the EU in Kazakhstan. However, discourse analysis of publications authored by the EU and Kazakhstanian elites indicates substantial variation in depiction of the European Union and its engagement in Central Asia and Kazakhstan in particular.

  19. Tre proposte per rivitalizzare l’Unione Europea (Three proposals for revitalising the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the EU, the perception that the convergence on the current set of rules is not capable of producing convergence on results, or generally better results, has increased socio-political fragmentation. The result has been an increasing demand for re-nationalisation of sovereign powers. Focusing on the euro area, the paper proposes to revise the monetary operations of the European Central Bank, current fiscal rules and the financial regulatory approach in order to tackle some of the main inconsistencies, rigidities and fragilities in the current design. The new design is thought out to require no changes in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, but at least a minimum political convergence. If successfully implemented, it would contribute to give a viable perspective to the design of the Economic and Monetary Union, capable of attracting those EU non-euro area countries that consider the mismanagement of the recent crisis and of its after-effects reason enough for resisting further losses of sovereignty.JEL codes: E52, E62, F33, F36, F45, G28

  20. Nuclear revival, nuclear safety: challenges for the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Claude; Lacoste, Andre-Claude; Stellfox, David; Hajjani, Abdellaziz; Jamet, Philippe; Kaluzny, Yves; Lallier, Michel; Lescoeur, Bruno; Naredo, Fernando; Palm, Martina; Vincent, Cyrille; Faross, Peter; Gillet, Guillaume; Lemaitre, Philippe; Barcelo, Julio; Decobert, Veronique; Doumont, Pierre; Gouze, Jean-Remi; Hohlefelder, Walter; Herczog, Edit; Pouleur, Yvan; Teule, Rianne; Zidi, Latifa; Herzog, Philippe; Ristori, Dominique; Coniam, Jon; Kopp, Gudrun; Lambert de Diesbach, Patrice; Le Roux, Jean-Pierre; Mestrallet, Gerard; Paparizov, Atanas; Rosier, Philippe; Tamburi, Carlo; Lauvergeon, Anne; San Antonio, Santiago; Linkohr, Rolf; Auer, Josef; Bresson, Thierry de; Hohlefelder, Walter; Janouch, Frantisek; MacNaughton, Joan; Onyszkiewicz, Janusz; Reul, Herbert; Dolinsek, Urska; Komarov, Kirill; Boshkov, Aleksander; Bartuska, Vaclav; Gonnot, Francois-Michel; Grimston, Malcolm; Jesien, Leszek; Keussen, Urban; Schmitt von Sydow, Helmut; Sotura, Jean-Pierre; Jouyet, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear revival is a fact, in Europe and the rest of the world. We are delighted at this. Today, all eyes are on the United Kingdom where the Government intends to do more than merely replace twenty-three aging power plants. The challenge facing them is considerable - Mr. Hutton, Britain's Minister for Trade and Industry, estimates that the work will generate 100,000 jobs. It is to be hoped that the soon-to-end Franco-British summit meeting will have strengthened understanding between the two countries. This would augur well for the French Presidency of the European Union which hopes to launch debate on a common energy policy within the European Council. Since the United Kingdom took the decision to re-launch the construction of nuclear reactors, France is no longer alone; it has a new ally in the nuclear debate. The British decision is also seen as encouraging by all the companies that wish to develop nuclear technology. This development is not only manifest in the United Kingdom; in Germany and a number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe, there is an obvious, if latent, desire to enter this sector. This document gathers the Proceedings of two symposiums: - the March 2008 conference on 'The Revival of Nuclear Energy, a challenge for the European Union' - and the November 2008 Conference on 'Nuclear safety: a worldwide Public Good'. Contents: Foreword by Claude Fischer; Introduction by Philippe Herzog. Part A: The revival of nuclear energy, a challenge for Europe: Partnerships, Speakers list, Synthesis for decision-makers by Andre Ferron and Michel Cruciani, 1 Address and 3 sessions, Opening Address by Dominique Ristori, First round table: Conditions to re-launch the nuclear industry in Europe, role of companies, banks and public institutions, Second round table: The need for a European energy mix and the necessity to improve the European common Market Model Last round table: The conditions for a European foreign energy policy, Speech of Anne Lauvergeon

  1. The European Banking Union: Will It Be a True Union without Risk Sharing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sarcinelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments of the Euro crisis reveal the lack of clear or coherent thinking on the part of both the Eurozone finance ministers and the European Commission. The crisis in Cyprus is partly the consequence of decisions made on private sector involvement in the previous Greek bailout, and other such examples may be made. It is time, therefore, to look reality in the face and strengthen the structures of the EMU. The article is devoted to what has been done and what must still be done to make the European banking system more robust and less permeable to crises, and to preserve the single financial market. It looks at the initiatives of both the European Commission and the European Council to complete the EMU by creating a banking union, the doubts on the wisdom of entrusting banking oversight to the ECB, the organization of the ECB’s new tasks, the continuing absence of facilities for the recovery or liquidation of banks, as well as for a Euro-wide deposit insurance, the need for some form of risk-sharing in order to stabilise the economy, and thus the recourse to a common budget and the possibility of joint debt for the Eurozone.

  2. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-07-06

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  3. Agriculture of central and eastern European countries in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžepagić Srđan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture posed considerable tensions for the processes of enlargement of the European Union, because of its continuing importance both in the economies of the applicant countries of Central and Eastern European countries which have joined EU on the 1st may 2004., and in the EU budget and acquits communautaire. The preparation of agriculture in the candidate countries to join the EU was rendered more complex by the fact that the Community's Common Agricultural Policy was a moving target. The aim of this paper is to show the bases elements of the Common Agricultural Policy, but also to provide a survey of recent developments relating to agriculture in the EU and new member states of the EU before their accession to EU and their preparation to access on the enlarged market, in order to indicate the main challenges and difficulties posed by enlargement. It seems likely that agricultural policy in the enlarged EU will attach increased priority to objectives such as rural development and the environment. However, these new priorities may be expensive to realize, and may impose a growing burden on the national budgets of EU member states.

  4. The Border-making Policy of the European Union: Eastern Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lika Mkrtchyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Having no internal borders, what is a border for the European Union (EU? Which criteria does this powerful organization pursue in its decision-making on further expansion: geographical, political, cultural, economic or all of these? What is the profi t of the Union in advancing its external borders to the east? And why to the east and not the south or west across the Atlantic? Does it still mean that there is the reason for enlarging eastward based on the geographical belonging to Europe? This paper discusses the expansion of the European Union to the east with the main focus on its political and economic aspects of integration. The fi rst part includes introduction to the concept of Europe, historic background about the formation of the united Europe in terms of geography, culture, politics and economy, juxtaposing opinions and viewpoints of different experts and political scientists on “what is Europe?” and what are the core issues of its enlargement. The second and third parts are dedicated to the advantages and disadvantages of European Integration for both parties concerned – the EU and the candidate/member state, in the case of the former having its own “demarcation policy” towards certain regions of the continent when it comes to unifi cation. And the fourth part is about the communication and miscommunication of the informative bodies of the European Union that are responsible for public awareness on any process that goes on within the European family. The lack of information results in the ignorance of citizens of European and partner countries, which, of course, refl ects on the further processes of expansion on the political level and cultural perception and mentality on the social level. The conclusion sums up the research, and the bibliography lists the books, articles, monographs and Internet sources used in the course of the study.

  5. Supranational Governance in Changing Societies of European Union in the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulus Warsito

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As a supranational organization The European Union (EU seems to compete the UN’s reputations. UNO has more members since its scope is worldly, but UN does not issue its own currency while EU has Euro. The Euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. The currency is also used in a further many European countries and consequently used daily by some 332 million Europeans. Additionally, over 175 million people worldwide - including 150 million people in Africa - use currencies which are pegged to the Euro. No other transnational organization has such a specific currency. Although not as a unified military conventional power, EU has such a “Battlegroups” initiative, each of which is planned to be able to deploy quickly about 1500 personnel. EU forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from Africa to the former Yugoslavia and the Middle East. EU military operations are supported by a number of bodies, including the European Defense Agency, European Union Satellite Centre and the European Union Military Staff. In an EU consisting of 27 members, substantial security and defense cooperation is increasingly relying on great power cooperation.Despite those organizational strengths, only 27 of 57 European states are members of EU. And only 17 of 27 EU state members are using Euro is their official currency. One prominent EU member like British stay tough with their own Pound-sterling.This paper is set to learn more about: why as a Europe continent based organization, EU state members are still less than half of European states? And why only 17 EU state members are using Euro as their official currency?

  6. Decommissioning and demolition in the European Union. Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blohm-Hieber, Ute

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission pursues the environmental and energy policy goals of limiting global warming to a maximum of 2 C and, therefore, reducing CO 2 emissions by at least 20%. Nuclear power, with its present 30% contribution to the Community's electricity supply and the low CO 2 emissions of the entire fuel cycle, makes an important contribution to an energy mix matching the 3 factors of competitiveness, security of supply, and sustainability. The decision to use nuclear power plants in their respective countries for electricity production is left to each member state. As of mid-2008, 146 nuclear power plants were in operation in the European Union, while 74 had been shut down permanently. Two nuclear power plants had been demolished completely, showing that the European Community is just at the beginning of the learning curve in this field. The importance of nuclear power plant decommissioning and demolition will increase in the future as replacement capacity in nuclear power generation will become necessary. The European Commission's activities in decommissioning and demolition date from the 1990s: The provisions about environmental impact assessment and the recommendations to apply Article 37 (potential impacts on water, soil and air) of the Euratom Treaty demand a description of decommissioning and demolition of nuclear power plants. In a ruling of 2002, the European Court of Justice assigns to the Community the required competences in the fields of nuclear safety and, consequently, also decommissioning and demolition. The financial provisions necessary for these activities are covered in the Electricity Directive within the framework of the rules for a common single market in 2003. After a first status report, the Commission published recommendations about financing decommissioning and demolition in 2006. (orig.)

  7. The costs of the Kyoto Protocol in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viguier, Laurent L.; Babiker, Mustafa H.; Reilly, John M.

    2003-01-01

    We estimate reference CO 2 emission projections in the European Union, and quantify the economic impacts of the Kyoto commitment on Member States. We consider the case where each EU member individually meets a CO 2 emissions target, applying a country-wide cap and trade system to meet the target but without trade among countries. We use a version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, here disaggregated to separately include 9 European Community countries and commercial and household transportation sectors. We compare our results with that of four energy-economic models that have provided detailed analyses of European climate change policy. In the absence of specific additional climate policy measures, the EPPA reference projections of carbon emissions increase by 14% from 1990 levels. The EU-wide target under the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change is a reduction in emissions to 8% below 1990 levels. EPPA emissions projections are similar to other recent modeling results, but there are underlying differences in energy and carbon intensities among the projections. If EU countries were to individually meet the EU allocation of the Community-wide carbon cap specified in the Kyoto Protocol, we find using EPPA that carbon prices vary from $91 in the United Kingdom to $385 in Denmark; welfare costs range from 0.6% to 5%

  8. Tuberculosis treatment outcome monitoring in European Union countries: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hest, Rob; Ködmön, Csaba; Verver, Suzanne; Erkens, Connie G.M.; Straetemans, Masja; Manissero, Davide; de Vries, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Treatment success measured by treatment outcome monitoring (TOM) is a key programmatic output of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We performed a systematic literature review on national-level TOM in the 30 European Union (EU)/European Economic Areas (EEA) countries to summarise methods used to collect and report data on TOM. Online reference bibliographic databases PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify relevant indexed and non-indexed literature published between January 2000 and August 2010. The search strategy resulted in 615 potentially relevant indexed citations, of which 27 full-text national studies (79 data sets) were included for final analysis. The selected studies were performed in 10 EU/EEA countries and gave a fragmented impression of TOM in the EU/EEA. Publication year, study period, sample size, databases, definitions, variables, patient and outcome categories, and population subgroups varied widely, portraying a very heterogeneous picture. This review confirmed previous reports of considerable heterogeneity in publications of TOM results across EU/EEA countries. PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE indexed studies are not a suitable instrument to measure representative TOM results for the 30 EU/EEA countries. Uniform and complete reporting to the centralised European Surveillance System will produce the most timely and reliable results of TB treatment outcomes in the EU/EEA. PMID:22790913

  9. THE EUROPEAN UNION AND RUSSIA, COOPERATION OR COMPETITION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Maria SIMIONOV

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The unfolding events in the Ukraine remind us of Georgia 2008 and make us wonder whether their impact and implications on the EU – Russia relations will be as deep and long-lasting. Although it is too soon to ponder on the implications of these events, we can already perceive the wave of tensions and disagreements that is spreading all around the European continent; tensions that once more prove that proper economic cooperation between the two actors is merely impossible to consider without taking into account the political ties between them. How can the EU enhance greater cooperation with Russia and solve Churchill’s "riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma"? Is the European Union vulnerable politically due to its energy dependence on Russia? Is the Russian economy dependent solely on its European consumers? Whose behaviour is more rational? Who holds the upper hand? This paper will focus on answering all these questions by analysing both actors in terms of power and will particularly highlight their paradigms, perceptions, needs and expectations from one another.

  10. Endogeneity and Specialization in the European Monetary Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk Henryk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a broad discussion about the viability of the European Monetary Union (EMU in its present and prospective confines. Generally, the EMU, consisting of 19 countries, is not considered an optimal currency area due to low labor market flexibility, autonomous fiscal policies, and structural differences among its members. Considerations about the endogeneity effect of currency unions lead to the question whether the EMU will become more viable over time. According to the endogenity hypothesis formulated by Frankel and Rose [1996, 2000], a common currency area may gradually become an optimal currency area at some future point (ex post unification, despite not having been an optimal currency area (OCA prior to (ex ante currency unification. Currency unification should bring about increased intra-industry trade and greater business cycle synchronization among member states. The most recent literature and analyses presented in this paper suggest that the endogenity effect in the EMU has been frail since its onset. While real convergence between EMU member states has not advanced, divergence in i.a. economic structures, national income and productivity levels is observed. The most important economic mechanisms reinforcing convergence and divergence among monetary union members are presented in this paper. Using recent data and related research results, we show a significant divergence in economic structures, business cycle synchronization and productivity levels among Eurozone members in the last decade. The Krugman sectorial dissimilarity index is applied to measure changes in industrial similarity among member countries and the Hodrick-Prescott filter to estimate business cycle synchronization in the EMU. These divergence tendencies have been strengthened by the global financial crisis of 2008 and persist, calling for reforms and new policies within the EMU.

  11. Convergence of the National Public Administration Systems within the European Union in the Context of the European Model Emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Corneliu MANDA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The long running history for over half a century of the European Union was marked initially by the need to approach the member states’ administrations, with a view to getting them more compatible, as a prerequisite of the EU’s functioning, at the foreseen political-legal and economic parameters, and then the respective tendency started to intensify progressively relative to the more and more ambitious goals and objectives of the European Union establishment. Today we witness an increased dynamics of such a process which seems to integrate even the specificities derived from the sovereignty elements, considered not long ago as sacred, at the states level, a processuality whose finality consists in the continuous consolidation of the European administrative area, as an essential corollary to the effective inter-community mechanisms development, equally as an effect of the states’ integration but also a condition for the European project success. In such a context, the present approach proposes to analyse and identify the degree of cohesion and of similarity between the EU states administrations, which revolve around the emergence of the common characteristics, considered as authentic values of the administrative area, susceptible to be accepted altogether as bases for the European administration model, whose outline tends to become more visible.

  12. European Union response to Fukushima. European stress tests and peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamet, Philippe [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire (ASN), Paris (France)

    2012-07-01

    Following the severe accidents which started in the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP on 11 March 2011, the European Council requested that a comprehensive safety and risk assessment, in light of preliminary lessons learned, be performed on all EU nuclear plants. Therefore, stress tests and peer review assessing natural initiating events, the loss of safety systems and severe accident management have been performed in the 15 European Union countries with nuclear power plants as well as Switzerland and Ukraine. The final peer review report of the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) highlights four main areas for improvement to be explored across Europe: 1. Development by the Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA), with the contribution of the best available EU expertise, of a European guidance on assessment of natural hazards and margins; 2. Importance of Periodic Safety Review to be underlined by ENSREG; 3. Expeditious implementation of the recognised measures to protect containment integrity; 4. Prevention of accidents resulting from natural hazards and limitation of their consequences. The peer review of the European stress tests was completed in April 2012. In their conclusive statement issued 26 April 2012, the national European regulators and the European Commission as European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) required that follow-up would occur by way of an ENSREG action plan. Country specific action plans will be developed and peer review workshop will be organised to share lessons learned on the implementation of post-Fukushima safety improvements.

  13. European Union response to Fukushima. European stress tests and peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Following the severe accidents which started in the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP on 11 March 2011, the European Council requested that a comprehensive safety and risk assessment, in light of preliminary lessons learned, be performed on all EU nuclear plants. Therefore, stress tests and peer review assessing natural initiating events, the loss of safety systems and severe accident management have been performed in the 15 European Union countries with nuclear power plants as well as Switzerland and Ukraine. The final peer review report of the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) highlights four main areas for improvement to be explored across Europe: 1. Development by the Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA), with the contribution of the best available EU expertise, of a European guidance on assessment of natural hazards and margins; 2. Importance of Periodic Safety Review to be underlined by ENSREG; 3. Expeditious implementation of the recognised measures to protect containment integrity; 4. Prevention of accidents resulting from natural hazards and limitation of their consequences. The peer review of the European stress tests was completed in April 2012. In their conclusive statement issued 26 April 2012, the national European regulators and the European Commission as European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) required that follow-up would occur by way of an ENSREG action plan. Country specific action plans will be developed and peer review workshop will be organised to share lessons learned on the implementation of post-Fukushima safety improvements.

  14. Learning architectures and negotiation of meaning in European trade unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Creanor

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available As networked learning becomes familiar at all levels and in all sectors of education, cross-fertilisation of innovative methods can usefully inform the lifelong learning agenda. Development of the pedagogical architectures and social processes, which afford learning, is a major challenge for educators as they strive to address the varied needs of a wide range of learners. One area in which this challenge is taken very seriously is that of trade unions, where recent large-scale projects have aimed to address many of these issues at a European level. This paper describes one such project, which targeted not only online courses, but also the wider political potential of virtual communities of practice. By analysing findings in relation to Wenger's learning architecture, the paper investigates further the relationships between communities of practice and communities of learners in the trade union context. The findings suggest that a focus on these relationships rather than on the technologies that support them should inform future developments.

  15. Coalition Within a Coalition: The Baltics in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina M. Busygina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of small power problem focusing on the behav­iour of small power states within coalitions and their proneness to free riding. To pursue an independent agenda and increase their significance within large associa­tions, the authors argue, small powers tend to create ‘coalitions within coalitions’, essentially acting as free riders and transferring costs and political responsibility for decision-making to larger players. Such an asymmetric strategy makes it possi­ble for small powers to advance their interests within alliances and save resources. The authors test this hypothesis on the behaviour of the Baltics in the European Union. It is demonstrated that Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have created a stable small coalition within the EU and actively form ad hoc alliances with the leading states to push union-level decisions, as it was the case with settling the migrant issue. In other areas, these states tend to benefit from the free rider behaviour.

  16. A Possible Answer of the European Union to Hybrid Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cîrdei Ionuţ Alin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The international security environment is marked by a certain state of anomy, which in reality does not conceal a state of chaos, but an attempt to restore and redesign spheres of influence, creating a new world order involving both state actors: the US, Russia, China India, supra-states actors: EU, NATO, etc or non-state actors. The European Union is confronted with a series of internal and external challenges that affect the state of security. Challenges are very diverse, difficult to anticipate and counteract, and can be attributed, on the one hand, to the cyclical evolution of society and, on the other hand, to intentional interventions using unconventional methods and means of hybrid type, which are aimed at destabilizing one of the most powerful supra-state structures, enjoying significant economic and political strength, which has a large population and can influence the evolution of events globally. Lately, EU countries have begun to tackle the most diverse issues, such as migration, terrorist threat, radicalization of a part of the population, supporting direct or indirect jihadist organizations, organizing attacks within the union, developing nationalism, separatism, ethnic or religious intolerance, etc.

  17. Current extent and stratification of agroforestry in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Herder, Michael; Moreno, Gerardo; Mosquera-Losada, Rosa M.

    2017-01-01

    in the European Union. We classified agroforestry into three main types of agroforestry systems: arable agroforestry, livestock agroforestry and high value tree agroforestry. These three classes are partly overlapping as high value tree agroforestry can be part of either arable or livestock agroforestry....... Agroforestry areas were mapped using LUCAS Land Use and Land Cover data (Eurostat, 2015). By identifying certain combinations of primary and secondary land cover and/or land management it was possible to identify agroforestry points and stratify them in the three different systems. According to our estimate...... the largest area. High value tree agroforestry and arable agroforestry cover 1.1 and 0.3 million ha respectively. Spain (5.6 million ha), France (1.6 million ha), Greece (1.6 million ha), Italy (1.4 million ha), Portugal (1.2 million ha), Romania (0.9 million ha) and Bulgaria (0.9 million ha) have the largest...

  18. International Benchmark Renewable Energy. European Union and Norway. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beek, A.; Benner, J.H.B.; Brogtrop, A.C.G.M.; Van Alphen, M.

    2001-12-01

    The main aim of the survey was to generate an actual, realistic and accepted overview of potentials and cost prices for all relevant renewable energy options in the different countries of the European Union. The survey covered electrical options, heat options and combined heat and power options for renewable energy. Survey data were obtained directly from the responsible governments and their energy agencies, not from theoretical model studies. The intention was to improve insight for future decisions and create a useful basis (in the form of definitions, guidelines, etc.) for future perfection. Survey results also help to assess the relative ambition of the different national targets, especially in the EU Member States. The survey thus primarily sought answers to the following questions: (1) What renewable energy potential is available, and to what extent can the potential be exploited and what would be the related costs; and (2) What observations can be made, considering the survey results

  19. Extension of the European Union Services Directive Implementation in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana DOROBÃŢ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania is currently facing a lot of challenges in the public administration (PA field. In this paper, we are going to show how the European Union Services Directive implementation impacted the Romanian PA reform process by achieving one major objective: the implementation of a Point of Single Contact (PSC in Romania. We started this quest by identifying and conducting an analysis of the existing administrative framework within the Romanian Trade Register Office (TRO, as part of the EUSDRO project. We developed a model for the TRO front and back office administrative processes. Our findings suggest that although progress has been made there are still several drawbacks associated with the administrative process, within the Romanian TRO. Thus we proposed an improved model for the Romanian PSC.

  20. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ROTH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Through sustainable development the needs of the current generation are fulfilled without jeopardizing the opportunities of future generations. The concept takes into account economic, social and environmental considerations. It has a wide range of applications from natural resources to population growth and biodiversity. One of its most important themes is energy. In this area, sustainable development relates with resource availability and green house gases emissions. Also it takes into account the needs of people without access to energy, and their legitimate quest for development. For the European Union, sustainable development represents an overarching objective. The present article analyzes the concept from a theoretical perspective, contrasting its strong points and weaknesses. It highlights the relation between sustainable development, energetic resources and climate change. The EU policies results in the field of energy are analyzed from the perspective of resources, energetic dependency and climate change efforts.

  1. Polish Accession to the European Union: Participating Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewski Waldemar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In May 2014 it was aready ten years since Poland’s accession to the European Union. The accession was preceded by a long period of political action and negotiations between the Polish and the EU institutions. The process of integration was extremely complex. It covered almost all areas of economic, legal and civil aspects of the aspiring country’s economy, in which all necessary requirements had to be met. The aim of the article was to present the institutional framework created for efficient implementation of the process of accession. The considerations involved especially an institutional method. The research resulted in poining out both the actually efficient and less efficient bodies participating in the process of integration.

  2. Why withdrawal from the European Union is undemocratic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents; Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2017-01-01

    The Lisbon Treaty from 2009 introduced the possibility for individual member states to withdraw from the European Union (EU) on the basis of a unilateral decision. In June 2016 the UK decided to leave the EU invoking article 50 of the treaty. But is withdrawal democratically legitimate? In fact......, the all affected principle suggests that it is undemocratic for subunits to leave larger political units when it adversely affects other citizens without including them in the decision. However, it is unclear what the currency of this affectedness is and, hence, why withdrawal would be undemocratic. We...... argue that it is the effect of withdrawal on the status of citizens as free and equal that is decisive and that explains why unilateral withdrawal of subunits from larger units is democratically illegitimate. Moreover, on the ‘all affected status principle’ that we develop, even multilaterally agreed...

  3. THE ORGANIZATION OF JURISDICTION IN EUROPEAN UNION PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Agheniţei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, universal jurisdiction is the favorite technique used to prevent impunity for international crimes and it is one of the most effective methods to deter and prevent international crimes by increasing the like hood of prosecution and punishment of its propagators. In regard to the defendants’ rights, the European Union states consider applicable all the rights that are necessary to assure that the trial is equitable and expeditious. There is no exception to the right to a fair trial. So, a defendant who is being prosecuted on the basis of the universality principle can rely on all the procedural rights provided for the Convention on Human Rights and the domestic code of criminal procedure without any restrictions. In Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, in a case concerning genocide committed abroad, declared expressly that no special criminal proceedings must be provided for specific crimes.

  4. European Union and diaspora engagement policy within changing realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violina MARDARI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the European Union and diaspora engagement policy within changing realities. The author focuses on the main research question concerning how the new, uncontrolled migration flows may influence the approach on diaspora engagement policy within member states. This process could have positive as well as negative implications for the Community space even if the EU attempts to develop a new legal framework on migration. The interdisciplinary approach and methods as empirical analysis, comparison and observation on some good practices and new issues gave the possibility to estimate the results of how changing diaspora role perception reduces the gap between different migrants in the EU and improves the diaspora engagement dialogue on institutional and civil society level.

  5. Meat export competitiveness of European Union countries on global markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Bojnec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the export competitiveness of meat products of the European Union (EU-27 member states on global markets. The revealed comparative advantage index is used to analyze the levels, compositions, and evolutions in patterns of development in the export competitiveness of meat products and their levels of stability at the product level. Except for some niche meat products, a larger number of the EU-27 member states have experienced comparative disadvantages on global markets over the analysed years of 2000 to 2011. The revealed comparative advantages on the global markets are the most robust for Ireland, Spain, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Denmark, Poland, Cyprus and Hungary. The revealed comparative advantage indices and their survival rates differ across the meat product groups. The heterogeneity in export competitiveness of the EU-27 member states suggests the importance of the differentiation of meat products in competitive export specialization on global markets.

  6. Transparency in the Council of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    with information and thereby act as day-to-day facilitators of transparency of the Council’s activities. Although these communicators see themselves as contributing substantially to the transparency of the Council’s work and thereby as enabling the media to provide EU citizens with information about one......The Council of the European Union is often described as the least transparent of the three big EU institutions although steps have been taken to improve the transparency of its activities during the last couple of decades. This article focuses on the Council’s press officers who provide journalists...... of the most powerful political forums in Europe, transparency in the Council has its limits. This study explores institutional factors which hinder Council press officers from being as transparent as journalists would like them to be. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with Council press officers...

  7. Energy Relations between the European Union and North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kilpeläinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses European Union (EU-North Africa energy relations with a special focus on renewables in North Africa, arguing that the research so far has not taken due account of North African perceptions of EU external energy policy. It is argued that current research on EU-North African relations has not taken sufficient note of the multidimensionality of energy or addressed the inconsistent nature of EU policy making. However, addressing these issues is vital in approaching EU-North Africa energy relations and EU policy towards North Africa in general. The study of perceptions is introduced as one way to develop research further, to give further impetus on understanding how EU-North African energy relations develop and to understand energy relations in their complexity.

  8. PAPER AND PAPERBOARD INDUSTRY IN EUROPEAN UNION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Cemil Akyüz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkey should benefit from its own resources by realizing their value in the period that it turned its face to Europe. Therefore, the economical potential of the country should be analyzed thoroughly. Knowing its own strength and taking the necessary steps to this effect in order to take the fullest advantage of the strength are of vital importance for the countries in attaining the development level. Within the existing potential, the necessary importance and support should be given to small and medium enterprises that are forming the most effective part of the economic life and to the forest products industry which has a significant position among these enterprises. In this study, certain product groups belonging to paper and paperboard industry situated in forest products industry were discussed what situation they are in Turkey and European Union countries and competition position. In this context, hierarchical cluster analysis and discriminant analysis being of multidimensional statistical methods were used.

  9. Reforms to the European Union Financial Supervisory and Regulatory Architecture and Their Implications for Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Darvas (Zsolt); D. Schoenmaker (Dirk); N. Véron (Nicolas)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractEuropean Union (EU) countries offer a unique experience of financial regulatory and supervisory integration, complementing various other European integration efforts following the Second World War. Financial regulatory and supervisory integration was a very slow process before 2008,

  10. Inflation Aversion in the European Union: Exploring the Myth of a North-South Divide

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth, David; Rommerskirchen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Our study seeks to prove that German Stability Culture is a myth. The concept is a core legitimizing element of economic policy discourse in Germany and used regularly to juxtapose Germany and northern Europe and the euro area periphery. Using Eurobarometer surveys we construct a measurement for Stability Culture which is based on the priority assigned to the fight against inflation. Our empirical analysis covers the 2002 to 2010 timespan and includes 27 European Union Member States. Our resu...

  11. THE TOURIST PERCEPTION OF THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY: ROMANIA VERSUS EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pârjol Florentina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Automatically when we talk about tourism, tourism industry and hospitality industry we refer to the term also increasingly mentioned. Through this work we describe the hotel, restaurant business and other travel related activity services, which since 2008 have been continuously developed and represent a source of benefit to the economy of any country. The paper aims to assess the perception of tourists based on a questionnaire about the quality of hospitality services in Romania compared to European Union countries.

  12. Improvement of the Pension System in Uzbekistan: Through the Experience of the European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilshodjon Alidjonovich Rakhmonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Government’s policy in financing social sphere is becoming more and more topical. In this regard, managing pension system effectively, conducting research basing on “income distribution through the time” principle in its financing is of particular significance. In this article the possibility of applying the experience of European Union countries in the level of coverage of population by the pension plan and its development in Uzbekistan.

  13. European Union. Court of Justice of the European Union: EU Law and Fundamental Rights Preclude Requested Filtering Injunction against Hosting Provider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, K.

    2012-01-01

    On 16 February 2012, the Court of Justice of the European Union delivered its preliminary ruling in the case of SABAM v. Netlog NV. The judgment was issued on a request made by the Court of First Instance of Brussels.

  14. Climate policy in other countries of the European Union. An outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, P.

    2005-08-01

    Within the framework of the second evaluation memorandum on climate policy in the Netherlands an overview is given of the climate policy in 15 other countries of the European Union. The overview is mainly based on progress reports on greenhouse gases emission, issued by the European Environment Agency (EEA) and a database of policy and measures in the field of climatic change, maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA). Next to EU Directives as an important base for policy in the 15 countries, the the covenant on CO2 emission for new cars between ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers Association) and the European Commission is considered to be an important agreement for climate policy in the EU counties [nl

  15. THE EUROPEAN UNION AS A GLOBAL PLAYER: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Comanescu

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening the external action of the Union has emerged as a powerful expectation shared both by a large majority of members of the Convention on the future of Europe, and more significantly by public opinion when it has been consulted on this issue. Although there is a consensual desire for Europe to speak with a stronger voice in global affairs, the ways and means to achieve this objective still divide those called to clarify the path to be followed. The European Union is already a significant presence in world politics by its considerable share in the international trade, or its dominant contribution to development aid. Many criticise on the other hand the lack of consistency in the more classical dimensions of foreign policy, or the lack of credibility in the capacity to act attributed to the absence of defence capabilities. Such concerns are currently addressed in the larger debate on the future of Europe, either within the dedicated framework, the European Convention convened to design the future of the EU, or outside the Convention, both among politicians and academics. It is generally considered and accepted that Europe will gain in political influence once the unification of the continent is completed, i.e. the current enlargement objectives are achieved. It goes without saying that devising and making operational appropriate instruments and capacities to act coherently outside its borders are a necessity as well. Institutional guarantees that Europe could in the future continue to influence the course of events in world affairs are becoming imperative. This article will explore some of the proposals in that sense. It will also address the place for Romania as a future EU member state in the new architecture of Europe and its possible contribution to the Common Foreign and Security Policy.

  16. CSR and Social Entrepreneurship: The Role of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano AMELIO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the status of non-financial information disclosure in the European Union in order to evaluate the level of acceptance of social responsibility practices. The research is divided into two sections and the approach used is mainly theoretical and qualitative. In the first part the UE financial and non-financial information regulations are analyzed; the European Union launched a process of harmonization then subsequently it moved to the standardization process: the Regulation (EC No. 1606/2002 is part of the standardization process (It must be applied in its entirety across the EU while the Directive 2014/95/EU is part of the harmonization process (it sets out a goal that all EU countries must achieve. The Directive 2014/95/EU states that “large undertakings […] shall include in the management report a non-financial statement […]” thus making mandatory the preparation of non-financial statements. In the second part of the research, not considering the firm only as a system for the production of financial/economic value but also as an economic social actor which operates in a social environment to which it belongs and with which it interacts, the concept of social entrepreneurship is explained. Social entrepreneurship belongs to the entrepreneurs who draw up the social balance, required or permitted by the UE legislation. For this reason, the introduction of obligations in disclosing non-financial information could lead to the increase of entrepreneurship, with positive consequences in the creation of tangible benefits to both the business community and the global community.

  17. The Clash of Discourses Regarding Relations with Russia: New Fault Lines in the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Naumescu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the annexation of Crimea and the secession war in Eastern Ukraine, the topic of European security has returned as a major benchmark for a number of EU and non-EU countries. For a couple of years, in 2014-2015, the discourse of condemnation and international sanctions against the Russian regime dominated the agenda of the European-Russian relations. Nevertheless, the economic considerations and the ascension of right-wing or left-wing populism(s in the European Union acted as a drag on European unity and solidarity. Thereby a series of political leaders in the EU and its Eastern Neighbourhood began to ask for economic rapprochement with Russia, while others remained very cautious. Based on a comparative qualitative method, this paper explores the clashing discourses about relations with Russia, in light of the discourse theory. The dynamics of divergent positioning regarding Russia after 2016 led to the question of possible new fault lines in the European Union. Inconsistencies on this topic can be seen between West and East, between post-communist countries on the Eastern Flank with Poland, Romania and the Baltic States, on one side, and Hungary, Bulgaria, Slovakia and the Czech Republic on the other side, and between Western chancelleries with rather different views such as Berlin, London or Rome. The aim of this article is to explore the increasing differences and clarify whether conflicting approaches regarding relations with Russia could create real cleavages between EU Member States and threaten European unity.

  18. THE CITIZENS’ PUBLIC PARTICIPATION UNDER EUROPEAN UNION LAW AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Charlotte ENE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, June 25, 1998 (entered into force Oct. 30, 2001 [hereinafter Aarhus Convention], negotiated under the auspices of the UN/ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, is the result of the efforts to establish international legal standards in the field of citizens’ environmental rights to date. Also, it is the first international document about public participation in environmental matters, developing the principle 10 of the Rio Declaration, which stresses the need for citizen's participation in environmental issues and for access to information on the environment held by public authorities. Public participation, one of the three main pillars provided by Aarhus Convention, could be one of the key factors in involving the citizens in the protection of the environment and strengthening compliance and enforcement of national and European environmental law. Under European Union regulations, the right to participate in environmental decision-making process could be exercise more effectively based on European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI procedure. Therefore, the European Citizens' Initiative (ECI, as introduced by the Lisbon Treaty, allows citizens to request new EU legislation once a million signatures from seven member states have been collected asking the European Commission to do so. This paper explores environmental citizenship within the framework of European Union (EU environmental law.

  19. The European Window: Challenges in the Negotiation of Mexico's Free Trade Agreement with the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Gómez Lora; Jaime Zabludovsky

    2005-01-01

    On 1 July 2000 regulations to liberalize trade flows between Mexico and the European Union came into force, after more than six years of diplomatic work and complex negotiations. These regulations are part of the ¿Tratado de Libre Comercio (TLCUEM), which is also one of the components of the Agreement on Economic Association, Political Concertation and Cooperation (¿Global Agreement¿). The Global Agreement through its three components ¿ political dialogue, trade liberalization and cooperation...

  20. Reduction in undiagnosed HIV infection in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2012 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sighem, Ard; Pharris, Anastasia; Quinten, Chantal; Noori, Teymur; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J

    2017-11-01

    It is well-documented that early HIV diagnosis and linkage to care reduces morbidity and mortality as well as HIV transmission. We estimated the median time from HIV infection to diagnosis in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) at 2.9 years in 2016, with regional variation. Despite evidence of a decline in the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV in the EU/EEA, many remain undiagnosed, including 33% with more advanced HIV infection (CD4 < 350 cells/mm3).

  1. The regulatory reform in the European Union environmental policy: A first appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Francois

    1996-01-01

    This paper is aimed to outline the expected outcome of the regulatory reform which is occurring in the European Union environmental policy: it intends to point out the new institutional procedures for rulemaking introduced by the Maastricht Treaty and the fifth Programme of Action, which would result in the use of market-based instruments and voluntary approaches oppositely to traditional command and control mechanisms. The paper consists of three sections: while the first one is plainly introductory, the following two sections represent a survey on eight recent pieces of European Union legislation, chiefly directives, showing the systematic decrease in the environmental objectives due to the presence of industrial interest groups, and the new problems affecting public intervention caused by the development of the above mentioned voluntary approaches. Moreover, the former provides an analytical model of a firm's involvement in the policy process, the latter an analytical apparatus on the very nature and failures of self-and co-regulation

  2. SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF THE PROCESS OF BANKING CONCENTRATION AND CONSOLIDATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COPIL CRINA ANGELA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I proposed to anaylze the main aspect that characterized the process of bank concentration and consolidation in the European union, knowing their evolutions and particularities on the European and world bank sector and the effects that they have on the banks and the economy altogether. I presented the evolution of the number of banks, evolution that reflects the degree of consolidation of the bank system. Based on the financial crisis begun in 2008 the number of credit institutions decreased continuously as a consequence of the processes of bank mergers and acquisitions generated by the uncertainties of the economic perspectives. Also I analyzed the evolution of the degree of bank concentration in the European countries, process that underlines the degree of domination of the banking market accomplished by some great banks. We consider essential the knowing of this process because the increase of the bank concentration leads to the creating of some bank entities with very large dimensions, that in the periods of crisis can generate macro economic imbalances by involving the state in their subventioning. The research is based mainly on compiled statistic data offered by the European Central Bank (BCE, data that are published annualy and that were processed to be able to offer an overview on the most important modifications that took place in the European union and in its representative countries.

  3. New challenges for the modern migration policy of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Malykha Mariia Igorivna

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses the migration policy of the European Union in the context of contemporary global development and the existing European migration crisis. The article explains factors and principles of migration policy. The researcher pays attention to the measures aimed to overcome the crisis of migrants in the Union members.

  4. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of currencies. For...

  5. Key Competences for the Development of Lifelong Learning in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozjan, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses certain developments in education policy in the European Union since the implementation of the Lisbon strategy. Greater focus on lifelong learning as a means of increasing the competitiveness of the European Union, and establishment of several new, efficient policy tools (above all the "open method of coordination")…

  6. New challenges for the modern migration policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malykha Mariia Igorivna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the migration policy of the European Union in the context of contemporary global development and the existing European migration crisis. The article explains factors and principles of migration policy. The researcher pays attention to the measures aimed to overcome the crisis of migrants in the Union members.

  7. Relevant Market in Commercial Aviation of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kociubiński

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the issue of definition of relevant market in civil aviation within the European Union. The liberalization of the market since the early 1990s has led to a rapid increase in the number of airlines operating in the EU. The increase in the competitiveness of the market has brought many positive changes for passengers, such as lower fares and a better network of connections. At the same time it has created a risk that the airlines, in order to gain a competitive edge, would infringe the rules of competition. This is especially important in the context of the phenomenon that is the development of the airline alliances, which could lead to an abuse of a dominant position. A clear definition of the relevant market is a first step in an assessment of whether such an abuse occurred. This paper focus on the elements that Internal Market regulator, the European Commission, takes into consideration when defining relevant market in the airline industry.

  8. The future of soil protection strategy at the level of European Union at the filed of soil monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kubík

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union deals long with problems of the two components of environment the air and the water. So far soil wasnęt in the main scope of the European Union. The European Union deal now with problems of soil, where we can find question of the soil monitoring. This issue was solve in the framework of the Working group on soil monitoring (WG. The recommendations from the WG are base for deciding of the European Commission, which will have interest to formulate new soil directive. The main tasks of the WG were to review of existing soil monitoring systems, to specify basic soil parameters, indicators, to define soil parameters for each soil threats and to harmonize future soil monitoring activity and soil data.

  9. Economic Burden of Bladder Cancer Across the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Jose; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Sullivan, Richard; Witjes, J Alfred

    2016-03-01

    More than 120,000 people are diagnosed annually with bladder cancer in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU). With >40,000 people dying of it each year, it is the sixth leading cause of cancer. However, to date, no systematic cost-of-illness study has assessed the economic impact of bladder cancer in the EU. To estimate the annual economic costs of bladder cancer in the EU for 2012. Country-specific cancer cost data were estimated using aggregate data on morbidity, mortality, and health care resource use, obtained from numerous international and national sources. Health care costs were estimated from expenditures on primary, outpatient, emergency, and inpatient care, as well as medications. Costs of unpaid care and lost earnings due to morbidity and early death were estimated. Bladder cancer cost the EU €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion (59%) and representing 5% of total health care cancer costs. Bladder cancer accounted for 3% of all cancer costs in the EU (€143 billion) in 2012 and represented an annual health care cost of €57 per 10 EU citizens, with costs varying >10 times between the country with the lowest cost, Bulgaria (€8 for every 10 citizens), and highest cost, Luxembourg (€93). Productivity losses and informal care represented 23% and 18% of bladder cancer costs, respectively. The quality and availability of comparable cancer-related data across the EU need further improvement. Our results add to essential public health and policy intelligence for delivering affordable bladder cancer care systems and prioritising the allocation of public research funds. We looked at the economic costs of bladder cancer across the European Union (EU). We found bladder cancer to cost €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion. Our study provides data that can be used to inform affordable cancer care in the EU. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  10. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package to build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure european union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, Emmanuel; Spencer, Thomas

    2011-10-11

    Immediate action to strengthen the European Union Climate and Energy Package (EU CEP) is needed to ensure Europe's sustained growth, competitiveness and energy security. Indeed, the current 20% emissions reduction target is too low to reach the European long-term goal of reducing emissions by at least 80% by 2050 at acceptable costs. But the EU CEP is also inefficient to address sustainable potential competitiveness losses and carbon leakages in some carbon intensive industries, and most importantly to boost fully the competitiveness of firms producing low-carbon products and services. Moving to 30% by 2020 could induce significant long-term GDP gains and only marginal GDP short-term costs, increase the competitiveness of European firms producing innovative low-carbon technologies, and reduce both final energy consumption and EU energy dependency. But for these objectives to be met, the contents of policies to reach this 30% target is as important as the target itself. There are three main areas in which the EU CEP needs strengthening: (1) Improvement of the energy efficiency of the existing building stocks, and limitation of the absolute level of energy consumption in the transport sector are needed to reach the 20% energy efficiency target. Binding targets should only be used when absolutely necessary and when helpful. (2) From an economic, environmental and political perspective, setting a stringent European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) 2030 cap between -45 and -50% from 2005 levels is probably the most relevant, efficient, and realistic option in the short term. It would increase the predictability of the carbon price signal, and therefore the credibility of the regulator. Banking would ensure that this stringent mid-term target translates into a short-term increase of the carbon price. (3) In some cases, direct public financial support is justified and efficient: to overcome market failures and non-market barriers; to support innovation in low

  11. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package to build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure european union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Emmanuel; Spencer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Immediate action to strengthen the European Union Climate and Energy Package (EU CEP) is needed to ensure Europe's sustained growth, competitiveness and energy security. Indeed, the current 20% emissions reduction target is too low to reach the European long-term goal of reducing emissions by at least 80% by 2050 at acceptable costs. But the EU CEP is also inefficient to address sustainable potential competitiveness losses and carbon leakages in some carbon intensive industries, and most importantly to boost fully the competitiveness of firms producing low-carbon products and services. Moving to 30% by 2020 could induce significant long-term GDP gains and only marginal GDP short-term costs, increase the competitiveness of European firms producing innovative low-carbon technologies, and reduce both final energy consumption and EU energy dependency. But for these objectives to be met, the contents of policies to reach this 30% target is as important as the target itself. There are three main areas in which the EU CEP needs strengthening: (1) Improvement of the energy efficiency of the existing building stocks, and limitation of the absolute level of energy consumption in the transport sector are needed to reach the 20% energy efficiency target. Binding targets should only be used when absolutely necessary and when helpful. (2) From an economic, environmental and political perspective, setting a stringent European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) 2030 cap between -45 and -50% from 2005 levels is probably the most relevant, efficient, and realistic option in the short term. It would increase the predictability of the carbon price signal, and therefore the credibility of the regulator. Banking would ensure that this stringent mid-term target translates into a short-term increase of the carbon price. (3) In some cases, direct public financial support is justified and efficient: to overcome market failures and non-market barriers; to support innovation in low

  12. European Union gas market liberalization: a windfall effect for Russia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riviere, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Natural gas has a growing importance in the European Union energy. However, because of the lack of resources in its territory, the EU is highly dependent on imports to meet its gas needs. In parallel, since 1998 the EU seeks the creation of a single and liberalized natural gas market. The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether the gas market liberalization can create a risk for importers' bargaining power and more widely to the gas security of supply of the EU. The first chapter provides an overview of the European gas market. It deals with the implementation of the process of gas market liberalization, the external dependency of the EU and the weakness of gas supply diversity. Using findings from the previous chapter, the second one proposes a model from the cooperative game theory to analyze the effects of the EU natural gas market liberalization on importers' bargaining power. It shows that the liberalization weakens importers' bargaining power vis-a-vis external suppliers, where Russia is the leader. It also shows that the implementation of a European gas purchasing agency offers a counter-power to the EU that balances bargaining power. The third chapter focuses on the development of LNG in the world and more specifically in the EU market. The development of LNG in Europe allows the entry of new operators on the upstream and, thus, increases competition among the EU's suppliers for the benefit of importers' bargaining power. The last chapter analyzes the impact of US shale gas development on the EU gas market. Thus, it shows that development is accompanied by an uncertainty about the future gas demand in the EU and by a reconsideration of the EU's long-term contracts. (author)

  13. SOCIAL ECONOMY AS THE MAINSTREAM OF THE EUROPEAN UNION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GAFAROVA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The global community is striving nowadays to find ways to stabilize social processes, as well as to solve the problem of involving socially vulnerable groups in the social and economic life and work out a strategy for reducing long-term unemployment. The development of the social economy has been chosen as the mainstream of the European Union development. A great deal of attention of European Commission is paid to studying and development of recommendations on the introduction of principles of social economy, both in the basic EU countries and in the countries that are becoming the new members of the EU. However the national approach to the legalization and support of social companies is used in each country. So, for example, in Slovakia it is supposed to create social enterprises for inclusion of disadvantaged people to the labour market first of all. Along with support of the traditional actors of the social economy, the EU is also actively developing new forms of social economy actors, social enterprises are primarily among which. The development of the principles of social economy and the activation of social enterprises is relevant for many post-Soviet countries, including Russia. However, so far in Eastern European scientific practice, many researchers do not see the difference between the concepts of social economy, social market economy, solidarity economy. The key characteristics of the social economy are considered in the article, the interrelation of social, social market and solidarity economies is observed, modern trends in the construction of the social economy of the EU are highlighted.

  14. Remarks on the Future of the European Union: Domestic and Global Challenges Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Inotai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the main consequences that the crisis has put on the European Union, regarding four major areas: financial, macroeconomic, social and mental-ideological. Also, it aims to tackle some key challenges for the European Union: the revival of international trade; the prevention of the rise of protectionism on the global scale; the need to find a solution to the dilemma between continued stimulus and financial consolidation in general, and between the ambitious goals of the Europe 2020 project and the current fiscal restrictions; the growth of public support across Europe for a financial consolidation strategy based on cutting spending; the impact of the financial and macroeconomic crisis on several sectors; and the deficiencies of the „European construction” indicated by the global crisis. Furthermore, it proposes four main questions for which EU has to provide clear answers in order to become a real global player. The questions concern the „European identity”, the „European values”, the EU strategy paper establishing its mission for the next period and the importance of a strong leadership implementing the strategy. In the end, the most important challenge seems to be how the EU can remain a global economic actor and become a more influential political player in the network of rapidly changing international power relations.

  15. Energy consumption across European Union farms: Efficiency in terms of farming output and utilized agricultural area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinho, Vítor João Pereira Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Energy consumption is a global concern, namely due to the limited availability of energy sources and the consequences in terms of gas emissions, with its implications upon greenhouse gas emissions. In the agricultural sector this question bears an additional concern, considering that it is an economic activity which is sensitive to the dimension of the costs associated with production factors. In this way, the objective of the study presented here is to analyze, the efficiency of energy consumption, for the twelve former European Union countries, at farm level, in terms of farming output and utilized agricultural area, over the period 1989–2009 and for the years 2004–2012, with data available in the Farm Accountancy Data Network. On the other hand, the implications of energy consumption in farms' economic performance were analyzed, through econometric techniques (time series, panel data and generalized method of moments) and models based on the Kaldor developments. As a main conclusion, to stress the decrease in efficiency related with energy consumption by farms in the twelve former European Union countries. - Highlights: • It was analyzed the efficiency of energy consumption. • It was considered data for the twelve former European Union states at farm level. • They were evaluated the implications of energy consumption in farms performance. • The conclusions stress the decrease in efficiency of the farms energy consumption.

  16. The challenges facing the European Union Centres of Excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupre, Bruno; )

    2012-10-01

    On 19 April 2012, the United Nation Security Council congratulated the European Union for its initiative on centres of excellence in the nuclear, radiological, biological, and chemical fields. The time for glowing reports is over. Three years after its creation, the support of EU Member Sates, the Security Council, the G8, the IEAE, the WHO, the USA, Interpol, the ICRC, has been obtained. Other diplomatic, organisational, and communicative challenges have now arisen regarding implementation. The manifest challenges include: 1/Political exploitation of the centres. Following a recent round table in Algiers, the Algerian press ran headlines such as 'terrorism, the Malian crisis arrives in Algiers' CBRN centres of excellence' and 'Bouteflika, the centres of excellence slight'. 2/Communication errors. A unanimously approved expert in South East Asia became a persona non grata over the last six months despite not making any fundamental mistake, aside from his inability to evaluate the degree of a country's sensitivity and pride. The countries in the region went so far as to threaten to pull out of the Manila centre as a result of this ultimately minor error in communication. 3/The scope of the centres' role complicates the grasp of its objectives. To date, the focus has essentially been on non-proliferation and the fight against CBRN terrorism, under the well-established theme of Resolution 1540. The shift of CBRN focus, at the behest of certain regions, on to real natural risks (pandemics) or industrial risks (protection of crucial infrastructure following an earthquake, flooding, or a tsunami) fundamentally changes the teams' make-up and the mobilization of resources. The emergency services culture is different to that of nonproliferation. However, they both very much address CBRN risks and threats. 4/The limits of the 'bottom-up' approach. To date, the centres' success has been due to the lack of restrictive rules. The policy is to enlist willing third-party States

  17. Nuclear safeguards in the European Union carried out by the European Commission or: the EURATOM treaty. The unknown nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilb, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear safeguards in the 28 Member States of the European Union are based on a complex structure of national, supranational and international legal acts: A first approach are the three ''S'' to be met: security, safety, safeguards. The EURATOM safeguards are based on two pillars: the control of nuclear material itself, as well as different types of international agreements: the first refers to ''agreements with a third State'', the second on ''agreement with an international organization''.

  18. The determinants of capital structure: the evidence from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mokhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to indicate the influence of several internal determinants on capital structure in different European countries and retrace its tendency taking into consideration the membership of the European Union. Nowadays there are a lot of debates according the future of the European Union. The recent global financial crisis and the following European debt crisis show the significance of the country financial stability and its impact on the private sector. The paper investigates 32 countries of European Union dividing them into three groups as (1 old EU members (15 countries, (2 new EU members (12 countries and (3 EU candidates (4 candidate countries and 1 acceding country.The managers make their financial decisions according to the source of financing and capital structure based on the macroeconomic conditions and country specifics and obviously on company’s advantages and disadvantages, i.e. its internal characteristics. Based on the analysis of previous studies we have chosen several significant internal determinants of capital structure as profitability, tangibility, growth opportunities, non-debt tax shields and firm’s size.The findings show that the country’s specifics, EU membership and corporate debt structure influence the relation between capital structure and its internal characteristics. The capital structure in all countries has tendency to increase, furthermore the old members rely more on debt then candidates or new members.There is no doubt that the majority of countries support Pecking Order Theory then Trade off Theory regarding investigated relations. In most countries the profitability and size have negative and significant influence on corporate capital structure. At the same time tangibility, growth opportunities and non-debt tax shields split up: selected countries experience positive impact, another part negative, supporting different theories.

  19. The impact of European Union law on the possibilities of European Union Member States to adapt international tax rules to the business models of multinational enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, S.; Kardachaki, A.

    2016-01-01

    European Union (EU) law has played a key role in enforcing the EU BEPS agenda, while also introducing limits to the application thereof. The European Commission (EC) sees a clear link between aggressive tax planning and competition law. Against this background, EU State aid law has been employed to

  20. The future of nuclear energy in the enlarged European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsa, Olivia; Mingiuc, C.; Paraschiva, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the future of nuclear energy at the European level taking into account the main factors which influence its development among which the most important are: - enlargement of EU to 30 member states with different energy structure; - the increase of energy consumption; - the constant increasing of external dependence for energy which is estimated at 70% in the next 20-30 years; - liberalisation of the energy sources and supply sector; - environmental concerns, including climate change. In the Green Paper, nuclear is grouped together with coal, oil, gas and renewables as 'less than perfect' energy options and together with coal it is classed as an 'undesirable' and referred to as a 'source of energy in doubt ' which is ' tainted by the original sin of dual usage (civil and military) in the fuel cycle'. The final conclusion is 'the future of nuclear energy in Europe is uncertain'. It depends on several factors beyond energy demand; including: a solution to the problems of managing nuclear waste, the economic viability of the new generation of power stations, the safety of reactors in Eastern Europe, in particular applicant countries and policies to combat global warming. The 'essential questions' for nuclear is 'How can the community develop fusion technology and reactors for the future, reinforce nuclear safety and find a solution to the problem of nuclear waste?' There are a number of very important factors that will influence the future of nuclear energy inside the European Union. The first and foremost of these is continuing the safe operation of the existing nuclear facilities. The second is the demand for energy, in particular electricity. The third is the nuclear sector's ability to meet a share of this demand in a competitive way. If the demand materialises, there are likely to be reactors available that can further improve nuclear competitiveness while maintaining its recent excellent safety record. It will be the market that

  1. Neonicotinoid residues in UK honey despite European Union moratorium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben A Woodcock

    Full Text Available Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21 and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109. Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium. Clothianidin was the most frequently detected neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoid concentrations declined from May to September in the year following the ban. However, the majority of post-moratorium neonicotinoid residues were from honey harvested early in the year, coinciding with oilseed rape flowering. Neonicotinoid concentrations were correlated with the area of oilseed rape surrounding the hive location. These results suggest mass flowering crops may contain neonicotinoid residues where they have been grown on soils contaminated by previously seed treated crops. This may include winter seed treatments applied to cereals that are currently exempt from EU restrictions. Although concentrations of neonicotinoids were low (<2.0 ng g-1, and posed no risk to human health, they may represent a continued risk to honeybees through long-term chronic exposure.

  2. Do increasing prices affect food deprivation in the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol García-Germán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The rise of prices of agricultural commodities in global markets during 2007-2012 was followed by increased consumer food prices around the world. More expensive food may have an impact on consumer food access and thus on their welfare, not only in developing countries but also amongst the most vulnerable in developed countries. Using a longitudinal database from the Statistics on Income and Living Conditions and population-averaged models, we tested whether increasing food prices had an impact on household food deprivation in 26 European Union (EU member states. Results revealed a significant relationship between food deprivation and the consumer food price index and disposable income. Households in the lowest income quintile in the member states recently acceded to the EU were the most vulnerable to food deprivation. Results also showed that low-income households in densely populated areas were more vulnerable to food deprivation. This should be taken into account when evaluating food assistance programmes that focus on the segments of the population most at risk of food deprivation.

  3. Evaluating health care interventions in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaid, David; Cookson, Richard

    2003-02-01

    This paper examines the current state of evaluations of health care interventions in the European Union, from the identification and commissioning of research through to its impact on policy and practice. Material is drawn from a survey conducted for the ASTEC project as well as a review of literature. Although the use of evaluative research has increased substantially in the last decade, both the pace of change and preferred research methodologies employed differ markedly. Much research still concentrates on issues of safety, efficacy and effectiveness, although there is evidence of an increasing emphasis on cost-effectiveness. Many countries are beginning to introduce systems linking economic evaluation to the decision-making process, while networks for the exchange of information continue to evolve. Research capacity in the public sector, although improving, is uneven, in part due to the uncertainty over long term career prospects and competition from industry. Capacity building measures should in particular ensure that dissemination expertise is strengthened, and that more emphasis is placed on developing receptor capacity within different stakeholder groups. Linking knowledge production to changes in practice remains a key challenge. Further research on implementation and impact assessment is required, to help demonstrate the value of evaluations on both policy and practice.

  4. The price of cigarettes in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, A; Villalbí, J R

    2001-06-01

    A major factor influencing tobacco use is its price. Fiscal policies on tobacco are a key ingredient of any comprehensive control strategy, as they can be used to raise prices. The European Union (EU) developed directives to ensure some harmonisation of the fiscal pressure on tobacco across its member states. To provide a simple comparison of tobacco prices in the EU, adjusting for the purchasing power of each currency. For price comparisons, a 20 units pack of Marlboro was the reference product, and data refer to April 2000. Purchasing power parities (PPP) for each member state currency have been compiled. These are currency conversion rates, which convert to a common currency and equalise the purchasing power of different currencies. Nominal prices of a Marlboro pack for each member state, and a price index, estimated taking as reference the EU mean. Adjusted prices and an adjusted price index have been estimated using PPP. Nominal prices show wide variation, with the cheapest pack in Portugal (59) and the most expensive in the UK (196); the range of variation is three-fold. However, PPP adjusted prices reveal a different distribution. In three countries adjusted prices are outliers, but all other countries make two clusters, one around the average EU index of 100, the other around a lower value of 85. These results suggest that fiscal harmonisation policies in the EU do not have an even effect at reducing availability by its impact in price.

  5. The specificity and scope of European Union finance law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Tyniewicki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Basically, Polish science of financial law quite broadly takes the problems concerning public finance of the European Union (EU. However, it should be noticed that the considerations largely refer to the detailed issues within the confines of individual branches of EU financial law, eg. in areas of tax harmonization or single financial market. At the same time there is an insufficiency or even minuteness publications with doctrinal and theoretical nature referring to the general and fundamental issues of financial law of the EU. There may be numbered such issues among others as definitions, scope and internal structure of this law, its legal sources etc. Generally two areas should be object of the basic scientific researches in reference to the issues mentioned above. First one is financial law of the EU and the second one – its influence and effect of this influence on Polish financial law. In this article there will be undertaken considerations referring to the first area aimed at defining the specifity and scope of EU financial law.

  6. Usage of Online European Union Information Resources 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Joyce

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an explosion of online European Union information resources available to researchers. However, little research into how researchers are accessing and using these resources has been carried out.. The aim of the research which informs this report was to take the first step to begin to rectify this issue. An online survey was conducted, using University of Bristol’s BOS software to which 145 people replied. The survey found that researchers considered themselves proficient at using online services. Surprisingly only 46.4% used them every day though. The Europa website was the most used but also paradoxically the most criticised for problems with search, navigation and transparency. Journals were the next most popular type of resource. Other top services included search engines, news sites and email lists. Web 2.0 has yet to be taken up widely by our sample of researchers, with few individuals having or using blogs or social networking software. The report also highlights that while some researchers are happy with EU online services, many are concerned about poor navigation and the design of websites, bias of information and the increasing abundance of passwords necessary to access multiple information resources.

  7. Do increasing prices affect food deprivation in the European Union?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Germán, S.; Bardají, I.; Garrido, A.

    2018-01-01

    The rise of prices of agricultural commodities in global markets during 2007-2012 was followed by increased consumer food prices around the world. More expensive food may have an impact on consumer food access and thus on their welfare, not only in developing countries but also amongst the most vulnerable in developed countries. Using a longitudinal database from the Statistics on Income and Living Conditions and population-averaged models, we tested whether increasing food prices had an impact on household food deprivation in 26 European Union (EU) member states. Results revealed a significant relationship between food deprivation and the consumer food price index and disposable income. Households in the lowest income quintile in the member states recently acceded to the EU were the most vulnerable to food deprivation. Results also showed that low-income households in densely populated areas were more vulnerable to food deprivation. This should be taken into account when evaluating food assistance programmes that focus on the segments of the population most at risk of food deprivation.

  8. The European Union as a Comprehensive Police Actor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Anthony Rozée

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has responded to changing security threats by seeking to increase cooperation between the law enforcement agencies of the Member States, granting further powers to Europol and other intelligence-sharing institutions, and by undertaking police missions beyond EU borders. The literature relating to EU policing is generally focused on the ‘internal’ and ‘external’ dimensions, or on specific aspects of police activity. This tendency to concentrate on narrow or isolated areas of policing has led to a significant gap regarding the broader analysis of the EU as a comprehensive police actor. Important questions about the nature of EU policing as a whole, as well as the contribution of policing activities to the EU’s security agenda, remain unexplored in the literature. This article aims to define what is meant by ‘comprehensive policing’ and to indentify criteria by which the comprehensiveness of EU-level policing may be measured. In addition to this, an integrated actorness/police comprehensiveness framework will be presented as a tool for assessing the EU as a comprehensive police actor.

  9. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while taking in new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and Western Balkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU. Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform in WBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership only if they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected to enlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albania will bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiary funds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. This presentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albania inspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EUcoordination system, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania. Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge for the future of EU.

  10. The role of the European Union in environmental taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.

    1995-01-01

    The role of the European Union (EU) in environmental taxation is examined in this chapter. As is well-known, the EU has proposed a carbon/energy tax to contribute to the stabilization of CO 2 emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000. The discussion is organized around the 'subsidiarity principle', which involves a presumption in favor of decentralizing policy functions to the member states. Exceptions are allowed only if economies of scale or cross-country spillover effects warrant EU involvement. The author persuasively argues that environmental policy is such an exception. In particular, in a single market such as the EU, the enforcement of taxes and regulations gives rise to important international externalities. Independent policy and administration would either interfere with free trade or lead to widespread evasion. Hence, the EU should have a substantial and legitimate interest in not only environmental targets and objectives, but also in the form of environmental policy (e.g. in the choice between environmental taxes and regulation). Furthermore, it is argued that environmental tax policies should be coordinated both with other environmental tax policies and with other fiscal policies. This implies that the decisions about environmental tax rates should be taken by the level of government responsible for other, related, environmental policies, whilst the revenues from environmental taxes should accrue in general to member states, in preference to the EU. 16 refs

  11. Quantifying the prevalence of fuel poverty across the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, Harriet; Snell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    The literature and policy base for fuel poverty in the UK and Ireland is well established, and there is a growing body of single country studies beyond these two EU member states (for example Brunner et al. (2012), Dubois (2012), and Tirado Herrero and Ürge-Vorsatz (2010)), however, on a European level, the last analysis of fuel poverty was conducted in 2004, prior to the enlargement of the EU. Using survey data this paper presents an updated overview of the prevalence of European fuel poverty in the context of the accession of numerous former social states, and rising fuel prices. Analysis reveals the phenomenon of fuel poverty is occurring across the EU, with particularly high levels of fuel poverty found in Eastern and Southern European states. It is argued that there are both EU and national policy frameworks in place that address climate change and these could be used as a starting point for countries to address fuel poverty through improved domestic energy efficiency measures. This paper reflects research undertaken in 2011, supported by eaga Charitable Trust, within the umbrella of work examining issues of poverty and social exclusion across the EU, which has enabled access to the EU-SILC dataset. - Highlights: ► This research is the first comparative analysis of European fuel poverty since 2004. ► Fuel poverty is a particular problem for eastern and southern European member states. ► Recommendations include the improved integration with current EU climate policies.

  12. 76 FR 15279 - Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other Countries Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...] Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other Countries Into the Continental United States AGENCY... measures under which garlic may be imported into the continental United States from the European Union and..., Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. In this document, we refer to them as the European Union (EU) and other countries...

  13. 75 FR 67970 - Notice of Inquiry; An Analysis of the European Union Repeal of the Liner Conference Block Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Notice of Inquiry; An Analysis of the European Union Repeal of the... information and comments concerning the effects on international liner shipping of the European Union's (``E.U.... The adoption by the European Union of Regulation 1419/2006 (``Repeal''), on September 25, 2006...

  14. 26 CFR 1.985-8 - Special rules applicable to the European Monetary Union (conversion to euro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-8 Special rules applicable to the European Monetary Union (conversion to euro). (a) Definitions—(1... euro is substituted for that legacy currency (in accordance with the Treaty on European Union); and (B... pursuant to the Treaty on European Union signed February 7, 1992. Assume that on January 1, 1999, X changes...

  15. ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENCE WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION SIGMA AND BETA CONVERGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begu Liviu-Stelian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Real convergence study began with the development of neoclassical models of growth and especially with the passage of econometric applications of these models. In this paper we present applications of indicators and patterns of convergence on the example of European Union member countries and some current economic impact assessments on European convergence process. This analysis is based on the estimated a- and b convergence and on Markov chains. The study deals with the economic convergence of the European countries and especially the convergence of the EU countries, including Romania. In the end of the study presents several economic scenarios for a faster and easier exit from the current crisis in Romania.

  16. the right to GOOD ADMINISTRATION IN THE Court of Justice of the EUROPEAN Union CASE LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta SLABU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The provisions of the Lisbon Treaty highlight that, at present, the Union has as objectives, not only an unitary economic development, but also strengthening the observance of peoples' fundamental rights, hence, implicitly, the right to good administration. The Court of Justice of the European Union has analyzed over time, in its decisions, the emergence and development of the good administration principle, its fundamental elements, and impossibility of framing it clearly in a definition, and, not least, turning the principle of good administration into a fundamental right through the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. At European level, citizens of the EU member states, but also those from third countries thus benefit from a right to good administration in the relations with European Union institutions and bodies, according to Article 41 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. The same should be the proceeding at internal level. Each Member State of the European Union should concern itself about identifying and promoting the most adequate measures for ensuring good governance and good administration. By identifying and applying at national level the principles governing the public administration activity at European level can be created the requisites for a national public administration that is transparent and efficient, close to the needs and interests of its citizens and that could be considered an integral part of the European public administration.

  17. A New Perspective of Investment Modelling at the European Union Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin OPREANA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study that represents the subject of this paper follows the analysis of the investment function and the influencing factors at the European Union level. The research has, as a starting point, the hypothesis that there is a negative relationship between the European Union investments and tax rates. For verifying this hypothesis, the structural equation modeling is used (SEM, and the same technique is applied in the second part of the research, which will track the development of the investments’ model at the European Union level. The results will highlight the relationships that are established between specific variables that characterize the volume of investments.

  18. Estimation and Comparison of Underground Economy in Croatia and European Union Countries: Fuzzy Logic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Marsic

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address this issue in three ways. First, we review existing estimates of the size of the underground economy. Second, we apply a novel calculation method for estimation: fuzzy logic. Third, we calculated and compared underground economy index for 25 European Union countries and compared it, with special focus on Croatian underground economy index. Results indicated that Croatia has the thirteenth largest underground economy among measured members of the European Union. This study is the first of its kind with recent data to measure the size of underground economy in European Union countries by employing fuzzy logic approach.

  19. Introduction of African swine fever into the European Union through illegal importation of pork and pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, Solenne; Jones, Bryony Anne; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Mur, Lina; de la Torre, Ana; Martínez, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose-Manuel; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary animal diseases can have very severe socio-economic impacts when introduced into new regions. The history of disease incursions into the European Union suggests that initial outbreaks were often initiated by illegal importation of meat and derived products. The European Union would benefit from decision-support tools to evaluate the risk of disease introduction caused by illegal imports in order to inform its surveillance strategy. However, due to the difficulty in quantifying illegal movements of animal products, very few studies of this type have been conducted. Using African swine fever as an example, this work presents a novel risk assessment framework for disease introduction into the European Union through illegal importation of meat and products. It uses a semi-quantitative approach based on factors that likely influence the likelihood of release of contaminated smuggled meat and products, and subsequent exposure of the susceptible population. The results suggest that the European Union is at non-negligible risk of African swine fever introduction through illegal importation of pork and products. On a relative risk scale with six categories from negligible to very high, five European Union countries were estimated at high (France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom) or moderate (Spain) risk of African swine fever release, five countries were at high risk of exposure if African swine fever were released (France, Italy, Poland, Romania and Spain) and ten countries had a moderate exposure risk (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom). The approach presented here and results obtained for African swine fever provide a basis for the enhancement of risk-based surveillance systems and disease prevention programmes in the European Union.

  20. The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

  1. Fiscal policy surveillance in the enlarged European Union: Procedural checks or simple arithmetic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico; Batten, Jonathan A.; Kearney, Colm

    2006-01-01

    In its recommendation on the 2004 update of the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines (BEPGs), the European Commission (2004) issued country-specific recommendations for fiscal policy in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries that have recently joined the European Union (EU) (henceforth the

  2. Social Justice and Capacity for Self-Development in Educational Systems in European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores social justice and equity in educational policies and systems in the European Union, and analyzes the significance within. Equity indicators of the European educational systems, "Equity of the European Educational Systems: A set of indicators" declared in 2006, introduces the debates on educational justice issues on…

  3. Draft European resolution on energy transition within the European Union. Nr 597

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michels, Thierry

    2018-01-01

    After references to European and international directives or agreements, this document aims at drawing up new flexible rules to promote energy transition within the EU. It therefore states the French National Assembly opinion on issues related to the reduction of European greenhouse emissions, the revision of the Carbon Emissions Trading Scheme, rules concerning the sharing of the burden to reduce these emissions in sectors not covered by the ETS, the revision of rules concerning energy efficiency and the energy performance of buildings, the revision of rules concerning renewable energies, the revision of rules in the electric power sector, the governance of the Union of energy, the revision of rules concerning the Agency of the Cooperation of Energy Regulators, the consideration of social impacts of energy transition, the Brexit, and the Paris agreement

  4. The Control of the Legality of Administrative Activity through the Court of Justice of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goga Gina Livioara

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the law of the European Union, in case one of the institutions of the Union or an organ, office or agency belonging to the Union refrains from making a decision, the member states and theother institutions of the Union are entitled to make a notification to the Court of Justice of the European Union. The Court has the competence to verify the legality of the legislative acts of the institutions, offices, organs or agencies of the Union that are meant to produce judicial effects towards third parties and iscompetent to pronounce itself, by preliminary decision regarding the interpretation of the treaties, namely the validity and interpretation of acts adopted by the institutions, offices, organs or agencies of the Union. Also, according to the primary treaties, any legal issues related to the non- fulfillment of the treaty’s provisions, non compliance with the community legislation, not executing the decisions of the Court of Justice or non compliance with the terms of an agreement between the EU and a third state, as well as the legal aspects related to the application of penalties based on the regulations of the EU, contractual and extra contractualliability are subordinated to the control of the Unions’ judicial instance.

  5. Analysis of low carbon super credit policy efficiency in European Union greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, Roberto; Zubelzu, Sergio; Díaz, Guzmán; López, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the current European Union's support policy for BEV (battery electric vehicles) manufacturing under the Super-credit modality, and its actual relationship with the reduction of carbon emissions derived from the use of battery electric vehicles (BEV). Particularly, we have estimated the BEV associated carbon emissions through the method provided by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In this sense, we have employed a BEV model to investigate the BEV emissions by country in the EU according to the regional electricity mix. We additionally have accounted for the particularities of real-world driving, which further affects the results. We have employed a measure of driving aggressiveness by modifying the standard benchmarking driving cycle fostered by the European Union and of necessary application by vehicle manufacturers—the NEDC—to show that BEV emissions are not negligible when compared with internal combustion vehicles; mainly in urban environments. On the whole, in this paper we provide a revision framework of the Super Credits meant to support the increase of the BEV fleet in the European Union. In its current form, the Super-credits support policy is a constant ratio depending on the manufactured internal combustion vehicles. We claim, however, that they should depend on the BEV recipient country instead. By revising the European electricity mix, we demonstrate for instance that countries such as Poland, though indirectly, largely exceed the allowed limits of CO 2 emissions derived from the upstream generation of electricity required to load the BEV. - Highlights: • Super-credit support policy is aimed at promoting the manufacturing of BEV in the EU. • It does not account for upstream electricity generation in the BEV user country. • We analyze the generation emissions ensuing from the use of the BEV in EU countries. • We show that indirect carbon emissions in some countries exceed proposed targets.

  6. Energy taxation policy in the European Union: the hydrogen case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyavs'ka, L.; Gulli, F.; Lanfranconi, C.

    2006-01-01

    The paper proceeds as follows. Section 2 describes the state of art of the taxation policy on hydrogen in EU Countries. Section 3 describes the methodology used in this paper. Section 4 compares the external costs of the different motor fuel cycles. Section 5 deals with the problem of energy taxation describing a proposal for European energy tax harmonisation based on the internalisation of external costs. Finally, section 6 resumes the main results of the analysis

  7. RISK MITIGATION IN THE BANKING SYSTEM IN THE CONTEXT OF INTEGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura – Maria POPESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to highlight the measures adopted in the financial-banking system in the context of the European integration, according to risk analysis perspectives. The first part provides details on the vulnerability sources in terms of banking risks and their approach from various perspectives. Subsequently, based on the identified risks, a series of measures are proposed to limit them within the banking system. In terms of the work hypotheses, they are confirmed, thus increasing the harmonization level of theories throughout the European Union. Research was based on methods such as analysis, synthesis and induction, used to select the opinion of specialists in the field on the studied matter, and deduction, through the cross-section method, thus following the evolution and measures adopted in time. Following the analysis, a need was noticed for the implementation of an efficient banking risk management system, together with drafting additional regulations, so that the banking system is better prepared to handle new challenges generated by the crisis. The term afferent to the accession and integration in the European Union implied a stage requiring a radical change of the Romanian banking system, considering issues such as Romania’s economic development, leading to an increase of the banking mediation process.

  8. Conflicts of Criminal Jurisdiction in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Zimmermann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts of criminal jurisdiction between the Member States belong to the most difficult challenges that the European Union has to face in order to establish a true “area of freedom, security and justice”. This article starts with an analysis of the interests that are affected by such conflicts: on the one hand, they are most problematic for the individual because they can lead to repeated or simultaneous proceedings in different Member States and forum shopping by prosecution authorities. What is more, they can even make it impossible to foresee whether and how severely an act will be punished. Thus, essential criminal law and procedure guarantees like ne bis in idem, the principle of legality, the right to a court established by law as well as the right to an effective defence are jeopardised. On the other, the Member States involved often have a legitimate interest in prosecution—or non-prosecution—and risk to spend their financial and personnel resources for ineffective parallel proceedings. In order to avoid conflicts of criminal jurisdiction, various models are conceivable. However, the most convincing one—according to the author’s opinion—builds upon a combination of different elements: a hierarchy of jurisdictional links should form the basis, but it would have to be complemented with provisions allowing for more flexibility in precisely defined circumstances. With this in mind, this article calls for the adoption of an EU regulation in order to solve the most urgent problems arising from conflicts of criminal jurisdiction and makes concrete suggestions as to its drafting.

  9. Research projects in family medicine funded by the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavličević, Ivančica; Barać, Lana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at synthesizing funding opportunities in the field of family medicine by determining the number of family medicine projects, as well as number of project leaderships and/ or participations by each country. This was done in order to encourage inclusion of physicians in countries with underdeveloped research networks in successful research networks or to encourage them to form new ones. We searched the Community Research and Development Information Service project database in February 2013. Study covered the period from years 1992 - 2012, selecting the projects within the field of general/family medicine. The search was conducted in February 2013. First search conducted in the CORDIS database came up with a total of 466 projects. After excluding 241 projects with insufficient data, we analysed 225 remaining projects; out of those, 22 (9.8%) were in the field of family medicine and 203 (90.2%) were from other fields of medicine. Sorted by the number of projects per country, Dutch institutions had the highest involvement in family medicine projects and were partners or coordinators in 18 out of 22 selected projects (81.8%), followed by British institutions with 15 (68.8%), and Spanish with 10 projects (45.5%). Croatia was a partner in a single FP7 Health project. Research projects in family medicine funded by the European Union show significant differences between countries. Constant and high-quality international cooperation in family medicine is the prerequisite for improvement and development of scientific research and the profession. Copyright © 2014 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  10. Immigration in the European Union: problems or solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GRIBINCEA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of asylum seekers is rising sharply across the European Union. Given the EU’s ageing population, is a return to selective immigration inevitable. Europe’s history has been shaped by migration. For centuries, merchants, craftsmen and intellectuals crossed the continent to practice their trades or start new lives. Millions emigrated from Europe, first to the colonies and later to the Americas and the Antipodes. Europe also has a long history of forced migration: from the expulsion of the Jews from Spain to the population shifts in southeast Europe caused by the many wars between the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires. Large-scale immigration into western Europe is more recent. From 1960 to 1973, the number of foreign workers in western Europe doubled from 3 to 6% of the workforce. It was highest in places like the UK and France, with relatively open access for citizens of their former colonies; in Germany, too, the number of foreigners (nearly half Turks rose 4m in the 25 years after 1960, although they seldom became citizens. But primary immigration into Europe – driven by labour needs – all but ended with the oil crisis of 1973. The foreign-born population has continued to grow, not least because most countries still issue tens of thousands of residence permits each year for the purposes of family reunification (nearly 80% of the 58,700 people accepted for permanent settlement in the UK in 1997 were wives and children. EU countries also issue thousands of work permits each year. In Britain in 1997, nearly half of the 54,000 permits went to Americans and Japanese mainly in highly skilled jobs; elsewhere in Europe the permits often go to seasonal farm workers. But the proportion of foreign-born residents in the EU remains low, ranging from 9% in Austria, Belgium and Germany, to under 2% in Spain.

  11. Evaluating expansion strategies for startup European Union dairy farm businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, R; Shalloo, L; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2013-06-01

    A stochastic whole-farm simulation model was used to examine alternative strategies for new entrant dairy farmers to grow and develop dairy farm businesses in the context of European Union (EU) milk quota abolition in 2015. Six alternative strategies were compared: remain static, natural growth expansion, waiting until after EU milk quota abolition to expand, a full-scale expansion strategy without milk quotas and not incurring super levy penalties, a full-scale expansion strategy with milk quotas and incurring super levy penalties, and once-a-day milking until EU milk quota abolition, followed by full-scale expansion. Each discrete whole farm investment strategy was evaluated over a 15-yr period (2013-2027) using multiple financial stability and risk indicators, including overall discounted farm business profitability, net worth change, return on investment, and financial risk. The results of this study indicate that, although associated with increased risk, dairy farm expansion will ensure the future profitability of the farm business. Within the context of EU milk quotas until 2015, the most attractive expansion strategy is to increase cow numbers while avoiding super levy fines using once-a-day milking techniques, increasing to the full capacity of the dairy farm once milk quotas are removed. In contrast, the results also indicate that dairy farms that remain static will experience a significant reduction in farm profitability in the coming year due to production cost inflation. Cash flow deficits were observed during the initial year of expansion and, therefore, rapidly expanding dairy farm businesses require a significant cash reserve to alleviate business risk during the initial year of expansion. The results of this analysis also indicate that dairy farm businesses that expand using lower cost capital investments and avoid milk quota super levy fines significantly reduce the financial risks associated with expansion. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science

  12. Disease burden of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia within the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Louise; Wyld, Peter; Catovsky, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Whilst Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is considered a rare disease, to our knowledge, the current prevalence of CLL within the European Union (EU) member states is not published. Understanding the number of individuals with CLL is vital to assess disease burden within the wider population. Using 2002 data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, we estimated the number of individuals with CLL (ICD-10 C91.1) from those reported for all leukaemias (C91-95) and extrapolated the figures by the population increase within the EU between 2002 and 2006, the last year with fully updated community population estimates. One- and 5-yr partial prevalence estimates are reported (i.e. the number of individuals still living 1-5 yr post-diagnosis). We then applied proportional estimates from the literature to assess those requiring immediate treatment, those under observation and their likely progression rates. We found that within the 27 EU states plus Iceland, Norway and Lichtenstein, 1- and 5-yr CLL partial prevalence estimates totalled approximately 13,952 and 46,633 individuals respectively in 2006. By applying Binet staging to the 1-yr estimate, 40% of patients will be stage B/C and require immediate treatment. Thus, 5581 individuals may be treated within the first year of diagnosis. Of the 60% (8371) under observation, by 5 yr up to 33% (2763) may have more advanced disease with increased risk of mortality. Whilst CLL is a rare disease, the number of individuals burdened by the disease within the EU is considerable and thousands of patients require treatment and physician care, which has cost implications for member states.

  13. Budget perspective in Croatia after accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Sopek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Upon accession to the European Union, the New Member State’s budget undergoes significant structural changes due to the appearance of new categories of revenues and expenditures. The aim of this paper is to estimate the possible effects of Croatian membership in the EU on changes in the structure and size of budget revenues and expenditures upon the country’s accession to the EU in the second half of 2013, as well as to indicate the possibilities for utilization of EU funds in the new financial perspective up to 2020. It is shown that in 2013 Croatia might realize a positive net financial position in transactions with the EU budget in the amount of approximately 0.28% of GDP, i.e. EUR 136 m. The total net financial position of Croatia due to EU accession, which includes some additional costs and benefits like different harmonization and the need for project co-financing at state and local levels, is also positive in 2013 and amounts to approximately 0.15% of GDP or equivalently EUR 72 m. Total amount of all funds that Croatia might receive in the new EU financial perspective covering the period from 2014 to 2020 amounts to EUR 6.34 bn, whereby annual amounts increase from EUR 0.7 bn in 2014 up to EUR 1.2 bn in 2020. By using exponential regression analysis it is estimated that in 2020 Croatia should be a net recipient of funds from the EU budget in total amount of 1.72% of GDP, i.e. EUR 1.13 bn.

  14. INNOVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS IN THE EXECUTION OF EUROPEAN UNION BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main reasons invoked to support the use of public funds through financial instruments is that these funds can be used several times: they are therefore "renewable". For example, if a loan granted through such an instrument was repaid after three years, the repaid money could be used later to provide a new loan. Was examined therefore examined whether this renewal effect really materialized. The extent to which funds are renewed in practice depends on the type of financial support but also on the investment period of the instrument concerned. The objective of this article is to highlight that financial instruments have been and are always a way of supporting the attraction and bringing of specific advantages compared to other forms of financing from the European Union The imbalance between the development environment of Central and Eastern Europe countries, candidate countries and EU member states, is quite large and the regions it is even more pronounced. These differences represent serious obstacles in the smooth functioning of the entire Community. The existence of the word "poverty" in some areas of the EU border disrupts the harmony and balance within the community and prevents the creation of an area of equilibrium across the European continent. Essentially, to reduce these imbalances, EU financial support to candidate countries through pre-accession structural instruments, which have a particularly important role in this process. I believe that the Financial Instruments are an effective way of mobilizing cohesion policy resources to achieve the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. Targeting projects with potential economic viability, financial instruments provide support for investment through loans, guarantees, capital investment and other bearing mechanisms of risk, which may be combined with technical assistance, interest rate subsidies or contributions to the guarantee fees in the same operation. In addition to the

  15. Industry Perspective of Pediatric Drug Development in the United States: Involvement of the European Union Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Taku; Tsukamoto, Katsura; Matsumaru, Naoki; Waki, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Efforts to promote the development of pediatric pharmacotherapy include regulatory frameworks and close collaboration between the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. We characterized the current status of pediatric clinical trials conducted in the United States by the pharmaceutical industry, focusing on the involvement of the European Union member countries, to clarify the industry perspective. Data on US pediatric clinical trials were obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov . Binary regression analysis was performed to identify what factors influence the likelihood of involvement of European Union countries. A total of 633 US pediatric clinical trials that met inclusion criteria were extracted and surveyed. Of these, 206 (32.5%) involved a European Union country site(s). The results of binary regression analysis indicated that attribution of industry, phase, disease area, and age of pediatric participants influenced the likelihood of the involvement of European Union countries in US pediatric clinical trials. Relatively complicated or large pediatric clinical trials, such as phase II and III trials and those that included a broad age range of participants, had a significantly greater likelihood of the involvement of European Union countries ( P European Union countries, and (3) feasibility of clinical trials is mainly concerned by pharmaceutical industry for pediatric drug development. Additional incentives for high marketability may further motivate pharmaceutical industry to develop pediatric drugs.

  16. The legal framework governing the quality of (traditional) herbal medicinal products in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Burt H

    2014-12-02

    In the European Union a complex regulatory framework is in place for the regulation of (traditional) herbal medicinal products. It is based on the principle that a marketing authorisation granted by the competent authorities is required for placing medicinal products on the market. The requirements and procedures for acquiring such a marketing authorisation are laid down in regulations, directives and scientific guidelines. This paper gives an overview of the quality requirements for (traditional) herbal medicinal products that are contained in European pharmaceutical legislation. Pharmaceutical quality of medicinal product is the basis for ensuring safe and effective medicines. The basic principles governing the assurance of the quality of medicinal products in the European Union are primarily defined in the amended Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2003/63/EC. Quality requirements of herbal medicinal products are also laid down in scientific guidelines. Scientific guidelines provide a basis for practical harmonisation of how the competent authorities of EU Member States interpret and apply the detailed requirements for the demonstration of quality laid down in regulations and directives. Detailed quality requirements for herbal medicinal products on the European market are contained in European Union (EU) pharmaceutical legislation. They include a system of manufacturing authorisations which ensures that all herbal medicinal products on the European market are manufactured/imported only by authorised manufacturers, whose activities are regularly inspected by the competent authorities. Additionally, as starting materials only active substances are allowed which have been manufactured in accordance with the GMP for starting materials as adopted by the Community. The European regulatory framework encompasses specific requirements for herbal medicinal products. These requirements are independent from the legal status. Thus, the same quality standards equally apply

  17. Global health in the European Union – a review from an agenda-setting perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; Krafft, Thomas; Brand, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    This review attempts to analyse the global health agenda-setting process in the European Union (EU). We give an overview of the European perspective on global health, making reference to the developments that led to the EU acknowledging its role as a global health actor. The article thereby focusses in particular on the European interpretation of its role in global health from 2010, which was formalised through, respectively, a European Commission Communication and European Council Conclusions. Departing from there, and based on Kingdon's multiple streams theory on agenda setting, we identify some barriers that seem to hinder the further establishment and promotion of a solid global health agenda in the EU. The main barriers for creating a strong European global health agenda are the fragmentation of the policy community and the lack of a common definition for global health in Europe. Forwarding the agenda in Europe for global health requires more clarification of the common goals and perspectives of the policy community and the use of arising windows of opportunity. PMID:24560264

  18. Global health in the European Union--a review from an agenda-setting perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; Krafft, Thomas; Brand, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    This review attempts to analyse the global health agenda-setting process in the European Union (EU). We give an overview of the European perspective on global health, making reference to the developments that led to the EU acknowledging its role as a global health actor. The article thereby focuses in particular on the European interpretation of its role in global health from 2010, which was formalised through, respectively, a European Commission Communication and European Council Conclusions. Departing from there, and based on Kingdon's multiple streams theory on agenda setting, we identify some barriers that seem to hinder the further establishment and promotion of a solid global health agenda in the EU. The main barriers for creating a strong European global health agenda are the fragmentation of the policy community and the lack of a common definition for global health in Europe. Forwarding the agenda in Europe for global health requires more clarification of the common goals and perspectives of the policy community and the use of arising windows of opportunity.

  19. Trans-European transport networks and urban systems in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at interregional macro-regional and mezzo-regional level, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. In that respect the brief review of survies, strategic framework and policies in European Union has been given. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. The question is how the new major transport infrastructure affects the development of functional complementarity between cities and regions. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional and urban policy, land use, transport and other policies. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sectorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure projects.

  20. The Effect of Union Type on Work-Life Conflict in Five European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasearu, Kairi

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the strategies for reconciling family and work in different union types. The focus here is on investigating how cohabiting and married individuals perceive the work-life conflict in different European countries. To test the union type impact on work-life balance in the context of different societal conditions, this paper draws…

  1. The European Union face to the nuclear risks of the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the nuclear disarmament, the risk of nuclear proliferation, the brain drain and the traffic of nuclear materials in the Community of Independent States (CIS) after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the actions carried out by the European Union to solve these growing up threats. (J.S.)

  2. The case of a European Social Union. From muddling through to a sense of common purpose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, F.

    2014-01-01

    We need a coherent conception of a European Social Union. A Social Union would support national welfare states on a systemic level in some of their key functions and guide the substantive development of national welfare states - via general social standards and objectives, leaving ways and means of

  3. Trade With the European Union: Recent Trends and Electronic Commerce Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... trade with the European Union (EU). As major trading partners, the United States and the EU are currently addressing several trade-related issues, including their approach to electronic commerce, or e-commerce...

  4. Russia and the European Union: The Sources and Limits of "Special Relationships"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Cynthia A

    2007-01-01

    More than 15 years after the collapse of the Soviet Union and two decades after the last Soviet President, Mikhail Gorbachev, raised hopes that Russia would liberalize and join a common European home...

  5. Medical Device Regulation: A Comparison of the United States and the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maak, Travis G; Wylie, James D

    2016-08-01

    Medical device regulation is a controversial topic in both the United States and the European Union. Many physicians and innovators in the United States cite a restrictive US FDA regulatory process as the reason for earlier and more rapid clinical advances in Europe. The FDA approval process mandates that a device be proved efficacious compared with a control or be substantially equivalent to a predicate device, whereas the European Union approval process mandates that the device perform its intended function. Stringent, peer-reviewed safety data have not been reported. However, after recent high-profile device failures, political pressure in both the United States and the European Union has favored more restrictive approval processes. Substantial reforms of the European Union process within the next 5 to 10 years will result in a more stringent approach to device regulation, similar to that of the FDA. Changes in the FDA regulatory process have been suggested but are not imminent.

  6. Analysis of Logistics Differences within the European Union with Recommendations for Turkey as a Candidate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skalak, Petr; Turk, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    With the recent accession of new states to the European Union, the organization has become a membership of great variability despite regulations that have been implemented to standardize the systems...

  7. Do European Union Defense Initiatives Threaten NATO? Strategic Forum. Number 184, August 2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schake, Kori

    2001-01-01

    ...) Although transatlantic policies will be colored by issues such as the Kyoto treaty, missile defenses, and relations with Russia, ESDP is likely to dominate defense debates as the European Union (EU...

  8. Book Review: A Liberal Actor in a Realist World the European Union ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: A Liberal Actor in a Realist World the European Union Regulatory State and the Global Political Economy of Energy. Book Author: Andreas Goldthau & Nick Sitter. Oxford University Press Oxford 2015. ISBN 9780198719595 ...

  9. The European Union CREATE project: a model for international standardization of allergy diagnostics and vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, Martin D.; Ferreira, Fatima; Villalba, Mayte; Cromwell, Oliver; Bryan, Donna; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Durham, Stephen; Vieths, Stefan; van Ree, Ronald; Aalbers, M.; Notten, S.; Ooievaar-de Heer, P.; Ferreira, F.; Gademaier, G.; Wallner, M.; Villalba, M.; Rodriguez, R.; Becker, W.-M.; Eberhardt, F.; Lepp, U.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Valenta, R.; Focke, M.; Bryan, D.; Dolman, C.; Das, R. G.; Vieths, S.; Fötisch, K.; Di Felice, G.; Pini, C.; Cromwell, O.; Fiebig, H.; Weber, B.; van Schijndel, H.; Dorpema, J. W.; Marco, F. M.; Monsalve, R.; Barber, D.; Caldas, E. Fernandez; Moingeon, P.; Didierlaurent, A.; André, C.; Kroon, A.; Neubauer, A.; Chapman, M.; Vailes, L.; Tsay, A.; Durham, S.; Custovic, A.; Simpson, B.; Knulst, A.; Rivas, M. Fernández; Mancebo, E. Gonzalez; Bahima, A. Cistero; Moncin, M. M. San Miguel; Mari, A.; Kinaciyan, T.; Quiralte, J.; Pauli, G.; de Blay, F.; Purohit, A.; Rak, S.

    2008-01-01

    Allergen measurements are used extensively in the formulation of allergy diagnostics and vaccines, yet no purified international allergen standards are available for calibration purposes. The aims of the European Union CREATE project were to develop international standards with verifiable allergen

  10. European Union's Arms Control Regime and Arms Exports to China: Background and Legal Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F; Papademetriou, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    In recent months, discussions have been held within the European Union (EU) on the question of lifting the embargo on arms exports to the People's Republic of China that was imposed on China on June 27, 1989...

  11. Use of Simulation in Nursing Education: Initial Experiences on a European Union Lifelong Learning Programme--Leonardo Da Vinci Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzioglu, Fusun; Tuna, Zahide; Duygulu, Sergul; Boztepe, Handan; Kapucu, Sevgisun; Ozdemir, Leyla; Akdemir, Nuran; Kocoglu, Deniz; Alinier, Guillaume; Festini, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this paper is to share the initial experiences on a European Union (EU) Lifelong Learning Programme Leonardo Da Vinci Transfer of Innovation Project related to the use of simulation-based learning with nursing students from Turkey. The project started at the end of the 2010 involving 7 partners from 3 different countries including…

  12. Estimating Burden and Disease Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trasande, Leonardo; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Hass, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly increasing evidence has documented that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute substantially to disease and disability. Objective: The objective was to quantify a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the European Union (EU......). Design: A Steering Committee of scientists adapted the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization for probability of causation based upon levels of available epidemiological and toxicological evidence for one or more chemicals contributing to disease by an endocrine...

  13. Towards the Goals of the Europe 2020 Strategy: Convergence or Divergence of the European Union Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Szymańska, Agata; Zalewska, Elżbieta

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the similarities between the EU countries in terms of achieving the Europe 2020 Strategy goals. Due to the latest data availability, the analysis is based on the year 2014. The study uses grouping methods, including the k-means algorithm. The results indicate the existence of a division between the “old” and “new” European Union Member States. However, as is shown, some of the Strategy’s targets have already been achieved and some indicators have been...

  14. FOREIGN MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES IN THE UNITED STATES/EUROPEAN UNION AGRIBUSINESS TRADE CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lelis Leal Calegario

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study makes an analysis of American’ multinationals foreign market entry strategies in the European Union agribusiness context. We have used a logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equation method to make hypothesis about the multinationals’ choices. Our results suggest that American food companies operating in EU appear not to choose their mode of entry based merely on host country factors, but mostly on firm related factors, including firm-specific factors and firm financial performance. Despite the creation of a common institutional framework for M&As in the EU, they are still subject to peculiarities due mostly to organizational characteristics of investing firms.

  15. Nuclear safety in countries that are candidate for entry to the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this report, experts from countries members of the European Union have wished to give their collective opinion about nuclear safety in countries that are standing for integrating the E.U.. The investigated countries are Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Slovakia, Rumania, Slovenia and Czech Republic. This report is based on information given in international cooperation programmes such as Phare programmes as well as in bilateral contacts. 2 aspects are considered: regulatory authorities and the level of safety in operating nuclear power plants. This report does not deal with radioactive waste management nor with radiation protection. (A.C.)

  16. The Readiness of the European Union to Embrace the Fourth Industrial Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kuruczleki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge has become a crucial factor of production in the developed economies and, as humans are the carriers and utilisers of knowledge, skilled human resource is gaining similarly large relevance. These advancements are elements of the substantial changes that characterise the fourth industrial revolution – a phenomenon worth studying in detail. The European Union has been explicitly concerned about the shift to the knowledge economy since the Lisbon Summit of 2000. More than one and a half decades later the eu’s readiness to embrace the knowledge-driven fourth industrial revolution can be examined. We undertake that by creating an index based on various related data.

  17. YOUNGSTERS INSERTION ON THE LABOUR MARKET. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ROMANIA - EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobre Mihaela Hrisanta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The insertion of young people into the labor market represents an important issue amongst all the countries within the European Union and this process is studied differently from one country to another. At present the European Union counts about 75 million young people with the age between 15 and 24 years old. This article main objective is to study insertion rate of young people the labour market as well as it deals with their problems.

  18. Policy Brief - Precarious versus protected care work in the European Union: finding the right balance

    OpenAIRE

    Knijn Trudie; Oomkens Rosanne

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on research conducted during the project, this policy brief addresses care work for elderly people in European Union countries in the context ofthe right to free movement of labour. Despite a range of guidelines and directives in the past decades, the European Union still faces the intersectional problem of an ageing population, gender inequality, and lack of rights for caregivers, the latter being mainly women and – in some countries – increasingly migrant women. The risks of olde...

  19. The legacy of uranium mining in Central and Eastern Europe - a view from the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, S.; Vrijen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the countries of Central and Eastern Europe there was widespread mining and processing of uranium which has left a huge environmental and public health problem requiring urgent remedial action. The present paper outlines the situation from the perspective of the European Union by presenting a description of the assistance provided through Community funding and a summary of relevant European Union legislation in this field. (author)

  20. Renewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sectors of European Union member states: a panel data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Hélde Araujo; De Melo Faria, Alexandre Magno; Fuinhas, José Alberto; Marques, António Cardoso

    2017-08-01

    In the last two decades, there has been a rich debate about the environmental degradation that results from exposure to solid urban waste. Growing public concern with environmental issues has led to the implementation of various strategic plans for waste management in several developed countries, especially in the European Union. In this paper, the relationships were assessed between economic growth, renewable energy extraction and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the waste sector. The Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis was analysed for the member states of the European Union, in the presence of electricity generation, landfill and GHG emissions for the period 1995 to 2012. The results revealed that there is no inverted-U-shaped relationship between income and GHG emissions in European Union countries. The renewable fuel extracted from waste contributes to a reduction in GHG, and although the electricity produced also increases emissions somewhat, they would be far greater if the waste-based generation of renewable energy did not take place. The waste sector needs to strengthen its political, economic, institutional and social communication instruments to meet its aims for mitigating the levels of pollutants generated by European economies. To achieve the objectives of the Horizon 2020 programme, currently in force in the countries of the European Union, it will be necessary to increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix.

  1. Convergence of Croatian Financial and Budget Regulations to the Framework and Practices of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana MALETIĆ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As of 2004 intensive preparatory activities for the accession of the Republic of Croatia into the European Union have started. Significant changes have been taking place in legislation, institutional and administrative respect. The so called “silent reform“ is changing the appearance and the way of work of state administration. Institutions acquire the rules and way of work of the European Union through the usage of pre-accession programmes. General opinion moves in the direction of successfulness, competitiveness, attainment of results and added values. Financial regulations regarding stipulation of budget processes have been changing through the introduction of the following elements: strategic planning, multi-annual budget framework, fiscal discipline, internal audit as well as financial management and control system based on clearly set work processes and procedures. This document provides the description of the most significant changes regarding financial management and budget regulations in the Republic of Croatia which have taken place in the course of adapting (developing the system to the European practices and rules.

  2. METHOD OF SYSTEMATIZING THE EUROPEAN UNION STATES IN CATEGORIES ACCORDING TO THEIR ADMINISTRATIVE CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bosie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During times of severe budget reductions and limitations, it becomes necessary to conduct an evaluation of the ability of the States to carry out the administrative process and to provide useful solutions developed through common policies at European level, necessary for costs abatement, towards maintaing the productivity and the innovative potential of organizations and in order to secure employment. Evaluation at the European Union level is essential to the identification of the weak elements for each state and in order to effectively provide a broad palette of services focused towards the citizens. The idea of developing an evaluation system was instituted after the establishment of a common framework of quantitative assessment, Common Assessment Framework (CAF. CAF is a tool used to help public sector organizations in Europe in the use of quality management techniques sintended to improve performance. This tool wants to be a global tool for comparative analysis of administrative performance. As described on the official website of the program, the model is based on the premise that excellent results of organizational performance, of the citizens/customers and of the society are achieved through leadership and planning strategy, people, partnerships, resources and processes. At the end of the research, the analysis of the main components will confirm the results, shown by European Union States progress in sustainable development of public sector.

  3. The place of polish in the multilingual space of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Neprytska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the position of the Polish language in the multilingual space of the European Union and determines the key factors which facilitate its gaining popularity and spreading in Europe. A large territory and population determine the significant presence of Polish in the European Union. Intense economic development facilitates popularization of learning and using Polish in the business medium, however, English was and still remains the dominating language of business. Active work of the state on improving the reputation of the country abroad, civilizational (value­based unity with other nations of the EU, favorable geographical position, common Indo­European roots of Germanic, Romanic and Slavonic  languages as well as usage of the Latin type create favorable conditions for the development and popularization of Polish on the territory of the EU. The article also mentions a number of concerns, which are rooted in the historical past of a dependent or semi­dependent existence of the Polish people, namely, the existence of the Polish and culture in the shade of German and Russian culture space, the negative international image of modern Poland, which was formed at the beginning of the 1990­s, the low level of Europeans’ familiarization with the Polish culture, absence of popularity and economic necessity of learning Polish abroad.

  4. FOOD SELF-SUFFICIENCY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES – ENERGETIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Sadowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers the issues of a basic social need, namely alimentation. The aim of the research is to evaluate the energetic food self-sufficiency and its changes in the European Union countries. The research has been conducted using the author’s methodology basing on the amount of energy produced and consumed in 1990-2009. The analyses proved that within the considered period, the European Union became an importer of net energy comprised in agricultural products. The excess in produced energy was mainly observed by the countries of European lowland. Moreover in most of the countries, a decrease in the analyzed factor was observed when compared with the 1990-1999 period. On the other hand, in relation to the new member states the increase in food energetic self-sufficiency was observed. The conclusion has been drawn that, while the general food self-sufficiency is mainly determined by environmental factors, its dynamics is primarily influenced by the factors connected with agricultural policy.

  5. ROMANIA’S ASSENT TO THE EUROPEAN UNION – NATIONAL STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan HURJUI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The historic context in which Romania’s steps regarding the assent into the communitarian structures are joined, can be placed under the sign of profound changes who interfered in the Romanian society after 1989 such as: the building of a democratic society and the instauration of a market economy, and also under the sign of a contradictory defiance among the European Union. Romania is the first central and eastern European country who established official relationships with the European Community. Romania addend to the European Union on the 1-st of january, 2007.

  6. ASPECTS OF THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS PROTECTION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE PURDĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human rights protection within the European Community and the European Union has developed judicially, the human rights being protected by the Community Courts as general principles of Community law. The Treaty of Maastricht and the Treaty of Amsterdam have codified the Community law within the area of human rights. The codification of European Union’s concept of human rights in a single document was realized by adopting the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, on 7 December 2000 in Nice, whose provisions acquired legally binding under the Treaty of Lisbon.

  7. Corporate Tax in European Union and the Theory of Corporate Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwin-Garzyńska Jolanta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives to be accomplished by the European Union law is to eliminate barriers to the functioning of domestic market and in particular improve the competitiveness of enterprises. After several years of efforts, the European Commission approved a proposal for the directive on a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base which is to remove obstacles to the functioning of internal market and increase tax harmonization. The article is aimed at presenting the essence of CCCTB in the theory of corporate finance and its importance for enterprises, based on the survey of Polish and EU companies. The paper addresses issues relating to tax in corporate finance. Canons of taxation will be discussed and special emphasis will be placed on principles behind formulating fiscal law provisions (including the EU law. Furthermore, the article presents the results of surveys into the importance of taxation cannons for Polish and EU companies.

  8. The energy outlook for Russia and the dialogue between the European Union and Russian concerning energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, B.

    2003-01-01

    The discussions concerning energy taking place between the European Union and Russia are aimed at setting up a permanent partnership in the energy sector in order to ensure that the exploitation of Russian energy resources makes it possible to guarantee the economic development of Russia while at the same time supplying sufficient energy exports to the European Union. The outlook for Russia's energy strategy in the years up to 2020 are based on a rate of growth in GDP of 5 % per year, combined with structural changes in economic activities and a vigorous energy efficiency policy, leading to a significant reduction in energy intensity. The low level of growth in demand resulting from this, combined with an increase in production and a reduction in the percentage of natural gas in electricity production guarantees a high level of potential for oil and gas exports in 2020, Compatible with the energy importation requirements of the future European Union and security of supply. The energy outlook for Russia presented by the International Energy Agency (IEA) are based on much lower economic growth figures and on a limited reduction in energy intensity. The percentage accounted for by natural gas in the production of electricity remains high. The IEA assessment is also based on a major increase in the production capacities for hydrocarbons in Russia while at the same time stressing the importance of the financial effort required to achieve this. Like the Russian outlook, it also identifies a major potential for the exportation of oil and natural gas by 2020. The convergence of these two outlooks concerning the future energy exporting capacity of Russia are seriously overshadowed by the fact that they differ greatly concerning their hypotheses and results with regard to domestic consumption and the production of energy. A 'warning scenario' combining the most similar hypotheses from both outlooks demonstrates the uncertain accompanying them. This analysis highlights the

  9. SOME ASPECTS CONCERNING THE DIPLOMATIC PROTECTION OFFERED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION FOR THE CITIZENS IN THE PRESENT ECONOMIC SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirisan Ligia-Valentina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the particular meaning that is specific to European citizenship and that is involved in the practice of citizenship, it causes modern concepts of citizenship which are derived from the universal norms of citizenship. It's important to underline that the European citizenship is a concept which does not replace the National citizenship, but it is a new modern concept which has a real connection with the national citizenship and why not connected with the Romanian citizenship. From this point of view, emphasize in this paper that the diplomatic and consular authorities from member states of the Union have to guarantee the protection of the European citizens in third countries in which their state is not represented. The cooperation of the diplomatic representatives is an important point for the Foreign Politic of the European Union.

  10. The European Union, the ESDP, and the question of Turkey /

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Alistair

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential contribution in terms of crude capabilities that Turkey could bring to the European Union’s ESDP security framework. The history of the European Union’s security aspirations and the security policy preferences of the major actors in European security will also be examined as a way of framing the question of Turkey's potential role within the emerging European security and defense framework. The second chapter will look at how European security has evolved fro...

  11. Management of landfill leachate: The legacy of European Union Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, R B; Healy, M G; Morrison, L; Hynes, S; Norton, D; Clifford, E

    2016-09-01

    Landfill leachate is the product of water that has percolated through waste deposits and contains various pollutants, which necessitate effective treatment before it can be released into the environment. In the last 30years, there have been significant changes in landfill management practices in response to European Union (EU) Directives, which have led to changes in leachate composition, volumes produced and treatability. In this study, historic landfill data, combined with leachate characterisation data, were used to determine the impacts of EU Directives on landfill leachate management, composition and treatability. Inhibitory compounds including ammonium (NH4-N), cyanide, chromium, nickel and zinc, were present in young leachate at levels that may inhibit ammonium oxidising bacteria, while arsenic, copper and silver were present in young and intermediate age leachate at concentrations above inhibitory thresholds. In addition, the results of this study show that while young landfills produce less than 50% of total leachate by volume in the Republic of Ireland, they account for 70% of total annual leachate chemical oxygen demand (COD) load and approximately 80% of total 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and NH4-N loads. These results show that there has been a decrease in the volume of leachate produced per tonne of waste landfilled since enactment of the Landfill Directive, with a trend towards increased leachate strength (particularly COD and BOD5) during the initial five years of landfill operation. These changes may be attributed to changes in landfill management practices following the implementation of the Landfill Directive. However, this study did not demonstrate the impact of decreasing inputs of biodegradable municipal waste on leachate composition. Increasingly stringent wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) emission limit values represent a significant threat to the sustainability of co-treatment of leachate with municipal wastewater. In addition

  12. The Impact of European Economic Integration on Migration in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent enlargement of the EU (since 2004 and the United Kingdom's decision to leave the European Union have prompted a growing research interest in the political and academic environment because of the causes and consequences of migration between the CEE countries and those in the Western Europe. In this study, the effects of European economic integration on the number of EU-15 immigrants from the newly integrated EU countries were assessed by econometric techniques. According to panel data models, in the period 2000-2015, the number of migrants from the new member states of the EU has increased, in average, with more than 2200 people only due to their EU membership. This result reflects the positive impact of European economic integration on the number of emigrants from the CEE countries that chose the EU-15 states as destination countries. Moreover, according to some ridge Bayesian regressions, during the period 2004-2015, the EU-15 immigrants coming from the EU-13 states did not negatively affect the economic growth of the EU-15 countries.

  13. The New Intergovernmentalism in Financial Regulation and European Banking Union

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth, David; Quaglia, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    This contribution asks whether a new type of intergovernmentalism has emerged in financial services regulation and Banking Union. Since financial services are a key area of the single market, the chapter concludes by reflecting on whether the governance trends in the financial sector can be generalised to other areas of the single market. It is argued that the single market for financial services, which encompasses financial regulation and the plan for Banking Union, provides an interesting m...

  14. The study of the European Union from outside: European integration studies in Norway and Iceland 1990-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Eliassen, Kjell; Marino, Marit Sjøvaag; Bergmann, Eirikur

    2012-01-01

    This is a working paper version of a paper written for SENT - The Network of European Studies. The aim of this chapter is to map the research on European integration carried out by Norwegian and Icelandic researchers and research institutions in the period 1990–2010. This study covers research of central aspects of the European Union itself: institutions, decision-making processes, policies, actors and the relationship to other countries, global and regional institutions and local and regiona...

  15. SOME ASPECTS REGARDING TRANSLATION DIVERGENCES BETWEEN THE AUTHENTIC TEXTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Cristiana SPĂTARU-NEGURĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When multiple legal orders and languages co-exist within a single legal regime, there is potential for divergences between the legal texts. The European Union represents on the international legal stage, the most ambitious linguistic project, integrating 28 Member States and 24 official languages. What we undertook with this study was to discover how the multilingual and multicultural environment of the European Union affects its legislative and judicial processes. We tried to argue the problem of translation divergences between the authentic texts of the European Union. Many questions arise. Is ‘controlled multilingualism’ the key to our problem? Is weak multilingualism the solution - especially that it is not new for the European construction? Should one language be chosen as the original? Of course that we have to see that multilingualism is an advantage, a blessing of the European Union and not an obstacle, a curse. We consider that, despite the various problems with the European multilingualism described in this study, it is unlikely that something would change in the foreseeable future. However, we consider that lawyers should research more in languages and legal interpretation. Interdisciplinary efforts could solve the multilingualism problems of the European Union. The present study is part of a more complex research on this theme and it is meant to approach certain important points of the master thesis prepared in Switzerland for a LL.M. program.

  16. Procedure of preliminary decision as a supranational judicial keynote of the European Union member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Magherescu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of preliminary decision has been for a long time agreed unanimously both by doctrine and jurisprudence and considered as a keynote in developing notional law systems of the European Communities. In the national frame, it is similarly with submitting unconstitutional exception, regulated in several national jurisdictions of the EU Member States. The current paper aims at providing some argues based on a jurisprudence frame of the procedure of preliminary decision made by the Court of Justice of the European Union, as being directory for the national EU Member States’ courts of justice. It also focuses on the judicial issues whose solution is needed in order for the national justice to solve the cases they were invested with.

  17. Bill authorizing the ratification of the protocol amending the Protocol on transitional provisions annexed to the Treaty on European Union, to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After an indication of the European Parliament composition, this text describes the transitional provisions adopted as the Lisbon Treaty did not come into effect before the European elections held in June 2009. The document also provides the protocol text signed by the Members States and which amended the protocol on transitional provisions annexed to the Treaty on the European Union, to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The last part of the document discusses the administrative and legal consequences of this protocol. It also recalls the history of the negotiations and indicates the present status of signatures and ratifications

  18. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisan Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for

  19. The Post-9/11 European Union Counterterrorism Response: Legal-Institutional Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    library/ biblio /publications/2011/fin_report/fin_report_11_en.pdf. 427 Heading 3a: Freedom, security and justice did not exist in the Financial Framework...European Union, 2012. Accessed November 8,2012. http://ec.europa.eu/budget/library/ biblio /publications/2011/fin_report/fin_report_1 1_en.pdf. European

  20. Twenty Years of European Union Support to Gene Therapy and Gene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancberg, David

    2017-11-01

    For 20 years and throughout its research programmes, the European Union has supported the entire innovation chain for gene transfer and gene therapy. The fruits of this investment are ripening as gene therapy products are reaching the European market and as clinical trials are demonstrating the safety of this approach to treat previously untreatable diseases.