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Sample records for european spined loaches

  1. Effective Condition for Whole Testis Cryopreservation of Endangered Miho Spine Loach (Cobitis choii) Through the Optimization of Mud Loach (Misgurnus mizolepis) Whole Testis Cryopreservation Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J J; Nam, Y K; Bang, I C; Gong, S P

      BACKGROUND: Miho spine loach (Cobitis choii) is an endangered Korean endemic fish. Whole testis cryopreservation is a good way for species preservation, but needs to the sacrifice of a large number of fish to optimize the freezing condition. Considering this limitation, a surrogate fish species was used for the protocol development. This study was to establish the effective condition for Miho spine loach whole testis cryopreservation by optimizing the conditions for whole testis cryopreservation in an allied species, mud loach (Misgurnus mizolepis). The condition for whole testis cryopreservation was optimized in mud loach first, and then the optimal condition was applied to Miho spine loach testes. The optimal condition for mud loach testis cryopreservation consists of the freezing medium containing 1.3 M dimethyl sulfoxide, 6% fetal bovine serum and 0.3 M trehalose, -1 C/min cooling rate and 26 degree C thawing temperature, which also permits effective cryopreservation of Miho spine loach testes. An effective cryopreservation condition for whole testis of the endangered Miho spine loach has been established by using mud loach as a surrogate fish.

  2. Spawning marks in spined loaches (Cobitis taenia; Cobitidae; Teleostei)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, 1-2 (2008), s. 168-171 ISSN 0139-7893. [International Conference Loaches of the genus Cobitis and related genera. Šibenik, 24.09.2006-29.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA AV ČR IAA600450508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : freshwater fish * reproduction * autecology Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008

  3. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences

  4. Combining morphology and genetics in resolving taxonomy--a systematic revision of spined loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii in the Adriatic watershed.

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    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available Taxonomic investigation of spined loaches from Dalmatia and Herzegovina was conducted on specimens from 14 localities. The results of the detailed morphological investigations were combined with genetic data (based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes in order to resolve the taxonomic status of each Cobitis population. Among the investigated features of external morphology, the appearance of spots on the caudal fin base turned out to have the greatest diagnostic value. Furthermore, the number of branched fin rays enabled the discrimination of several species. No morphometric character alone could ensure determination of any Cobitis species. Nevertheless, groups of populations that are more similar in their body shapes correspond to mitochondrial phylogenetic lineages. Based on molecular genetic markers, Dalmatian and Herzegovinian spined loaches form independent lineages inside the Adriatic phylogenetic group. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic reconstruction revealed six monophyletic lineages, corresponding to six species distributed in the investigated area. The population distributed in Mostarsko blato karstic field in Bosnia and Herzegovina is described as a new species based on a unique combination of morphological characters: a single triangular Canestrini scale; usually 51/2 branched anal fin rays, 61/2 branched dorsal fin rays, 14 branched caudal fin rays; no spots in the surface pigmentation layer on the caudal fin base; scales on the body very small.

  5. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of spined loaches (genus Cobitis) in Croatia based on mtDNA and allozyme analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buj, I.; Podnar, M.; Mrakovčić, M.; Choleva, Lukáš; Šlechtová, Věra; Tvrtković, N.; Ćaleta, M.; Mustafić, P.; Marčić, Z.; Zanella, D.; Brigić, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, 1-2 (2008), s. 71-82 ISSN 0139-7893. [International Conference Loaches of the genus Cobitis and related genera. Šibenik, 24.09.2006-29.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/05/P586; GA ČR GA206/06/1763; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:UK Praha(CZ) 187/2005 B BIO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Cobitidae loaches * Danube watershed * Adriatic watershed Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008

  6. Molecular Evidence for Multiple Origins of the European Spined Loaches (Teleostei, Cobitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Percides, A.; Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Doadrio, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2016), e0144628-e0144628 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : mitochondrial DNA sequences * cytochrome b gene * phylogenetic relationship Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  7. Spine surgery training and competence of European Neurosurgical Trainees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boszczyk, Bronek Maximilian; Mooij, Jan Jakob; Schmitt, Natascha; Di Rocco, Concezio; Fakouri, Baroum Baroum; Lindsay, Kenneth W.

    Little is known about the nature of spine surgery training received by European neurosurgical trainees during their residency and the level of competence they acquire in dealing with spinal disorders. A three-part questionnaire entailing 32 questions was devised and distributed to the neurosurgical

  8. European colonization by the spined loach (Cobitis taenia) from Ponto-Caspian refugia based on mitochondrial DNA variation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Culling, M.; Janko, Karel; Boron, A.; Vasiljev, V. P.; Cote, I. M.; Hewitt, G. M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 15, 1 (2006), s. 173-190 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/05/P586; GA AV ČR IBS5045111 Grant - others:RFBR 02-04-48354 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : colonization * glacial refugia * mitochondrial DNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.825, year: 2006

  9. Genetic differentiation of two diploid-polyploid complexes of spined loach, genus Cobitis (Cobitidae), in the Czech Republic, involving C. taenia, C. elongatoides and C. spp.: allozyme interpopulation and interspecific differences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlechtová, Věra; Lusková, Věra; Šlechta, Vlastimil; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Bohlen, Jörg

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 49, Suppl. 1 (2000), s. 67-78 ISSN 0139-7893. [Loaches of the genus Cobitis and related genera. Brno, 31.05.1999-03.06.1999] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/97/0684; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK2005601 Keywords : Cobitis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.240, year: 2000

  10. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): II. Hair and spines as indicators of endogenous metal and As concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Have, Helga; Scheirs, Jan; Mubiana, Valentine Kayawe; Verhagen, Ron; Blust, Ronny; Coen, Wim de

    2006-01-01

    The role of hair and spines of the European hedgehog as non-destructive monitoring tools of metal (Ag, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) and As pollution in terrestrial ecosystems was investigated. Our results showed that mean pollution levels of a random sample of hedgehogs in Flanders are low to moderate. Yet, individual hedgehogs may be at risk for metal toxicity. Tissue distribution analyses (hair, spines, liver, kidney, muscle and fat tissue) indicated that metals and As may reach considerable concentrations in external tissues, such as hair and spines. Positive relationships were observed between concentrations in hair and those in liver, kidney and muscle for Al, Co, Cr, Cu, and Pb (0.43 < r < 0.85). Spine concentrations were positively related to liver, kidney and muscle concentrations for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu and Pb (0.37 < r < 0.62). Hair Ag, As, Fe and Zn and spine Ag, Al, As and Fe were related to metal concentrations in one or two of the investigated internal tissues (0.31 < r < 0.45). The regression models presented here may be used to predict metal and As concentrations in internal tissues of hedgehogs when concentrations in hair or spines are available. The present study demonstrated the possibility of using hair and spines for non-destructive monitoring of metal and As pollution in hedgehogs. - Hedgehog hair and spines are promising non-destructive biomonitoring tools of terrestrial metal pollution

  11. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): II. Hair and spines as indicators of endogenous metal and As concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Have, Helga [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: helga.dhave@ua.ac.be; Scheirs, Jan [Evolutionary Biology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Mubiana, Valentine Kayawe [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Verhagen, Ron [Evolutionary Biology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coen, Wim de [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2006-08-15

    The role of hair and spines of the European hedgehog as non-destructive monitoring tools of metal (Ag, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) and As pollution in terrestrial ecosystems was investigated. Our results showed that mean pollution levels of a random sample of hedgehogs in Flanders are low to moderate. Yet, individual hedgehogs may be at risk for metal toxicity. Tissue distribution analyses (hair, spines, liver, kidney, muscle and fat tissue) indicated that metals and As may reach considerable concentrations in external tissues, such as hair and spines. Positive relationships were observed between concentrations in hair and those in liver, kidney and muscle for Al, Co, Cr, Cu, and Pb (0.43 < r < 0.85). Spine concentrations were positively related to liver, kidney and muscle concentrations for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu and Pb (0.37 < r < 0.62). Hair Ag, As, Fe and Zn and spine Ag, Al, As and Fe were related to metal concentrations in one or two of the investigated internal tissues (0.31 < r < 0.45). The regression models presented here may be used to predict metal and As concentrations in internal tissues of hedgehogs when concentrations in hair or spines are available. The present study demonstrated the possibility of using hair and spines for non-destructive monitoring of metal and As pollution in hedgehogs. - Hedgehog hair and spines are promising non-destructive biomonitoring tools of terrestrial metal pollution.

  12. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): II. Hair and spines as indicators of endogenous metal and As concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Havé, Helga; Scheirs, Jan; Mubiana, Valentine Kayawe; Verhagen, Ron; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim

    2006-08-01

    The role of hair and spines of the European hedgehog as non-destructive monitoring tools of metal (Ag, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) and As pollution in terrestrial ecosystems was investigated. Our results showed that mean pollution levels of a random sample of hedgehogs in Flanders are low to moderate. Yet, individual hedgehogs may be at risk for metal toxicity. Tissue distribution analyses (hair, spines, liver, kidney, muscle and fat tissue) indicated that metals and As may reach considerable concentrations in external tissues, such as hair and spines. Positive relationships were observed between concentrations in hair and those in liver, kidney and muscle for Al, Co, Cr, Cu, and Pb (0.43 Spine concentrations were positively related to liver, kidney and muscle concentrations for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu and Pb (0.37 spine Ag, Al, As and Fe were related to metal concentrations in one or two of the investigated internal tissues (0.31 hedgehogs when concentrations in hair or spines are available. The present study demonstrated the possibility of using hair and spines for non-destructive monitoring of metal and As pollution in hedgehogs.

  13. Relevance of hair and spines of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) as biomonitoring tissues for arsenic and metals in relation to blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, F.; Havé, D' H.; Mubiana, V.K.; Brink, van den N.W.; Blust, R.; Bervoets, L.; Coen, De W.

    2009-01-01

    Hair has been proven to be suitable for non-destructive and non-invasive exposure assessments in human and mammal populations. A previous study with European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) showed that, for some metals, hair and spine metal concentrations were positively correlated to levels in

  14. Mortality selection during the 2003 European heat wave in three-spined sticklebacks: effects of parasites and MHC genotype

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    Milinski Manfred

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological interaction strength may increase under environmental stress including temperature. How such stress enhances and interacts with parasite selection is almost unknown. We studied the importance of resistance genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II in 14 families of three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus exposed to their natural macroparasites in field enclosures in the extreme summer of 2003. Results After a mass die-off during the 2003-European heat wave killing 78% of 277 experimental fish, we found strong differences in survival among and within families. In families with higher average parasite load fewer individuals survived. Multivariate analysis revealed that the composition of the infecting parasite fauna was family specific. Within families, individuals with an intermediate number of MHC class IIB sequence variants survived best and had the lowest parasite load among survivors, suggesting a direct functional link between MHC diversity and fitness. The within family MHC effects were, however, small compared to between family effects, suggesting that other genetic components or non-genetic effects were also important. Conclusion The correlation between parasite load and mortality that we found at both individual and family level might have appeared only in the extraordinary heatwave of 2003. Due to global warming the frequency of extreme climatic events is predicted to increase, which might intensify costs of parasitism and enhance selection on immune genes.

  15. Complex rheological behaviors of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) skin mucus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiang; Su, Heng; Lv, Weiyang; Du, Miao; Song, Yihu; Zheng, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The functions and structures of biological mucus are closely linked to rheology. In this article, the skin mucus of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) was proved to be a weak hydrogel susceptible to shear rate, time, and history, exhibiting: (i) Two-region breakdown of its gel structure during oscillatory strain sweep; (ii) rate-dependent thickening followed by three-region thinning with increased shear rate, and straight thinning with decreased shear rate; and (iii) time-dependent rheopexy at low shear rates, and thixotropy at high shear rates. An interesting correlation between the shear rate- and time-dependent rheological behaviors was also revealed, i.e., the rheopexy-thixotropy transition coincided with the first-second shear thinning region transition. Apart from rheology, a structure of colloidal network was observed in loach skin mucus using transmission electron microscopy. The complex rheology was speculated to result from inter- and intracolloid structural alterations. The unique rheology associated with the colloidal network structure, which has never been previously reported in vertebrate mucus, may play a key role in the functions (e.g., flow, reannealing, lubrication, and barrier) of the mucus

  16. Complex rheological behaviors of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) skin mucus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang, E-mail: 11229036@zju.edu.cn; Su, Heng, E-mail: shtdyso@163.com; Lv, Weiyang, E-mail: 3090103369@zju.edu.cn; Du, Miao, E-mail: dumiao@zju.edu.cn; Song, Yihu, E-mail: s-yh0411@zju.edu.cn; Zheng, Qiang, E-mail: zhengqiang@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-01-15

    The functions and structures of biological mucus are closely linked to rheology. In this article, the skin mucus of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) was proved to be a weak hydrogel susceptible to shear rate, time, and history, exhibiting: (i) Two-region breakdown of its gel structure during oscillatory strain sweep; (ii) rate-dependent thickening followed by three-region thinning with increased shear rate, and straight thinning with decreased shear rate; and (iii) time-dependent rheopexy at low shear rates, and thixotropy at high shear rates. An interesting correlation between the shear rate- and time-dependent rheological behaviors was also revealed, i.e., the rheopexy-thixotropy transition coincided with the first-second shear thinning region transition. Apart from rheology, a structure of colloidal network was observed in loach skin mucus using transmission electron microscopy. The complex rheology was speculated to result from inter- and intracolloid structural alterations. The unique rheology associated with the colloidal network structure, which has never been previously reported in vertebrate mucus, may play a key role in the functions (e.g., flow, reannealing, lubrication, and barrier) of the mucus.

  17. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, a new subterranean loach from Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei; Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir; Ararat, Korsh; Ibrahim, Hamad; Geiger, Matthias F

    2016-10-04

    Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, new species, is described from subterranean waters in the Little Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. After the discovery of E. smithi in 1976, E. proudlovei is the second troglomorphic nemacheilid loach found in the Middle East and the second species placed in Eidinemacheilus. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei is distinguished from E. smithi by having 8+8 or 8+7 branched caudal-fin rays, no adipose keel on the caudal peduncle, enlarged jaws and a fully developed head canal system. It furthers differs substantially in its DNA barcode (>8% K2P distance) from all other nemacheilid loaches in the Middle East, Europe and Western India.

  18. Schistura kampucheensis, a new species of loach from Cambodia (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Petrtýl, M.; Chaloupková, P.; Borin, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2016), s. 353-362 ISSN 0936-9902 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Schistura kampucheensis * loach Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.953, year: 2016

  19. Combined use of Azolla and loach suppressed paddy weeds and increased organic rice yield: second season results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming uses alternatives to agricultural chemicals such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. The primary challenge in organic rice farming is controlling weeds without using herbicides and improving rice yield without chemical fertilizers. In our previous paper entitled as combined use of Azolla and loach suppressed weed Monochoria vaginalis and increased rice yield without agrochemicals, we reported the first year rice growth season results from an in situ container experiment. The experiment was designed with 4 treatments—control (with neither Azolla nor loach, Azolla (Azolla alone, loach (loach alone, and Az+Lo (combined Azolla and loach—with 3 replications each. The first year results showed that combined use of Azolla and loach was successful in weed suppression and increase in rice yield in 2012. In this paper, we report the second year results from the continuous container experiment in 2013. M.vaginalis emergences were very low in second year rice growth season on all treatments. Compared first year, the rice yields decreased in second year on all treatments due to different weather condition and with or without organic soybean oil cake application between two rice growth seasons. The second year results also showed the raising loach had a stronger effect to increase tiller and panicle numbers, and spikelet number per panicle, then improve rice yields to 2.3 times than control. The Azolla residues left from first year have weaker effect on rice growth and yield, but increase soil organic matter accumulation at second year. The two years study indicated that combined use of Azolla and loach can meet two of the greatest challenges in organic rice production: providing effective weed control and improving rice nutrition without agrochemicals.

  20. Analysis of Different Ploidy and Parent–Offspring Genomic DNA Methylation in the Loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus

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    He Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we selected natural polyploidy loach (diploid, triploid and tetraploid and hybrid F1 generation obverse cross (4 × 2 and inverse cross (2 × 4 by diploids and tetraploids as the research model. The MSAP (methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism reaction system was established by our laboratory to explore methylation levels and pattern diversification features at the whole genome level of the polyploidy loach. The results showed that the total methylation and full methylation rates decreased on increased ploidy individuals; moreover, the hemimethylation rate showed no consistent pattern. Compared with diploid loach, the methylation patterns of tetraploid sites changed 68.17%, and the methylation patterns of triploid sites changed 73.05%. The proportion of hypermethylation genes is significantly higher than the proportion of demethylation genes. The methylation level of reciprocal cross F1 generation is lower than the male diploid and higher than the female tetraploid. The hemimethylation and total methylation rate of the cross hybrid F1 generation is significantly higher than the orthogonal F1 generation (p < 0.01. After readjusting, the methylation pattern of genome DNA of reciprocal hybrids changed 69.59% and 72.83%, respectively.

  1. Analysis of Different Ploidy and Parent–Offspring Genomic DNA Methylation in the Loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, He; Ma, Tian-Yu; Zhang, Rui; Xu, Qi-Zheng; Shen, Fu; Qin, Yan-Jie; Xu, Wen; Wang, Yuan; Li, Ya-Juan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we selected natural polyploidy loach (diploid, triploid and tetraploid) and hybrid F1 generation obverse cross (4 × 2) and inverse cross (2 × 4) by diploids and tetraploids as the research model. The MSAP (methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism) reaction system was established by our laboratory to explore methylation levels and pattern diversification features at the whole genome level of the polyploidy loach. The results showed that the total methylation and full methylation rates decreased on increased ploidy individuals; moreover, the hemimethylation rate showed no consistent pattern. Compared with diploid loach, the methylation patterns of tetraploid sites changed 68.17%, and the methylation patterns of triploid sites changed 73.05%. The proportion of hypermethylation genes is significantly higher than the proportion of demethylation genes. The methylation level of reciprocal cross F1 generation is lower than the male diploid and higher than the female tetraploid. The hemimethylation and total methylation rate of the cross hybrid F1 generation is significantly higher than the orthogonal F1 generation (p < 0.01). After readjusting, the methylation pattern of genome DNA of reciprocal hybrids changed 69.59% and 72.83%, respectively. PMID:27556458

  2. Stone loaches of Choman River system, Kurdistan, Iran (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamangar, Barzan Bahrami; Prokofiev, Artem M; Ghaderi, Edris; Nalbant, Theodore T

    2014-01-20

    For the first time, we present data on species composition and distributions of nemacheilid loaches in the Choman River basin of Kurdistan province, Iran. Two genera and four species are recorded from the area, of which three species are new for science: Oxynoemacheilus kurdistanicus, O. zagrosensis, O. chomanicus spp. nov., and Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi Băn. et Nalb. Detailed and illustrated morphological descriptions and univariate and multivariate analysis of morphometric and meristic features are for each of these species. Forty morphometric and eleven meristic characters were used in multivariate analysis to select characters that could discriminate between the four loach species. Discriminant Function Analysis revealed that sixteen morphometric measures and five meristic characters have the most variability between the loach species. The dendrograms based on cluster analysis of Mahalanobis distances of morphometrics and a combination of both characters confirmed two distinct groups: Oxynoemacheilus spp. and T. kosswigi. Within Oxynoemacheilus, O. zagrosensis and O. chomanicus are more similar to one other rather to either is to O. kurdistanicus.

  3. Quantitative PCR Assays for Detecting Loach Minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis and Spikedace (Meda fulgida in the Southwestern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C Dysthe

    Full Text Available Loach minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis and spikedace (Meda fulgida are legally protected with the status of Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and are endemic to the Gila River basin of Arizona and New Mexico. Efficient and sensitive methods for monitoring these species' distributions are critical for prioritizing conservation efforts. We developed quantitative PCR assays for detecting loach minnow and spikedace DNA in environmental samples. Each assay reliably detected low concentrations of target DNA without detection of non-target species, including other cyprinid fishes with which they co-occur.

  4. The contributions of the music of George Fenton to the fi lms of Ken Loach

    OpenAIRE

    Sofía López Hernández

    2018-01-01

    Ken Loach is a high profile British film director. Since the mid 1960’s, he has made numerous films for cinema and television. There is already a lot written about his way of filming and yet very little is written about the music for his films. To be able to get inside the music of Ken Loach’s films, we must first talk about George Fenton as he has been Loach’s usual composer since 1994. The object of this article is to fill this gap: to discover what musical characteristics Fenton contri...

  5. The contributions of the music of George Fenton to the fi lms of Ken Loach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía López Hernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ken Loach is a high profile British film director. Since the mid 1960’s, he has made numerous films for cinema and television. There is already a lot written about his way of filming and yet very little is written about the music for his films. To be able to get inside the music of Ken Loach’s films, we must first talk about George Fenton as he has been Loach’s usual composer since 1994. The object of this article is to fill this gap: to discover what musical characteristics Fenton contributes to Loach’s cinema.

  6. Schistura maculosa, a new species of loach (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae) from Mizoram, northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalronunga, Samuel; Lalnuntluanga; Lalramliana

    2013-01-01

    Schistura maculosa, a new species of loach, is described from Tuingo and Pharsih Rivers, tributaries of Tuivai River (Barak drainage) in Mizoram, northeastern India. It is distinguished from other closely related Schistura species in having an axillary pelvic lobe; an incomplete lateral line; 20-30 narrow black bars on the body; 3-4 rows of black spots horizontally across the dorsal-fin; a slightly emarginate caudal-fin, with 5-7 rows of black spots more or less regularly arranged vertically on rays across the fin, and 8+8 branched caudal-fin rays.

  7. Futebol, Cultura e Utopia: uma leitura de À procura de Eric, de Ken Loach

    OpenAIRE

    André Luís Reis Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar o filme À procura de Eric(2009), do cineasta inglês Ken Loach. A análise procura fundamentar de que forma a narrativa do filme apresenta aspectos formais e conceituais que permitam aproximar os elementos constitutivos do jogo de futebol com possibilidades de explicações do mundo da pós-modernidade pautadas pelo materialismo histórico. Para tal, será necessário compreender a noção de Mapeamento Cognitivo, de Fredric Jameson, visando delimitar de q...

  8. Quantitative PCR assays for detecting loach minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and spikedace (Meda fulgida) in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph C. Dysthe; Kellie J. Carim; Yvette M. Paroz; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Young; Michael K. Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Loach minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and spikedace (Meda fulgida) are legally protected with the status of Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and are endemic to the Gila River basin of Arizona and New Mexico. Efficient and sensitive methods for monitoring these species’ distributions are critical for prioritizing conservation efforts. We developed...

  9. The complete mitochondrial transcript of the red tail loach Yasuhikotakia modesta as assembled from RNAseq (Teleostei: Botiidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grau, J. H.; Hilgers, L.; Altmüller, J.; Šlechtová, Vendula; Bohlen, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2017), s. 46-47 ISSN 2380-2359 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37277S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Yasuhikotakia modesta * loach * Botiidae Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3)

  10. Effect of microinjections of subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase on development, proliferation, and RNA synthesis in early embryos of the loach Misgurnus fossilis L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glukhov, A.I.; Benyumov, A.O.; Nesterova, M.V.; Severin, E.S.; Gazaryan, K.G.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of the catalytic and regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II on development, proliferation, and RNA synthesis was studied in loach embryos. It was found that injection of the catalytic subunit in a physiological concentration leads to a disturbance in the course of development and inhibits proliferation and RNA synthesis in the embryos. An increase in the concentration of this protein above the physiological level leads to death of the embryos in the first hours of development. Injection of the regulatory subunit stimulated the incorporation of labeled uridine into the acid-insoluble fraction of the embryos, beginning with the gastrula stage. The cell nuclei of loach embryos injected with subunits of protein kinase type II were transplanted into activated loach egg cells: subunits of protein kinase type I had no effect on the ability of nuclei of undetermined loach embryo cells to provide de novo development and their effect was reversible

  11. Nondestructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): I. Relationships between concentrations of metals and arsenic in hair, spines, and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Havé, Helga; Scheirs, Jan; Mubiana, Valentine Kayawe; Verhagen, Ron; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim

    2005-09-01

    Conventional metal exposure assessment in terrestrial mammals is generally based on organ analyses of sacrificed animals. Few studies on mammals use nondestructive methodologies despite the growing ethical concern over the use of destructive sampling. Nondestructive methods involve minimal stress to populations and permit successive biomonitoring of the same populations and individuals. In the present study we assessed metal exposure of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) by investigating relationships between concentrations of metals (Ag, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and As in soil samples and in hair and spines of hedgehogs. Samples were collected in seven study sites along a metal pollution gradient, characterized by decreasing total soil Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb concentrations with increasing distance from a nonferrous metallurgic factory. For a number of elements, soil contamination was related both to distance to the smelter and to habitat. Soil concentrations were positively related to levels in hair and spines for Ag, As, Cd, and Pb and thus to hedgehog exposure. Metal concentrations in soil did not relate to metal concentrations in hair and spines for essential elements (e.g., Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn), except Co in hair and soil. Our results demonstrate that, at least for nonessential elements, concentrations in soils can be used to predict contamination of these elements in hedgehogs or vice versa. Furthermore, hedgehog exposure increased toward the smelter and was higher for hedgehogs foraging in grasslands than for animals foraging in the forest. Moreover, we believe that hair and spines are promising tools in terrestrial wildlife exposure assessment studies of metals and As.

  12. Application of low-tube current with iterative model reconstruction on Philips Brilliance iCT Elite FHD in the accuracy of spinal QCT using a European spine phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Jiang, Yaojun; Han, Xueli; Wang, Mingyue; Gao, Jianbo

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the repeatability and accuracy of quantitative CT (QCT) measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by low-mAs using iterative model reconstruction (IMR) technique based on phantom model. European spine phantom (ESP) was selected and measured on the Philips Brilliance iCT Elite FHD machine for 10 times. Data were transmitted to the QCT PRO workstation to measure BMD (mg/cm 3 ) of the ESP (L1, L2, L3). Scanning method: the voltage of X-ray tube is 120 kV, the electric current of X-ray tube output in five respective groups A-E were: 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mAs. Reconstruction: all data were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP), IR levels of hybrid iterative reconstruction (iDose 4 , levels 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 were used) and IMR (levels 1, 2, 3 were used). ROIs were placed in the middle of L1, L2 and L3 spine phantom in each group. CT values, noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured and calculated. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare BMD values of different mAs and different IMR. Radiation dose [volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ) and dose length product (DLP)] was positively correlated with tube current. In L1 with low BMD, different mAs in FBP showed P0.05, indicating no difference in BMD. And P>0.05 was observed among BMD of spine phantom in L1, L2 and L3 under same mAs joined with varied iterative reconstruction. The BMD in L1 varied greatly during FBP reconstruction, and less variation was observed in reconstruction of IMR [1] and IMR [2]. The BMD of L2 changed more during FBP reconstruction, where less was observed in IMR [2]. The BMD of L3 varied greatly during FBP reconstruction, and was less varied in all levels of iDose 4 and reconstruction of IMR [2]. In addition, along with continuous mAs incensement, the CNRs in various algorithms continued to increase. Among them, CNR with the FBP algorithm is the lowest, and CNR of the IMR [3] algorithm is the highest. Repeated measurements of BMD with QCT in the ESP

  13. Oxynoemacheilus zarzianus, a new loach from the Lesser Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Geiger, Matthias

    2017-06-02

    Oxynoemacheilus zarzianus, new species, is described from the Lesser Zab River drainage, a tributary of the lower Tigris. It is distinguished from other Oxynoemacheilus species in the Tigris drainage by having a slightly emarginate caudal fin, no suborbital groove in males, a complete lateral line, the posterior process of the bony air-bladder capsule directed posteriorly, the flank and posterior part of back covered by scales, short barbels and a deep caudal peduncle. It is the fourth Oxynoemacheilus species known from the Lesser Zab drainage, where such loaches seem to be highly isolated in headwaters. Oxynoemacheilus species diversity in the Euphrates and Tigris drainage is exceptional high. Today 22 species are known from the entire Euphrates and Tigris drainage and 15 from the Tigris drainage alone.

  14. Transient expression and activity of human DNA polymerase iota in loach embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Irina V; Kazakov, Andrey A; Makarova, Alena V; Khaidarova, Nella V; Kozikova, Larisa V; Nenasheva, Valentina V; Gening, Leonid V; Tarantul, Vyacheslav Z; Andreeva, Ludmila E

    2012-02-01

    Human DNA polymerase iota (Pol ι) is a Y-family DNA polymerase with unusual biochemical properties and not fully understood functions. Pol ι preferentially incorporates dGTP opposite template thymine. This property can be used to monitor Pol ι activity in the presence of other DNA polymerases, e.g. in cell extracts of tissues and tumors. We have now confirmed the specificity and sensitivity of the method of Pol ι activity detection in cell extracts using an animal model of loach Misgurnus fossilis embryos transiently expressing human Pol ι. The overexpression of Pol ι was shown to be accompanied by an increase in abnormalities in development and the frequency of pycnotic nuclei in fish embryos. Further analysis of fish embryos with constitutive or regulated Pol ι expression may provide insights into Pol ι functions in vertebrate animals.

  15. A newly discovered population of the Balkan spiny loach Sabanejewia balcanica (Karaman, 1922) in the River Jihlava, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halačka, Karel; Muška, Milan; Mendel, Jan; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2017), s. 163-166 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12580S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : loaches * rare native species * sequence analysis * NATURA 2000 Subject RIV: EG - Zoology; EG - Zoology (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Zoology; Zoology (BC-A) Impact factor: 0.739, year: 2016

  16. Effect of loach consumption on the reproduction of giant water bug Kirkaldyia deyrolli: dietary selection, reproductive performance, and nutritional evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ohba, Shin-ya; Izumi, Yohei; Tsumuki, Hisaaki

    2012-01-01

    Rice fields provide major habitats for lentic aquatic insects including the giant water bug Kirkaldyia (=Lethocerus) deyrolli (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae) in Japan. Previous researchers have emphasized that conserving populations of the frogs, Hyla japonicus and Rana nigromaculata, is very important for preserving K. deyrolli because these frogs were found to be a major component of the diet of K. deyrolli adults. However, these previous studies were carried out in rice fields with no loache...

  17. Dynamics of tandemly repeated DNA sequences during evolution of diploid and tetraploid botiid loaches (Teleostei: Cobitoidea: Botiidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sember, Alexandr; Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Altmanová, Marie; Pelikánová, Šárka; Ráb, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2018), č. článku e0195054. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37277S; GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : polyploidization * loach Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  18. Evidence for Adaptation to the Tibetan Plateau Inferred from Tibetan Loach Transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Liandong; Zhou, Kun; Zhang, Yanping; Song, Zhaobin; He, Shunping

    2015-10-09

    Triplophysa fishes are the primary component of the fish fauna on the Tibetan Plateau and are well adapted to the high-altitude environment. Despite the importance of Triplophysa fishes on the plateau, the genetic mechanisms of the adaptations of these fishes to this high-altitude environment remain poorly understood. In this study, we generated the transcriptome sequences for three Triplophysa fishes, that is, Triplophysa siluroides, Triplophysa scleroptera, and Triplophysa dalaica, and used these and the previously available transcriptome and genome sequences from fishes living at low altitudes to identify potential genetic mechanisms for the high-altitude adaptations in Triplophysa fishes. An analysis of 2,269 orthologous genes among cave fish (Astyanax mexicanus), zebrafish (Danio rerio), large-scale loach (Paramisgurnus dabryanus), and Triplophysa fishes revealed that each of the terminal branches of the Triplophysa fishes had a significantly higher ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions than that of the branches of the fishes from low altitudes, which provided consistent evidence for genome-wide rapid evolution in the Triplophysa genus. Many of the GO (Gene Ontology) categories associated with energy metabolism and hypoxia response exhibited accelerated evolution in the Triplophysa fishes compared with the large-scale loach. The genes that exhibited signs of positive selection and rapid evolution in the Triplophysa fishes were also significantly enriched in energy metabolism and hypoxia response categories. Our analysis identified widespread Triplophysa-specific nonsynonymous mutations in the fast evolving genes and positively selected genes. Moreover, we detected significant evidence of positive selection in the HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor)-1A and HIF-2B genes in Triplophysa fishes and found that the Triplophysa-specific nonsynonymous mutations in the HIF-1A and HIF-2B genes were associated with functional changes. Overall, our study provides

  19. Lumbar spine chordoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Hatem, M.B.Ch.B, MRes, LMCC

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chordoma is a rare tumor arising from notochord remnants in the spine. It is slow-growing, which makes it difficult to diagnose and difficult to follow up after treatment. Typically, it occurs in the base of the skull and sacrococcygeal spine; it rarely occurs in other parts of the spine. CT-guided biopsy of a suspicious mass enabled diagnosis of lumbar spine chordoma.

  20. Transcriptomic Analysis of Compromise Between Air-Breathing and Nutrient Uptake of Posterior Intestine in Loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), an Air-Breathing Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Songqian; Cao, Xiaojuan; Tian, Xianchang

    2016-08-01

    Dojo loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) is an air-breathing fish species by using its posterior intestine to breathe on water surface. So far, the molecular mechanism about accessory air-breathing in fish is seldom addressed. Five cDNA libraries were constructed here for loach posterior intestines form T01 (the initial stage group), T02 (mid-stage of normal group), T03 (end stage of normal group), T04 (mid-stage of air-breathing inhibited group), and T05 (the end stage of air-breathing inhibited group) and subjected to perform RNA-seq to compare their transcriptomic profilings. A total of 92,962 unigenes were assembled, while 37,905 (40.77 %) unigenes were successfully annotated. 2298, 1091, and 3275 differentially expressed genes (fn1, ACE, EGFR, Pxdn, SDF, HIF, VEGF, SLC2A1, SLC5A8 etc.) were observed in T04/T02, T05/T03, and T05/T04, respectively. Expression levels of many genes associated with air-breathing and nutrient uptake varied significantly between normal and intestinal air-breathing inhibited group. Intraepithelial capillaries in posterior intestines of loaches from T05 were broken, while red blood cells were enriched at the surface of intestinal epithelial lining with 241 ± 39 cells per millimeter. There were periodic acid-schiff (PAS)-positive epithelial mucous cells in posterior intestines from both normal and air-breathing inhibited groups. Results obtained here suggested an overlap of air-breathing and nutrient uptake function of posterior intestine in loach. Intestinal air-breathing inhibition in loach would influence the posterior intestine's nutrient uptake ability and endothelial capillary structure stability. This study will contribute to our understanding on the molecular regulatory mechanisms of intestinal air-breathing in loach.

  1. La inmigración y la ciudadanía según Ken Loach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como referencia una producción cinematográfica particular, la del cineasta británico Ken Loach (Nuneaton, 1936, se aborda en este artículo el tema de la inmigración reflejado en dos de sus películas: Pan y Rosas (2000 y Solo un beso (2004. Cuestiones como la inmigración ilegal, las segundas generaciones inmigrantes, la multiculturalidad, la adaptación y el mestizaje (dentro de un contexto anglosajón son algunos de los temas que se tratan en estos filmes y que sacan a relucir la problemática que conlleva el concepto de ciudadanía en la actualidad. Desde una perspectiva fundamentalmente (aunque no solo económica en Pan y Rosas y cultural en Solo un beso, se observan los mecanismos de inclusión y exclusión que configuran la posición del inmigrante en la sociedad contemporánea. El análisis detallado de las escenas, diálogos y personajes de las citadas películas intentará recoger el discurso crítico de este realizador, prestando atención a las cuestiones más significativas desde un punto de vista sociológico. 

  2. GROWTH RESPONSE OF CLOWN LOACH (Chromobotia macracanthus Bleeker 1852 JUVENILES IMMERSED IN WATER CONTAINING RECOMBINANT GROWTH HORMONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Permana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problem in the culture of clown loach (Chromobotia macracanthus is the slow growth rate, which takes about six months to reach its market size (two inches total body length. Slow growth eventually cause a long production time and increase the production costs. An alternative solution can be proposed in order to enhance the growth is by using recombinant growth hormone. The aim of this study was to determine the immersion dose of recombinant Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone (rElGH which can generate the highest growth in clown loach. Larvae at seven day after hatching were hyperosmotic treated with NaCl 2.0% for one minute, then immersed for one hour in water containing 0.3% NaCl, 0.01% bovine serum albumin (BSA, and different doses of rElGH, namely: 0.12 (treatment A, 1.2 (B, 12 (C, and 120 mg/L (D. As control, fish were immersed in water without rElGH and NaCl (control-1, water containing 0.3% NaCl and 0.01% BSA (control-2, and 0.3% NaCl water (control-3. Each treatment was replicated three times. The results showed that clown loach juveniles in treatment B, C, and D had longer total body length (P0.05. In addition, the percentage of large size juveniles increased approximately 5% in treatment B, almost the same as in the medium size, while the small size were decrease compared to the control-1. Thus, the best immersion dose of rElGH was 1.2 mg/L water.

  3. Transfer vibration through spine

    OpenAIRE

    Benyovszky, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Transfer Vibration through Spine Abstract In the bachelor project we deal with the topic of Transfer Vibration through Spine. The problem of TVS is trying to be solved by the critical review method. We analyse some diagnostic methods and methods of treatment based on this principle. Close attention is paid to the method of Transfer Vibration through Spine that is being currently solved by The Research Institute of Thermomechanics in The Czech Academy of Sciences in cooperation with Faculty of...

  4. The effects of two free-floating plants (Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes on the burrow morphology and water quality characteristics of pond loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinqing Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Loach exhibit conspicuous drilling behaviors in the mud of shallow waters, yet their burrow morphology and the factors affecting this behavior have received little attention. We characterized the burrow morphology and water quality of the pond loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus in three scenarios: in tanks without plants, tanks with the free-floating plant water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes, and tanks with water lettuce Pistia stratiotes. Water hyacinth effectively removed water TN, COD, NO3-N and NH4-N, and water lettuce removed water TP and NH4-N. Water hyacinth and water lettuce markedly reduced water turbidity and DO, increased TOC and EC. Water hyacinth purified water more effectively than water lettuce, providing a suitable habitat for loach feeding, living and burrowing. The burrow structures were V-shaped, Y-shaped, inverted L-shaped, or complicated dendritic networks composed of multiple V shapes. The hyacinth treatment was characterized by the greatest burrow volume, length, depth, and structural complexity, but the opening size was reduced by dense root mat coverage. Burrows in the water lettuce treatment were characterized by intermediate volume, length, branches and sinuosity, but they had the largest opening and pit size. The control treatment had a flat bottom with the smallest, shortest burrows. This study indicates that free-floating plants improve habitat suitability and change burrow morphology and may be used to improve loach breeding methods.

  5. Molecular cloning, expression analysis and miRNA prediction of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFAa and VEGFAb) in pond loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, an air-breathing fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weiwei; Liang, Xiao; Huang, Songqian; Cao, Xiaojuan

    2016-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is the most studied and the best characterized member of the VEGF family and is a key regulator of angiogenesis via its ability to affect the proliferation, migration, and differentiation of endothelial cells. In this study, the full-length cDNAs encoding VEGFAa and VEGFAb from pond loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, were isolated. The VEGFAa is constituted by an open reading frame (ORF) of 570bp encoding for a peptide of 189 amino acid residues, a 639bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 2383bp 3' UTR. The VEGFAb is constituted by an ORF of 687bp encoding for a peptide of 228 amino acid residues, a 560bp 5' UTR and a 1268bp 3' UTR. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the VEGFAa and VEGFAb of pond loach were conserved in vertebrates. Expression levels of VEGFAa and VEGFAb were detected by RT-qPCR at different development stages of pond loach and in different tissues of 6-month-old, 12-month-old and 24-month-old pond loach. Moreover, eight predicted miRNAs (miR-200, miR-29, miR-218, miR-338, miR-103, miR-15, miR-17 and miR-223) targeting VEGFAa and VEGFAb were validated by an intestinal air-breathing inhibition experiment. This study will be of value for further studies into the function of VEGFA and its corresponding miRNAs, which will shed a light on the vascularization and accessory air-breathing process in pond loach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Siebenga (Jan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractTraumatic spinal fractures have the lowest functional outcomes and the lowest rates of return to work after injury of all major organ systems.1 This thesis will cover traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures and not osteoporotic spine fractures because of the difference in fracture

  7. Thoracic spine pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Ivanovich Isaikin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic spine pain, or thoracalgia, is one of the common reasons for seeking for medical advice. The epidemiology and semiotics of pain in the thoracic spine unlike in those in the cervical and lumbar spine have not been inadequately studied. The causes of thoracic spine pain are varied: diseases of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and renal systems, injuries to the musculoskeletal structures of the cervical and thoracic portions, which require a thorough differential diagnosis. Facet, costotransverse, and costovertebral joint injuries and myofascial syndrome are the most common causes of musculoskeletal (nonspecific pain in the thoracic spine. True radicular pain is rarely encountered. Traditionally, treatment for thoracalgia includes a combination of non-drug and drug therapies. The cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor meloxicam (movalis may be the drug of choice in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain.

  8. Cold-shock eliminates female nucleus in fertilized eggs to induce androgenesis in the loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, a teleost fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morishima Kagayaki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgenesis (all-male inheritance is generally induced by means of irradiating the eggs to inactivate the maternal genome, followed by fertilization with normal sperm. In fish, the conventional technique for induced androgenesis has been applied for rapid fixation to traits, recovery of cryopreserved genotypes, sex-control, etc. A new method of androgenesis that eliminates the need to irradiate the egg was proposed using the loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (a teleost fish. Results When the eggs of wild-type females were fertilized with sperm of albino or orange phenotype males and cold-shocked at 0 to 3°C for 60 min duration just after fertilization, generally more than 30% (with a peak of 100% of the hatched progeny were androgenotes. While a few of them were the normal diploid, most of them turned out to be abnormal haploid. All-male inheritance was verified by the expression of the recessive color trait (albino or orange and microsatellite genotypes comprising only paternally derived alleles. Nuclear behavior after the cold-shock treatment was traced by microscopic observation of DAPI (4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained samples and hematoxylin-eosin stained histological sections, and the extrusion of egg (maternal nucleus was observed in eggs treated in the optimum timing. Conclusion In this paper, we demonstrate that cold-shock treatment (at 0 and 3°C of loach eggs for 60 min just after fertilization successfully induces androgenetic haploid development. The most likely mechanism of cold-shock induced androgenesis is an elimination of the egg nucleus together along with the second polar body and subsequent development of a decondensed sperm nucleus or male pronucleus.

  9. Cloning of three heat shock protein genes (HSP70, HSP90α and HSP90β) and their expressions in response to thermal stress in loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) fed with different levels of vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie; Liang, Xiao; Zhang, Yin; Li, Yang; Cao, Xiaojuan; Gao, Jian

    2017-07-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and 90 (HSP90) are the most broadly studied proteins in HSP families. They play key roles in cells as molecular chaperones, in response to stress conditions such as thermal stress. In this study, full-length cDNA sequences of HSP70, HSP90α and HSP90β from loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus were cloned. The full-length cDNA of HSP70 in loach was 2332bp encoding 644 amino acids, while HSP90α and HSP90β were 2586bp and 2678bp in length, encoding 729 and 727 amino acids, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of HSP70 in loach shared the highest identity with those of Megalobrama amblycephala and Cyprinus carpio. The deduced amino acid sequences of HSP90α and HSP90β in loach both shared the highest identity with those of M. amblycephala. Their mRNA tissue expression results showed that the maximum expressions of HSP70, HSP90α and HSP90β were respectively present in the intestine, brain and kidney of loach. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to analyze the temporal expressions of HSP70, HSP90α and HSP90β in livers of loaches fed with different levels of vitamin C under thermal stress. Expression levels of the three HSP genes in loach fed the diet without vitamin C supplemented at 0 h of thermal stress were significantly lower than those at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h of thermal stress. It indicated that expressions of the three HSP genes were sensitive to thermal stress in loach. The three HSP genes in loaches fed with 1000 mg/kg vitamin C expressed significantly lower than other vitamin C groups at many time points of thermal stress, suggesting 1000 mg/kg dietary vitamin C might decrease the body damages caused by the thermal stress. This study will be of value for further studies into thermal stress tolerance in loach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anatomy of the Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... curve of the neck is described as a lordosis or lordotic curve, and looks like a “C” ... like the cervical spine, creating a normal lumbar lordosis. The five lumbar vertebral bodies are the weight- ...

  11. SpineData

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Kongsted, Alice; Jensen, Tue Secher

    2015-01-01

    Background: Large-scale clinical registries are increasingly recognized as important resources for quality assurance and research to inform clinical decision-making and health policy. We established a clinical registry (SpineData) in a conservative care setting where more than 10,000 new cases...... of spinal pain are assessed each year. This paper describes the SpineData registry, summarizes the characteristics of its clinical population and data, and signals the availability of these data as a resource for collaborative research projects. Methods: The SpineData registry is an Internet-based system...... that captures patient data electronically at the point of clinical contact. The setting is the government-funded Medical Department of the Spine Centre of Southern Denmark, Hospital Lillebaelt, where patients receive a multidisciplinary assessment of their chronic spinal pain. Results: Started in 2011...

  12. Periscopic Spine Surgery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleary, Kevin R

    2000-01-01

    .... Key research accomplishments for the first year are: ̂Demonstrated the value of intraoperative CT for visualization and verification of the anatomy in complex spine surgeries in the neurosurgery operating room...

  13. Beyond the spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, James; Cassidy, J David; Cancelliere, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, clinical research within the chiropractic profession has focused on the spine and spinal conditions, specifically neck and low back pain. However, there is now a small group of chiropractors with clinical research training that are shifting their focus away from...... highlight recent research in these new areas and discuss how clinical research efforts in musculoskeletal areas beyond the spine can benefit patient care and the future of the chiropractic profession....

  14. Imaging of spine injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomoschitz, F. . e-mai: friedrich.lomoschitz@univie.ac.at

    2001-01-01

    Spinal trauma requires a prompt and detailed diagnosis for estimating the prognosis and installing proper therapy. Conventional radiograms are the first imaging modality in most cases. In the cervical and the lumbar spine, a CT has to be performed in patients with polytrauma and a higher risk of complications or with signs of instability. Especially for imaging the cervicocranium, multiplanar reformations in sagittal and coronal planes are necessary. For fractures of the thoracic spine, MR imaging is superior to CT because of the better detection of associated neurologic complications. (author)

  15. Gorham's disease of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesley, P.J.; Saifuddin, A.; Webb, P.J.; Mitchell, N.; Ramani, P.

    1996-01-01

    Massive osteolysis is a rare condition and is very uncommon in the spine. The MRI appearance of Gorham's disease of the spine has not previously been reported. We present here a case of this condition with imaging details. (orig.)

  16. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  17. Tuberculosis of the cervical spine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis of the cervical spine is rare, comprising 3 -. 5% of cases of tuberculosis of the spine. Eight patients with tuberculosis of the cervicaJ spine seen during 1989 -. 1992 were reviewed. They all presented with neck pain. The 4 children presented with a kyphotic deformity. In all the children the disease was extensive, ...

  18. Tuberculosis of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psarras, H.; Faraj, J.; Gouliamos, A.; Kalovidouris, A.; Vlahos, L.; Papavassiliou, C.

    1985-07-01

    Two surgically proven cases of turberculous psoas abscess are presented. The common findings on CT were low-density paraspinal masses and extension of the lesions which followed the typical distribution of iliopsoas muscle in both cases. The skeletal findings from the spine are also discussed. Our cases indicate the complementary use of plain radiography and CT in the investigation of tuberculous spondylitis.

  19. [Cervical spine trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, U; Hellen, P

    2016-08-01

    In the emergency department 65 % of spinal injuries and 2-5 % of blunt force injuries involve the cervical spine. Of these injuries approximately 50 % involve C5 and/or C6 and 30 % involve C2. Older patients tend to have higher spinal injuries and younger patients tend to have lower injuries. The anatomical and development-related characteristics of the pediatric spine as well as degenerative and comorbid pathological changes of the spine in the elderly can make the radiological evaluation of spinal injuries difficult with respect to possible trauma sequelae in young and old patients. Two different North American studies have investigated clinical criteria to rule out cervical spine injuries with sufficient certainty and without using imaging. Imaging of cervical trauma should be performed when injuries cannot be clinically excluded according to evidence-based criteria. Degenerative changes and anatomical differences have to be taken into account in the evaluation of imaging of elderly and pediatric patients.

  20. The gynogenetic reproduction of diploid and triploid hybrid spined loaches (Cobitis: Teleostei), and their ability to establish successful clonal lineages - on the evolution of polyploidy in asexual vertebrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, Karel; Bohlen, Jörg; Lamatsch, D.; Flajšhans, Martin; Epplen, J. T.; Ráb, Petr; Kotlík, Petr; Šlechtová, Věra

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 131, - (2007), s. 185-194 ISSN 0016-6707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/05/P586 Grant - others:EU Marie Curie Research amd Training Network(EU) MCRTN-CT-2004-512492; German Research Foundation(DE) SFB 567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : asexual reproduction * evolution of polyploidy * hybridisation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.396, year: 2007

  1. Vicariance, colonization, and fast local speciation in Asia Minor and the Balkans as revealed from the phylogeny of spined loaches (Osteichthyes; Cobitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Percides, A.; Doadrio, I.; Economidis, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 39, 2 (2006), s. 552-561 ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA ČR GA206/00/0668; GA AV ČR IBS5045111; GA AV ČR IAA600450508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : zoogeography * freshwater fishes * cobitis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.528, year: 2006

  2. STELLA and SPINE data transmission experiments preliminary results and conclusions

    CERN Document Server

    Bartholome, P; Scanlan, J O

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the CERN-based proposal for a single experiment, Satellite Transmission Experiment Linking Laboratories (STELLA) and the ESA experimental programme SPINE (Space Informatics Network Experiments). Both projects are examples of experiments to explore the capability and utility of high speed data transmission by satellite, and used the European OTS. (2 refs).

  3. Interventional spine procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelekis, A.D. [Attikon University Hospital, 2nd Radiology Department, University of Athens, Rimini 1, 124 61 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: akelekis@cc.uoa.gr; Somon, T. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Yilmaz, H. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Bize, P. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Brountzos, E.N. [Attikon University Hospital, 2nd Radiology Department, University of Athens, Rimini 1, 124 61 Athens (Greece); Lovblad, K. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Ruefenacht, D. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, 24, Rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Martin, J.B. [Clinique Generale Beaulieu 12 chemin Beau Soleil 1206 Geneva (Switzerland)]. E-mail: jbmartin@beaulieu.ch

    2005-09-01

    Minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of some spinal diseases are percutaneous treatments, proposed before classic surgery. By using imaging guidance, one can significantly increase accuracy and decrease complication rates. This review report physiopathology and discusses indications, methods, complications and results of performing these techniques on the spine, including different level (cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacroiliac) and different kind of treatments (nerve block, disc treatment and bone treatment). Finally the present article also reviews current literature on the controversial issues involved.

  4. Tuberculosis of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psarras, H.; Faraj, J.; Gouliamos, A.; Kalovidouris, A.; Vlahos, L.; Papavassiliou, C.

    1985-01-01

    Two surgically proven cases of turberculous psoas abscess are presented. The common findings on CT were low-density paraspinal masses and extension of the lesions which followed the typical distribution of iliopsoas muscle in both cases. The skeletal findings from the spine are also discussed. Our cases indicate the complementary use of plain radiography and CT in the investigation of tuberculous spondylitis. (orig.) [de

  5. Biologics in spine arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Abhishek; Dodwad, Shah-Nawaz M; Hsu, Wellington K

    2015-06-01

    Spine fusion is a tool used in the treatment of spine trauma, tumors, and degenerative disorders. Poor outcomes related to failure of fusion, however, have directed the interests of practitioners and scientists to spinal biologics that may impact fusion at the cellular level. These biologics are used to achieve successful arthrodesis in the treatment of symptomatic deformity or instability. Historically, autologous bone grafting, including iliac crest bong graft harvesting, had represented the gold standard in spinal arthrodesis. However, due to concerns over potential harvest site complications, supply limitations, and associated morbidity, surgeons have turned to other bone graft options known for their osteogenic, osteoinductive, and/or osteoconductive properties. Current bone graft selection includes autograft, allograft, demineralized bone matrix, ceramics, mesenchymal stem cells, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein. Each pose their respective advantages and disadvantages and are the focus of ongoing research investigating the safety and efficacy of their use in the setting of spinal fusion. Rh-BMP2 has been plagued by issues of widespread off-label use, controversial indications, and a wide range of adverse effects. The risks associated with high concentrations of exogenous growth factors have led to investigational efforts into nanotechnology and its application in spinal arthrodesis through the binding of endogenous growth factors. Bone graft selection remains critical to successful fusion and favorable patient outcomes, and orthopaedic surgeons must be educated on the utility and limitations of various biologics in the setting of spine arthrodesis.

  6. Rendering the Topological Spines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves-Rivera, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Many tools to analyze and represent high dimensional data already exits yet most of them are not flexible, informative and intuitive enough to help the scientists make the corresponding analysis and predictions, understand the structure and complexity of scientific data, get a complete picture of it and explore a greater number of hypotheses. With this in mind, N-Dimensional Data Analysis and Visualization (ND²AV) is being developed to serve as an interactive visual analysis platform with the purpose of coupling together a number of these existing tools that range from statistics, machine learning, and data mining, with new techniques, in particular with new visualization approaches. My task is to create the rendering and implementation of a new concept called topological spines in order to extend ND²AV's scope. Other existing visualization tools create a representation preserving either the topological properties or the structural (geometric) ones because it is challenging to preserve them both simultaneously. Overcoming such challenge by creating a balance in between them, the topological spines are introduced as a new approach that aims to preserve them both. Its render using OpenGL and C++ and is currently being tested to further on be implemented on ND²AV. In this paper I will present what are the Topological Spines and how they are rendered.

  7. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane proteins in dividing eggs of the loach (Misgurnus fossilis): Regional differences and changes during the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhkova, V P; Budayova, M; Kvasnicka, P; Cigankova, N; Chorvat, D

    1994-12-01

    Regional differences in lateral diffusion rates of fluorescence-labeled proteins have been studied in the plasma membrane of dividing eggs of the loach (Misgurnus fossilis) by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Apparent animal-vegetal differences in fluorescence intensity, lateral diffusion coefficients, and fractions of mobile proteins have been found, with all these quantities being higher in the animal pole region than in the yolk region. Cyclic changes in protein diffusion coefficients and mobile fractions during the first few cell cycles have also been recorded. Soon after the end of a cleavage, the diffusion coefficient reaches its minimal value and increases rapidly before the next cleavage.

  8. Comparison of spermatozoa parameters, fine structures, and energy-related factors among tetraploid, hyper-tetraploid, and hyper-triploid loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Saito, Taiju; Pšenička, Martin; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Arai, Katsutoshi

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of ploidy elevation and aneuploidy on spermatozoa in the loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, we investigated some parameters (motility, concentration, and viability), fine structures (gross morphology, head size, and flagellum length), and energy-related biochemical factors (volume of mitochondrial mass per cell and ATP content) in diploid, hyper-diploid, and hexaploid-range spermatozoa produced in natural tetraploid, hyper-tetraploid, and hyper-triploid male loaches, respectively. Diploid spermatozoa exhibited vigorous movement and sufficient duration of motility similar to those in haploid spermatozoa. They had longer flagella, higher numbers and larger volume of mitochondria, and higher ATP content than haploid spermatozoa of wild-type diploids. No differences were observed in parameters and morphological characteristics between diploid and hyper-diploid spermatozoa. In contrast, the hexaploid-range spermatozoa of hyper-triploid males exhibited poor progressive motility in spite of a higher ATP content of spermatozoa. Spermatozoa with no flagella (36.0%) or multiple flagella (18.6%) were also observed in hyper-triploids. Ratios of head to flagellum length in hexaploid-range spermatozoa were significantly different from those of haploid spermatozoa. In addition to the normal 9+2 microtubule structure of the flagellum, an abnormal 9+1 microtubule structure was also observed in the spermatozoa of hyper-triploids. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies MicroRNAs from Posterior Intestine of Loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) and Their Response to Intestinal Air-Breathing Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Songqian; Cao, Xiaojuan; Tian, Xianchang; Wang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exert important roles in animal growth, immunity, and development, and regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Knowledges about the diversities of miRNAs and their roles in accessory air-breathing organs (ABOs) of fish remain unknown. In this work, we used high-throughput sequencing to identify known and novel miRNAs from the posterior intestine, an important ABO, in loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) under normal and intestinal air-breathing inhibited conditions. A total of 204 known and 84 novel miRNAs were identified, while 47 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two small RNA libraries (i.e. between the normal and intestinal air-breathing inhibited group). Potential miRNA target genes were predicted by combining our transcriptome data of the posterior intestine of the loach under the same conditions, and then annotated using COG, GO, KEGG, Swissprot and Nr databases. The regulatory networks of miRNAs and their target genes were analyzed. The abundances of nine known miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. The relative expression profiles of six known miRNAs and their eight corresponding target genes, and two novel potential miRNAs were also detected. Histological characteristics of the posterior intestines in both normal and air-breathing inhibited group were further analyzed. This study contributes to our understanding on the functions and molecular regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in accessory air-breathing organs of fish.

  10. Micromechanics of Sea Urchin spines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Tsafnat

    Full Text Available The endoskeletal structure of the Sea Urchin, Centrostephanus rodgersii, has numerous long spines whose known functions include locomotion, sensing, and protection against predators. These spines have a remarkable internal microstructure and are made of single-crystal calcite. A finite-element model of the spine's unique porous structure, based on micro-computed tomography (microCT and incorporating anisotropic material properties, was developed to study its response to mechanical loading. Simulations show that high stress concentrations occur at certain points in the spine's architecture; brittle cracking would likely initiate in these regions. These analyses demonstrate that the organization of single-crystal calcite in the unique, intricate morphology of the sea urchin spine results in a strong, stiff and lightweight structure that enhances its strength despite the brittleness of its constituent material.

  11. The spine problem: Finding a function for dendritic spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eMalanowski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Why do neurons have dendritic spines? This question— the heart of what Yuste calls the spine problem— presupposes that why-questions of this sort have scientific answers: that empirical findings can favor or count against claims about why neurons have spines. Here we show how such questions can receive empirical answers. We construe such why-questions as questions about how spines make a difference to the behavior of some mechanism that we take to be significant. Why-questions are driven fundamentally by the effort to understand how some item, such as the dendritic spine, is situated in the causal structure of the world (the causal nexus. They ask for a filter on that busy world that allows us to see a part’s individual contribution to a mechanism, independent of everything else going on. So understood, answers to why-questions can be assessed by testing the claims these answers make about the causal structure of a mechanism. We distinguish four ways of making a difference to a mechanism (necessary, modulatory, component, background condition, and we sketch their evidential requirements. One consequence of our analysis is that there are many spine problems and that any given spine problem might have many acceptable answers.

  12. Trauma of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmer, B.; Hofmann, E.; Jacob, A.L.H.

    1990-01-01

    Primary reconstructive surgery is assuming increasing importance in the management of fractures of the spine. Analysis of the injury and thus surgical decision-making are greatly facilitated by the diagnostic power of CT and MRI. This volume provides a systemic introduction to the interpretation of CT and MRI images of injuries to the spinal column and the spinal cord, with special emphasis on the assessment or residual stability. Since survey X-rays remain the indispensable first step in radiodiagnosis, the typical appearances of spinal injuries on conventional films are also shown. This will help the reader interpret the CT and MRI images and also reflects the procedure in radiologic practice. The book's classification of spinal fractures, together with the attempt to conclude how the injury happened by analyzing the damage caused, paves the way for individually oriented therapy. (orig.) With 72 figs. in 132 separate illustrations

  13. [Scoliosis: the bent spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, R; Maafe, M; Ziegler, S

    2011-05-01

    Scoliosis, a permanent abnormal curvature of the spine to the side, is divided into four forms: idiopathic (infantile, juvenile and adolescent, accounting for 80% of cases), neurogenic, congenital and adult scoliosis. Most patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis initially have mainly cosmetic problems. However, neurogenic, congenital and adult scoliosis can lead to severe clinical symptoms. The leading symptom is back pain caused by secondary changes. In recent years the Lenke classification has been proven to be a reliable tool for disease classification. Non-progressive scoliosis is usually treated conservatively. In the case of Cobb angles of greater than 50°, surgical therapy is recommended in patients presenting before adulthood. Technical improvements in implants and the optimisation of surgical methods have set a trend in the direction of surgical therapy.

  14. The digital spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2019-01-01

    In the words of the Oxford English Dictionary, a book is 'a portable volume consisting of a series of written, printed, or illustrated pages bound together for ease of reading' (‘book, n.’nd). Yet, the world of books isn’t what it used to be. If differences between media are material differences...... analyze books as digital or even 'post-digital' artifacts (Cramer 2014), while preserving the material dimension of the book artifact. In other words: is there is such a thing as a (post-)digital spine, and how can it be described? This article outlines an answer to this question within an inferential...... (Seiter 2015), and books are produced, distributed and read on various digital media and devices, it is no longer possible to understand digital books on the basis of the material and syntactical features of the codex artifact. It then becomes important to discuss how to conceptualize and subsequently...

  15. Spiny Prey, Fortunate Prey. Dorsal Spines Are an Asset in Intraguild Interactions among Lady Beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Hautier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Multicolored Asian Ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, is an extremely successful invasive species. Here we suggest that, in addition to many other traits, the dorsal spines of its larvae contribute to their success, as suggested by behavioral observations of agonistic interactions between H. axyridis and European coccinellids. In coccinellids, the role of dorsal spines in these interactions has been poorly studied and they could be a physical protection against intraguild predators. Dorsal spines of second instar H. axyridis larvae were removed with micro-scissors, which resulted in spineless larvae after molting (spineless group. These larvae were then exposed to starved Coccinella septempunctata larvae. Two control categories were also submitted to interactions: H. axyridis larvae with all their spines (control group and with their spines, but injured by pin stings (injured group. Spine removal at the second instar did not hamper H. axyridis development. The bite rate by C. septempunctata was significantly higher on the spineless H. axyridis and more dorsally located compared to the control and injured groups, while no bite rate difference was observed between the injured and the control group. Our results suggest that in addition to behavioral and chemical defenses, the dorsal spines play a significant protective role against bites. Therefore, spines in ladybirds could be considered as a morphological defense against intraguild predation. In H. axyridis, these defenses might contribute to its success in food resources already exploited by other guild members and thus further facilitate the invasion of new areas.

  16. Radiology illustrated. Spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Kyonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Kwon, Jong Won [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Offers a practical approach to image interpretation for spinal disorders. Includes numerous high-quality radiographic images and schematic illustrations. Will serve as a self-learning book covering daily routine cases from the basic to the advanced. Radiology Illustrated: Spine is an up-to-date, superbly illustrated reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. Common, critical, and rare but distinctive spinal disorders are described succinctly with the aid of images highlighting important features and informative schematic illustrations. The first part of the book, on common spinal disorders, is for radiology residents and other clinicians who are embarking on the interpretation of spinal images. A range of key disorders are then presented, including infectious spondylitis, cervical trauma, spinal cord disorders, spinal tumors, congenital disorders, uncommon degenerative disorders, inflammatory arthritides, and vascular malformations. The third part is devoted to rare but clinically significant spinal disorders with characteristic imaging features, and the book closes by presenting practical tips that will assist in the interpretation of confusing cases.

  17. Postoperative spine infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Domenico Parchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative spinal wound infection is a potentially devastating complication after operative spinal procedures. Despite the utilization of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics in recent years and improvements in surgical technique and postoperative care, wound infection continues to compromise patients’ outcome after spinal surgery. In the modern era of pending health care reform with increasing financial constraints, the financial burden of post-operative spinal infections also deserves consideration. The aim of our work is to give to the reader an updated review of the latest achievements in prevention, risk factors, diagnosis, microbiology and treatment of post-operative spinal wound infections. A review of the scientific literature was carried out using electronic medical databases Pubmed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus for the years 1973-2012 to obtain access to all publications involving the incidence, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, treatment of postoperative spinal wound infections. We initially identified 119 studies; of these 60 were selected. Despite all the measures intended to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections in spine surgery, these remain a common and potentially dangerous complication.

  18. The postoperative spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is one of the most perplexing medical and medicoeconomic problems facing our health system today. In many studies reoperation rates tend to be between 10 and 20%, but as many as 20-45% 3 of patients may have persistent back or radicular pain following what was to have been definitive therapy. The causes for the FBSS are very complex. The Workmen's Compensation system and medicolegal trends toward very high settlements of litigation for injury have provided serious incentive for patients to remain symptomatic. It is difficult to analyze any statistical survey of symptomatic back patients without serious bias from this group of patients. Others suggest that patients with severe psychological problems, drug abuse, and alcoholism are inappropriately selected as surgical candidates. They believe that careful psychological evaluation of patients minimizes FBSS. Even if all extrinsic factors could be eliminated, the problem of failed back surgery would still be a major one. This chapter is based on a review of 300 postoperative lumbar spine multiplanar CT scans performed over a 15-month period. All patients had a complete set of axial images, with sagittal and coronal reformations photographed twice: optimized once for bone definition and once for soft-tissue contrast resolution

  19. High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies MicroRNAs from Posterior Intestine of Loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and Their Response to Intestinal Air-Breathing Inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songqian Huang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs exert important roles in animal growth, immunity, and development, and regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Knowledges about the diversities of miRNAs and their roles in accessory air-breathing organs (ABOs of fish remain unknown. In this work, we used high-throughput sequencing to identify known and novel miRNAs from the posterior intestine, an important ABO, in loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus under normal and intestinal air-breathing inhibited conditions. A total of 204 known and 84 novel miRNAs were identified, while 47 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two small RNA libraries (i.e. between the normal and intestinal air-breathing inhibited group. Potential miRNA target genes were predicted by combining our transcriptome data of the posterior intestine of the loach under the same conditions, and then annotated using COG, GO, KEGG, Swissprot and Nr databases. The regulatory networks of miRNAs and their target genes were analyzed. The abundances of nine known miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. The relative expression profiles of six known miRNAs and their eight corresponding target genes, and two novel potential miRNAs were also detected. Histological characteristics of the posterior intestines in both normal and air-breathing inhibited group were further analyzed. This study contributes to our understanding on the functions and molecular regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in accessory air-breathing organs of fish.

  20. De novo assembly of mud loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus skin transcriptome to identify putative genes involved in immunity and epidermal mucus secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Long

    Full Text Available Fish skin serves as the first line of defense against a wide variety of chemical, physical and biological stressors. Secretion of mucus is among the most prominent characteristics of fish skin and numerous innate immune factors have been identified in the epidermal mucus. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the mucus secretion and immune activities of fish skin remain largely unclear due to the lack of genomic and transcriptomic data for most economically important fish species. In this study, we characterized the skin transcriptome of mud loach using Illumia paired-end sequencing. A total of 40364 unigenes were assembled from 86.6 million (3.07 gigabases filtered reads. The mean length, N50 size and maximum length of assembled transcripts were 387, 611 and 8670 bp, respectively. A total of 17336 (43.76% unigenes were annotated by blast searches against the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Gene ontology mapping assigned a total of 108513 GO terms to 15369 (38.08% unigenes. KEGG orthology mapping annotated 9337 (23.23% unigenes. Among the identified KO categories, immune system is the largest category that contains various components of multiple immune pathways such as chemokine signaling, leukocyte transendothelial migration and T cell receptor signaling, suggesting the complexity of immune mechanisms in fish skin. As for mucin biosynthesis, 37 unigenes were mapped to 7 enzymes of the mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis pathway and 8 members of the polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase family were identified. Additionally, 38 unigenes were mapped to 23 factors of the SNARE interactions in vesicular transport pathway, indicating that the activity of this pathway is required for the processes of epidermal mucus storage and release. Moreover, 1754 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were detected in 1564 unigenes and dinucleotide repeats represented the most abundant type. These findings have laid the foundation for further understanding

  1. De novo assembly of mud loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) skin transcriptome to identify putative genes involved in immunity and epidermal mucus secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yong; Li, Qing; Zhou, Bolan; Song, Guili; Li, Tao; Cui, Zongbin

    2013-01-01

    Fish skin serves as the first line of defense against a wide variety of chemical, physical and biological stressors. Secretion of mucus is among the most prominent characteristics of fish skin and numerous innate immune factors have been identified in the epidermal mucus. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the mucus secretion and immune activities of fish skin remain largely unclear due to the lack of genomic and transcriptomic data for most economically important fish species. In this study, we characterized the skin transcriptome of mud loach using Illumia paired-end sequencing. A total of 40364 unigenes were assembled from 86.6 million (3.07 gigabases) filtered reads. The mean length, N50 size and maximum length of assembled transcripts were 387, 611 and 8670 bp, respectively. A total of 17336 (43.76%) unigenes were annotated by blast searches against the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Gene ontology mapping assigned a total of 108513 GO terms to 15369 (38.08%) unigenes. KEGG orthology mapping annotated 9337 (23.23%) unigenes. Among the identified KO categories, immune system is the largest category that contains various components of multiple immune pathways such as chemokine signaling, leukocyte transendothelial migration and T cell receptor signaling, suggesting the complexity of immune mechanisms in fish skin. As for mucin biosynthesis, 37 unigenes were mapped to 7 enzymes of the mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis pathway and 8 members of the polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase family were identified. Additionally, 38 unigenes were mapped to 23 factors of the SNARE interactions in vesicular transport pathway, indicating that the activity of this pathway is required for the processes of epidermal mucus storage and release. Moreover, 1754 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected in 1564 unigenes and dinucleotide repeats represented the most abundant type. These findings have laid the foundation for further understanding the secretary

  2. Molecular evidence of cryptic diversity in Paracaryophyllaeus (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of loaches (Cobitidae) in Eurasia, including description of P. vladkae n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Oros, Mikuláš; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Brabec, Jan; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Xi, Bing-Wen; Aydoğdu, Ali; Besprozvannykh, Vladimir; Shimazu, Takeshi; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2014-12-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of an extensive collection of monozoic tapeworms of the genus Paracaryophyllaeus Kulakovskaya, 1961 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of loaches (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae) in Eurasia, has revealed cryptic species diversity within this long-time monotypic genus, especially in the Paracaryophyllaeus gotoi (Motomura, 1927) species complex [syn. Paracaryophyllaeus dubininorum (Kulakovskaya, 1961); type species]. Three independent, well-supported clades were discovered on the basis of molecular data: (i) specimens from Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and Cobitis lutheri from China, Russian Far East and Japan - called herein P. cf. gotoi 1, which may be conspecific with P. gotoi (Motomura, 1927), although in the absence of sequence data for P. gotoi from its type locality (basin of the River Kumkan in Korea), no certain inferences about their identity can currently be made; (ii) specimens from M. anguillicaudatus from China and Japan - P. cf. gotoi 2, which are morphologically indistinguishable from those of P. cf. gotoi 1; and (iii) morphologically distinct tapeworms from the endemic loach Cobitis bilseli from southwestern Turkey (Beyşehir Lake), which are described herein as a new species. Paracaryophyllaeus vladkae Scholz, Oros and Aydoğdu n. sp. differs from the remaining species of the genus in the following characteristics: the testes begin anterior to the first vitelline follicles (versus posterior), the body is short and robust (versus more elongate and slender), and the scolex is wide, rounded or apically tapered (versus claviform to truncate). Species composition of the genus, host specificity of species and geographical distribution are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Robotic systems in spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onen, Mehmet Resid; Naderi, Sait

    2014-01-01

    Surgical robotic systems have been available for almost twenty years. The first surgical robotic systems were designed as supportive systems for laparoscopic approaches in general surgery (the first procedure was a cholecystectomy in 1987). The da Vinci Robotic System is the most common system used for robotic surgery today. This system is widely used in urology, gynecology and other surgical disciplines, and recently there have been initial reports of its use in spine surgery, for transoral access and anterior approaches for lumbar inter-body fusion interventions. SpineAssist, which is widely used in spine surgery, and Renaissance Robotic Systems, which are considered the next generation of robotic systems, are now FDA approved. These robotic systems are designed for use as guidance systems in spine instrumentation, cement augmentations and biopsies. The aim is to increase surgical accuracy while reducing the intra-operative exposure to harmful radiation to the patient and operating team personnel during the intervention. We offer a review of the published literature related to the use of robotic systems in spine surgery and provide information on using robotic systems.

  4. Conversion coefficients for determining organ doses in paediatric spine radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidenbusch, Michael; Schneider, Karl [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology - Paediatric Radiology, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Knowledge of organ and effective doses achieved during paediatric x-ray examinations is an important prerequisite for assessment of radiation burden to the patient. Conversion coefficients for reconstruction of organ and effective doses from entrance doses for segmental spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients are provided regarding the Guidelines of Good Radiographic Technique of the European Commission. Using the personal computer program PCXMC developed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Saeteilyturvakeskus STUK), conversion coefficients for conventional segmental spine radiographs were calculated performing Monte Carlo simulations in mathematical hermaphrodite phantom models describing patients of different ages. The clinical variation of beam collimation was taken into consideration by defining optimal and suboptimal radiation field settings. Conversion coefficients for the reconstruction of organ doses in about 40 organs and tissues from measured entrance doses during cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients were calculated for the standard sagittal and lateral beam projections and the standard focus detector distance of 115 cm. The conversion coefficients presented may be used for organ dose assessments from entrance doses measured during spine radiographs of patients of all age groups and all field settings within the optimal and suboptimal standard field settings. (orig.)

  5. Multiplanar CT of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, S.L.G.; Glenn, W.V. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This is an illustrated text on computed tomography (CT) of the lumbar spine with an emphasis on the role and value of multiplanar imaging for helping determine diagnoses. The book has adequate discussion of scanning techniques for the different regions, interpretations of various abnormalities, degenerative disk disease, and different diagnoses. There is a 50-page chapter on detailed sectional anatomy of the spine and useful chapters on the postoperative spine and the planning and performing of spinal surgery with CT multiplanar reconstruction. There are comprehensive chapters on spinal tumors and trauma. The final two chapters of the book are devoted to CT image processing using digital networks and CT applications of medical computer graphics

  6. Degenerative disease of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czervionke, L.F.; Daniels, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    With few exceptions, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming the modality of choice for the evaluation of degenerative disorders of the entire spine. With the implementation of surface coils and continued refinement and development of new pulse sequences, osseous and soft tissue structures of the spine can now be studied in great detail. The introduction of paramagnetic contrast agents has made it possible to differentiate epidural scar from recurrent disc herniation in the postoperative setting and to discern previously undetected degenerative changes within the intervertebral disc itself. This paper discusses the spectrum of degenerative diseases of the spine, including disc degeneration (intervertebral osteochondrosis), disc herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylosis deformans, and osteoarthritis. A brief description of the MR techniques and strategies used to evaluate these disorders is also

  7. Degenerative disorders of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallucci, Massimo; Puglielli, Edoardo; Splendiani, Alessandra [University of L' Aquila, Department of Radiology, L' Aquila (Italy); Pistoia, Francesca; Spacca, Giorgio [S. Salvatore Hospital, Department of Neuroscience, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2005-03-01

    Patients with back pain and degenerative disorders of the spine have a significant impact on health care costs. Some authors estimate that up to 80% of all adults experience back pain at some point in their lives. Disk herniation represents one of the most frequent causes. Nevertheless, other degenerative diseases have to be considered. In this paper, pathology and imaging of degenerative spine diseases will be discussed, starting from pathophysiology of normal age-related changes of the intervertebral disk and vertebral body. (orig.)

  8. Degenerative disorders of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, Massimo; Puglielli, Edoardo; Splendiani, Alessandra; Pistoia, Francesca; Spacca, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    Patients with back pain and degenerative disorders of the spine have a significant impact on health care costs. Some authors estimate that up to 80% of all adults experience back pain at some point in their lives. Disk herniation represents one of the most frequent causes. Nevertheless, other degenerative diseases have to be considered. In this paper, pathology and imaging of degenerative spine diseases will be discussed, starting from pathophysiology of normal age-related changes of the intervertebral disk and vertebral body. (orig.)

  9. Machine Learning-Based Classification of 38 Years of Spine-Related Literature Into 100 Research Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, David C; Metz, Lionel N; Dudli, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    Retrospective review. To identify the top 100 spine research topics. Recent advances in "machine learning," or computers learning without explicit instructions, have yielded broad technological advances. Topic modeling algorithms can be applied to large volumes of text to discover quantifiable themes and trends. Abstracts were extracted from the National Library of Medicine PubMed database from five prominent peer-reviewed spine journals (European Spine Journal [ESJ], The Spine Journal [SpineJ], Spine, Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques [JSDT], Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine [JNS]). Each abstract was entered into a latent Dirichlet allocation model specified to discover 100 topics, resulting in each abstract being assigned a probability of belonging in a topic. Topics were named using the five most frequently appearing terms within that topic. Significance of increasing ("hot") or decreasing ("cold") topic popularity over time was evaluated with simple linear regression. From 1978 to 2015, 25,805 spine-related research articles were extracted and classified into 100 topics. Top two most published topics included "clinical, surgeons, guidelines, information, care" (n = 496 articles) and "pain, back, low, treatment, chronic" (424). Top two hot trends included "disc, cervical, replacement, level, arthroplasty" (+0.05%/yr, P < 0.001), and "minimally, invasive, approach, technique" (+0.05%/yr, P < 0.001). By journal, the most published topics were ESJ-"operative, surgery, postoperative, underwent, preoperative"; SpineJ-"clinical, surgeons, guidelines, information, care"; Spine-"pain, back, low, treatment, chronic"; JNS- "tumor, lesions, rare, present, diagnosis"; JSDT-"cervical, anterior, plate, fusion, ACDF." Topics discovered through latent Dirichlet allocation modeling represent unbiased meaningful themes relevant to spine care. Topic dynamics can provide historical context and direction for future research for aspiring investigators and trainees

  10. Radiology of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.

    1989-01-01

    The author describes some particularities seen in the abnormal or pathological image of the cervical spine: The osteolysis of the cortical bone in the spinous processes, the 'Y' shaped course of the corporeal veins, the notch in interspinous bursitis, and the main forms of constitutional stenosis of the cervical canal. (orig.) [de

  11. SPINE INJURY IN MULAGO HOSPITAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the best outcome in patients with Cervical Spine injury ICSI}. ... which indicates the likely level and pattern of injury ... All trauma patients with altered level ... from arrival In hospital to review bya clinician. ... one ofthe 29 patierns had an op-en mouth view taken. .... Domeier, H_ M. Time reliability of pre-hospital c inical.

  12. spine injury in mulago hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muiruri

    from arrival in hospital to review by a clinician. Figure i of adequate cervical spine X-rays(22, 25). High pick-up summarizes our findings. rates are only attained with adequate X-rays. Studies done elsewhere have shown that up to 45% of initial. Clinical evaluation: Not all patients were assessed for. X-rays are inadequate.

  13. Spine Metastases in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Stolyarova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and the objectives of the study were to determine the incidence of metastatic lesions to various parts of the spine, the assessment of the association with other clinical signs of lung cancer (localization, form, histology, degree of differentiation, staging, nature of extraosseous metastasis, to investigate the effect of these parameters on the survi­val of the patients. Material and methods. The study included 1071 patients with lung cancer aged 24 to 86 years. None of the examined patients has been operated previously for lung cancer, and after arriving at a diagnosis, all patients received radiation therapy, 73 % of them — combined radiochemothe­rapy. Results. Metastasis in the vertebral bodies and vertebral joints occurs in 13 % of patients with lung cancer and in 61 % of patients with bone form of the disease, the ratio of the defeat of thoracic, sacral, lumbar and cervical spine was 6 : 4 : 2 : 1. The development of metastases in the spine is mostly associa­ted with the localization of the tumor in the upper lobe of the lung, the peripheral form of the disease, with non-small cell histologic variants (adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The number of metastases in the spinal column directly correlates with the degree of metastatic involvement of the inguinal lymph nodes, abdominal wall and the liver, has an impact on the invasion of lung tumor into the esophagus and the trachea. The life expectancy of the deceased persons with spine metastases is less than that of other patients with the lung cancer, but the overall survival rate in these groups of patients is not very different. Conclusions. Clinical features of lung cancer with metastases in the spine necessitate the development of medical technology of rational radiochemotherapy in such patients.

  14. Imaging of cervical spine injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Geetika; El-Khoury, Georges Y. [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, 3951 JPP, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Cervical spine injuries of children, though rare, have a high morbidity and mortality. The pediatric cervical spine is anatomically and biomechanically different from that of adults. Hence, the type, level and outcome of cervical spine injuries in children are different from those seen in adults. Normal developmental variants seen in children can make evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine challenging. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric cervical spine trauma, normal variants seen in children and specific injuries that are more common in the pediatric population. We also propose an evidence-based imaging protocol to avoid unnecessary imaging studies and minimize radiation exposure in children. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of spine MRIs in athletes participating in the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Michael S; Guermazi, Ali; Jarraya, Mohamed; Engbretsen, Lars; AbdelKader, Mohamad; Roemer, Frank W; Hayashi, Daichi; Crema, Michel D; Mian, Asim Z

    2018-01-01

    In high-level Olympic athletes, many spinal pathologies arise from overuse, while others are the result of acute injury. Our aim is to analyse the epidemiology of spinal pathologies detected on MRI in athletes participating in the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Summer Olympics. In this retrospective study, all spine MRIs performed during the 2016 Rio Games were analysed. Descriptive data from the MRIs were tabulated and analysed for disc degeneration, spinal canal and/or neural foraminal narrowing, and acute/chronic fractures. Data were analysed by sport, continent of origin, age and sex. Of 11 274 athletes participating in the Olympic games, 100 received spine MRI. Fifty-two of the 100 (52%) athletes who received cervical, thoracic and/or lumbar spine MRI showed moderate to severe spinal disease. The highest sport-specific incidence of moderate to severe spine disease was seen in aquatic diving athletes (67%, 3 per 100 divers). Weightlifting had the second highest sport-specific incidence of spine disease (67%, 1.5 per 100 weightlifters). Athletics used the most spine MRIs (31 of 107 MRIs, 29%). European athletes had more spine MRIs than all other continents combined (55 of 107 MRIs, 51%). Athletes over 30 years old had the highest rate of moderate to severe spine disease on MRI (24 of 37 athletes >30 years old, 65%). A high number of the world's premier athletes demonstrated moderate to severe spine disease on MRI during the 2016 Summer Olympics, including moderate/severe degenerative disc changes with varying degrees of disc bulges and herniations.

  16. Aquatic antagonists: cutaneous sea urchin spine injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Clifford; Aronson, Erica R; Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M

    2016-11-01

    Injuries from sea urchin spines are commonly seen in coastal regions with high levels of participation in water activities. Although these injuries may seem minor, the consequences vary based on the location of the injury. Sea urchin spine injuries may cause arthritis and synovitis from spines in the joints. Nonjoint injuries have been reported, and dermatologic aspects of sea urchin spine injuries rarely have been discussed. We present a case of a patient with sea urchin spines embedded in the thigh who subsequently developed painful skin nodules. Tissue from the site of the injury demonstrated foreign-body type granulomas. Following the removal of the spines and granulomatous tissue, the patient experienced resolution of the nodules and associated pain. Extraction of sea urchin spines can attenuate the pain and decrease the likelihood of granuloma formation, infection, and long-term sequelae.

  17. Putting pressure on the spine : an osmoviscoelastic FE model of the intervertebral disc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroder, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Back pain is a frequently occurring complaint in adults, having a relatively large impact on the European economy due to the fact that it often partially incapacitates the patient. Intervertebral discs are believed to be a key element of back pain. Apart from providing flexibility to the spine,

  18. Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulas, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

  19. Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulas, Dorothy [George Washington University Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

  20. CT anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haughton, V.M.; Williams, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Effective CT scanning of the spine requires gantry opening greater than 50 cm, spatial resolution of less than 1 mm, contrast resolution of better than 0.5%, and a method for exact localization and selection of cut levels. With a suitable scanner, excellent images of the intervertebral disc, dural sac, spinal cord, facet joints, ligamentum flavum, and epidural veins can be obtained. The purpose of this report is to describe the normal CT appearance of the spinal soft tissues. (orig.) [de

  1. MRI of the fetal spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Erin M.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  2. Performance Indicators in Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Godefroy Hardy; Yang, Michael H; Bourget-Murray, Jonathan; Thomas, Ken C; Hurlbert, Robin John; Matthes, Nikolas

    2018-02-15

    Systematic review. To elucidate how performance indicators are currently used in spine surgery. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has given significant traction to the idea that healthcare must provide value to the patient through the introduction of hospital value-based purchasing. The key to implementing this new paradigm is to measure this value notably through performance indicators. MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched for studies reporting the use of performance indicators specific to spine surgery. We followed the Prisma-P methodology for a systematic review for entries from January 1980 to July 2016. All full text articles were then reviewed to identify any measure of performance published within the article. This measure was then examined as per the three criteria of established standard, exclusion/risk adjustment, and benchmarking to determine if it constituted a performance indicator. The initial search yielded 85 results among which two relevant studies were identified. The extended search gave a total of 865 citations across databases among which 15 new articles were identified. The grey literature search provided five additional reports which in turn led to six additional articles. A total of 27 full text articles and reports were retrieved and reviewed. We were unable to identify performance indicators. The articles presenting a measure of performance were organized based on how many criteria they lacked. We further examined the next steps to be taken to craft the first performance indicator in spine surgery. The science of performance measurement applied to spine surgery is still in its infancy. Current outcome metrics used in clinical settings require refinement to become performance indicators. Current registry work is providing the necessary foundation, but requires benchmarking to truly measure performance. 1.

  3. Osteoporotic Hip and Spine Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Cannada, Lisa K.; Hill, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Hip and spine fractures represent just a portion of the burden of osteoporosis; however, these fractures require treatment and often represent a major change in lifestyle for the patient and their family. The orthopedic surgeon plays a crucial role, not only in the treatment of these injuries but also providing guidance in prevention of future osteoporotic fractures. This review provides a brief epidemiology of the fractures, details the surgical techniques, and outlines the current treatment...

  4. MRI of the fetal spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Erin M. [Departement of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  5. RSA in Spine: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humadi, Ali; Dawood, Sulaf; Halldin, Klas; Freeman, Brian

    2017-12-01

    Systematic review of literature. This systematic review was conducted to investigate the accuracy of radiostereometric analysis (RSA), its assessment of spinal motion and disorders, and to investigate the limitations of this technique in spine assessment. Systematic review in all current literature to invesigate the role of RSA in spine. The results of this review concluded that RSA is a very powerful tool to detect small changes between 2 rigid bodies such as a vertebral segment. The technique is described for animal and human studies for cervical and lumbar spine and can be used to analyze range of motion, inducible displacement, and fusion of segments. However, there are a few disadvantages with the technique; RSA percutaneous procedure needs to be performed to implant the markers (and cannot be used preoperatively), one needs a specific knowledge to handle data and interpret the results, and is relatively time consuming and expensive. RSA should be looked at as a very powerful research instrument and there are many questions suitable for RSA studies.

  6. Cervical spine motion: radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Miyabayashi, T.; Choy, S.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of the acceptable range of motion of the cervical spine of the dog is used in the radiographic diagnosis of both developmental and degenerative diseases. A series of radiographs of mature Beagle dogs was used to identify motion within sagittal and transverse planes. Positioning of the dog's head and neck was standardized, using a restraining board, and mimicked those thought to be of value in diagnostic radiology. The range of motion was greatest between C2 and C5. Reports of severe disk degeneration in the cervical spine of the Beagle describe the most severely involved disks to be C4 through C7. Thus, a high range of motion between vertebral segments does not seem to be the cause for the severe degenerative disk disease. Dorsoventral slippage between vertebral segments was seen, but was not accurately measured. Wedging of disks was clearly identified. At the atlantoaxio-occipital region, there was a high degree of motion within the sagittal plane at the atlantoaxial and atlanto-occipital joints; the measurement can be a guideline in the radiographic diagnosis of instability due to developmental anomalies in this region. Lateral motion within the transverse plane was detected at the 2 joints; however, motion was minimal, and the measurements seemed to be less accurate because of rotation of the cervical spine. Height of the vertebral canal was consistently noted to be greater at the caudal orifice, giving some warning to the possibility of overdiagnosis in suspected instances of cervical spondylopathy

  7. Derivation of standardised BMD using the European Spine Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloskey, E.V.

    2000-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to compare peak bone mass in a range of populations and to examine the determinants of any differences which may be observed. Bone mineral density (areal BMD) has been measured by densitometers manufactured by two companies, Hologic (Waltham, USA) and Lunar (Madison, USA). Systematic differences exist between tile manufacturers in several stages of the scanning procedure (e.g. edge-detection, calibration) so that the normal ranges produced are specific to each brand. To allow comparison of BMD between manufacturers (and thus between centres) we have therefore undertaken a cross-calibration of the scanners in order to derive a standardised BMD

  8. Microscope sterility during spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; O'Neill, Kevin R; Crosby, Colin G; Schoenecker, Jonathan G; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2012-04-01

    Prospective study. Assess the contamination rates of sterile microscope drapes after spine surgery. The use of the operating microscope has become more prevalent in certain spine procedures, providing superior magnification, visualization, and illumination of the operative field. However, it may represent an additional source of bacterial contamination and increase the risk of developing a postoperative infection. This study included 25 surgical spine cases performed by a single spine surgeon that required the use of the operative microscope. Sterile culture swabs were used to obtain samples from 7 defined locations on the microscope drape after its use during the operation. The undraped technician's console was sampled in each case as a positive control, and an additional 25 microscope drapes were swabbed immediately after they were applied to the microscope to obtain negative controls. Swab samples were assessed for bacterial growth on 5% sheep blood Columbia agar plates using a semiquantitative technique. No growth was observed on any of the 25 negative control drapes. In contrast, 100% of preoperative and 96% of postoperative positive controls demonstrated obvious contamination. In the postoperative group, all 7 sites of evaluation were found to be contaminated with rates of 12% to 44%. Four of the 7 evaluated locations were found to have significant contamination rates compared with negative controls, including the shafts of the optic eyepieces on the main surgeon side (24%, P = 0.022), "forehead" portion on both the main surgeon (24%, P = 0.022) and assistant sides (28%, P = 0.010), and "overhead" portion of the drape (44%, P = 0.0002). Bacterial contamination of the operative microscope was found to be significant after spine surgery. Contamination was more common around the optic eyepieces, likely due to inadvertent touching of unsterile portions. Similarly, all regions above the eyepieces also have a propensity for contamination because of unknown contact

  9. Equal contributions and credit: an emerging trend in the characterization of authorship in major spine journals during a 10-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Wu, Yaohong; Tang, Yong; Ji, Wei; Li, Wei; Zhao, Xiyan; Li, Hao; He, Qing; Ruan, Dike

    2016-03-01

    The practice of giving certain authors equal credit in scientific publications has become increasingly common in some medical specialties. However, whether this trend also exists in major spine journals remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of the practice of giving authors equal credit in major spine journals. Manual searches were performed to identify original research articles with equally credited authors (ECA) published between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2013 in three major spine journals: Spine, European Spine Journal, and The Spine Journal. The number of authors with ECA and their positions in the byline, total number of authors, year of publication, and country of origin were analysed. The practice of ECA was found in all three journals. Articles with ECA comprised a greater proportion of the total number of publications in each journal in 2013 versus 2004 (Spine, 7.2 vs. 0.2%; European Spine Journal, 7.5 vs. 0.0%; and The Spine Journal, 6.2 vs. 0.0%). There was a statistically significant increasing trend in the annual proportion of papers with ECA for all three spine journals (p applied in nearly every position in the byline, and the first two authors received equal credit in most cases. Articles with ECA were published by authors from various countries and regions around the world. However, none of the three spine journals provided specific guidance on this practice in their author instructions. The practice of ECA in original research articles is increasingly common in major spine journals. A guideline for authors regarding when and how to designate equal credit is warranted in the future.

  10. Thyroid storm following anterior cervical spine surgery for tuberculosis of cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Huzurbazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective was to report this rare case and discuss the probable mechanism of thyroid storm following anterior cervical spine surgery for Kochs cervical spine.

  11. 49 CFR 572.19 - Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Year-Old Child § 572.19 Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. (a) The lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. 572.19 Section..., the lumbar spine assembly shall flex by an amount that permits the rigid thoracic spine to rotate from...

  12. Paediatric cervical spine injury but NEXUS negative

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Melanie J; Jardine, Andrew D

    2007-01-01

    Cervical spine injuries in paediatric patients following trauma are extremely rare. The National Emergency X‐Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) guidelines are a set of clinical criteria used to guide physicians in identifying trauma patients requiring cervical spine imaging. It is validated for use in children. A case of a child who did not fulfil the NEXUS criteria for imaging but was found to have a cervical spine fracture is reported.

  13. Chondrosarcoma of the Mobile Spine and Sacrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Stuckey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor of bone. This family of tumors can be primary malignant tumors or a secondary malignant transformation of an underlying benign cartilage tumor. Pain is often the initial presenting complaint when chondrosarcoma involves the spine. In the mobile spine, chondrosarcoma commonly presents within the vertebral body and shows a predilection for the thoracic spine. Due to the resistance of chondrosarcoma to both radiation and chemotherapy, treatment is focused on surgery. With en bloc excision of chondrosarcoma of the mobile spine and sacrum patients can have local recurrence rates as low as 20%.

  14. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng; Lambert, Robert Gw

    2013-01-01

    an important measure of treatment efficacy as well as a surrogate marker for new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new scoring method for fat lesions in the spine, the Fat SpA Spine Score (FASSS), which in contrast to the existing scoring method addresses the localization......Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both...

  15. Retropharyngeal cold abscess without Pott's spine | Singh | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retropharyngeal cold abscess without Pott's spine. ... pyogenic osteomyelitis, tube‚rculosis of the spine, or external injuries caused by endoscopes ... in an adult woman without tuberculosis of the cervical spine who was managed surgically by ...

  16. El cine como verdad rev(belada: Ken Loach; una reflexión sobre los años que forjaron el discurso naturalista del cineasta/ Cinema as rev(bealed truth: Ken Loach; a reflection over the years that forged the filmmaker’s naturalist speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Miguel Borrás

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La sabiduría que se desprende al contemplar el cine de Ken Loach, su depurado estilo naturalista, es fruto de un largo recorrido caracterizado por la coherencia y honestidad. Un cineasta que lleva más de medio siglo dejando huellas de su humanismo, dando voz a los desheredados. ¿De dónde procede su mirada? ¿Cuál es la sustancia expresiva de la que se nutre su discurso? Detenemos nuestra atención en los filmes realizados en la primera etapa de su carrera (1964-1990, pues es cuando se percibe con mayor fuerza el deseo de Loach de penetrar en la realidad con un lenguaje tan riguroso que el pensamiento parece inscribirse en la película, “un cine de confesión, de ensayo”. Una mirada, que se rebela contra un orden y una sociedad injustos, y engendra emociones insospechadas, convocando a la ternura, pero al mismo tiempo hace que nos cuestionemos lo que se nos está contando. Un cine puro, directo, sin concesiones, que reduce al mínimo los recursos. Una verdad a la que se accede de forma natural, una verdad revelada. En el calidoscopio de realidades presentes en un mismo acontecimiento, que el cine (por su naturaleza indicial e icónica es capaz de mostrar, radica esa sustancia expresiva. The Wisdom that emerges when we watch Ken Loach’s films, his refined naturalistic style, is the result of a long journey marked by consistency and honesty. A filmmaker who spend more than half a century leaving traces of their humanism, giving voice to the dispossessed. Where is the origin of the way of his looking? What is the expressive substance that nourishes his speech? We hold our attention on the films made in the first stage of his career (1964-1990, as it is when we perceive the desire of the filmmaker to penetrate in the reality with such a rigorous language that the thinking seems to enroll in the film... a cinema of confession and essay. A look, that always rebels against an order and a inherently and unjust society, and generates unexpected

  17. The Spine of the Cosmic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Platen, Erwin; van de Weijgaert, Rien; Szalay, Alexander S.

    We present the SpineWeb framework for the topological analysis of the Cosmic Web and the identification of its walls, filaments, and cluster nodes. Based on the watershed segmentation of the cosmic density field, the SpineWeb method invokes the local adjacency properties of the boundaries between

  18. Bilateral locked facets in the thoracic spine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Willems; Braakman, R. (Reinder); B. van Linge (Bert)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractTwo cases of traumatic bilateral locked facets in the thoracic spine are reported. Both patients had only minor neurological signs. They both made a full neurological recovery after surgical reduction of the locked facets. Bilateral locked facets are very uncommon in the thoracic spine.

  19. The Spine of the Cosmic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Platen, Erwin; van de Weijgaert, Rien; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    We present the SpineWeb framework for the topological analysis of the Cosmic Web and the identification of its walls, filaments, and cluster nodes. Based on the watershed segmentation of the cosmic density field, the SpineWeb method invokes the local adjacency properties of the boundaries between

  20. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray ... MRI): Lumbar Spine Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  1. Pott's Spine with Bilateral Psoas Abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Masavkar, Sanjeevani; Shanbag, Preeti; Inamdar, Prithi

    2012-01-01

    A high degree of suspicion and appropriate imaging studies are required for the early diagnosis of Pott's spine. We describe a 4-year-old boy with Pott's disease of the lumbar spine with bilateral psoas abscesses. The child responded to conservative treatment with antituberculous treatment and ultrasonographically guided percutaneous drainage of the abscesses.

  2. Sport injuries of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargon, G.

    1981-01-01

    The article reports on injuries of the cervical spine occurring during sports activities. An attempt is made to reconstruct the movements which led to the cervical spine injuries in question. In two cases of accidents occuring during bathing, one football accident and a toboggan accident, the injuries concerned point to hyperextension of the cervical spine as cause of the injury. In another football accident and a riding accident, the changes observed allow us to conclude that the movement leading to the injury must have been a hyperflexion. One accident occurring while jumping on the trampolin resulted in an injury of the upper cervical spine pointing to the action of a compressive force on the cervical spine in addition to the force resulting in hyperflexion. (orig.) [de

  3. Sport injuries of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargon, G

    1981-03-01

    The article reports on injuries of the cervical spine occurring during sports activities. An attempt is made to reconstruct the movements which led to the cervical spine injuries in question. In two cases of accidents occuring during bathing, one football accident and a toboggan accident, the injuries concerned point to hyperextension of the cervical spine as cause of the injury. In another football accident and a riding accident, the changes observed allow us to conclude that the movement leading to the injury must have been a hyperflexion. One accident occurring while jumping on the trampolin resulted in an injury of the upper cervical spine pointing to the action of a compressive force on the cervical spine in addition to the force resulting in hyperflexion.

  4. Interventional spine and pain procedures in patients on antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications: guidelines from the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, the International Neuromodulation Society, the North American Neuromodulation Society, and the World Institute of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narouze, Samer; Benzon, Honorio T; Provenzano, David A; Buvanendran, Asokumar; De Andres, José; Deer, Timothy R; Rauck, Richard; Huntoon, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Interventional spine and pain procedures cover a far broader spectrum than those for regional anesthesia, reflecting diverse targets and goals. When surveyed, interventional pain and spine physicians attending the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) 11th Annual Pain Medicine Meeting exhorted that existing ASRA guidelines for regional anesthesia in patients on antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications were insufficient for their needs. Those surveyed agreed that procedure-specific and patient-specific factors necessitated separate guidelines for pain and spine procedures. In response, ASRA formed a guidelines committee. After preliminary review of published complication reports and studies, committee members stratified interventional spine and pain procedures according to potential bleeding risk as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk procedures. The ASRA guidelines were deemed largely appropriate for the low- and intermediate-risk categories, but it was agreed that the high-risk targets required an intensive look at issues specific to patient safety and optimal outcomes in pain medicine. The latest evidence was sought through extensive database search strategies and the recommendations were evidence-based when available and pharmacology-driven otherwise. We could not provide strength and grading of these recommendations as there are not enough well-designed large studies concerning interventional pain procedures to support such grading. Although the guidelines could not always be based on randomized studies or on large numbers of patients from pooled databases, it is hoped that they will provide sound recommendations and the evidentiary basis for such recommendations.

  5. Malpractice litigation following spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Alan H; Ruttiman, Roy; Eltorai, Adam E M; DePasse, J Mason; Brea, Bielinsky A; Palumbo, Mark A

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Adverse events related to spine surgery sometimes lead to litigation. Few studies have evaluated the association between spine surgical complications and medical malpractice proceedings, outcomes, and awards. The aim of this study was to identify the most frequent causes of alleged malpractice in spine surgery and to gain insight into patient demographic and clinical characteristics associated with medical negligence litigation. METHODS A search for "spine surgery" spanning February 1988 to May 2015 was conducted utilizing the medicolegal research service VerdictSearch (ALM Media Properties, LLC). Demographic data for the plaintiff and defendant in addition to clinical data for the procedure and legal outcomes were examined. Spinal cord injury, anoxic/hypoxic brain injury, and death were classified as catastrophic complications; all other complications were classified as noncatastrophic. Both chi-square and t-tests were used to evaluate the effect of these variables on case outcomes and awards granted. RESULTS A total of 569 legal cases were examined; 335 cases were excluded due to irrelevance or insufficient information. Of the 234 cases included in this investigation, 54.2% (127 cases) resulted in a defendant ruling, 26.1% (61) in a plaintiff ruling, and 19.6% (46) in a settlement. The awards granted for plaintiff rulings ranged from $134,000 to $38,323,196 (mean $4,045,205 ± $6,804,647). Awards for settlements ranged from $125,000 to $9,000,000 (mean $1,930,278 ± $2,113,593), which was significantly less than plaintiff rulings (p = 0.022). Compared with cases without a delay in diagnosis of the complication, the cases with a diagnostic delay were more likely to result in a plaintiff verdict or settlement (42.9% vs 72.7%, p = 0.007) than a defense verdict, and were more likely to settle out of court (17.5% vs 40.9%, p = 0.008). Similarly, compared with cases without a delay in treatment of the complication, those with a therapeutic delay were more

  6. Gunshot injuries in the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Filho, T E P; Cristante, A F; Marcon, R M; Ono, A; Bilhar, R

    2014-07-01

    Review article. To review the literature regarding treatment approaches in cases of gunshot wounds (GSWs) affecting the spine. Brazil. Narrative review of medical literature. GSWs are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Most patients with spinal GSW have complete neurological deficit. The injury is more common in young men and is frequently immobilizing. The initial approach should follow advanced trauma life support, and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy should be initiated immediately, especially in patients with perforation of the gastrointestinal tract. The indications for surgery in spinal GSW are deterioration of the neurologic condition in a patient with incomplete neurological deficit, the presence of liquor fistula, spinal instability, intoxication by the metal from the bullet or risk of bullet migration. Surgical treatment is associated with a higher complication rate than conservative treatment. Therefore, the surgeon must know the treatment limitations and recognize patients who would truly benefit from surgery.

  7. Spatial and Working Memory Is Linked to Spine Density and Mushroom Spines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Refaat Mahmmoud

    Full Text Available Changes in synaptic structure and efficacy including dendritic spine number and morphology have been shown to underlie neuronal activity and size. Moreover, the shapes of individual dendritic spines were proposed to correlate with their capacity for structural change. Spine numbers and morphology were reported to parallel memory formation in the rat using a water maze but, so far, there is no information on spine counts or shape in the radial arm maze (RAM, a frequently used paradigm for the evaluation of complex memory formation in the rodent.24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, 8 were trained, 8 remained untrained in the RAM and 8 rats served as cage controls. Dendritic spine numbers and individual spine forms were counted in CA1, CA3 areas and dentate gyrus of hippocampus using a DIL dye method with subsequent quantification by the Neuronstudio software and the image J program.Working memory errors (WME and latency in the RAM were decreased along the training period indicating that animals performed the task. Total spine density was significantly increased following training in the RAM as compared to untrained rats and cage controls. The number of mushroom spines was significantly increased in the trained as compared to untrained and cage controls. Negative significant correlations between spine density and WME were observed in CA1 basal dendrites and in CA3 apical and basal dendrites. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between spine density and latency in CA3 basal dendrites.The study shows that spine numbers are significantly increased in the trained group, an observation that may suggest the use of this method representing a morphological parameter for memory formation studies in the RAM. Herein, correlations between WME and latency in the RAM and spine density revealed a link between spine numbers and performance in the RAM.

  8. Spatial and Working Memory Is Linked to Spine Density and Mushroom Spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmoud, Rasha Refaat; Sase, Sunetra; Aher, Yogesh D; Sase, Ajinkya; Gröger, Marion; Mokhtar, Maher; Höger, Harald; Lubec, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Changes in synaptic structure and efficacy including dendritic spine number and morphology have been shown to underlie neuronal activity and size. Moreover, the shapes of individual dendritic spines were proposed to correlate with their capacity for structural change. Spine numbers and morphology were reported to parallel memory formation in the rat using a water maze but, so far, there is no information on spine counts or shape in the radial arm maze (RAM), a frequently used paradigm for the evaluation of complex memory formation in the rodent. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, 8 were trained, 8 remained untrained in the RAM and 8 rats served as cage controls. Dendritic spine numbers and individual spine forms were counted in CA1, CA3 areas and dentate gyrus of hippocampus using a DIL dye method with subsequent quantification by the Neuronstudio software and the image J program. Working memory errors (WME) and latency in the RAM were decreased along the training period indicating that animals performed the task. Total spine density was significantly increased following training in the RAM as compared to untrained rats and cage controls. The number of mushroom spines was significantly increased in the trained as compared to untrained and cage controls. Negative significant correlations between spine density and WME were observed in CA1 basal dendrites and in CA3 apical and basal dendrites. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between spine density and latency in CA3 basal dendrites. The study shows that spine numbers are significantly increased in the trained group, an observation that may suggest the use of this method representing a morphological parameter for memory formation studies in the RAM. Herein, correlations between WME and latency in the RAM and spine density revealed a link between spine numbers and performance in the RAM.

  9. Gonadal dose reduction in lumbar spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moilanen, A.; Kokko, M.L.; Pitkaenen, M.

    1983-01-01

    Different ways to minimize the gonadal dose in lumbar spine radiography have been studied. Two hundred and fifty lumbar spine radiographs were reviewed to assess the clinical need for lateral L5/S1 projection. Modern film/screen combinations and gonadal shielding of externally scattered radiation play a major role in the reduction of the genetic dose. The number of exposures should be minimized. Our results show that two projections, anteroposterior (AP) and lateral, appear to be sufficient in routine radiography of the lumbar spine. (orig.)

  10. Disparities in Rates of Spine Surgery for Degenerative Spine Disease Between HIV Infected and Uninfected Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Joseph T.; Gordon, Adam J.; Perkal, Melissa F.; Crystal, Stephen; Rosenthal, Ronnie A.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Butt, Adeel A.; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Rimland, David; Simberkoff, Michael S.; Justice, Amy C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective analysis of nationwide Veterans Health Administration (VA) clinical and administrative data. Objective Examine the association between HIV infection and the rate of spine surgery for degenerative spine disease. Summary of Background Data Combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) has prolonged survival in patients with HIV/AIDS, increasing the prevalence of chronic conditions such as degenerative spine disease that may require spine surgery. Methods We studied all HIV infected patients under care in the VA from 1996–2008 (n=40,038) and uninfected comparator patients (n=79,039) matched on age, gender, race, year, and geographic region. The primary outcome was spine surgery for degenerative spine disease defined by ICD-9 procedure and diagnosis codes. We used a multivariate Poisson regression to model spine surgery rates by HIV infection status, adjusting for factors that might affect suitability for surgery (demographics, year, comorbidities, body mass index, cART, and laboratory values). Results Two-hundred twenty eight HIV infected and 784 uninfected patients underwent spine surgery for degenerative spine disease during 700,731 patient-years of follow-up (1.44 surgeries per 1,000 patient-years). The most common procedures were spinal decompression (50%), and decompression and fusion (33%); the most common surgical sites were the lumbosacral (50%), and cervical (40%) spine. Adjusted rates of surgery were lower for HIV infected patients (0.86 per 1,000 patient-years of follow-up) than for uninfected patients (1.41 per 1,000 patient-years; IRR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.51, 0.74, Pdegenerative spine disease. Possible explanations include disease prevalence, emphasis on treatment of non-spine HIV-related symptoms, surgical referral patterns, impact of HIV on surgery risk-benefit ratio, patient preferences, and surgeon bias. PMID:21697770

  11. Research articles published by Korean spine surgeons: Scientific progress and the increase in spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Eon; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Hyun Jib; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu

    2017-02-01

    There has been a marked increase in spine surgery in the 21st century, but there are no reports providing quantitative and qualitative analyses of research by Korean spine surgeons. The study goal was to assess the status of Korean spinal surgery and research. The number of spine surgeries was obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. Research articles published by Korean spine surgeons were reviewed by using the Medline/PubMed online database. The number of spine surgeries in Korea increased markedly from 92,390 in 2004 to 164,291 in 2013. During the 2000-2014 period, 1982 articles were published by Korean spine surgeons. The annual number of articles increased from 20 articles in 2000 to 293 articles in 2014. There was a positive correlation between the annual spine surgery and article numbers (particles with Oxford levels of evidence 1, 2, and 3. The mean five-year impact factor (IF) for article quality was 1.79. There was no positive correlation between the annual IF and article numbers. Most articles (65.9%) were authored by neurosurgical spine surgeons. But spinal deformity-related topics were dominant among articles authored by orthopedics. The results show a clear quantitative increase in Korean spinal surgery and research over the last 15years. The lack of a correlation between annual IF and published article numbers indicate that Korean spine surgeons should endeavor to increase research value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Accountable disease management of spine pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J

    2011-09-01

    The health care landscape has changed with new legislation addressing the unsustainable rise in costs in the US system. Low-value service lines caring for expensive chronic conditions have been targeted for reform; for better or worse, the treatment of spine pain has been recognized as a representative example. Examining the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and existing pilot studies can offer a preview of how chronic care of spine pain will be sustained. Accountable care in an organization capable of collecting, analyzing, and reporting clinical data and operational compliance is forthcoming. Interdisciplinary spine pain centers integrating surgical and medical management, behavioral medicine, physical reconditioning, and societal reintegration represent the model of high-value care for patients with chronic spine pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Rare Nasal Bone Fracture: Anterior Nasal Spine Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Kucuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anterior nasal spine fractures are a quite rare type of nasal bone fractures. Associated cervical spine injuries are more dangerous than the nasal bone fracture. A case of the anterior nasal spine fracture, in a 18-year-old male was presented. Fracture of the anterior nasal spine, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the midface injuries and also accompanying cervical spine injury should not be ignored.

  14. Brachial Plexopathy After Cervical Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Than, Khoi D.; Mummaneni, Praveen V.; Smith, Zachary A.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Arnold, Paul M.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Mroz, Thomas E.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective, multicenter case-series study and literature review. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery and to review the literature to better understand the etiology and risk factors of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery. Methods: A retrospective case-series study of 12?903 patients at 21 different sites was performed to analyze the prevalence of several different complications, including brachial plexopathy....

  15. Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy After Cervical Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, Christopher P.; Clark, Aaron J.; Kanter, Adam S.; Arnold, Paul M.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Mroz, Thomas E.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Multi-institutional retrospective study. Objective: The goal of the current study is to quantify the incidence of 2 extremely rare complications of cervical spine surgery; hypoglossal and glossopharyngeal nerve palsies. Methods: A total of 8887 patients who underwent cervical spine surgery from 2005 to 2011 were included in the study from 21 institutions. Results: No glossopharyngeal nerve injuries were reported. One hypoglossal nerve injury was reported after a C3-7 laminectomy...

  16. Incidental findings on MRI of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, S.; Jain, N.; Goyal, N.; Mansour, R. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Mukherjee, K. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)], E-mail: kausikmukherjee@doctors.org.uk

    2009-04-15

    MRI is widely used as the imaging of choice for spinal disorders and may reveal either a clinically insignificant incidental abnormality or a significant lesion, unrelated to the spine, which may explain the patient's symptoms. This article attempts to establish the importance of such findings and describes a sensible approach to the reporting of MRI examinations of the spine with special attention to the incidental findings commonly encountered. The MRI characteristics of such findings are briefly described.

  17. Tophaceous gout in the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabot, Jonathan [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Mosel, Leigh; Kong, Andrew; Hayward, Mike [Flinders Medical Centre, Department of Medical Imaging, Bedford Park, South Australia (Australia)

    2005-12-01

    Gout is a common metabolic disorder typically affecting the distal joints of the appendicular skeleton. Involvement of the axial skeleton, particularly the facet joints and posterior column of the cervical spine, is rare. This case report highlights such a presentation in a 76-year old female who presented with cervical spine pain following a fall. Her radiological findings were suggestive of a destructive metastatic process. Histological diagnosis confirmed tophaceous gout. (orig.)

  18. Fine structure of synapses on dendritic spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eFrotscher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Camillo Golgi’s Reazione Nera led to the discovery of dendritic spines, small appendages originating from dendritic shafts. With the advent of electron microscopy (EM they were identified as sites of synaptic contact. Later it was found that changes in synaptic strength were associated with changes in the shape of dendritic spines. While live-cell imaging was advantageous in monitoring the time course of such changes in spine structure, EM is still the best method for the simultaneous visualization of all cellular components, including actual synaptic contacts, at high resolution. Immunogold labeling for EM reveals the precise localization of molecules in relation to synaptic structures. Previous EM studies of spines and synapses were performed in tissue subjected to aldehyde fixation and dehydration in ethanol, which is associated with protein denaturation and tissue shrinkage. It has remained an issue to what extent fine structural details are preserved when subjecting the tissue to these procedures. In the present review, we report recent studies on the fine structure of spines and synapses using high-pressure freezing (HPF, which avoids protein denaturation by aldehydes and results in an excellent preservation of ultrastructural detail. In these studies, HPF was used to monitor subtle fine-structural changes in spine shape associated with chemically induced long-term potentiation (cLTP at identified hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. Changes in spine shape result from reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We report that cLTP was associated with decreased immunogold labeling for phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing protein. Phosphorylation of cofilin renders it unable to depolymerize F-actin, which stabilizes the actin cytoskeleton. Decreased levels of p-cofilin, in turn, suggest increased actin turnover, possibly underlying the changes in spine shape associated with cLTP. The findings reviewed here establish HPF as

  19. Tophaceous gout in the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabot, Jonathan; Mosel, Leigh; Kong, Andrew; Hayward, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Gout is a common metabolic disorder typically affecting the distal joints of the appendicular skeleton. Involvement of the axial skeleton, particularly the facet joints and posterior column of the cervical spine, is rare. This case report highlights such a presentation in a 76-year old female who presented with cervical spine pain following a fall. Her radiological findings were suggestive of a destructive metastatic process. Histological diagnosis confirmed tophaceous gout. (orig.)

  20. Role of parasite load and differential habitat preferences in maintaining the coexistence of sexual and asexual competitors in fish of the Cobitis taenia hybrid complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotusz, J.; Popiolek, M.; Drozd, P.; de Gelas, K.; Šlechtová, V.; Janko, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2014), s. 220-235 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : diploid-polyploid complexes * European distribution * habitat partitioning * niche shift * parasite-mediated coexistence * Red Queen hypothesis * spined loach * unisexuality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.264, year: 2014

  1. Neuroimaging for spine and spinal cord surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Izumi [Hokkaido Neurosurgical Memorial Hospital (Japan); Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Hida, Kazutoshi

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging of the spine and spinal cord are described based upon our clinical experiences with spinal disorders. Preoperative neuroradiological examinations, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computerized tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CT), were retrospectively analyzed in patients with cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (130 cases), spinal trauma (43 cases) and intramedullary spinal cord tumors (92 cases). CT scan and 3D-CT were useful in elucidating the spine pathology associated with degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. Visualization of the deformity of the spine or fracture-dislocation of the spinal column with 3D-CT helped to determine the correct surgical treatment. MR imaging was most important in the diagnosis of both spine and spinal cord abnormalities. The axial MR images of the spinal cord were essential in understanding the laterality of the spinal cord compression in spinal column disorders and in determining surgical approaches to the intramedullary lesions. Although non-invasive diagnostic modalities such as MR imaging and CT scans are adequate for deciding which surgical treatment to use in the majority of spine and spinal cord disorders, conventional myelography is still needed in the diagnosis of nerve root compression in some cases of cervical spondylosis. (author)

  2. Return to golf after spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abla, Adib A; Maroon, Joseph C; Lochhead, Richard; Sonntag, Volker K H; Maroon, Adara; Field, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    no published evidence indicates when patients can resume golfing after spine surgery. The objective of this study is to provide data from surveys sent to spine surgeons. a survey of North American Spine Society members was undertaken querying the suggested timing of return to golf. Of 1000 spine surgeons surveyed, 523 responded (52.3%). The timing of recommended return to golf and the reasons were questioned for college/professional athletes and avid and recreational golfers of both sexes. Responses were tallied for lumbar laminectomy, lumbar microdiscectomy, lumbar fusion, and anterior cervical discectomy with fusion. the most common recommended time for return to golf was 4-8 weeks after lumbar laminectomy and lumbar microdiscectomy, 2-3 months after anterior cervical fusion, and 6 months after lumbar fusion. The results showed a statistically significant increase in the recommended time to resume golf after lumbar fusion than after cervical fusion in all patients (p golf after spine surgery depends on many variables, including the general well-being of patients in terms of pain control and comfort when golfing. This survey serves as a guide that can assist medical practitioners in telling patients the average times recommended by surgeons across North America regarding return to golf after spine surgery.

  3. Computed tomography of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, I.; Antoun, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Until the advent of Computed Tomography (CT), axial studies of the spine were limited in the main to gross bony anatomy and to conventional transaxial tomography (TAT). Others studied the upper cervical cord in transverse section during gas myelography and encephalography. The potential role of CT in the evaluation of spinal anatomy and disease was recognized, however, at an early stage in the development of the general purpose CT scanner. CT is not organ specific and therefore provides a uniformly thin (1.5-13 mm) axial section displaying detailed spinal topographical anatomy against a background of paravertebral muscles, vascular structures and body cavity organs. The relationships of the apophyseal joints to the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina are particularly well displayed. The study of neural tissue and pathology within the spinal canal is facilitated by the use of a non-ionic water-soluble contrast medium (viz. metrizamide) in the subarachnoid spaces. The high sensitivity of CT to very small changes in X-ray attenuation permits studies to be continued over several hours. The digital derivation of the sequential CT transaxial sections enables not only interrogation of data and quantitative studies to be made but also makes possible computer-generated reconstructions in other planes

  4. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  5. Right thoracic curvature in the normal spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuda Keigo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry and vertebral rotation, at times observed in the normal spine, resemble the characteristics of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Right thoracic curvature has also been reported in the normal spine. If it is determined that the features of right thoracic side curvature in the normal spine are the same as those observed in AIS, these findings might provide a basis for elucidating the etiology of this condition. For this reason, we investigated right thoracic curvature in the normal spine. Methods For normal spinal measurements, 1,200 patients who underwent a posteroanterior chest radiographs were evaluated. These consisted of 400 children (ages 4-9, 400 adolescents (ages 10-19 and 400 adults (ages 20-29, with each group comprised of both genders. The exclusion criteria were obvious chest and spinal diseases. As side curvature is minimal in normal spines and the range at which curvature is measured is difficult to ascertain, first the typical curvature range in scoliosis patients was determined and then the Cobb angle in normal spines was measured using the same range as the scoliosis curve, from T5 to T12. Right thoracic curvature was given a positive value. The curve pattern was organized in each collective three groups: neutral (from -1 degree to 1 degree, right (> +1 degree, and left ( Results In child group, Cobb angle in left was 120, in neutral was 125 and in right was 155. In adolescent group, Cobb angle in left was 70, in neutral was 114 and in right was 216. In adult group, Cobb angle in left was 46, in neutral was 102 and in right was 252. The curvature pattern shifts to the right side in the adolescent group (p Conclusions Based on standing chest radiographic measurements, a right thoracic curvature was observed in normal spines after adolescence.

  6. Spine device clinical trials: design and sponsorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, Daniel J; Capobianco, Robyn A

    2015-05-01

    Multicenter prospective randomized clinical trials represent the best evidence to support the safety and effectiveness of medical devices. Industry sponsorship of multicenter clinical trials is purported to lead to bias. To determine what proportion of spine device-related trials are industry-sponsored and the effect of industry sponsorship on trial design. Analysis of data from a publicly available clinical trials database. Clinical trials of spine devices registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, a publicly accessible trial database, were evaluated in terms of design, number and location of study centers, and sample size. The relationship between trial design characteristics and study sponsorship was evaluated using logistic regression and general linear models. One thousand six hundred thrity-eight studies were retrieved from ClinicalTrials.gov using the search term "spine." Of the 367 trials that focused on spine surgery, 200 (54.5%) specifically studied devices for spine surgery and 167 (45.5%) focused on other issues related to spine surgery. Compared with nondevice trials, device trials were far more likely to be sponsored by the industry (74% vs. 22.2%, odds ratio (OR) 9.9 [95% confidence interval 6.1-16.3]). Industry-sponsored device trials were more likely multicenter (80% vs. 29%, OR 9.8 [4.8-21.1]) and had approximately four times as many participating study centers (pdevices not sponsored by the industry. Most device-related spine research is industry-sponsored. Multicenter trials are more likely to be industry-sponsored. These findings suggest that previously published studies showing larger effect sizes in industry-sponsored vs. nonindustry-sponsored studies may be biased as a result of failure to take into account the marked differences in design and purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Imaging the Traumatized Spine'Clearing The Cervical Spine'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monu, U.V.J.

    2015-01-01

    Failure to recognize and diagnose injury to the cervical spine on plain radiographs can lead to severe and devastating consequences to the patient in particular and to the radiologist financially and otherwise. CT examination of the cervical spine aids and significantly improves diagnoses in many instances. it is neither economically feasible nor desirable to obtain CT on all patients. Meticulous attention to detail and zero tolerance for deviations from the usual radiographic landmarks will help select cases that should obtain additional imaging in form of CT or MRI scans. Faced with a task of clearing a cervical spine, a number of options are available. The first discriminator is whether or not the patient can be cleared clinically. If that is not possible, radiographic evaluation is needed. Strict adherence to a minimum three view plain radiograph for C-spine series must be maintained. Deviation from established norms for cervical spine radiographs should trigger a CT for additional evaluation

  8. Interventional Spine and Pain Procedures in Patients on Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Medications (Second Edition): Guidelines From the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, the International Neuromodulation Society, the North American Neuromodulation Society, and the World Institute of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narouze, Samer; Benzon, Honorio T; Provenzano, David; Buvanendran, Asokumar; De Andres, José; Deer, Timothy; Rauck, Richard; Huntoon, Marc A

    2018-04-01

    The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) 2012 survey of meeting attendees showed that existing ASRA anticoagulation guidelines for regional anesthesia were insufficient for their needs. Those surveyed agreed that procedure-specific and patient-specific factors required separate guidelines for pain and spine procedures. In response, a guidelines committee was formed. After preliminary review of published complications reports and studies, the committee stratified interventional spine and pain procedures according to potential bleeding risk: low-, intermediate-, and high-risk procedures. The ASRA regional anesthesia anticoagulation guidelines were largely deemed appropriate for the low- and intermediate-risk categories, but the high-risk category required further investigation. The first guidelines specific to interventional spine and pain procedures were published in 2015. Recent reviews evaluating bleeding complications in patients undergoing specific interventional pain procedures, the development of new regional anesthesia and acute pain guidelines, and the development of new anticoagulants and antiplatelet medications necessitate complementary updated guidelines. The authors desired coordination with the authors of the recently updated regional and acute pain anticoagulation guidelines. The latest evidence was sought through extensive database search strategies and the recommendations were evidence based when available and pharmacology driven otherwise. We could not provide strength and grading of these recommendations because there are not enough well-designed large studies concerning interventional pain procedures to support such grading. Although the guidelines could not always be based on randomized studies or on large numbers of patients from pooled databases, it is hoped that they will provide sound recommendations and the evidentiary basis for such recommendations. This publication is intended as a living document to be updated

  9. Conspicuous and aposematic spines in the animal kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Moshe; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2005-04-01

    Spines serve as a common physical defence mechanism in both the plant and animal kingdoms. Here we argue that as in plants, defensive animal spines are often conspicuous (shape and colour) and should be considered aposematic. Conspicuous spines may evolve as signals or serve as a cue for potential predators. Spine conspicuousness in animals has evolved independently across and within phyla occupying aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, indicating that this convergent phenomenon is highly adaptive. Still, many spines are cryptic, suggesting that conspicuity is not simply constrained by developmental factors such as differences in the chemical composition of the integument. Aposematism does not preclude the signalling role of conspicuous spines in the sexual arena.

  10. Management of thoracolumbar spine trauma An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rajasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracolumbar spine fractures are common injuries that can result in significant disability, deformity and neurological deficit. Controversies exist regarding the appropriate radiological investigations, the indications for surgical management and the timing, approach and type of surgery. This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, biomechanical principles, radiological and clinical evaluation, classification and management principles. Literature review of all relevant articles published in PubMed covering thoracolumbar spine fractures with or without neurologic deficit was performed. The search terms used were thoracolumbar, thoracic, lumbar, fracture, trauma and management. All relevant articles and abstracts covering thoracolumbar spine fractures with and without neurologic deficit were reviewed. Biomechanically the thoracolumbar spine is predisposed to a higher incidence of spinal injuries. Computed tomography provides adequate bony detail for assessing spinal stability while magnetic resonance imaging shows injuries to soft tissues (posterior ligamentous complex [PLC] and neurological structures. Different classification systems exist and the most recent is the AO spine knowledge forum classification of thoracolumbar trauma. Treatment includes both nonoperative and operative methods and selected based on the degree of bony injury, neurological involvement, presence of associated injuries and the integrity of the PLC. Significant advances in imaging have helped in the better understanding of thoracolumbar fractures, including information on canal morphology and injury to soft tissue structures. The ideal classification that is simple, comprehensive and guides management is still elusive. Involvement of three columns, progressive neurological deficit, significant kyphosis and canal compromise with neurological deficit are accepted indications for surgical stabilization through anterior, posterior or combined approaches.

  11. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  12. Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy After Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Christopher P; Clark, Aaron J; Kanter, Adam S; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Multi-institutional retrospective study. The goal of the current study is to quantify the incidence of 2 extremely rare complications of cervical spine surgery; hypoglossal and glossopharyngeal nerve palsies. A total of 8887 patients who underwent cervical spine surgery from 2005 to 2011 were included in the study from 21 institutions. No glossopharyngeal nerve injuries were reported. One hypoglossal nerve injury was reported after a C3-7 laminectomy (0.01%). This deficit resolved with conservative management. The rate by institution ranged from 0% to 1.28%. Although not directly injured by the surgical procedure, the transient nerve injury might have been related to patient positioning as has been described previously in the literature. Hypoglossal nerve injury during cervical spine surgery is an extremely rare complication. Institutional rates may vary. Care should be taken during posterior cervical surgery to avoid hyperflexion of the neck and endotracheal tube malposition.

  13. The Management of Unstable Cervical Spine Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu M. Nemani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to the cervical spine can cause potentially devastating morbidity and even mortality. In this review we discuss the anatomy and biomechanics of the cervical spine. The evaluation and treatment of cervical spine injuries begins with the prompt immobilization of suspected injuries in the field. Once an assessment of the patient's neurological status is made, imaging studies are obtained, which can include X-rays, CT, and MRI. Careful scrutiny of the imaging studies for bony and/or ligamentous injury allows the physician to determine the mechanism of injury, which guides treatment. The ultimate treatment plan can consist of non-operative or operative management, and depends on patient specific factors (medical condition and neurological status, the mechanism of injury, and the resultant degree of instability. With prompt diagnosis and appropriate management, the morbidity of these injuries can be minimized.

  14. Development of the young spine questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Hestbæk, Lise

    2013-01-01

    .7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). To improve the understanding of the spinal boundaries we added bony landmarks to the spinal drawings after pilot test I. This resulted in an improved sense of spinal boundary location in pilot test II. Correlations between the rFPS and the interview...... pain score ranged between 0.67 (cervical spine) and 0.79 (lumbar spine). Conclusions The Young Spine Questionnaire contains questions that assess spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for content understanding and agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings......Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Consequently, preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has...

  15. Screening of the spine in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Degerfalk, Anna; Kentsdotter, Linn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence on the reliability of clinical tests used for the spinal screening of children and adolescents is currently lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-rater reliability and measurement error of clinical tests commonly used when screening young spines......-segmental mobility and end range pain in the spine. Seventy-five of the 111 subjects were re-examined after one to four hours to test intra-rater reliability. Percentage agreement and Cohen's Kappa were calculated for binary variables, and interclass correlation (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots with Limits of Agreement...

  16. Axial loaded MRI of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Blease, S.; MacSweeney, E

    2003-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is established as the technique of choice for assessment of degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. However, it is routinely performed with the patient supine and the hips and knees flexed. The absence of axial loading and lumbar extension results in a maximization of spinal canal dimensions, which may in some cases, result in failure to demonstrate nerve root compression. Attempts have been made to image the lumbar spine in a more physiological state, either by imaging with flexion-extension, in the erect position or by using axial loading. This article reviews the literature relating to the above techniques.

  17. Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery in Small Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettlich, Bianca F

    2018-01-01

    Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) seems to have many benefits for human patients and is currently used for various minor and major spine procedures. For MISS, a change in access strategy to the target location is necessary and it requires intraoperative imaging, special instrumentation, and magnification. Few veterinary studies have evaluated MISS for canine patients for spinal decompression procedures. This article discusses the general requirements for MISS and how these can be applied to veterinary spinal surgery. The current veterinary MISS literature is reviewed and suggestions are made on how to apply MISS to different spinal locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Degenerative Changes in the Spine: Is This Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in my spine. Does this mean I have arthritis? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Yes. ... spine. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. Doctors may also refer to it as degenerative ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine KidsHealth / For Parents / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine What's in this article? ...

  20. Conspicuous carotenoid-based pelvic spine ornament in three-spined stickleback populations—occurrence and inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CR Amundsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Reports on reddish carotenoid-based ornaments in female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus are few, despite the large interest in the species’ behaviour, ornamentation, morphology and evolution. We sampled sticklebacks from 17 sites in north-western Europe in this first extensive study on the occurrence of carotenoid-based female pelvic spines and throat ornaments. The field results showed that females, and males, with reddish spines were found in all 17 populations. Specimens of both sexes with conspicuous red spines were found in several of the sites. The pelvic spines of males were more intensely red compared to the females’ spines, and large specimens were more red than small ones. Fish infected with the tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus had drabber spines than uninfected fish. Both sexes had red spines both during and after the spawning period, but the intensity of the red colour was more exaggerated during the spawning period. As opposed to pelvic spines, no sign of red colour at the throat was observed in any female from any of the 17 populations. A rearing experiment was carried out to estimate a potential genetic component of the pelvic spine ornament by artificial crossing and rearing of 15 family groups during a 12 months period. The results indicated that the genetic component of the red colour at the spines was low or close to zero. Although reddish pelvic spines seem common in populations of stickleback, the potential adaptive function of the reddish pelvic spines remains largely unexplained.

  1. Sensitivity of lumbar spine loading to anatomical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putzer, Michael; Ehrlich, Ingo; Rasmussen, John

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal simulations of lumbar spine loading rely on a geometrical representation of the anatomy. However, this data has an inherent inaccuracy. This study evaluates the in uence of dened geometrical parameters on lumbar spine loading utilizing ve parametrized musculoskeletal lumbar spine ...... lumbar spine model for a subject-specic approach with respect to bone geometry. Furthermore, degeneration processes could lead to computational problems and it is advised that stiffness properties of discs and ligaments should be individualized....

  2. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  3. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  4. Upper spine morphology in hypophosphatemic rickets and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans; Sonnesen, Liselotte; Beck-Nielsen, Signe S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe upper spine morphology in adult patients with hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) compared with controls to assess differences in spine morphology in terms of severity of skeletal impact and to study associations between spine morphology...

  5. Barriers in the brain : resolving dendritic spine morphology and compartmentalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrian, Max; Kusters, Remy; Wierenga, Corette J; Storm, Cornelis; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Kapitein, Lukas C

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic spines are micron-sized protrusions that harbor the majority of excitatory synapses in the central nervous system. The head of the spine is connected to the dendritic shaft by a 50-400 nm thin membrane tube, called the spine neck, which has been hypothesized to confine biochemical and

  6. Dendritic Spines in Depression: What We Learned from Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Hui; Li, Ming-Xing; Xu, Chang; Chen, Hui-Bin; An, Shu-Cheng; Ma, Xin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Depression, a severe psychiatric disorder, has been studied for decades, but the underlying mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Depression is closely associated with alterations in dendritic spine morphology and spine density. Therefore, understanding dendritic spines is vital for uncovering the mechanisms underlying depression. Several chronic stress models, including chronic restraint stress (CRS), chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), have ...

  7. A prospective study of spine fractures diagnosed by total spine computed tomography in high energy trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takami, Masanari; Nohda, Kazuhiro; Sakanaka, Junya; Nakamura, Masamichi; Yoshida, Munehito

    2011-01-01

    Since it is known to be impossible to identify spinal fractures in high-energy trauma patients the primary trauma evaluation, we have been performing total spine computed tomography (CT) in high-energy trauma cases. We investigated the spinal fractures that it was possible to detect by total spine CT in 179 cases and evaluated the usefulness of total spine CT prospectively. There were 54 (30.2%) spinal fractures among the 179 cases. Six (37.5%) of the 16 cervical spine fractures that were not detected on plain X-ray films were identified by total spine CT. Six (14.0%) of 43 thoracolumbar spine fractures were considered difficult to diagnose based on the clinical findings if total spine CT had not been performed. We therefore concluded that total spine CT is very useful and should be performed during the primary trauma evaluation in high-energy trauma cases. (author)

  8. Congenital spine anomalies: the closed spinal dysraphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Erin Simon [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The term congenital spinal anomalies encompasses a wide variety of dysmorphology that occurs during early development. Familiarity with current terminology and a practical, clinico-radiologic classification system allows the radiologist to have a more complete understanding of malformations of the spine and improves accuracy of diagnosis when these entities are encountered in practice. (orig.)

  9. Pediatric spine imaging post scoliosis surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsharief, Alaa N. [IWK Children' s Health Center, Dalhousie University, Diagnostic Imaging Department, Halifax, NS (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); King Saud University, Department of Medical Imaging, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, King Khaled National Guard Hospital-Western Region, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); El-Hawary, Ron [Dalhousie University, Orthopedic Surgery Department, IWK Children' s Health Center, Halifax, NS (Canada); Schmit, Pierre [IWK Children' s Health Center, Dalhousie University, Diagnostic Imaging Department, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2018-01-15

    Many orthopedic articles describe advances in surgical techniques and implants used in pediatric scoliosis surgery. However, even though postoperative spine imaging constitutes a large portion of outpatient musculoskeletal pediatric radiology, few, if any, radiology articles discuss this topic. There has been interval advancement over the last decades of the orthopedic procedures used in the treatment of spinal scoliosis in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. The goal of treatment in these patients is to stop the progression of the curve by blocking the spinal growth and correcting the deformity as much as possible. To that end, the authors in this paper discuss postoperative imaging findings of Harrington rods, Luque rods, Luque-Galveston implants and segmental spinal fusion systems. Regarding early onset scoliosis, the guiding principles used for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis do not apply to a growing spine because they would impede lung development. As a result, other devices have been developed to correct the curve and to allow spinal growth. These include spine-based growing rods, vertically expandable prosthetic titanium rods (requiring repetitive surgeries) and magnetically controlled growing rods (with a magnetic locking/unlocking system). Other more recent systems are Shilla and thoracoscopic anterior vertebral body tethering, which allow guided growth of the spine without repetitive interventions. In this paper, we review the radiologic appearances of different orthopedic implants and techniques used to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and early onset scoliosis. Moreover, we present the imaging findings of the most frequent postoperative complications. (orig.)

  10. Brachial Plexopathy After Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Khoi D; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective, multicenter case-series study and literature review. To determine the prevalence of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery and to review the literature to better understand the etiology and risk factors of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery. A retrospective case-series study of 12 903 patients at 21 different sites was performed to analyze the prevalence of several different complications, including brachial plexopathy. A literature review of the US National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health (PubMed) database was conducted to identify articles pertaining to brachial plexopathy following cervical spine surgery. In our total population of 12 903 patients, only 1 suffered from postoperative brachial plexopathy. The overall prevalence rate was thus 0.01%, but the prevalence rate at the site where this complication occurred was 0.07%. Previously reported risk factors for postoperative brachial plexopathy include age, anterior surgical procedures, and a diagnosis of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The condition can also be due to patient positioning during surgery, which can generally be detected via the use of intraoperative neuromonitoring. Brachial plexopathy following cervical spine surgery is rare and merits further study.

  11. Pediatric spine imaging post scoliosis surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsharief, Alaa N.; El-Hawary, Ron; Schmit, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Many orthopedic articles describe advances in surgical techniques and implants used in pediatric scoliosis surgery. However, even though postoperative spine imaging constitutes a large portion of outpatient musculoskeletal pediatric radiology, few, if any, radiology articles discuss this topic. There has been interval advancement over the last decades of the orthopedic procedures used in the treatment of spinal scoliosis in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. The goal of treatment in these patients is to stop the progression of the curve by blocking the spinal growth and correcting the deformity as much as possible. To that end, the authors in this paper discuss postoperative imaging findings of Harrington rods, Luque rods, Luque-Galveston implants and segmental spinal fusion systems. Regarding early onset scoliosis, the guiding principles used for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis do not apply to a growing spine because they would impede lung development. As a result, other devices have been developed to correct the curve and to allow spinal growth. These include spine-based growing rods, vertically expandable prosthetic titanium rods (requiring repetitive surgeries) and magnetically controlled growing rods (with a magnetic locking/unlocking system). Other more recent systems are Shilla and thoracoscopic anterior vertebral body tethering, which allow guided growth of the spine without repetitive interventions. In this paper, we review the radiologic appearances of different orthopedic implants and techniques used to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and early onset scoliosis. Moreover, we present the imaging findings of the most frequent postoperative complications. (orig.)

  12. Surgical site infection in posterior spine surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-20

    Mar 20, 2016 ... Methodology: All consecutive patients who had posterior spine surgeries between January 2012 ... However, spinal instrumentation, surgery on cervical region and wound inspection on or ... While advances have been made in infection control ... costs, due to loss of productivity, patient dissatisfaction and.

  13. Cervical spine instability in rheumatoid arthritis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-01-22

    Jan 22, 1983 ... In consultation with the joint replacement unit a total knee joint replacement was contem- plilted. Before surgery routine flex ion and extension radiographs were taken of the patient's cervical spine (Figs I and 2), and significant subluxation between the atlas and the axis was disco- vered. The knee operation ...

  14. Posterior arch defects of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, A.M.; Wechsler, R.J.; Landy, M.D.; Wetzner, S.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Spondylolysis and absence of the pedicle are congenital anomalies of the posterior cervical spine. Their roentgenographic changes may be confused with other more serious entities which may necessitate either emergent therapy or require extensive diagnostic testing and treatment. Four cases are present and the literature is reviewed. A hypothesis for the embryologic etiology of these entities is proposed. (orig.)

  15. Posterior arch defects of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, A.M.; Wechsler, R.J.; Landy, M.D.; Wetzner, S.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1982-05-01

    Spondylolysis and absence of the pedicle are congenital anomalies of the posterior cervical spine. Their roentgenographic changes may be confused with other more serious entities which may necessitate either emergent therapy or require extensive diagnostic testing and treatment. Four cases are present and the literature is reviewed. A hypothesis for the embryologic etiology of these entities is proposed.

  16. AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Koerner, John D.; Radcliff, Kris E.; Oner, F. Cumhur; Reinhold, Maximilian; Schnake, Klaus J.; Kandziora, Frank; Fehlings, Michael G.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Kepler, Christopher K.; Vialle, Luiz R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This project describes a morphology-based subaxial cervical spine traumatic injury classification system. Using the same approach as the thoracolumbar system, the goal was to develop a comprehensive yet simple classification system with high intra- and interobserver reliability to be used

  17. Cervical human spine loads during traumatomechanical investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallieris, D.; Rizzetti, A.; Mattern. R.; Thunnissen, J.G.M.; Philippens, M.M.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    The last decade's improvements in automotive safety resulted into a significant decrease of fatal injuries. However, due to the use of belts and airbags it can be observed that cervical spine injuries, non-severe and severe, have become more important. It seems that inertial loading of the neck by

  18. Surgery for failed cervical spine reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Melvin D; Albert, Todd J

    2012-03-01

    Review article. To review the indications, operative strategy, and complications of revision cervical spine reconstruction. With many surgeons expanding their indications for cervical spine surgery, the number of patients being treated operatively has increased. Unfortunately, the number of patients requiring revision procedures is also increasing, but very little literature exists reviewing changes in the indications or operative planning for revision reconstruction. Narrative and review of the literature. In addition to the well-accepted indications for primary cervical spine surgery (radiculopathy, myelopathy, instability, and tumor), we have used the following indications for revision surgery: pseudarthrosis, adjacent segment degeneration, inadequate decompression, iatrogenic instability, and deformity. Our surgical goal for pseudarthrosis is obviously to obtain a fusion, which can usually be performed with an approach not done previously. Our surgical goals for instability and deformity are more complex, with a focus on decompression of any neurologic compression, correction of deformity, and stability. Revision cervical spine reconstruction is safe and effective if performed for the appropriate indications and with proper planning.

  19. Retropharyngeal cold abscess without Pott's spine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tube≠rculosisof the spine, or external injuries caused by endoscopes or foreignbodies (e.g. fish bones). Tuberculosis of ... drainage of the abscess to achieve optimal results. ... well-defined hypodense necrotic lesion from C1 to C4 measuring.

  20. Identification of major and minor QTL for ecologically important morphological traits in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Shikano, Takahito; Leinonen, Tuomas; Cano, José Manuel; Li, Meng-Hua; Merilä, Juha

    2014-04-16

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping studies of Pacific three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have uncovered several genomic regions controlling variability in different morphological traits, but QTL studies of Atlantic sticklebacks are lacking. We mapped QTL for 40 morphological traits, including body size, body shape, and body armor, in a F2 full-sib cross between northern European marine and freshwater three-spined sticklebacks. A total of 52 significant QTL were identified at the 5% genome-wide level. One major QTL explaining 74.4% of the total variance in lateral plate number was detected on LG4, whereas several major QTL for centroid size (a proxy for body size), and the lengths of two dorsal spines, pelvic spine, and pelvic girdle were mapped on LG21 with the explained variance ranging from 27.9% to 57.6%. Major QTL for landmark coordinates defining body shape variation also were identified on LG21, with each explaining ≥15% of variance in body shape. Multiple QTL for different traits mapped on LG21 overlapped each other, implying pleiotropy and/or tight linkage. Thus, apart from providing confirmatory data to support conclusions born out of earlier QTL studies of Pacific sticklebacks, this study also describes several novel QTL of both major and smaller effect for ecologically important traits. The finding that many major QTL mapped on LG21 suggests that this linkage group might be a hotspot for genetic determinants of ecologically important morphological traits in three-spined sticklebacks.

  1. Epidural Hematoma Following Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Hilibrand, Alan S; Arnold, Paul M; Fish, David E; Wang, Jeffrey C; Gum, Jeffrey L; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Isaacs, Robert E; Kanter, Adam S; Mroz, Thomas E; Nassr, Ahmad; Sasso, Rick C; Fehlings, Michael G; Buser, Zorica; Bydon, Mohamad; Cha, Peter I; Chatterjee, Dhananjay; Gee, Erica L; Lord, Elizabeth L; Mayer, Erik N; McBride, Owen J; Nguyen, Emily C; Roe, Allison K; Tortolani, P Justin; Stroh, D Alex; Yanez, Marisa Y; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    A multicentered retrospective case series. To determine the incidence and circumstances surrounding the development of a symptomatic postoperative epidural hematoma in the cervical spine. Patients who underwent cervical spine surgery between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, at 23 institutions were reviewed, and all patients who developed an epidural hematoma were identified. A total of 16 582 cervical spine surgeries were identified, and 15 patients developed a postoperative epidural hematoma, for a total incidence of 0.090%. Substantial variation between institutions was noted, with 11 sites reporting no epidural hematomas, and 1 site reporting an incidence of 0.76%. All patients initially presented with a neurologic deficit. Nine patients had complete resolution of the neurologic deficit after hematoma evacuation; however 2 of the 3 patients (66%) who had a delay in the diagnosis of the epidural hematoma had residual neurologic deficits compared to only 4 of the 12 patients (33%) who had no delay in the diagnosis or treatment ( P = .53). Additionally, the patients who experienced a postoperative epidural hematoma did not experience any significant improvement in health-related quality-of-life metrics as a result of the index procedure at final follow-up evaluation. This is the largest series to date to analyze the incidence of an epidural hematoma following cervical spine surgery, and this study suggest that an epidural hematoma occurs in approximately 1 out of 1000 cervical spine surgeries. Prompt diagnosis and treatment may improve the chance of making a complete neurologic recovery, but patients who develop this complication do not show improvements in the health-related quality-of-life measurements.

  2. Biomechanics of coupled motion in the cervical spine during simulated whiplash in patients with pre-existing cervical or lumbar spinal fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Nightingale, R. W.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Loss of motion following spine segment fusion results in increased strain in the adjacent motion segments. However, to date, studies on the biomechanics of the cervical spine have not assessed the role of coupled motions in the lumbar spine. Accordingly, we investigated the biomechanics of the cervical spine following cervical fusion and lumbar fusion during simulated whiplash using a whole-human finite element (FE) model to simulate coupled motions of the spine. Methods A previously validated FE model of the human body in the driver-occupant position was used to investigate cervical hyperextension injury. The cervical spine was subjected to simulated whiplash exposure in accordance with Euro NCAP (the European New Car Assessment Programme) testing using the whole human FE model. The coupled motions between the cervical spine and lumbar spine were assessed by evaluating the biomechanical effects of simulated cervical fusion and lumbar fusion. Results Peak anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) strain ranged from 0.106 to 0.382 in a normal spine, and from 0.116 to 0.399 in a fused cervical spine. Strain increased from cranial to caudal levels. The mean strain increase in the motion segment immediately adjacent to the site of fusion from C2-C3 through C5-C6 was 26.1% and 50.8% following single- and two-level cervical fusion, respectively (p = 0.03, unpaired two-way t-test). Peak cervical strains following various lumbar-fusion procedures were 1.0% less than those seen in a healthy spine (p = 0.61, two-way ANOVA). Conclusion Cervical arthrodesis increases peak ALL strain in the adjacent motion segments. C3-4 experiences greater changes in strain than C6-7. Lumbar fusion did not have a significant effect on cervical spine strain. Cite this article: H. Huang, R. W. Nightingale, A. B. C. Dang. Biomechanics of coupled motion in the cervical spine during simulated whiplash in patients with pre-existing cervical or lumbar spinal fusion: A Finite Element Study. Bone

  3. Biomechanics of coupled motion in the cervical spine during simulated whiplash in patients with pre-existing cervical or lumbar spinal fusion: A Finite Element Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H; Nightingale, R W; Dang, A B C

    2018-01-01

    Loss of motion following spine segment fusion results in increased strain in the adjacent motion segments. However, to date, studies on the biomechanics of the cervical spine have not assessed the role of coupled motions in the lumbar spine. Accordingly, we investigated the biomechanics of the cervical spine following cervical fusion and lumbar fusion during simulated whiplash using a whole-human finite element (FE) model to simulate coupled motions of the spine. A previously validated FE model of the human body in the driver-occupant position was used to investigate cervical hyperextension injury. The cervical spine was subjected to simulated whiplash exposure in accordance with Euro NCAP (the European New Car Assessment Programme) testing using the whole human FE model. The coupled motions between the cervical spine and lumbar spine were assessed by evaluating the biomechanical effects of simulated cervical fusion and lumbar fusion. Peak anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) strain ranged from 0.106 to 0.382 in a normal spine, and from 0.116 to 0.399 in a fused cervical spine. Strain increased from cranial to caudal levels. The mean strain increase in the motion segment immediately adjacent to the site of fusion from C2-C3 through C5-C6 was 26.1% and 50.8% following single- and two-level cervical fusion, respectively (p = 0.03, unpaired two-way t -test). Peak cervical strains following various lumbar-fusion procedures were 1.0% less than those seen in a healthy spine (p = 0.61, two-way ANOVA). Cervical arthrodesis increases peak ALL strain in the adjacent motion segments. C3-4 experiences greater changes in strain than C6-7. Lumbar fusion did not have a significant effect on cervical spine strain. Cite this article : H. Huang, R. W. Nightingale, A. B. C. Dang. Biomechanics of coupled motion in the cervical spine during simulated whiplash in patients with pre-existing cervical or lumbar spinal fusion: A Finite Element Study. Bone Joint Res 2018;7:28-35. DOI: 10

  4. Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooks, V.J.; Sisler, C.; Burton, B. [Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-03-01

    Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

  5. Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooks, V.J.; Sisler, C.; Burton, B.

    1998-01-01

    Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

  6. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  7. Evaluation and management of 2 ferocactus spines in the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, David J; Kim, Tim I; Kubis, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman, who had fallen face first in a cactus 1 week earlier, presented with a small, mobile, noninflamed subcutaneous nodule at the rim of her right lateral orbit with no other functional deficits. A CT scan was obtained, which revealed a 4-cm intraorbital tubular-shaped foreign body resembling a large cactus spine. A second preoperative CT scan, obtained for an intraoperative guidance system, demonstrated a second cactus spine, which was initially not seen on the first CT scan. Both spines were removed surgically without complication. The authors discuss factors that can cause diagnosis delay, review the radiographic features of cactus spines, and discuss the often times benign clinical course of retained cactus spine foreign bodies. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of cactus spines in the orbit. Health-care professionals should have a low threshold for imaging in cases of traumatic injuries involving cactus spines.

  8. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  9. Does applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule reduce cervical spine radiography rates in alert patients with blunt trauma to the neck? A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesupalan Rajam

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cautious outlook towards neck injuries has been the norm to avoid missing cervical spine injuries. Consequently there has been an increased use of cervical spine radiography. The Canadian Cervical Spine rule was proposed to reduce unnecessary use of cervical spine radiography in alert and stable patients. Our aim was to see whether applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule reduced the need for cervical spine radiography without missing significant cervical spine injuries. Methods This was a retrospective study conducted in 2 hospitals. 114 alert and stable patients who had cervical spine radiographs for suspected neck injuries were included in the study. Data on patient demographics, high risk & low risk factors as per the Canadian Cervical Spine rule and cervical spine radiography results were collected and analysed. Results 28 patients were included in the high risk category according to the Canadian Cervical Spine rule. 86 patients fell into the low risk category. If the Canadian Cervical Spine rule was applied, there would have been a significant reduction in cervical spine radiographs as 86/114 patients (75.4% would not have needed cervical spine radiograph. 2/114 patients who had significant cervical spine injuries would have been identified when the Canadian Cervical Spine rule was applied. Conclusion Applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule for neck injuries in alert and stable patients would have reduced the use of cervical spine radiographs without missing out significant cervical spine injuries. This relates to reduction in radiation exposure to patients and health care costs.

  10. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  11. Motion in the unstable thoracolumbar spine when spine boarding a prone patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Bryan P.; Marchese, Diana L.; Rechtine, Glenn R.; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Previous research has found that the log roll (LR) technique produces significant motion in the spinal column while transferring a supine patient onto a spine board. The purpose of this project was to determine whether log rolling a patient with an unstable spine from prone to supine with a pulling motion provides better thoracolumbar immobilization compared to log rolling with a push technique. Methods A global instability was surgically created at the L1 level in five cadavers. Two spine-boarding protocols were tested (LR Push and LR Pull). Both techniques entailed performing a 180° LR rotation of the prone patient from the ground to the supine position on the spine board. An electromagnetic tracking device registered motion between the T12 and L2 vertebral segments. Six motion parameters were tracked. Repeated-measures statistical analysis was performed to evaluate angular and translational motion. Results Less motion was produced during the LR Push compared to the LR Pull for all six motion parameters. The difference was statistically significant for three of the six parameters (flexion–extension, axial translation, and anterior–posterior (A–P) translation). Conclusions Both the LR Push and LR Pull generated significant motion in the thoracolumbar spine during the prone to supine LR. The LR Push technique produced statistically less motion than the LR Pull, and should be considered when a prone patient with a suspected thoracolumbar injury needs to be transferred to a long spine board. More research is needed to identify techniques to further reduce the motion in the unstable spine during prone to supine LR. PMID:22330191

  12. Palpation of the upper thoracic spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Wulff; Vach, Werner; Vach, Kirstin

    2002-01-01

    procedure. RESULTS: Using an "expanded" definition of agreement that accepts small inaccuracies (+/-1 segment) in the numbering of spinal segments, we found--based on the pooled data from the thoracic spine--kappa values of 0.59 to 0.77 for the hour-to-hour and the day-to-day intraobserver reliability......OBJECTIVE: To assess the intraobserver reliability (in terms of hour-to-hour and day-to-day reliability) and the interobserver reliability with 3 palpation procedures for the detection of spinal biomechanic dysfunction in the upper 8 segments of the thoracic spine. DESIGN: A repeated....... INTERVENTION: Three types of palpation were performed: Sitting motion palpation and prone motion palpation for biomechanic dysfunction and paraspinal palpation for tenderness. Each dimension was rated as "absent" or "present" for each segment. All examinations were performed according to a standard written...

  13. Detailed sectional anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, W.

    1985-01-01

    Morphologic studies on the human spine constitute a special challenge because of the spine's complex topographic anatomy and the intimate relationship between the supporting skeleton and the contiguous soft tissues (muscles, discs, joint capsules) as well as the neurovascular contents of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina. The improving resolution and multiplanar image reformatting capabilities of modern CT scanners call for accurate anatomic reference material. Such anatomic images should be available without distortion, in natural colors, and in considerable detail. The images should present the anatomy in the correct axial, sagittal, and coronal planes and should also be sufficiently closely spaced so as to follow the thin cuts of modern CT scanners. This chapter details one of several recent attempts to correlate gross anatomy with the images depicted by high-resolution CT. The methods of specimen preparation, sectioning, and photographing have been documented elsewhere

  14. Development of the Young Spine Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Hestbæk, Lise

    Agreement between the questionnaire prevalence estimates and the interviews ranged between 83.7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). Correlations between the rFPS and the interview NRS score ranged between 0.71 (cervical spine) and 0.84 (thoracic spine). Agreement between...... Odense M, Denmark 2. Nordic Institute of Chiropractic and Clinical Biomechanics, Clinical Locomotion Network, Forskerparken 10A, 5230 Odense M, Denmark Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood....... Therefore preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific instruments to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children...

  15. Gender trends in authorship of spine-related academic literature-a 39-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, David C; Jain, Deeptee; Ouyang, David

    2017-11-01

    Despite recent advances in gender equity in medicine, the representation of women in orthopedic and neurosurgery remains particularly low. Furthermore, compared with their male colleagues, female faculty members are less likely to publish research, limiting opportunities in the academic promotion process. Understanding disparities in research productivity provides insight into the "gender gap" in the spine surgeon workforce. This study aims to determine the representation and longevity of female physician-investigators among the authors of five spine-related research journals from 1978 to 2016. This is a retrospective bibliometric review. The authors of original research articles from five prominent spine-related journals (European Spine Journal, The Spine Journal, Spine, Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques, and Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine) were extracted from PubMed. For authors with a complete first name listed, gender was determined by matching first name using an online database containing 216,286 distinct names across 79 countries and 89 languages. The proportion of female first and senior authors was determined during the time periods 1978 to 1994, 1995 to 1999, 2000 to 2004, 2005 to 2009, and 2010 to 2016. The authors who had their first paper published between 2000 and 2009 were included in additional analyses for publication count and longevity (whether additional articles were published 5 years after first publication). Student t test, chi-square analysis, and Cochran-Armitage trend test were used to determine significance between groups. From 1978 to 2016, 28,882 original research articles were published in the five spine-related journals. A total of 24,334 abstracts (90.9%) had first names listed, identifying 120,723 authors, in total of which 100,286 were successfully matched to a gender. A total of 33,480 unique authors were identified (female authors: 31.8%). Female representation increased for first and senior authors from 6.5% and 4

  16. Rigid Spine Syndrome among Children in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Koul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Rigidity of the spine is common in adults but is rarely observed in children. The aim of this study was to report on rigid spine syndrome (RSS among children in Oman. Methods: Data on children diagnosed with RSS were collected consecutively at presentation between 1996 and 2014 at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. A diagnosis of RSS was based on the patient’s history, clinical examination, biochemical investigations, electrophysiological findings, neuro-imaging and muscle biopsy. Atrophy of the paraspinal muscles, particularly the erector spinae, was the diagnostic feature; this was noted using magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. Children with disease onset in the paraspinal muscles were labelled as having primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy. Secondary RSS was classified as RSS due to the late involvement of other muscle diseases. Results: Over the 18-year period, 12 children were included in the study, with a maleto- female ratio of 9:3. A total of 10 children were found to have primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy syndrome while two had secondary RSS. Onset of the disease ranged from birth to 18 months of age. A family history was noted, with two siblings from one family and three siblings from another (n = 5. On examination, children with primary RSS had typical features of severe spine rigidity at onset, with the rest of the neurological examination being normal. Conclusion: RSS is a rare disease with only 12 reported cases found at SQUH during the study period. Cases of primary RSS should be differentiated from the secondary type.

  17. Pedicular stress fracture in the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Htoo, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Spondylolisthesis with or without spondylolysis is common in the lumbar spine. Associated fracture in the pedicle ('pediculolysis') is unusual. The margins of pedicular stress fractures, like spondylolysis, usually appear sclerotic. A patient with a pedicular stress fracture with minimal marginal sclerosis suggesting an injury of recent onset is presented here. There was associated bilateral spondylolysis. The findings in this patient suggest that established pediculolysis probably represents a stress fracture that has failed to heal. (authors)

  18. Pedicular stress fracture in the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Htoo, M.M. [Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, (Singapore). Department of Diagnostic Radiology

    1997-08-01

    Spondylolisthesis with or without spondylolysis is common in the lumbar spine. Associated fracture in the pedicle (`pediculolysis`) is unusual. The margins of pedicular stress fractures, like spondylolysis, usually appear sclerotic. A patient with a pedicular stress fracture with minimal marginal sclerosis suggesting an injury of recent onset is presented here. There was associated bilateral spondylolysis. The findings in this patient suggest that established pediculolysis probably represents a stress fracture that has failed to heal. (authors). 10 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Spine fractures caused by horse riding

    OpenAIRE

    Siebenga, Jan; Segers, Michiel J. M.; Elzinga, Matthijs J.; Bakker, Fred C.; Haarman, Henk J. T. M.; Patka, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective study and review of literature. Objectives: Study of demographic data concerning spinal fractures caused by horse riding, classification of fractures according to the AO and Load Sharing classifications, evaluation of mid-term radiological results and long-term functional results. Methods: A review of medical reports and radiological examinations of patients presented to our hospital with horse riding-related spine fractures over a 13-year period; long-term functio...

  20. Rare combination of cervical spine tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome, Terrencejose; Sankaran, Balu; Varghese, Mathew

    2009-01-01

    Osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, and haemangioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of any young patient with pain in the back or the neck, painful scoliosis, or radicular or referred-type pain into the lower limb or the shoulder. Osteoid osteoma and haemangioma may occur in the same cervical spine and both have a significant importance in the prognosis, management and possible complications. Early diagnosis with a bone scan and computed tomography scan, leading to prompt treatme...

  1. Concomitant lower thoracic spine disc disease in lumbar spine MR imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Estanislao; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Dosdá, Rosa; Mollá, Enrique

    2002-11-01

    Our objective was to study the coexistence of lower thoracic-spine disc changes in patients with low back pain using a large field of view (FOV) in lumbar spine MR imaging. One hundred fifty patients with low back pain were referred to an MR examination. All patients were studied with a large FOV (27 cm), covering from the coccyx to at least the body of T11. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion, and extrusion (either epiphyseal or intervertebral). The relationship between disc disease and level was established with the Pearson chi(2) test. The T11-12 was the most commonly affected level of the lower thoracic spine with 58 disc cases rated as abnormal. Abnormalities of T11-12 and T12-L1 discs were significantly related only to L1-L2 disease ( p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively) but unrelated to other disc disease, patient's gender, and age. No correlation was found between other discs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine can detect a great amount of lower thoracic disease, although its clinical significance remains unknown. A statistically significant relation was found within the thoracolumbar junctional region (T11-L2), reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation with lower lumbar spine discs is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms.

  2. Concomitant lower thoracic spine disc disease in lumbar spine MR imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, Estanislao; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Dosda, Rosa; Molla, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    Our objective was to study the coexistence of lower thoracic-spine disc changes in patients with low back pain using a large field of view (FOV) in lumbar spine MR imaging. One hundred fifty patients with low back pain were referred to an MR examination. All patients were studied with a large FOV (27 cm), covering from the coccyx to at least the body of T11. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion, and extrusion (either epiphyseal or intervertebral). The relationship between disc disease and level was established with the Pearson χ 2 test. The T11-12 was the most commonly affected level of the lower thoracic spine with 58 disc cases rated as abnormal. Abnormalities of T11-12 and T12-L1 discs were significantly related only to L1-L2 disease (p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively) but unrelated to other disc disease, patient's gender, and age. No correlation was found between other discs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine can detect a great amount of lower thoracic disease, although its clinical significance remains unknown. A statistically significant relation was found within the thoracolumbar junctional region (T11-L2), reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation with lower lumbar spine discs is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms. (orig.)

  3. A Septin-Dependent Diffusion Barrier at Dendritic Spine Necks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Ewers

    Full Text Available Excitatory glutamatergic synapses at dendritic spines exchange and modulate their receptor content via lateral membrane diffusion. Several studies have shown that the thin spine neck impedes the access of membrane and solute molecules to the spine head. However, it is unclear whether the spine neck geometry alone restricts access to dendritic spines or if a physical barrier to the diffusion of molecules exists. Here, we investigated whether a complex of septin cytoskeletal GTPases localized at the base of the spine neck regulates diffusion across the spine neck. We found that, during development, a marker of the septin complex, Septin7 (Sept7, becomes localized to the spine neck where it forms a stable structure underneath the plasma membrane. We show that diffusion of receptors and bulk membrane, but not cytoplasmic proteins, is slower in spines bearing Sept7 at their neck. Finally, when Sept7 expression was suppressed by RNA interference, membrane molecules explored larger membrane areas. Our findings indicate that Sept7 regulates membrane protein access to spines.

  4. Hippocampal Dendritic Spines Are Segregated Depending on Their Actin Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Iturza, Nuria; Calvo, María; Benoist, Marion; Esteban, José Antonio; Morales, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic spines are mushroom-shaped protrusions of the postsynaptic membrane. Spines receive the majority of glutamatergic synaptic inputs. Their morphology, dynamics, and density have been related to synaptic plasticity and learning. The main determinant of spine shape is filamentous actin. Using FRAP, we have reexamined the actin dynamics of individual spines from pyramidal hippocampal neurons, both in cultures and in hippocampal organotypic slices. Our results indicate that, in cultures, the actin mobile fraction is independently regulated at the individual spine level, and mobile fraction values do not correlate with either age or distance from the soma. The most significant factor regulating actin mobile fraction was the presence of astrocytes in the culture substrate. Spines from neurons growing in the virtual absence of astrocytes have a more stable actin cytoskeleton, while spines from neurons growing in close contact with astrocytes show a more dynamic cytoskeleton. According to their recovery time, spines were distributed into two populations with slower and faster recovery times, while spines from slice cultures were grouped into one population. Finally, employing fast lineal acquisition protocols, we confirmed the existence of loci with high polymerization rates within the spine.

  5. Normal CT anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroga, O.; Matozzi, F.; Beranger, M.; Nazarian, S.; Salamon, G.; Gambarelli, J.

    1982-01-01

    To analyse the anatomo-radiological correlation of the spine and spinal cord, 22 formalized, frozen anatomical specimens corresponding to different regions of the spinal column (8 cervical, 5 dorsal, and 9 lumbar) were studied by CT scans on axial, sagittal and coronal planes and by contact radiography after they were cut into anatomical slices in order to clarify the normal CT anatomy of the spinal column. The results obtained from CT patient scans, performed exclusively on the axial plane, were compared with those obtained from the anatomical specimens (both CT and contrast radiography). High resolution CT programs were used, enabling us to obtain better individualization of the normal structures contained in the spinal column. Direct sagittal and coronal sections were performed on the specimens in order to get further anatomo-radiological information. Enhanced CT studies of the specimens were also available because of the air already present in the subarachnoid spaces. Excellent visualization was obtained of bone structures, soft tissue and the spinal cord. High CT resolution of the spine appeares to be an excellent neuroradiological procedure to study the spine and spinal cord. A metrizamide CT scan is, however, necessary when a normal unenhanced CT scan is insufficient for diagnosis and when the spinal cord is not clearly visible, as often happens at the cervical level. Clinical findings are certainly very useful to ascertain the exact CT level and to limit the radiation exposure. (orig.)

  6. Halovest treatment in traumatic cervical spine injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, M; Basir, T; Hyzan, Y; Johari, Z

    1998-09-01

    This is a cross-sectional study on the use of halovest appliance in the Orthopaedic and Traumatology Department, Kuala Lumpur Hospital from June 1993 to September 1996. Fifty-three patients with cervical spine injuries were treated by halovest stabilization. Majority of cases was caused by motor-vehicle accident; others were fall from height at construction sites, fall at home, hit by falling object and assault. The injuries were Jefferson fracture of C1, odontoid fractures, hangman fractures, open spinous process fracture and fracture body of C2, and fracture, and fracture-dislocation of the lower cervical spines. Majority of patients had hospital stay less than 30 days. The use of the halovest ranges from 4 to 16 weeks and the healing rate was 96%. Two patients of lower cervical spine injury had redislocation and one of them was operated. There was one case of non-union of type II odontoid fracture and treated by posterior fusion. Other complications encountered during halovest treatment were minor. They were pin-site infection, pin-loosening, clamp loosening and neck pain or neck stiffness. This method of treatment enables patient to ambulate early and reduces hospital stay. We found that halovest is easy to apply, safe and tolerable to most of the patients.

  7. Intrapartum Ultrasound Assessment of Fetal Spine Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Gizzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of foetal spine position in the first and second labour stages to determine the probability of OPP detection at birth and the related obstetrical implications. We conducted an observational-longitudinal cohort study on uncomplicated cephalic single foetus pregnant women at term. We evaluated the accuracy of ultrasound in predicting occiput position at birth, influence of fetal spine in occiput position during labour, labour trend, analgesia request, type of delivery, and indication to CS. The accuracy of the foetal spinal position to predict the occiput position at birth was high at the first labour stage. At the second labour stage, CS (40.3% and operative vaginal deliveries (23.9% occurred more frequently in OPP than in occiput anterior position (7% and 15.2%, resp., especially in cases of the posterior spine. In concordant posterior positions labour length was greater than other ones, and analgesia request rate was 64.1% versus 14.7% for all the others. The assessment of spinal position could be useful in obstetrical management and counselling, both before and during labour. The detection of spinal position, more than OPP, is predictive of successful delivery. In concordant posterior positions, the labour length, analgesia request, operative delivery, and caesarean section rate are higher than in the other combination.

  8. Sports-related injuries of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochmuth, K.; Mack, M.G.; Vogl, T.J.; Kurth, A.A.; Zichner, L.

    2002-01-01

    Different sports show different patterns and frequencies of injuries, which are discussed in this paper. About 3% of all sports accidents relate to the spine. These injuries often have far-reaching consequences for the patients. A very early and extensive diagnosis of all changes is decisive for the start of an adequate therapy and thus for the prognosis of the injury. Radiological diagnosis is also of decisive importance for the documentation of late injuries and in the question of rehabilitation. Here special focus is put on MRT and CT diagnostics.A healthy spine of humans is normally able to resist all static and dynamic strains of the usual sports. However, anomalies and dysfunctions of the spine can reduce its capacity to resist strain. The recommendations of sporting activities are given according to the extent of deflection and the expected growth. The importance of radiology in primary diagnosis and in the follow-up due to typical changes like scoliosis, Morbus Scheuerman, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis is discussed here as well. (orig.) [de

  9. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  10. European hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The European Hadron Facility (EHF) is a project for particle and nuclear physics in the 1990s which would consist of a fast cycling high intensity proton synchrotron of about 30 GeV primary energy and providing a varied spectrum of intense high quality secondary beams (polarized protons, pions, muons, kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos). The physics case of this project has been studied over the last two years by a European group of particle and nuclear physicists (EHF Study Group), whilst the conceptual design for the accelerator complex was worked out (and is still being worked on) by an international group of machine experts (EHF Design Study Group). Both aspects have been discussed in recent years in a series of working parties, topical seminars, and workshops held in Freiburg, Trieste, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Les Rasses and Villigen. This long series of meetings culminated in the International Conference on a European Hadron Facility held in Mainz from 10-14 March

  11. Cervical spine injuries in American football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihn, Jeffrey A; Anderson, David T; Lamb, Kathleen; Deluca, Peter F; Bata, Ahmed; Marchetto, Paul A; Neves, Nuno; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2009-01-01

    American football is a high-energy contact sport that places players at risk for cervical spine injuries with potential neurological deficits. Advances in tackling and blocking techniques, rules of the game and medical care of the athlete have been made throughout the past few decades to minimize the risk of cervical injury and improve the management of injuries that do occur. Nonetheless, cervical spine injuries remain a serious concern in the game of American football. Injuries have a wide spectrum of severity. The relatively common 'stinger' is a neuropraxia of a cervical nerve root(s) or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. Less common and more serious an injury, cervical cord neuropraxia is the clinical manifestation of neuropraxia of the cervical spinal cord due to hyperextension, hyperflexion or axial loading. Recent data on American football suggest that approximately 0.2 per 100,000 participants at the high school level and 2 per 100,000 participants at the collegiate level are diagnosed with cervical cord neuropraxia. Characterized by temporary pain, paraesthesias and/or motor weakness in more than one extremity, there is a rapid and complete resolution of symptoms and a normal physical examination within 10 minutes to 48 hours after the initial injury. Stenosis of the spinal canal, whether congenital or acquired, is thought to predispose the athlete to cervical cord neuropraxia. Although quite rare, catastrophic neurological injury is a devastating entity referring to permanent neurological injury or death. The mechanism is most often a forced hyperflexion injury, as occurs when 'spear tackling'. The mean incidence of catastrophic neurological injury over the past 30 years has been approximately 0.5 per 100,000 participants at high school level and 1.5 per 100,000 at the collegiate level. This incidence has decreased significantly when compared with the incidence in the early 1970s. This decrease in the incidence of

  12. Clinical significance of gas myelography and CT gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Haruhiko

    1984-01-01

    Basic and clinical applications relating to air myelography of the cervical spine have already been studied and extensively been used as an adjuvant diagnostic method for diseases of the spine and the spinal cord. However, hardly any application and clinical evaluation have been made concerning gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine. The author examined X-ray findings of 183 cases with diseases of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine, including contral cases. Gas X-ray photography included simple profile, forehead tomography, sagittal plane, and CT section. Morphological characteristics of normal X-ray pictures of the throacic spine and the lumbar spine were explained from 54 control cases, and all the diameters of the subarachnoidal space from the anterior to the posterior part were measured. X-ray findings were examined on pathological cases, namely 22 cases with diseases of the throacic spine and 107 cases with diseases of the lumbar spine, and as a result these were useful for pathological elucidation of spinal cord tumors, spinal carries, yellow ligament ossification, lumbar spinal canal stenosis, hernia of intervertebral disc, etc. Also, CT gas myelography was excellent in stereoobservation of the spine and the spinal cord in spinal cord tumors, yellow ligament ossification, and spinal canal stenosis. On the other hand, it is not suitable for the diagnoses of intraspinal vascular abnormality, adhesive arachinitis, and running abnormality of the cauda equina nerve and radicle. Gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lambar spine, is very useful in clinics when experienced techniques are used in photographic conditions, and diagnoses are made, well understanding the characteristics of gas pictures. Thus, its application has been opened to selection of an operative technique, determination of operative ranges, etc. (J.P.N.)

  13. Clinical significance of gas myelography and CT gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, Haruhiko (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1984-05-01

    Basic and clinical applications relating to air myelography of the cervical spine have already been studied and extensively been used as an adjuvant diagnostic method for diseases of the spine and the spinal cord. However, hardly any application and clinical evaluation have been made concerning gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine. The author examined X-ray findings of 183 cases with diseases of the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine, including contral cases. Gas X-ray photography included simple profile, forehead tomography, sagittal plane, and CT section. Morphological characteristics of normal X-ray pictures of the throacic spine and the lumbar spine were explained from 54 control cases, and all the diameters of the subarachnoidal space from the anterior to the posterior part were measured. X-ray findings were examined on pathological cases, namely 22 cases with diseases of the throacic spine and 107 cases with diseases of the lumbar spine, and as a result these were useful for pathological elucidation of spinal cord tumors, spinal carries, yellow ligament ossification, lumbar spinal canal stenosis, hernia of intervertebral disc, etc. Also, CT gas myelography was excellent in stereo observation of the spine and the spinal cord in spinal cord tumors, yellow ligament ossification, and spinal canal stenosis. On the other hand, it is not suitable for the diagnoses of intraspinal vascular abnormality, adhesive arachinitis, and running abnormality of the cauda equina nerve and radicle. Gas myelography of the thoracic spine and the lambar spine, is very useful in clinics when experienced techniques are used in photographic conditions, and diagnoses are made, well understanding the characteristics of gas pictures. Thus, its application has been opened to selection of an operative technique, determination of operative ranges, etc.

  14. Survey of French spine surgeons reveals significant variability in spine trauma practices in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonjon, G; Grelat, M; Dhenin, A; Dauzac, C; Lonjon, N; Kepler, C K; Vaccaro, A R

    2015-02-01

    In France, attempts to define common ground during spine surgery meetings have revealed significant variability in clinical practices across different schools of surgery and the two specialities involved in spine surgery, namely, neurosurgery and orthopaedic surgery. To objectively characterise this variability by performing a survey based on a fictitious spine trauma case. Our working hypothesis was that significant variability existed in trauma practices and that this variability was related to a lack of strong scientific evidence in spine trauma care. We performed a cross-sectional survey based on a clinical vignette describing a 31-year-old male with an L1 burst fracture and neurologic symptoms (numbness). Surgeons received the vignette and a 14-item questionnaire on the management of this patient. For each question, surgeons had to choose among five possible answers. Differences in answers across surgeons were assessed using the Index of Qualitative Variability (IQV), in which 0 indicates no variability and 1 maximal variability. Surgeons also received a questionnaire about their demographics and surgical experience. Of 405 invited spine surgeons, 200 responded to the survey. Five questions had an IQV greater than 0.9, seven an IQV between 0.5 and 0.9, and two an IQV lower than 0.5. Variability was greatest about the need for MRI (IQV=0.93), degree of urgency (IQV=0.93), need for fusion (IQV=0.92), need for post-operative bracing (IQV=0.91), and routine removal of instrumentation (IQV=0.94). Variability was lowest for questions about the need for surgery (IQV=0.42) and use of the posterior approach (IQV=0.36). Answers were influenced by surgeon specialty, age, experience level, and type of centre. Clinical practice regarding spine trauma varies widely in France. Little published evidence is available on which to base recommendations that would diminish this variability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. EphB/syndecan-2 signaling in dendritic spine morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethell, I M; Irie, F; Kalo, M S

    2001-01-01

    We previously reported that the cell surface proteoglycan syndecan-2 can induce dendritic spine formation in hippocampal neurons. We demonstrate here that the EphB2 receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylates syndecan-2 and that this phosphorylation event is crucial for syndecan-2 clustering and spine...... formation. Syndecan-2 is tyrosine phosphorylated and forms a complex with EphB2 in mouse brain. Dominant-negative inhibition of endogenous EphB receptor activities blocks clustering of endogenous syndecan-2 and normal spine formation in cultured hippocampal neurons. This is the first evidence that Eph...... receptors play a physiological role in dendritic spine morphogenesis. Our observations suggest that spine morphogenesis is triggered by the activation of Eph receptors, which causes tyrosine phosphorylation of target molecules, such as syndecan-2, in presumptive spines....

  16. Anatomy of large animal spines and its comparison to the human spine: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Sun-Ren; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Xu, Hua-Zi; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Yi-Fei

    2010-01-01

    Animal models have been commonly used for in vivo and in vitro spinal research. However, the extent to which animal models resemble the human spine has not been well known. We conducted a systematic review to compare the morphometric features of vertebrae between human and animal species, so as to give some suggestions on how to choose an appropriate animal model in spine research. A literature search of all English language peer-reviewed publications was conducted using PubMed, OVID, Springer and Elsevier (Science Direct) for the years 1980-2008. Two reviewers extracted data on the anatomy of large animal spines from the identified articles. Each anatomical study of animals had to include at least three vertebral levels. The anatomical data from all animal studies were compared with the existing data of the human spine in the literature. Of the papers retrieved, seven were included in the review. The animals in the studies involved baboon, sheep, porcine, calf and deer. Distinct anatomical differences of vertebrae were found between the human and each large animal spine. In cervical region, spines of the baboon and human are more similar as compared to other animals. In thoracic and lumbar regions, the mean pedicle height of all animals was greater than the human pedicles. There was similar mean pedicle width between animal and the human specimens, except in thoracic segments of sheep. The human spinal canal was wider and deeper in the anteroposterior plane than any of the animals. The mean human vertebral body width and depth were greater than that of the animals except in upper thoracic segments of the deer. However, the mean vertebral body height was lower than that of all animals. This paper provides a comprehensive review to compare vertebrae geometries of experimental animal models to the human vertebrae, and will help for choosing animal model in vivo and in vitro spine research. When the animal selected for spine research, the structural similarities and

  17. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  18. [Application of Finite Element Method in Thoracolumbar Spine Traumatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Qiu, Yong-gui; Shao, Yu; Gu, Xiao-feng; Zeng, Ming-wei

    2015-04-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is a mathematical technique using modern computer technology for stress analysis, and has been gradually used in simulating human body structures in the biomechanical field, especially more widely used in the research of thoracolumbar spine traumatology. This paper reviews the establishment of the thoracolumbar spine FEM, the verification of the FEM, and the thoracolumbar spine FEM research status in different fields, and discusses its prospects and values in forensic thoracolumbar traumatology.

  19. Selectable six-element multicoil array for entire spine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.W.; Bluma-Walter, J.; Prorok, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This article introduces a new multicoil array that can provide entire spine imaging in two acquisitions with no need to manually reposition either the coil or the patient. A selectable contoured multicoil array with six elements was used to obtain coverage of the entire spine. The first four elements were used for imaging the upper spine region (cervical/thoracic) during the first acquisition, and the last four elements were used for imaging the lower spine region (thoracic/lumbar) during the second acquisition. The overall coil length was approximately 75 cm

  20. Variation in armour of three-spine stickleback

    OpenAIRE

    Wiig, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The three-spine stickleback is an adaptable fish with variation in morphology and behaviour, inhabiting saltwater, brackish water and fresh water. It is armoured with 30-35 bone plates along its lateral line. In addition, it is equipped with three spines on its back and two pelvic spine. These features constitute an excellent anti-predator defence system. Yet, there is a strong selection for reduction in armour of three-spine stickleback in freshwater stickleback. In this project, the bone st...

  1. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Dendritic Spines in the Living Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chien eChen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are ubiquitous postsynaptic sites of most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain, and thus may serve as structural indicators of functional synapses. Recent works have suggested that neuronal coding of memories may be associated with rapid alterations in spine formation and elimination. Technological advances have enabled researchers to study spine dynamics in vivo during development as well as under various physiological and pathological conditions. We believe that better understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns of spine dynamics will help elucidate the principles of experience-dependent circuit modification and information processing in the living brain.

  2. Lumbar spine degenerative disease : effect on bone mineral density measurements in the lumbar spine and femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhng, Seon Kwan; Koplyay, Peter; Jeffrey Carr, J.; Lenchik, Leon

    2001-01-01

    To determine the effect of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine on bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. We reviewed radiographs and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of the lumbar spine and hip in 305 Caucasian women with suspected osteoporosis. One hundred and eight-six patient remained after excluding women less than 40 years of age (n=18) and those with hip osteoarthritis, scoliosis, lumbar spine fractures, lumbar spinal instrumentation, hip arthroplasty, metabolic bone disease other than osteoporosis, or medications known to influence bone metabolism (n=101). On the basis of lumbar spine radiographs, those with absent/mild degenerative disease were assigned to the control group and those with moderate/severe degenerative disease to the degenerative group. Spine radiographs were evaluated for degenerative disease by two radiologists working independently; discrepant evaluations were resolved by consensus. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density was compared between the two groups. Forty-five (24%) of 186 women were assigned to the degenerative group and 141 (76%) to the control group. IN the degenerative group, mean bone mineral density measured 1.075g/cm? in the spine and 0.788g/cm 2 in the femoral neck, while for controls the corresponding figures were 0.989g/cm 2 and 0.765g/cm 2 . Adjusted for age, weight and height by means of analysis of variance, degenerative disease of the lumbar spine was a significant predictor of increased bone mineral density in the spine (p=0.0001) and femoral neck (p=0.0287). Our results indicate a positive relationship between degenerative disease of the lumbar spine and bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and suggest that degenerative disease in that region, which leads to an intrinsic increase in bone mineral density in the femoral neck, may be a good negative predictor of osteoporotic hip fractures

  3. Toward laboratory torsional spine magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesny, David L.; Orange, N. Brice; Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Valletta, David R.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental energy conversion mechanism in nature. Major attempts to study this process in controlled settings on Earth have largely been limited to reproducing approximately two-dimensional (2-D) reconnection dynamics. Other experiments describing reconnection near three-dimensional null points are non-driven, and do not induce any of the 3-D modes of spine fan, torsional fan or torsional spine reconnection. In order to study these important 3-D modes observed in astrophysical plasmas (e.g. the solar atmosphere), laboratory set-ups must be designed to induce driven reconnection about an isolated magnetic null point. As such, we consider the limited range of fundamental resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and kinetic parameters of dynamic laboratory plasmas that are necessary to induce the torsional spine reconnection (TSR) mode characterized by a driven rotational slippage of field lines - a feature that has yet to be achieved in operational laboratory magnetic reconnection experiments. Leveraging existing reconnection models, we show that within a 3$ apparatus, TSR can be achieved in dense plasma regimes ( 24~\\text{m}-3$ ) in magnetic fields of -1~\\text{T}$ . We find that MHD and kinetic parameters predict reconnection in thin current sheets on time scales of . While these plasma regimes may not explicitly replicate the plasma parameters of observed astrophysical phenomena, studying the dynamics of the TSR mode within achievable set-ups signifies an important step in understanding the fundamentals of driven 3-D magnetic reconnection and the self-organization of current sheets. Explicit control of this reconnection mode may have implications for understanding particle acceleration in astrophysical environments, and may even have practical applications to fields such as spacecraft propulsion.

  4. Rare Complications of Cervical Spine Surgery: Pseudomeningocoele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailon, Tamir; Smith, Justin S; Nassr, Ahmad; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Fehlings, Michael G; Fish, David E; Wang, Jeffrey C; Hilibrand, Alan S; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Chou, Dean; Sasso, Rick C; Traynelis, Vincent C; Arnold, Paul M; Mroz, Thomas E; Buser, Zorica; Lord, Elizabeth L; Massicotte, Eric M; Sebastian, Arjun S; Than, Khoi D; Steinmetz, Michael P; Smith, Gabriel A; Pace, Jonathan; Corriveau, Mark; Lee, Sungho; Riew, K Daniel; Shaffrey, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    This study was a retrospective, multicenter cohort study. Rare complications of cervical spine surgery are inherently difficult to investigate. Pseudomeningocoele (PMC), an abnormal collection of cerebrospinal fluid that communicates with the subarachnoid space, is one such complication. In order to evaluate and better understand the incidence, presentation, treatment, and outcome of PMC following cervical spine surgery, we conducted a multicenter study to pool our collective experience. This study was a retrospective, multicenter cohort study of patients who underwent cervical spine surgery at any level(s) from C2 to C7, inclusive; were over 18 years of age; and experienced a postoperative PMC. Thirteen patients (0.08%) developed a postoperative PMC, 6 (46.2%) of whom were female. They had an average age of 48.2 years and stayed in hospital a mean of 11.2 days. Three patients were current smokers, 3 previous smokers, 5 had never smoked, and 2 had unknown smoking status. The majority, 10 (76.9%), were associated with posterior surgery, whereas 3 (23.1%) occurred after an anterior procedure. Myelopathy was the most common indication for operations that were complicated by PMC (46%). Seven patients (53%) required a surgical procedure to address the PMC, whereas the remaining 6 were treated conservatively. All PMCs ultimately resolved or were successfully treated with no residual effects. PMC is a rare complication of cervical surgery with an incidence of less than 0.1%. They prolong hospital stay. PMCs occurred more frequently in association with posterior approaches. Approximately half of PMCs required surgery and all ultimately resolved without residual neurologic or other long-term effects.

  5. Percutaneous spine injection: considerations for improving treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, In Sook; Choi, Jung Ah; Yoon, Chang Jin; Hwang, Sung Il; Kang, Heung Sik; Choi, Ja Young; Koh, Young Hwan; Hong, Sung Hwan

    2005-01-01

    To discuss the causes of treatment failure in percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radiculopathy by analyzing patients who have experienced negative treatment effect on their first visit and a positive treatment effect on their second visit. The authors reviewed the cases of 24 patients who visited the pain intervention outpatient department in our hospital due to back pain or radiculopathy. All patients reviewed experienced a negative treatment effect following their first spine injection, but a positive treatment effect following the second injection. The dates of the cases range from June 2003 to May 2004. Two radiologists analyzed the possible causes of the negative treatment effect following the first injection therapies by considering clinical aspects as well as reviewing radiological images. The most common condition was the presence of the change in the level of the second selective nerve root block (n=13). In seven cases, the methods for administering the injections were changed to facet block (n=2), midline epidural block (n=1), selective nerve root block (n=3) and caudal epidural block (n=1). In four cases, there were no changes in the methods for administering the injections nor were there any changes in the level of the selective nerve root block between first and second visit. In those cases, after reviewing spot radiographs performed during injection, we attributed the causes of failure of injection therapy to an inappropriate distribution of drugs. We can improve the effect of percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radioculopathy by determining the exact level of perineural root block, trying alternative methods, and insuring a good distribution of the injected drugs

  6. Improvement in Scoliosis Top View: Evaluation of Vertebrae Localization in Scoliotic Spine-Spine Axial Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Główka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphological analysis of the scoliotic spine is based on two-dimensional X-rays: coronal and sagittal. The three-dimensional character of scoliosis has raised the necessity for analyzing scoliosis in three planes. We proposed a new user-friendly method of graphical presentation of the spine in the third plane–the Spine Axial Presentation (SAP. Eighty-five vertebrae of patients with scoliosis were analyzed. Due to different positions during X-rays (standing and computer tomography (CT (supine, the corresponding measurements cannot be directly compared. As a solution, a software creating Digital Reconstructed Radiographs (DRRs from CT scans was developed to replace regular X-rays with DRRs. Based on the measurements performed on DRRs, the coordinates of vertebral bodies central points were defined. Next, the geometrical centers of vertebral bodies were determined on CT scans. The reproducibility of measurements was tested with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC, using p = 0.05. The intra-observer reproducibility and inter-observer reliability for vertebral body central point’s coordinates (x, y, z were high for results obtained based on DRRs and CT scans, as well as for comparison results obtained based on DRR and CT scans. Based on two standard radiographs, it is possible to localize vertebral bodies in 3D space. The position of vertebral bodies can be present in the Spine Axial Presentation.

  7. Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Ana Claudia Ferreira; Machado, Marcio Martins; Figueiredo, Marco Antonio Junqueira; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

    2002-01-01

    Intraspinal synovial cysts of the lumbar spine are rare and commonly associated with osteoarthritis of the facet joints, particularly at level L4-L5. Symptoms are uncommon and may include low-back pain or sciatica. These cysts are accurately diagnosed by using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnosis is essential for the correct management of the cysts. Several treatment options are available including rest and immobilization, computed tomography guided corticosteroid injection, and surgery in patients that are nonresponsive to other treatment methods. (author)

  8. A classification of growth friendly spine implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, David L; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Flynn, John M; Myung, Karen S; Sponseller, Paul D; Vitale, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Various types of spinal implants have been used with the objective of minimizing spinal deformities while maximizing the spine and thoracic growth in a growing child with a spinal deformity. The aim of this study was to describe a classification system of growth friendly spinal implants to allow researchers and clinicians to have a common language and facilitate comparative studies. Growth friendly spinal implant systems fall into 3 categories based upon the forces of correction the implants exert on the spine, which are as follows: Distraction-based systems correct spinal deformities by mechanically applying a distractive force across a deformed segment with anchors at the top and bottom of the implants, which commonly attach to the spine, rib, and/or the pelvis. The present examples of distraction-based implants are spine-based or rib-based growing rods, vertical expandable titanium rib prosthesis, and remotely expandable devices. Compression-based systems correct spinal deformities with a compressive force applied to the convexity of the curve causing convex growth inhibition. This compressive force may be generated both mechanically at the time of implantation, as well as over time resulting from longitudinal growth of vertebral endplates hindered by the spinal implants. Examples of compression-based systems are vertebral staples and tethers. Guided growth systems correct spinal deformity by anchoring multiple vertebrae (usually including the apical vertebrae) to rods with mechanical forces including translation at the time of the initial implant. The majority of the anchors are not rigidly attached to the rods, thus permitting longitudinal growth over time as the anchors slide over the rods. Examples of guided growth systems include the Luque trolley and Shilla. Each system has its benefits and shortcomings. Knowledge of the fundamental principles upon which these systems are based may aid the clinician to choose an appropriate treatment for patients. Having a

  9. Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jang-Gyu; Hong, Hyun-Sook; Koh, Yoon-Woo; Kim, Hee-Kyung; Park, Jung-Mi

    2008-01-01

    Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

  10. Respiratory Disorders in Complicated Cervical Spine Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Pervukhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluating the results of respiratory therapy in patients with complicated traumatic injury of the cervical spine.Materials and methods. A retrospective comparative analysis of the clinical course was carried out in 52 patients with complicated traumatic injury of the cervical spine: group A: complete spinal cord injury (ASIA A, 37 patients and group B: incomplete injury (ASIA B, 15 patients. The severity of patients' status on integral scales, parameters of the respiratory pattern and thoracopulmonary compliance, gas composition, and acidbase status of the blood were assessed. Data on patients who required prolonged mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, incidence of nosocomial pneumonia, duration of stay in the ICU, time of hospital treatment, and mortality were included in the analysis. Results. The average APACHE II and SOFA scores were higher in group A patients. The development of the acute respiratory failure required longterm mechanical ventilation (more than 48 hours in 91.4% of group A patients and in 53.3% of group B patients. Ventilatorassociated pneumonia complicated the disease in 81.3% of group A patients and 62.5% of group B patients and was accompanied by sepsis in 25% and 12.5% of cases, respectively. Statistically significant deterioration of biomechanical properties and gas exchange function of the lungs was observed in patients complicated with septic pneumonia.Conclusion. Patients with complicated ASIA A and ASIA B cervical spine injuries demonstrate the presence of respiratory failure of neurogenic origin. In addition, the infectious bronchopulmonary complications aggravated respiratory failure in patients with ASIA A injury in 70.3% versus 33.3% in patients with ASIA B. Developmentof pulmonogenic sepsis led to deterioration of the biomechanical and gas exchange functions of the lungs and increased the likelihood of unfavorable outcome of the disease in 77.8% of cases. The high

  11. Computed tomography of the spine: Diagnostic exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kricun, R.; Kricun, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors' aim is to provide diagnostic challenges and information to improve the readers' ability to interpret computed tomography (CT) scans of the spine. The entire vertebral column and adjacent soft-tissue structures are covered. The authors discuss normal findings, and congenital, traumatic, inflammatory, neoplastic, degenerative, idiopathic, and postoperative findings. Sixty-six case examples are presented, followed by description of the findings. Additional examples are given, and drawings and photographs of specimens are used to illustrate and clarify the pathologic conditions. Other modalities, including their advantages and disadvantages, are illustrated and discussed where appropriate. The relative merits of these modalities are presented

  12. Spine oncology: Daedalus, Theseus, and the Minotaur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donthineni, Rakesh; Ofluoglu, Onder

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three decades, progress has been dramatic in the management of spine tumors. For example, advanced imaging technologies made available at manageable costs have lowered the threshold for scanning. CT, MRI, and PET imaging modalities have greatly enhanced the ability of the surgeon to accurately delineate the extension of the lesion within the bone, the soft tissue, and the spinal canal. Such enhancements have led to great leaps forward in preoperative planning and postoperative evaluation, including improved reconstruction options are resulting in improved outcomes. This article introduces the theme of this volume.

  13. CT of osteomyelitis of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golimbu, C.; Firooznia, H.; Rafii, M.

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed in 17 adults with osteomyelitis of the spine. The dominant features were paravertebral soft-tissue swelling, abscess formation, and bone erosion. In two patients there were no findings indicative of osteomyelitis on conventional radiographs, but CT revealed paravertebral abscesses and bone lysis, helping to establish the diagnosis of osteomyelitis, chiefly because of its ability to detect early erosion of spongy vertabral bone, disk involvement, paravertebral soft-tissue swelling or abscess, and extension of the pathology into the spinal canal. Furthermore, CT facilitated closed-needle biopsy, helping to establish the pathologic diagnosis

  14. 78 FR 68906 - Agency Information Collection (Back (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of Review: New data collection... (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Control No. 2900- NEW (Back (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any...

  15. 78 FR 65451 - Agency Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans... Control No. 2900-- NEW (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any...) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: (Neck (Cervical Spine...

  16. A direct comparison of spine rotational stiffness and dynamic spine stability during repetitive lifting tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ryan B; Brown, Stephen H M

    2012-06-01

    Stability of the spinal column is critical to bear loads, allow movement, and at the same time avoid injury and pain. However, there has been a debate in recent years as to how best to define and quantify spine stability, with the outcome being that different methods are used without a clear understanding of how they relate to one another. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to directly compare lumbar spine rotational stiffness, calculated with an EMG-driven biomechanical model, to local dynamic spine stability calculated using Lyapunov analyses of kinematic data, during a series of continuous dynamic lifting challenges. Twelve healthy male subjects performed 30 repetitive lifts under three varying load and three varying rate conditions. With an increase in the load lifted (constant rate) there was a significant increase in mean, maximum, and minimum spine rotational stiffness (pstiffness (pstiffness and a non-significant decrease in local dynamic stability (p>0.05). Weak linear relationships were found for the varying rate conditions (r=-0.02 to -0.27). The results suggest that spine rotational stiffness and local dynamic stability are closely related to one another, as they provided similar information when movement rate was controlled. However, based on the results from the changing lifting rate conditions, it is evident that both models provide unique information and that future research is required to completely understand the relationship between the two models. Using both techniques concurrently may provide the best information regarding the true effects of (in) stability under different loading and movement scenarios, and in comparing healthy and clinical populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Cement augmentation on the spine : Biomechanical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, J P; Weiser, L; Kueny, R A; Huber, G; Rueger, J M; Lehmann, W

    2015-09-01

    Vertebral compression fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures. Since the introduction of vertebroplasty and screw augmentation, the management of osteoporotic fractures has changed significantly. The biomechanical characteristics of the risk of adjacent fractures and novel treatment modalities for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, including pure cement augmentation by vertebroplasty, and cement augmentation of screws for posterior instrumentation, are explored. Eighteen human osteoporotic lumbar spines (L1-5) adjacent to vertebral bodies after vertebroplasty were tested in a servo-hydraulic machine. As augmentation compounds we used standard cement and a modified low-strength cement. Different anchoring pedicle screws were tested with and without cement augmentation in another cohort of human specimens with a simple pull-out test and a fatigue test that better reflects physiological conditions. Cement augmentation in the osteoporotic spine leads to greater biomechanical stability. However, change in vertebral stiffness resulted in alterations with the risk of adjacent fractures. By using a less firm cement compound, the risk of adjacent fractures is significantly reduced. Both screw augmentation techniques resulted in a significant increase in the withdrawal force compared with the group without cement. Augmentation using perforated screws showed the highest stability in the fatigue test. The augmentation of cement leads to a significant change in the biomechanical properties. Differences in the stability of adjacent vertebral bodies increase the risk of adjacent fractures, which could be mitigated by a modified cement compound with reduced strength. Screws that were specifically designed for cement application displayed greatest stability in the fatigue test.

  18. Spine surgery in Nepal: the 2015 earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutterlin, Chester E

    2015-12-01

    At noon on Saturday, 25 April 2015, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal. It was centered in the Himalaya northwest of Kathmandu, the capital of over 1 million people. The violent tremors were felt as far away as New Delhi, India 1,000 km from the epicenter, but the worst of its destructive force was experienced in the heavily populated Kathmandu valley and in the remote mountainous villages of the Himalaya. Ancient temples crumbled; poorly constructed buildings collapsed; men, women, and children were trapped and injured, sometimes fatally. Avalanches killed mountain climbers, Sherpa guides, and porters at Everest base camp (EBC). The death toll to date exceeds 8,600 with as many as 20,000 injured. Spinal Health International (SHI), a nonprofit volunteer organization, has been active in Nepal in past years and responded to requests by Nepali spine surgeons for assistance with traumatic spine injury victims following the earthquake. SHI volunteers were present during the 2(nd) major earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on 12 May 2015. Past and current experiences in Nepal will be presented.

  19. [Tuberculosis of the spine and ribs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishnitzer, R; Landow, Z; Sagiv, S; Rozenhack, M; Eliraz, A

    1991-11-15

    Tuberculosis of the spine or ribs is uncommon, occurring in less than 1% of patients with tuberculosis (TB). 2 women are presented who recently immigrated from Ethiopia and India, respectively. One, aged 55, presented with chest pain, fatigue and several masses under the skin of the scalp. Chest X-ray and CT scan suggested Pancoast tumor, and the lateral parts of the first 2 right ribs were absent. The origin of the patient, clinical findings and positive PPD suggested TB of the ribs and anti-TB therapy resulted in cure. The diagnosis was later confirmed by a positive culture. The other woman, aged 68, presented with fatigue, mild abdominal pain and axillary lymphadenopathy. The PPD was positive and X-ray showed widening of the mediastinum. A caseating granuloma with Langhans epithelioid cells was found in a lymph node. Flaccid paraparesis developed before therapy was started. CT scan showed a typical picture of TB affecting the T3-T6 vertebrae. Drainage of a cold abscess of the spine via the anterior approach was followed by anti-TB therapy. Culture of a biopsied lymph node and of pus obtained at operation confirmed the diagnosis of TB. The patient died 2 months later from gastrointestinal bleeding. Awareness of the unusual presentations of various forms of TB is mandatory in countries with immigration from countries in which TB is still common.

  20. MR imaging of acute cervical spine injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyu Hwa; Lee, Jung Hyung; Joo, Yang Goo [School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    To describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the patients with acute cervical spinal injury and to assess the usefulness of the MR imagings. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 32 patients with acute cervical spinal injury. MR images were obtained with a 2.0 T superconductive MR imaging units (Spectro-20000, Gold-Star, Seoul), using spin-echo and gradient-echo technique. Most of patients were in their 3rd-4th decades and motor vehicle accident was the most frequent cause of acute cervical trauma. We assessed the MR findings with respect to the spinal cord, ligaments, paravertebral soft tissues, intervertebral disk, and bony spine. Spinal cord injury was the most common (65%), where cord swelling, edema, and/or hematoma were demonstrated most frequently at C5-6 level. Traumatic intervertebral disk herniations were the second most common (62.5%) and frequently occurred at the lower cervical levels, mostly at C5-6. Paravertebral soft tissue injury, vertebral body fracture, bone marrow edema and displacement were also well shown on MR images. MR imaging appears to be essential for the evaluation of traumatic disk herniations, spinal cord abnormalities, and injury of paravertebral soft tissue in the acute injury of the cervical spine.

  1. MR imaging of acute cervical spine injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu Hwa; Lee, Jung Hyung; Joo, Yang Goo

    1995-01-01

    To describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the patients with acute cervical spinal injury and to assess the usefulness of the MR imagings. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 32 patients with acute cervical spinal injury. MR images were obtained with a 2.0 T superconductive MR imaging units (Spectro-20000, Gold-Star, Seoul), using spin-echo and gradient-echo technique. Most of patients were in their 3rd-4th decades and motor vehicle accident was the most frequent cause of acute cervical trauma. We assessed the MR findings with respect to the spinal cord, ligaments, paravertebral soft tissues, intervertebral disk, and bony spine. Spinal cord injury was the most common (65%), where cord swelling, edema, and/or hematoma were demonstrated most frequently at C5-6 level. Traumatic intervertebral disk herniations were the second most common (62.5%) and frequently occurred at the lower cervical levels, mostly at C5-6. Paravertebral soft tissue injury, vertebral body fracture, bone marrow edema and displacement were also well shown on MR images. MR imaging appears to be essential for the evaluation of traumatic disk herniations, spinal cord abnormalities, and injury of paravertebral soft tissue in the acute injury of the cervical spine

  2. Cobb Angle Changes in Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Fractures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The annual incidence of spinal column fracture is 350 per million populations. with Motor vehicular accident being the major single cause of spine injuries. The victims are predominantly young and male. The aim of this study to evaluate the clinical outcome of conservative treatment of closed thoracic and lumbar spine ...

  3. Historical contributions from the Harvard system to adult spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Andrew J

    2011-10-15

    Literature review. To document the historical contributions from the Harvard Medical School system to the field of adult spine surgery. Despite the fact that significant contributions to the discipline of spinal surgery have derived from the Harvard system, no prior study documents the history of the Harvard spine services in a cohesive narrative. This historical perspective reviews the history of adult spine surgery within the Harvard system and outlines the significant contributions made by orthopedic and neurosurgical practitioners to the field. Literature reviews were performed from historical works, as well as scientific publications to fashion a cohesive review covering the history of spine surgery at Harvard from the early 19th century to the present. The development of the spine surgical services at the three main Harvard hospitals, and significant spine surgical personalities within the system, are discussed, including W. Jason Mixter, MD, Joseph S. Barr Sr., MD, and Marius N. Smith-Petersen, MD. Substantial developments that have arisen from the Harvard teaching hospitals include the recognition of disc herniation as the cause of radicular symptoms in the lower extremities, the description of lumbar discectomy as a surgical treatment for radicular pain, osteotomy for the correction of spinal deformity, and the first attempt to create a systematic algorithm capable of informing treatment for cervical spine trauma. Despite humble beginnings, the surgeons and scientists at Harvard have influenced nearly every facet of spine surgery over the course of the last two centuries.

  4. Coupled motions in human and porcine thoracic and lumbar spines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Idsart; Busscher, Iris; van der Veen, Albert J.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; Homminga, Jasper; van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2018-01-01

    Coupled motions, i.e., motions along axes other than the loaded axis, have been reported to occur in the human spine, and are likely to be influenced by inclined local axes due to the sagittal plane spine curvature. Furthermore, the role of facet joints in such motions is as yet unclear. Therefore,

  5. Coupled motions in human and porcine thoracic and lumbar spines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Idsart; Busscher, Iris; van der Veen, Albert J.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; Homminga, Jasper; van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2017-01-01

    Coupled motions, i.e., motions along axes other than the loaded axis, have been reported to occur in the human spine, and are likely to be influenced by inclined local axes due to the sagittal plane spine curvature. Furthermore, the role of facet joints in such motions is as yet unclear. Therefore,

  6. 49 CFR 572.85 - Lumbar spine flexure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine flexure. 572.85 Section 572.85... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 9-Month Old Child § 572.85 Lumbar spine flexure. (a) When subjected to continuously applied force in accordance with paragraph (b...

  7. Tuberculosis Of The Spine In Childhood In Kano, Nigeria | Adeleke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tuberculosis is a necrotizing bacterial infection with protean manifestation and wide distribution. The involvement of the spine is also increasing because of the resurgence of tuberculosis and HIV. Objectives: The objective of this study is to clinically evaluate the outcome of tuberculosis of the spine in children ...

  8. Audit of blood transfusion practice during anaesthesia for spine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Blood loss during spine surgery is often considerable, necessitating blood transfusion. The elective nature and other peculiarities of most spine surgeries, however, make them amenable to several blood conservation techniques, such that reduction in allogeneic blood transfusion is considered high priority in ...

  9. Value of prehospital assessment of spine fracture by paramedics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, J. G.; Gebbink, W. K.; Pallada, L.; Saltzherr, T. P.; Hogervorst, M.; Goslings, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Current guidelines state that trauma patients at risk of spine injury should undergo prehospital spine immobilization to reduce the risk of neurological deterioration. Although this approach has been accepted and implemented as a standard for decades, there is little scientific evidence to support

  10. Dysphagia associated with cervical spine and postural disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Soultana; Exarchakos, Georgios; Beris, Alexander; Ploumis, Avraam

    2013-12-01

    Difficulties with swallowing may be both persistent and life threatening for the majority of those who experience it irrespective of age, gender, and race. The purpose of this review is to define oropharyngeal dysphagia and describe its relationship to cervical spine disorders and postural disturbances due to either congenital or acquired disorders. The etiology and diagnosis of dysphagia are analyzed, focusing on cervical spine pathology associated with dysphagia as severe cervical spine disorders and postural disturbances largely have been held accountable for deglutition disorders. Scoliosis, kyphosis–lordosis, and osteophytes are the primary focus of this review in an attempt to elucidate the link between cervical spine disorders and dysphagia. It is important for physicians to be knowledgeable about what triggers oropharyngeal dysphagia in cases of cervical spine and postural disorders. Moreover, the optimum treatment for dysphagia, including the use of therapeutic maneuvers during deglutition, neck exercises, and surgical treatment, is discussed.

  11. [Controversies about instrumented surgery and pain relief in degenerative lumbar spine pain. Results of scientific evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaina-Padrón, F J

    2007-10-01

    studies in subgroups of patients. We still are needing randomized studies to compare the surgical results with the natural history of the disease, the placebo effect, or the conservative treatment. The European Guidelines for lumbar chronic pain management show a "strong evidence" indicating that complex and demanding spine surgery where different instrumentation is used, is not more effective than a simple, safer and cheaper posterolateral fusion without instrumentation. Recently, the literature published in this field is sending a message to use "minimally invasive techniques", abandon transpedicular fusions and clearly indicating that we must apply the knowledge accumulated at least along the last 20 years based on the scientific evidence. In conclusion, based in recent information, we must recommend the "abandon of the instrumented pathway" in a great number of present indications for degenerative spine surgery, and look for new strategies in the field of rehabilitation and conservative treatments correctly apply, using before the decompressive and instrumented surgery all the interventional and minimally invasive techniques that are presently offer in the field of modem lumbar chronic pain treatment.

  12. Solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-yun SUN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To report the diagnosis and treatment of one case of solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis and investigate the clinicopathological features combined with literatures. Methods and Results The patient was a 46-year-old woman. She suffered from weakness of both lower limbs, unsteady gait and numbness of toes for 20 d. MRI examination revealed an irregular mass behind the spinal cord at T5-7 level and T6-7 vertebral body accessory. The enhanced MRI showed obvious heterogeneous enhancement. The border was clear and spinal dura mater was compressed to shift forward. During operation, T5-7 processus spinosus and vertebral laminae were eroded, and the cortex of bone showed "moth-eaten" erosion. The intraspinal and extradural lesion had rich blood supply, loose bone structure and intact spinal dura mater. Histologically, tumor cells were composed of intensive small cells, and focal plasmacytoid cells were seen. Flake pink staining substance was among them. Artificial cracks were common and multinuclear giant tumor cells were scatteredly distributed. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the cytoplasm of tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD138, CD38 and vimentin (Vim,scatteredly positive for leukocyte common antigen (LCA, and negative for immune globulin κ light chain(IgGκ and λ light chain (IgGλ, CD99, S-100 protein (S-100, pan cytokeratin (PCK, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, HMB45 and CD34. The Ki-67 labeling index was 1.25%. Congo red staining showed the pink staining substance was brownish red. Hybridization in situ examination showed the DNA content of IgGκ was more than that of IgGλ. The final pathological diagnosis was solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis. The patient was treated with postoperative chemotherapy, and there was no recurrence or metastasis during 18-month follow-up period. Conclusions Solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis is a rare tumor. The imaging features can offer a few

  13. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  14. [Spondylarthrosis of the cervical spine. Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, R; Leixner, G; Stihsen, C; Windhager, R

    2013-09-01

    Chronic neck pain is often associated with spondylarthrosis, whereby segments C4/C5 (C: cervical) are most frequently affected. Spondylarthrosis can be the sole complaint, but it is associated with a degenerative cascade of the spine. The umbrella term for neck pain is the so-called cervical syndrome, which can be differentiated into segmental dysfunction and/or morphological changes of the intervertebral discs and small joints of the vertebral column. Conservative therapy modalities include physical therapy, subcutaneous application of local anesthetics, muscle, nerve and facet joint injections in addition to adequate analgesic and muscle relaxant therapy. If surgery is required, various techniques via dorsal and ventral approaches, depending on the clinic and morphologic changes, can be applied.

  15. NMR in the SPINE Structural Proteomics project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab, E; Atkinson, A R; Banci, L; Bertini, I; Ciofi-Baffoni, S; Brunner, K; Diercks, T; Dötsch, V; Engelke, F; Folkers, G E; Griesinger, C; Gronwald, W; Günther, U; Habeck, M; de Jong, R N; Kalbitzer, H R; Kieffer, B; Leeflang, B R; Loss, S; Luchinat, C; Marquardsen, T; Moskau, D; Neidig, K P; Nilges, M; Piccioli, M; Pierattelli, R; Rieping, W; Schippmann, T; Schwalbe, H; Travé, G; Trenner, J; Wöhnert, J; Zweckstetter, M; Kaptein, R

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes the developments, role and contributions of the NMR spectroscopy groups in the Structural Proteomics In Europe (SPINE) consortium. Focusing on the development of high-throughput (HTP) pipelines for NMR structure determinations of proteins, all aspects from sample preparation, data acquisition, data processing, data analysis to structure determination have been improved with respect to sensitivity, automation, speed, robustness and validation. Specific highlights are protonless (13)C-direct detection methods and inferential structure determinations (ISD). In addition to technological improvements, these methods have been applied to deliver over 60 NMR structures of proteins, among which are five that failed to crystallize. The inclusion of NMR spectroscopy in structural proteomics pipelines improves the success rate for protein structure determinations.

  16. Traumatic subdural hematoma in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jenn-Yeu; Chen, Yu-Hao; Hung, Kuang-Chen; Chang, Ti-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Traumatic spinal subdural hematoma is rare and its mechanism remains unclear. This intervention describes a patient with mental retardation who was suffering from back pain and progressive weakness of the lower limbs following a traffic accident. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed a lumbar subdural lesion. Hematoma was identified in the spinal subdural space during an operation. The muscle power of both lower limbs recovered to normal after surgery. The isolated traumatic spinal subdural hematoma was not associated with intracranial subdural hemorrhage. A spinal subdural hematoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord compression, especially for patients who have sustained spinal trauma. Emergency surgical decompression is usually the optimal treatment for a spinal subdural hematoma with acute deterioration and severe neurological deficits. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Blood-loss Management in Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Mirza, Muhammad; Knaub, Mark A

    2018-01-15

    Substantial blood loss during spine surgery can result in increased patient morbidity and mortality. Proper preoperative planning and communication with the patient, anesthesia team, and operating room staff can lessen perioperative blood loss. Advances in intraoperative antifibrinolytic agents and modified anesthesia techniques have shown promising results in safely reducing blood loss. The surgeon's attention to intraoperative hemostasis and the concurrent use of local hemostatic agents also can lessen intraoperative bleeding. Conversely, the use of intraoperative blood salvage has come into question, both for its potential inability to reduce the need for allogeneic transfusions as well as its cost-effectiveness. Allogeneic blood transfusion is associated with elevated risks, including surgical site infection. Thus, desirable transfusion thresholds should remain restrictive.

  18. Congenital anomalies of the spine: radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Kim, Sang Won; Ryu, Kyung Nam [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-04-01

    Congenital anomalies of the spine are frequent and variable. Some are restricted to skeletal structures, while others involve combine neural tube defects or are associated with other multi-systemic disorders. Structural spinal anomalies can be classified according to their location: 1) the vertebral body, 2) the articular process, 3) the lamina with spinous process, 4) the pars interarticularis, 5) the facet joint, 6) the pedicle, or 7) other. Because of similarities between these congenital anomalies and (a) secondary changes involving infection or joint disease and (b) deformities resulting from trauma and uncertain tumorous conditions, significant confusion can occur during diagnosis. Moreover, since the anomalies often give rise to both functional impairment and cosmetic problem, appropriate treatment relies crucially on accurate diagnosis. The authors illustrate the pathogenesis and radiologic findings of the relatively common spinal anomalies confined to skeletal structures.

  19. The Spine in Patients With Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maegen J; Kruse, Richard W; Shah, Suken A

    2017-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a genetic disorder of type I collagen. Although multiple genotypes and phenotypes are associated with osteogenesis imperfecta, approximately 90% of the mutations are in the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes. Osteogenesis imperfecta is characterized by bone fragility. Patients typically have multiple fractures or limb deformity; however, the spine can also be affected. Spinal manifestations include scoliosis, kyphosis, craniocervical junction abnormalities, and lumbosacral pathology. The incidence of lumbosacral spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis is higher in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta than in the general population. Use of diphosphonates has been found to decrease the rate of progression of scoliosis in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. A lateral cervical radiograph is recommended in patients with this condition before age 6 years for surveillance of craniocervical junction abnormalities, such as basilar impression. Intraoperative and anesthetic considerations in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta include challenges related to fracture risk, airway management, pulmonary function, and blood loss.

  20. Giant cells reparative granuloma of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, Nancy; Jorge Andres Delgado; Walter Leon

    1998-01-01

    The giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG), was first described by Jaffe in 1953, which found it to be clinically and histopathologically different from the giant cell tumor. The GCRG accounts for 1.0 % of the osseous tumoral lesions, is more frequently found in females (68%) and in patients less than 30 years old (74%). It was believed that it only affected the jaw; it has been reported compromising other locations including the spine (7 cases). We report a case affecting the vertebral bodies of C2-C3 in a 10 years old, female patient, who was studied by plain film and MRI. The histological diagnosis was established at surgery, this report is the first one described in a cervical location and the second studied by MRI

  1. MR imaging evaluation of congenital spine anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bury, E.A.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Grossman, R.I.; Goldberg, H.I.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hackney, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Over a 2-year period, 135 patients between the ages of 1 week and 18 years were examined with MR imaging for possible congenital anomalies of the spine and spinal cord. Tethered cords with various other associated pathologies such as lipomas and myelomeningoceles were found in 36 patients. The remaining abnormal examinations consisted of syrinxes, Chiari malformations, diastematomyelia, and conus masses. In 55 patients the studies were interpreted as normal. Of these, three were subsequently shown by surgery of myelography to be abnormal. The first had a thickened filum with a small epidermoid, the second a thickened filum, and the third, with only sagittal images, a diastematomyelia. Children presenting with symptoms highly suspicious for congenital abnormalities but with a normal MR study in multiple planes may still require further evaluation with myelography. Multiplanar MR examination in most instances will be a sufficient evaluation for congenital anomalies

  2. Insufficient pain management after spine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Vibeke; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Dahl, Jørgen Berg

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A prospective observational quality assurance study was performed at Glostrup Hospital, Denmark, to describe patients undergoing spine surgery with regard to perioperative analgesic management, post-operative pain, opioid consumption and side effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... experienced acceptable pain levels, but instrumented lumbar fusion leads to moderate to severe pain levels and a relatively high opioid consumption. The scheduled standard pain management protocols were sparsely followed. Challenges exist in post-operative pain management as observed in previous surveys...... eligible for the study were identified consecutively from the operation chart. The following data were registered: post-operative visual analogue (VAS) pain score at rest and during mobilisation, opioid consumption for the first 24 h, other analgesics administered and side effects. RESULTS: A total of 87...

  3. Imaging the cervical spine following rugby related injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Rugby Union and Rugby League are popular sports with high participation across the world. The high impact nature of the sport results in a high proportion of injuries. Rugby has an association with cervical spine injury which has potentially catastrophic consequences for the patient. Anecdotal evidence suggests that radiographers find it challenging to visualise the cervicothoracic junction on the lateral supine cervical spine projection in broad shouldered athletes. This paper intends to analyse the risk factors for cervical spine injuries in rugby and discuss the imaging strategy in respect to radiography and CT scanning in high risk patient groups such as rugby players who are suspected of suffering a cervical spine injury. - Highlights: • Rugby as a participation sport represents a risk of cervical spine injury. • Conventional radiography lacks sensitivity in identifying cervical spine injury. • The body habitus of rugby players makes the imaging of the cervicothoracic junction challenging. • CT scanning should replace radiography in the event of serious suspicion of cervical spine injury. • The notion of CT being a high dose modality should be questioned.

  4. MRI of cervical spine injuries complicating ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivikko, Mika P.; Koskinen, Seppo K. [Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Toeoeloe Hospital, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-09-15

    The objective was to study characteristic MRI findings in cervical spine fractures complicating ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Technical issues related to MRI are also addressed. A review of 6,774 consecutive cervical spine multidetector CT (MDCT) scans obtained during 6.2 years revealed 33 ankylosed spines studied for suspected acute cervical spine injury complicating AS. Of these, 20 patients also underwent MRI. On MRI, of these 20 patients, 19 had a total of 29 cervical and upper thoracic spine fractures. Of 20 transverse fractures traversing both anterior and posterior columns, 7 were transdiskal and exhibited less bone marrow edema than did those traversing vertebral bodies. One Jefferson's, 1 atlas posterior arch (Jefferson's on MDCT), 2 odontoid process, and 5 non-contiguous spinous process fractures were detectable. MRI showed 2 fractures that were undetected by MDCT, and conversely, MDCT detected 6 fractures not seen on MRI; 16 patients had spinal cord findings ranging from impingement and contusion to complete transection. Magnetic resonance imaging can visualize unstable fractures of the cervical and upper thoracic spine. Paravertebral hemorrhages and any ligamentous injuries should alert radiologists to seek transverse fractures. Multiple fractures are common and often complicated by spinal cord injuries. Diagnostic images can be obtained with a flexible multipurpose coil if the use of standard spine array coil is impossible due to a rigid collar or excessive kyphosis. (orig.)

  5. Dendritic spine morphology and dynamics in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee S

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stacey Lee,1 Huaye Zhang,2 Donna J Webb1,3,4 1Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 2Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ, 3Department of Cancer Biology, 4Vanderbilt Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: Dendritic spines are actin-rich structures that form the postsynaptic terminals of excitatory synapses in the brain. The development and plasticity of spines are essential for cognitive processes, such as learning and memory, and defects in their density, morphology, and size underlie a number of neurological disorders. In this review, we discuss the contribution and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in spine formation and plasticity as well as learning and memory. We also highlight the role of key receptors and intracellular signaling pathways in modulating the development and morphology of spines and cognitive function. Moreover, we provide insight into spine/synapse defects associated with several neurological disorders and the molecular mechanisms that underlie these spine defects. Keywords: dendritic spines, synapses, synaptic plasticity, actin cytoskeleton, glutamate receptors, neurological disorders

  6. The top 100 classic papers in lumbar spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Jeremy; Skovrlj, Branko; Caridi, John M; Cho, Samuel K

    2015-05-15

    Bibliometric review of the literature. To analyze and quantify the most frequently cited papers in lumbar spine surgery and to measure their impact on the entire lumbar spine literature. Lumbar spine surgery is a dynamic and complex field. Basic science and clinical research remain paramount in understanding and advancing the field. While new literature is published at increasing rates, few studies make long-lasting impacts. The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was searched for citations of all papers relevant to lumbar spine surgery. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country of publication, and institution were recorded for each paper. The most cited paper was found to be the classic paper from 1990 by Boden et al that described magnetic resonance imaging findings in individuals without back pain, sciatica, and neurogenic claudication showing that spinal stenosis and herniated discs can be incidentally found when scanning patients. The second most cited study similarly showed that asymptomatic patients who underwent lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging frequently had lumbar pathology. The third most cited paper was the 2000 publication of Fairbank and Pynsent reviewing the Oswestry Disability Index, the outcome-measure questionnaire most commonly used to evaluate low back pain. The majority of the papers originate in the United States (n=58), and most were published in Spine (n=63). Most papers were published in the 1990s (n=49), and the 3 most common topics were low back pain, biomechanics, and disc degeneration. This report identifies the top 100 papers in lumbar spine surgery and acknowledges those individuals who have contributed the most to the advancement of the study of the lumbar spine and the body of knowledge used to guide evidence-based clinical decision making in lumbar spine surgery today. 3.

  7. The Burden of Clostridium difficile after Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Javier Z; Skovrlj, Branko; Rothenberg, Edward S; Lu, Young; McAnany, Steven; Cho, Samuel K; Hecht, Andrew C; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Retrospective database analysis. Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate incidence, comorbidities, and impact on health care resources of Clostridium difficile infection after cervical spine surgery. Methods A total of 1,602,130 cervical spine surgeries from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2002 to 2011 were included. Patients were included for study based on International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedural codes for cervical spine surgery for degenerative spine diagnoses. Baseline patient characteristics were determined. Multivariable analyses assessed factors associated with increased incidence of C. difficile and risk of mortality. Results Incidence of C. difficile infection in postoperative cervical spine surgery hospitalizations is 0.08%, significantly increased since 2002 (p difficile infection were significantly increased in patients with comorbidities such as congestive heart failure, renal failure, and perivascular disease. Circumferential cervical fusion (odds ratio [OR] = 2.93, p difficile infection after degenerative cervical spine surgery. C. difficile infection after cervical spine surgery results in extended length of stay (p costs (p difficile after cervical spine surgery is nearly 8% versus 0.19% otherwise (p difficile to be a significant predictor of inpatient mortality (OR = 3.99, p difficile increases the risk of in-hospital mortality and costs approximately $6,830,695 per year to manage in patients undergoing elective cervical spine surgery. Patients with comorbidities such as renal failure or congestive heart failure have increased probability of developing infection after surgery. Accepted antibiotic guidelines in this population must be followed to decrease the risk of developing postoperative C. difficile colitis.

  8. Advantages and disadvantages of nonfusion technology in spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Russel C; Girardi, Federico P; Lim, Moe R; Cammisa, Frank P

    2005-07-01

    Nonfusion technology in spine surgery may improve outcomes by reducing surgical morbidity and the incidence of adjacent level degeneration; however, new technologies also introduce new short- and long-term complications. There is currently no evidence that nonfusion implants are superior to fusion in mid- to long-term follow-up. Understanding the potential risks and benefits of nonfusion technology is essential for spine surgeons and their patients. This article reviews the current evidence relating to the potential risks and benefits of nonfusion technology in spine surgery.

  9. Contextual Learning Induces Dendritic Spine Clustering in Retrosplenial Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Frank

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and electrophysiological studies find convergent evidence suggesting that plasticity within a dendritic tree is not randomly dispersed, but rather clustered into functional groups. Further, results from in silico neuronal modeling show that clustered plasticity is able to increase storage capacity 45 times compared to dispersed plasticity. Recent in vivo work utilizing chronic 2-photon microscopy tested the clustering hypothesis and showed that repetitive motor learning is able to induce clustered addition of new dendritic spines on apical dendrites of L5 neurons in primary motor cortex; moreover, clustered spines were found to be more stable than non-clustered spines, suggesting a physiological role for spine clustering. To further test this hypothesis we used in vivo 2-photon imaging in Thy1-YFP-H mice to chronically examine dendritic spine dynamics in retrosplenial cortex (RSC during spatial learning. RSC is a key component of an extended spatial learning and memory circuit that includes hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Importantly, RSC is known from both lesion and immediate early gene studies to be critically involved in spatial learning and more specifically in contextual fear conditioning. We utilized a modified contextual fear conditioning protocol wherein animals received a mild foot shock each day for five days; this protocol induces gradual increases in context freezing over several days before the animals reach a behavioral plateau. We coupled behavioral training with four separate in vivo imaging sessions, two before training begins, one early in training, and a final session after training is complete. This allowed us to image spine dynamics before training as well as early in learning and after animals had reached behavioral asymptote. We find that this contextual learning protocol induces a statistically significant increase in the formation of clusters of new dendritic spines in trained animals when compared to home

  10. Osteoid Osteoma of Cervical Spine in two adjacent Vertebrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Etemadifar

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor, mainly seen in 10-30 years male. Spine is a relatively common site and almost always, posterior elements are involved. Plain X-Ray-, CT scan and Isotope scan help to identify and localize spine lesions. We described one 18 years old boy with 3 years low neck pain. Isotope scan, MRI and CT scan showed two lesions in C7 and T1. Gross inspection and histopathology examination confirmed osteoid osteoma in two adjacent vertebrae which has not been reported elsewhere in the literature. Key words: Osteoid Osteoma, Spine, Multifocal

  11. Considerations to improve the safety of cervical spine manual therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutting, Nathan; Kerry, Roger; Coppieters, Michel W; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G M

    2018-02-01

    Manipulation and mobilisation of the cervical spine are well established interventions in the management of patients with headache and/or neck pain. However, their benefits are accompanied by potential, yet rare risks in terms of serious adverse events, including neurovascular insult to the brain. A recent international framework for risk assessment and management offers directions in the mitigation of this risk by facilitating sound clinical reasoning. The aim of this article is to critically reflect on and summarize the current knowledge about cervical spine manual therapy and to provide guidance for clinical reasoning for cervical spine manual therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acquired pathology of the pediatric spine and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palasis, Susan; Hayes, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric spine pathology poses a diagnostic challenge for radiologists. Acquired spine pathology often yields nonspecific signs and symptoms in children, especially in the younger age groups, and diagnostic delay can carry significant morbidity. This review is focused on some of the more common diagnostic dilemmas we face when attempting to evaluate and diagnose acquired pediatric spine anomalies in daily practice. An understanding of some of the key differentiating features of these disease processes in conjunction with pertinent history, physical exam, and advanced imaging techniques can indicate the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  13. Fatal Cervical Spine Injury Following a Bicycle Crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhrenholt Lars

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal injury following direct loading of the head and neck is a rare sequel of bicycle crashes. Fatal head injuries following bicycle crashes have been described in great detail and safety measures such as bicycle helmets have been developed accordingly. Less frequently, however, potentially severe cervical spine injuries have been described. We present the case of a middle-aged female who sustained an ultimately fatal cervical spine injury following a collision with a car whilst biking wearing a helmet. We discuss the literature regarding the protective effects of bicycle helmets, the relevance to cervical spine injury and legislation on mandatory use of helmets for injury prevention.

  14. Acquired pathology of the pediatric spine and spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palasis, Susan; Hayes, Laura L. [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology at Scottish Rite, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric spine pathology poses a diagnostic challenge for radiologists. Acquired spine pathology often yields nonspecific signs and symptoms in children, especially in the younger age groups, and diagnostic delay can carry significant morbidity. This review is focused on some of the more common diagnostic dilemmas we face when attempting to evaluate and diagnose acquired pediatric spine anomalies in daily practice. An understanding of some of the key differentiating features of these disease processes in conjunction with pertinent history, physical exam, and advanced imaging techniques can indicate the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Cervical spine injury in the elderly: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehara, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Shimamura, Tadashi [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    An increase in the elderly population has resulted in an increased incidence of cervical spine injury in this group. No specific type of cervical spine trauma is seen in the elderly, although dens fractures are reported to be common. Hyperextension injuries due to falling and the resultant central cord syndrome in the mid and lower cervical segments due to decreased elasticity as a result of spondylosis may be also characteristic. The imaging features of cervical spine injury are often modified by associated spondylosis deformans, DISH and other systemic disorders. The value of MR imaging in such cases is emphasized. (orig.)

  16. 49 CFR 572.75 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 6-Year-Old Child § 572.75 Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and test procedure. (a) Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly. The lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis consist of... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and...

  17. Lumbar Spine Surgery in Patients with Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Joshua E; Hughes, Alexander; Sama, Andrew; Weinstein, Joseph; Kaplan, Leon; Cammisa, Frank P; Girardi, Federico P

    2015-10-21

    Parkinson disease is the second most common neurodegenerative condition. The literature on patients with Parkinson disease and spine surgery is limited, but increased complications have been reported. All patients with Parkinson disease undergoing lumbar spine surgery between 2002 and 2012 were identified. Patients' charts, radiographs, and outcome questionnaires were reviewed. Parkinson disease severity was assessed with use of the modified Hoehn and Yahr staging scale. Complications and subsequent surgeries were analyzed. Risk for reoperation was assessed. Ninety-six patients underwent lumbar spine surgery. The mean patient age was 63.0 years. The mean follow-up duration was 30.1 months. The Parkinson disease severity stage was Parkinson disease severity stage of ≥3 (p Parkinson disease is good, with improvement of spine-related pain. A larger prospective study is warranted. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  18. Spine Shape Predicts Vertebral Fractures in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, P.C.; A. Ghosh

    2008-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of patients at high risk of developing fragility fractures is crucial in the management of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the shape of the spine as can be observed from lateral X-rays is indicative for the risk of future development...... of fragility fractures in the spine. The study included 568 elderly women of whom 455 maintained skeletal integrity during the mean observation period of 4.8 years and 113 sustained at least one vertebral fracture in the same period. At baseline, none of the women had experienced a previous osteoporotic...... and intervertebral disks, alignment of vertebrae, and spinal curvature. The positions of the points were subsequently used as the input features to train a pattern classification system to discriminate between spines of women maintaining skeletal health and spines sustaining a fracture in the near future...

  19. Sacroiliac joint injection using the posterior superior iliac spines as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limitations in the availability of such image guided techniques in health ... School of Medical Sciences, University of Science and Technology between 2006 and ... The needle position from the posterior superior iliac spine and its angle of ...

  20. The illness trajectory experienced by patients having spine fusion surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    The illness trajectory of spine fusion patients. A feeling of being (in)visible Background Research shows that being a back patient is associated with great personal cost, and that back patients who undergo so-called spine fusion often experience particularly long and uncoordinated trajectories....... The patients describe a feeling of being mistrusted and thrown around in the system. It is the aim of this study to examine how spine fusion patients experience their illness trajectory and hospitalisation. Methods The study is based on qualitative interviews, and the data analysis is inspired by the French...... system and healthcare professionals are often dismissed as irrelevant. It is also evident that spine fusion patients are denied the opportunity to verbalise what it feels like to, for example, be ”a person in constant pain” or someone who ”holds back” to avoid being an inconvenience. These feelings...

  1. Villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motamedi, Kambiz; Murphey, Mark D.; Fetsch, John F.; Furlong, Mary A.; Vinh, Tinhoa N.; Sweet, Donald E.; Laskin, William B.

    2005-01-01

    To describe the imaging features of spinal pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of pathologically proven spinal PVNS. Patient demographics and clinical presentation were reviewed. Radiologic studies were evaluated by consensus of two musculoskeletal radiologists for spinal location, spinal segments affected, lesion center, detection of facet origin and intrinsic characteristics on radiography (n =11), myelography (n =7), CT (n =6) and MR imaging (n =6). Women (64%) were more commonly affected than men (36%) with an average age of 28 years. Clinical symptoms were pain (45%), neurologic (9%) or both (36%). Lesions most frequently affected the cervical spine (53%) followed by the thoracic (27%) and lumbar regions (20%). The majority of lesions (93%) were centered in the posterior elements with frequent involvement of the pedicle (67%), neural foramina (73%), lamina (67%) and facets (93%). No lesions showed calcification. Determination of a facet origin by imaging was dependent on imaging modality and lesion size. A facet origin could be determined in 45% of cases by radiography vs 67% of patients by CT (n=6) and MR (n=6). Large lesions (greater than 3 cm in at least one dimension) obscured the facet origin in all cases with CT and/or MR imaging (44%,n=4). Small lesions (less than 3 cm in any dimension) demonstrated an obvious facet origin in all cases by CT and/or MR imaging (56%,n=5). Low-to-intermediate signal intensity was seen in all cases on T2-weighted MR images resulting from hemosiderin deposition with ''blooming effect'' in one case with gradient echo MR images. PVNS of the spine is rare. Large lesions obscure the facet origin and simulate an aggressive intraosseous neoplasm. Patient age, a solitary noncystic lesion centered in the posterior elements, lack of mineralization and low-to-intermediate signal intensity on all MR pulse sequences may suggest the diagnosis in these cases. Small lesions demonstrate a facet

  2. Cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine in a 5-year-old girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Ryul; Song, Ji Hun; Lee, Ju Hong; Lee, Sang Yong; Yoo, Wan Hee

    2008-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial spine usually occur in children aged 8 to 14 years. Usually, radiographs will demonstrate a tibial spine fracture, with the degree of displacement. Tibial spine fractures in younger children have not been reported in the previously published literature. We report a tibial spine fracture that occurred in 5-year-old girl. The cartilaginous avulsion fracture of the tibial spine was not revealed by radiographs because it was limited to the cartilaginous portion of the proximal tibia. (orig.)

  3. Iatrogenic Spinal Cord Injury Resulting From Cervical Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Alan H.; Hart, Robert A.; Hilibrand, Alan S.; Fish, David E.; Wang, Jeffrey C.; Lord, Elizabeth L.; Buser, Zorica; Tortolani, P. Justin; Stroh, D. Alex; Nassr, Ahmad; Currier, Bradford L.; Sebastian, Arjun S.; Arnold, Paul M.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Mroz, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data. Objective: To examine the incidence of iatrogenic spinal cord injury following elective cervical spine surgery. Methods: A retrospective multicenter case series study involving 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network was conducted. Medical records for 17?625 patients who received cervical spine surgery (levels from C2 to C7) between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011,...

  4. Translaminar screw fixation in the lumbar spine: technique, indications, results

    OpenAIRE

    Grob, D.; Humke, T.

    1998-01-01

    Translaminar screw fixation of the lumbar spine represents a simple and effective technique for short segment fusion in the degenerative spine. Clinical experience with 173 patients who underwent translaminar screw fixation revealed a fusion rate of 94%. The indications for translaminar screw fixation as a primary fixation procedure are: segmental dysfunction, lumbar spinal stenosis with painful degenerative changes, segmental revision surgery after discectomies, and painful disc-related synd...

  5. Lumbar Spine Musculoskeletal Physiology and Biomechanics During Simulated Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0043 TITLE: Lumbar Spine Musculoskeletal Physiology and Biomechanics During Simulated Military Operations PRINCIPAL...31May2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lumbar Spine Musculoskeletal Physiology and Biomechanics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER During Simulated Military Operations 5b... Biomechanics , Cincinnati, 2015. § Website(s) or other Internet site(s) § Nothing to report § Technologies or techniques § Nothing to report

  6. Imaging of benign tumors of the osseous spine

    OpenAIRE

    Riahi, Hend; Mechri, Meriem; Barsaoui, Maher; Bouaziz, Mouna; Vanhoenacker, Filip; Ladeb, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the imaging features of the most prevalent benign bone tumors involving the spine. Benign tumors of the osseous spine account approximately for 1% of all primary skeletal tumors. Many lesions exhibit characteristic radiologic features. In addition to age and location of the lesion, radiographs are an essential step in the initial detection and characterization but are limited to complex anatomy and superposition. CT and MR imagi...

  7. Myositis Ossificans Progressiva in the Whole Spine: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Ghayem Hasankhani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Myositis ossificans progressiva is a rare inherited disease characterized by progressive ectopic ossifications associated with thumb and big toe anomalies. Ossification usually progresses from central to the peripheral, proximal to distal, cranial to caudal, and from dorsal to ventral directions and leading to activity limitation, significant eating disability, recurrent pulmonary infection, and atelectasis. In this report, we present a 7-year-old boy with a total spine stiffness (wooden spine seriously limited his activity of daily living.

  8. Wearable technology for spine movement assessment: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Papi, Enrica; Koh, Woon Senn; McGregor, Alison H.

    2017-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of spine movement function could enhance our understanding of low back pain development. Wearable technologies have gained popularity as promising alternative to laboratory systems in allowing ambulatory movement analysis. This paper aims to review the state of art of current use of wearable technology to assess spine kinematics and kinetics. Four electronic databases and reference lists of relevant articles were searched to find studies employing wearable technologies t...

  9. Three-dimensional CT of the pediatric spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starshak, R.J.; Crawford, C.R.; Waisman, R.C.; Sty, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    CT of the spine has been shown to be useful in evaluating congenital, neoplastic, inflammatory, and traumatic lesions. Any portion of the neural arch may be involved by these disease processes. The complex nature of the spinal column can make evaluation of these abnormalities difficult on axial CT. This is especially true if the spine is distorted by scoliosis, kyphosis, or lordosis. This exhibit illustrates the advantages and drawbacks of three-dimensional CT reconstructed images of spinal abnormalities in children

  10. Minimally invasive spine surgery: Hurdles to be crossed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Bijjawara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MISS as a concept is noble and all surgeons need to address and minimize the surgical morbidity for better results. However, we need to be cautions and not fall prey into accepting that minimally invasive spine surgery can be done only when certain metal access systems are used. Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS has come a long way since the description of endoscopic discectomy in 1997 and minimally invasive TLIF (mTLIF in 2003. Today there is credible evidence (though not level-I that MISS has comparable results to open spine surgery with the advantage of early postoperative recovery and decreased blood loss and infection rates. However, apart from decreasing the muscle trauma and decreasing the muscle dissection during multilevel open spinal instrumentation, there has been little contribution to address the other morbidity parameters like operative time , blood loss , access to decompression and atraumatic neural tissue handling with the existing MISS technologies. Since all these parameters contribute to a greater degree than posterior muscle trauma for the overall surgical morbidity, we as surgeons need to introspect before we accept the concept of minimally invasive spine surgery being reduced to surgeries performed with a few tubular retractors. A spine surgeon needs to constantly improve his skills and techniques so that he can minimize blood loss, minimize traumatic neural tissue handling and minimizing operative time without compromising on the surgical goals. These measures actually contribute far more, to decrease the morbidity than approach related muscle damage alone. Minimally invasine spine surgery , though has come a long way, needs to provide technical solutions to minimize all the morbidity parameters involved in spine surgery, before it can replace most of the open spine surgeries, as in the case of laparoscopic surgery or arthroscopic surgery.

  11. Pediatric cervical spine trauma imaging: a practical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egloff, Alexia M.; Kadom, Nadja; Vezina, Gilbert; Bulas, Dorothy [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Cervical spine trauma in children is rare and the diagnosis can be challenging due to anatomical and biomechanical differences as compared to adults. A variety of algorithms have been used in adults to accurately diagnose injuries, but have not been fully studied in pediatric patients. In this article we review suggested imaging protocols and the general characteristics, types of injuries, and measurements used to diagnose cervical spine injuries in children. (orig.)

  12. Automated curved planar reformation of 3D spine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2005-01-01

    Traditional techniques for visualizing anatomical structures are based on planar cross-sections from volume images, such as images obtained by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, planar cross-sections taken in the coordinate system of the 3D image often do not provide sufficient or qualitative enough diagnostic information, because planar cross-sections cannot follow curved anatomical structures (e.g. arteries, colon, spine, etc). Therefore, not all of the important details can be shown simultaneously in any planar cross-section. To overcome this problem, reformatted images in the coordinate system of the inspected structure must be created. This operation is usually referred to as curved planar reformation (CPR). In this paper we propose an automated method for CPR of 3D spine images, which is based on the image transformation from the standard image-based to a novel spine-based coordinate system. The axes of the proposed spine-based coordinate system are determined on the curve that represents the vertebral column, and the rotation of the vertebrae around the spine curve, both of which are described by polynomial models. The optimal polynomial parameters are obtained in an image analysis based optimization framework. The proposed method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on five CT spine images. The method performed well on both normal and pathological cases and was consistent with manually obtained ground truth data. The proposed spine-based CPR benefits from reduced structural complexity in favour of improved feature perception of the spine. The reformatted images are diagnostically valuable and enable easier navigation, manipulation and orientation in 3D space. Moreover, reformatted images may prove useful for segmentation and other image analysis tasks

  13. Pattern and presentation of spine trauma in Gwagwalada‑Abuja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: There were 202 patients with male preponderance and a mean age of 38.9 ± 11.4 years over the 11‑year period. The most common cause of spine injury was road traffic injury (79.7%). Cervical spine injury (10.4%) accounted for the highest number of cases with complete neurologic deficit. The majority of patients, ...

  14. Age-dependent changes of the normal human spine during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühli, F J; Müntener, M; Henneberg, M

    2005-01-01

    The impact of aging on the morphology of the osseous spine is still debated. Clinical studies usually record combined aging effects, as well as age-related degenerative changes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of (degeneration-independent) aging on the morphology of the osseous human spine during adulthood. Various osseous dimensions of human spinal landmarks at all major vertebral levels have been assessed in macroscopically normal Swiss skeletons (N = 71), with historically known sex and age at death, as well as in larger Central European skeletal samples (N = 277) with anthropologically determined individual age and sex. All measurements were correlated with individual age (or age group) by linear regression and analyzed separately for each sex. Only few osseous spinal dimensions, and only in men, correlate significantly with individual age. Generally, the significant dimensions show an increase in size during adulthood. Similar tendencies, but with significant alterations of spinal measurements in women as well, can be found in the larger samples with anthropologically determined sex and age group. Increase of certain spinal dimensions found in this study may be a reflection of an increase in the robustness of individuals with age. Because of the absence of a significant secular alteration of stature within the well-recorded sample, we exclude secular change in body dimensions as a major bias. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  15. The influence of spine surgeons' experience on the classification and intraobserver reliability of the novel AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system : an international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadiqi, Said; Oner, F. Cumhur; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. International validation study. Objective. To investigate the influence of the spine surgeons' level of experience on the intraobserver reliability of the novel AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification system, and the appropriate classification according to this system.

  16. Surgeon Reported Outcome Measure for Spine Trauma an International Expert Survey Identifying Parameters Relevant for The Outcome of Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadiqi, Said; Verlaan, Jorrit Jan; Lehr, A. M.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Kandziora, Frank; Rajasekaran, S.; Schnake, Klaus J.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Oner, F. C.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN.: International web-based survey OBJECTIVE.: To identify clinical and radiological parameters that spine surgeons consider most relevant when evaluating clinical and functional outcomes of subaxial cervical spine trauma patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: While an outcome instrument

  17. Setting the equation: establishing value in spine care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Daniel K; Tosteson, Anna N A; Groman, Rachel F; Ghogawala, Zoher

    2014-10-15

    Topic review. Describe value measurement in spine care and discuss the motivation for, methods for, and limitations of such measurement. Spinal disorders are common and are an important cause of pain and disability. Numerous complementary and competing treatment strategies are used to treat spinal disorders, and the costs of these treatments is substantial and continue to rise despite clear evidence of improved health status as a result of these expenditures. The authors present the economic and legislative imperatives forcing the assessment of value in spine care. The definition of value in health care and methods to measure value specifically in spine care are presented. Limitations to the utility of value judgments and caveats to their use are presented. Examples of value calculations in spine care are presented and critiqued. Methods to improve and broaden the measurement of value across spine care are suggested, and the role of prospective registries in measuring value is discussed. Value can be measured in spine care through the use of appropriate economic measures and patient-reported outcomes measures. Value must be interpreted in light of the perspective of the assessor, the duration of the assessment period, the degree of appropriate risk stratification, and the relative value of treatment alternatives.

  18. Three Cases of Spine Fractures after an Airplane Crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Joo; Moon, Bong Ju; Pennant, William A; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yoon, Do Heum; Ha, Yoon

    2015-10-01

    While injuries to the spine after an airplane crash are not rare, most crashes result in fatal injuries. As such, few studies exist that reported on spine fractures sustained during airplane accidents. In this report, we demonstrate three cases of spine fractures due to crash landing of a commercial airplane. Three passengers perished from injuries after the crash landing, yet most of the passengers and crew on board survived, with injuries ranging from minor to severe. Through evaluating our three spine fracture patients, it was determined that compression fracture of the spine was the primary injury related to the airplane accident. The first patient was a 20-year-old female who sustained a T6-8 compression fracture without neurologic deterioration. The second patient was a 33-year-old female with an L2 compression fracture, and the last patient was a 49-year-old male patient with a T8 compression fracture. All three patients were managed conservatively and required spinal orthotics. During the crash, each of these patients were subjected to direct, downward high gravity z-axis (Gz) force, which gave rise to load on the spine vertically, thereby causing compression fracture. Therefore, new safety methods should be developed to prevent excessive Gz force during airplane crash landings.

  19. Rheumatoid arthritis: Radiological changes in the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Boukai, Ahmad A.; Al-Arfaj, Abdurahman S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective was to describe the radiographic cervical spine changes in rheumatoid arthritis patients.Forty-nine patients (37 females and 12 males ) diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between June 1998 and December 2000, were studied for their radiographic cervical spine changes . Their mean age at disease onset was 41.4 + 13.4 years (range of 18-73)and mean duration of disease was 9.1+-6.28 years (range of 2-34). Their demographic data including rheumatoid factor status was obtained. Standard conventional radiographs cervical spine were obtained to study the cervical spine changes. Cervical radiographic changes were found in 34 patients (27 females and 7 males) 10 had subluxation (7 with atlanto-axial subluxation,2 with sub-axial subluxation,and one with lateral subluxation ). No vertical impaction was seen. Erosion of odontoid process was seen in one patient .All were rheumatoid seropositive Cervical spine changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis are common, in particular subluxation in the upper cervical spine. Our study showed somewhat lesser prevalence of these changes. These were clinically correlated with disease duration, female sex, and rheumatoid factor, but were not clinically significant. (author)

  20. Dendritic Spines in Depression: What We Learned from Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression, a severe psychiatric disorder, has been studied for decades, but the underlying mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Depression is closely associated with alterations in dendritic spine morphology and spine density. Therefore, understanding dendritic spines is vital for uncovering the mechanisms underlying depression. Several chronic stress models, including chronic restraint stress (CRS, chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS, and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS, have been used to recapitulate depression-like behaviors in rodents and study the underlying mechanisms. In comparison with CRS, CUMS overcomes the stress habituation and has been widely used to model depression-like behaviors. CSDS is one of the most frequently used models for depression, but it is limited to the study of male mice. Generally, chronic stress causes dendritic atrophy and spine loss in the neurons of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Meanwhile, neurons of the amygdala and nucleus accumbens exhibit an increase in spine density. These alterations induced by chronic stress are often accompanied by depression-like behaviors. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This review summarizes our current understanding of the chronic stress-induced remodeling of dendritic spines in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens and also discusses the putative underlying mechanisms.

  1. Clostridium difficile colitis in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z; Silvestre, Jason; Al Maaieh, Motasem; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2014-09-01

    Retrospective database analysis. To investigate incidence, comorbidities, and impact on health care resources of Clostridium difficile infection after lumbar spine surgery. C. difficile colitis is reportedly increasing in hospitalized patients and can have a negative impact on patient outcomes. No data exist on estimates of C. difficile infection rates and its consequences on patient outcomes and health care resources among patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was examined from 2002 to 2011. Patients were included for study based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, procedural codes for lumbar spine surgery for degenerative diagnoses. Baseline patient characteristics were determined and multivariable analyses assessed factors associated with increased incidence of C. difficile and risk of mortality. The incidence of C. difficile infection in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery is 0.11%. At baseline, patients infected with C. difficile were significantly older (65.4 yr vs. 58.9 yr, Pinfection. Small hospital size was associated with decreased odds (odds ratio [OR], 0.5; Pinfection. Uninsured (OR, 1.62; Pinfection. C. difficile increased hospital length of stay by 8 days (Pdifficile infection after lumbar spine surgery carries a 36.4-fold increase in mortality and costs approximately $10,658,646 per year to manage. These data suggest that great care should be taken to avoid C. difficile colitis in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery because it is associated with longer hospital stays, greater overall costs, and increased inpatient mortality. 3.

  2. Three Cases of Spine Fractures after an Airplane Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Joo; Moon, Bong Ju; Pennant, William A.; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yoon, Do Heum

    2015-01-01

    While injuries to the spine after an airplane crash are not rare, most crashes result in fatal injuries. As such, few studies exist that reported on spine fractures sustained during airplane accidents. In this report, we demonstrate three cases of spine fractures due to crash landing of a commercial airplane. Three passengers perished from injuries after the crash landing, yet most of the passengers and crew on board survived, with injuries ranging from minor to severe. Through evaluating our three spine fracture patients, it was determined that compression fracture of the spine was the primary injury related to the airplane accident. The first patient was a 20-year-old female who sustained a T6-8 compression fracture without neurologic deterioration. The second patient was a 33-year-old female with an L2 compression fracture, and the last patient was a 49-year-old male patient with a T8 compression fracture. All three patients were managed conservatively and required spinal orthotics. During the crash, each of these patients were subjected to direct, downward high gravity z-axis (Gz) force, which gave rise to load on the spine vertically, thereby causing compression fracture. Therefore, new safety methods should be developed to prevent excessive Gz force during airplane crash landings. PMID:27169094

  3. Osseous anatomy of the lumbosacral spine in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponseller, P D; Ahn, N U; Ahn, U M; Nallamshetty, L; Rose, P S; Kuszyk, B S; Fishman, E K

    2000-11-01

    This study examines pedicle widths, laminar thicknesses, and scalloping values for lumbosacral spine elements in Marfan volunteers. Comparisons were made between these measurements and norms as well as measurements between Marfan patients with and without dural ectasia. To determine if the lumbosacral vertebral elements are altered in the patient with Marfan syndrome. Several abnormalities have been noted in Marfan lumbar spine, including pedicular attenuation and widened interpediculate distances. This may be due to abnormalities of growth or presence of dural ectasia. Given the large numbers of Marfan patients requiring spinal surgery and the high postoperative failure rate, better understanding of the bony anatomy of Marfan lumbar spine is necessary, especially if use of instrumentation is anticipated. Thirty-two volunteers with Marfan syndrome based on the Ghent criteria underwent spiral computed tomography of the lumbosacral spine. Images were evaluated for dural ectasia, and measurements of pedicle width, laminar thickness, and vertebral scalloping were made. Pedicle widths and laminar thicknesses were significantly smaller in Marfan patients at all levels (Plaminar thickness from L5-S2 and pedicle widths at all lumbar levels were significantly reduced (Plaminar thickness are significantly reduced in Marfan individuals. Those with dural ectasia demonstrate increased bony erosion of anterior and posterior elements of lumbosacral spine. Preoperative planning and routine computed tomography scans are recommended when operating on Marfan lumbosacral spine.

  4. Depression as an independent predictor of postoperative delirium in spine deformity patients undergoing elective spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Adogwa, Owoicho; Lydon, Emily; Sergesketter, Amanda; Kaakati, Rayan; Mehta, Ankit I; Vasquez, Raul A; Cheng, Joseph; Bagley, Carlos A; Karikari, Isaac O

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Depression is the most prevalent affective disorder in the US, and patients with spinal deformity are at increased risk. Postoperative delirium has been associated with inferior surgical outcomes, including morbidity and mortality. The relationship between depression and postoperative delirium in patients undergoing spine surgery is relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if depression is an independent risk factor for the development of postoperative delirium in patients undergoing decompression and fusion for deformity. METHODS The medical records of 923 adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) undergoing elective spine surgery at a single major academic institution from 2005 through 2015 were reviewed. Of these patients, 255 (27.6%) patients had been diagnosed with depression by a board-certified psychiatrist and constituted the Depression group; the remaining 668 patients constituted the No-Depression group. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and intra- and postoperative complication rates were collected for each patient and compared between groups. The primary outcome investigated in this study was rate of postoperative delirium, according to DSM-V criteria, during initial hospital stay after surgery. The association between depression and postoperative delirium rate was assessed via multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS Patient demographics and comorbidities other than depression were similar in the 2 groups. In the Depression group, 85.1% of the patients were taking an antidepressant prior to surgery. There were no significant between-group differences in intraoperative variables and rates of complications other than delirium. Postoperative complication rates were also similar between the cohorts, including rates of urinary tract infection, fever, deep and superficial surgical site infection, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, urinary retention, and proportion of patients transferred to the intensive care unit. In

  5. Repair of the spondylolysis in lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta Ibarra, Javier; Arrieta Maria, Victor; Torres Romero Fernando; Ramirez Cabrales, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    The objective is to present the surgical experience in the repair of the spondylolysis in lumbar spine. Background: Spodylolysis is an important cause of low back pain in young adults and is responsible for high grade of incapacity. Classically, patients with surgical indications with Spondylolysis have been treated with vertebral arthrodesis arthrodesis, with the following functional lost of the intervened segment and biomechanical overload of the upper contiguous segment. There are not previous reports about repairing of lysis in national literature and international references in this technique are scarce. Materials and methods: Eight patients within 2002-2004 were operated, a direct repairing of the lyses by in situ, fusion and interfragmental osteosynthesis with AO 3.5 mm titanium cortical screws with autogenous bone grafts was achieved. The casuistic was analyzed depending on clinical presentation, consolidation, mobility and vitality of the disc in imaginology studies. Results: During the follow-up a firm fusion in all cases, mobility and vitality preservation of the L5-S1 intervertebral disc was detected. There was neither infection nor neurological deficit. Recommendations: Repairing of spondylolysis in lumbar column, in young symptomatic patients without or with mild lystesis (grade I) and without associated disc damage, is a safe surgical technique

  6. Rheumatic diseases of the spine: imaging diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez, J A; Hernández-Gañán, J; Isern, J; Sánchez-Fernández, J J

    2016-04-01

    Spinal involvement is common both in the spondyloarthritides and in rheumatoid arthritis, in which the cervical segment is selectively affected. Rheumatoid involvement of the cervical spine has characteristic radiologic manifestations, fundamentally different patterns of atlantoaxial instability. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for evaluating the possible repercussions of atlantoaxial instability on the spinal cord and/or nerve roots in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as for evaluating parameters indicative of active inflammation, such as bone edema and synovitis. Axial involvement is characteristic in the spondyloarthritides and has distinctive manifestations on plain-film X-rays, which reflect destructive and reparative phenomena. The use of MRI has changed the conception of spondyloarthritis because it is able to directly detect the inflammatory changes that form part of the disease, making it possible to establish the diagnosis early in the disease process, when plain-film X-ray findings are normal (non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis), to assess the prognosis of the disease, and to contribute to treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. A Comparison of Cervical Spine Motion After Immobilization With a Traditional Spine Board and Full-Body Vacuum-Mattress Splint

    OpenAIRE

    Etier, Brian E.; Norte, Grant E.; Gleason, Megan M.; Richter, Dustin L.; Pugh, Kelli F.; Thomson, Keith B.; Slater, Lindsay V.; Hart, Joe M.; Brockmeier, Stephen F.; Diduch, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA) advocates for cervical spine immobilization on a rigid board or vacuum splint and for removal of athletic equipment before transfer to an emergency medical facility. Purpose: To (1) compare triplanar cervical spine motion using motion capture between a traditional rigid spine board and a full-body vacuum splint in equipped and unequipped athletes, (2) assess cervical spine motion during the removal of a football helmet and shoulde...

  8. Comparison of Two Methods for Evaluation of the Image Quality of Lumbar Spine Radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingberg, A.; Herrmann, C.; Lanhede, B.; Almn, A.; Besjakov, J.; Mattsson, S.; Sund, P.; Kheddache, S.; Maasson, L.G.

    2000-01-01

    Two methods for visual evaluation of image quality of clinical radiographs have been compared. In visual grading analysis (VGA) specified anatomical structures in an image are visually compared with the same structures in a reference image, and in a free-response forced error (FFE) experiment - an extension of conventional ROC (receiver operating characteristics) analysis - the objective is to localise known lesions correctly. The spatial resolution and noise of digitised clinical radiographs of the lumbar spine were altered by image processing, and pathological structures were added to the images for the FFE experiment. The images were printed to film and evaluated by seven European expert radiologists using VGA and FFE. The results of these two different methods showed a very good agreement. VGA methodology can be made as solid as the FFE experiment for evaluating image quality. The simplicity of VGA makes it very suitable for implementation in clinical practice. (author)

  9. Rapid molecular sexing of three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus L., based on large Y-chromosomal insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Theo C M; Giger, Thomas; Frommen, Joachim G; Largiadèr, Carlo R

    2017-08-01

    There is a need for rapid and reliable molecular sexing of three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, the supermodel species for evolutionary biology. A DNA region at the 5' end of the sex-linked microsatellite Gac4202 was sequenced for the X chromosome of six females and the Y chromosome of five males from three populations. The Y chromosome contained two large insertions, which did not recombine with the phenotype of sex in a cross of 322 individuals. Genetic variation (SNPs and indels) within the insertions was smaller than on flanking DNA sequences. Three molecular PCR-based sex tests were developed, in which the first, the second or both insertions were covered. In five European populations (from DE, CH, NL, GB) of three-spined sticklebacks, tests with both insertions combined showed two clearly separated bands on agarose minigels in males and one band in females. The tests with the separate insertions gave similar results. Thus, the new molecular sexing method gave rapid and reliable results for sexing three-spined sticklebacks and is an improvement and/or alternative to existing methods.

  10. Reproducibility of kinematic measures of the thoracic spine, lumbar spine and pelvis during fast running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, D L; Preece, S J; Bramah, C A; Herrington, L C

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the reproducibility of the angular rotations of the thoracic spine, lumbar spine, pelvis and lower extremity during running. In addition, the study compared kinematic reproducibility between two methods for calculating kinematic trajectories: a six degrees of freedom (6DOF) approach and a global optimisation (GO) approach. With the first approach segments were treated independently, however with GO approach joint constraints were imposed to stop translation of adjacent segments. A total of 12 athletes were tested on two separate days whilst running over ground at a speed of 5.6ms(-1). The results demonstrated good between-day reproducibility for most kinematic parameters in the frontal and transverse planes with typical angular errors of 1.4-3°. Acceptable repeatability was also found in the sagittal plane. However, in this plane, although kinematic waveform shape was preserved between testing session, there were sometimes shifts in curve offset which lead to slightly higher angular errors, typically ranging from 1.9° to 3.5°. In general, the results demonstrated similar levels of reproducibility for both computational approaches (6DOF and, GO) and therefore suggest that GO may not lead to improved kinematic reproducibility during running. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. SENILE DEGENERATIVE CHANGES IN ADULT LUMBAR SPINE! - A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garjesh Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP is a common presenting complaint affecting mostly middle aged and older person and traditionally considered as ageing process, but now-a-days large number of younger people are also affected by this debilitating chronic disorder. The cause of early onset of degenerative spine disease is multifactorial, but genetical predisposition plays very important role. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To find out association between genetic predisposition and degenerative spine disease in adult patients and to assess the pattern of MRI findings of various degenerative diseases in lumbo-sacral spine. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The present cross-sectional study had been performed among 100 selected patients in 1yr period, who presented with chief complaint of chronic low back pain. After taking detailed clinical and professional history, MRI of lumbosacral spine had been performed. Total 100 patients were divided in two groups on the basis of genetical predisposition. Prevalence and spectrum of degenerative changes were compared between both groups. RESULTS: Hundred patients of 20 to 35-year age had been selected with mean age of 27yr. Out of 100 patients; 47 were male and 53 were female. The most common degenerative findings were desiccation of disc (95% followed by disc bulge, herniation, spinal canal stenosis, ligamentum flavum hypertrophy, facet joint hypertrophy and modic changes. L4-L5 and L5- S1 were the most commonly involved spinal levels for any degenerative pathology. CONCLUSION: Good association is seen between early onset of degenerative spine disease and genetical predisposition in patients who have history of similar type degenerative spine disease in one or more first degree relatives in comparison to those patients who do not have any genetical predisposition. So it can be concluded that heredity play important role in early onset of degenerative spine disease in adults.

  12. Postoperative 3D spine reconstruction by navigating partitioning manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoury, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.kadoury@polymtl.ca [Department of Computer and Software Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Montreal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3A7 (Canada); Labelle, Hubert, E-mail: hubert.labelle@recherche-ste-justine.qc.ca; Parent, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.parent@umontreal.ca [CHU Sainte-Justine Hospital Research Center, Montréal, Québec H3T 1C5 (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: The postoperative evaluation of scoliosis patients undergoing corrective treatment is an important task to assess the strategy of the spinal surgery. Using accurate 3D geometric models of the patient’s spine is essential to measure longitudinal changes in the patient’s anatomy. On the other hand, reconstructing the spine in 3D from postoperative radiographs is a challenging problem due to the presence of instrumentation (metallic rods and screws) occluding vertebrae on the spine. Methods: This paper describes the reconstruction problem by searching for the optimal model within a manifold space of articulated spines learned from a training dataset of pathological cases who underwent surgery. The manifold structure is implemented based on a multilevel manifold ensemble to structure the data, incorporating connections between nodes within a single manifold, in addition to connections between different multilevel manifolds, representing subregions with similar characteristics. Results: The reconstruction pipeline was evaluated on x-ray datasets from both preoperative patients and patients with spinal surgery. By comparing the method to ground-truth models, a 3D reconstruction accuracy of 2.24 ± 0.90 mm was obtained from 30 postoperative scoliotic patients, while handling patients with highly deformed spines. Conclusions: This paper illustrates how this manifold model can accurately identify similar spine models by navigating in the low-dimensional space, as well as computing nonlinear charts within local neighborhoods of the embedded space during the testing phase. This technique allows postoperative follow-ups of spinal surgery using personalized 3D spine models and assess surgical strategies for spinal deformities.

  13. Postoperative 3D spine reconstruction by navigating partitioning manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoury, Samuel; Labelle, Hubert; Parent, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The postoperative evaluation of scoliosis patients undergoing corrective treatment is an important task to assess the strategy of the spinal surgery. Using accurate 3D geometric models of the patient’s spine is essential to measure longitudinal changes in the patient’s anatomy. On the other hand, reconstructing the spine in 3D from postoperative radiographs is a challenging problem due to the presence of instrumentation (metallic rods and screws) occluding vertebrae on the spine. Methods: This paper describes the reconstruction problem by searching for the optimal model within a manifold space of articulated spines learned from a training dataset of pathological cases who underwent surgery. The manifold structure is implemented based on a multilevel manifold ensemble to structure the data, incorporating connections between nodes within a single manifold, in addition to connections between different multilevel manifolds, representing subregions with similar characteristics. Results: The reconstruction pipeline was evaluated on x-ray datasets from both preoperative patients and patients with spinal surgery. By comparing the method to ground-truth models, a 3D reconstruction accuracy of 2.24 ± 0.90 mm was obtained from 30 postoperative scoliotic patients, while handling patients with highly deformed spines. Conclusions: This paper illustrates how this manifold model can accurately identify similar spine models by navigating in the low-dimensional space, as well as computing nonlinear charts within local neighborhoods of the embedded space during the testing phase. This technique allows postoperative follow-ups of spinal surgery using personalized 3D spine models and assess surgical strategies for spinal deformities

  14. Catastrophic Cervical Spine Injuries in Contact Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Michael James; McGuire, Robert A.; Dunn, Robert; Williams, Richard; Robertson, Peter; Twaddle, Bruce; Kiely, Patrick; Clarke, Andrew; Mazda, Keyvan; Davies, Paul; Pagarigan, Krystle T.; Dettori, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Objectives To determine the incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injuries (CCSIs) among elite athletes participating in contact team sports and whether the incidence varies depending on the use of protective gear or by player position. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles published from January 1, 2000, to January 29, 2016, were searched. Results Fourteen studies were included that reported CCSI in rugby (n = 10), American football (n = 3), and Irish hurling (n = 1). Among Rugby Union players, incidence of CCSI was 4.1 per 100,000 player-hours. Among National Football League players, the CCSI rate was 0.6 per 100,000 player-exposures. At the collegiate level, the CCSI rate ranged from 1.1 to 4.7 per 100,000 player-years. Mixed populations of elite and recreational rugby players in four studies report a CCSI rate of 1.4 to 7.2 per 100,000 player-years. In this same population, the scrum accounted for 30 to 51% of total reported CCSIs in Rugby Union versus 0 to 4% in Rugby League. The tackle accounted for 29 to 39% of injuries in Rugby Union and 78 to 100% of injuries in Rugby League. Making a tackle was responsible for 29 to 80% of injuries in American football. Conclusion CCSIs are infrequent among elite athletes. There is insufficient evidence to determine the effect of protective gear (e.g., helmets, padding) on CCSI incidence. Scrum and tackle in rugby and tackling in American football account for the majority of CCSIs in each respective sport. PMID:27781193

  15. Computertomographic examinations of the canine lumbosacral spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, G.

    2000-06-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) documentation of cross-sectional anatomy of the lumbosacral area, 2) to obtain and describe abnormalities and finally 3)to develop a CT technique for the diagnosis of a L7/S1 spondylolisthesis. In a 3 year retrospective study 61 large breed dogs with history of suspected cauda equina-syndrome were examined using flexion-extension radiography and flexion-extension computed tomography. 25 out of 60 dogs were German shepherd dogs, 3 shepherd-cross, 7 mongrels, 4 Rottweilers and 22 other breeds. 27 dogs of the flexion/extension group were also morphometrically examined. CT studies regarding morphology of the lumbosacral joint showed differences between flexed and extended position: The intervertebral foramina enlarged in flexed position, the intervertebral disc, segmental spinal nerves and contrast enhanced blood vessels were more easily to evaluate. In flexion the lumbosacral foramen was 'open' in all cases, while it was 'closed' in most of the extension slices. The cranial articular processes of the sacrum appeared earlier in extension, they seemed to 'slip' beneath the caudal articular processes of the last lumbar vertebra, the articular surfaces got incongruent, and therefore the intervertebral foramina were narrowed. The most common pathologic findings were disk protrusion (28 dogs) and spondylosis (24 dogs). Rare diagnoses were neoplasia (1 case), transitional vertebra (1 case), shortened L7 (2 cases) and osteochondrosis dissecans of the L7 or sacral endplate (5 cases). Morphometrical examinations showed that the intervertebral foramina enlarged in flexed positions, not only in length (craniocaudal dimension) but also in their dorsoventral diameter. There was no difference in the dorsoventral diameter of the spinal canal between flexion and extension CT. This study showed that computed tomography is superior to common ways of imaging of the lumbosacral spine like radiography or myelography. It was possible to identify

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Takamichi; Fujita, Norihiko; Harada, Koushi; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1989-01-01

    Sixteen patients including 13 cases with disk herniation and 3 cases with spondylosis of lumbar spine were examined on a resistive MRI system operating at 0.1 T. All lesions were studied with both multiple spin echo (MSE) and low flip angle gradient echo (LF) techniques to evaluate which technique is more effective in detecting the disk degeneration and the indentation on subarachnoid space. MSE images were obtained with repetition time (TR) of 1100-1500 ms or cardiac gating, an echo time (TE) of 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 ms symmetrical 6 echoes, and total acquisition time of more than 281 sec. LF images were obtained with TR of 500, 250, and 100 ms, TE of 18 ms, a flip angle of 30 degree, and total acquisition time of 128 sec. Eleven lesions of spinal disk degeneration and 12 of indentation on subarachnoid space were detected with LF. On the other hand, 26 lesions of spinal disk degeneration and 38 of indentation on subarachnoid space were detected with MSE. Although the parameters of LF employed in this study were relatively effective to emphasize T2 * -based contrast, the ability of LF in detection of spinal disk degeneration and indentation on subarachnoid space is less than that of MSE. Signal contrast to noise ratios for normal disk and degenerative disk, epidural-fat and disk herniated material, CSF and disk herniated material, and epidural-fat and CSF were less than 4 with LF, but more than 4 with MSE. This difference of contrast to noise ratio between MSE and LF was one of the main causes of the difference of the detection rate of spinal disk degeneration and indentation on subarachnoid space. (author)

  17. Multimodal advanced imaging of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanenbaum, L.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: DWI is a powerful addition to the arsenal of MR imaging techniques for the detection of bone marrow tumor dissemination, improving sensitivity to involvement in a variety of tumor types. DWI increases confidence in monitoring treatment response and assisting in the differentiation of treatment related changes from tumor. DWI has also become an important component of whole-body MR oncology protocols. Distinguishing between benign and malignant etiologies of vertebral fracture with MRI is problematic, particularly if only one vertebra is affected. the value of DWI in discriminating between osteoporotic and metastatic vertebral fractures is controversial and by consensus insufficiently reliable. DWI is useful for differentiation of degenerative and infectious endplate abnormalities. Symptomatic degenerative vertebral endplate signal changes (Modic type 1) can be difficult to differentiate from acute spondylodiscitis using conventional MRI techniques. Several studies have shown that DWI adds value in differentiating degenerative and infectious endplate abnormalities. Recently a characteristic DWI finding of well-marginated, linear, typically paired regions of high signal at the interface of normal with abnormal marrow, referred to as a ‘claw’ sign, is been shown to be highly suggestive of degeneration and its absence in cases with Modic type I changes suggestive of diskitis/osteomyelitis. the value of excluding the possibility of infection can be seen in reduction in unnecessary, often invasive ancillary testing and reduced levels of patient concern. DWI may also yield insight into intervertebral disc degeneration. It has recently been shown in the lumbar spine that disc degeneration can influence ADC values with negative correlation between ADC and the degree of disc degeneration

  18. Segmental fracture of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'hEireamhoin, Sven; Devitt, Brian; Baker, Joseph; Kiely, Paul; Synnott, Keith

    2010-10-01

    A case report is presented. To describe a rare, previously undescribed pattern of spinal injury. This seems to be a unique injury with no previously described injuries matching the fracture pattern observed. This is a case report based on the experience of the authors. The discussion includes a short literature review based on pubmed searches. We report the case of a 26-year-old female cyclist involved in a road traffic accident with a truck resulting in complete disruption of the lumbar spine. The cyclist was caught on the inside of a truck turning left and seems to have passed under the rear wheels. She was brought to the local emergency department where, after appropriate resuscitation, trauma survey revealed spinal deformity with complete neurologic deficit below T12 and fractured pubic rami, soft tissue injuries to the perineum and multiple abrasions. Plain radiology showed a segmental fracture dislocation of her lumbar vertebrae, extending from the L1 superior endplate through to L4-L5 disc space. The entire segment was displaced in both anteroposterior and lateral planes. Computed tomography confirmed these injuries and ruled out significant visceral injury. She was transferred to the national spinal unit (author unit), where she underwent reduction and fixation with rods and screws from T9-S1, using one cross-link. After her immediate postoperative recovery, she was referred to the national rehabilitation unit. Although so-called "en bloc" lumbar fractures have been previously described, the authors were unable to find any injury of this degree in the literature. This rare injury seems to show a pattern of spinal injury previously undescribed.

  19. Catastrophic Cervical Spine Injuries in Contact Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Michael James; McGuire, Robert A; Dunn, Robert; Williams, Richard; Robertson, Peter; Twaddle, Bruce; Kiely, Patrick; Clarke, Andrew; Mazda, Keyvan; Davies, Paul; Pagarigan, Krystle T; Dettori, Joseph R

    2016-11-01

    Study Design  Systematic review. Objectives  To determine the incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injuries (CCSIs) among elite athletes participating in contact team sports and whether the incidence varies depending on the use of protective gear or by player position. Methods  Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles published from January 1, 2000, to January 29, 2016, were searched. Results  Fourteen studies were included that reported CCSI in rugby ( n  = 10), American football ( n  = 3), and Irish hurling ( n  = 1). Among Rugby Union players, incidence of CCSI was 4.1 per 100,000 player-hours. Among National Football League players, the CCSI rate was 0.6 per 100,000 player-exposures. At the collegiate level, the CCSI rate ranged from 1.1 to 4.7 per 100,000 player-years. Mixed populations of elite and recreational rugby players in four studies report a CCSI rate of 1.4 to 7.2 per 100,000 player-years. In this same population, the scrum accounted for 30 to 51% of total reported CCSIs in Rugby Union versus 0 to 4% in Rugby League. The tackle accounted for 29 to 39% of injuries in Rugby Union and 78 to 100% of injuries in Rugby League. Making a tackle was responsible for 29 to 80% of injuries in American football. Conclusion  CCSIs are infrequent among elite athletes. There is insufficient evidence to determine the effect of protective gear (e.g., helmets, padding) on CCSI incidence. Scrum and tackle in rugby and tackling in American football account for the majority of CCSIs in each respective sport.

  20. Surgical Site Infections in Pediatric Spine Surgery: Comparative Microbiology of Patients with Idiopathic and Nonidiopathic Etiologies of Spine Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesani, Matthieu; Doit, Catherine; Lorrot, Mathie; Vitoux, Christine; Hilly, Julie; Michelet, Daphné; Vidal, Christophe; Julien-Marsollier, Florence; Ilharreborde, Brice; Mazda, Keyvan; Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Dahmani, Souhayl

    2016-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a concern in pediatric spine surgery with unusually high rates for a clean surgery and especially for patients with deformity of nonidiopathic etiology. Microbiologic differences between etiologies of spine deformities have been poorly investigated. We reviewed all cases of SSI in spinal surgery between 2007 and 2011. Characteristics of cases and of bacteria according to the etiology of the spine disease were investigated. Of 496 surgeries, we identified 51 SSIs (10.3%) in 49 patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent pathogen whatever the etiology (n = 31, 61% of infection cases). The second most frequent pathogens vary according to the etiology of the spine deformity. It was Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) in nonidiopathic cases (n = 19, 45% of cases) and anaerobe in idiopathic cases (n = 8, 38% of cases), particularly Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (n = 5, 24% of cases). Infection rate was 6.8% in cases with idiopathic spine disease (n = 21) and 15.9% in cases with nonidiopathic spine disease (n = 30). Nonidiopathic cases were more frequently male with lower weight. American Society of Anesthesiologists score was more often greater than 2, they had more frequently sacral implants and postoperative intensive care unit stay. GNB were significantly associated with a nonidiopathic etiology, low weight, younger age and sacral fusion. SSIs were polymicrobial in 31% of cases with a mean of 1.4 species per infection cases. S. aureus is the first cause of SSI in pediatric spine surgery. However, Gram-positive anaerobic cocci should be taken into account in idiopathic patients and GNB in nonidiopathic patients when considering antibiotic prophylaxis and curative treatment.

  1. Functional diagnostics of the cervical spine by using computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, J.; Hayek, J.; Grob, D.

    1988-01-01

    35 healthy adults and 137 patients after cervical spine injury were examined by functional CT. The range of axial rotation at the level occiput/atlas, atlas/axis and the segment below were measured in all subjects. A rotation occiput/atlas of more than 7 0 , and C1/C2 more than 54 0 could refer to segmental hypermobility, a rotation at the segment C1/C2 less than 29 0 to hypomobility. According to the postulated normal values based upon a 98% confidence level, out of 137 patients examined after cervical spine injury and with therapy-resistant neck pain, 45 showed signs of segmental hypermobility of the upper cervical spine, 17 showed hyper- or hypomobility at different levels, 10 patients presented segmental hypomobility at C1/C2 level alone. In all patients, according to the clinical assessment, functional pathology was suspected in the upper cervical spine. Surgical correction of rotatory instability should be considered as a possible therapeutic procedure after successful diagnostic stabilisation of the cervical spine by minerva cast. (orig.)

  2. Multidetector CT of blunt cervical spine trauma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreizin, David; Letzing, Michael; Sliker, Clint W; Chokshi, Falgun H; Bodanapally, Uttam; Mirvis, Stuart E; Quencer, Robert M; Munera, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    A number of new developments in cervical spine imaging have transpired since the introduction of 64-section computed tomographic (CT) scanners in 2004. An increasing body of evidence favors the use of multidetector CT as a stand-alone screening test for excluding cervical injuries in polytrauma patients with obtundation. A new grading scale that is based on CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings, the cervical spine Subaxial Injury Classification and Scoring (SLIC) system, is gaining acceptance among spine surgeons. Radiographic measurements described for the evaluation of craniocervical distraction injuries are now being reevaluated with the use of multidetector CT. Although most patients with blunt trauma are now treated nonsurgically, evolution in the understanding of spinal stability, as well as the development of new surgical techniques and hardware, has driven management strategies that are increasingly favorable toward surgical intervention. It is therefore essential that radiologists recognize findings that distinguish injuries with ligamentous instability or a high likelihood of nonfusion that require surgical stabilization from those that are classically stable and can be treated with a collar or halo vest alone. The purpose of this article is to review the spectrum of cervical spine injuries, from the craniocervical junction through the subaxial spine, and present the most widely used grading systems for each injury type. ©RSNA, 2014.

  3. Functional diagnostics of the cervical spine by using computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, J; Hayek, J; Grob, D; Penning, L; Panjabi, M M; Zehnder, R

    1988-04-01

    35 healthy adults and 137 patients after cervical spine injury were examined by functional CT. The range of axial rotation at the level occiput/atlas, atlas/axis and the segment below were measured in all subjects. A rotation occiput/atlas of more than 7/sup 0/, and C1/C2 more than 54/sup 0/ could refer to segmental hypermobility, a rotation at the segment C1/C2 less than 29/sup 0/ to hypomobility. According to the postulated normal values based upon a 98% confidence level, out of 137 patients examined after cervical spine injury and with therapy-resistant neck pain, 45 showed signs of segmental hypermobility of the upper cervical spine, 17 showed hyper- or hypomobility at different levels, 10 patients presented segmental hypomobility at C1/C2 level alone. In all patients, according to the clinical assessment, functional pathology was suspected in the upper cervical spine. Surgical correction of rotatory instability should be considered as a possible therapeutic procedure after successful diagnostic stabilisation of the cervical spine by minerva cast.

  4. Morbidity and mortality of complex spine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, Sven; Bari, Tanvir; Gehrchen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    requiring revision. METHODS: All patients undergoing spinal surgery at an academic tertiary referral center in the study period were prospectively included. The newest version of SAVES system was used, and a research coordinator collected all intraoperative and perioperative data prospectively. Once a week...... adverse events (AEs). PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the mortality and examine the incidence of morbidity in patients undergoing complex spinal surgery, including pediatric patients, and to validate the SAVES system in a European population. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, consecutive cohort study...

  5. Targeting of NF-κB to Dendritic Spines Is Required for Synaptic Signaling and Spine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Erica C; Boersma, Matthew C H; Meffert, Mollie K

    2018-04-25

    Long-term forms of brain plasticity share a requirement for changes in gene expression induced by neuronal activity. Mechanisms that determine how the distinct and overlapping functions of multiple activity-responsive transcription factors, including nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), give rise to stimulus-appropriate neuronal responses remain unclear. We report that the p65/RelA subunit of NF-κB confers subcellular enrichment at neuronal dendritic spines and engineer a p65 mutant that lacks spine enrichment (p65ΔSE) but retains inherent transcriptional activity equivalent to wild-type p65. Wild-type p65 or p65ΔSE both rescue NF-κB-dependent gene expression in p65-deficient murine hippocampal neurons responding to diffuse (PMA/ionomycin) stimulation. In contrast, neurons lacking spine-enriched NF-κB are selectively impaired in NF-κB-dependent gene expression induced by elevated excitatory synaptic stimulation (bicuculline or glycine). We used the setting of excitatory synaptic activity during development that produces NF-κB-dependent growth of dendritic spines to test physiological function of spine-enriched NF-κB in an activity-dependent response. Expression of wild-type p65, but not p65ΔSE, is capable of rescuing spine density to normal levels in p65-deficient pyramidal neurons. Collectively, these data reveal that spatial localization in dendritic spines contributes unique capacities to the NF-κB transcription factor in synaptic activity-dependent responses. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Extensive research has established a model in which the regulation of neuronal gene expression enables enduring forms of plasticity and learning. However, mechanisms imparting stimulus specificity to gene regulation, ensuring biologically appropriate responses, remain incompletely understood. NF-κB is a potent transcription factor with evolutionarily conserved functions in learning and the growth of excitatory synaptic contacts. Neuronal NF-κB is localized in both synapse and

  6. Spine concerns in the Special Olympian with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone, James Channing; Duey-Holtz, Allison

    2008-03-01

    As with any child participating in sports, the safety of The Special Olympian participating in athletics is paramount. The preparticipation medical clearance is necessary to ensure these athletes' safety. In response to evidence that 15% of all individuals with Down syndrome have atlanto-occipital and/or atlanto-axial instability or subluxation, the Special Olympics Inc have additionally mandated preparticipation spine clearance for all individuals with Down syndrome. Spine clearance for the Special Olympian is challenging for the healthcare provider. In addition, controversy has arisen surrounding The Special Olympics Inc policy statement. The purposes of this article are to provide healthcare providers with a review of atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial instability and subluxation, review spine clearance guidelines, discuss the details and controversy surrounding The Special Olympics Inc mandate, and provide recommendations on how to improve screening and ensure safety of the participants based on the current medical literature.

  7. Spinal CT scan, 2. Lumbar and sacral spines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi (Aichi Medical Univ., Aichi (Japan))

    1982-08-01

    Plain CT described fairly accurately the anatomy and lesions of the lumbar and sacral spines on their transverse sections. Since hernia of the intervertebral disc could be directly diagnosed by CT, indications of myelography could be restricted. Spinal-canal stenosis of the lumbar spine occurs because of various factors, and CT not only demonstrated the accurate size and morphology of bony canals, but also elucidated thickening of the joints and yellow ligament. CT was also useful for the diagnosis of tumors in the lumbar and sacral spines, visualizing the images of bone changes and soft tissues on the trasverse sections. But the diagnosis of intradural tumors required myelography and metrizamide CT. CT has become important for the diagnosis of spinal and spinal-cord diseases and for selection of the route of surgical arrival.

  8. Surgical treatment of gross posttraumatic deformations in thoracic spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei E. Shul’ga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rigid severe post-traumatic thoracic spine deformities result from frequent, recent high-energy trauma in children with an increasing frequency due to a variety of reasons. These types of injuries are commonly followed by spinal cord anatomic injury; therefore, the treatment of these patients warrants special attention from the ethical viewpoint. Generally, the only indication for surgical intervention is spinal dysfunction. Considering this and the patients’ ordinary severe somatic state, surgical trauma should be minimized as much as possible. However, for adequate deformity correction, effective spine stabilization and restoration of liquorodynamics is necessary. Recent studies have reported the successful use of different methods of dorsal interventions (P/VCR in cases with unstable damages in children. Here, we present the case of a 15-year-old boy who underwent surgical treatment for coarse post-traumatic thoracic spine deformity with chronic fracture-dislocation of Th7 vertebra.

  9. Analysis of cervical spine function in healthy persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weh, L.; Roettker, H.

    1990-01-01

    Radiograms were taken of subjects with no symptoms of cervical spine problems; the cervical spine was evaluated in the spontaneous posture and at maximal flexion and extension. The position and movement of the vertebra, intervertebral height and gliding were calculated. The results showed that (1) lordosis in women occurred less pronouncedly than in men, and that there was an increase with age; (2) C 2-3 was the least flexible segment and mobility increased in the caudal direction; mobility decreased with age and the segments of the lower cervical spine with the highest mobility decreased the most; (3) all posterior and ventral intervertebral heights showed a decrease with age at C 5-6 and C 6-7; (4) vertebral gliding decreased with age. (orig.) [de

  10. NMR imaging of degenerative changes of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    Computerized tomography and nuclear spin resonance tomography, are today considered excellent ways of demonstrating herniae of intervertebral disks, especially in the lumbal region, at high sensitivity and accuracy. The facility of multiplanar imaging without reconstruction, the clearly greater amount of information by using different pulse sequences, better contrast resolution, and lacking ionizing radiation speak in favour of nuclear spin resonance tomography. Using nulcear spin resonance tomography, in all parts of the spine the excellent demonstration of the epidural space, of the myeloma, of the nerve roots as well as of the surrounding osseous and ligamentous structure is achieved. So, for the diagnosis of discopathies in the region of the cervical spine nuclear spin resonance tomography should be preferred to computerized tomography. In the region of the lumbar spine, however, CT will be of importance in the diagnosis of discopathies for some time. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Benign compression fractures of the spine: signal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyung Nam; Choi, Woo Suk; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen patients with 38 compression fractures of the spine underwent magnetic resonance(MR) imaging. We retrospectively evaluated MR images in those benign compression fractures. MR images showed four patterns in T1-weighted images. MR imaging patterns were normal signal(21), band like low signal(8), low signal with preservation of peripheral portion of the body(8), and diffuse low signal through the vertebral body(1). The low signal portions were changed to high signal intensities in T2-weighted images. In 7 of 15 patients (11 compression fractures), there was a history of trauma, and the remaining 8 patients (27 compression fractures) had no history of trauma. Benign compression fractures of trauma, remained 8 patients (27 compression fractures) were non-traumatic. Benign compression fractures of the spine reveal variable signal intensities in MR imagings. These patterns of benign compression fractures may be useful in interpretation of MR imagings of the spine

  12. Effects of Spine Motion on Foot Slip in Quadruped Bounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation and bend of the spine in the sagittal plane during high-speed quadruped running were investigated. The effect of the two spine motions on slip between the foot and the ground was also explored. First, three simplified sagittal plane models of quadruped mammals were studied in symmetric bounding. The first model’s trunk allowed no relative motion, the second model allowed only trunk bend, and the third model allowed both bend and translation. Next, torque was introduced to equivalently replace spine motion and the possibility of foot slip of the three models was analyzed theoretically. The results indicate that the third model has the least possibility of slip. This conclusion was further confirmed by simulation experiments. Finally, the conclusion was verified by the reductive model crawling robot.

  13. Anaesthetic and Intensive Care Management of Traumatic Cervical Spine Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G S Umamaheswara Rao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma to the cervical spine may have devastating consequences. Timely interventions are essential to prevent avoidable neurological deterioration. In the initial stabilization of patients with acute cervical spine injuries, physiological disturbances, especially those involving cardiac and respiratory function require careful attention. Early surgery, which facilitates rapid mobi-lization of the patient, is fraught with important management considerations in the intraopoerative period and the subsequent critical care. Airway management poses a crucial challenge at this stage. Those patients who survive the injury with quadriplegia or quadriparesis may present themselves for incidental surgical procedures. Chronic systemic manifestations in these patients require attention in providing anaesthesia and postoperative care at this stage. The current review provides an insight into the physiological disturbances and the management issues in both acute and chronic phases of traumatic cervical spine injury.

  14. MR manifestations of vertebral artery injuries in cervical spine trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jeong Sik; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Young Soo; Cho, Yong Eun; Kang, Byung Chul; Kim, Dong Ik [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To assess the diagnostic efficacy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of a vertebral artery injury occurring from major cervical spine trauma. Conventional MR findings of 63 patients and 63 control subjects were compared to detect a possible change in the vertebral arteries resulted from trauma. Plain films, CT and clinical records were also reviewed to correlate the degree of cervical spine injury with vascular change. Nine cases of absent flow signals in vessel lumen were observed in eight patients and one was observed in the control group. Patients more frequently demonstrated other abnormalities such as intraluminal linear signals (n=3) or focal luminal narrowing (n=9) but there was no statistical significance. There was a close relationship between degree of cord damage and occlusion of the vertebral artery. Conventional MR imaging is useful in the detection of vertebral artery occlusion resulting from cervical spine trauma.

  15. Sideflexion induced lumbar spine conjunct rotation and its influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicenzino, G; Twomey, L

    1993-01-01

    Twenty motion segments from four male post mortem subjects with a mean age of 29 years were moved into the lumbar spine test positions of extension/left sideflexion, extension/right sideflexion, flexion/left sideflexion and flexion/right sideflexion Jheconjunct rotation (CR) that occurred was measured from a photographic record. The results indicated that the direction of the CR of the whole lumbar spine (ie between L1 and S1) was significantly different between the flexed and extended lumbar spine position. The direction of the CR was also significantly different between the different intervertebral motion segment levels. There was no relationship between CR and zygapophyseal joint geometry or intervertebral disc degeneration. Copyright © 1993 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  16. Authorship Trends in Spine Publications from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, Brittany E; Khechen, Benjamin; Movassaghi, Kamran; Yom, Kelly H; Guntin, Jordan A; Cardinal, Kaitlyn L; Shoshana, Noah B; Singh, Kern

    2018-02-06

    Literature review. To examine changes in authorship characteristics for Spine publications from the year 2000-2015. Scientific publications are considered an indication of academic achievement for physicians. Recently, authorship trends have been investigated, however, limited information is available on this topic within spine-specific literature. Original research articles published in Spine in the years 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 were evaluated. Authorship characteristics were collected for each article, including the number of authors and institutions per publication, first and last author gender, publication origin, and highest degree held by the first and last author. Trends over time were analyzed using numeric and visual descriptive analyses including percentages, means, standard deviations, and graphs. An average of 506 articles per year were published in Spine during the years 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015. The number of articles written by ≥ 10 authors increased during this time (0.9% to 14.4%). There was a substantial increase in the number of multiple institutional affiliations (33.6% to 68.7%) and articles originating from outside North America (47.6% to 55.7%) from 2000 to 2015. The percentage of first authors with bachelor's degrees was higher in 2015 (6.6%) as compared to 2000 (1.4%), and more last authors were identified as MD/PhDs in 2015 (19.2%) than in 2000 (10.0%). Similar female representation was noted for first and last authorship for all years evaluated. The results of this study demonstrate increases in authors per article published in Spine from 2000 to 2015. Additionally, first authors were more likely to hold bachelor's degrees over time. This may be attributed to increasing competition in spine-related fields, necessitating earlier research exposure to aid in academic achievement. Interestingly, the percentage of female authorship has not changed significantly over time, in contrast with much of the previous literature. 2.

  17. Importance of lateral spine view in DEXA bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.; Khan, A.S.M.H.; Momtaz, S.; Rahman, M.U.; Jehan, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement is an invaluable technique for assessing fracture risk in suspected cases of osteoporosis. The routine procedure includes AP spine and hip views. But quite often there are discordant results between them, bone mineral concentration (BMC) in the AP spine appears higher than hip. Our study was done to establish the importance of lateral spine view. The lateral view would provide better scope to draw the ROI perfectly and so BMC would be more accurately measured. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study a total of 60 consecutive patients (48F, 12M) were evaluated for bone densitometric measurements. The age group was 35 - 80 years (Mean 59 years). None of the patients received estrogen, biphosphonates or steroid therapy. Bone density of the hip and lumbar spine were measured with Norland XR 36. The T-score, which measures the difference between patient's BMD and young-normal was computed and age-matched Z-score were calculated. X-ray correlation was also done in most of the cases. Results: When we analyzed the femoral neck values, 30 cases were osteoporotic and 23 were osteopenic whereas according to AP spine views only 20 were osteoporotic and 30 were osteopenic. So, clearly a significant number of patients having osteoporosis were interpreted as osteopenia (P 0.05). But in the same vertebra there were significant differences (P<0.05) of BMC measured with AP and lateral views. Conclusion: The lateral view can exclude the posterior element of the vertebra as well as the aorta anteriorly, where a high incidence of calcified atherosclerotic plaques are present. AP view includes these drawbacks resulting in falsely higher BMC. Lateral spine view can eliminate these problems and so it provides an important role in BMD measurements. The authors recommend that it should be included in routine practice

  18. Swespine: the Swedish spine register : the 2012 report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömqvist, Björn; Fritzell, Peter; Hägg, Olle; Jönsson, Bo; Sandén, Bengt

    2013-04-01

    Swespine, the Swedish National Spine Register, has existed for 20 years and is in general use within the country since over 10 years regarding degenerative lumbar spine disorders. Today there are protocols for registering all disorders of the entire spinal column. Patient-based pre- and postoperative questionnaires, completed before surgery and at 1, 2, 5 and 10 years postoperatively. Among patient-based data are VAS pain, ODI, SF-36 and EQ-5D. Postoperatively evaluation of leg and back pain as compared to preoperatively ("global assessment"), overall satisfaction with outcome and working conditions are registered in addition to the same parameters as preoperatively evaluation. A yearly report is produced including an analytic part of a certain topic, in this issue disc prosthesis surgery. More than 75,000 surgically treated patients are registered to date with an increasing number yearly. The present report includes 7,285 patients; 1-, 2- and 5-year follow-up data of previously operated patients are also included for lumbar disorders as well as for disc prosthesis surgery. For the degenerative lumbar spine disorders (disc herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis and DDD) significant improvements are seen in all aspects as exemplified by pronounced improvement regarding EQ-5D and ODI. Results seem to be stable over time. Spinal stenosis is the most common indication for spine surgery. Disc prosthesis surgery yields results on a par with fusion surgery in disc degenerative pain. The utility of spine surgery is well documented by the results. Results of spine surgery as documented on a national basis can be utilized for quality assurance and quality improvement as well as for research purposes, documenting changes over time and bench marking when introducing new surgical techniques. A basis for international comparisons is also laid.

  19. Recurrent spine surgery patients in hospital administrative database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sami Walid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hospital patient databases are typically used by administrative staff to estimate loss-profit ratios and to help with the allocation of hospital resources. These databases can also be very useful in following rehospitalization. This paper studies the recurrence of spine surgery patients in our hospital population based on administrative data analysis. Methods: Hospital data on 4,958 spine surgery patients operated between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. After sorting the cohort per ascending discharge date, the patient official name, consisting of first, middle and last names, was used as the variable determining duplicate cases in the SPSS statistical program, designating the first case in each group as primary. Yearly recurrence rate and change in procedure distribution were studied. In addition, hospital charges and length of stay were compared using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results: Of 4,958 spine surgery patients 364 (7.3% were categorized as duplicate cases by SPSS. The number of primary cases from which duplicate cases emerged was 327 meaning that some patients had more than two spine surgeries. Among primary patients (N=327 the percentage of excision of intervertebral disk procedures was 33.3% and decreased to 15.1% in recurrent admissions of the same patients (N=364. This decrease was compensated by an increase in lumbar fusion procedures. On the other hand, the rate of cervical fusion remained the same. The difference in hospital charges between primary and duplicate patients was $2,234 for diskectomy, $6,319 for anterior cervical fusion, $8,942 for lumbar fusion – lateral technique, and $12,525 for lumbar fusion – posterior technique. Recurrent patients also stayed longer in hospital, up to 0.9 day in lumbar fusion – posterior technique patients. Conclusion: Spine surgery is associated with an increasing possibility of additional spine surgery with rising invasiveness and cost.

  20. [Literature review of whiplash injuries of the cervical spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavić, Roman

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the latest information in world literature on whiplash injury of the cervical spine. This injury has been noted through history, mentioned as early as Ancient Egypt, and prevalent in the 19 century, the time before using the car, until today. The mechanism of injury is described, as well as treatment, and news in view of the frequency of injuries in different parts of the world and the impact of socio-cultural, economic, ethnic and geographic factors. Impacts of traffic laws, automobile production and automobile seats that would indicate the possibility of prevention as a result of a whiplash injury of the cervical spine are also presented.

  1. Skeletal changes in growing spine following radiotherapy of tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spissak, L.; Horniakova, M.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis is given of a group of 20 children after nephrectomy and radiotherapy of Wilms' tumor and of one child following ovariectomy and radiotherapy of a dysgermanoma more than 5 years after the termination of the therapy. Morphological and structural changes were evaluated in the vertebrae as well as axial alterations of the spine. Interrelationships were found between the radiation dose, the patient's age and the degree of the skeletal changes in the spine. The most pronounced morphological, structural and axial changes occurred in children below 4 years treated with radiation doses above 20.0 Gy. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 3 refs

  2. Bionic Control of Cheetah Bounding with a Segmented Spine

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chunlei; Wang, Shigang

    2016-01-01

    A cheetah model is built to mimic real cheetah and its mechanical and dimensional parameters are derived from the real cheetah. In particular, two joints in spine and four joints in a leg are used to realize the motion of segmented spine and segmented legs which are the key properties of the cheetah bounding. For actuating and stabilizing the bounding gait of cheetah, we present a bioinspired controller based on the state-machine. The controller mainly mimics the function of the cerebellum to...

  3. Examination of Cervical Spine Histological Sections - A Technical Note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Ullerup, Rita; Vesterby, Annie

    2006-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the cervical spine facet joints morphology and anatomy is increasingly important since improved understanding of clinical syndromes, such as whiplash injuries, and therapeutic interventions is based on this knowledge. So far systematic examination of the age-related morphology...... of these joints has not yet been performed, nor has any generally accepted histological classification system for degenerative changes in the cervical spine facet joints been proposed. In the case of whiplash injuries the presented histological method has particular relevance since it allows detailed description...

  4. Dosimetric analysis of varying cord planning organ at risk volume in spine stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Owen, MD, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Current guidelines may overestimate the risk of myelopathy from spine SBRT. The current study's population included both radiation-naïve and retreatment cases, but no myelopathy was observed despite exceeding recommended spine limits.

  5. 78 FR 36308 - Proposed Information Collection: (Back (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ...-NEW (Back (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire). Type of Review: New... (Thoracolumbar Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... comments on information needed to adjudicate the claim for VA disability benefits related to a claimant's...

  6. Esophageal perforation associated with cervical spine surgery: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouenraets, B. C.; Been, H. D.; Brouwer-Mladin, R.; Bruno, M.; van Lanschot, J. J. B.

    2004-01-01

    Background/Aims: Esophageal perforation after anterior cervical spine surgery is a rare complication with various clinical presentations and treatments. Methods: Two cases of esophageal perforation after anterior cervical spine surgery are described, one occurring in the immediate postoperative

  7. A musculoskeletal lumbar and thoracic model for calculation of joint kinetics in the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Cheol; Ta, Duc manh; Koo, Seung Bum; Jung Moon Ki

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a musculoskeletal spine model that allows relative movements in the thoracic spine for calculation of intra-discal forces in the lumbar and thoracic spine. The thoracic part of the spine model was composed of vertebrae and ribs connected with mechanical joints similar to anatomical joints. Three different muscle groups around the thoracic spine were inserted, along with eight muscle groups around the lumbar spine in the original model from AnyBody. The model was tested using joint kinematics data obtained from two normal subjects during spine flexion and extension, axial rotation and lateral bending motions beginning from a standing posture. Intra-discal forces between spine segments were calculated in a musculoskeletal simulation. The force at the L4-L5 joint was chosen to validate the model's prediction against the lumbar model in the original AnyBody model, which was previously validated against clinical data.

  8. Pott's disease: a case of Mycobacterium xenopi infection of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfreijat, Majd; Ononiwu, Chiagozie; Sexton, Carlton

    2012-01-01

    Pott's disease is an infection of the spine with Mycobacterium tuberculosis that causes destruction of the spine elements resulting in progressive kyphosis. We are describing a rare case of Pott's disease where Mycobacterium xenopi was the inculpated organism.

  9. A musculoskeletal lumbar and thoracic model for calculation of joint kinetics in the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Cheol; Ta, Duc manh; Koo, Seung Bum [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung Moon Ki [AnyBody Technology A/S, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a musculoskeletal spine model that allows relative movements in the thoracic spine for calculation of intra-discal forces in the lumbar and thoracic spine. The thoracic part of the spine model was composed of vertebrae and ribs connected with mechanical joints similar to anatomical joints. Three different muscle groups around the thoracic spine were inserted, along with eight muscle groups around the lumbar spine in the original model from AnyBody. The model was tested using joint kinematics data obtained from two normal subjects during spine flexion and extension, axial rotation and lateral bending motions beginning from a standing posture. Intra-discal forces between spine segments were calculated in a musculoskeletal simulation. The force at the L4-L5 joint was chosen to validate the model's prediction against the lumbar model in the original AnyBody model, which was previously validated against clinical data.

  10. Is the cervical spine clear? Undetected cervical fractures diagnosed only at autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, J F; Rosemurgy, A S; Gill, S; Albrink, M H

    1992-10-01

    Undetected cervical-spine injuries are a nemesis to both trauma surgeons and emergency physicians. Radiographic protocols have been developed to avoid missing cervical-spine fractures but are not fail-safe. Three case reports of occult cervical fractures documented at autopsy in the face of normal cervical-spine radiographs and computerized tomography scans are presented.

  11. A non-proteinaceous toxin from the venomous spines of the lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M S; Cheung, P; Leong, I; Ruggieri, G D

    1985-01-01

    The venomous spines of P. volitans contain a non-proteinaceous ichthyotoxin of low molecular weight. This toxin could be isolated only from spines excised from the living fish; the toxin is apparently destroyed following death, as the extracts of the spines of the dead fish were non-toxic.

  12. Biomimetic "Cactus Spine" with Hierarchical Groove Structure for Efficient Fog Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Wu, Juntao; Gong, Guangming; Guo, Lin

    2015-07-01

    A biomimetic "cactus spine" with hierarchical groove structure is designed and fabricated using simple electrospinning. This novel artificial cactus spine possesses excellent fog collection and water transportation ability. A model cactus equipped with artificial spines also shows a great water storage capacity. The results can be helpful in the development of water collectors and may make a contribution to the world water crisis.

  13. MR imaging of the spine and vertebral canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbrock, D.; Brechtelsbauer, D.; Debatin, J.F.; Felber, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Chapters of the book are nmr physics and application, nmr in spinal diagnosis and therapy, malformations of the spinal cord, degeneration of the vertebrae, neoplasms, inflammation acute trauma and vascular diseases of the spine. Last chapter contains description of function studies of the vertebrae in the open nmr system

  14. [The biomechanics of hyperextension injuries of the subaxial cervical spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, G; Meyer, C; Ingenhoff, L; Bredow, J; Müller, L P; Eysel, P; Schiffer, G

    2017-07-01

    Hyperextension injuries of the subaxial cervical spine are potentially hazardous due to relevant destabilization. Depending on the clinical condition, neurologic or vascular damage may occur. Therefore an exact knowledge of the factors leading to destabilization is essential. In a biomechanical investigation, 10 fresh human cadaver cervical spine specimens were tested in a spine simulator. The tested segments were C4 to 7. In the first step, physiologic motion was investigated. Afterwards, the three steps of injury were dissection of the anterior longitudinal ligament, removal of the intervertebral disc/posterior longitudinal ligament, and dissection of the interspinous ligaments/ligamentum flavum. After each step, the mobility was determined. Regarding flexion and extension, an increase in motion of 8.36 % after the first step, 90.45 % after the second step, and 121.67 % after the last step was observed. Testing of lateral bending showed an increase of mobility of 7.88 %/27.48 %/33.23 %; axial rotation increased by 2.87 %/31.16 %/45.80 %. Isolated dissection of the anterior longitudinal ligament led to minor destabilization, whereas the intervertebral disc has to be seen as a major stabilizer of the cervical spine. Few finite-element studies showed comparable results. If a transfer to clinical use is undertaken, an isolated rupture of the anterior longitudinal ligament can be treated without surgical stabilization.

  15. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SPINE FRACTURES IN MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENT VICTIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Argolo Bittencourt de Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the incidence of spinal injuries between 2000-2010 due to motorcycle accidents and the relation to the increase in motorcycle sales in the same period, as well as the anatomical distribution of these spinal injuries. Methods: Data were collected from 1,295 records of patients who have suffered spinal injury resulting from motorcycle accidents admitted to the ward TRM (Spinal Cord Trauma of the Hospital Geral do Estado da Bahia from 2000 to 2010 in this retrospective study. We selected 110 medical records and collected information on sex, age, neurological deficit on admission (according to Frankel scale, diagnosis, and level of injury. Results: Between 2000 and 2010 there was an increase of almost five times in the incidence of patients who have suffered spinal injury due to motorcycle accidents. More than half (51.4% had cervical spine injury, 37.2% thoracic spine injury and 11.34% had lumbar spine injury. Only 34.3% of patients had no neurological deficit on admission and patients with thoracic spine fracture had a higher incidence and severity of lesion. The average age of patients was 30 years. Conclusions: The increased incidence of spinal injuries due motorcycle accidents occurred in the same period in which there was an increase in motorcycle sales in the country. Patients who have suffered those injuries were young, with higher incidence in the cervical and thoracic spinal levels and high rates of neurological deficit.

  16. Total or partial vertebrectomy for lung cancer invading the spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichi Oka

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: In our experience, Lung cancer surgery combined with vertebrectomy is highly aggressive surgery associated with high morbidity. But, this procedure is a promising treatment option for selected patients, for example N0M0 disease with lung cancer invading the spine.

  17. Degenerative Changes of the Spine of Pilots of the RNLAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    views of the spine taken in standing 7-3 Table 2 Classification of disorders Disorder Levels General: Osteo-arthrosis / Spondylosis / Arthrosis...Deformans Cervical, thoracic, lumbar Scoliosis Cervical, thoracic, lumbar Abnormal alignment Cervical, lumbar Scheuermann’s disease / Enchondrosis Thoracic... lumbar Specific: Degenerative changes in the intervertebral disc / Discopathy Cervical, thoracic, lumbar Presence of Osteophyte’s / Osteophytic

  18. Identification and classification of spine vertebrae by automated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

    2001-07-01

    We are currently working toward developing computer-assisted methods for the indexing of a collection of 17,000 digitized x-ray images by biomedical content. These images were collected as part of a nationwide health survey and form a research resource for osteoarthitis and bone morphometry. This task requires the development of algorithms to robustly analyze the x-ray contents for key landmarks, to segment the vertebral bodies, to accurately measure geometric features of the individual vertebrae and inter-vertebral areas, and to classify the spine anatomy into normal or abnormal classes for conditions of interest, including anterior osteophytes and disc space narrowing. Subtasks of this work have been created and divided among collaborators. In this paper, we provide a technical description of the overall task, report on progress made by collaborators, and provide the most recent results of our own research into obtaining first-order location of the spine region of interest by automated methods. We are currently concentrating on images of the cervical spine, but will expand the work to include the lumbar spine as well. Development of successful image processing techniques for computer-assisted indexing of medical image collections is expected to have a significant impact within the medical research and patient care systems.

  19. Iatrogenic Spinal Cord Injury Resulting From Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Alan H; Hart, Robert A; Hilibrand, Alan S; Fish, David E; Wang, Jeffrey C; Lord, Elizabeth L; Buser, Zorica; Tortolani, P Justin; Stroh, D Alex; Nassr, Ahmad; Currier, Bradford L; Sebastian, Arjun S; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data. To examine the incidence of iatrogenic spinal cord injury following elective cervical spine surgery. A retrospective multicenter case series study involving 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network was conducted. Medical records for 17 625 patients who received cervical spine surgery (levels from C2 to C7) between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, were reviewed to identify occurrence of iatrogenic spinal cord injury. In total, 3 cases of iatrogenic spinal cord injury following cervical spine surgery were identified. Institutional incidence rates ranged from 0.0% to 0.24%. Of the 3 patients with quadriplegia, one underwent anterior-only surgery with 2-level cervical corpectomy, one underwent anterior surgery with corpectomy in addition to posterior surgery, and one underwent posterior decompression and fusion surgery alone. One patient had complete neurologic recovery, one partially recovered, and one did not recover motor function. Iatrogenic spinal cord injury following cervical spine surgery is a rare and devastating adverse event. No standard protocol exists that can guarantee prevention of this complication, and there is a lack of consensus regarding evaluation and treatment when it does occur. Emergent imaging with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography myelography to evaluate for compressive etiology or malpositioned instrumentation and avoidance of hypotension should be performed in cases of intraoperative and postoperative spinal cord injury.

  20. NONFUSION STABILIZATION IN THE DEGENERATIVE LUMBAR SPINE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Voršič

    2009-04-01

    Conclusions Cosmic is a posterior dynamic nonfusion pedicle screw-rod system for the stabilization of the lumbar vertebral column. It represents the new step in the development of the spinal instrumentation and can efficiently replace the spondylodesis in the treatment of painful degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine.

  1. Preventing and Treating Compression Fractures of the Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with OI the spine is particularly vulnerable to injury. Some activities such as contact sports obviously increase the risk of fracture. Other activities that may not seem to be dangerous may pose a “hidden” threat. The most common injury is a vertebral compression fracture. What is ...

  2. Medical devices of the head, neck, and spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Tim B; Yoshino, Mark T; Dzioba, Robert B; Light, Rick A; Berger, William G

    2004-01-01

    There are many medical devices used for head, neck, and spinal diseases and injuries, and new devices are constantly being introduced. Many of the newest devices are variations on a previous theme. Knowing the specific name of a device is not important. It is important to recognize the presence of a device and to have an understanding of its function as well as to be able to recognize the complications associated with its use. The article discusses the most common and important devices of the head, neck, and spine, including cerebrospinal fluid shunts and the Codman Hakim programmable valve; subdural drainage catheters, subdural electrodes, intracranial electrodes, deep brain stimulators, and cerebellar electrodes; coils, balloons, adhesives, particles, and aneurysm clips; radiation therapy catheters, intracranial balloons for drug installation, and carmustine wafers; hearing aids, cochlear implants, and ossicular reconstruction prostheses; orbital prostheses, intraocular silicone oil, and lacrimal duct stents; anterior and posterior cervical plates, posterior cervical spine wiring, odontoid fracture fixation devices, cervical collars and halo vests; thoracic and lumbar spine implants, anterior and posterior instrumentation for the thoracic and lumbar spine, vertebroplasty, and artificial disks; spinal column stimulators, bone stimulators, intrathecal drug delivery pumps, and sacral stimulators; dental and facial implant devices; gastric and tracheal tubes; vagus nerve stimulators; lumboperitoneal shunts; and temperature- and oxygen-sensing probes. Copyright RSNA, 2004

  3. Evaluation of spine boards for X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsenmaier, U.; Kroetz, M.; Papst, E.; Rieger, J.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Kranz, K.G.; Russ, W.; Mutscher, W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Spine boards are frequently used in preclinical emergency care. Different models were examined with regard to their feasibility for plain film radiography and computed tomography (CT). Methods: Five current spine board models were measured for their dimensions and weight. Transmission of radiation [μGyls] and dose area product [cGy x cm 2 ] were determined with a patient equivalent aluminium phantom. Image artifacts, image quality and resolution of anatomic details were evaluated with an anthropomorphic Alderson phantom. Results: With only 6.3 kg new models show a 28% reduction in weight, three spine boards generate lateral artifacts due to a narrow width of 41 - 42 cm. Radiation transmission of all boards was similar, however dose area products differed by up to 59%. Image quality was impaired in 4 out 5 boards because of image artifacts, CT scanning was not impaired with all boards. Conclusion: Only one board (Ferno Millenia trademark ) showed sufficient properties for plain film radiography and CT. There is no suitable spine board for preclinical and clinical applications as well as for trauma radiology, further improvements of current designs are essential. (orig.) [de

  4. Seizure-induced muscle force can caused lumbar spine fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlhorn, A T; Strohm, P C; Hausschildt, O

    2007-01-01

    of the mid-thoracic spine. We report a patient who had suffered from a tonic-clonic seizure during early morning hours. After a cracking sound the patient woke up in a state of post-ictal disorientation, loss of urine and tongue bite. He was admitted to our facilities with the suspected vertebral fracture...

  5. Spines of the porcupine fish: Structure, composition, and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Frances Y; Bushong, Eric A; Deerinck, Thomas J; Seo, Kyungah; Herrera, Steven; Graeve, Olivia A; Kisailus, David; Lubarda, Vlado A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    This paper explores the structure, composition, and mechanical properties of porcupine fish spines for the first time. The spine was found to be composed of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, protein (collagen), and water using X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Microstructures have mineralized fibrillar sheets in the longitudinal direction and in a radial orientation in the transverse direction that were observed using light and electron microscopy. Based on the images, the hierarchical structure of the spine shows both concentric and radial reinforcement. Mechanical properties were obtained using cantilever beam and nanoindentation tests. A tapered cantilever beam model was developed and compared to that of a uniform cantilever beam. The tapered beam model showed that while the stresses experienced were similar to those of the uniform beam, the location of the maximum stress was near the distal region of the beam rather than at the base, which allows the porcupine fish to conserve energy and resources if the spine is fractured. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spine Care as a Framework for the Chiropractic Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Michael; Murphy, Donald; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    chiropractic services for back and neck pain. Insurance company utilization data confirm these findings. Regulatory and legal language found in chiropractic practice acts reveals that most jurisdictions define the chiropractic scope of practice as based on a foundation of spine care. Educational accrediting...

  7. Closed cervical spine trauma associated with bilateral vertebral artery injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloen, P.; Patterson, J. D.; Wintman, B. I.; Ozuna, R. M.; Brick, G. W.

    1999-01-01

    Bilateral vertebral artery injuries in closed cervical spine injuries are uncommon, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deterioration. A case of bilateral vertebral injuries in a 35-year-old motor vehicle accident victim is presented, and the current literature

  8. Spine Patterning Is Guided by Segmentation of the Notochord Sheath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopat, Susan; Bagwell, Jennifer; Sumigray, Kaelyn D.; Dickson, Amy L.; Huitema, Leonie F.A.; Poss, Kenneth D.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Bagnat, Michel

    2018-01-01

    The spine is a segmented axial structure made of alternating vertebral bodies (centra) and intervertebral discs (IVDs) assembled around the notochord. Here, we show that, prior to centra formation, the outer epithelial cell layer of the zebrafish notochord, the sheath, segments into alternating

  9. An echo-poor spine at 13 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, H D; Hermann, N V; Jørgensen, C

    2008-01-01

    of the vertebral spine. The clavicles were barely seen and the calvarial bones were significantly less ossified than expected for gestational age. The fetus had otherwise normal anatomy and biometry. Serial ultrasound examinations during pregnancy confirmed the diagnosis, but the manifestations became less...

  10. MRI of degenerative cysts of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalatbari, K.; Ansari, H.

    2008-01-01

    Degenerative cysts of the lumbar spine encompass a heterogeneous group of cystic lesions that are presumed to share a common aetiology. Some of these cysts may be incidental findings, whereas others may produce acute or chronic symptoms. These cysts have been categorized using various combinations of topographic and pathological characteristics and by their attachment to or communication with a specific spinal structure

  11. MRI of degenerative cysts of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalatbari, K. [Department of MRI, Iran Gamma Knife Centre, Iran University of Medial Sciences-Kamrani Charity Foundation, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: khalatbarik@yahoo.com; Ansari, H. [Department of Orthopaedics, Rassoul Akram University Hospital, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Degenerative cysts of the lumbar spine encompass a heterogeneous group of cystic lesions that are presumed to share a common aetiology. Some of these cysts may be incidental findings, whereas others may produce acute or chronic symptoms. These cysts have been categorized using various combinations of topographic and pathological characteristics and by their attachment to or communication with a specific spinal structure.

  12. tuberculosis of the cervical spine mimicking a paraplegic tumour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-05

    May 5, 2011 ... Magnetic Resonence Imaging. (MRI)and x-rays revealed an infiltrative lesion of C6-C7 vertebrae. Our main diffential ... response to result in caseation and abscess formation. INTRODUCTION. Tuberculosis (TB) of the ... MRI cervical spine coronal view (T2 weighted image). Notice the absence of significant ...

  13. Influence of perioperative resuscitation status on postoperative spine surgery complications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pull ter Gunne, A.F.; Skolasky, R.L.; Ross, H.; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van; Cohen, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Restrictive transfusion criteria have led to decreased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Their use has been extended to other patient groups. In adult spine surgery, ongoing postoperative blood losses and soft-tissue trauma may make these patients not

  14. Spine Trauma Associated with Off-Road Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A seven-year review of 1,447 cases of spine trauma showed that 53 cases were associated with the use of off-road vehicles, such as all-terrain vehicles, snowmobiles, and motorized dirt bikes. The development of safe riding areas, legislation governing safe operation, and public safety education are advised to curb this trend. (Author/JL)

  15. Positional device for cinematographic MR of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhle, C.; Melchert, U.H.; Brossmann, J.; Schroeder, C.; Wiskirchen, J.; Heller, M.

    1995-01-01

    A novel positioning device is explained and the experience obtained so far with its application in cinematic MRI of the cervical spine, allowing an extended range of movement from 60 degrees ante- to 40 degrees retroflexion. The tests were done with volounteers. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Radiation dose to the operator during fluoroscopically guided spine procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roccatagliata, Luca; Pravata, Emanuele; Cianfoni, Alessandro [Department of Neuroradiology, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Lugano (Switzerland); Presilla, Stefano [Unita di Fisica Medica, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale (EOC), Bellinzona (Switzerland)

    2017-09-15

    Fluoroscopy is widely used to guide diagnostic and therapeutic spine procedures. The purpose of this study was to quantify radiation incident on the operator (operator Air Kerma) during a wide range of fluoroscopy-guided spine procedures and its correlation with the amount of radiation incident on the patient (Kerma Area Product - KAP). We retrospectively included 57 consecutive fluoroscopically guided spine procedures. KAP [Gy cm{sup 2}] and total fluoroscopy time were recorded for each procedure. An electronic dosimeter recorded the operator Air Kerma [μGy] for each procedure. Operator Air Kerma for each procedure, correlation between KAP and operator Air Kerma, and between KAP and fluoroscopy time was obtained. Operator Air Kerma was widely variable across procedures, with median value of 6.4 μGy per procedure. Median fluoroscopy time and median KAP per procedure were 2.6 min and 4.7 Gy cm{sup 2}, respectively. There was correlation between operator Air Kerma and KAP (r{sup 2} = 0.60), with a slope of 1.6 μGy Air Kerma per unit Gy cm{sup 2} KAP incident on the patient and between fluoroscopy time and KAP (r{sup 2} = 0.63). Operator Air Kerma during individual fluoroscopy-guided spine procedures can be approximated from the commonly and readily available information of the total amount of radiation incident on the patient, measured as KAP. (orig.)

  17. Tuberculosis of the Cervical Spine Mimicking a Paraplegic Tumour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) of the spine is a common problem in Kenya especially since the spread of HIV infection in the 1980's. However immune-compromised patients do not necessarily present in a similar radiological and histopathological way as patients with a competent immune system. It is against this background that we ...

  18. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  19. The medicolegal landscape of spine surgery: how do surgeons fare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Melvin C; Park, Paul J; Jimenez, Jesus; Saifi, Comron; Caldwell, Jon-Michael; Ha, Alex; Figueroa-Santana, Bianca; Lehman, Ronald A; Weidenbaum, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Because of the limited and confidential nature of most legal data, scarce literature is available to physicians about reasons for litigation in spine surgery. To optimally compensate patients while protecting physicians, further understanding of the medicolegal landscape is needed for high-risk procedures such as spine surgery. Based on these, surgeons can explore ways to better protect both their patients and themselves. To characterize the current medicolegal environment of spine surgery by analyzing a recent dataset of malpractice litigation. A retrospective study. All malpractice cases involving spine surgery available to public query between the years of 2010 and 2014. Case outcome for spine surgery malpractice cases between the years of 2010 and 2014. WestlawNext was used to analyze spine surgery malpractice cases at the state and federal level between the years 2010 and 2014. WestlawNext is a subscription-based, legal search engine that contains publicly available federal and state court records. All monetary values were inflation adjusted for 2016. One hundred three malpractice cases were categorized by case descriptors and outcome measures. Claims were categorized as either intraoperative complaints or preoperative complaints. Rulings in favor of the defendant (surgeon) were noted in 75% (77 of 103) of the cases. Lack of informed consent was cited in 34% of cases. For the 26 cases won by the plaintiff, the average amount in settlement was $2,384,775 versus $3,945,456 in cases brought before a jury. Cases involving consent averaged a compensation of $2,029,884, whereas cases involving only intraoperative complaints averaged a compensation of $3,667,530. A significant correlation was seen between increased compensation for plaintiffs and cases involving orthopedic surgeons (p=.020) or nerve injury (p=.005). Wrong-level surgery may be associated with lower plaintiff compensation (p=.055). The length of cases resulting in defense verdicts averaged 5.51 years

  20. Spine growth mechanisms: friction and seismicity at Mt. Unzen, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Adrian; Kendrick, Jackie; Hirose, Takehiro; Henton De Angelis, Sarah; De Angelis, Silvio; Umakoshi, Kodo; Miwa, Takahiro; Wadsworth, Fabian; Dingwell, Don; Lavallee, Yan

    2014-05-01

    The final episode of dome growth during the 1991-1995 eruption of Mt. Unzen was characterised by spine extrusion accompanied by repetitive seismicity. This type of cyclic activity has been observed at several dome-building volcanoes and recent work suggests a source mechanism of brittle failure of magma in the conduit. Spine growth may proceed by densification and closure of permeable pathways within the uppermost conduit magma, leading to sealing of the dome and inflation of the edifice. Amplified stresses on the wall rock and plug cause brittle failure near the conduit wall once static friction forces are overcome, and during spine growth these fractures may propagate to the dome surface. The preservation of these features is rare, and the conduit is typically inaccessible; therefore spines, the extruded manifestation of upper conduit material, provide the opportunity to study direct evidence of brittle processes in the conduit. At Mt. Unzen the spine retains evidence for brittle deformation and slip, however mechanical constraints on the formation of these features and their potential impact on eruption dynamics have not been well constrained. Here, we conduct an investigation into the process of episodic spine growth using high velocity friction apparatus at variable shear slip rate (0.4-1.5 m.s-1) and normal stress (0.4-3.5 MPa) on dome rock from Mt. Unzen, generating frictional melt at velocity >0.4 m.s-1 and normal stress >0.7 MPa. Our results show that the presence of frictional melt causes a deviation from Byerlee's frictional rule for rock friction. Melt generation is a disequilibrium process: initial amphibole breakdown leads to melt formation, followed by chemical homogenization of the melt layer. Ultimately, the experimentally generated frictional melts have a similar final chemistry, thickness and comminuted clast size distribution, thereby facilitating the extrapolation of a single viscoelastic model to describe melt-lubricated slip events at Mt

  1. Comparison of Three Prehospital Cervical Spine Protocols for Missed Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Hong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We wanted to compare 3 existing emergency medical services (EMS immobilization protocols: the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS, mechanism-based; the Domeier protocol (parallels the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study [NEXUS] criteria; and the Hankins’ criteria (immobilization for patients 65 years, those with altered consciousness, focal neurologic deficit, distracting injury, or midline or paraspinal tenderness.To determine the proportion of patients who would require cervical immobilization per protocol and the number of missed cervical spine injuries, had each protocol been followed with 100% compliance. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients ≥18 years transported by EMS post-traumatic mechanism to an inner city emergency department. Demographic and clinical/historical data obtained by physicians were recorded prior to radiologic imaging. Medical record review ascertained cervical spine injuries. Both physicians and EMS were blinded to the objective of the study. Results: Of 498 participants, 58% were male and mean age was 48 years. The following participants would have required cervical spine immobilization based on the respective protocol: PHTLS, 95.4% (95% CI: 93.1-96.9%; Domeier, 68.7% (95% CI: 64.5-72.6%; Hankins, 81.5% (95% CI: 77.9-84.7%. There were 18 cervical spine injuries: 12 vertebral fractures, 2 subluxations/dislocations and 4 spinal cord injuries. Compliance with each of the 3 protocols would have led to appropriate cervical spine immobilization of all injured patients. In practice, 2 injuries were missed when the PHTLS criteria were mis-applied. Conclusion: Although physician-determined presence of cervical spine immobilization criteria cannot be generalized to the findings obtained by EMS personnel, our findings suggest that the mechanism-based PHTLS criteria may result in unnecessary cervical spine immobilization without apparent benefit to injured patients. PHTLS

  2. Defensive Medicine in U.S. Spine Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Ryan S; Yan, Sandra C; Cote, David J; Acosta, Michael A; Smith, Timothy R

    2017-02-01

    Observational cross-sectional survey. To compare defensive practices of U.S. spine and nonspine neurosurgeons in the context of state medical liability risk. Defensive medicine is a commonly reported and costly phenomenon in neurosurgery. Although state liability risk is thought to contribute greatly to defensive practice, variation within neurosurgical specialties has not been well explored. A validated, online survey was sent via email to 3344 members of the American Board of Neurological Surgeons. The instrument contained eight question domains: surgeon characteristics, patient characteristics, practice type, insurance type, surgeon liability profile, basic surgeon reimbursement, surgeon perceptions of medical legal environment, and the practice of defensive medicine. The overall response rate was 30.6% (n = 1026), including 499 neurosurgeons performing mainly spine procedures (48.6%). Spine neurosurgeons had a similar average practice duration as nonspine neurosurgeons (16.6 vs 16.9 years, P = 0.64) and comparable lifetime case volume (4767 vs 4,703, P = 0.71). The average annual malpractice premium for spine neurosurgeons was similar to nonspine neurosurgeons ($104,480.52 vs $101,721.76, P = 0.60). On average, spine neurosurgeons had a significantly higher rate of ordering labs, medications, referrals, procedures, and imaging solely for liability concerns compared with nonspine neurosurgeons (89.2% vs 84.6%, P = 0.031). Multivariate analysis revealed that spine neurosurgeons were roughly 3 times more likely to practice defensively compared with nonspine neurosurgeons (odds ratio, OR = 2.9, P = 0.001) when controlling for high-risk procedures (OR = 7.8, P < 0.001), annual malpractice premium (OR = 3.3, P = 0.01), percentage of patients publicly insured (OR = 1.1, P = 0.80), malpractice claims in the last 3 years (OR = 1.13, P = 0.71), and state medical-legal environment (OR = 1.3, P = 0

  3. Biomechanics of the spine. Part I: Spinal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, Roberto; Guarnieri, Gianluigi; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Muto, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Biomechanics, the application of mechanical principles to living organisms, helps us to understand how all the bony and soft spinal components contribute individually and together to ensure spinal stability, and how traumas, tumours and degenerative disorders exert destabilizing effects. Spine stability is the basic requirement to protect nervous structures and prevent the early mechanical deterioration of spinal components. The literature reports a number of biomechanical and clinical definitions of spinal stability, but a consensus definition is lacking. Any vertebra in each spinal motion segment, the smallest functional unit of the spine, can perform various combinations of the main and coupled movements during which a number of bony and soft restraints maintain spine stability. Bones, disks and ligaments contribute by playing a structural role and by acting as transducers through their mechanoreceptors. Mechanoreceptors send proprioceptive impulses to the central nervous system which coordinates muscle tone, movement and reflexes. Damage to any spinal structure gives rise to some degree of instability. Instability is classically considered as a global increase in the movements associated with the occurrence of back and/or nerve root pain. The assessment of spinal instability remains a major challenge for diagnostic imaging experts. Knowledge of biomechanics is essential in view of the increasing involvement of radiologists and neuroradiologists in spinal interventional procedures and the ongoing development of new techniques and devices. Bioengineers and surgeons are currently focusing on mobile stabilization systems. These systems represent a new frontier in the treatment of painful degenerative spine and aim to neutralize noxious forces, restore the normal function of spinal segments and protect the adjacent segments. This review discusses the current concepts of spine stability

  4. Wearable technology for spine movement assessment: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Enrica; Koh, Woon Senn; McGregor, Alison H

    2017-11-07

    Continuous monitoring of spine movement function could enhance our understanding of low back pain development. Wearable technologies have gained popularity as promising alternative to laboratory systems in allowing ambulatory movement analysis. This paper aims to review the state of art of current use of wearable technology to assess spine kinematics and kinetics. Four electronic databases and reference lists of relevant articles were searched to find studies employing wearable technologies to assess the spine in adults performing dynamic movements. Two reviewers independently identified relevant papers. Customised data extraction and quality appraisal form were developed to extrapolate key details and identify risk of biases of each study. Twenty-two articles were retrieved that met the inclusion criteria: 12 were deemed of medium quality (score 33.4-66.7%), and 10 of high quality (score >66.8%). The majority of articles (19/22) reported validation type studies. Only 6 reported data collection in real-life environments. Multiple sensors type were used: electrogoniometers (3/22), strain gauges based sensors (3/22), textile piezoresistive sensor (1/22) and accelerometers often used with gyroscopes and magnetometers (15/22). Two sensors units were mainly used and placing was commonly reported on the spine lumbar and sacral regions. The sensors were often wired to data transmitter/logger resulting in cumbersome systems. Outcomes were mostly reported relative to the lumbar segment and in the sagittal plane, including angles, range of motion, angular velocity, joint moments and forces. This review demonstrates the applicability of wearable technology to assess the spine, although this technique is still at an early stage of development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomechanics of the spine. Part I: Spinal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, Roberto, E-mail: roberto1766@interfree.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy); Guarnieri, Gianluigi, E-mail: gianluigiguarnieri@hotmail.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy); Guglielmi, Giuseppe, E-mail: g.gugliemi@unifg.it [Department of Radiology, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Muto, Mario, E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Neuroradiology Department, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Napoli (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    Biomechanics, the application of mechanical principles to living organisms, helps us to understand how all the bony and soft spinal components contribute individually and together to ensure spinal stability, and how traumas, tumours and degenerative disorders exert destabilizing effects. Spine stability is the basic requirement to protect nervous structures and prevent the early mechanical deterioration of spinal components. The literature reports a number of biomechanical and clinical definitions of spinal stability, but a consensus definition is lacking. Any vertebra in each spinal motion segment, the smallest functional unit of the spine, can perform various combinations of the main and coupled movements during which a number of bony and soft restraints maintain spine stability. Bones, disks and ligaments contribute by playing a structural role and by acting as transducers through their mechanoreceptors. Mechanoreceptors send proprioceptive impulses to the central nervous system which coordinates muscle tone, movement and reflexes. Damage to any spinal structure gives rise to some degree of instability. Instability is classically considered as a global increase in the movements associated with the occurrence of back and/or nerve root pain. The assessment of spinal instability remains a major challenge for diagnostic imaging experts. Knowledge of biomechanics is essential in view of the increasing involvement of radiologists and neuroradiologists in spinal interventional procedures and the ongoing development of new techniques and devices. Bioengineers and surgeons are currently focusing on mobile stabilization systems. These systems represent a new frontier in the treatment of painful degenerative spine and aim to neutralize noxious forces, restore the normal function of spinal segments and protect the adjacent segments. This review discusses the current concepts of spine stability.

  6. Irradiation spine deformity in children treated for neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayfield, J.K.; Riseborough, E.J.; Nehme, M.

    1978-01-01

    A retrospective long-term follow-up review of 56 children with neuroblastoma surviving five years and longer following treatment since 1946 revealed that 57% had developed spine deformity (S.D.) following treatment with 250 kilovolt irradiation at the time of review. The average age at diagnosis was 17 months. Irradiation therapy was delivered to most children before 24 months of age. Follow-up averaged 12.9 years with a range of 5-31 years. Eighty-five per cent of the children had developed structural spine deformity at skeletal maturity and 54% of these children had scoliosis greater than 20 degrees. Sixteen per cent of irradiated children developed structural kyphosis. Non-midline opposing anterior and posterior ports were used most frequently. Mean dosage in patients who developed scoliosis of 20 degrees or more was 3588 rads (spine dosage) and 3746 rads in patients who developed kyphosis. Irradiation through opposing anterior and posterior ports was more commonly associated with the development of S.D. Sixty-six per cent of children who had more than 2000 rads developed S.D. The adolescent growth spurt was associated with an increase in the frequency and severity of spine deformity. This study indicated that moderate to severe S.D. was produced by irradiation in excess of 2000 rads administered with a 250-kilovoltage machine. This study would also suggest that children with neuroblastoma treated with orthovoltage irradiation should be followed closely by the orthopaedic surgeon, the oncologist, the radiotherapist and the paediatrician until the completion of skeletal growth for the development of unsightly structural spine deformity. Early bracing and surgery may be helpful in controlling these deformities in the pre-adolescent to early adolescent years. Continued observation is necessary to determine if current irradiation techniques will minimize or eradicate the incidence and severity of these complications. (author)

  7. Percutaneous vertebroplasty for multiple myeloma of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mont'Alverne, Francisco; Vallee, Jean-Noel; Guillevin, Remy; Cormier, Evelyne; Jean, Betty; Rose, Michelle; Chiras, Jacques; Caldas, Jose Guilherme

    2009-01-01

    Spinal involvement is a common presentation of multiple myeloma (MM); however, the cervical spine is the least common site of myelomatous involvement. Few studies evaluate the results of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) in the treatment of MM of the spine. The purpose of this series is to report on the use of PV in the treatment of MM of the cervical spine and to review the literature. From January 1994 to October 2007, four patients (three men and one woman; mean age, 45 years) who underwent five PV for painful MM in the cervical spine were retrospectively reviewed. The pain was estimated by the patient on a verbal analogic scale. Clinical follow-up was available for all patients (mean, 27.5 months; range, 1-96 months). The mean volume of cement injected per vertebral body was 2.3 ± 0.8 mL (range, 1.0-4.0 mL) with a mean vertebral filling of 55.0 ± 12.0% (range, 40.0-75.0%). Analgesic efficacy was achieved in all patients. One patient had a spinal instability due to a progression of spinal deformity noted on follow-up radiographs, without clinical symptoms. Cement leakage was detected in three (60%) of the five treated vertebrae. There was no clinical complication. The present series suggests that PV for MM of the cervical spine is safe and effective for pain control; nonetheless, the detrimental impact of the disease on bone quality should prompt close radiological follow-up after PV owing to the risk of spinal instability. (orig.)

  8. A European Research Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a summary of the presentation of the European Commissioner, Philippe Busquen, to the European Parliament (beginning of year 2000) with the proposal and method for a revival of the Research and Development in this wider sense in the European Union. The starting point of his thesis is that Europe performs less, and more disorderly, activities in this field that her main competitors. USA and Japan. His basic proposal is a larger coordination among the european research projects, with a previous phase of informatics intoxicator among the european research centres and the cross-linked participation, real of virtual in the experiments and projects. (Author)

  9. Ocean acidification impacts spine integrity but not regenerative capacity of spines and tube feet in adult sea urchins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Chloe E.; Reinardy, Helena C.; Bates, Nicholas R.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has resulted in a change in seawater chemistry and lowering of pH, referred to as ocean acidification. Understanding how different organisms and processes respond to ocean acidification is vital to predict how marine ecosystems will be altered under future scenarios of continued environmental change. Regenerative processes involving biomineralization in marine calcifiers such as sea urchins are predicted to be especially vulnerable. In this study, the effect of ocean acidification on regeneration of external appendages (spines and tube feet) was investigated in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus exposed to ambient (546 µatm), intermediate (1027 µatm) and high (1841 µatm) partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) for eight weeks. The rate of regeneration was maintained in spines and tube feet throughout two periods of amputation and regrowth under conditions of elevated pCO2. Increased expression of several biomineralization-related genes indicated molecular compensatory mechanisms; however, the structural integrity of both regenerating and homeostatic spines was compromised in high pCO2 conditions. Indicators of physiological fitness (righting response, growth rate, coelomocyte concentration and composition) were not affected by increasing pCO2, but compromised spine integrity is likely to have negative consequences for defence capabilities and therefore survival of these ecologically and economically important organisms. PMID:28573022

  10. Ocean acidification impacts spine integrity but not regenerative capacity of spines and tube feet in adult sea urchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Chloe E; Reinardy, Helena C; Bates, Nicholas R; Bodnar, Andrea G

    2017-05-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has resulted in a change in seawater chemistry and lowering of pH, referred to as ocean acidification. Understanding how different organisms and processes respond to ocean acidification is vital to predict how marine ecosystems will be altered under future scenarios of continued environmental change. Regenerative processes involving biomineralization in marine calcifiers such as sea urchins are predicted to be especially vulnerable. In this study, the effect of ocean acidification on regeneration of external appendages (spines and tube feet) was investigated in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus exposed to ambient (546 µatm), intermediate (1027 µatm) and high (1841 µatm) partial pressure of CO 2 ( p CO 2 ) for eight weeks. The rate of regeneration was maintained in spines and tube feet throughout two periods of amputation and regrowth under conditions of elevated p CO 2 . Increased expression of several biomineralization-related genes indicated molecular compensatory mechanisms; however, the structural integrity of both regenerating and homeostatic spines was compromised in high p CO 2 conditions. Indicators of physiological fitness (righting response, growth rate, coelomocyte concentration and composition) were not affected by increasing p CO 2 , but compromised spine integrity is likely to have negative consequences for defence capabilities and therefore survival of these ecologically and economically important organisms.

  11. Static flexural properties of hedgehog spines conditioned in coupled temperature and relative humidity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Emily B; Hsiung, Bor-Kai; Swift, Nathan B; Tan, Kwek-Tze

    2017-11-01

    Hedgehogs are agile climbers, scaling trees and plants to heights exceeding 10m while foraging insects. Hedgehog spines (a.k.a. quills) provide fall protection by absorbing shock and could offer insights for the design of lightweight, material-efficient, impact-resistant structures. There has been some study of flexural properties of hedgehog spines, but an understanding of how this keratinous biological material is affected by various temperature and relative humidity treatments, or how spine color (multicolored vs. white) affects mechanics, is lacking. To bridge this gap in the literature, we use three-point bending to analyze the effect of temperature, humidity, spine color, and their interactions on flexural strength and modulus of hedgehog spines. We also compare specific strength and stiffness of hedgehog spines to conventional engineered materials. We find hedgehog spine flexural properties can be finely tuned by modifying environmental conditioning parameters. White spines tend to be stronger and stiffer than multicolored spines. Finally, for most temperature and humidity conditioning parameters, hedgehog spines are ounce for ounce stronger than 201 stainless steel rods of the same diameter but as pliable as styrene rods with a slightly larger diameter. This unique combination of strength and elasticity makes hedgehog spines exemplary shock absorbers, and a suitable reference model for biomimicry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spine micromorphology of normal and hyperhydric Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peharec, P; Posilović, H; Balen, B; Krsnik-Rasol, M

    2010-07-01

    Artificial conditions of tissue culture affect growth and physiology of crassulacean acid metabolism plants which often results in formation of hyperhydric shoots. In in vitro conditions Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) growth switches from organized to unorganized way, producing a habituated organogenic callus which simultaneously regenerates morphologically normal as well as altered hyperhydric shoots. In this study, influence of tissue culture conditions on morphology of cactus spines of normal and hyperhydric shoots was investigated. Spines of pot-grown Mammillaria plants and of in vitro regenerated shoots were examined with stereo microscope and scanning electron microscope. The pot-grown plants had 16-17 spines per areole. In vitro grown normal shoots, even though they kept typical shoot morphology, had lower number of spines (11-12) and altered spine morphology. This difference was even more pronounced in spine number (six to seven) and morphology of the hyperhydric shoots. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed remarkable differences in micromorphology of spine surface between pot-grown and in vitro grown shoots. Spines of in vitro grown normal shoots showed numerous long trichomes, which were more elongated on spines of the hyperhydric shoots; the corresponding structures on spine surface of pot-grown plants were noticed only as small protrusions. Scanning electron microscopy morphometric studies showed that the spines of pot-grown plants were significantly longer compared to the spines of shoots grown in tissue culture. Moreover, transverse section shape varies from elliptical in pot-grown plants to circular in normal and hyperhydric shoots grown in vitro. Cluster and correspondence analyses performed on the scanning electron microscope obtained results suggest great variability among spines of pot-grown plants. Spines of in vitro grown normal and hyperhydric shoots showed low level of morphological variation among themselves despite the

  13. Surgical site infections following instrumented stabilization of the spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapunt U

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike Dapunt,1 Caroline Bürkle,1 Frank Günther,2 Wojciech Pepke,1 Stefan Hemmer,1 Michael Akbar1 1Clinic for Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Center for Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury, Heidelberg University Hospital, 2Department for Infectious Diseases, Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany Background: Implant-associated infections are still a feared complication in the field of orthopedics. Bacteria attach to the implant surface and form so-called biofilm colonies that are often difficult to diagnose and treat. Since the majority of studies focus on prosthetic joint infections (PJIs of the hip and knee, current treatment options (eg, antibiotic prophylaxis of implant-associated infections have mostly been adapted according to these results. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with surgical site infections following instrumented stabilization of the spine with regard to detected bacteria species and the course of the disease. Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective single-center analysis of implant-associated infections of the spine from 2010 to 2014. A total of 138 patients were included in the study. The following parameters were evaluated: C-reactive protein serum concentration, microbiological evaluation of tissue samples, the time course of the disease, indication for instrumented stabilization of the spine, localization of the infection, and the number of revision surgeries required until cessation of symptoms. Results: Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. were most commonly detected (n=69, 50%, followed by fecal bacteria (n=46, 33.3%. In 23.2% of cases, no bacteria were detected despite clinical suspicion of an infection. Most patients suffered from degenerative spine disorders (44.9%, followed by spinal fractures (23.9%, non-degenerative scoliosis (20.3%, and spinal tumors (10.1%. Surgical site infections occurred predominantly within 3

  14. Loading effects of anterior cervical spine fusion on adjacent segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Shiung Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adjacent segment degeneration typically follows anterior cervical spine fusion. However, the primary cause of adjacent segment degeneration remains unknown. Therefore, in order to identify the loading effects that cause adjacent segment degeneration, this study examined the loading effects to superior segments adjacent to fused bone following anterior cervical spine fusion. The C3–C6 cervical spine segments of 12 sheep were examined. Specimens were divided into the following groups: intact spine (group 1; and C5–C6 segments that were fused via cage-instrumented plate fixation (group 2. Specimens were cycled between 20° flexion and 15° extension with a displacement control of 1°/second. The tested parameters included the range of motion (ROM of each segment, torque and strain on both the body and inferior articular process at the superior segments (C3–C4 adjacent to the fused bone, and the position of the neutral axis of stress at under 20° flexion and 15° extension. Under flexion and Group 2, torque, ROM, and strain on both the bodies and facets of superior segments adjacent to the fused bone were higher than those of Group 1. Under extension and Group 2, ROM for the fused segment was less than that of Group 1; torque, ROM, and stress on both the bodies and facets of superior segments adjacent to the fused bone were higher than those of Group 1. These analytical results indicate that the muscles and ligaments require greater force to achieve cervical motion than the intact spine following anterior cervical spine fusion. In addition, ROM and stress on the bodies and facets of the joint segments adjacent to the fused bone were significantly increased. Under flexion, the neutral axis of the stress on the adjacent segment moved backward, and the stress on the bodies of the segments adjacent to the fused bone increased. These comparative results indicate that increased stress on the adjacent segments is caused by stress-shielding effects

  15. Imaging fusion (SPECT/CT) in degenerative disease of spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, P.; Ucros, G.; Bermudez, S.; Ocampo, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To determine the utility of Fusion Imaging SPECT/CT in degenerative pathology of the spine and to establish the impact of the use of fusion imaging in spinal pain due to degenerative changes of the spine. Materials and methods: 44 Patients (M=21, F=23) average age of 63 years and with degenerative pathology of spine were sent to Diagnosis Imaging department in FSFB. Bone scintigraphy (SPECT), CT of spine (cervical: 30%, Lumbar 70%) and fusion imaging were performed in all of them. Bone scintigraphy was carried out in a gamma camera Siemens Diacam double head attached to ESOFT computer. The images were acquired in matrix 128 x 128, 20 seg/imag, 64 images. CT of spine was performed same day or two days after in Helycoidal Siemens somatom emotion CT. The fusion was done in a Dicom workstation in sagital, axial and coronal reconstruction. The findings were evaluated by 2 Nuclear Medicine physicians and 2 radiologists of the staff of FSFB in an independent way. Results: Bone scan (SPECT) and CT of 44 patients were evaluated. CT showed facet joint osteoarthrities in 27 (61.3%) patients, uncovertebral joint arthrosis in 7 (15.9%), bulging disc in 9(20.4%), spinal nucleus lesion in 7(15.9%), osteophytes in 9 (20.4%), spinal foraminal stenosis in 7 (15.9%), spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis in 4 (9%). Bone scan showed facet joint osteoarthrities in 29 (65.9%), uncovertebral joint arthrosis in 4 (9%), osteophytes in 9 (20.4%) and normal 3 (6.8%). The imaging fusion showed coincidence findings (main lesion in CT with high uptake in scintigraphy) in 34 patients (77.2%) and no coincidence in 10 (22.8%). In 15 (34.09%) patients the fusion provided additional information. The analysis of the findings of CT and SPECT showed similar results in most of the cases and the fusion didn't provide additional information but it allowed to confirm the findings but when the findings didn't match where the CT showed several findings and SPECT only one area with high uptake

  16. Validation of lumbar spine loading from a musculoskeletal model including the lower limbs and lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Jason A; Honegger, Jasmin D; Gates, Deanna H; Petrella, Anthony J; Nolasco, Luis A; Silverman, Anne K

    2018-02-08

    Low back mechanics are important to quantify to study injury, pain and disability. As in vivo forces are difficult to measure directly, modeling approaches are commonly used to estimate these forces. Validation of model estimates is critical to gain confidence in modeling results across populations of interest, such as people with lower-limb amputation. Motion capture, ground reaction force and electromyographic data were collected from ten participants without an amputation (five male/five female) and five participants with a unilateral transtibial amputation (four male/one female) during trunk-pelvis range of motion trials in flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. A musculoskeletal model with a detailed lumbar spine and the legs including 294 muscles was used to predict L4-L5 loading and muscle activations using static optimization. Model estimates of L4-L5 intervertebral joint loading were compared to measured intradiscal pressures from the literature and muscle activations were compared to electromyographic signals. Model loading estimates were only significantly different from experimental measurements during trunk extension for males without an amputation and for people with an amputation, which may suggest a greater portion of L4-L5 axial load transfer through the facet joints, as facet loads are not captured by intradiscal pressure transducers. Pressure estimates between the model and previous work were not significantly different for flexion, lateral bending or axial rotation. Timing of model-estimated muscle activations compared well with electromyographic activity of the lumbar paraspinals and upper erector spinae. Validated estimates of low back loading can increase the applicability of musculoskeletal models to clinical diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis involving the Clavicle, Spine and Ribs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Krishnan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This report describes an unusual case of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB, involving the right clavicle and multicentric aytpical spine involvement without any neurological deficit. The female patient presented with acute onset of right clavicular pain associated with a one-month history of lower backache with constitutional symptoms. The clavicular lesion and MRI spine findings were highly suggestive of TB. Anti TB drugs (ATD were started empirically as Sabah, Malaysia the patient’s home, is an endemic area for TB. Despite, 2 months of ATD administration, the patient did not respond well clinically and developed left sided chest wall abscesses arising from the left 3rd and 6th ribs. She was then treated for MDR-TB infection and has responded well to this treatment.

  18. Dendritic spine pathology in autism: lessons learned from mouse models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiangge Zhang; Dingxi Zhou; Guoping Feng

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that affect up to 1.5% of population in the world. Recent large scale genomic studies show that genetic causes of ASD are very heterogeneous. Gene ontology, pathway analysis and animal model studies have revealed several potential converging mechanisms including postsynaptic dysfunction of excitatory synapses. In this review, we focus on the structural and functional specializations of dendritic spines, and describe their defects in ASD. We use Fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome and Phe-lan-McDermid syndrome, three of the most studied neurodevelopmental disorders with autism features, as examples to demonstrate the significant contribution made by mouse models towards the understanding of monogenic ASD. We envision that the development and application of new technologies to study the function of dendritic spines in valid animal models will eventually lead to innovative treatments for ASD.

  19. Diseases of the spine, spinal cord, and extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.

    1983-01-01

    This paper covers the following topics: acupuncture needle in the spinal canal of the neck; thoracic tuberculous spondylitis: cold abscess; comminuted fracture of the fifth cervical vertebra; lumbar spondylolysis; lumbar spondylosis; ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament; disk herniation of the cervical spine: narrowing of the root tunnel; ankylosing spondylitis: narrowing of the root tunnel; ossification of the ligamentum flavum; narrow spinal canal syndrome; syringomyelia; epidural neurinoma of the cervical spine; neurofibromatosis; spinal arteriovenous malformation; atrophy of the thoracic spinal cord; osteomyelitis tuberculosa of the rib; osteomyelitis tuberculosa of the left femur; chronic osteomyelitis of the left humerus; malignant giant cell tumor of the left femur; rheumatoid arthritis of the left hip joint; arthrosis deformans of the left hip joint; and enchondroma of the left index finger: Proximal Phalanx

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of canine degenerative lumbar spine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karkkainen, M.; Punto, L.U.; Tulamo, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Degenerative lumbar spine diseases, i.e., sacrolumbar stenosis, intervertebral disk degeneration and protrusion and spondylosis deformans of the canine lumbar spine were studied in eleven canine patients and three healthy controls using radiography and 0.02 T and 0.04 T low field magnetic resonance imaging. The T1 and T2 weighted images were obtained in sagittal and transverse planes. The loss of hydration of nucleus pulposus, taken as a sign of degeneration in the intervertebral disks, could be evaluated in both T1 and T2 weighted images. As a noninvasive method magnetic resonance imaging gave more exact information about the condition of intervertebral disks than did radiography. Sacrolumbar stenosis and compression of the spinal cord or cauda equina and surrounding tissue could be evaluated without contrast medium

  1. 3-dimensional reconstructions of computer tomograms of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, A.; Waggershauser, T.; Zendel, W.; Astinet, A.; Felix, R.; Hansen, K.; Lanksch, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, 50 patients were examined by a Siemens 'Somatom Plus'; continuous 2 mm sections between the third lumbar and first sacral vertebra were obtained. All these imaging procedures were suitable for the diagnosis of osteochondrosis and chondrosis. Spondylosis was diagnosed more frequently on 3-D CT. Spondyloarthrosis, with narrowing of the invertebral foramina and root canals is shown particularly well by 3-D CT, since the entire extent of these structures can be seen. 3-D surface reconstruction of the lumbar spine is useful in the diagnosis of lumbar spondyloarthrosis with narrowing of the root canals and of the spinal canal. This method of axial CT is superior to conventional radiography of the lumbar spine in the usual two planes. (orig./GDG) [de

  2. Magnetic resonance tomography for trauma of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meydam, K.; Sehlen, S.; Schlenkhoff, D.; Kiricuta, J.C.; Beyer, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty patients who had suffered spinal trauma were examined by magnetic resonance tomography. Fifteen patients with first degree trauma in Erdmann's classification showed no abnormality. Magnetic resonance tomography of the cervical spine appears to be a suitable method for investigating patients with whiplash injuries. It is indicated following severe flexion injuries with subluxations and neurological symptoms, since it is the only method that can demonstrate the spinal cord directly and completely and show the extent of cord compression. For patients with thoracic trauma and rapidly developing neurological symptoms, magnetic resonance tomography is ideal for showing post-traumatic syringomyelia. Magnetic resonance tomography following whiplash injuries is recommended if plain films of the cervical spine show any abnormalities, as well as for the investigation of acute or sub-acute neurological abnormalities. The various findings are discussed. (orig.) [de

  3. Magnetic resonance tomography for trauma of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meydam, K.; Sehlen, S.; Schlenkhoff, D.; Kiricuta, J.C.; Beyer, H.K.

    1986-12-01

    Twenty patients who had suffered spinal trauma were examined by magnetic resonance tomography. Fifteen patients with first degree trauma in Erdmann's classification showed no abnormality. Magnetic resonance tomography of the cervical spine appears to be a suitable method for investigating patients with whiplash injuries. It is indicated following severe flexion injuries with subluxations and neurological symptoms, since it is the only method that can demonstrate the spinal cord directly and completely and show the extent of cord compression. For patients with thoracic trauma and rapidly developing neurological symptoms, magnetic resonance tomography is ideal for showing post-traumatic syringomyelia. Magnetic resonance tomography following whiplash injuries is recommended if plain films of the cervical spine show any abnormalities, as well as for the investigation of acute or sub-acute neurological abnormalities. The various findings are discussed.

  4. Disease-Specific Care: Spine Surgery Program Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Katie; Franker, Lauren; Douglas, Barbara; Medero, Edgardo; Bromeland, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    Minimal literature exists describing the process for development of a Joint Commission comprehensive spine surgery program within a community hospital health system. Components of a comprehensive program include structured communication across care settings, preoperative education, quality outcomes tracking, and patient follow-up. Organizations obtaining disease-specific certification must have clear knowledge of the planning, time, and overall commitment, essential to developing a successful program. Health systems benefit from disease-specific certification because of their commitment to a higher standard of service. Certification standards establish a framework for organizational structure and management and provide institutions a competitive edge in the marketplace. A framework for the development of a spine surgery program is described to help guide organizations seeking disease-specific certification. In developing a comprehensive program, it is critical to define the program's mission and vision, identify key stakeholders, implement clinical practice guidelines, and evaluate program outcomes.

  5. Dural ectasia and conventional radiography in the Marfan lumbosacral spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, N.U.; Nallamshetty, L.; Ahn, U.M.; Buchowski, J.M.; Kebaish, K.M.; Sponseller, P.D.; Rose, P.S.; Garrett, E.S.

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To determine how well conventional radiographic findings can predict the presence of dural ectasia in Marfan patients.Design and patients. Twelve Marfan patients without dural ectasia and 21 Marfan patients with dural ectasia were included in the study. Five radiographic measurements were made of the lumbosacral spine: interpediculate distance, scalloping value, sagittal canal diameter, vertebral body width, and transverse process width.Results. The following measurements were significantly larger in patients with dural ectasia: interpediculate distances at L3-L4 levels (P 38.0 mm, sagittal diameter at S1 >18.0 mm, or scalloping value at L5 >5.5 mm.Conclusion. Dural ectasia in Marfan syndrome is commonly associated with several osseous changes that are observable on conventional radiographs of the lumbosacral spine. Conventional radiography can detect dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome with a very high specificity (91.7%) but a low sensitivity (57.1%). (orig.)

  6. Degenerative spine disorders in the context of clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Michael [Institut fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Klinikum Aschaffenburg, Am Hasenkopf 1, 63739 Aschaffenburg (Germany) and Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: michael.freund@klinikum-aschaffenburg.de; Sartor, Klaus [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Hardly any other structure in the human body is held responsible for so many complaints, pain, and costs as the spine and its degenerative disorders. In the following article, the role of imaging procedures in diagnosing disorders of the spine is presented. Due to the fact that disk herniation represents the most frequent cause for degenerative disorders the anatomy of the intervertebral disk and the pathology of the entities that can cause diseases of the disks are described. In particular, the authors focus on the significance of radiological findings with respect to patient history, subjective symptoms, and objective clinical findings. In addition to presenting the technical procedures and their indications and contraindications also practical tips and tricks in conducting these examinations are presented in this paper.

  7. Three-dimensional CT of the pediatric spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starshak, R.J.; Crawford, C.R.; Waisman, R.C.; Sty, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    CT of the spine has been shown to be useful in evaluating congenital, neoplastic, inflammatory, and traumatic lesions. Any portion of the neural arch may be involved by these disease processes. However, the complex nature of the spinal column can make evaluation of these abnormalities difficult on axial CT. This is especially true if the spine is distorted by scoliosis, kyphosis, or lordosis. The principal advantage of three-dimensional CT is its ability to display the surface relationships of complicated objects. The complexity of the spinal axis makes it ideal for study with three-dimensional CT. This presentation illustrates the advantages and drawbacks of three-dimensional CT in spinal abnormalities in children

  8. A radiological study on the cervical spine in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, Eiji; Sakoh, Takashi; Sunahara, Nobuhiko

    1995-01-01

    The cervical spine was examined with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the conventional roentgenograms in 95 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The MRI findings of upper cervical disorders were compared with various values determined in roentgenograms: the atlanto-dental interval (ADI), the space available for the spinal cord (SAC), and the Ranawat and Redlund-Johnell values. In patients with vertical setting (VS), MRI showed medullary compression in all those with abnormal Redlund-Johnell values and Ranawat values of 7 mm or less. In patients with anterior atlanto-axial subluxation, compression of the upper cervical cord was observed in all patients with SAC of 13 mm or less. In subaxial lesion of the cervical spine, MRI was found to be as good as roentgenograms in evaluating plate erosion and disc space narrowing and MRI showed extradural pannus. (author)

  9. A radiological study on the cervical spine in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taketomi, Eiji; Sakoh, Takashi; Sunahara, Nobuhiko [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-03-01

    The cervical spine was examined with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the conventional roentgenograms in 95 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The MRI findings of upper cervical disorders were compared with various values determined in roentgenograms: the atlanto-dental interval (ADI), the space available for the spinal cord (SAC), and the Ranawat and Redlund-Johnell values. In patients with vertical setting (VS), MRI showed medullary compression in all those with abnormal Redlund-Johnell values and Ranawat values of 7 mm or less. In patients with anterior atlanto-axial subluxation, compression of the upper cervical cord was observed in all patients with SAC of 13 mm or less. In subaxial lesion of the cervical spine, MRI was found to be as good as roentgenograms in evaluating plate erosion and disc space narrowing and MRI showed extradural pannus. (author).

  10. Degenerative spine disorders in the context of clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, Michael; Sartor, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Hardly any other structure in the human body is held responsible for so many complaints, pain, and costs as the spine and its degenerative disorders. In the following article, the role of imaging procedures in diagnosing disorders of the spine is presented. Due to the fact that disk herniation represents the most frequent cause for degenerative disorders the anatomy of the intervertebral disk and the pathology of the entities that can cause diseases of the disks are described. In particular, the authors focus on the significance of radiological findings with respect to patient history, subjective symptoms, and objective clinical findings. In addition to presenting the technical procedures and their indications and contraindications also practical tips and tricks in conducting these examinations are presented in this paper

  11. The effect of chlorzoxazone on acute pain after spine surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R V; Fomsgaard, J S; Siegel, M H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chlorzoxazone is a muscle relaxant administered for musculoskeletal pain, and as an analgesic adjunct for post-operative pain. Chlorzoxazone for low back pain is currently not advised due to the lack of placebo-controlled trials. We explored the effect of chlorzoxazone on acute pain...... after spine surgery. METHODS: One hundred and ten patients were randomly assigned to 500 mg oral chlorzoxazone or placebo in this blinded study of patients having spine surgery under general anaesthesia. In the 4 h trial period analgesia consisted of IV patient-controlled analgesia (morphine bolus 2.......5 mg). Primary outcome was pain during mobilization (visual analogue scale) 2 h after the intervention. Secondary outcomes were pain at rest, opioid consumption, nausea, vomiting, sedation and dizziness. RESULTS: For pain during mobilization 2 h after intervention, there was no significant difference...

  12. Characteristics of Hemorrhagic Stroke following Spine and Joint Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Zhao, Jianning; Xu, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke can occur after spine and joint surgeries such as laminectomy, lumbar spinal fusion, tumor resection, and total joint arthroplasty. Although this kind of stroke rarely happens, it may cause severe consequences and high mortality rates. Typical clinical symptoms of hemorrhagic stroke after spine and joint surgeries include headache, vomiting, consciousness disturbance, and mental disorders. It can happen several hours after surgeries. Most bleeding sites are located in cerebellar hemisphere and temporal lobe. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage caused by surgeries may be the key to intracranial hemorrhages happening. Early diagnosis and treatments are very important for patients to prevent the further progression of intracranial hemorrhages. Several patients need a hematoma evacuation and their prognosis is not optimistic.

  13. Characteristics of Hemorrhagic Stroke following Spine and Joint Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic stroke can occur after spine and joint surgeries such as laminectomy, lumbar spinal fusion, tumor resection, and total joint arthroplasty. Although this kind of stroke rarely happens, it may cause severe consequences and high mortality rates. Typical clinical symptoms of hemorrhagic stroke after spine and joint surgeries include headache, vomiting, consciousness disturbance, and mental disorders. It can happen several hours after surgeries. Most bleeding sites are located in cerebellar hemisphere and temporal lobe. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leakage caused by surgeries may be the key to intracranial hemorrhages happening. Early diagnosis and treatments are very important for patients to prevent the further progression of intracranial hemorrhages. Several patients need a hematoma evacuation and their prognosis is not optimistic.

  14. Examination of Cervical Spine Histological Sections - A Technical Note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Ullerup, Rita; Vesterby, Annie

    2006-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the cervical spine facet joints morphology and anatomy is increasingly important since improved understanding of clinical syndromes, such as whiplash injuries, and therapeutic interventions is based on this knowledge. So far systematic examination of the age-related morphology...... of these joints has not yet been performed, nor has any generally accepted histological classification system for degenerative changes in the cervical spine facet joints been proposed. In the case of whiplash injuries the presented histological method has particular relevance since it allows detailed description...... of the anatomy and pathoanatomical status of the osteo-cartilagenous structures, including the facet joints from where a major portion of chronic whiplash patients experience their pain symptoms....

  15. Computed tomography as the primary radiological examination of lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilkko, E.; Laehde, S.

    1988-10-01

    A series of 235 patients examined by lumbar CT because of sciatica or other low back disorder was studied. The need of additional examinations and correlations to surgical findings were evaluated. Inadequate information was the cause of additional examination, mostly myelography in 20 patients (8,5%). It was concluded that lumbar CT is a suitable first examination of the lumbar spine in sciatica and low back pain. The indications to complementary myelography and its benefit are discussed.

  16. Computed tomography as the primary radiological examination of lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilkko, E.; Laehde, S.

    1988-01-01

    A series of 235 patients examined by lumbar CT because of sciatica or other low back disorder was studied. The need of additional examinations and correlations to surgical findings were evaluated. Inadequate information was the cause of additional examination, mostly myelography in 20 patients (8,5%). It was concluded that lumbar CT is a suitable first examination of the lumbar spine in sciatica and low back pain. The indications to complementary myelography and its benefit are discussed. (orig.) [de

  17. Tracheostomy following anterior cervical spine fusion in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Harald; Lang, Nikolaus; Tiefenboeck, Thomas M; Bukaty, Adam; Hajdu, Stefan; Sarahrudi, Kambiz

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic injuries to the cervical spine are frequently accompanied by cervical spinal cord injuries-often necessitating tracheostomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient characteristics and outcomes after undergoing anterior cervical spine fusion (ACSF) with tracheostomy. All patients with cervical spine injury (CSI) who underwent ACSF and tracheostomy between December 1992 and June 2014 were included in this retrospective data analysis. The study group consisted of 32 men (84 %) and six women (16 %), with an average age of 47 ± 20 years. Blunt trauma to the cervical spine was the cause of CSI in all 38 patients. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 30.50 ± 6.25. Eighteen patients sustained severe concomitant injuries related to the spinal injury. In 15 patients (39.5 %), traumatic brain injury (TBI) with fractures of the cranium and/or intracranial lesions were observed. The mean Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was 11 ± 4.5 (range 3-15). Two tracheostomies (5.3 %) were performed simultaneously with ACSF. The remaining 36 were performed with an average "delay" of 15 ± ten days. We observed no difference in time to tracheostomy among patients initially presenting with an American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) score of either A, B, C or D. Only two patients (5.3 %) were identified as having an infection at the site of ACSF after placement of a tracheostomy. There were no deaths directly related to airway difficulties in our cohort. Our data show that tracheostomy is safely performed after an average of 15 days post-ACSF, thereby being associated with a very low rate of complications. However, future prospective randomised studies are needed to identify the optimal timing of tracheostomy placement after ACSF. IV; retrospective case series.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Masato; Nakahara, Shinnosuke; Koura, Hiroshi; Kai, Nobuo; Asaumi, Koji; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Sezaki, Tatsuo; Fukuda, Shunichi; Sunami, Kazutaka

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of diagnostic imaging of the spine in multiple myeloma were examined. Twenty-one patients with stage II-III multiple myeloma (male=12, female=9, mean age=64) underwent MRI of the spine. Other diagnostic imaging modalities used in these patients included, CT bone scintigraphy, and radiography. All images of the spine were assessed and compared with the MRI images. The type of progression was evaluated based on the tumor distribution classification established by Sezaki. T1-weighted images of all 21 patients showed low signals in vertebral bodies, including 14 cases with a focal low signal intensity and 7 cases with diffuse low signal intensity. On the T2-weighted images, 15 of the 21 cases (71%) showed equivalent signals, while T2*-weighted images obtained by the field-echo method yielded high signals in 10 out of 11 cases. It was difficult to differentiate between senile osteoporosis and multiple myeloma by MRI, but CT images clearly distinguished between them. The results suggested that fat-suppressive T1-contrast images and T2*-weighted images are useful in detecting lesions, especially focal low signal intensity lesions. Patients with the multiple-lesion-tumor type of disease were more likely to develop paralysis more than those with the diffuse myeloproliferative type. Thus, the tumor distribution classification established by Sezaki was useful in considering radiotherapy for the treatment of patients at risk of paralysis. Bone scintigraphy revealed accumulation only in spinal lesions caused by compression fractures, while CT appeared to be useful in localizing the diffuse myeloproliferative type of lesions. The problems associated with diagnosis by MRI are differentiation of multiple myeloma from senile osteoporosis and metastatic bone tumors of the spine. There are few specific findings in multiple myeloma. (K.H.)

  19. An Injectable Method for Posterior Lateral Spine Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    osteoclast selective protease site which allows for removal of the biomaterial during bone remodeling. 2. KEY WORDS: BMP2, Spine Fusion, PEG hydrogel...desired fusion site. During the course of this grant application we observed that in the rat model, we were unable to induce the heterotopic bone ...the site of HO is active. Additionally, we confirmed that the lack of bone formation after delivery of the microspheres to larger animal models

  20. Dysphagia produced by cervical spine osteophyte. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Silveri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 73-year-old male patient with progressive dysphagia, and hoarseness (irritability in the throat. He was studied with the appropriate imaging techniques, and esophagoscopy led to a diagnosis of extrinsic esophageal dysphagia for osteophyte obstruction of the cervical spine due to the arthrosis. A surgical resection was performed, without complications. Some considerations are given on this theme.

  1. Gouty Arthropathy of the Cervical Spine in a Young Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jie Kuo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a young man with gouty discitis of the cervical spine. To our knowledge, our patient is the youngest patient with cervical gouty discitis reported in the literature. The clinical manifestation was similar to that of cervical spondylosis with radiculopathy. Gouty discitis was diagnosed only when tophi in the disc were found during surgery and proved by pathologic study. Surgical decompression followed by optimization of pharmacologic treatment enabled good recovery from neurologic complications.

  2. Ophaceous Gout Involving the Whole Spine: An Unusual Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Min Woo; Lee, Ji Hae; Cho, Woo Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Gout is a relatively common, crystal deposition disease, in which monosodium urate crystals are deposited in joint and periarticular tissues of the extremities. Involvement of the spine is exceedingly rare. Most patients with spinal gout present with symptomatic spinal cord compression. Diffuse involvement of tophi deposition inside the spinal central canal has not been reported. We now present a case of chronic tophaceous gout with extensive spinal involvement that resulted in diffuse spinal cord compression and led to paraplegia.

  3. Ophaceous Gout Involving the Whole Spine: An Unusual Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Min Woo; Lee, Ji Hae; Cho, Woo Ho

    2012-01-01

    Gout is a relatively common, crystal deposition disease, in which monosodium urate crystals are deposited in joint and periarticular tissues of the extremities. Involvement of the spine is exceedingly rare. Most patients with spinal gout present with symptomatic spinal cord compression. Diffuse involvement of tophi deposition inside the spinal central canal has not been reported. We now present a case of chronic tophaceous gout with extensive spinal involvement that resulted in diffuse spinal cord compression and led to paraplegia.

  4. Bone mineral density of lumbar spine and femur in acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebsch, P.; Kotzmann, H.; Svoboda, T.; Kainberger, F.M.; Bankier, A.; Seidl, G.

    1993-01-01

    Acromegaly is regarded as a cause for secondary osteoporosis, whereas recent papers suggest that growth hormone increases bone mineral density (BMD). In 16 patients with active acromegaly we found an increased BMD compared to normal controls in the lumbar spine and the proximal femur by means of dual energy X-ray absoptiometry. This increase in BMD was statistically significant in the femoral neck and in Ward's triangle (P=0.05). Moreover, no signs of osteoporosis were found radiologically. (orig.) [de

  5. [The influence of kinesiotaping on lumbar spine pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciosek, Zaneta; Kopacz, Lukasz; Samulak, Lukasz; Kaźmierczak, Agata; Rotter, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Pain in the lumbosacral spine is currently one of the most common pain complaints among the elderly. About 72% of the Polish population younger than 40 years have at least once been treated by a doctor for back pain. Degenerative changes of intervertebral joints, overloads, intervertebral disc diseases, and dysfunction of spinal ligaments are very often responsible for the formation of back pain, which is basically a problem of the elderly, The study was conducted among 60 residents of a Nursing Home in Szczecin with chronic lumbar pain. The age range was 56-85 years. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups of 30 (study group, where KinesioTaping was used, and a control group without KinesioTaping application). To assess the degree of pain experienced by the patient a visual analogue scale (VAS) in the horizontal format from 0-10 was used, on which subjects scored the severity of pain. Flexion, extension, tilt and rotation were measured with a tape to assess spinal and trunk mobility. In all patients, who had a KinesioTaping patch applied on the lumbosacral spine pain measured by VAS reduced (p ≤ 0.001). Considering respondents' sex, the spine mobility in the tilting position improved in men in the study group in terms of tilting to both sides. In all patients, the application of a KinesioTaping patch significantly improved the rotation to the right side (p ≤ 0.05), scores in the "finger-floor" flexion test (p ≤ 0.01), and the extension range (p ≤ 0.01). KinesioTaping is a beneficial method reducing pain and improving the mobility in the lumbosacral spine. The improvement was independent of the sex of the respondents.

  6. The use of radiological guidelines to achieve a sustained reduction in the number of radiographic examinations of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knees performed for GPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaves, J.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine if the use of request guidelines can achieve a sustained reduction in the number of radiographic examinations of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knee joints performed for general practitioners (GPs). METHODS: GPs referring to three community hospitals and a district general hospital were circulated with referral guidelines for radiography of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knee, and all requests for these three examinations were checked. Requests that did not fit the guidelines were returned to the GP with an explanatory letter and a further copy of the guidelines. Where applicable, a large-joint replacement algorithm was also enclosed. If the GP maintained the opinion that the examination was indicated, she or he had the option of supplying further justifying information in writing or speaking to a consultant radiologist. RESULTS: Overall the number of radiographic examinations fell by 68% in the first year, achieving a 79% reduction in the second year. For knees, lumbar spine and cervical spine radiographs the total reductions were 77%, 78% and 86%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The use of referral guidelines, reinforced by request checking and clinical management algorithms, can produce a dramatic and sustained reduction in the number of radiographs of the cervical spine, lumbar spine and knees performed for GPs

  7. European nuclear education network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.; Moons, F.; Safieh, J.

    2005-01-01

    In most countries within the European Union that rely to a significant extent on nuclear power, neither undergraduate nor PhD education is producing a sufficient number of engineers and doctors to fill the needs of the industry. As a result of an EU-supported project, a new education organisation, European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN), has recently been established, with the aim to establish a European master's degree of nuclear engineering. Recently, a new EU project, Nuclear European Platform of Training and University Organisations (NEPTUNO), has been launched, aiming at the practical implementation of ENEN and harmonisation of training activities. (author)

  8. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  9. Overload pain but root differentiation discomfort in the lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Siminska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar pain syndromes of the spine can also be referred to as the pain of the cross. These ailments have now become epidemics of our time. In literature, these pain are referred to as localized ailments that are located in the lumbar, lumbosacral, and cross-iliac areas. Cross pains are a very general term because there are a multitude of factors that cause lumbar disc herniation. This problem poses great diagnostic difficulties. [4]. The nature of these ailments is often difficult to pinpoint by the patient, but it can be the pain that describes patients from blunt, piercing, biting, baking, to those that are termed cold feeling. Keep in mind that the location of the lumbar pain symptoms varies. Patients report pain that is located throughout the lumbar-sacral area or only on one side of the spine, or occurs only in the area of the hip joints. These complaints often radiate along the lower limb. They are often the result of a lack of proper spine prevention: they contribute to this poor body posture, improper sleep positioning, as well as lack of coping skills, as well as a bad diet. In daily life, it is important to remember to do your daily activities in the correct position as well as to use prevention to avoid pain in the lumbar area.

  10. Radiologic aspects of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Y.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.

    1977-01-01

    Radiographs of 175 patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) of the spine or ankylosing spondylitis were reviewed. DISH most frequently began in the middle and lower portions of the thoracic spine; it was rare in the upper portion. A few vertebrae were first affected, and then involvement extended, sometimes throughout the thoracic spine. The anterior and lateral aspects of vertebral bodies were mainly affected. Hyperostosis vertically spanning the anterior aspects of the vertebrae varied in thickness up to 10 mm, and the rate at which the hyperostosis proliferated was not specific for any vertebra. Males were 12 times more frequently affected than females, especially in the older age groups. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension have reportedly been associated with DISH, but no such correlation was found in this study. Despite the existence of criteria for differential diagnosis, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish ankylosing spondylitis from DISH radiologically. The radiologic features helpful in the differential diagnosis are described, and a review of the pertinent literature is included

  11. Rare Complications of Cervical Spine Surgery: Horner's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynelis, Vincent C; Malone, Hani R; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Kanter, Adam S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Cho, Samuel K; Baird, Evan O; Isaacs, Robert E; Rahman, Ra'Kerry K; Polevaya, Galina; Smith, Justin S; Shaffrey, Christopher; Tortolani, P Justin; Stroh, D Alex; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    A multicenter retrospective case series. Horner's syndrome is a known complication of anterior cervical spinal surgery, but it is rarely encountered in clinical practice. To better understand the incidence, risks, and neurologic outcomes associated with Horner's syndrome, a multicenter study was performed to review a large collective experience with this rare complication. We conducted a retrospective multicenter case series study involving 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network. Medical records for 17 625 patients who received subaxial cervical spine surgery from 2005 to 2011 were reviewed to identify occurrence of 21 predefined treatment complications. Descriptive statistics were provided for baseline patient characteristics. Paired t test was used to analyze changes in clinical outcomes at follow-up compared to preoperative status. In total, 8887 patients who underwent anterior cervical spine surgery at the participating institutions were screened. Postoperative Horner's syndrome was identified in 5 (0.06%) patients. All patients experienced the complication following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. The sympathetic trunk appeared to be more vulnerable when operating on midcervical levels (C5, C6), and most patients experienced at least a partial recovery without further treatment. This collective experience suggests that Horner's syndrome is an exceedingly rare complication following anterior cervical spine surgery. Injury to the sympathetic trunk may be limited by maintaining a midline surgical trajectory when possible, and performing careful dissection and retraction of the longus colli muscle when lateral exposure is necessary, especially at caudal cervical levels.

  12. Trauma of the lumbar spine and the thoracolumbar junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Harsch, N.; Kraus, C.

    2016-01-01

    Patients who have experienced high energy trauma have a particularly high risk of suffering from fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine. The detection of spinal injuries and the correct classification of fractures before surgery are not only absolute requirements for the implementation of appropriate surgical treatment but they are also decisive for the choice of surgical procedure. By the application of spiral computed tomography (CT) crucial additional information on the morphology of the fracture can be gained in order to estimate the fracture type and possibly the indications for specific surgical treatment options. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ideally suited to provide valuable additional information regarding injuries to the discoligamentous structures of the spine. Magerl et al. developed a comprehensive classification especially for injuries of the thoracic and lumbar spine, which was adopted by the working group for osteosynthesis (AO). This is based on a 2-pillar model of the spinal column. The classification is based on the pathomorphological characteristics of fractures recognizable by imaging. The injury pattern is of particular importance. In spinal trauma a distinction is made between stable and unstable fractures. The treatment of spinal injuries depends on the severity of the overall injury pattern. Besides adequate initial treatment at the scene, a trauma CT should be immediately carried out in order that no injuries are overlooked and to ensure a rapid decision on the treatment procedure. (orig.) [de

  13. Radiographic Morphometry of the Lumbar Spine in Munich Miniature Pigs†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelke, Elisabeth C; Post, Christina; Pfarrer, Christiane D; Sager, Martin; Waibl, Helmut R

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of human spinal column disease remains high, and animal models still play important roles in prophylactic, diagnostic, and therapeutic research. Because of their similar size to humans, pigs remain an important spine model. For pigs to serve as a model for the human spine, basic similarities and differences must be understood. In this study, morphometric data of the lumbar spine of Munich miniature pigs (Troll) were recorded radiologically, evaluated, and compared with recorded human data. Whereas humans have a constant number of 5 lumbar vertebrae, Munich minipigs had 5 or 6 lumbar vertebrae. Compared with their human counterparts, the lumbar vertebral bodies of the minipigs were remarkably larger in the craniocaudal (superior–inferior) direction and considerably smaller in the dorsoventral and laterolateral directions. The porcine vertebral canal was smaller than the human vertebral canal. The spinal cord extended into the caudal part of the porcine lumbar vertebral canal and thus did not terminate as cranial, as seen in humans. The lumbar intervertebral spaces of the pig were narrower in craniocaudal direction than human intervertebral spaces. These differences need to be considered when planning surgical actions, not only to avoid pain and irreversible damage to the minipigs but also to achieve accurate scientific results. PMID:27177570

  14. General practitioners' willingness to request plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryynaenen, Olli-Pekka; Lehtovirta, Jukka; Soimakallio, Seppo; Takala, Jorma

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine general practitioners' attitudes to plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations. Design: A postal questionnaire consisting of questions on background data and doctors' opinions about plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, as well as eight vignettes (imaginary patient cases) presenting indications for lumbar radiography, and five vignettes focusing on the doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiography on the basis of patients' age and duration of symptoms. The data were analysed according to the doctor's age, sex, workplace and the medical school of graduation. Setting: Finland. Subjects: Six hundred and fifteen randomly selected physicians working in primary health care (64% of original target group). Results: The vignettes revealed that the use of plain lumbar radiographic examination varied between 26 and 88%. Patient's age and radiation protection were the most prominent factors influencing doctors' decisions to request lumbar radiographies. Only slight differences were observed between the attitudes of male and female doctors, as well as between young and older doctors. Doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiographies increased with the patient's age in most vignettes. The duration of patients' symptoms had a dramatic effect on the doctor's decision: in all vignettes, doctors were more likely to request lumbar radiography when patient's symptoms had exceeded 4 weeks. Conclusions: General practitioners commonly use plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, despite its limited value in the diagnosis of low back pain. Further consensus and medical education is needed to clarify the indications for plain lumbar radiographic examination

  15. Regional interdependence and manual therapy directed at the thoracic spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Amy; Young, Jodi; Mintken, Paul; Cleland, Josh

    2015-07-01

    Thoracic spine manipulation is commonly used by physical therapists for the management of patients with upper quarter pain syndromes. The theoretical construct for using thoracic manipulation for upper quarter conditions is a mainstay of a regional interdependence (RI) approach. The RI concept is likely much more complex and is perhaps driven by a neurophysiological response including those related to peripheral, spinal cord and supraspinal mechanisms. Recent evidence suggests that thoracic spine manipulation results in neurophysiological changes, which may lead to improved pain and outcomes in individuals with musculoskeletal disorders. The intent of this narrative review is to describe the research supporting the RI concept and its application to the treatment of individuals with neck and/or shoulder pain. Treatment utilizing both thrust and non-thrust thoracic manipulation has been shown to result in improvements in pain, range of motion and disability in patients with upper quarter conditions. Research has yet to determine optimal dosage, techniques or patient populations to which the RI approach should be applied; however, emerging evidence supporting a neurophysiological effect for thoracic spine manipulation may negate the need to fully answer this question. Certainly, there is a need for further research examining both the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of manual therapy interventions utilized in the RI model as well as the neurophysiological effects resulting from this intervention.

  16. Left handedness and spine deformities in early adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milenkovic, Sanja; Kocijancic, Radojka; Belojevic, Goran

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between laterality and spine deformities in early adolescence, with special reference to sex differences. Interviews, anthropometric measurements and clinical examinations of body posture were carried out on a sample of 2546 schoolchildren, aged from 11 to 14 years, in seven elementary schools in the centre of Belgrade. Possible confounding factors (age, sex, body weight and body height) were controlled for. The overall prevalence of spine deformities (scoliosis and/or thoracic hyperkyphosis) in the investigated population was 11.8%, out of which there were 7.8% adolescents with scoliosis, 4.0% with thoracic hyperkyphosis, and 0.3% with both spine deformities. The prevalence of scoliosis was 2.7 times higher in girls compared to boys (11.7% vs. 4.3%) while the prevalence of thoracic hyperkyphosis was 1,6 higher among boys (5.0% vs. 3.2%). We found 7.6% of the schoolchildren examined to be left-handed. Left handedness was significantly related to scoliosis in girls (crude OR=1.60 and 95% confidence interval=1.01-2.54). Multivariate analysis showed that significant independent factors for scoliosis were female sex (p < 0.001), age (p=0.01) and left handedness (p=0.02). We did not find any appreciable relation between left handedness and thoracic hyperkyphosis in both sexes

  17. Posterior longitudinal ligament status in cervical spine bilateral facet dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrino, John A.; Manton, Geoffrey L.; Morrison, William B.; Flanders, Adam E.; Vaccaro, Alex R.; Schweitzer, Mark E.

    2006-01-01

    It is generally accepted that cervical spine bilateral facet dislocation results in complete disruption of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The goal of this study was to evaluate the integrity of numerous spine-stabilizing structures by MRI, and to determine if any associations between injury patterns exist with respect to the posterior longitudinal ligament status. Retrospective case series. A retrospective review was performed of 30 cervical spine injury subjects with bilateral facet dislocation. Assessment of 1.5T MRI images was carried out for: intervertebral disc disruption, facet fracture, and ligamentous disruption. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate for associations between various injury patterns and posterior longitudinal ligament status. The frequency of MRI abnormalities was: anterior longitudinal ligament disruption (26.7%), disc herniation or disruption (90%), posterior longitudinal ligament disruption (40%), facet fracture (63.3%) and disruption of the posterior column ligament complex (97%). There were no significant associations between injury to the posterior longitudinal ligament and other structures. Compared to surgical reports, MRI was accurate for determining the status for 24 of 26 ligaments (three of three anterior longitudinal ligament, seven of nine posterior longitudinal ligament, and 14 of 14 posterior column ligament complex) but generated false negatives in two instances (in both MRI showed an intact posterior longitudinal ligament that was torn at surgery). (orig.)

  18. Multidetector Computed Tomography of Cervical Spine Fractures in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivikko, M.P.; Kiuru, M.J.; Koskinen, S.K. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Toeoeloe Trauma Center (Finland). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-11-01

    Purpose: To analyze multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) cervical spine findings in trauma patients with advanced ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Material and Methods: Using PACS, 2282 cervical spine MDCT examinations requested by emergency room physicians were found during a period of 3 years. Of these patients, 18 (16 M, aged 41-87, mean 57 years) had advanced AS. Primary imaging included radiography in 12 and MRI in 11 patients. Results: MDCT detected one facet joint subluxation and 31 fractures in 17 patients: 14 transverse fractures, 8 spinous process fractures, 2 Jefferson's fractures, 1 type I and 2 type II odontoid process fractures, and 1 each: atlanto-occipital joint fracture and C2 laminar fracture plus isolated transverse process and facet joint fractures. Radiographs detected 48% and MRI 60% of the fractures. MRI detected all transverse and odontoid fractures, demonstrating spinal cord abnormalities in 72%. Conclusion: MDCT is superior to plain radiographs or MRI, showing significantly more injuries and yielding more information on fracture morphology. MRI is valuable, however, in evaluating the spinal cord and soft-tissue injuries. Fractures in advanced AS often show an abnormal orientation and are frequently associated with spinal cord injuries. In these patients, for any suspected cervical spine injuries, MDCT is therefore the imaging modality of choice.

  19. Significance of prevertebral soft tissue measurement in cervical spine injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Liyang E-mail: lydai@etang.com

    2004-07-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling in cervical spine injuries. Materials and methods: A group of 107 consecutive patients with suspected injuries of the cervical vertebrae were reviewed retrospectively to identify the presence of prevertebral soft tissue swelling and to investigate the association of prevertebral soft tissue swelling with the types and degrees of cervical spine injuries. Results: Prevertebral soft tissue swelling occurred in 47 (43.9%) patients. Of the 47 patients, 38 were found with bony injury and nine were without. The statistic difference was significant (P<0.05). No correlation was demonstrated between soft tissue swelling and either the injured level of the cervical vertebrae or the degree of the spinal cord injury (P>0.05). Anterior element injuries in the cervical vertebrae had widening of the prevertebral soft tissue more than posterior element injuries (P<0.05). Conclusion: The diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling for cervical spine injuries is significant, but the absence of this sign does not mean that further image evaluation can be spared.

  20. A 7T spine array based on electric dipole transmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qi; Nair, Govind; Gudino, Natalia; de Zwart, Jacco A; van Gelderen, Peter; Murphy-Boesch, Joe; Reich, Daniel S; Duyn, Jeff H; Merkle, Hellmut

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of using an array of electric dipole antennas for RF transmission in spine MRI at high fields. A two-channel transmit array based on an electric dipole design was quantitatively optimized for 7T spine imaging and integrated with a receive array combining eight loop coils. Using B1+ mapping, the transmit efficiency of the dipole array was compared with a design using quadrature loop pairs. The radiofrequency energy deposition for each array was measured using a home-built dielectric phantom and MR thermometry. The performance of the proposed array was qualitatively demonstrated in human studies. The results indicate dramatically improved transmit efficiency for the dipole design compared with the loop excitation. A gain of up to 76% was achieved within the spinal region. For imaging of the spine, electric dipole-based transmitters provide an attractive alternative to the traditional loop-based design. Easy integration with existing receive array technology facilitates practical use at high fields. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Biphasic synaptic Ca influx arising from compartmentalized electrical signals in dendritic spines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L Bloodgood

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Excitatory synapses on mammalian principal neurons are typically formed onto dendritic spines, which consist of a bulbous head separated from the parent dendrite by a thin neck. Although activation of voltage-gated channels in the spine and stimulus-evoked constriction of the spine neck can influence synaptic signals, the contribution of electrical filtering by the spine neck to basal synaptic transmission is largely unknown. Here we use spine and dendrite calcium (Ca imaging combined with 2-photon laser photolysis of caged glutamate to assess the impact of electrical filtering imposed by the spine morphology on synaptic Ca transients. We find that in apical spines of CA1 hippocampal neurons, the spine neck creates a barrier to the propagation of current, which causes a voltage drop and results in spatially inhomogeneous activation of voltage-gated Ca channels (VGCCs on a micron length scale. Furthermore, AMPA and NMDA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs and NMDARs, respectively that are colocalized on individual spine heads interact to produce two kinetically and mechanistically distinct phases of synaptically evoked Ca influx. Rapid depolarization of the spine triggers a brief and large Ca current whose amplitude is regulated in a graded manner by the number of open AMPARs and whose duration is terminated by the opening of small conductance Ca-activated potassium (SK channels. A slower phase of Ca influx is independent of AMPAR opening and is determined by the number of open NMDARs and the post-stimulus potential in the spine. Biphasic synaptic Ca influx only occurs when AMPARs and NMDARs are coactive within an individual spine. These results demonstrate that the morphology of dendritic spines endows associated synapses with specialized modes of signaling and permits the graded and independent control of multiple phases of synaptic Ca influx.

  2. MRI of the lumbar spine. Technical aspect. T2-weighted fat saturation coronal dynamic MRI of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarisse, J.; Francke, J.P.; Leclet, H.; Bourgeois, Ph.; Chastanet, P.; Cotten, A.

    1998-01-01

    Assess the feasibility of 'dynamic' MRI of the lumbar spine and study the parameters of a single MRI sequence favorable for simultaneous imaging of the meningeal space and the epidural and foraminal venous system. Favor a decline in the number of sacco-radiculograms. Clinical assessment in the following circumstances: discordant clinical and and radiographic findings, difficulty in interpreting single or multiple disc-root conflicts, preoperative work-up in cases of narrow or stenotic lumbar canal. Dynamic MRI of the lumbar spine is possible if the hypothesis that the hyper-lordosis obtained in the supine position creates an anatomic and radiographic situation identical to the hyper-lordosis induced by the upright position is accepted. The 'radiculo-phlebographic' sequence gives images of the root sheaths and the epidural, foraminal and extra-foraminal veins simultaneously, particularly in the coronal plane. (authors)

  3. Short-term combined effects of thoracic spine thrust manipulation and cervical spine nonthrust manipulation in individuals with mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaracchio, Michael; Cleland, Joshua A; Hellman, Madeleine; Hagins, Marshall

    2013-03-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To investigate the short-term effects of thoracic spine thrust manipulation combined with cervical spine nonthrust manipulation (experimental group) versus cervical spine nonthrust manipulation alone (comparison group) in individuals with mechanical neck pain. Research has demonstrated improved outcomes with both nonthrust manipulation directed at the cervical spine and thrust manipulation directed at the thoracic spine in patients with neck pain. Previous studies have not determined if thoracic spine thrust manipulation may increase benefits beyond those provided by cervical nonthrust manipulation alone. Sixty-four participants with mechanical neck pain were randomized into 1 of 2 groups, an experimental or comparison group. Both groups received 2 treatment sessions of cervical spine nonthrust manipulation and a home exercise program consisting of active range-of-motion exercises, and the experimental group received additional thoracic spine thrust manipulations. Outcome measures were collected at baseline and at a 1-week follow-up, and included the numeric pain rating scale, the Neck Disability Index, and the global rating of change. Participants in the experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvements (Ppain rating scale and Neck Disability Index at the 1-week follow-up compared to those in the comparison group. In addition, 31 of 33 (94%) participants in the experimental group, compared to 11 of 31 participants (35%) in the comparison group, indicated a global rating of change score of +4 or higher at the 1-week follow-up, with an associated number needed to treat of 2. Individuals with neck pain who received a combination of thoracic spine thrust manipulation and cervical spine nonthrust manipulation plus exercise demonstrated better overall short-term outcomes on the numeric pain rating scale, the Neck Disability Index, and the global rating of change.

  4. Biomechanical aspects of lumbar spine injuries in athletes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M J

    1985-03-01

    One of the areas of the body which is very often injured by athletes is the lower lack, or the lumbar area of the spine. This problem is of some concern to physical educators, athletic therapists, coaches, athletes, and physicians. The type of injury which occurs in the lumbar spine is dependent on the direction, magnitude, and the point of application of the forces to the spine. This part of the body is susceptible to injury due to the large forces which must be supported, which include the body weight and any external weights, as well as the forces due to very high accelerations of the body parts. Since the lumbar spine is the only connecting column between the upper and lower parts of the body, all the forces must be transmitted via these structures. There are two general techniques of calculating the forces on the lumbar spinal structures, a static approach and a dynamic approach. The static approach may be useful to calculate compression and shear forces on the spine in stationary positions as may be seen in weightlifting. However, the dynamics approach should be used to calculate the effects of the various weights and inertial forces on spinal structures. The most common types of lower back injuries found in athletes were: muscle strains, ligament sprains, lumbar vertebral fractures, disc injuries, and neural arch fractures. The most common serious athletic injury to the lower back was found to be neural arch fractures at the pars interarticularis, or the isthmus between the superior and inferior articular processes. These fractures are known as spondylolysis, or defect in the pars interarticularis of one side of the vertebrae; and spondylolisthesis, a bilateral defect in the pars interarticularis, often accompanied by forward displacement of the vertebral body. The sports in which lower back injuries commonly occurred were also examined, and it was determined that gymnastics, weightlifting and football were the sports in which the lower back is at greatest

  5. ATLAS OF EUROPEAN VALUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M Ed Uwe Krause

    2008-01-01

    Uwe Krause: Atlas of Eurpean Values De Atlas of European Values is een samenwerkingsproject met bijbehorende website van de Universiteit van Tilburg en Fontys Lerarenopleiding in Tilburg, waarbij de wetenschappelijke data van de European Values Study (EVS) voor het onderwijs toegankelijk worden

  6. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  7. European Industry, 1700 - 1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  8. European Stars and Stripes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendricks, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    The European Stars and Stripes (ES&S) organization publishes a daily newspaper, The Stars and Stripes, for DoD personnel stationed in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and other DoD activities in the U.S. European Command...

  9. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.; Wurzel, R.K.W.; Connelly, J.; Liefferink, D.

    2017-01-01

    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  10. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  11. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  12. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  13. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...

  14. European Union and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  15. The Length-Weight, Length-Length Relationship and Condition Factor of Angora Loach, Oxynoemacheilus angorae (Steindachner, 1897 Inhabiting Kılıçözü Stream in Kızılırmak River Basin (Central Anatolia-Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Yazıcıoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, length-weight relationship (LWR, length- length relationship (LLR and condition factor (K of Angora loach, Oxynoemacheilus angorae were determined. A total of 103 specimens were sampled from Kılıçözü Stream in 2014. The length and weight of specimens were ranged 3.5-9.8 cm and 0.38-6.58 g, respectively. Length-weight relationships for female, male and all samples were found as W= 0.01056.TL2.896 (r²= 0.923, W= 0.00963.TL2.940 (r²= 0.978 and W= 0.00987.TL2.929 (r²= 0.963, respectively. LWRs indicated an isometric growth in female, male and all samples. The values of Fulton’s condition factor (K ranged from 0.699 to 1.246 for females and from 0.654 to 1.072 for males. All length-length relationships were statistically significant.

  16. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma of the cervical spine 31 years after uterine leiomyoma resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Aldo F; Santillan, Alejandro; Velasquez, Luis A

    2015-09-01

    We report a 74-year-old woman presenting with a leiomyoma of the cervical spine 31 years after uterine leiomyoma resection. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma to the cervical spine is very rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fourth reported patient with a leiomyoma metastasizing to the cervical spine and that with the longest latency period for this type of tumor, 31 years. The pathological features were typical of leiomyoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A simulation study of spine biofidelity in the hybrid-III 6-year-old ATD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Cao, Libo; Reed, Matthew P; Hu, Jingwen

    2013-01-01

    Because of the lack of pediatric biomechanical data, Hybrid-III (HIII) child anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) are essentially scaled from the mid-size male ATD based on the geometric considerations. These ATDs inherit a rigid thoracic spine from the adult HIII ATDs, which has been criticized as unrealistic. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore possible design modifications for improving the spine biofidelity of the HIII 6-year-old ATD. A previously developed and validated HIII 6-year-old MADYMO ATD model was used as the baseline model to investigate the effects of design modifications on the spine biofidelity of the current ATD. Several sets of child volunteer and cadaver test data were considered as the design targets, including child volunteer low-speed crash test data, pediatric cadaver cervical spine tensile test data, and child cadaver crash test data. ATD design modifications include adding an additional joint to the thoracic spine region and changing the joint characteristics at the cervical and lumbar spine regions. Optimization techniques were used to match simulation results to each set of test results. The results indicate that the translational characteristics of the cervical and lumbar spine in the current child ATD need to be reduced to achieve realistic spine flexibility. Adding an additional joint at the thoracic spine region with degree of freedom in both flexion/extension and tension would significantly improve the ATD biofidelity in terms of predicting the overall spine curvature and head excursion in frontal crashes. Future ATD spine modification should focus on reducing the neck and lumbar tension stiffness and adding additional flexibility both in flexion/extension and tension at the thoracic spine region. The child ATD model developed in this study can be used as an important tool to improve child ATD biofidelity and child restraint system design in motor vehicle crashes.

  18. Cranial irradiation alters dendritic spine density and morphology in the hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanabha Chakraborti

    Full Text Available Therapeutic irradiation of the brain is a common treatment modality for brain tumors, but can lead to impairment of cognitive function. Dendritic spines are sites of excitatory synaptic transmission and changes in spine structure and number are thought to represent a morphological correlate of altered brain functions associated with hippocampal dependent learning and memory. To gain some insight into the temporal and sub region specific cellular changes in the hippocampus following brain irradiation, we investigated the effects of 10 Gy cranial irradiation on dendritic spines in young adult mice. One week or 1 month post irradiation, changes in spine density and morphology in dentate gyrus (DG granule and CA1 pyramidal neurons were quantified using Golgi staining. Our results showed that in the DG, there were significant reductions in spine density at both 1 week (11.9% and 1 month (26.9% after irradiation. In contrast, in the basal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons, irradiation resulted in a significant reduction (18.7% in spine density only at 1 week post irradiation. Analysis of spine morphology showed that irradiation led to significant decreases in the proportion of mushroom spines at both time points in the DG as well as CA1 basal dendrites. The proportions of stubby spines were significantly increased in both the areas at 1 month post irradiation. Irradiation did not alter spine density in the CA1 apical dendrites, but there were significant changes in the proportion of thin and mushroom spines at both time points post irradiation. Although the mechanisms involved are not clear, these findings are the first to show that brain irradiation of young adult animals leads to alterations in dendritic spine density and morphology in the hippocampus in a time dependent and region specific manner.

  19. Vascularization and odontode structure of a dorsal ridge spine of Romundina stellina Ørvig 1975.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jerve

    Full Text Available There are two types of dermal skeletons in jawed vertebrates: placoderms and osteichthyans carry large bony plates (macromery, whereas chondrichthyans and acanthodians are covered by small scales (micromery. Fin spines are one of the last large dermal structures found on micromeric taxa and offer a potential source of histology and morphology that can be compared to those found on macromeric groups. Dermal fin spines offer a variety of morphology but aspects of their growth modes and homology are unclear. Here, we provide detailed descriptions of the microstructure and growth of a dorsal ridge spine from the acanthothoracid placoderm, Romundina stellina, using virtual three-dimensional paleohistological datasets. From these data we identify several layers of dentine ornamentation covering the lateral surfaces of the spine and reconstructed their growth pattern. We show that this spine likely grew posteriorly and proximally from a narrow portion of bone located along the leading edge of the spine. The spine is similarly constructed to the scales with a few exceptions, including the absence of polarized fibers distributed throughout the bone and the presence of a thin layer of perichondral bone. The composition of the spine (semidentine odontodes, dermal bone, perichondral bone is identical to that of the Romundina dermal plates. These results illustrate the similarities and differences between the dermal tissues in Romundina and indicate that the spine grew differently from the dentinous fin spines from extant and fossil chondrichthyans. The morphology and histology of Romundina is most similar to the fin spine of the probable stem osteichthyan Lophosteus, with a well-developed inner cellular bony base and star-shaped odontodes on the surface. Results from these studies will undoubtedly have impact on our understanding of fossil fin spine histology and evolution, contributing to the on-going revision of early gnathostome phylogeny.

  20. Sex, age, and tissue specific accumulation of eight metals, arsenic, and selenium in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Anni; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Valtonen, Anu; Ikonen, Mirva; Hyvärinen, Heikki; Holopainen, Ismo J; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2010-11-01

    Many insectivores have been shown to be sensitive to heavy metals and therefore suitable for biomonitoring purposes. In Finland, the hibernation period of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) is long, and during hibernation the stress caused by environmental toxins may be crucial. Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and selenium (Se) were measured in a population of hedgehogs in the town of Joensuu in eastern Finland during the summers of 2004 and 2005. The analyzed tissues were kidney, liver, hair, and spine. The sampled hedgehogs (n = 65) were mainly road-killed animals. As expected, the concentrations of heavy metals were low because the hedgehogs were living in a comparatively unpolluted area. Significant increases with age were found in Cd concentrations (kidney, liver, and spine) and some essential elements (Se in spine, kidney, and liver; Mo in kidney and liver; Cu in spine; Fe in liver; and Mn in spine). Age accumulation and correlations between Se and Cd and between Mo and Cd may indicate the protective roles of Se and Mo against Cd toxicity in hedgehogs, in which Cd is already at comparatively low concentrations. Sex had no significant effect on concentrations of the elements studied. In conclusion, age is an important parameter to be taken into account when studying heavy-metal concentrations in hedgehogs and other insectivores.

  1. Fifty top-cited spine articles from mainland China: A citation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaohong; Zhao, Yachao; Lin, Linghan; Lu, Zhijun; Guo, Zhaoyang; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Rongchun; Ma, Huasong

    2018-02-01

    Objective To identify the 50 top-cited spine articles from mainland China and to analyze their main characteristics. Methods Web of Science was used to identify the 50 top-cited spine articles from mainland China in 27 spine-related journals. The title, year of publication, number of citations, journal, anatomic focus, subspecialty, evidence level, city, institution and author were recorded. Results The top 50 articles had 29-122 citations and were published in 11 English-language journals; most (32) were published in the 2000s. The journal Spine had the largest number of articles and The Lancet had the highest impact factor. The lumber spine was the most discussed anatomic area (18). Degenerative spine disease was the most common subspecialty topic (22). Most articles were clinical studies (29); the others were basic research (21). Level IV was the most common evidence level (17). Conclusions This list indicates the most influential articles from mainland China in the global spine research community. Identification of these articles provides insights into the trends in spine care in mainland China and the historical contributions of researchers from mainland China to the international spine research field.

  2. THE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SPINES FROM THE CACTUS OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Gindl-Altmutter,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties and structure of cactus Opuntia ficus-indica spines were characterised in bending and by means of x-ray diffraction. Using spruce wood cell walls for reference, the modulus of elasticity of Opuntia cactus spines was high in absolute terms, but comparable when specific values were considered, which can be explained by similarities in the cell wall structure of both materials. Differently from the modulus of elasticity, the bending strength of cactus spines was unexpectedly high both in absolute and in specific terms. The unique cellulose-arabinan composite structure of cactus spines, together with high cellulose crystallinity, may explain this finding.

  3. Gorham-Stout syndrome of the spine. Case report and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floerchinger, A.; Boettger, E.; Claass-Boettger, F.; Harmes, J.

    1998-01-01

    Two female patients with Gorham-Stout syndrome (GSS) of the spine are described. One 25 year old patient developed progressive osteolysis of the upper cervical spine over a period of several years but despite gross extent of the disease had no neurological complications. Some bone implanted in order to stabilise the spine was absorbed after only a few weeks. A six year old girl with progressive osteolysis of the thoracic spine developed a reversible trans-section syndrome on several occasions. During an active episode, the spine was stabilised by a titanium implant. In both patients the condition arrested spontaneously. A review of the world literature (175 cases) has indicated that, including our two patients, there were only 15 patients with primary involvement of the spine and 27 patients with secondary involvement. The relatively good prognosis of the condition (mortality 13.3%), which often shows spontaneous arrest, becomes much worse if there is involvement of the spine or thorax because of neurological complications or a chylothorax. Involvement of the spine increases mortality to 33.3%, and to 52% if the thorax is involved. Early diagnosis and the institution of appropriate treatment is therefore essential. For involvement of the spine, a combination of radiotherapy and surgical stabilisation with a titanium implant should be performed since in nearly all patients bone transplants are reabsorbed. For this treatment the patient should be transferred to a neuro-orthopaedic centre. (orig.) [de

  4. Interobserver agreement for the spine instability neoplastic score varies according to the experience of the evaluator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gemio Jacobsen Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the interobserver agreement for the Neoplastic Spine Instability Score (SINS among spine surgeons with or without experience in vertebral metastasis treatment and physicians in other specialties. METHODS: Case descriptions were produced based on the medical records of 40 patients with vertebral metastases. The descriptions were then published online. Physicians were invited to evaluate the descriptions by answering questions according to the Neoplastic Spine Instability Score (SINS. The agreement among physicians was calculated using the kappa coefficient. RESULTS: Seventeen physicians agreed to participate: three highly experienced spine surgeons, seven less-experienced spine surgeons, three surgeons of other specialties, and four general practitioners (n = 17. The agreement for the final SINS score among all participants was fair, and it varied according to the SINS component. The agreement was substantial for the spine location only. The agreement was higher among experienced surgeons. The agreement was nearly perfect for spinal location among the spine surgeons who were highly experienced in vertebral metastases. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the experience of the evaluator has an impact on SINS scale classification. The interobserver agreement was only fair among physicians who were not spine surgeons and among spine surgeons who were not experienced in the treatment of vertebral metastases, which may limit the use of the SINS scale for the screening of unstable lesions by less-experienced evaluators.

  5. Isoflurane reversibly destabilizes hippocampal dendritic spines by an actin-dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimcy Platholi

    Full Text Available General anesthetics produce a reversible coma-like state through modulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. Recent evidence suggests that anesthetic exposure can also lead to sustained cognitive dysfunction. However, the subcellular effects of anesthetics on the structure of established synapses are not known. We investigated effects of the widely used volatile anesthetic isoflurane on the structural stability of hippocampal dendritic spines, a postsynaptic structure critical to excitatory synaptic transmission in learning and memory. Exposure to clinical concentrations of isoflurane induced rapid and non-uniform shrinkage and loss of dendritic spines in mature cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Spine shrinkage was associated with a reduction in spine F-actin concentration. Spine loss was prevented by either jasplakinolide or cytochalasin D, drugs that prevent F-actin disassembly. Isoflurane-induced spine shrinkage and loss were reversible upon isoflurane elimination. Thus, isoflurane destabilizes spine F-actin, resulting in changes to dendritic spine morphology and number. These findings support an actin-based mechanism for isoflurane-induced alterations of synaptic structure in the hippocampus. These reversible alterations in dendritic spine structure have important implications for acute anesthetic effects on excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic stability in the hippocampus, a locus for anesthetic-induced amnesia, and have important implications for anesthetic effects on synaptic plasticity.

  6. Large and Small Dendritic Spines Serve Different Interacting Functions in Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. W. Paulin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The laying down of memory requires strong stimulation resulting in specific changes in synaptic strength and corresponding changes in size of dendritic spines. Strong stimuli can also be pathological, causing a homeostatic response, depressing and shrinking the synapse to prevent damage from too much Ca2+ influx. But do all types of dendritic spines serve both of these apparently opposite functions? Using confocal microscopy in organotypic slices from mice expressing green fluorescent protein in hippocampal neurones, the size of individual spines along sections of dendrite has been tracked in response to application of tetraethylammonium. This strong stimulus would be expected to cause both a protective homeostatic response and long-term potentiation. We report separation of these functions, with spines of different sizes reacting differently to the same strong stimulus. The immediate shrinkage of large spines suggests a homeostatic protective response during the period of potential danger. In CA1, long-lasting growth of small spines subsequently occurs consolidating long-term potentiation but only after the large spines return to their original size. In contrast, small spines do not change in dentate gyrus where potentiation does not occur. The separation in time of these changes allows clear functional differentiation of spines of different sizes.

  7. Assessment of Coronal Radiographic Parameters of the Spine in the Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Karami

    2016-10-01

    Preoperative coronal balance is very important to make a balanced spine after surgery. Other parameters like Lenke classification or main thoracic overcorrection did not affect postoperative coronal decompensation.

  8. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......, the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  9. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...

  10. European [Security] Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three...... of these policies involved the navigation and negotiation of security, borders and governance in and by the European Union (EU). This article analyses these practices of bordering and governance through a five-fold security framework. The article argues that a richer understanding of EU security discourses can...

  11. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  12. Symbolism in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Ernst Haas observed over fifty years ago that ‘United Europe' is a resilient, adaptable, unifying, and yet unspecified symbol'. It is precisely this adaptability and ambiguity that has ensures the continuing importance of European studies as a means of understanding ‘the remarkable social...... of social transformation involved' (Calhoun 2003: 18). This article will consider the role of symbolism in European integration as part of answering Craig Calhoun's call for a means of transcending specific regimes of analysis in order to advance European studies....

  13. The Top 50 Articles on Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Sohrab S; Yu, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Bibliometric study of current literature. To catalog the most important minimally invasive spine (MIS) surgery articles using the amount of citations as a marker of relevance. MIS surgery is a relatively new tool used by spinal surgeons. There is a dynamic and evolving field of research related to MIS techniques, clinical outcomes, and basic science research. To date, there is no comprehensive review of the most cited articles related to MIS surgery. A systematic search was performed over three widely used literature databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. There were four searches performed using the terms "minimally invasive spine surgery," "endoscopic spine surgery," "percutaneous spinal surgery," and "lateral interbody surgery." The amount of citations included was averaged amongst the three databases to rank each article. The query of the three databases was performed in November 2015. Fifty articles were selected based upon the amount of citations each averaged amongst the three databases. The most cited article was titled "Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion (XLIF): a novel surgical technique for anterior lumbar interbody fusion" by Ozgur et al and was credited with 447, 239, and 279 citations in Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus, respectively. Citations ranged from 27 to 239 for Web of Science, 60 to 279 for Scopus, and 104 to 462 for Google Scholar. There was a large variety of articles written spanning over 14 different topics with the majority dealing with clinical outcomes related to MIS surgery. The majority of the most cited articles were level III and level IV studies. This is likely due to the relatively recent nature of technological advances in the field. Furthermore level I and level II studies are required in MIS surgery in the years ahead. 5.

  14. Rare Complications of Cervical Spine Surgery: Horner’s Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Hani R.; Smith, Zachary A.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Kanter, Adam S.; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Cho, Samuel K.; Baird, Evan O.; Isaacs, Robert E.; Rahman, Ra’Kerry K.; Polevaya, Galina; Smith, Justin S.; Shaffrey, Christopher; Tortolani, P. Justin; Stroh, D. Alex; Arnold, Paul M.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Mroz, Thomas E.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: A multicenter retrospective case series. Objective: Horner’s syndrome is a known complication of anterior cervical spinal surgery, but it is rarely encountered in clinical practice. To better understand the incidence, risks, and neurologic outcomes associated with Horner’s syndrome, a multicenter study was performed to review a large collective experience with this rare complication. Methods: We conducted a retrospective multicenter case series study involving 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network. Medical records for 17 625 patients who received subaxial cervical spine surgery from 2005 to 2011 were reviewed to identify occurrence of 21 predefined treatment complications. Descriptive statistics were provided for baseline patient characteristics. Paired t test was used to analyze changes in clinical outcomes at follow-up compared to preoperative status. Results: In total, 8887 patients who underwent anterior cervical spine surgery at the participating institutions were screened. Postoperative Horner’s syndrome was identified in 5 (0.06%) patients. All patients experienced the complication following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. The sympathetic trunk appeared to be more vulnerable when operating on midcervical levels (C5, C6), and most patients experienced at least a partial recovery without further treatment. Conclusions: This collective experience suggests that Horner’s syndrome is an exceedingly rare complication following anterior cervical spine surgery. Injury to the sympathetic trunk may be limited by maintaining a midline surgical trajectory when possible, and performing careful dissection and retraction of the longus colli muscle when lateral exposure is necessary, especially at caudal cervical levels. PMID:28451480

  15. The kinematic relationships of the upper cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Yuichiro; Falakassa, Jonathan; Naito, Masatoshi; Hymanson, Henry J; Taghavi, Cyrus; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2009-11-15

    A retrospective radiographic study. To elucidate the kinematic relationships of the upper cervical spine. To our knowledge, few reports have described the kinematic relationships of the upper cervical spine in patients with general age-related cervical spondylosis. We performed Kinetic magnetic resonance imaging for 295 consecutive patients experiencing neck pain without neurologic symptoms. Subjects with rheumatoid arthritis, traumatic history, and severe degenerative changes in the upper cervical spine were excluded. Anterior atlantodens interval (AADI) and the cervicomedullary angle in 3 different postures were measured, and the variations in each value between flexion and neutral (F-N), neutral and extension (N-E), and flexion and extension (F-E) were calculated. The subjects were classified into 3 groups according to the space available for the cord values (A: or=15 mm). AADI significantly increased from extension to flexion posture, however, no significant differences were observed in every posture among the groups. F-N variation in AADI showed no significant differences among the groups; however, N-E variation between Groups A and C and between Groups B and C and F-E variation between Groups A and C showed significant differences. The cervicomedullary angle significantly increased from flexion to extension posture, however, no significant differences were observed in every posture among the groups. Angle variations among the groups showed no significant differences, except for F-N angle variation between Groups B and C. None of the variations in AADI and the cervicomedullary angle were significantly correlated. Our results suggest that only the kinematics of the atlantoaxial movement, especially the posterior movement, was greatly affected by the narrowing of space available for the cord. The central atlantoaxial joint may be closely related to the mechanisms for protecting the spinal cord by restriction of the atlantoaxial movement.

  16. Technical consideration of transforaminal endoscopic spine surgery for central herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish P Datar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lumbar disc prolapse is most common between 30 and 50 years of age and is associated with severe disability and pain. It commonly occurs at L4/5 and L5/S1. Transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is an emerging technique for treatment of degenerative disc disease. Literature has shown clinical outcomes, comparable to classical open and micro lumbar discectomy. Central disc herniations in lumbar spine pose technical challenge for transforaminal endoscopic decompression due to its location. Existing techniques to access central herniations and ventral epidural space have trajectory related challenges due to the proximity of the retroperitoneal space and abdominal organs and technically difficult for the less experienced surgeon. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients – 19 males and 11 females – with central, multifocal, central-paracentral disc herniations in the lumbar spine operated in 2015 and 2016 were considered in this study. All patients underwent selective endoscopic discectomy under monitored care anesthesia and local anesthesia with modification of the classical technique, medialization of annulotomy, undercutting the nonarticular part of superior articular process (foraminotomy and use of articulating and long jaw instruments either alone or in combination. Results: In all the thirty patients, we were able to achieve adequate decompression with neurological recovery. All patients improved in their neurological status. Postoperatively, visual analog scale dropped from 7.8 to 1.8 and ODI dropped from 73.46% to 32. 90% of the patients reported excellent and good results. One patient had recurrent herniation and was treated with transforaminal surgery. One patient had persistent back pain and reported poor outcome. Three patients underwent medial branch block for facet joint pain followed by medial branch rhizotomy and reported excellent and good results. Conclusion: Transforaminal endoscopic spine surgery with modifications

  17. Clearance of the cervical spine in clinically unevaluable trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Casey H; Milby, Andrew H; Guo, Wensheng; Schuster, James M; Gracias, Vicente H; Stein, Sherman C

    2010-08-15

    Meta-analytic costeffectiveness analysis. Our goal was to compare the results of different management strategies for trauma patients in whom the cervical spine was not clinically evaluable due to impaired consciousness, endotracheal intubation, or painful distracting injuries. We performed a structured literature review related to cervical spine trauma, radiographic clearance techniques (plain radiography, flexion/extension, CT, and MRI), and complications associated with semirigid collar use. Meta-analytic techniques were used to pool data from multiple sources to calculate pooled mean estimates of sensitivities and specificities of imaging techniques for cervical spinal clearance, rates of complications from various clearance strategies and from empirical use of semirigid collars. A decision analysis model was used to compare outcomes and costs among these strategies. Slightly more than 7.5% of patients who are clinically unevaluable have cervical spine injuries, and 42% of these injuries are associated with spinal instability. Sensitivity of plain radiography or fluoroscopy for spinal clearance was 57% (95% CI: 57%-60%). Sensitivities for CT and MRI alone were 83% (82%-84%) and 87% (84%-89%), respectively. Complications associated with collar use ranged from 1.3% (2 days) to 7.1% (10 days) but were usually minor and short-lived. Quadriplegia resulting from spinal instability missed by a clearance test had enormous impacts on longevity, quality of life, and costs. These impacts overshadowed the effects of prolonged collar application, even when the incidence of quadriplegia was extremely low. As currently used, neuroimaging studies for cervical spinal clearance in clinically unevaluable patients are not cost-effective compared with empirical immobilization in a semirigid collar.

  18. Thoracic spine disc-related abnormalities: longitudinal MR imaging assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Charles J.; Schweitzer, Mark E.; Morrison, William B.; Parellada, Joan A. [TJUH Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Carrino, J.A. [Department of Radiology ASB-1, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, L1, Room 002B, 75 Francis Street, MA 02115, Boston (United States)

    2004-04-01

    To describe and characterize the temporal changes in disc-related disorders of the thoracic spine using MR imaging. A retrospective longitudinal cohort study was carried out of 40 patients with two sequential thoracic spine MR images at variable intervals. The images were assessed for baseline presence of, new incidence of and changes in disc herniation, degenerative disc disease, endplate marrow signal alteration and Schmorl nodes. The range of follow-up was 4-149 weeks. Baseline presence was: disc herniation, 10% (49/480); degenerative disc disease, 14% (66/480); endplate marrow signal alteration, 2.3% (11/480); Schmorl nodes 9.6% (46/480). Most pre-existing lesions tended to remain unchanged. Herniations showed the most change, tending to improve in 27%. New incidence was: disc herniation, 1.5% (7/480), degenerative disc disease, 2% (10/480); endplate marrow signal alteration, 1.6% (8/480); Schmorl nodes, 2.1% (10/480). Disc degeneration was first visible at an 11-week interval and once established almost never changed over many weeks to months. Endplate signal alterations (Modic changes) were uncommon. Schmorl nodes show no change from baseline for up to 2 1/2 years. All findings predominated in the lower intervertebral levels from T6 to T10. The most prevalent thoracic spine disc-related findings are degeneration and herniation. Disc herniations predominate in the lower segments and are a dynamic phenomenon. Disc degeneration can be rapidly evolving but tends to remain unchanged after occurrence. Endplate marrow signal changes were an uncommon manifestation of thoracic disc disease. Schmorl nodes showed the least change over time. (orig.)

  19. Preliminary Report of Instrumentation in Tuberculous Lumbosacral Spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Zin-Naing

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of spinal tuberculosis treatment are to eradicate the disease, to prevent the development of paraplegia and kyphotic deformity, to manage the existing deformity and neurological deficit, to allow early ambulation and to return the patient back to daily life. Methods for the treatment of tuberculosis of vertebra are still controversial. Conservative treatment includes medical therapy as well as external supports and surgery is indicated for deformity of spine, severe pain, or neurological compromise conditions. Most cases in our country were late presentations with disc space already infected, and after débridement there was a large gap needing bone graft to enhance bony fusion and anterior column support. Although the spine was infected, instrumentation posed no additional hazard in terms of tuberculous discitis. Oga et al. reported that M. tuberculosis has low adhesion capability and forms only a few microcolonies surrounded by a biofilm. Moon et al. stated that interbody fusion performed with classical anterior radical surgery per se was ineffective in the correction of kyphosis and did not prevent the increase in kyphosis angle. The present study focuses on collected clinical and radiographic outcomes in ten patients who underwent Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (PLIF for tuberculous lumbosacral spine. All the cases had instability with kyphotic deformity or loss of lordosis. Clinical outcomes were measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, modified MacNab Criteria, and radiographic outcomes (segmental kyphotic angle and total lumbar lordotic, TLL, angle on follow-up to six months. The mean VAS back scores showed decrease, and kyphotic angles and lordotic angles improved. Three cases had excellent results, six good and one fair using the modified MacNab criteria.

  20. Pediatric cervical spine marrow T2 hyperintensity: a systematic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gefen, Ron [Cooper University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Candem, NJ (United States); Schweitzer, Mark E. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Shabshin, Nogah [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Hyperintense areas of vertebral bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences are at times seen on pediatric MRI of the cervical spine in children without suspicious clinical conditions to explain marrow pathology. Although these likely have no clinical significance they may be mistaken for pathology. The purpose of this study is to systematically evaluate the locations and patterns of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the pediatric cervical spine, with respect to age. At 1.5 T, the C2 through T3 vertebrae of 82 children aged 0-17 years without clinically suspicious marrow abnormality were retrospectively reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists, who were blinded to patients' age. The frequency, intensity, and location of the foci of marrow T2 hyperintensity were recorded for each vertebra on a 12-point scoring system and were correlated with the patients' age. Foci of marrow hyperintensity were seen in 46/82 (56.1%) patients and in 241/734 (32.8%) vertebrae. Foci were most common in C4 (42% of patients), C5 (45.7%), and C6 (37.8%). The foci of T2 hyperintensity were more common inferiorly (188 foci) and adjacent to the anterior cortex (123). Analysis revealed no significant correlation between age and marrow score (Spearman = -0.147, P = 0.19), but did find a trend towards increased presence of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the ages of most rapid growth, 8-14 years (81.5% of patients). Vertebral body marrow T2 hyperintensity was most common endosteally and in the mid-cervical spine with a slight peak in adolescence. We therefore believe that these pediatric cervical marrow changes may be related to rapid bone growth at the point of maximal kyphotic stress. (orig.)

  1. Endovascular treatment of spine and spinal cord lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenstein, A.

    1992-01-01

    Completing this comprehensive series on endovascular interventional angiography, Volume 5 focuses on the vascular abnormalities of the spine and spinal cord. It is based on the detailed functional vascular anatomy described in Volume 3 and the principles and function of endovascular treatment described in Volumes 1-4. As in the companion volumes, the unique approach gives view of the disease itself, its anatomical features and its clinical presentation. The technical aspects of the interventional or endovascular neuroradiology are built upon the solid analysis of the disease and its angioarchitecture. The recent developments in endovascular procedures, such as aneurysm treatment, angioplasty, and vascular recanalizations, are reviewed. (orig.). 118 figs. in 442 separate illustrations

  2. Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine; Cistos sinoviais lombares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Ana Claudia Ferreira; Machado, Marcio Martins [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas]. E-mail: anaclaudiaferreira@ig.com.br; Figueiredo, Marco Antonio Junqueira [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Tomografia Computadorizada; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    2002-10-01

    Intraspinal synovial cysts of the lumbar spine are rare and commonly associated with osteoarthritis of the facet joints, particularly at level L4-L5. Symptoms are uncommon and may include low-back pain or sciatica. These cysts are accurately diagnosed by using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Diagnosis is essential for the correct management of the cysts. Several treatment options are available including rest and immobilization, computed tomography guided corticosteroid injection, and surgery in patients that are nonresponsive to other treatment methods. (author)

  3. Radiologic abnormalities of the thoraco-lumbar spine in athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Swaerd, L.; Peterson, L. (Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopedics King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Radiology)

    1990-03-01

    A radiologic study of the thoraco-lumbar spine was performed in 143 (117 male and 26 female) athletes (wrestlers, gymnasts, soccer players and tennis players), aged 14 to 25 years and 30 male nonathletes, aged 19 to 25 years. Film interpretation was made after mixing the films from all groups and without knowledge of the individual's identity. Various types of radiologic abnormalities occured in both athletes and non-athletes but were more common among athletes, especially male-gymnasts and wrestlers. Abnormalities of the vertebral ring apophysis occurred exclusively in athletes. Combinations of different types of abnormalities were most common in male gymnasts and wrestlers. (orig.).

  4. Primary intradural mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the spine in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu-Hua [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Radiology, Xin Hua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Yao, Xiao-Hong [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Pathology, Xin Hua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2007-11-15

    We report a primary intradural mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the spine in a 3-year-old girl. MRI revealed a markedly enhancing oval mass associated with focal areas of low signal intensity extending from T11 to L1. The lesion was located posterolateral to the right side of the spinal cord, pushing the conus medullaris and cauda equina anteriorly and to the left. The adjacent spinal cord also showed serpiginous areas of flow void. The mass was completely removed. Microscopic examination and immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. The patient was free of symptoms after surgery. (orig.)

  5. Hyperextension strain of ''whiplash'' injuries to the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, H.J.; Olson, P.N.; Everson, L.I.; Winemiller, M.

    1995-01-01

    A full cervical spine radiographic series (including flexion and extension views) was reviewed in 40 patients with clinically proven ''whiplash'' injuries and compared to the radiographs in 105 normal controls. The level and degree of kinking or kyphosis, subluxation, and the difference in the amount of fanning between spinous processes on flexion and extension films were measured in each patient. Localized kinking greater than 10 and over 12 mm of fanning, often occurring at the level below the kinking or kyphosis, occurred mainly in the group of whiplash patients (sensitivity 81%, specificity 76%, accuracy 80%). (orig./VHE)

  6. Multiplanar reformatted CT applications in the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Takafumi; Kojima, Shinsaburo; Araki, Nobuto; Miyauchi, Sumihiko

    1986-01-01

    Diagnostic value and limitations of multiplanar reformatted CT were evaluated in 55 patients with lumbar diseases. Reformatted images in coronal, sagittal, paraxial, and oblique planes were acquired from the transverse axial images, thereby allowing three-dimensional visualization of lesions in the lumbar spine. Oblique images that were reformmated along the nervous root were useful in visualizing lesions in the root canal, which were not available on either conventional myelography or transverse axial CT. A definitive plane determination is required for reformation of images, taking curvature of the spinal column into account. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Tomographic imaging of the cervical spine of horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, L.P.; Machado, V.M.V.; Santos, R.V.; Evangelista, F.C.; Vulcano, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy of the cervical spine of mature horses based on images obtained with a helical computed tomography examination performed on anatomic specimens was studied. Computed tomography was the diagnostic imaging method of choice and allowed three-dimensional reconstructions of images and other anatomical planes, such as coronal and sagittal. All images were acquired and evaluated in the filter and window to bone tissue. It was possible to demonstrate the anatomical differences and peculiarities of the normal vertebrae, particularly the occipito-atlantoaxial region, which has a higher incidence of changes to assist in the visualization of any change of the bone pattern on CT studies. (author)

  8. Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine; diagnosed with magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez Munoz, Sonia; Charry Lopez, Marco Luciano

    1998-01-01

    A series of nine cases of synovial cysts of the lumbar spine, diagnosed with magnetic resonance is presented. The cysts were found in patients aged 24 to 73 yrs, most of which had symptoms related with this finding. Some were seen as incidental findings or unrelated to symptoms. The most typical characteristic of these lesions is that of a rounded, ovoid or bilobed image, with close anatomical relation with the facet joints or the ligamentum flavum, that presented with facet joint arthrosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis was significant and useful for diagnosis

  9. Spinal CT scan, 1. Cervical and thoracic spines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi (Aichi Medical Univ. (Japan))

    1982-01-01

    Methods of CT of the cervical and thoracic spines were explained, and normal CT pictures of them were described. Spinal CT was evaluated in comparison with other methods in various spinal diseases. Plain CT revealed stenosis due to spondylosis or ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament and hernia of intervertebral disc. CT took an important role in the diagnosis of spinal cord tumors with calcification and destruction of the bone. CT scan in combination with other methods was also useful for the diagnosis of spinal injuries, congenital anomalies and infections.

  10. Percutaneous aspiration biopsy in cervical spine lytic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tampieri, D.; Weill, A.; Melanson, D.; Ethier, R.

    1991-01-01

    We describe the technique and the results of the percutaneous aspiration biopsy (PAB) in a series of 9 patients presenting with neck pain and different degrees of myelopathy, in whom the cervical spine X-ray demonstrated lytic lesions of unknown origin. PAB is a useful, relatively safe technique, and leads to histological diagnosis between metastatic and inflammatory processes. Furthermore, in inflammatory lesions with negative hemoculture, PAB may help in detecting the micro-organism responsible and therefore allow a better antibiotic treatment. (orig.)

  11. MRI in degenerative diseases of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubeus, P.; Sander, B.; Hosten, N.; Mayer, H.M.; Weber, U.; Felix, R.

    1994-01-01

    MRI has grown increasingly important in recent years in diagnosis of degenerative diseases of the cervical spine, due to improvements of method that have made it a valuable diagnostic tool. The following contribution gives a brief introduction to the pathophysiology of degenerative changes in the cervical vertebral column and to the indications for MRI, describing within the framework of imaging the present state of MR examination technique. The ranking of the various gradient echo sequences, of the 3D methods and of the administration of contrast media in cervical myelopathy and radiaculopathy is discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. Primary intradural mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the spine in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yu-Hua; Yao, Xiao-Hong

    2007-01-01

    We report a primary intradural mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the spine in a 3-year-old girl. MRI revealed a markedly enhancing oval mass associated with focal areas of low signal intensity extending from T11 to L1. The lesion was located posterolateral to the right side of the spinal cord, pushing the conus medullaris and cauda equina anteriorly and to the left. The adjacent spinal cord also showed serpiginous areas of flow void. The mass was completely removed. Microscopic examination and immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. The patient was free of symptoms after surgery. (orig.)

  13. Radiologic abnormalities of the thoraco-lumbar spine in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Swaerd, L.; Peterson, L.; Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg; King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh

    1990-01-01

    A radiologic study of the thoraco-lumbar spine was performed in 143 (117 male and 26 female) athletes (wrestlers, gymnasts, soccer players and tennis players), aged 14 to 25 years and 30 male nonathletes, aged 19 to 25 years. Film interpretation was made after mixing the films from all groups and without knowledge of the individual's identity. Various types of radiologic abnormalities occured in both athletes and non-athletes but were more common among athletes, especially male-gymnasts and wrestlers. Abnormalities of the vertebral ring apophysis occurred exclusively in athletes. Combinations of different types of abnormalities were most common in male gymnasts and wrestlers. (orig.)

  14. MR imaging evaluation of congenital malformation of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, S.E.; Radkowski, M.A.; McLone, D.G.; Storrs, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    One hundred fifty children with congenital malformations of the spine were studied with MR imaging, US, and water-soluble myelography with CT. The malformations encountered included myelomeningoceles and Chiari II malformations, diastematomyelia, hydromyelia, arachnoid cyst, dermal sinus and dermoid, spinal lipomas and teratomas, tight filum terminale, anterior sacral meningoceles, lipomyelomeningoceles, myelocystocele, and severe scoliosis. MR imaging was the most effective modality in delineating these abnormalities. At times, real-time US and water-soluble CT myelography were required as adjuncts to MR imaging in delineating subtle spinal cord tethering, arachnoid cyst, diastematomyelia, and severe scoliosis

  15. Cervical spine and crystal-associated diseases: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feydy, Antoine; Chevrot, Alain; Drape, Jean-Luc [Hopital Cochin, Service de Radiologie B, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Liote, Frederic [Hopital Lariboisiere, Federation de Rhumatologie, Paris (France); Carlier, Robert [Hopital Raymond Poincare, Radiologie, Garches (France)

    2006-02-01

    The cervical spine may be specifically involved in crystal-associated arthropathies. In this article, we focus on the three common crystals and diseases: hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition disease, and monosodium urate crystals (gout). The cervical involvement in crystal-associated diseases may provoke a misleading clinical presentation with acute neck pain, fever, or neurological symptoms. Imaging allows an accurate diagnosis in typical cases with calcific deposits and destructive lesions of the discs and joints. Most of the cases are related to CPPD or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition; gout is much less common. (orig.)

  16. Cervical spine and crystal-associated diseases: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feydy, Antoine; Chevrot, Alain; Drape, Jean-Luc; Liote, Frederic; Carlier, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The cervical spine may be specifically involved in crystal-associated arthropathies. In this article, we focus on the three common crystals and diseases: hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition disease, and monosodium urate crystals (gout). The cervical involvement in crystal-associated diseases may provoke a misleading clinical presentation with acute neck pain, fever, or neurological symptoms. Imaging allows an accurate diagnosis in typical cases with calcific deposits and destructive lesions of the discs and joints. Most of the cases are related to CPPD or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition; gout is much less common. (orig.)

  17. Hyperextension strain of ``whiplash`` injuries to the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, H.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Olson, P.N. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Everson, L.I. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Winemiller, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    A full cervical spine radiographic series (including flexion and extension views) was reviewed in 40 patients with clinically proven ``whiplash`` injuries and compared to the radiographs in 105 normal controls. The level and degree of kinking or kyphosis, subluxation, and the difference in the amount of fanning between spinous processes on flexion and extension films were measured in each patient. Localized kinking greater than 10 and over 12 mm of fanning, often occurring at the level below the kinking or kyphosis, occurred mainly in the group of whiplash patients (sensitivity 81%, specificity 76%, accuracy 80%). (orig./VHE)

  18. VARIANTS OF SPINE OSTEOSYNTESIS AT LOW MINERAL DENSITY OF BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Usikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the results of transpedicular screw fixation in the treatment of patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures was done. In the first group (N=27 the polysegmental transpedicular screw fixation was applied. In the second group (N=20 we used short-level stabilization with additional augmentation of transpedicular screws by bone cement. The spinal stability, restoration of function, correction of spine's deformation and pain relief was same in both groups. But in the second group the results was achieved with less traumatization and time of rehabilitation of the patients.

  19. Intraosseous hemangioblastoma of the cervical spine: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenteng; Curtis, Brian; Layser, Robert; Selvarajan, Santosh Kumar; Harrop, James; Kenyon, Lawrence C; Parsons, Theodore; Rubin, Asa

    2017-09-01

    A 69-year-old woman presented with bilateral upper-extremity radiculopathy and neck pain after a mechanical fall. Admission CT and MRI of the cervical spine demonstrated a pathological C-4 fracture. Subsequent malignancy workup was negative. A CT-guided biopsy of the lesion showed intraosseous hemangioblastoma. Hemangioblastoma is a highly vascular, slow-growing tumor of the CNS; intraosseous location of this tumor is extremely rare. The authors review the diversity of its presentation and the treatment techniques of this rare tumor in an extremely rare location.

  20. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma metastasis to the thoracic spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, C Rory; Khattab, Mohamed H; Sankey, Eric W; Crane, Genevieve M; McCarthy, Edward F; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2016-02-01

    Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a very rare salivary gland malignancy accounting for less than 1% of salivary gland tumors, and classically arises from the parotid gland in females. Spinal cord compression caused by EMC metastasized from the parotid gland has only been described once in the literature to our knowledge. We report the first case of a patient with parotid EMC spinal metastasis undergoing a gross total resection with instrumented fusion. This case illustrates that an en bloc resection with a planned transgression through the spinal canal may be a reasonable option for EMC metastasized to the spine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.