WorldWideScience

Sample records for european spallation source

  1. New science at the European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, J.L. [University Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1996-05-01

    The European Spallation Source is a trans-European project aimed at the ultimate construction of a next-generation pulsed spallation neutron source that will deliver 30 times the beam power of ISIS. The reference design for the proposed source has been set, and work is in progress to develop an updated scientific case for the construction of the source early in the next century. Together with improvements in instrumentation, effective flux gains of over two orders of magnitude are likely in some areas, opening up major new opportunities for the exploitation of neutron studies in fundamental, strategic, and applied science. (author)

  2. Decommissioning Plan for European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    This paper is a survey of the European Spallation Source initial decommissioning plan developed in compliance with Swedish Regulatory Authority requirements. The report outlines the decommissioning strategy selected and the baseline plan for decommissioning. Types and quantities of radioactive waste estimated to be generated at the final shut-down of the facility are further provided. The paper ends up with the analysis of the key elements of the decommissioning plan and the recommendations to the ESS management team..

  3. Decommissioning Plan for European Spallation Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a survey of the European Spallation Source initial decommissioning plan developed in compliance with Swedish Regulatory Authority requirements. The report outlines the decommissioning strategy selected and the baseline plan for decommissioning. Types and quantities of radioactive waste estimated to be generated at the final shut-down of the facility are further provided. The paper ends up with the analysis of the key elements of the decommissioning plan and the recommendations to the ESS management team..

  4. Management of Tritium in European Spallation Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ene, Daniela; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Jensen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) will produce tritium via spallation and activation processes during operational activities. Within the location of ESS facility in Lund, Sweden site it is mandatory to demonstrate that the management strategy of the produced tritium ensures the compliance...... with the country regulation criteria. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the different aspects of the tritium management in ESS facility. Besides the design parameter study of the helium coolant purification system of the target the consequences of the tritium releasing into the environment were also...... analyzed. Calculations shown that the annual release of tritium during the normal operations represents a small fraction from the estimated total dose. However, more refined calculations of migration of activated-groundwater should be performed for higher hydraulic conductivities, with the availability...

  5. Neutron moderators for the European Spallation Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Zanini, L.; Batkov, K.

    to have access to cold and thermal neutrons with highest possible source brightness. Different design and configuration options were evaluated. The final configuration accepted for construction foresees two moderators with identical para-hydrogen (so-called "butterfly") shape, but different heights......The design of the neutron moderators for the European Spallation Source, intended to be installed at the start of operations of the facility in 2019 has now been finalized and the moderators are being fabricated. Among the driving principles in the design have been flexibility for instruments...

  6. Fundamental physics possibilities at the European Spallation Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Soldner, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    The construction of the European Spallation Source ESS is ongoing in Lund, Sweden. This new high power spallation source with its long-pulse structure opens up new possibilities for fundamental physics experiments. This paper focusses on two proposals for fundamental physics at the ESS: The ANNI...

  7. The European scene regarding spallation neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Austria)

    1996-06-01

    In Europe, a short pulse spallation neutron source, ISIS, has been operating for over 10 years, working its way up to a beam power level of 200 kW. A continuous source, SINQ, designed for a beam power of up to 1 MW, is scheduled to start operating at the end of 1996, and a detailed feasibility study has been completed for a 410 kW short pulse source, AUSTRON. Each of these sources seems to have settled for a target concept which is at or near the limits of its feasibility: The ISIS depleted uranium plate targets, heavy water cooled and Zircaloy clad, have so far not shown satisfactory service time and operation is likely to continue with a Ta-plate target, which, in the past has been used successfully for the equivalent of one full-beam-year before it was taken out of service due to degrading thermal properties. SINQ will initially use a rod target, made of Zircaloy only, but plans exist to move on to clad lead rods as quickly as possible. Apart from the not yet explored effect of hydrogen and helium production, there are also concerns about the generation of 7-Be in the cooling water from the spallation of oxygen, which might result in undesirably high radioactivity in the cooling plant room. A Liquid metal target, also under investigation for SINQ, would not only reduce this problem to a level of about 10 %, but would also minimize the risk of radiolytic corrosion in the beam interaction zone. Base on similar arguments, AUSTRON has been designed for edge cooled targets, but thermal and stress analyses show, that this concept is not feasible at higher power levels.

  8. Towards the construction of the European spallation source – The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The possible realization of the European spallation source has been a long and winding story. However, thanks to the conjunction of a number of events it now looks highly probable that in 2008 there will indeed be a decision on the site and on a funding partnership of European countries who will together build ...

  9. Fundamental physics possibilities at the European Spallation Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Batkov, Konstantin; Mezei, Ferenc

    2016-01-01

    The construction of the European Spallation has recently started in Lund, Sweden.In addition to the neutron scattering instruments the ESS is designed to serve, the constructionof a new spallation source opens up new possibilities for fundamental physics experiments. Inthis paper some...... of the possibilities for in-pile experiments are discussed, i.e. experiments thatimpacts the target-moderator-reector systems and that can best be constructed if they areconsidered already in the design phase of a new facility. The main focus of the work reportedhere is put on possible changes to the baseline target...

  10. VESPA: The vibrational spectrometer for the European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedrigo, Anna, E-mail: anna.fedrigo@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); European Spallation Source ESS AB, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Colognesi, Daniele; Grazzi, Francesco; Zoppi, Marco [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bertelsen, Mads; Strobl, Markus [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); European Spallation Source ESS AB, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Hartl, Monika; Deen, Pascale P. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lefmann, Kim [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2016-06-15

    VESPA, Vibrational Excitation Spectrometer with Pyrolytic-graphite Analysers, aims to probe molecular excitations via inelastic neutron scattering. It is a thermal high resolution inverted geometry time-of-flight instrument designed to maximise the use of the long pulse of the European Spallation Source. The wavelength frame multiplication technique was applied to provide simultaneously a broad dynamic range (about 0-500 meV) while a system of optical blind choppers allows to trade flux for energy resolution. Thanks to its high flux, VESPA will allow the investigation of dynamical and in situ experiments in physical chemistry. Here we describe the design parameters and the corresponding McStas simulations.

  11. The concept of a European spallation neutron source (ESS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    The next generation neutron source in Europe, which was studied by a collaboration between twelve laboratories, has been conceived as a 5 MW short pulse spallation source because of the superior overall scientific potential attributed to such a facility relative to all other options considered. While the accelerator side can use essentially established technology with some extensions in performance, a novel target concept based on the use of Mercury as a flowing liquid metal target was developed, which is not only expected to lead the way further into the future, but which was also found to give the best neutronic performance of all known choices. Close permanent interaction with a large user community yielded important input for the concept in general and for the upcoming R and D and design phases in particular. (author)

  12. "Innovation and Intellectual Property Policies in European Research Infrastructure Consortia - PART I: The Case of the European Spallation Source ERIC"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Helen; Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    of the problems society is facing today. To facilitate the creation and operation of such RIs, the EU adopted legal frameworks for European Research Infrastructure Consortia (ERIC). On August 31, 2015, the European Spallation Source (ESS) was established as an ERIC. Under the ERIC Regulations and ESS Statutes......, the European Spallation Source ERIC is required to adopt various policy documents relating to the operation and management of the facility. These cover a wide variety of issues such as user access, public procurement, intellectual property rights (IPR), data management, and dissemination. One of the main goals...... international research collaborations? The complex relationship between scientific excellence, innovation, and IPRs must be carefully considered. Taking the European Spallation Source ERIC as an example, this article investigates ERIC Regulations and EU policies and discusses what issues and perspectives ERICs...

  13. Cooperative effort between Consorcio European Spallation Source--Bilbao and Oak Ridge National Laboratory spallation neutron source for manufacturing and testing of the JEMA-designed modulator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, David E [ORNL

    2017-01-02

    The JEMA modulator was originally developed for the European Spallation Source (ESS) when Spain was under consideration as a location for the ESS facility. Discussions ensued and the Spallation Neutron Source Research Accelerator Division agreed to form a collaboration with ESS-Bilbao (ESS-B) consortium to provide services for specifying the requirements for a version of the modulator capable of operating twelve 550 kW klystrons, monitoring the technical progress on the contract with JEMA, installing and commissioning the modulator at SNS, and performing a 30 day full power test. This work was recently completed, and this report discusses those activities with primary emphasis on the installation and testing activities.

  14. "Innovation and Intellectual Property Policies in European Research Infrastructure Consortia - PART I: The Case of the European Spallation Source ERIC"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Helen; Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    , the European Spallation Source ERIC is required to adopt various policy documents relating to the operation and management of the facility. These cover a wide variety of issues such as user access, public procurement, intellectual property rights (IPR), data management, and dissemination. One of the main goals...

  15. "Innovation and Intellectual Property Policies in European Research Infrastructure Consortia - PART I: The Case of the European Spallation Source ERIC"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Helen; Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Research and innovation are key pillars of the EU’s strategy to create sustainable growth and prosperity in Europe. Research infrastructures (RIs) are central instruments to implement this strategy. They bring together a wide diversity of expertise and interests to look for solutions to many...... of the problems society is facing today. To facilitate the creation and operation of such RIs, the EU adopted legal frameworks for European Research Infrastructure Consortia (ERIC). On August 31, 2015, the European Spallation Source (ESS) was established as an ERIC. Under the ERIC Regulations and ESS Statutes......, the European Spallation Source ERIC is required to adopt various policy documents relating to the operation and management of the facility. These cover a wide variety of issues such as user access, public procurement, intellectual property rights (IPR), data management, and dissemination. One of the main goals...

  16. Thermal chopper spectrometer for the European spallation source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klenø, Kaspar Hewitt; Lefmann, Kim

    2011-01-01

    One of the instruments being considered for the ESS is a thermal chopper spectrometer, intended for the study of lattice vibrations and magnetic excitations. However, as the ESS will be a long pulsed source, we propose a very long instrument (180–300 m). We here present a guide system that can...... achieve a flux of 3.47 ×108 n/(s·cm2) and a resolution of dE/E = 5.3% for 1 Å neutrons on the sample with a transport efficiency of 80%. Furthermore, we demonstrate the efficiency of the instrument using a virtual experiment measuring an elastic line width...

  17. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, L., E-mail: neri@lns.infn.it; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Via Graziella, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund (Sweden); Galatà, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Patti, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Gozzo, A.; Lega, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Università degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  18. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, L; Celona, L; Gammino, S; Mascali, D; Castro, G; Torrisi, G; Cheymol, B; Ponton, A; Galatà, A; Patti, G; Gozzo, A; Lega, L; Ciavola, G

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  19. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a next-generation spallation neutron source for neutron scattering that is currently the most powerful neutron source in...

  20. Design specification for the European Spallation Source neutron generating target element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, A. [Consorcio ESS-BILBAO. Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia. Poligono Ugaldeguren III, Pol. A, 7B, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Sordo, F., E-mail: fernando.sordo@essbilbao.org [Consorcio ESS-BILBAO. Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia. Poligono Ugaldeguren III, Pol. A, 7B, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Mora, T. [Consorcio ESS-BILBAO. Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia. Poligono Ugaldeguren III, Pol. A, 7B, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Mena, L. [Consorcio ESS-BILBAO. Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia. Poligono Ugaldeguren III, Pol. A, 7B, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Mancisidor, M.; Aguilar, J.; Bakedano, G.; Herranz, I.; Luna, P. [Consorcio ESS-BILBAO. Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia. Poligono Ugaldeguren III, Pol. A, 7B, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Magan, M.; Vivanco, R. [Consorcio ESS-BILBAO. Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia. Poligono Ugaldeguren III, Pol. A, 7B, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez-Villacorta, F. [Consorcio ESS-BILBAO. Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia. Poligono Ugaldeguren III, Pol. A, 7B, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Sjogreen, K.; Oden, U. [European Spallation Source ERIC, P.O Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Perlado, J.M. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2017-06-01

    The paper addresses some of the most relevant issues concerning the thermal hydraulics and radiation damage of the neutron generation target to be built at the European Spallation Source as recently approved after a critical design review. The target unit consists of a set of Tungsten blocks placed inside a wheel of 2.5 m diameter which rotates at some 0.5 Hz in order to distribute the heat generated from incoming protons which reach the target in the radial direction. The spallation material elements are composed of an array of Tungsten pieces which rest on a rotating steel support (the cassette) and are distributed in a cross-flow configuration. The thermal, mechanical and radiation effects resulting from the impact of a 2 GeV proton pulse are analysed in detail as well as an evaluation of the inventory of spallation products. The current design is found to conform to specifications and found to be robust enough to deal with several accident scenarios.

  1. The test beamline of the European Spallation Source – Instrumentation development and wavelength frame multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woracek, R., E-mail: robin.woracek@esss.se [European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, P.O. Box 176, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Hofmann, T.; Bulat, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Sales, M. [Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Habicht, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Andersen, K. [European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, P.O. Box 176, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Strobl, M. [European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, P.O. Box 176, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-12-11

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), scheduled to start operation in 2020, is aiming to deliver the most intense neutron beams for experimental research of any facility worldwide. Its long pulse time structure implies significant differences for instrumentation compared to other spallation sources which, in contrast, are all providing short neutron pulses. In order to enable the development of methods and technology adapted to this novel type of source well in advance of the first instruments being constructed at ESS, a test beamline (TBL) was designed and built at the BER II research reactor at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB). Operating the TBL shall provide valuable experience in order to allow for a smooth start of operations at ESS. The beamline is capable of mimicking the ESS pulse structure by a double chopper system and provides variable wavelength resolution as low as 0.5% over a wide wavelength band between 1.6 Å and 10 Å by a dedicated wavelength frame multiplication (WFM) chopper system. WFM is proposed for several ESS instruments to allow for flexible time-of-flight resolution. Hence, ESS will benefit from the TBL which offers unique possibilities for testing methods and components. This article describes the main capabilities of the instrument, its performance as experimentally verified during the commissioning, and its relevance to currently starting ESS instrumentation projects.

  2. Waste heat recovery from the European Spallation Source cryogenic helium plants - implications for system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurns, John M. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bäck, Harald [Sweco Industry AB, P.O. Box 286, 201 22 Malmö (Sweden); Gierow, Martin [Lunds Energikoncernen AB, P.O. Box 25, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) neutron spallation project currently being designed will be built outside of Lund, Sweden. The ESS design includes three helium cryoplants, providing cryogenic cooling for the proton accelerator superconducting cavities, the target neutron source, and for the ESS instrument suite. In total, the cryoplants consume approximately 7 MW of electrical power, and will produce approximately 36 kW of refrigeration at temperatures ranging from 2-16 K. Most of the power consumed by the cryoplants ends up as waste heat, which must be rejected. One hallmark of the ESS design is the goal to recycle waste heat from ESS to the city of Lund district heating system. The design of the cooling system must optimize the delivery of waste heat from ESS to the district heating system and also assure the efficient operation of ESS systems. This report outlines the cooling scheme for the ESS cryoplants, and examines the effect of the cooling system design on cryoplant design, availability and operation.

  3. Conceptual design of a cold methane moderator system for the European Spallation Source (ESS)

    CERN Document Server

    Barnert-Wiemer, H

    2002-01-01

    As part of the work for the target station of the planned European spallation source (ESS) the Central Department of Technology at the Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH is also concerned with the moderators, particular attention being given to the development of cold methane moderators. This report discusses the technical feasibility of solid methane moderators. Methods to tailor the neutron output by adding absorption materials (decouplers or poisons) are not considered here, neither are composite moderators. Based on the given target-moderator-reflector assembly of the ESS project a concept for the ESS cold methane moderators has been developed and is being examined at the Forschungszentrum Juelich. According to this moderator concept the moderator is a fixed bed of small spheres, which makes moderator container filling homogeneous and reproducible. Since spheres form a defined packed bed, cooling of the moderator bed by H sub 2 is reliable. The process of filling the moderator container and of removing the pe...

  4. VSI@ESS: Case study for a vibrational spectroscopy instrument at the european spallation source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoppi Marco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron Vibrational Spectroscopy is a well-established experimental technique where elementary excitations at relatively high frequency are detected via inelastic neutron scattering. This technique attracts a high interest in a large fraction of the scientific community in the fields of chemistry, materials science, physics, and biology, since one of its main applications exploits the large incoherent scattering cross section of the proton with respect to all the other elements, whose dynamics can be spectroscopically detected, even if dissolved in very low concentration in materials composed of much heavier atoms. We have proposed a feasibility study for a Vibrational Spectroscopy Instrument (VSI at the European Spallation Source ESS. Here, we will summarize the preliminary design calculations and the corresponding McStas simulation results for a possible ToF, Inverted Geometry, VSI beamline.

  5. Pulsed spallation Neutron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, J.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development at Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provides a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology.

  6. Beam commission of the high intensity proton source developed at INFN-LNS for the European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Miraglia, A.; Leonardi, O.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Mascali, D.; Mazzaglia, M.; Allegra, L.; Amato, A.; Calabrese, G.; Caruso, A.; Chines, F.; Gallo, G.; Longhitano, A.; Manno, G.; Marletta, S.; Maugeri, A.; Passarello, S.; Pastore, G.; Seminara, A.; Spartà, A.; Vinciguerra, S.

    2017-07-01

    At the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS) the beam commissioning of the high intensity Proton Source for the European Spallation Source (PS-ESS) started in November 2016. Beam stability at high current intensity is one of the most important parameter for the first steps of the ongoing commissioning. Promising results were obtained since the first source start with a 6 mm diameter extraction hole. The increase of the extraction hole to 8 mm allowed improving PS-ESS performances and obtaining the values required by the ESS accelerator. In this work, extracted beam current characteristics together with Doppler shift and emittance measurements are presented, as well as the description of the next phases before the installation at ESS in Lund.

  7. European Neutrons form Parasitic Research to Global Strategy: Realizing Plans for a Transnational European Spallation Source in the Wake of the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiserfeld, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Studies of Big Science have early on focused on instrumentation and scientific co-operation in large organizations, later on to take into account symbolic values and specific research styles while more recently also involving the relevance of commercial interests and economic development as well as the assimilation of research traditions. In accordance with these transformed practices, this presentation will analyze how an organization with the purpose of realizing a Big-Science facility, The European Spallation Source, has successfully managed to present the project as relevant to different national and international policy-makers, to the community of European neutron researchers as well as to different industrial interests. All this has been achieved in a research-policy environment, which has been the subject to drastic transformations, from calls to engage researchers from the former eastern bloc in the early 1990s via competition with American and Asian researchers at the turn of the century 2000 to intensified demands on business applications. During this process, there has also been fierce competition between different potential sites in the U.K., Germany, Spain, Hungary and Sweden, not once, but twice. The project has in addition been plagued by withdrawals of key actors as well as challenging problems in the field of spallation-source construction. Nevertheless, the European Spallation Source has survived from the early 1990s until today, now initiating the construction process at Lund in southern Sweden. In this presentation, the different measures taken and arguments raised by the European Spallation Source project in order to realize the facility will be analysed. Especially the different designs of the European Spallation Source will be analysed as responses to external demands and threats.

  8. Final design, fluid dynamic and structural mechanical analysis of a liquid hydrogen Moderator for the European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessler, Y.; Henkes, C.; Hanusch, F.; Schumacher, P.; Natour, G.; Butzek, M.; Klaus, M.; Lyngh, D.; Kickulies, M.

    2017-02-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is currently in the construction phase and should have first beam on Target in 2019. ESS, located in Sweden, will be the most powerful spallation neutron source worldwide, with the goal to produce neutrons for research. As an in-kind partner the Forschungszentrum Juelich will among others, design and manufacture the four liquid hydrogen Moderators, which are located above and below the Target. Those vessels are confining the cold hydrogen used to reduce the energy level of the fast neutrons, produced by spallation in the Target, in order to make the neutrons usable for neutron scattering instruments. Due to the requirements [1], a fluid dynamic analysis with pressure and temperature depended hydrogen data, taking into account the pseudo critical phenomena and the pulsed neutronic heating (pressure waves) is necessary. With the fluid dynamic results, a structure mechanical analysis including radiation damage investigation (RCC-MRx code [5]), low temperature properties as well as strength reduction by welding can be realized. Finally, the manufacturing and welding completes the design process.

  9. In pursuit of a promise perspectives on the political process to establish the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    On 28 May 2009, at a closed meeting in Brussels, ministers and state secretaries of education and science from several EU countries decided to build the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden. Or did they? It is common for big European science projects to be surrounded by secrecy and political deceit, but the ESS is extraordinary in its elusiveness. There is a remarkable lack of concrete economic, political, technical and scientific underpinnings to the project - but a boasting certainty in the promises of future paybacks. The ESS is an accelerator-based neutron spallation facility that will cost billions of Euros to build and run. It is expected to bring new knowledge in several fields including materials science, energy research, and the life sciences. But its financing is not yet certain, and future returns hard to predict. How then could the decision to build ESS occur? Why was there so little organized resistance? This book places the ESS project in its political and scientific context. It link...

  10. CAMEA ESS – The continuous angle multi-energy analysis indirect geometry spectrometer for the European Spallation Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman P.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The CAMEA ESS neutron spectrometer is designed to achieve a high detection efficiency in the horizontal scattering plane, and to maximize the use of the long pulse European Spallation Source. It is an indirect geometry time-of-flight spectrometer that uses crystal analysers to determine the final energy of neutrons scattered from the sample. Unlike other indirect geometry spectrometers CAMEA will use ten concentric arcs of analysers to analyse scattered neutrons at ten different final energies, which can be increased to 30 final energies by use of prismatic analysis. In this report we will outline the CAMEA instrument concept, the large performance gain, and the potential scientific advancements that can be made with this instrument.

  11. Materials for spallation neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, W.F.; Daemen, L.L. [comps.

    1996-03-01

    The Workshop on Materials for Spallation Neutron Sources at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, February 6 to 10, 1995, gathered scientists from Department of Energy national laboratories, other federal institutions, universities, and industry to discuss areas in which work is needed, successful designs and use of materials, and opportunities for further studies. During the first day of the workshop, speakers presented overviews of current spallation neutron sources. During the next 3 days, seven panels allowed speakers to present information on a variety of topics ranging from experimental and theoretical considerations on radiation damage to materials safety issues. An attempt was made to identify specific problems that require attention within the context of spallation neutron sources. This proceedings is a collection of summaries from the overview sessions and the panel presentations.

  12. Status of spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Existing and planned facilities using proton accelerator driven spallation neutron source are reviewed. These include new project of neutron science proposed from Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The present status of facility requirement and accelerator technology leads us to new era of neutron science such as neutron scattering research and nuclear transmutation study using very intense neutron source. (author)

  13. Towards the construction of the European spallation source–The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The possible realization of the European spallation source has been a long and winding story. However, thanks to the conjunction of a number of events it now looks highly probable that in 2008 there will indeed be a decision on the site and on a funding partnership of European countries who will together build and ...

  14. A Very Intense Neutrino Super Beam Experiment for Leptonic CP Violation Discovery based on the European Spallation Source Linac: A Snowmass 2013 White Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Baussan, E; Bogomilov, M.; Bouquerel, E.; Cederkäll, J.; Christiansen, P.; Coloma, P.; Cupial, P.; Danared, H.; Densham, C.; Dracos, M.; Ekelöf, T.; Eshraqi, M.; Fernandez Martinez, E.; Gaudiot, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Koutchouk, J.P.; Lindroos, M.; Matev, R.; McGinnis, D.; Mezzetto, M.; Miyamoto, R.; Mosca, L.; Ohlsson, T.; Öhman, H.; Osswald, F.; Peggs, S.; Poussot, P.; Ruber, R.; Tang, J.Y.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wildner, E.; Wurtz, J.

    2014-01-01

    Very intense neutrino beams and large neutrino detectors will be needed in order to enable the discovery of CP violation in the leptonic sector. We propose to use the proton linac of the European Spallation Source currently under construction in Lund, Sweden to deliver, in parallel with the spallation neutron production, a very intense, cost effective and high performance neutrino beam. The baseline program for the European Spallation Source linac is that it will be fully operational at 5 MW average power by 2022, producing 2 GeV 2.86 ms long proton pulses at a rate of 14 Hz. Our proposal is to upgrade the linac to 10 MW average power and 28 Hz, producing 14 pulses/s for neutron production and 14 pulses/s for neutrino production. Furthermore, because of the high current required in the pulsed neutrino horn, the length of the pulses used for neutrino production needs to be compressed to a few $\\mu$s with the aid of an accumulator ring. A long baseline experiment using this Super Beam and a megaton underground ...

  15. Synchrotron-driven spallation sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, P J

    1996-01-01

    The use of synchrotrons for pulsed neutron spallation sources is an example of scientific and technological spin-off from the accelerator development for particle physics. Accelerator-driven sources provide an alternative to the continuous-flux, nuclear reactors that currently furnish the majority of neutrons for research and development. Although the present demand for neutrons can be adequately met by the existing reactors, this situation is unlikely to continue due to the increasing severity of safety regulations and the declared policies of many countries to close down their reactors within the next decade or so. Since the demand for neutrons as a research tool is, in any case,expected to grow, there has been a corresponding interest in sources that are synchrotron-driven or linac-driven with a pulse compression ring and currently several design studies are being made. These accelerator-driven sources also have the advantage of a time structure with a high peak neutron flux. The basic requirement is for a...

  16. Overview of Spallation Neutron Source Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G. J.; Pitcher, E. J.; Muhrer, G.; Mezei, F.; Ferguson, P. D.

    In December 1971 , the world's most advanced steady-state research reactor, the High Flux Reactor at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France, reached full power operation. The reactor has recently undergone an extensive renovation, is equipped with hot and cold sources, and has a complement of word class instruments. As such, the ILL reactor is the worldwide center for neutron research at a reactor installation. With present technology, the constraints of heat removal and fuel cost place a limit on the available flux of a steadystate research reactor at levels not much higher than that of the ILL reactor. There has been extensive progress worldwide to realize new high-flux neutron facilities using the technology of spallation. When coupled with the spallation process in appropriate target materials, highpower accelerators can be used to produce large numbers of neutrons, thus providing an alternate method to the use of nuclear reactors for this purpose. Spallation technology has recently become increasingly focussed on pulsed spallation neutron sources. Pulsed spallation neutron sources avoid the limitations of high time-average heat removal by producing neutrons for only a small fraction of the time. Also, the amount of energy deposited per useful neutron produced from spallation is less than that from fission. During the pulse, the available neutron flux from a pulsed spallation source can be much more intense than that obtainable in a steady-state reactor. Furthermore, pulsed neutron sources have certain unique features, which open up qualitatively new areas of science, which are not accessible to steady-state reactors. We discuss here the spallation process and spallation neutron sources. We compare the qualitative differences between fission and spallation and provide absolute neutron intensities for cold neutron production from a liquid H2, moderator at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center) short-pulse pulsed spallation

  17. Development of nuclear design criteria for neutron spallation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordo, F.; Abanades, A. [E.T.S. Industriales, Madrid Polytechnic University, UPM, J.Gutierrez Abascal, 2 -28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Spallation neutron sources allow obtaining high neutronic flux for many scientific and industrial applications. In recent years, several proposals have been made about its use, notably the European Spallation Source (ESS), the Japanese Spallation Source (JSNS) and the projects of Accelerator-Driven Subcritical reactors (ADS), particularly in the framework of EURATOM programs. Given their interest, it seems necessary to establish adequate design basis for guiding the engineering analysis and construction projects of this kind of installations. In this sense, all works done so far seek to obtain particular solutions to a particular design, but there has not been any general development to set up an engineering methodology in this field. In the integral design of a spallation source, all relevant physical processes that may influence its behaviour must be taken into account. Neutronic aspects (emitted neutrons and their spectrum, generation performance..), thermomechanical (energy deposition, cooling conditions, stress distribution..), radiological (spallation waste activity, activation reactions and residual heat) and material properties alteration due to irradiation (atomic displacements and gas generation) must all be considered. After analysing in a systematic manner the different options available in scientific literature, the main objective of this thesis was established as making a significant contribution to determine the limiting factors of the main aspects of spallation sources, its application range and the criteria for choosing optimal materials. To achieve this goal, a series of general simulations have been completed, covering all the relevant physical processes in the neutronic and thermal-mechanical field. Finally, the obtained criteria have been applied to the particular case of the design of the spallation source of subcritical reactors PDX-ADS and XT-ADS. These two designs, developed under the European R and D Framework Program, represent nowadays

  18. SUPERCONDUCTING LINAC FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. STOVALL; S. NATH; ET AL

    2000-10-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac is comprised of both normal and superconducting rf (SRF) accelerating structures. The SRF linac accelerates the beam from 186 to 1250 MeV through 117 elliptical, multi-cell niobium cavities. This paper describes the SRF linac architecture, physics design considerations, cavity commissioning, and the expected beam dynamics performance.

  19. Neutronics of pulsed spallation neutron sources

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, N

    2003-01-01

    Various topics and issues on the neutronics of pulsed spallation neutron sources, mainly for neutron scattering experiments, are reviewed to give a wide circle of readers a better understanding of these sources in order to achieve a high neutronic performance. Starting from what neutrons are needed, what the spallation reaction is and how to produce slow-neutrons more efficiently, the outline of the target and moderator neutronics are explained. Various efforts with some new concepts or ideas have already been devoted to obtaining the highest possible slow-neutron intensity with desired pulse characteristics. This paper also reviews the recent progress of such efforts, mainly focused on moderator neutronics, since moderators are the final devices of a neutron source, which determine the source performance. Various governing parameters for neutron-pulse characteristics such as material issues, geometrical parameters (shape and dimensions), the target-moderator coupling scheme, the ortho-para-hydrogen ratio, po...

  20. Simulation of a suite of generic long-pulse neutron instruments to optimize the time structure of the European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefmann, Kim; Kleno, Kaspar H.; Holm, Sonja L.; Sales, Morten [Nanoscience and eScience Centers, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Danish Workpackage for the ESS Design Update Phase, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Birk, Jonas Okkels [Nanoscience and eScience Centers, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Danish Workpackage for the ESS Design Update Phase, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Laboratory for Quantum Magnetism, Ecole Polytecnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Hansen, Britt R.; Knudsen, Erik; Willendrup, Peter K. [Institute of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Danish Workpackage for the ESS Design Update Phase, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Lieutenant, Klaus [Institute for Energy Technology, Instituttveien 18, 2007 Kjeller (Norway); Helmholtz Center for Energy and Materials, Hahn-Meitner Platz, 14109 Berlin (Germany); German Work Package for the ESS Design Update, Hahn-Meitner Platz, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Moos, Lars von [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Danish Workpackage for the ESS Design Update Phase, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Institute for Energy Conversion, Technical University of Denmark, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Andersen, Ken H. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, 22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2013-05-15

    We here describe the result of simulations of 15 generic neutron instruments for the long-pulsed European Spallation Source. All instruments have been simulated for 20 different settings of the source time structure, corresponding to pulse lengths between 1 ms and 2 ms; and repetition frequencies between 10 Hz and 25 Hz. The relative change in performance with time structure is given for each instrument, and an unweighted average is calculated. The performance of the instrument suite is proportional to (a) the peak flux and (b) the duty cycle to a power of approximately 0.3. This information is an important input to determining the best accelerator parameters. In addition, we find that in our simple guide systems, most neutrons reaching the sample originate from the central 3-5 cm of the moderator. This result can be used as an input in later optimization of the moderator design. We discuss the relevance and validity of defining a single figure-of-merit for a full facility and compare with evaluations of the individual instrument classes.

  1. Outline of spallation neutron source engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Noboru [Center for Neutron Science, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    Slow neutrons such as cold and thermal neutrons are unique probes which can determine structures and dynamics of condensed matter in atomic scale. The neutron scattering technique is indispensable not only for basic sciences such as condensed matter research and life science, but also for basic industrial technology in 21 century. It is believed that to survive in the science-technology competition in 21 century would be almost impossible without neutron scattering. However, the intensity of neutrons presently available is much lower than synchrotron radiation sources, etc. Thus, R and D of intense neutron sources become most important. The High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project is now being promoted jointly by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, but there has so far been no good text which covers all the aspects of pulsed spallation neutron sources. The present review was prepare aiming at giving a better understanding on pulsed spallation neutron sources not only to neutron source researchers but also more widely to neutron scattering researchers and accelerator scientists in this field. The contents involve, starting from what is neutron scattering and what neutrons are necessary for neutron scattering, what is the spallation reaction, how to produce neutrons required for neutron scattering more efficiently, target-moderator-reflector neutronics and its engineering, shielding, target station, material issues, etc. The author have engaged in R and D of pulsed apallation neutron sources and neutron scattering research using them over 30 years. The present review is prepared based on the author's experiences with useful information obtained through ICANS collaboration and recent data from the JSNS (Japanese Spallation Neutron Source) design team. (author)

  2. INJECTION CHOICE FOR SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE RING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; BEEBE-WANG,J.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRODOWSKI,J.; FEDOTOV,A.; GARDNER,C.; LEE,Y.Y.; RAPARIA,D.; DANILOV,V.; HOLMES,J.; PRIOR,C.; REES,G.; MACHIDA,S.

    2001-06-18

    Injection is key in the low-loss design of high-intensity proton facilities like the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). During the design of both the accumulator and the rapid-cycling-synchrotron version of the SNS, extensive comparison has been made to select injection scenarios that satisfy SNS's low-loss design criteria. This paper presents issues and considerations pertaining to the final choice of the SNS injection systems.

  3. A comparison between short pulse spallation source and long pulse spallation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, Kazuya; Watanabe, Noboru; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Niimura, Nobuo; Morii, Yukio; Katano, Susumu; Osakabe, Toyotaka; Teshigawara, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Mezei, F.

    1997-11-01

    The performance for a 5 MW short pulse spallation source (SPSS) and a 4.5 MW long pulse spallation source (LPSS) in a JAERI program which is based on the availability of a 1.5 GeV superconducting linac with a 30 mA peak current for both proton and H{sup -} beams is discussed. We have examined the superiority of SPSS to LPSS. While a LPSS facility is a second option, we propose an SPSS facility as a first option. (author)

  4. The national spallation neutron source target station: A general overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Barnes, J.N.; Charlton, L.A. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The technologies that are being utilized to design and build a state-of-the-art neutron spallation source, the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS), are discussed. Emphasis is given to the technology issues that present the greatest scientific challenges. The present facility configuration, ongoing analysis and the planned hardware research and development program are also described.

  5. Spallation neutron source target station issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Barnes, J.N.; Charlton, L.A. [and others

    1996-10-01

    In many areas of physics, materials and nuclear engineering, it is extremely valuable to have a very intense source of neutrons so that the structure and function of materials can be studied. One facility proposed for this purpose is the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS). This facility will consist of two parts: (1) a high-energy ({approximately}1 GeV) and high powered ({approximately} 1 MW) proton accelerator, and (2) a target station which converts the protons to low-energy ({le} 2 eV) neutrons and delivers them to the neutron scattering instruments. This paper deals with the second part, i.e., the design and development of the NSNS target station and the scientifically challenging issues. Many scientific and technical disciplines are required to produce a successful target station. These include engineering, remote handling, neutronics, materials, thermal hydraulics, and instrumentation. Some of these areas will be discussed.

  6. PREFACE: Neutrino physics at spallation neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avignone, F. T.; Chatterjee, L.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Strayer, M.

    2003-11-01

    Unique because of their super-light masses and tiny interaction cross sections, neutrinos combine fundamental physics on the scale of the miniscule with macroscopic physics on the scale of the cosmos. Starting from the ignition of the primal p-p chain of stellar and solar fusion reactions that signal star-birth, these elementary leptons (neutrinos) are also critical players in the life-cycles and explosive deaths of massive stars and the production and disbursement of heavy elements. Stepping beyond their importance in solar, stellar and supernova astrophysics, neutrino interactions and properties influence the evolution, dynamics and symmetries of the cosmos as a whole. Further, they serve as valuable probes of its material content at various levels of structure from atoms and nuclei to valence and sea quarks. In the light of the multitude of physics phenomena that neutrinos influence, it is imperative to enhance our understanding of neutrino interactions and properties to the maximum. This is accentuated by the recent evidence of finite neutrino mass and flavour mixing between generations that reverberates on the plethora of physics that neutrinos influence. Laboratory experiments using intense neutrino fluxes would allow precision measurements and determination of important neutrino reaction rates. These can then complement atmospheric, solar and reactor experiments that have enriched so valuably our understanding of the neutrino and its repertoire of physics applications. In particular, intermediate energy neutrino experiments can provide critical information on stellar and solar astrophysical processes, along with advancing our knowledge of nuclear structure, sub-nuclear physics and fundamental symmetries. So where should we look for such intense neutrino sources? Spallation neutron facilities by their design are sources of intense neutrino pulses that are produced as a by-product of neutron spallation. These neutrino sources could serve as unique laboratories

  7. Spallation neutron source and other high intensity froton sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiren Chou

    2003-02-06

    This lecture is an introduction to the design of a spallation neutron source and other high intensity proton sources. It discusses two different approaches: linac-based and synchrotron-based. The requirements and design concepts of each approach are presented. The advantages and disadvantages are compared. A brief review of existing machines and those under construction and proposed is also given. An R&D program is included in an appendix.

  8. The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, S., E-mail: stuarth@fnal.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Abraham, W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Aleksandrov, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Allen, C. [Techsource, Inc., 1475 Central Avenue, Suite 250, Los Alamos, NM 87544-3291 (United States); Alonso, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Anderson, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Arenius, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Arthur, T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Assadi, S. [Techsource, Inc., 1475 Central Avenue, Suite 250, Los Alamos, NM 87544-3291 (United States); Ayers, J.; Bach, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Badea, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Battle, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Beebe-Wang, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Bergmann, B.; Bernardin, J.; Bhatia, T.; Billen, J.; Birke, T.; Bjorklund, E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) was designed and constructed by a collaboration of six U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories. The SNS accelerator system consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator and an accumulator ring providing 1.4 MW of proton beam power in microsecond-long beam pulses to a liquid mercury target for neutron production. The accelerator complex consists of a front-end negative hydrogen-ion injector system, an 87 MeV drift tube linear accelerator, a 186 MeV side-coupled linear accelerator, a 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, a 248-m circumference accumulator ring and associated beam transport lines. The accelerator complex is supported by ∼100 high-power RF power systems, a 2 K cryogenic plant, ∼400 DC and pulsed power supply systems, ∼400 beam diagnostic devices and a distributed control system handling ∼100,000 I/O signals. The beam dynamics design of the SNS accelerator is presented, as is the engineering design of the major accelerator subsystems.

  9. The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S.; Abraham, W.; Aleksandrov, A.; Allen, C.; Alonso, J.; Anderson, D.; Arenius, D.; Arthur, T.; Assadi, S.; Ayers, J.; Bach, P.; Badea, V.; Battle, R.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Bergmann, B.; Bernardin, J.; Bhatia, T.; Billen, J.; Birke, T.; Bjorklund, E.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Blind, B.; Blokland, W.; Bookwalter, V.; Borovina, D.; Bowling, S.; Bradley, J.; Brantley, C.; Brennan, J.; Brodowski, J.; Brown, S.; Brown, R.; Bruce, D.; Bultman, N.; Cameron, P.; Campisi, I.; Casagrande, F.; Catalan-Lasheras, N.; Champion, M.; Champion, M.; Chen, Z.; Cheng, D.; Cho, Y.; Christensen, K.; Chu, C.; Cleaves, J.; Connolly, R.; Cote, T.; Cousineau, S.; Crandall, K.; Creel, J.; Crofford, M.; Cull, P.; Cutler, R.; Dabney, R.; Dalesio, L.; Daly, E.; Damm, R.; Danilov, V.; Davino, D.; Davis, K.; Dawson, C.; Day, L.; Deibele, C.; Delayen, J.; DeLong, J.; Demello, A.; DeVan, W.; Digennaro, R.; Dixon, K.; Dodson, G.; Doleans, M.; Doolittle, L.; Doss, J.; Drury, M.; Elliot, T.; Ellis, S.; Error, J.; Fazekas, J.; Fedotov, A.; Feng, P.; Fischer, J.; Fox, W.; Fuja, R.; Funk, W.; Galambos, J.; Ganni, V.; Garnett, R.; Geng, X.; Gentzlinger, R.; Giannella, M.; Gibson, P.; Gillis, R.; Gioia, J.; Gordon, J.; Gough, R.; Greer, J.; Gregory, W.; Gribble, R.; Grice, W.; Gurd, D.; Gurd, P.; Guthrie, A.; Hahn, H.; Hardek, T.; Hardekopf, R.; Harrison, J.; Hatfield, D.; He, P.; Hechler, M.; Heistermann, F.; Helus, S.; Hiatt, T.; Hicks, S.; Hill, J.; Hill, J.; Hoff, L.; Hoff, M.; Hogan, J.; Holding, M.; Holik, P.; Holmes, J.; Holtkamp, N.; Hovater, C.; Howell, M.; Hseuh, H.; Huhn, A.; Hunter, T.; Ilg, T.; Jackson, J.; Jain, A.; Jason, A.; Jeon, D.; Johnson, G.; Jones, A.; Joseph, S.; Justice, A.; Kang, Y.; Kasemir, K.; Keller, R.; Kersevan, R.; Kerstiens, D.; Kesselman, M.; Kim, S.; Kneisel, P.; Kravchuk, L.; Kuneli, T.; Kurennoy, S.; Kustom, R.; Kwon, S.; Ladd, P.; Lambiase, R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Lewis, S.; Liaw, C.; Lionberger, C.; Lo, C. C.; Long, C.; Ludewig, H.; Ludvig, J.; Luft, P.; Lynch, M.; Ma, H.; MacGill, R.; Macha, K.; Madre, B.; Mahler, G.; Mahoney, K.; Maines, J.; Mammosser, J.; Mann, T.; Marneris, I.; Marroquin, P.; Martineau, R.; Matsumoto, K.; McCarthy, M.; McChesney, C.; McGahern, W.; McGehee, P.; Meng, W.; Merz, B.; Meyer, R.; Meyer, R.; Miller, B.; Mitchell, R.; Mize, J.; Monroy, M.; Munro, J.; Murdoch, G.; Musson, J.; Nath, S.; Nelson, R.; Nelson, R.; O`Hara, J.; Olsen, D.; Oren, W.; Oshatz, D.; Owens, T.; Pai, C.; Papaphilippou, I.; Patterson, N.; Patterson, J.; Pearson, C.; Pelaia, T.; Pieck, M.; Piller, C.; Plawski, T.; Plum, M.; Pogge, J.; Power, J.; Powers, T.; Preble, J.; Prokop, M.; Pruyn, J.; Purcell, D.; Rank, J.; Raparia, D.; Ratti, A.; Reass, W.; Reece, K.; Rees, D.; Regan, A.; Regis, M.; Reijonen, J.; Rej, D.; Richards, D.; Richied, D.; Rode, C.; Rodriguez, W.; Rodriguez, M.; Rohlev, A.; Rose, C.; Roseberry, T.; Rowton, L.; Roybal, W.; Rust, K.; Salazer, G.; Sandberg, J.; Saunders, J.; Schenkel, T.; Schneider, W.; Schrage, D.; Schubert, J.; Severino, F.; Shafer, R.; Shea, T.; Shishlo, A.; Shoaee, H.; Sibley, C.; Sims, J.; Smee, S.; Smith, J.; Smith, K.; Spitz, R.; Staples, J.; Stein, P.; Stettler, M.; Stirbet, M.; Stockli, M.; Stone, W.; Stout, D.; Stovall, J.; Strelo, W.; Strong, H.; Sundelin, R.; Syversrud, D.; Szajbler, M.; Takeda, H.; Tallerico, P.; Tang, J.; Tanke, E.; Tepikian, S.; Thomae, R.; Thompson, D.; Thomson, D.; Thuot, M.; Treml, C.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Tuzel, W.; Vassioutchenko, A.; Virostek, S.; Wallig, J.; Wanderer, P.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J. G.; Wangler, T.; Warren, D.; Wei, J.; Weiss, D.; Welton, R.; Weng, J.; Weng, W.-T.; Wezensky, M.; White, M.; Whitlatch, T.; Williams, D.; Williams, E.; Wilson, K.; Wiseman, M.; Wood, R.; Wright, P.; Wu, A.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Young, K.; Young, L.; Yourd, R.; Zachoszcz, A.; Zaltsman, A.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhukov, A.

    2014-11-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) was designed and constructed by a collaboration of six U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories. The SNS accelerator system consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator and an accumulator ring providing 1.4 MW of proton beam power in microsecond-long beam pulses to a liquid mercury target for neutron production. The accelerator complex consists of a front-end negative hydrogen-ion injector system, an 87 MeV drift tube linear accelerator, a 186 MeV side-coupled linear accelerator, a 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, a 248-m circumference accumulator ring and associated beam transport lines. The accelerator complex is supported by ~100 high-power RF power systems, a 2 K cryogenic plant, ~400 DC and pulsed power supply systems, ~400 beam diagnostic devices and a distributed control system handling ~100,000 I/O signals. The beam dynamics design of the SNS accelerator is presented, as is the engineering design of the major accelerator subsystems.

  10. Overview of target systems for the Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Tony A.; Barnes, John M.; Charlton, Lowell A. [and others; DiStefano, James; Farrell, Ken; Haines, John; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mansur, Louis K.; Pawel, Steve J.; Siman-Tov, Moshe; Taleyarkhan, Rusi; Wendel, Mark W.; McManamy, Thomas J.; Rennich, Mark J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose and requirements of target systems as well as the technologies that are being utilized to design and build a state-of-the-art neutron spallation source, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), are discussed. Emphasis is given to the technology issues that present the greatest scientific challenges. The present facility configuration, ongoing analysis, and the planned hardware research and development program are also described.

  11. Exploration of the Challenges of Neutron Optics and Instrumentation at Long Pulsed Spallation Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klenø, Kaspar Hewitt

    In this thesis I have explored the challenges of long guides and instrumentation for the long pulsed European Spallation Source. I have derived the theory needed for quantifying the performance of a guide using brilliance transfer. With this tool it is easier to objectively compare how well...

  12. Neutron scattering instrumentation for biology at spallation neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pynn, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Conventional wisdom holds that since biological entities are large, they must be studied with cold neutrons, a domain in which reactor sources of neutrons are often supposed to be pre-eminent. In fact, the current generation of pulsed spallation neutron sources, such as LANSCE at Los Alamos and ISIS in the United Kingdom, has demonstrated a capability for small angle scattering (SANS) - a typical cold- neutron application - that was not anticipated five years ago. Although no one has yet built a Laue diffractometer at a pulsed spallation source, calculations show that such an instrument would provide an exceptional capability for protein crystallography at one of the existing high-power spoliation sources. Even more exciting is the prospect of installing such spectrometers either at a next-generation, short-pulse spallation source or at a long-pulse spallation source. A recent Los Alamos study has shown that a one-megawatt, short-pulse source, which is an order of magnitude more powerful than LANSCE, could be built with today`s technology. In Europe, a preconceptual design study for a five-megawatt source is under way. Although such short-pulse sources are likely to be the wave of the future, they may not be necessary for some applications - such as Laue diffraction - which can be performed very well at a long-pulse spoliation source. Recently, it has been argued by Mezei that a facility that combines a short-pulse spallation source similar to LANSCE, with a one-megawatt, long-pulse spallation source would provide a cost-effective solution to the global shortage of neutrons for research. The basis for this assertion as well as the performance of some existing neutron spectrometers at short-pulse sources will be examined in this presentation.

  13. Fission, spallation or fusion-based neutron sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... In this paper the most promising technology for high power neutron sources is briefly discussed. The conclusion is that the route to high power neutron sources in the foreseeable future is spallation – short or long pulse or even CW – all of these sources will have areas in which they excel.

  14. Fission, spallation or fusion-based neutron sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The development of the brightness of X-ray facilities (compilation from Friso van der Veen Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH). neutron flux of a spallation source will increase markedly at each step, when going from short pulse to long pulse as in the extreme case to CW operation). Of the tremendous progress in science ...

  15. Ion source antenna development for the Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, R. F.; Stockli, M. P.; Kang, Y.; Janney, M.; Keller, R.; Thomae, R. W.; Schenkel, T.; Shukla, S.

    2002-02-01

    The operational lifetime of a radio-frequency (rf) ion source is generally governed by the length of time the insulating structure protecting the antenna survives during exposure to the plasma. Coating the antenna with a thin layer of insulating material is a common means of extending the life of such antennas. When low-power/low-duty factor rf excitation is employed, antenna lifetimes of several hundred hours are typical. When high-power, >30 kW, and high-duty cycles, ˜6%, are employed, as is the case of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source, antenna lifetime becomes unacceptably short. This work addresses this problem by first showing the results of microanalysis of failed antennas from the SNS ion source, developing a model of the damage mechanism based on plasma-insulator interaction, using the model to determine the dimensional and material properties of an ideal coating, and describing several approaches currently under way to develop a long-lived antenna for the SNS accelerator. These approaches include thermal spray coatings, optimized porcelain enamel coatings, refractory enamel coatings, and novel antenna geometries designed to operate with low rf electric fields.

  16. Overcoming High Energy Backgrounds at Pulsed Spallation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cherkashyna, Nataliia; DiJulio, Douglas D.; Khaplanov, Anton; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Scherzinger, Julius; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Fissum, Kevin G.; Ansell, Stuart; Iverson, Erik B.; Ehlers, Georg; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Panzner, Tobias; Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Filges, Uwe; Kittelmann, Thomas; Extegarai, Maddi; Santoro, Valentina; Kirstein, Oliver; Bentley, Phillip M.

    2015-01-01

    Instrument backgrounds at neutron scattering facilities directly affect the quality and the efficiency of the scientific measurements that users perform. Part of the background at pulsed spallation neutron sources is caused by, and time-correlated with, the emission of high energy particles when the proton beam strikes the spallation target. This prompt pulse ultimately produces a signal, which can be highly problematic for a subset of instruments and measurements due to the time-correlated properties, and different to that from reactor sources. Measurements of this background have been made at both SNS (ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, USA) and SINQ (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland). The background levels were generally found to be low compared to natural background. However, very low intensities of high-energy particles have been found to be detrimental to instrument performance in some conditions. Given that instrument performance is typically characterised by S/N, improvements in backgrounds can both improve instrument pe...

  17. Irradiation facilities at the spallation neutron source SINQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, E.; Ledermann, J.; Aebersold, H.; Kuehne, G.; Kohlik, K. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Four independent experiments for sample irradiation are under construction and in preparation for operational tests at the spallation source SINQ. Three of them are located inside a thermal beam port with end positions inside or near the moderator tank. The other experiment will be established at the end position of a super mirror lined neutron guide for applications with cold neutrons. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of NSE at reactor and spallation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zsigmond, G.; Wechsler, D.; Mezei, F. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    A MC (Monte Carlo) computation study of NSE (Neutron Spin Echo) has been performed by means of VITESS investigating the classic and TOF-NSE options at spallation sources. The use of white beams in TOF-NSE makes the flipper efficiency in function of the neutron wavelength an important issue. The emphasis was put on exact evaluation of flipper efficiencies for wide wavelength-band instruments. (author)

  19. Disposal strategy of proton irradiated mercury from high power spallation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiriki, Suresh

    2010-07-01

    Large spallation sources are intended to be constructed in Europe (EURISOL: nuclear physics research facility and ESS: European Spallation Source). These facilities would accumulate more than 20 metric tons of irradiated mercury in the target, which has to be treated as highly radioactive and chemo-toxic waste. Liquid waste cannot be tolerated in European repositories. As part of this work on safety/decommissioning of high-power spallation sources, our investigations were focused mainly to study experimentally and theoretically the solidification of liquid mercury waste (selection of an adequate solid mercury form and of an immobilization matrix, chemical engineering process studies on solidification/stabilization and on encapsulating in a matrix). Based on experimental results and supported by literature Hg-chalcogens (HgS, HgSe) will be more stable in repositories than amalgams. Our irradiation experimental studies on mercury waste revealed that mercury sulfide is a reasonable solid for disposal and shows larger stability in possible accidents with water ingress in a repository. Additionally immobilization of mercury in a cement matrix and polysiloxane matrix were tested. HgS formation from liquid target mercury by a wet process is identified as a suitable formation procedure. These investigations reveal that an almost 99.9% elementary Hg conversion can be achieved and that wet process can be reasonably handled under hot cell conditions. (orig.)

  20. Spallation sources in support of technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pynn, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In this contribution I summarize a number of recent experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) that have contributed to strategic and applied research. A number of new tools have been developed to address these problems, including software that allows materials texture to be obtained during Rietveld refinement, Bragg-edge diffraction, resonant-neutron and proton radiography. These tools have the potential to impact basic as well as applied research. It is clear that a new, more powerful neutron source such as the planned Japanese Hadron Project will be able to use these and other techniques to contribute in a direct way to important industrial technologies. (author)

  1. Nondiffractive applications of neutrons at the spallation source SINQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The paper delivers an overview about experiments with neutrons from the spallation source SINQ which are not especially devoted to neutron scattering. A total of six experimental facilities are under construction using thermal as well as cold neutrons. Starting with some general considerations about the interaction of neutrons with matter, the principles, boundary conditions and the experimental set up of these experiments are described briefly. Some more details are given for the neutron radiography facility NEUTRA as the author`s special interest and research field. (author) 7 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  2. Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source (ORSNS) target station design integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamy, T.; Booth, R.; Cleaves, J.; Gabriel, T. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The conceptual design for a 1- to 3-MW short pulse spallation source with a liquid mercury target has been started recently. The design tools and methods being developed to define requirements, integrate the work, and provide early cost guidance will be presented with a summary of the current target station design status. The initial design point was selected with performance and cost estimate projections by a systems code. This code was developed recently using cost estimates from the Brookhaven Pulsed Spallation Neutron Source study and experience from the Advanced Neutron Source Project`s conceptual design. It will be updated and improved as the design develops. Performance was characterized by a simplified figure of merit based on a ratio of neutron production to costs. A work breakdown structure was developed, with simplified systems diagrams used to define interfaces and system responsibilities. A risk assessment method was used to identify potential problems, to identify required research and development (R&D), and to aid contingency development. Preliminary 3-D models of the target station are being used to develop remote maintenance concepts and to estimate costs.

  3. EURAC: A liquid target neutron spallation source using cyclotron technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlado, J. M.; Mínguez, E.; Sanz, J.; Piera, M.

    1995-09-01

    Euratom/JRC Ispra led some years ago the design of an accelerator based neutron spallation source EURAC, with special emphasis as a fusion material testing device. DENIM was involved in the development of the last version of this source. EURAC proposes to use a beam of 600 MeV or 1.5 GeV protons, produced by an effective and low cost ring cyclotron with a current of 6 mA impinging in a liquid lead, or lead-bismuth, target. It will use an advanced cyclotron technology which can be implemented in the next future, in the line of the actual technology of the upgraded SIN-type cyclotron. The adjacent rows to the target correspond to the lead, or Li17Pb83, cooled channels where the samples will be located. The available volumes there were shown enough for material testing purposes. Here, proposal of using those experimental areas to introduce small masses of radioactive wastes for testing of transmutation in spallation source is made. In addition, extrapolation of present conceptual design to make available larger volumes under flexible conditions seems to be possible. Neutrons leaking from the test zone drive a subcritical booster (hidrogen moderator in the center.

  4. Overview of the national spallation neutron source with emphasis on the target station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Barnes, J.N.; Charlton, L.A. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The technologies that are being utilized to design and build a state-of-the-art neutron spallation source, the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS), are discussed. Emphasis is given to the technology issues that present the greatest scientific challenges. The present facility configuration, ongoing analysis and the planned hardware research and development program are also described.

  5. The Spallation Neutron Source Beam Commissioning and Initial Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Stuart [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Aleksandrov, Alexander V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Allen, Christopher K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Assadi, Saeed [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bartoski, Dirk [University of Texas, Houston, TX (United States). Anderson Cancer Center; Blokland, Willem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Casagrande, F. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Campisi, I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chu, C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Cousineau, Sarah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Crofford, Mark T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Danilov, Viatcheslav [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deibele, Craig E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dodson, George W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feshenko, A. [Inst. for Nuclear Research (INR), Moscow (Russian Federation); Galambos, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Han, Baoxi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hardek, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holmes, Jeffrey A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holtkamp, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Howell, Matthew P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jeon, D. [Inst. for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea); Kang, Yoon W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kasemir, Kay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kim, Sang-Ho [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kravchuk, L. [Institute for Nuclear Research (INR), Moscow (Russian Federation); Long, Cary D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamy, T. [McManamy Consulting, Inc., Middlesex, MA (United States); Pelaia, II, Tom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Piller, Chip [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Plum, Michael A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pogge, James R. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Purcell, John David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shea, T. [European Spallation Source, Lund (Sweden); Shishlo, Andrei P [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sibley, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stockli, Martin P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stout, D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Tanke, E. [European Spallation Source, Lund (Sweden); Welton, Robert F [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhang, Y. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Zhukov, Alexander P [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator delivers a one mega-Watt beam to a mercury target to produce neutrons used for neutron scattering materials research. It delivers ~ 1 GeV protons in short (< 1 us) pulses at 60 Hz. At an average power of ~ one mega-Watt, it is the highest-powered pulsed proton accelerator. The accelerator includes the first use of superconducting RF acceleration for a pulsed protons at this energy. The storage ring used to create the short time structure has record peak particle per pulse intensity. Beam commissioning took place in a staged manner during the construction phase of SNS. After the construction, neutron production operations began within a few months, and one mega-Watt operation was achieved within three years. The methods used to commission the beam and the experiences during initial operation are discussed.

  6. Impedance measurements of the Spallation Neutron Source extraction kicker system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, H.

    2004-10-01

    Transverse coupling impedance measurements of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) beam extraction system were performed and the results are here reported. The SNS beam extraction system is composed from 14 subsystems, each of which consists of a vertical kicker magnet plus a pulse forming network (PFN). Impedance bench measurements were performed on one large and one small aperture magnet, stand-alone as well as assembled with the first-article production PFN. The impedance measuring methods to cover the interesting frequency range from below 1 to 100MHz are described in considerable detail. The upper frequency range is properly covered by the conventional twin-wire method but it had to be supplemented at the low-frequency end by a direct input impedance measurement at the magnet busbar. Required modifications of the PFN to maintain the impedance budget are discussed. The total impedance estimate was finally obtained by quadratic scaling with vertical aperture from the two tested kicker subsystems.

  7. BEAM INSTRUMENTATION FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE RING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WITKOVER,R.L.; CAMERON,P.R.; SHEA,T.J.; CONNOLLY,R.C.; KESSELMAN,M.

    1999-03-29

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will be constructed by a multi-laboratory collaboration with BNL responsible for the transfer lines and ring. [1] The 1 MW beam power necessitates careful monitoring to minimize un-controlled loss. This high beam power will influence the design of the monitors in the high energy beam transport line (HEBT) from linac to ring, in the ring, and in the ring-to-target transfer line (RTBT). The ring instrumentation must cover a 3-decade range of beam intensity during accumulation. Beam loss monitoring will be especially critical since un-controlled beam loss must be kept below 10{sup -4}. A Beam-In-Gap (BIG) monitor is being designed to assure out-of-bucket beam will not be lost in the ring.

  8. Transmission Bragg edge spectroscopy measurements at ORNL Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremsin, A. S.; McPhate, J. B.; Vallerga, J. V.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Feller, W. B.; Bilheux, H. Z.; Molaison, J. J.; Tulk, C. A.; Crow, L.; Cooper, R. G.; Penumadu, D.

    2010-11-01

    Results of neutron transmission Bragg edge spectroscopic experiments performed at the SNAP beamline of the Spallation Neutron Source are presented. A high resolution neutron counting detector with a neutron sensitive microchannel plate and Timepix ASIC readout is capable of energy resolved two dimensional mapping of neutron transmission with spatial accuracy of ~55 μm, limited by the readout pixel size, and energy resolution limited by the duration of the initial neutron pulse. A two dimensional map of the Fe 110 Bragg edge position was obtained for a bent steel screw sample. Although the neutron pulse duration corresponded to ~30 mÅ energy resolution for 15.3 m flight path, the accuracy of the Bragg edge position in our measurements was improved by analytical fitting to a few mÅ level. A two dimensional strain map was calculated from measured Bragg edge values with an accuracy of ~few hundreds μistrain for 300s of data acquisition time.

  9. Electron Cloud Mitigation in the Spallation Neutron Source Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, J.; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Brodowski, J.; Cameron, P.; Davino, Daniele; Fedotov, A.; He, P.; Hseuh, H.; Lee, Y.Y.; Ludewig, H.; Meng, W.; Raparia, D.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zhang, S.Y.; Catalan-Lasheras, N.; Macek, R.J.; Furman, Miguel A.; Aleksandrov, A.; Cousineau, S.; Danilov, V.; Henderson, S.; /Brookhaven /CERN /LANL, Ctr. for Nonlinear Studies /LBL, Berkeley /Oak Ridge /SLAC

    2008-03-17

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring is designed to accumulate, via H{sup -} injection, protons of 2 MW beam power at 1 GeV kinetic energy at a repetition rate of 60 Hz [1]. At such beam intensity, electron-cloud is expected to be one of the intensity-limiting mechanisms that complicate ring operations. This paper summarizes mitigation strategy adopted in the design, both in suppressing electron-cloud formation and in enhancing Landau damping, including tapered magnetic field and monitoring system for the collection of stripped electrons at injection, TiN coated beam chamber for suppression of the secondary yield, clearing electrodes dedicated for the injection region and parasitic on BPMs around the ring, solenoid windings in the collimation region, and planning of vacuum systems for beam scrubbing upon operation.

  10. A multitask neutron beam line for spallation neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietropaolo, A.; Festa, G.; Grazzi, F.; Barzagli, E.; Scherillo, A.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Civita, F.

    2011-08-01

    Here we present a new concept for a time-of-flight neutron scattering instrument allowing for simultaneous application of three different techniques: time-of-flight neutron diffraction, neutron resonance capture analysis and Bragg edge transmission analysis. The instrument can provide average resolution neutron radiography too. The potential of the proposed concept was explored by implementing the necessary equipment on INES (Italian Neutron Experimental Station) at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). The results obtained show the effectiveness of the proposed instrument to acquire relevant quantitative information in a non-invasive way on a historical metallurgical sample, namely a Japanese hand guard (tsuba). The aforementioned neutron techniques simultaneously exploited the extended neutron energy range available from 10 meV to 1 keV. This allowed a fully satisfactory characterization of the sample in terms of metal components and their combination in different phases, and forging and assembling methods.

  11. Research activities on structure materials of spallation neutron source at SINQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.S.; Dai, Y. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    With the growing interests on powerful spallation neutron sources, especially with liquid metal targets, and accelerator driven energy systems, spallation materials science and technology have been received wide attention. At SINQ, material research activities are focused on: a) liquid metal corrosion; b) radiation damage; and c) interaction of corrosion and radiation damage. (author) 1 fig., refs.

  12. Spallation Neutron Source Accident Terms for Environmental Impact Statement Input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devore, J.R.; Harrington, R.M.

    1998-08-01

    This report is about accidents with the potential to release radioactive materials into the environment surrounding the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). As shown in Chap. 2, the inventories of radioactivity at the SNS are dominated by the target facility. Source terms for a wide range of target facility accidents, from anticipated events to worst-case beyond-design-basis events, are provided in Chaps. 3 and 4. The most important criterion applied to these accident source terms is that they should not underestimate potential release. Therefore, conservative methodology was employed for the release estimates. Although the source terms are very conservative, excessive conservatism has been avoided by basing the releases on physical principles. Since it is envisioned that the SNS facility may eventually (after about 10 years) be expanded and modified to support a 4-MW proton beam operational capability, the source terms estimated in this report are applicable to a 4-MW operating proton beam power unless otherwise specified. This is bounding with regard to the 1-MW facility that will be built and operated initially. See further discussion below in Sect. 1.2.

  13. The front-end systems for the Spallation Neutron Source

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, R

    2001-01-01

    The front-end systems (FES) of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project are being built by Berkeley Lab and will deliver a 52-mA H /sup -/ ion beam at 2.5 MeV energy to the subsequent drift-tube linac, to be built by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The FES comprise a volume-production, cesium-enhanced ion source, an electrostatic low-energy beam transport (LEBT), an RFQ accelerator, and a medium-energy beam transport (MEBT) that includes rebuncher cavities, magnetic quadrupoles, and beam diagnostics. The macro-pulse duty factor is 6%, and the macro pulses have to be chopped into a minipulse structure with a time scale of hundreds of ns, to reduce beam losses and component activation during extraction from the SNS Accumulator Ring. Delivery of the entire FES to the main SNS facility in Oak Ridge is planned for April 2002. This paper discusses the design features and status of the major FES subsystems with special emphasis on ion source and LEBT for which first experimental results have been obtained. After ...

  14. H- radio frequency source development at the Spallation Neutron Sourcea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, R. F.; Dudnikov, V. G.; Gawne, K. R.; Han, B. X.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Roseberry, R. T.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P.; Turvey, M. W.

    2012-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates nearly 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly persistent ˜38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of ˜90%. H- beam pulses (˜1 ms, 60 Hz) are produced by a Cs-enhanced, multicusp ion source closely coupled with an electrostatic low energy beam transport (LEBT), which focuses the 65 kV beam into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The source plasma is generated by RF excitation (2 MHz, ˜60 kW) of a copper antenna that has been encased with a thickness of ˜0.7 mm of porcelain enamel and immersed into the plasma chamber. The ion source and LEBT normally have a combined availability of ˜99%. Recent increases in duty-factor and RF power have made antenna failures a leading cause of downtime. This report first identifies the physical mechanism of antenna failure from a statistical inspection of ˜75 antennas which ran at the SNS, scanning electron microscopy studies of antenna surface, and cross sectional cuts and analysis of calorimetric heating measurements. Failure mitigation efforts are then described which include modifying the antenna geometry and our acceptance/installation criteria. Progress and status of the development of the SNS external antenna source, a long-term solution to the internal antenna problem, are then discussed. Currently, this source is capable of delivering comparable beam currents to the baseline source to the SNS and, an earlier version, has briefly demonstrated unanalyzed currents up to ˜100 mA (1 ms, 60 Hz) on the test stand. In particular, this paper discusses plasma ignition (dc and RF plasma guns), antenna reliability, magnet overheating, and insufficient beam persistence.

  15. Electron cloud instabilities in the Proton Storage Ring and Spallation Neutron Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blaskiewicz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron cloud instabilities in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring and those foreseen for the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source are examined theoretically, numerically, and experimentally.

  16. Impedance measurements of the Spallation Neutron Source extraction kicker system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hahn

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Transverse coupling impedance measurements of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS beam extraction system were performed and the results are here reported. The SNS beam extraction system is composed from 14 subsystems, each of which consists of a vertical kicker magnet plus a pulse forming network (PFN. Impedance bench measurements were performed on one large and one small aperture magnet, stand-alone as well as assembled with the first-article production PFN. The impedance measuring methods to cover the interesting frequency range from below 1 to 100 MHz are described in considerable detail. The upper frequency range is properly covered by the conventional twin-wire method but it had to be supplemented at the low-frequency end by a direct input impedance measurement at the magnet busbar. Required modifications of the PFN to maintain the impedance budget are discussed. The total impedance estimate was finally obtained by quadratic scaling with vertical aperture from the two tested kicker subsystems.

  17. Commissioning of cryogenic system for China Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bin; He, Chongchao; Li, Na; Ding, Meiying; Wang, Yaqiong; Yu, Zhang; He, Kun

    2017-12-01

    China Spallation Neutron Source(CSNS) cryogenic system provides supercritical cryogenic hydrogen to neutron moderators, including a helium refrigerator, hydrogen loop and hydrogen safety equipment. The helium refrigerator is provided by Linde with cooling capacity of 2200 W at 20 K. Hydrogen loop system mainly includes cryogenic hydrogen pipes, hydrogen circulator cold-box and accumulator cold-box. Cryogenic hydrogen pump, ortho-para convertor, helium-hydrogen heat-exchanger, hydrogen heater and accumulator are integrated in hydrogen circulation cold-box, and accumulator cold-box. Hydrogen safety equipment includes safety valves, rupture disk, hydrogen sensor, flame detector and other equipment to ensure that cryogenic system in dangerous situations will go down, vents, or takes other measures. The cryogenic system commissioning work includes four steps. First, in order to test the refrigerating capacity of refrigerator, when acceptance testing, refrigerator internal heater was used as thermal load. Second, using simulation load as heat load of moderator, hydrogen loop use helium instead of hydrogen, and cooled down to 20 K, then re-warming and test the leak detection of hydrogen loop system. Third, base on the step 2, using hydrogen as working medium, and optimized the control logic. Forth, cryogenic system with the moderators joint commissioning. Now, cryogenic system is connected with the moderators, and the forth step will be carried out in the near future.

  18. Neutron diffractometers for structural biology at spallation neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenborn, B.P.; Pitcher, E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Spallation neutron sources are ideal for diffraction studies of proteins and oriented molecular complexes. With spoliation neutrons and their time dependent wavelength structure, it is easy to electronically select data with an optimal wavelength bandwidth and cover the whole Laue spectrum as time (wavelength) resolved snapshots. This optimized data quality with best peak-to-background ratios and provides adequate spatial and energy resolution to eliminate peak overlaps. The application of this concept will use choppers to select the desired Laue wavelength spectrum and employ focusing optics and large cylindrical {sup 3}He detectors to optimize data collection rates. Such a diffractometer will cover a Laue wavelength range from 1 to 5{Angstrom} with a flight path length of 10m and an energy resolution of 0.25{Angstrom}. Moderator concepts for maximal flux distribution within this energy range will be discussed using calculated flux profiles. Since the energy resolution required for such timed data collection in this super Laue techniques is not very high, the use of a linac only (LAMPF) spoliation target is an exciting possibility with an order of magnitude increase in flux.

  19. Spallation Neutron Source High Power RF Installation and Commissioning Progress

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Michael P; Bradley, Joseph T; Fuja, Ray E; Gurd, Pamela; Hardek, Thomas; Kang, Yoon W; Rees, Daniel; Roybal, William; Young, Karen A

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac will provide a 1 GeV proton beam for injection into the accumulator ring. In the normal conducting (NC) section of this linac, the Radio Frequency Quadupole (RFQ) and six drift tube linac (DTL) tanks are powered by seven 2.5 MW, 402.5 MHz klystrons and the four coupled cavity linac (CCL) cavities are powered by four 5.0 MW, 805 MHz klystrons. Eighty-one 550 kW, 805 MHz klystrons each drive a single cavity in the superconducting (SC) section of the linac. The high power radio frequency (HPRF) equipment was specified and procured by LANL and tested before delivery to ensure a smooth transition from installation to commissioning. Installation of RF equipment to support klystron operation in the 350-meter long klystron gallery started in June 2002. The final klystron was set in place in September 2004. Presently, all RF stations have been installed and high power testing has been completed. This paper reviews the progression of the installation and testing of the HPRF Sys...

  20. Decommissioning and safety issues of liquid-mercury waste generated from high power spallation sources with particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Chiriki, S; Odoj, R; Moormann, R; Hinssen, H. K; Bukaemskiy, A

    2009-01-01

    Large spallation sources are intended to be constructed in Europe (EURISOL nuclear physics facility and ESS-European Spallation Source). These facilities accumulate more than 20 metric tons of irradiated mercury in the target, which has to be treated as highly radioactive and chemo-toxic waste. Because solids are the only appropriate (immobile) form for this radiotoxic and toxic type of waste solidification is required for irradiated mercury. Our irradiation experimental studies on mercury waste revealed that mercury sulfide is a reasonable solid for disposal and shows larger stability in assumed accidents with water ingress in a repository compared to amalgams. For preparation of mercury sulfide a wet process is more suitable than a dry one. It is easier to perform under hot cell conditions and allows complete Hg-conversion. Embedding HgS in a cementitious matrix increases its stability.

  1. 5 MW pulsed spallation neutron source, Preconceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report describes a self-consistent base line design for a 5 MW Pulsed Spallation Neutron Source (PSNS). It is intended to establish feasibility of design and as a basis for further expanded and detailed studies. It may also serve as a basis for establishing project cost (30% accuracy) in order to intercompare competing designs for a PSNS not only on the basis of technical feasibility and technical merit but also on the basis of projected total cost. The accelerator design considered here is based on the objective of a pulsed neutron source obtained by means of a pulsed proton beam with average beam power of 5 MW, in {approx} 1 {mu}sec pulses, operating at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. Two target stations are incorporated in the basic facility: one for operation at 10 Hz for long-wavelength instruments, and one operating at 50 Hz for instruments utilizing thermal neutrons. The design approach for the proton accelerator is to use a low energy linear accelerator (at 0.6 GeV), operating at 60 Hz, in tandem with two fast cycling booster synchrotrons (at 3.6 GeV), operating at 30 Hz. It is assumed here that considerations of cost and overall system reliability may favor the present design approach over the alternative approach pursued elsewhere, whereby use is made of a high energy linear accelerator in conjunction with a dc accumulation ring. With the knowledge that this alternative design is under active development, it was deliberately decided to favor here the low energy linac-fast cycling booster approach. Clearly, the present design, as developed here, must be carried to the full conceptual design stage in order to facilitate a meaningful technology and cost comparison with alternative designs.

  2. The COHERENT Experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Steven Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The COHERENT collaboration's primary objective is to measure coherent elastic neutrino- nucleus scattering (CEvNS) using the unique, high-quality source of tens-of-MeV neutrinos provided by the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In spite of its large cross section, the CEvNS process has never been observed, due to tiny energies of the resulting nuclear recoils which are out of reach for standard neutrino detectors. The measurement of CEvNS has now become feasible, thanks to the development of ultra-sensitive technology for rare decay and weakly-interacting massive particle (dark matter) searches. The CEvNS cross section is cleanly predicted in the standard model; hence its measurement provides a standard model test. It is relevant for supernova physics and supernova-neutrino detection, and enables validation of dark-matter detector background and detector-response models. In the long term, precision measurement of CEvNS will address questions of nuclear structure. COHERENT will deploy multiple detector technologies in a phased approach: a 14-kg CsI[Na] scintillating crystal, 15 kg of p-type point-contact germanium detectors, and 100 kg of liquid xenon in a two-phase time projection chamber. Following an extensive background measurement campaign, a location in the SNS basement has proven to be neutron-quiet and suitable for deployment of the COHERENT detector suite. The simultaneous deployment of the three COHERENT detector subsystems will test the N=2 dependence of the cross section and ensure an unambiguous discovery of CEvNS. This document describes concisely the COHERENT physics motivations, sensitivity and plans for measurements at the SNS to be accomplished on a four-year timescale.

  3. The EURISOL Multi Megawatt Target Station, a liquid metal target for a High Power spallation source.

    CERN Document Server

    Kharoua, C; Blumenfeld, L; Milenkovich, R; Wagner, W; Thomsen, K; Dementjevs, S; Platacis, E; Kravalis, K; Zik, A

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (EURISOL) is set to be the ‘next-generation’ European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research in nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2013.In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW liquid metal proton-to-neutron converter, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In the aforementioned multi-MW target assembly, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source.This presentation summarises the work carried out for the Multi Megawatt target station of the EURISOL Design Study with particular attention to the coupled neutronic of the liquid converter and the overall performance of the facility, which will sustain fast neutr...

  4. Coherent Scattering Investigations at the Spallation Neutron Source: a Snowmass White Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Akimov, D; Barbeau, P; Barton, P; Bolozdynya, A; Cabrera-Palmer, B; Cavanna, F; Cianciolo, V; Collar, J; Cooper, R J; Dean, D; Efremenko, Y; Etenko, A; Fields, N; Foxe, M; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Fomin, N; Gallmeier, F; Garishvili, I; Gerling, M; Green, M; Greene, G; Hatzikoutelis, A; Henning, R; Hix, R; Hogan, D; Hornback, D; Jovanovic, I; Hossbach, T; Iverson, E; Klein, S R; Khromov, A; Link, J; Louis, W; Lu, W; Mauger, C; Marleau, P; Markoff, D; Martin, R D; Mueller, P; Newby, J; Orrell, J; O'Shaughnessy, C; Pentilla, S; Patton, K; Poon, A W; Radford, D; Reyna, D; Ray, H; Scholberg, K; Sosnovtsev, V; Tayloe, R; Vetter, K; Virtue, C; Wilkerson, J; Yoo, J; Yu, C H

    2013-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, provides an intense flux of neutrinos in the few tens-of-MeV range, with a sharply-pulsed timing structure that is beneficial for background rejection. In this white paper, we describe how the SNS source can be used for a measurement of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CENNS), and the physics reach of different phases of such an experimental program (CSI: Coherent Scattering Investigations at the SNS).

  5. Measurement and analysis of turbulent liquid metal flow in a high-power spallation neutron source-EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Samec, K; Blumenfeld, L; Kharoua, C; Dementjevs, S; Milenkovic, R Z

    2011-01-01

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line (EURISOL) design study completed in 2009 examined means of producing exotic nuclei for fundamental research. One of the critical components identified in the study was a high-power neutron spallation source in which a target material is impacted by a proton beam producing neutrons by a process known as spallation. Due to the high heat power deposition, liquid metal, in this case mercury, is the only viable choice as target material. Complex issues arise from the use of liquid metal. It is characterised by an unusually low Prandtl number and a higher thermal expansivity than conventional fluids. The turbulence structure in LM is thereby affected and still an object of intense research, hampered in part by measurement difficulties. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) allowed a satisfactory design for the neutron source to be found rapidly with little iteration. However it was feared that the development of the boundary layer and associated turbulence would not b...

  6. Low-loss design for the high-intensity accumulator ring of the Spallation Neutron Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wei

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the low-loss design for the Spallation Neutron Source accumulator ring [“Spallation Neutron Source Design Manual” (unpublished]. A hybrid lattice consisting of FODO arcs and doublet straights provides optimum matching and flexibility for injection and collimation. For this lattice, optimization focuses on six design goals: a space-charge tune shift low enough (below 0.15 to avoid strong resonances, adequate transverse and momentum acceptance for efficient beam collimation, injection optimized for desired target beam shape and minimal halo development, compensation of magnet field errors, control of impedance and instability, and prevention against accidental system malfunction. With an expected collimation efficiency of more than 90%, the uncontrolled fractional beam loss is expected to be at the 10^{-4} level.

  7. Studies Performed in Preparation for the Spallation Neutron Source Accumulator Ring Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Cousineau, Sarah M; Henderson, Stuart; Holmes, Jeffrey Alan; Plum, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source accumulator ring will compress 1.5?1014, 1 GeV protons from a 1 ms bunch train to a single 695 ns proton bunch for use in neutron spallation. Due to the high beam power, unprecedented control of beam loss will be required in order to control radiation and allow for hands-on maintenance in most areas of the ring. A number of detailed investigations have been performed to understand the primary sources of beam loss and to predict and mitigate problems associated with radiation hot spots in the ring. The ORBIT particle tracking code is used to perform realistic simulations of the beam accumulation in the ring, including detailed modeling of the injection system, transport through the measured magnet fields including higher order multipoles, and beam loss and collimation. In this paper we present the results of a number of studies performed in preparation for the 2006 commissioning of the accumulator ring.

  8. Radioprotection and Shielding Aspects of the nTOF Spallation Source

    CERN Document Server

    Vlachoudis, V; Buono, S; Cennini, P; Dahlfors, M; Ferrari, A; Kadi, Y; Herrera-Martínez, A; Lacoste, V; Radermacher, E; Rubbia, Carlo; Zanini, L

    2002-01-01

    The neutron Time of Flight (nTOF) facility at CERN is a high flux neutron source obtained by the spallation of 20 GeV/c protons onto a solid lead target. The first experimental measurements performed in Apr. 2001 have revealed an important neutron background, 50 to 100 times higher than expected, along with some secondary effects like air activation, with a strong presence of 7Be and 41Ar. In a subsequent study this neutron background was accounted to the strong presence of charged particles and especially negative muons, resulting from the interaction of the high-energy proton beam with the lead target. The present paper reports the study and solutions to the radioprotection and shielding aspects related to the nTOF spallation source.

  9. Probing light sterile neutrino signatures at reactor and Spallation Neutron Source neutrino experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmas, T. S.; Papoulias, D. K.; Tórtola, M.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the impact of a fourth sterile neutrino at reactor and Spallation Neutron Source neutrino detectors. Specifically, we explore the discovery potential of the TEXONO and COHERENT experiments to subleading sterile neutrino effects through the measurement of the coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering event rate. Our dedicated χ2-sensitivity analysis employs realistic nuclear structure calculations adequate for high purity sub-keV threshold Germanium detectors.

  10. The thermal triple-axis-spectrometer EIGER at the continuous spallation source SINQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U., E-mail: uwe.stuhr@psi.ch [Laboratory of Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Roessli, B.; Gvasaliya, S. [Laboratory of Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Rønnow, H.M. [Laboratory for Quantum Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Féderale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Filges, U.; Graf, D.; Bollhalder, A.; Hohl, D.; Bürge, R.; Schild, M.; Holitzner, L.; Kaegi, C.; Keller, P.; Mühlebach, T. [Laboratory for Scientific Development and Novel Materials, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2017-05-01

    EIGER is the new thermal triple-axis-spectrometer at the continuous spallation SINQ at PSI. The shielding of the monochromator consists only of non- or low magnetizable materials, which allows the use of strong magnetic fields with the instrument. This shielding reduces the high energy neutron contamination to a comparable level of thermal spectrometers at reactor sources. The instrument design, the performance and first results of the spectrometer are presented.

  11. Technical concepts for a long-wavelength target station for the Spallation Neutron Source.

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, J M

    2002-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), a major new user facility for materials research funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), see the Spallation Neutron Source web site at: www.sns.gov/aboutsns/source/htm. The SNS will operate at a proton beam power of 1.4 MW delivered in short pulses at 60 Hz; this power level is an order of magnitude higher than that of the current most intense pulsed spallation neutron facility in the world, ISIS at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory in the United Kingdom: 160 kW at 50 Hz. When completed in 2006, the SNS will supply the research community with neutron beams of unprecedented intensity and a powerful, diverse instrument suite with exceptional capabilities. Together, these will enable a new generation of experimental studies of interest to chemists, condensed matter physicists, biologists, materials scientists, and engineers, in an ever-increasing range of applications. The Long-Wavelength Target Station (L...

  12. General-purpose readout electronics for white neutron source at China Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Cao, P.; Qi, X.; Yu, T.; Ji, X.; Xie, L.; An, Q.

    2018-01-01

    The under-construction White Neutron Source (WNS) at China Spallation Neutron Source is a facility for accurate measurements of neutron-induced cross section. Seven spectrometers are planned at WNS. As the physical objectives of each spectrometer are different, the requirements for readout electronics are not the same. In order to simplify the development of the readout electronics, this paper presents a general method for detector signal readout. This method has advantages of expansibility and flexibility, which makes it adaptable to most detectors at WNS. In the WNS general-purpose readout electronics, signals from any kinds of detectors are conditioned by a dedicated signal conditioning module corresponding to this detector, and then digitized by a common waveform digitizer with high speed and high precision (1 GSPS at 12-bit) to obtain the full waveform data. The waveform digitizer uses a field programmable gate array chip to process the data stream and trigger information in real time. PXI Express platform is used to support the functionalities of data readout, clock distribution, and trigger information exchange between digitizers and trigger modules. Test results show that the performance of the WNS general-purpose readout electronics can meet the requirements of the WNS spectrometers.

  13. Stabilized operation of the Spallation Neutron Source radio-frequency quadrupole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-ho Kim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ had resonance control instabilities at duty factors higher than approximately 4%. Systematic investigations have been carried out to understand the cause of the instability and to ensure the operational stability of the RFQ. The most critical source of the instability is revealed to be an interaction between hydrogen released by beam bombardments and the RFQ rf field resulting in a discharge, which consumes additional rf power and could cause the RFQ to operate in an unstable region. This paper reports improvement of the SNS RFQ operational stability based on the findings during the SNS operation.

  14. Opportunities for Neutrino Physics at the Spallation Neutron Source: A White Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Bolozdynya, A; Efremenko, Y; Garvey, G T; Gudkov, V; Hatzikoutelis, A; Hix, W R; Louis, W C; Link, J M; Markoff, D M; Mills, G B; Patton, K; Ray, H; Scholberg, K; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C; White, D H; Yen, S; Yoo, J

    2012-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, provides an intense flux of neutrinos in the few tens-of-MeV range, with a sharply-pulsed timing structure that is beneficial for background rejection. In this document, the product of a workshop at the SNS in May 2012, we describe this free, high-quality stopped-pion neutrino source and outline various physics that could be done using it. We describe without prioritization some specific experimental configurations that could address these physics topics.

  15. The spallation neutron source SINQ. A new large facility for research at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.S.; Crawford, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    This document is intended to familiarize the non-specialist with the principles of neutron scattering and some of its applications. It presents an overview of the foundations of neutron scattering, the basic types of instruments used, and their principles of operation. The design concept and some technical details of the spallation neutron source are described for the benefit of the scientifically or technically interested reader. In future this source will form the heart of the instruments available to PSI`s wide community of neutron scattering researchers. (author) 32 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Opportunities for Neutrino Physics at the Spallation Neutron Source: A White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolozdynya, A. [Moscow Phys. Eng. Inst.; Cavanna, F. [INFN, Aquila; Efremenko, Y. [Tennessee U.; Garvey, G. T. [Los Alamos; Gudkov, V. [South Carolina U.; Hatzikoutelis, A. [Tennessee U.; Hix, W. R. [Oak Ridge; Louis, W. C. [Los Alamos; Link, J. M. [Virginia Tech.; Markoff, D. M. [North Carolina Central U.; Mills, G. B. [Los Alamos; Patton, K. [North Carolina State U.; Ray, H. [Florida U.; Scholberg, K. [Duke U.; Van de Water, R. G. [Los Alamos; Virtue, C. [Laurentian U.; White, D. H. [Los Alamos; Yen, S. [TRIUMF; Yoo, J. [Fermilab

    2012-11-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, provides an intense flux of neutrinos in the few tens-of-MeV range, with a sharply-pulsed timing structure that is beneficial for background rejection. In this document, the product of a workshop at the SNS in May 2012, we describe this free, high-quality stopped-pion neutrino source and outline various physics that could be done using it. We describe without prioritization some specific experimental configurations that could address these physics topics.

  17. Assessment of the neutron cross section database for mercury for the ORNL spallation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, L.C.; Spencer, R.R.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Gabriel, T.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Neutron source generation based on a high energy particle accelerator has been considered as an alternative to the canceled Advanced Neutron Source project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The proposed technique consists of a spallation neutron source in which neutrons are produced via the interaction of high-energy charged particles in a heavy metal target. Preliminary studies indicate that liquid mercury bombarded with GeV protons provides an excellent neutron source. Accordingly, a survey has been made of the available neutron cross-section data. Since it is expected that spectral modifiers, specifically moderators, will also be incorporated into the source design, the survey included thermal energy, resonance region, and high energy data. It was found that data of individual isotopes were almost non-existent and that the only evaluation found for the natural element had regions of missing data or discrepant data. Therefore, it appears that to achieve the desired degree of accuracy in the spallation source design it is necessary to re-evaluate the mercury database including making new measurements. During the presentation the currently available data will be presented and experiments proposed which can lead to design quality cross sections.

  18. HYSPEC : A CRYSTAL TIME OF FLIGHT HYBRID SPECTROMETER FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHAPIRO,S.M.; ZALIZNYAK,I.A.

    2002-12-30

    This document lays out a proposal by the Instrument Development Team (IDT) composed of scientists from leading Universities and National Laboratories to design and build a conceptually new high-flux inelastic neutron spectrometer at the pulsed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge. This instrument is intended to supply users of the SNS and scientific community, of which the IDT is an integral part, with a platform for ground-breaking investigations of the low-energy atomic-scale dynamical properties of crystalline solids. It is also planned that the proposed instrument will be equipped with a polarization analysis capability, therefore becoming the first polarized beam inelastic spectrometer in the SNS instrument suite, and the first successful polarized beam inelastic instrument at a pulsed spallation source worldwide. The proposed instrument is designed primarily for inelastic and elastic neutron spectroscopy of single crystals. In fact, the most informative neutron scattering studies of the dynamical properties of solids nearly always require single crystal samples, and they are almost invariably flux-limited. In addition, in measurements with polarization analysis the available flux is reduced through selection of the particular neutron polarization, which puts even more stringent limits on the feasibility of a particular experiment. To date, these investigations have mostly been carried out on crystal spectrometers at high-flux reactors, which usually employ focusing Bragg optics to concentrate the neutron beam on a typically small sample. Construction at Oak Ridge of the high-luminosity spallation neutron source, which will provide intense pulsed neutron beams with time-averaged fluxes equal to those at medium-flux reactors, opens entirely new opportunities for single crystal neutron spectroscopy. Drawing upon experience acquired during decades of studies with both crystal and time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometers, the IDT has developed a conceptual

  19. A Drabkin energy filter for experiments at a spallation neutron source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizzi, A. A.; Felcher, G. P.; Klose, F.

    2000-11-21

    We present a new approach for dynamic monochromatization of neutrons suitable for time-of-flight experiments at spallation neutron sources. The method requires polarized neutrons and is based on the Drabkin energy filter. In its initial application, this magnetic resonator device, consisting of a polarizer/analyzer system and a wavelength-dependent spin flipper, was proposed for extracting a narrow bandwidth from a broad bandwidth polarized neutron beam. At a spallation neutron source, wavelength is determined by time-of-flight (TOF) from the source to the detector. However, at each instant a spread of wavelengths is recorded due to the non-zero emission time of the source/moderator system. Particularly, high-intensity moderators for cold neutrons produce long ''tails'' in the intensity/time distribution for all wavelengths, degrading the resolution of the experiments. The Drabkin energy filter can be used to cut the neutron tails for all wavelengths, by drifting the resonance condition in synchronization with the TOF. Calculations show that the method is viable, and that substantial resolution gains are obtained by application to a TOF neutron reflectometer.

  20. Overview of ten-year operation of the superconducting linear accelerator at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.-H.; Afanador, R.; Barnhart, D. L.; Crofford, M.; Degraff, B. D.; Doleans, M.; Galambos, J.; Gold, S. W.; Howell, M. P.; Mammosser, J.; McMahan, C. J.; Neustadt, T. S.; Peters, C.; Saunders, J. W.; Strong, W. H.; Vandygriff, D. J.; Vandygriff, D. M.

    2017-04-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has acquired extensive operational experience of a pulsed proton superconducting linear accelerator (SCL) as a user facility. Numerous lessons have been learned in its first 10 years operation to achieve a stable and reliable operation of the SCL. In this paper, an overview of the SNS SCL design, qualification of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities and ancillary subsystems, an overview of the SNS cryogenic system, the SCL operation including SCL output energy history and downtime statistics, performance stability of the SRF cavities, efforts for SRF cavity performance recovery and improvement at the SNS, and maintenance activities for cryomodules are introduced.

  1. A neutron booster for spallation sources--application to accelerator driven systems and isotope production

    CERN Document Server

    Galy, J; Van Dam, H; Valko, J

    2002-01-01

    One can design a critical system with fissile material in the form of a thin layer on the inner surface of a cylindrical neutron moderator such as graphite or beryllium. Recently, we have investigated the properties of critical and near critical systems based on the use of thin actinide layers of uranium, plutonium and americium. The thickness of the required fissile layer depends on the type of fissile material, its concentration in the layer and on the geometrical arrangement, but is typically in the mu m-mm range. The resulting total mass of fissile material can be as low as 100 g. Thin fissile layers have a variety of applications in nuclear technology--for example in the design neutron amplifiers for medical applications and 'fast' islands in thermal reactors for waste incineration. In the present paper, we investigate the properties of a neutron booster unit for spallation sources and isotope production. In those applications a layer of fissile material surrounds the spallation source. Such a module cou...

  2. Experiment Automation with a Robot Arm using the Liquids Reflectometer Instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolnierczuk, Piotr A [ORNL; Vacaliuc, Bogdan [ORNL; Sundaram, Madhan [ORNL; Parizzi, Andre A [ORNL; Halbert, Candice E [ORNL; Hoffmann, Michael C [ORNL; Greene, Gayle C [ORNL; Browning, Jim [ORNL; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The Liquids Reflectometer instrument installed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) enables observations of chemical kinetics, solid-state reactions and phase-transitions of thin film materials at both solid and liquid surfaces. Effective measurement of these behaviors requires each sample to be calibrated dynamically using the neutron beam and the data acquisition system in a feedback loop. Since the SNS is an intense neutron source, the time needed to perform the measurement can be the same as the alignment process, leading to a labor-intensive operation that is exhausting to users. An update to the instrument control system, completed in March 2013, implemented the key features of automated sample alignment and robot-driven sample management, allowing for unattended operation over extended periods, lasting as long as 20 hours. We present a case study of the effort, detailing the mechanical, electrical and software modifications that were made as well as the lessons learned during the integration, verification and testing process.

  3. Numerical calculation of transverse coupling impedances: Comparison to Spallation Neutron Source extraction kicker measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Doliwa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of beam dynamics and the localization of potential sources of instabilities are important tasks in the design of modern, high-intensity particle accelerators. In the case of synchrotrons and storage rings, coupling impedance data are needed to characterize the parasitic interaction of critical components with the beam. In this article we demonstrate the application of numerical field simulations to the computation of transverse kicker coupling impedances. Based on the 3D simulation results, a parametrized model is developed to incorporate the impedance of an arbitrary pulse-forming network attached to the kicker. Detailed comparisons of numerical results with twin-wire and direct measurements are discussed at the example of the Spallation Neutron Source extraction kicker.

  4. Numerical calculation of transverse coupling impedances: Comparison to Spallation Neutron Source extraction kicker measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doliwa, B.; Arévalo, E.; Weiland, T.

    2007-10-01

    The study of beam dynamics and the localization of potential sources of instabilities are important tasks in the design of modern, high-intensity particle accelerators. In the case of synchrotrons and storage rings, coupling impedance data are needed to characterize the parasitic interaction of critical components with the beam. In this article we demonstrate the application of numerical field simulations to the computation of transverse kicker coupling impedances. Based on the 3D simulation results, a parametrized model is developed to incorporate the impedance of an arbitrary pulse-forming network attached to the kicker. Detailed comparisons of numerical results with twin-wire and direct measurements are discussed at the example of the Spallation Neutron Source extraction kicker.

  5. Pressure and stress waves in a spallation neutron source mercury target generated by high-power proton pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Futakawa, M; Conrad, H; Stechemesser, H

    2000-01-01

    The international ASTE collaboration has performed a first series of measurements on a spallation neutron source target at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) in Brookhaven. The dynamic response of a liquid mercury target hit by high-power proton pulses of about 40 ns duration has been measured by a laser Doppler technique and compared with finite elements calculations using the ABAQUS code. It is shown that the calculation can describe the experimental results for at least the time interval up to 100 mu s after the pulse injection. Furthermore, it has been observed that piezoelectric pressure transducers cannot be applied in the high gamma-radiation field of a spallation target.

  6. Thermal-hydraulic design concept of the solid-target system of spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, F.; Hibiki, T.; Saito, Y.; Takeda, T.; Mishima, K. [Kyoto Univ., Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In relation to thermal-hydraulic design of the N-Arena solid-target system of the JHF project, heat transfer experiments were performed to obtain experimental data systematically on heat transfer coefficient and CHF for vertical upward and horizontal flows in a thin rectangular channel simulating a coolant channel of the proposed spallation neutron source. Thermal-hydraulic correlations which can be used for design calculations were proposed based on the obtained data. Finally tentative results of feasibility study on maximum beam power which could be attained with a solid target were presented. The result indicated that the condition for the onset of nucleate boiling is the most significant limiting factor to the maximum beam power. (author)

  7. Transverse beam resonance in the superconducting linac of the Spallation Neutron Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A weak transverse resonance in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS superconducting linac is identified in computer simulations, and is believed to be one of the mechanisms behind measured beam losses. This weak resonance is induced by the nonlinear dodecapole component of the linac quadrupole magnets. It occurs when the linac focusing lattice has a transverse phase advance close to 60°. By reducing the phase advance to approximately 50° to avoid the resonance, we observe significant reduction in beam loss in the SNS superconducting linac. We present theory and computer simulation results supporting the notion that a suppression of the 60° resonance may contribute to reduction in the beam loss.

  8. Low-level rf control of Spallation Neutron Source: System and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengjie Ma

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The low-level rf control system currently commissioned throughout the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS LINAC evolved from three design iterations over 1 yr intensive research and development. Its digital hardware implementation is efficient, and has succeeded in achieving a minimum latency of less than 150 ns which is the key for accomplishing an all-digital feedback control for the full bandwidth. The control bandwidth is analyzed in frequency domain and characterized by testing its transient response. The hardware implementation also includes the provision of a time-shared input channel for a superior phase differential measurement between the cavity field and the reference. A companion cosimulation system for the digital hardware was developed to ensure a reliable long-term supportability. A large effort has also been made in the operation software development for the practical issues such as the process automations, cavity filling, beam loading compensation, and the cavity mechanical resonance suppression.

  9. EXPERIENCE WITH COLLABORATIVE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE FROM A PARTNER LAB PERSPECTIVE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOFF, L.T.

    2005-10-10

    Collaborative development and operation of large physics experiments is fairly common. Less common is the collaborative development or operation of accelerators. A current example of the latter is the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The SNS project was conceived as a collaborative effort between six DOE facilities. In the SNS case, the control system was also developed collaboratively. The SNS project has now moved beyond the collaborative development phase and into the phase where Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) is integrating contributions from collaborating ''partner labs'' and is beginning accelerator operations. In this paper, the author reflects on the benefits and drawbacks of the collaborative development of an accelerator control system as implemented for the SNS project from the perspective of a partner lab.

  10. Thermal-hydraulic simulation of mercury target concepts for a pulsed spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siman-Tov, M.; Wendel, M.; Haines, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source (ORSNS) is a high-power, accelerator-based pulsed spallation neutron source being designed by a multi-laboratory team led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to achieve very high fluxes of neutrons for scientific experiments. The ORSNS is projected to have a 1 MW proton beam upgradable to 5 MW. About 60% of the beam power (1-5 MW, 17-83 kJ/pulse in 0.5 microsec at 60 cps) is deposited in the liquid metal (mercury) target having the dimensions of 65x30x10 cm (about 19.5 liter). Peak steady state power density is about 150 and 785 MW/m{sup 3} for 1 MW and 5 MW beam respectively, whereas peak pulsed power density is as high as 5.2 and 26.1 GW/m{sup 3}, respectively. The peak pulse temperature rise rate is 14 million C/s (for 5 MW beam) whereas the total pulse temperature rise is only 7 C. In addition to thermal shock and materials compatibility, key feasibility issues for the target are related to its thermal-hydraulic performance. This includes proper flow distribution, flow reversals, possible {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} and the challenge of mitigating the effects of thermal shock through possible injection of helium bubbles throughout the mercury volume or other concepts. The general computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code CFDS-FLOW3D was used to simulate the thermal and flow distribution in three preliminary concepts of the mercury target. Very initial CFD simulation of He bubbles injection demonstrates some potential for simulating behavior of He bubbles in flowing mercury. Much study and development will be required to be able to `predict`, even in a crude way, such a complex phenomena. Future direction in both design and R&D is outlined.

  11. Theoretic programs related to spallation neutron source for ADS. Pt.2: Thick target simulations The ADS is stated for Accelector Driven System

    CERN Document Server

    Fan Sheng; Shen Qing Biao; Zhao Zhi Xiang

    2002-01-01

    The spallation neutron target for intermediate energy proton incident is an important link for accelerator and subcritical reactor of accelerator driven system (ADS). The theoretic programs and Monte-Carlo codes are a useful approach for solving the physics of spallation neutron source. The authors discuss those codes at present work and introduce the application and development of SHIELD code

  12. The performance of neutron scattering spectrometers at a long-pulse spallation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pynn, R.

    1997-06-01

    In this document the author considers the performance of a long pulse spallation source for those neutron scattering experiments that are usually performed with a monochromatic beam at a continuous wave (CW) source such as a nuclear reactor. The first conclusion drawn is that comparison of the performance of neutron scattering spectrometers at CW and pulsed sources is simpler for long-pulsed sources than it is for the short-pulse variety. Even though detailed instrument design and assessment will require Monte Carlo simulations (which have already been performed at Los Alamos for SANS and reflectometry), simple arguments are sufficient to assess the approximate performance of spectrometers at an LPSS and to support the contention that a 1 MW long-pulse source can provide attractive performance, especially for instrumentation designed for soft-condensed-matter science. Because coupled moderators can be exploited at such a source, its time average cold flux is equivalent to that of a research reactor with a power of about 15 MW, so only a factor of 4 gain from source pulsing is necessary to obtain performance that is comparable with the ILL. In favorable cases, the gain from pulsing can be even more than this, approaching the limit set by the peak flux, giving about 4 times the performance of the ILL. Because of its low duty factor, an LPSS provides the greatest performance gains for relatively low resolution experiments with cold neutrons. It should thus be considered complementary to short pulse sources which are most effective for high resolution experiments using thermal or epithermal neutrons.

  13. Particle identification technique using grid ionization chamber at China Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingtan; Fan, Ruirui; Zhang, Qingmin; He, Yuefeng; Sun, Zhijia; Zhou, Liang; Tang, Jingyu; Bai, Huaiyong; Jiang, Haoyu; Zhang, Guohui

    2017-11-01

    Back-n white neutron source at China Spallation Neutron Source facility requires a detector with charged-particle identification ability for measuring nuclear cross sections. Therefore, a grid ionization chamber (GIC) with an adjustable distance between the cathode and grid was designed and built. Moreover, a corresponding particle identification algorithm is proposed in order to use the signals of the anode (QA) and cathode (QC), or the signal (QA) of the anode and the time difference (Δ t) between the cathode and anode signals, based on the interactive behaviors of charged particles and the GIC's working principle. First, the GIC performance was measured using a 241Am α source for preliminary performance testing, which provided an energy resolution of 5.25%. Its good particle identification performance was demonstrated by identifying 3H and 4He from neutron reactions with 6Li using a 2D QC-QA plot and Δ t-QA plot. Furthermore, 3H and 4He can be completely distinguished from the updated 2D QC-QA plot and Δ t-QA plot, in which 3H with a small incident angle is selected. Finally, it was concluded that our GIC with the proposed particle identification algorithm could identify charged particles effectively for the future measurement of nuclear cross sections.

  14. Technology and science at a high-power spallation source: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    These proceedings cover many aspects of the usefulness of spallation neutrons. Nine different areas are considered: surfaces and interfaces, engineering, materials science, polymers and complex fluids, chemistry, structural biology, nuclear engineering and radiation effects, condensed matter physics and fundamental physics.

  15. Structural design study of a proton beam window for a 1-MW spallation neutron source

    CERN Document Server

    Teraoku, T; Ishikura, S; Kaminaga, M; Maekawa, F; Meigo, S I; Terada, A

    2003-01-01

    A 1-MW spallation neutron source aiming at materials and life science researches will be constructed under the JAERI-KEK High-intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC). A proton beam passes through a proton beam window, and be injected into a target of the neutron source. The proton beam window functions as a boundary wall between a high vacuum area in the proton beam line and a helium atmosphere at about atmospheric pressure in a helium vessel which contains the target and moderators. The proton beam window is cooled by light water because high heat-density is generated in the window material by interactions with the proton beam. Then, uniformity of the water flow is requested at the window to suppress a hot-spot that causes excessive thermal stress and cooling water boiling. Also, the window has to be strong enough in its structure for inner stress due to water pressure and thermal stress due to heat generation. In this report, we propose two types of proton beam windows; one flat-type that is easy to m...

  16. Mercury target R&D for the Oak Ridge spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, J.R.; DiStefano, J.; Farrell, K.; Gabriel, T.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    The conceptual design for the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source (ORSNS) incorporates liquid mercury as its reference target material. A flowing liquid target was selected mainly because of the increased power handling capability possible with the convective transport process. The major reasons for choosing mercury as the liquid target material are because it: (1) is a liquid at room temperature, (2) has good heat transport properties, and (3) has a high atomic number and mass density resulting in high neutron yield and source brightness. Since liquid targets are not widely utilized in presently operating accelerator targets and because of the challenges posed by the intense, pulsed thermal energy deposition ({approximately}20-100 kJ deposited during each 1-10 {mu}s pulse), considerable R&D is planned for the mercury target concept. The key feasibility issue that will be addressed in early R&D efforts are the effects of the thermal shock environment, which will include development and testing of approaches to mitigate these effects. Materials compatiblity and ES&H issues associated with the use of liquid mercury are also of major importance in early R&D efforts. A brief description of the mercury target design concept, results of initial evaluations of its performance characteristics, identification of its critical issues, and an outline of the R&D program aimed at addressing these issues will be presented.

  17. Low-Power RF Tuning of the Spallation Neutron Source Warm LINAC Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Deibele, C

    2004-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source being built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A conventional 402.5 MHz drift-tube linac (DTL) accelerates the beam from 2.5 to 86 MeV, and the 805 MHz coupled-cavity linac (CCL) continues acceleration to 186 MeV. Tuning the six DTL tanks involves adjusting post-coupler lengths and slug tuners to achieve the design resonant frequency and stabilized field distribution. A 2.5 MW klystron feeds RF power into each DTL tank through a ridge-loaded waveguide that does not perturb either the frequency or field distribution in the tank. The CCL consists of 4 RF modules operating in the βλ/2 mode. Each module contains 96 accelerating cavities in 12 segments of 8 cavities each, 11 active bridge coupler cavities, and 106 nominally unexcited coupling cavities. For each RF module, power from a single 5 MW klystron splits once and drives bridge couplers 3 and 9. We will discuss the special tools and measurement techniques developed f...

  18. Spallation Reactions: A Tool for RNB Production and a Neutron Source for Nuclear Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benlliure, J.; Armbruster, P.; Bernas, M.; Boudard, A.; Casarejos, E.; Czajkowski, S.; Enqvist, T.; Farget, F.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Pravikoff, M.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Stephan, C.; Taieb, J.; Tassan-Got, L.; Volant, C.

    1999-12-31

    A large experimental program was initiated at GSI to study in detail the spallation reactions. The use of the inverse kinematics allows to determine the production cross section and recoil momentum of the spallation residues with high accuracy. The comparison of the experimental data with model calculation gives valuable information about the reaction mechanism and the application of these reactions to RNB production and to the problematic of nuclear waste transmutation.

  19. Thermal-hydraulic performance of a water-cooled tungsten-rod target for a spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, D.I.

    1997-08-01

    A thermal-hydraulic (T-H) analysis is conducted to determine the feasibility and limitations of a water-cooled tungsten-rod target at powers of 1 MW and above. The target evaluated has a 10-cm x 10-cm cross section perpendicular to the beam axis, which is typical of an experimental spallation neutron source - both for a short-pulse spallation source and long-pulse spallation source. This report describes the T-H model and assumptions that are used to evaluate the target. A 1-MW baseline target is examined, and the results indicate that this target should easily handle the T-H requirements. The possibility of operating at powers >1 MW is also examined. The T-H design is limited by the condition that the coolant does not boil (actual limits are on surface subcooling and wall heat flux); material temperature limits are not approached. Three possible methods of enhancing the target power capability are presented: reducing peak power density, altering pin dimensions, and improving coolant conditions (pressure and temperature). Based on simple calculations, it appears that this target concept should have little trouble reaching the 2-MW range (from a purely T-H standpoint), and possibly much higher powers. However, one must keep in mind that these conclusions are based solely on thermal-hydraulics. It is possible, and perhaps likely, that target performance could be limited by structural issues at higher powers, particularly for a short-pulse spallation source because of thermal shock issues.

  20. Thermohydraulic behavior of the liquid metal target of a spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Y.

    1996-06-01

    The author presents work done on three main problems. (1) Natural circulation in double coaxial cylindircal container: The thermohydraulic behaviour of the liquid metal target of the spallation neutron source at PSI has been investigated. The configuration is a natural-circulation loop in a concentric double-tube-type container. The results show that the natural-circulation loop concept is valid for the design phase of the target construction, and the current specified design criteria will be fulfilled with the proposed parameter values. (2) Flow around the window: Water experiments were performed for geometry optimisation of the window shape of the SINQ container for avoiding generating recirculation zones at peripheral area and the optimal cooling of the central part of the beam entrance window. Flow visualisation technique was mainly used for various window shapes, gap distance between the window and the guide tube edge. (3) Flow in window cooling channels: Flows in narrow gaps of cooling channels of two different types of windows were studied by flow visualisation techniques. One type is a slightly curved round cooling channel and the other is hemispherical shape, both of which have only 2 mm gap distance and the water inlet is located on one side and flows out from the opposite side. In both cases, the central part of the flow area has lower velocity than peripheral area.

  1. Cumulative beam break-up study of the spallation neutron source superconducting linac

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, D; Krafft, G A; Yunn, B; Sundelin, R; Delayen, J; Kim, S; Doleans, M

    2002-01-01

    Beam instabilities due to High Order Modes (HOMs) are a concern to superconducting (SC) linacs such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac. The effects of pulsed mode operation on transverse and longitudinal beam breakup instability are studied for H sup - beam in a consistent manner for the first time. Numerical simulation indicates that cumulative transverse beam breakup instabilities are not a concern in the SNS SC linac, primarily due to the heavy mass of H sup - beam and the HOM frequency spread resulting from manufacturing tolerances. As little as +-0.1 MHz HOM frequency spread stabilizes all the instabilities from both transverse HOMs, and also acts to stabilize the longitudinal HOMs. Such an assumed frequency spread of +-0.1 MHz HOM is small, and hence conservative compared with measured values of sigma=0.00109(f sub H sub O sub M -f sub 0)/f sub 0 obtained from Cornell and the Jefferson Lab Free Electron Laser cavities. However, a few cavities may hit resonance lines and generate a high heat lo...

  2. New controller for high voltage converter modulator at spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wezensky, Mark W [ORNL; Brown, David L [ORNL; Lee, Sung-Woo [ORNL; Zhukov, Alexander P [ORNL; Geng, Xiaosong [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has developed a new control system for the High Voltage Convertor Modulator (HVCM) at the SNS to replace the original control system which is approaching obsolescence. The original system was based on controllers for similar high voltage systems that were already in use [1]. The new controller, based on National Instruments PXI/FlexRIO Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform, offers enhancements such as modular construction, flexibility and non-proprietary software. The new controller also provides new capabilities like various methods for modulator pulse flattening, waveform capture, and first fault detection. This paper will discuss the design of the system, including the human machine interface, based on lessons learned at the SNS and other projects. It will also discuss performance and other issues related to its operation in an accelerator facility which requires high availability. To date, 73% of the operational HVCMs have been upgraded to with the new controller, and the remainder are scheduled for completion by mid-2017.

  3. Background Studies at the Spallation Neutron Source for the COHERENT Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Matthew; Coherent Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The COHERENT experiment is attempting a first measurement of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Lab. CEvNS is a standard model process that is important in understanding supernova neutrinos, the structure of the weak interaction, and as a background for dark matter searches. COHERENT is placing a suite of four detector technologies in a basement location at the SNS: point contact germanium detectors, CsI[Na] crystals, NaI[Tl] crystals, and single phase liquid argon. Previous attempts to measure the CEvNS process have grappled with very high rates of backgrounds due to the low energy thresholds required. Accelerator-correlated neutrons are the most troublesome background for COHERENT because a simple accelerator on/off background subtraction procedure fails to remove them. To understand these backgrounds, COHERENT features measurements from the SciBath detector and the Sandia Neutron Scatter Camera (NSC). Important neutron measurements from both SciBath and the NSC, as well as gamma measurements from the SNS basement location where the four detector technologies for COHERENT will be placed will be discussed. COHERENT collaborators are supported by the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the National Science Foundation, NASA, and the Sloan Foundation.

  4. Overview of the conceptual design of the future VENUS beamline at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL; Keener, Wylie S [ORNL; Davis, Larry E [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    VENUS will be a world-class neutron-imaging instrument that will uniquely utilize the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) time-of-flight (TOF) capabilities to measure and characterize objects across several length scales (mm to m). When completed, VENUS will provide academia, industry and government laboratories with the opportunity to advance scientific research in areas such as energy, materials, additive manufacturing, geosciences, transportation, engineering, plant physiology, biology, etc. It is anticipated that a good portion of the VENUS user community will have a strong engineering/industrial research focus. Installed at Beamline 10 (BL10), VENUS will be a 25-m neutron imaging facility with the capability to fully illuminate (i.e., umbra illumination) a 20 cm x 20 cm detector area. The design allows for a 28 cm x 28 cm field of view when using the penumbra to 80% of the full illumination flux. A sample position at 20 m will be implemented for magnification measurements. The optical components are comprised of a series of selected apertures, T0 and bandwidth choppers, beam scrapers, a fast shutter to limit sample activation, and flight tubes filled with Helium. Techniques such as energy selective, Bragg edge and epithermal imaging will be available at VENUS

  5. A 0.5 MW/10 Hz option of the spallation source AUSTRON

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, P J; Jericha, E; Rauch, H; Regler, Meinhard; Schönauer, Horst Otto

    1999-01-01

    In 1993-94 a feasibility study for AUSTRON, a neutron spallation source, was made on behalf of the Austrian Ministry of Science and Research. At that time, the machine was synchrotron cycling at 25 Hz and delivering an average beam power of 205 kW at 1.6 GeV. An option to double the power by doubling the frequency was foreseen. Now a more ambitious development of the original concept is proposed that aims at 0.5 MW at 1.6 GeV, pulsed at either 50 Hz or 10 Hz. The slow repetition rate is achieved by the addition of a storage ring holding four consecutive (single bunch) pulses from the 50 Hz synchrotron until a fifth pulse is accelerated and transferred to the target with the four stored ones. In this way, an energy per pulse of 50 kJ (one half of the pulse energy of the 5 MW ESS) is obtained, yielding about 3.5*10/sup 16/ thermal neutrons/(s cm/sup 2/). This peak flux matches well a number of innovative instruments and allows unprecedented resolution for some more conventional ones. On August 20, 1998, the Aus...

  6. Design progress of cryogenic hydrogen system for China Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G. P.; Zhang, Y.; Xiao, J.; He, C. C.; Ding, M. Y.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, N.; He, K.

    2014-01-01

    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is a large proton accelerator research facility with 100 kW beam power. Construction started in October 2011 and is expected to last 6.5 years. The cryogenic hydrogen circulation is cooled by a helium refrigerator with cooling capacity of 2200 W at 20 K and provides supercritical hydrogen to neutron moderating system. Important progresses of CSNS cryogenic system were concluded as follows. Firstly, process design of cryogenic system has been completed including helium refrigerator, hydrogen loop, gas distribution, and safety interlock. Secondly, an accumulator prototype was designed to mitigate pressure fluctuation caused by dynamic heat load from neutron moderation. Performance test of the accumulator has been carried out at room and liquid nitrogen temperature. Results show the accumulator with welding bellows regulates hydrogen pressure well. Parameters of key equipment have been identified. The contract for the helium refrigerator has been signed. Mechanical design of the hydrogen cold box has been completed, and the hydrogen pump, ortho-para hydrogen convertor, helium-hydrogen heat exchanger, hydrogen heater, and cryogenic valves are in procurement. Finally, Hydrogen safety interlock has been finished as well, including the logic of gas distribution, vacuum, hydrogen leakage and ventilation. Generally, design and construction of CSNS cryogenic system is conducted as expected.

  7. Analysis of radiation environmental safety for China's Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Bin; Wu, Qing-Biao; Ma, Zhong-Jian; Zhang, Qing-Jiang; Li, Nan; Wu, Jing-Min; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Gang

    2010-07-01

    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is going to be located in Dalang Town, Dongguan City in the Guangdong Province. In this paper we report the results of the parameters related with environment safety based on experiential calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. The main project of the accelerator is an under ground construction. On top there is a 0.5 m concrete and 5.0 m soil covering for shielding, which can reduce the dose out of the tunnel's top down to 0.2 μSv/h. For the residents on the boundary of the CSNS, the dose produced by skyshine, which is caused by the penetrated radiation leaking from the top of the accelerator, is no more than 0.68 μSv/a. When CSNS is operating normally, the maximal annual effective dose due to the emission of gas from the tunnel is 2.40×10-3 mSv/a to the public adult, and 2.29×10-3 mSv/a to a child, both values are two orders of magnitude less than the limiting value for control and management. CSNS may give rise to an activation of the soil and groundwater in the nearest tunnels, where the main productions are 3H, 7Be, 22Na, 54Mn, etc. But the specific activity is less than the exempt specific activity in the national standard GB13376-92. So it is safe to say that the environmental impact caused by the activation of soil and groundwater is insignificant. To sum up, for CSNS, as a powerful neutron source device, driven by a high-energy high-current proton accelerator, a lot of potential factors affecting the environment exist. However, as long as effective shieldings for protection are adopted and strict rules are drafted, the environmental impact can be kept under control within the limits of the national standard.

  8. Structural design study of a proton beam window for a 1-MW spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoku, Takuji; Terada, Atsuhiko; Maekawa, Fujio; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Kaminaga, Masanori; Ishikura, Syuichi; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    A 1-MW spallation neutron source aiming at materials and life science researches will be constructed under the JAERI-KEK High-intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC). A proton beam passes through a proton beam window, and be injected into a target of the neutron source. The proton beam window functions as a boundary wall between a high vacuum area in the proton beam line and a helium atmosphere at about atmospheric pressure in a helium vessel which contains the target and moderators. The proton beam window is cooled by light water because high heat-density is generated in the window material by interactions with the proton beam. Then, uniformity of the water flow is requested at the window to suppress a hot-spot that causes excessive thermal stress and cooling water boiling. Also, the window has to be strong enough in its structure for inner stress due to water pressure and thermal stress due to heat generation. In this report, we propose two types of proton beam windows; one flat-type that is easy to manufacture, and the other, curved-type that has high stress resistivity. As a part of design study for the windows, evaluation of strength of structure and thermal hydraulic analysis were conducted. As a result, it was found that sufficient heat removal was assured with uniform water flow at the window, and stress caused by internal water pressure and thermal stress could be maintained below allowable stress values. Accordingly, it was confirmed that the proton beam window designs were feasible. (author)

  9. Awareness, Preference, Utilization, and Messaging Research for the Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Rebecca [Bryant Research, LLC; Kszos, Lynn A [ORNL

    2011-03-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) offers the scientific community unique access to two types of world-class neutron sources at a single site - the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The 85-MW HFIR provides one of the highest steady-state neutron fluxes of any research reactor in the world, and the SNS is one of the world's most intense pulsed neutron beams. Management of these two resources is the responsibility of the Neutron Sciences Directorate (NScD). NScD commissioned this survey research to develop baseline information regarding awareness of and perceptions about neutron science. Specific areas of investigative interest include the following: (1) awareness levels among those in the scientific community about the two neutron sources that ORNL offers; (2) the level of understanding members of various scientific communities have regarding benefits that neutron scattering techniques offer; and (3) any perceptions that negatively impact utilization of the facilities. NScD leadership identified users of two light sources in North America - the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory - as key publics. Given the type of research in which these scientists engage, they would quite likely benefit from including the neutron techniques available at SNS and HFIR among their scientific investigation tools. The objective of the survey of users of APS, NSLS, SNS, and HFIR was to explore awareness of and perceptions regarding SNS and HFIR among those in selected scientific communities. Perceptions of SNS and FHIR will provide a foundation for strategic communication plan development and for developing key educational messages. The survey was conducted in two phases. The first phase included qualitative methods of (1) key stakeholder meetings; (2) online interviews with user administrators of APS and NSLS; and (3) one

  10. Design, status and first operations of the spallation neutron source polyphase resonant converter modulator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reass, W. A. (William A.); Apgar, S. E. (Sean E.); Baca, D. M. (David M.); Doss, James D.; Gonzales, J. (Jacqueline); Gribble, R. F. (Robert F.); Hardek, T. W. (Thomas W.); Lynch, M. T. (Michael T.); Rees, D. E. (Daniel E.); Tallerico, P. J. (Paul J.); Trujillo, P. B. (Pete B.); Anderson, D. E. (David E.); Heidenreich, D. A. (Dale A.); Hicks, J. D. (Jim D.); Leontiev, V. N.

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a new 1.4 MW average power beam, 1 GeV accelerator being built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The accelerator requires 15 converter-modulator stations each providing between 9 and 11 MW pulses with up to a 1 .I MW average power. The converter-modulator can be described as a resonant 20 kHz polyphase boost inverter. Each converter modulator derives its buss voltage from a standard substation cast-core transformer. Each substation is followed by an SCR pre-regulator to accommodate voltage changes from no load to full load, in addition to providing a soft-start function. Energy storage is provided by self-clearing metallized hazy polypropylene traction capacitors. These capacitors do not fail short, but clear any internal anomaly. Three 'H-Bridge' IGBT transistor networks are used to generate the polyphase 20 kHz transformer primary drive waveforms. The 20 kHz drive waveforms are time-gated to generate the desired klystron pulse width. Pulse width modulation of the individual 20 lcHz pulses is utilized to provide regulated output waveforms with DSP based adaptive feedforward and feedback techniques. The boost transformer design utilizes nanocrystalline alloy that provides low core loss at design flux levels and switching frequencies. Capacitors are used on the transformer secondary networks to resonate the leakage inductance. The transformers are wound for a specific leakage inductance, not turns ratio. This design technique generates multiple secondary volts per turn as compared to the primary. With the appropriate tuning conditions, switching losses are minimized. The resonant topology has the added benefit of being deQed in a klystron fault condition, with little energy deposited in the arc. This obviates the need of crowbars or other related networks. A review of these design parameters, operational performance, production status, and OWL installation and performance to date will be presented.

  11. Conceptual moderator studies for the Spallation Neutron Source short-pulse second target station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallmeier, F. X., E-mail: gallmeierfz@ornl.gov; Lu, W.; Riemer, B. W.; Zhao, J. K.; Herwig, K. W.; Robertson, J. L. [Instrument and Source Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS6466, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Candidate moderator configurations for a short-pulse second target station (STS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have been identified using a global optimizer framework built around the MCNPX particle transport code. Neutron brightness metrics were selected as the figure-of-merit. We assumed that STS would use one out of six proton pulses produced by an SNS accelerator upgraded to operate at 1.3 GeV proton energy, 2.8 MW power and 60 Hz repetition rate. The simulations indicate that the peak brightness can be increased by a factor of 5 and 2.5 on a per proton pulse basis compared to the SNS first target station for both coupled and decoupled para-hydrogen moderators, respectively. Additional increases by factors of 3 and 2 were demonstrated for coupled and decoupled moderators, respectively, by reducing the area of neutron emission from 100 × 100 mm{sup 2} to 20 × 20 mm{sup 2}. This increase in brightness has the potential to translate to an increase of beam intensity at the instruments’ sample positions even though the total neutron emission of the smaller moderator is less than that of the larger. This is especially true for instruments with small samples (beam dimensions). The increased fluxes in the STS moderators come at accelerated poison and de-coupler burnout and higher radiation-induced material damage rates per unit power, which overall translate into lower moderator lifetimes. A first effort was undertaken to group decoupled moderators into a cluster collectively positioning them at the peak neutron production zone in the target and having a three-port neutron emission scheme that complements that of a cylindrical coupled moderator.

  12. Preliminary assessment of the nuclide migration from the activation zone around the proposed Spallation Neutron Source facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dole, L.R.

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential impacts of migrating radionuclides from the activation zone around the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Using conservatively high estimates of the potential inventory of radioactive activation products that could form in the proposed compacted-soil shield berm around an SNS facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a conservative, simplified transport model was used to estimate the potential worst-case concentrations of the 12 long-lived isotopes in the groundwater under a site with the hydrologic characteristics of the ORR.

  13. Vacuum seals design and testing for a linear accelerator of the National Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Chen; C. Gautier; F. Hemez; N. K. Bultman

    2000-02-01

    Vacuum seals are very important to ensure that the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Linac has an optimum vacuum system. The vacuum joints between flanges must have reliable seals to minimize the leak rate and meet vacuum and electrical requirements. In addition, it is desirable to simplify the installation and thereby also simplify the maintenance required. This report summarizes an investigation of the metal vacuum seals that include the metal C-seal, Energized Spring seal, Helcoflex Copper Delta seal, Aluminum Delta seal, delta seal with limiting ring, and the prototype of the copper diamond seals. The report also contains the material certifications, design, finite element analysis, and testing for all of these seals. It is a valuable reference for any vacuum system design. To evaluate the suitability of several types of metal seals for use in the SNS Linac and to determine the torque applied on the bolts, a series of vacuum leak rate tests on the metal seals have been completed at Los Alamos Laboratory. A copper plated flange, using the same type of delta seal that was used for testing with the stainless steel flange, has also been studied and tested. A vacuum seal is desired that requires significantly less loading than a standard ConFlat flange with a copper gasket for the coupling cavity assembly. To save the intersegment space the authors use thinner flanges in the design. The leak rate of the thin ConFlat flange with a copper gasket is a baseline for the vacuum test on all seals and thin flanges. A finite element analysis of a long coupling cavity flange with a copper delta seal has been performed in order to confirm the design of the long coupling cavity flange and the welded area of a cavity body with the flange. This analysis is also necessary to predict a potential deformation of the cavity under the combined force of atmospheric pressure and the seating load of the seal. Modeling of this assembly has been achieved using both HKS/Abaqus and COSMOS

  14. Study on bulk shielding for a spallation neutron source facility in the high-intensity proton accelerator project

    CERN Document Server

    Maekawa, F; Takada, H; Teshigawara, M; Watanabe, N

    2002-01-01

    Under the JAERI-KEK High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project, a spallation neutron source driven by a 3 GeV-1 MW proton beam is planed to be constructed in a main part of the Materials and Life Science Facility. This report describes results of a study on bulk shielding performance of a biological shield for the spallation neutron source by means of a Monte Carlo calculation method, that is important in terms of radiation safety and cost reduction. A shielding configuration was determined as a reference case by considering preliminary studies and interaction with other components, then shielding thickness that was required to achieve a target dose rate of 1 mu Sv/h was derived. Effects of calculation conditions such as shielding materials and dimensions on the shielding performance was investigated by changing those parameters. By taking all the results and design margins into account, a shielding configuration that was identified as the most appropriate was finally determined as follows. An iron shield regi...

  15. Basic design of shield blocks for a spallation neutron source under the high-intensity proton accelerator project

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, K; Takada, H

    2003-01-01

    Under the JAERI-KEK High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC), a spallation neutron source driven by a 3 GeV-1 MW proton beam is planed to be constructed as a main part of the Materials and Life Science Facility. Overall dimensions of a biological shield of the neutron source had been determined by evaluation of shielding performance by Monte Carlo calculations. This report describes results of design studies on an optimum dividing scheme in terms of cost and treatment and mechanical strength of shield blocks for the biological shield. As for mechanical strength, it was studied whether the shield blocks would be stable, fall down or move to a horizontal direction in case of an earthquake of seismic intensity of 5.5 (250 Gal) as an abnormal load. For ceiling shielding blocks being supported by both ends of the long blocks, maximum bending moment and an amount of maximum deflection of their center were evaluated.

  16. Results from the Commissioning of the n-TOF Spallation Neutron Source at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Borcea, C; Dahlfors, M; Ferrari, A; García-Muñoz, G; Haefner, P; Herrera-Martínez, A; Kadi, Y; Lacoste, V; Radermacher, E; Saldaña, F; Vlachoudis, V; Zanini, L; Rubbia, Carlo; Buoni, S; Dangendorf, V; Nolte, R; Weierganz, M

    2003-01-01

    The new neutron time-of-flight facility (n_TOF) has been built at CERN and is now operational. The facility is intended for the measurement of neutron induced cross sections of relevance to Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) and to fundamental physics. Neutrons are produced by spallation of the 20 GeV/c proton beam, delivered by the Proton Synchrotron (PS), on a massive target of pure lead. A measuring station is placed at about 185 m from the neutron producing target, allowing high-resolution measurements. The facility was successfully commissioned with two campaigns of measurements, in Nov. 2000 and Apr. 2001. The main interest was concentrated in the physical parameters of the installation (neutron flux and resolution function), along with the target behavior and various safety-related aspects. These measurements confirmed the expectations from Monte Carlo simulations of the facility, thus allowing to initiate the foreseen physics program.

  17. ALARA Review of the Spallation Neutron Source Accumulator Ring and Transfer Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, M.J.

    2003-06-30

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is designed to meet the growing need for new tools that will deepen our understanding in materials science, life science, chemistry, fundamental and nuclear physics, earth and environmental sciences, and engineering sciences. The SNS is an accelerator-based neutron-scattering facility that when operational will produce an average beam power of 2 MW at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. The accelerator complex consists of the front-end systems, which will include an ion source; a 1-GeV full-energy linear accelerator; a single accumulator ring and its transfer lines; and a liquid mercury target. This report documents an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) review of the accumulator ring and transfer lines at their early design stage. An ALARA working group was formed and conducted a review of the SNS ring and transfer lines at the {approx}25% complete design stage to help ensure that ALARA principles are being incorporated into the design. The radiological aspects of the SNS design criteria were reviewed against regulatory requirements and ALARA principles. Proposed features and measures were then reviewed against the SNS design criteria. As part of the overall review, the working group reviewed the design manual; design drawings and process and instrumentation diagrams; the environment, safety, and health manual; and other related reports and literature. The group also talked with SNS design engineers to obtain explanations of pertinent subject matter. The ALARA group found that ALARA principles are indeed being incorporated into the early design stage. Radiation fields have been characterized, and shielding calculations have been performed. Radiological issues are being adequately addressed with regard to equipment selection, access control, confinement structure and ventilation, and contamination control. Radiation monitoring instrumentation for worker and environment protection are also being considered--a good practice at this

  18. Comparison between measurements, simulations, and theoretical predictions of the extraction kicker transverse dipole instability in the Spallation Neutron Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Holmes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Occasionally, it is possible to bring together experiment, theory, and simulation in detail. Such an occasion occurred during a high intensity beam physics study in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS. A transverse dipole instability in the vertical direction has been observed in the accumulator ring for a coasting beam that was stored for 10 000 turns. This instability was observed at a beam intensity of about 12   μC and was characterized by a frequency spectrum peaking at about 6 MHz. The probable cause of the instability is the impedance of the ring extraction kickers. We carry out here a detailed benchmark of the observed instability, uniting an analysis of the experimental data, a precise ORBIT code tracking simulation, and a theoretical estimate of the observed beam instability.

  19. Calculation Package: Derivation of Facility-Specific Derived Air Concentration (DAC) Values in Support of Spallation Neutron Source Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, David A [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    Derived air concentration (DAC) values for 175 radionuclides* produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), but not listed in Appendix A of 10 CFR 835 (01/01/2009 version), are presented. The proposed DAC values, ranging between 1 E-07 {micro}Ci/mL and 2 E-03 {micro}Ci/mL, were calculated in accordance with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and are intended to support an exemption request seeking regulatory relief from the 10 CFR 835, Appendix A, requirement to apply restrictive DACs of 2E-13 {micro}Ci/mL and 4E-11 {micro}Ci/mL and for non-listed alpha and non-alpha-emitting radionuclides, respectively.

  20. A new 2.5 MeV injector and beam test facility for the spallation neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, R. F.; Aleksandrov, A.; Han, B. X.; Kang, Y. W.; Middendorf, M. M.; Murray, S. N.; Piller, M.; Pennisi, T. R.; Peplov, V.; Saethre, R.; Santana, M.; Stinson, C.; Stockli, M. P.

    2017-08-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now operates with 1.2 MW of beam power on target with the near-term goal of delivering 1.4 MW and a longer-term goal of delivering >2 MW to support a planned second target station. Presently, H- beam pulses (50-60 mA, 1 ms, 60 Hz) from an RF-driven, Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp ion source are first accelerated to 2.5 MeV by a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, injected into a ˜1 GeV linac, compressed to transmission, the initial applications of the BTF will be to conduct 6D beam dynamic studies, develop & demonstrate ion sources capable of meeting the current and future requirements of the SNS, and contribute to neutron moderator development. This report provides a facility update, description of the BTF ion source systems as well as a discussion of the first LEBT and RFQ beam current measurements performed at the BTF.

  1. Simulation of a high energy neutron irradiation facility at beamline 11 of the China Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tairan, Liang [School of Physics and Electronic Information Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, Tongliao 028043 (China); Zhiduo, Li [Dongguan Branch, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Wen, Yin, E-mail: wenyin@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Dongguan Branch, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Institute of Physics, CAS, P.O. Box 603, Beijing 100190 (China); Fei, Shen [Dongguan Branch, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Quanzhi, Yu [Dongguan Branch, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Institute of Physics, CAS, P.O. Box 603, Beijing 100190 (China); Tianjiao, Liang [Dongguan Branch, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-07-11

    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) will accommodate 20 neutron beamlines at its first target station. These beamlines serve different purposes, and beamline 11 is designed to analyze the degraded models and damage mechanisms, such as Single Event Effects in electronic components and devices for aerospace electronic systems. This paper gives a preliminary discussion on the scheme of a high energy neutron irradiation experiment at the beamline 11 shutter based on the Monte Carlo simulation method. The neutron source term is generated by calculating the neutrons scattering into beamline 11 with a model that includes the target-moderator-reflector area. Then, the neutron spectrum at the sample position is obtained. The intensity of neutrons with energy of hundreds of MeV is approximately 1E8 neutron/cm{sup 2}/s, which is useful for experiments. The displacement production rate and gas productions are calculated for common materials such as tungsten, tantalum and SS316. The results indicate that the experiment can provide irradiation dose rate ranges from 1E-5 to 1E-4 dpa per operating year. The residual radioactivity is also calculated for regular maintenance work. These results give the basic reference for the experimental design.

  2. Simulation of a high energy neutron irradiation facility at beamline 11 of the China Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tairan, Liang; Zhiduo, Li; Wen, Yin; Fei, Shen; Quanzhi, Yu; Tianjiao, Liang

    2017-07-01

    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) will accommodate 20 neutron beamlines at its first target station. These beamlines serve different purposes, and beamline 11 is designed to analyze the degraded models and damage mechanisms, such as Single Event Effects in electronic components and devices for aerospace electronic systems. This paper gives a preliminary discussion on the scheme of a high energy neutron irradiation experiment at the beamline 11 shutter based on the Monte Carlo simulation method. The neutron source term is generated by calculating the neutrons scattering into beamline 11 with a model that includes the target-moderator-reflector area. Then, the neutron spectrum at the sample position is obtained. The intensity of neutrons with energy of hundreds of MeV is approximately 1E8 neutron/cm2/s, which is useful for experiments. The displacement production rate and gas productions are calculated for common materials such as tungsten, tantalum and SS316. The results indicate that the experiment can provide irradiation dose rate ranges from 1E-5 to 1E-4 dpa per operating year. The residual radioactivity is also calculated for regular maintenance work. These results give the basic reference for the experimental design.

  3. Spallation reactions; Reactions de spallation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugon, J.

    1996-12-31

    Spallation reactions dominate the interactions of hadrons with nuclei in the GeV range (from {approx} 0.1 to {approx} 10 GeV). They correspond to a sometimes important ejection of light particles leaving most of the time a residue of mass commensurate with the target mass. The main features of the experimental data are briefly reviewed. The most successful theoretical model, namely the intranuclear cascade + evaporation model, is presented. Its physical content, results and possible improvements are critically discussed. Alternative approaches are shortly reviewed. (author). 84 refs.

  4. Preliminary Assessment of the Nuclide Migration from the Activation Zone Around the Proposed Spallation Neutron Source Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dole, L.R.

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential impacts of migrating radionuclides from the activation zone around the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Using conservatively high estimates of the potential inventory of radioactive activation products that could form in the proposed compacted-soil shield berm around an SNS facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a conservative, simplified transport model was used to estimate the potential worst-case concentrations of the 12 long-lived isotopes in the groundwater under a site with the hydrologic characteristics of the ORR. Of the 12, only 3 isotopes showed any potential to exceed the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 20 Drinking Water Limits (DWLs). These isotopes were 14C, 22Na, and 54Mn. The latter two activation products have very short half-lives of 2.6 years and 0.854 year, respectively. Therefore, these will decay before reaching an off-site receptor, and they cannot pose off-site hazards. However, for this extremely conservative model, which overestimates the mobility of the contaminant, 14C, which has a 5,730-year half-life, was shown to represent a potential concern in the context of this study's conservative assumptions. This study examines alternative modifications to the SNS shield berm and makes recommendations.

  5. Recent advances in high pressure neutron scattering at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulk, C.; dos Santos, A.; Klug, D.; Guthrie, M.; Machida, S.; Molaison, J.

    2012-12-01

    There have been significant improvements in the operation of the high pressure diffractometer, SNAP, at the Spallation Neutron Source over the past two years. This talk will highlight the current capacities which include low temperature systems, high temperature systems, and the introduction of new pressure cell technology that is based on supported diamond anvils and, with advances in software, is particularly suited for powder diffraction. Specific examples of our recent research will focus on high pressure transitions in hydrogen bonded systems such as methane and CO2 hydrate. The high pressure hexagonal phase of methane hydrate is studied to determine the nature of the hydrate cage loading, this provides detailed experimental data that will lead to better intermolecular potentials for methane - methane interactions, particularly when methane molecules are in close contact and strongly repelling. The high pressure structural systematics of carbon dioxide hydrate is reported. While the structural transformation sequence of most hydrates progress from sI (or sII) to the hexagonal form then to a flied ice structure, CO2 hydrate is an example of a system that skips the hexagonal phase and transforms directly into the filled ice structure. Finally examples of using SNAP to study disorder in amorphous systems will be given. Particularly amorphous vapor co-deposits of water, known as amorphous solid water, and clathrate forming molecules such as CO2, and the structural response of these systems to increased pressure at low temperature.

  6. 3-dimensional shielding design for a spallation neutron source facility in the high-intensity proton accelerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Masaya; Maekawa, Fujio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    Evaluation of shielding performance for a 1 MW spallation neutron source facility in the Materials and Life Science Facility being constructed in the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC) is important from a viewpoint of radiation safety and optimization of arrangement of components. This report describes evaluated results for the shielding performance with modeling three-dimensionally whole structural components including gaps between them in detail. A Monte Carlo calculation method with MCNPX2.2.6 code and LA-150 library was adopted. Streaming and void effects, optimization of shield for cost reduction and optimization of arrangement of structures such as shutters were investigated. The streaming effects were investigated quantitatively by changing the detailed structure of components and gap widths built into the calculation model. Horizontal required shield thicknesses were ranged from about 6.5 m to 7.5 m as a function of neutron beam line angles. A shutter mechanism for a horizontal neutron reflectometer that was directed downward was devised, and it was shown that the shielding performance of the shutter was acceptable. An optimal biological shield configuration was finally determined according to the calculated results. (author)

  7. High power operation of the polyphase resonant converter modulator system for the spallation neutron source linear accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Reass, W A; Baca, D M; Doss, J D; Gonzáles, J M; Gribble, R F; Trujillo, P G

    2003-01-01

    The spallation neutron source (SNS) is a new 1.4 MW average power beam, 1 GeV accelerator being built at Oak Ridge national laboratory. The accelerator requires 15 "long-pulse" converter-modulator stations each providing a maximum of 11 MW pulses with a 1.1 MW average power. Two variants of the converter-modulator are utilized, an 80 kV and a 140 kV design, the voltage dependant on the type of klystron load. The converter-modulator can be described as a resonant zero-voltage- switching polyphase boost inverter. As noted in Figure 1, each converter modulator derives its buss voltage from a standard 13.8 kV to 2100 Y (1.5 MVA) substation cast-core transformer. The substation also contains harmonic traps and filters to accommodate IEEE 519 and 141 regulations. Each substation is followed by an SCR preregulator to accommodate system voltage changes from no load to full load, in addition to providing a soft-start function. Energy storage and filtering is provided by special low inductance self-clearing metallized ...

  8. Electrostatic levitation facility optimized for neutron diffraction studies of high temperature liquids at a spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, N. A., E-mail: namauro@noctrl.edu [Department of Physics, North Central College, Naperville, Illinois 60540 (United States); Vogt, A. J. [Instrument and Source Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Derendorf, K. S. [Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Johnson, M. L.; Kelton, K. F. [Department of Physics and Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Washington University, 1 Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Rustan, G. E.; Quirinale, D. G.; Goldman, A. I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Kreyssig, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Lokshin, K. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Neuefeind, J. C.; An, Ke [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Wang, Xun-Li [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Ave., Kowloon (Hong Kong); Egami, T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Joint Institute for Neutron Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Neutron diffraction studies of metallic liquids provide valuable information about inherent topological and chemical ordering on multiple length scales as well as insight into dynamical processes at the level of a few atoms. However, there exist very few facilities in the world that allow such studies to be made of reactive metallic liquids in a containerless environment, and these are designed for use at reactor-based neutron sources. We present an electrostatic levitation facility, NESL (for Neutron ElectroStatic Levitator), which takes advantage of the enhanced capabilities and increased neutron flux available at spallation neutron sources (SNSs). NESL enables high quality elastic and inelastic neutron scattering experiments to be made of reactive metallic and other liquids in the equilibrium and supercooled temperature regime. The apparatus is comprised of a high vacuum chamber, external and internal neutron collimation optics, and a sample exchange mechanism that allows up to 30 samples to be processed between chamber openings. Two heating lasers allow excellent sample temperature homogeneity, even for samples approaching 500 mg, and an automated temperature control system allows isothermal measurements to be conducted for times approaching 2 h in the liquid state, with variations in the average sample temperature of less than 0.5%. To demonstrate the capabilities of the facility for elastic scattering studies of liquids, a high quality total structure factor for Zr{sub 64}Ni{sub 36} measured slightly above the liquidus temperature is presented from experiments conducted on the nanoscale-ordered materials diffractometer (NOMAD) beam line at the SNS after only 30 min of acquisition time for a small sample (∼100 mg)

  9. The performance of neutron scattering spectrometers at a long-pulse spallation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pynn, R.

    1995-04-01

    The first conclusion the author wants to draw is that comparison of the performance of neutron scattering spectrometers at CW and pulsed sources is simpler for long-pulsed sources than it is for the short-pulse variety. Even though detailed instrument design and assessment will require Monte Carlo simulations (which have already been performed at Los Alamos for SANS and reflectometry), simple arguments are sufficient to assess the approximate performance of spectrometers at an LPSS and to support the contention that a 1 MW long-pulse source can provide attractive performance, especially for instrumentation designed for soft-condensed-matter science. Because coupled moderators can be exploited at such a source, its time average cold flux is equivalent to that of a research reactor with a power of about 15 MW, so only a factor of 4 gain from source pulsing is necessary to obtain performance that is comparable with the ILL. In favorable cases, the gain from pulsing can be even more than this, approaching the limit set by the peak flux, giving about 4 times the performance of the ILL. Because of its low duty factor, an LPSS provides the greatest performance gains for relatively low resolution experiments with cold neutrons. It should thus be considered complementary to short pulse sources which are most effective for high resolution experiments using thermal or epithermal neutrons.

  10. Quantum molecular dynamics approach to estimate spallation yield ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Spallation reaction; neutron emission; spallation products; quantum molecular dynamics. PACS Nos 25.40.Sc; 25.40.-h; 28.20.-v. 1. Introduction. In recent years, spallation neutron sources are used extensively for material science stud- ies. Additionally, they provide an important link between the accelerator and ...

  11. Correlation between simulations and cavitation-induced erosion damage in Spallation Neutron Source target modules after operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, Bernie [ORNL; McClintock, David A [ORNL; Kaminskas, Saulius [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    An explicit finite element (FE) technique developed for estimating dynamic strain in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) mercury target module vessel is now providing insight into cavitation damage patterns observed in used targets. The technique uses an empirically developed material model for the mercury that describes liquid-like volumetric stiffness combined with a tensile pressure cut-off limit that approximates cavitation. The longest period each point in the mercury is at the tensile cut-off threshold is denoted its saturation time. Now, the pattern of saturation time can be obtained from these simulations and is being positively correlated with observed damage patterns and is interpreted as a qualitative measure of damage potential. Saturation time has been advocated by collaborators at J-Parc as a factor in predicting bubble nuclei growth and collapse intensity. The larger the ratio of maximum bubble size to nucleus, the greater the bubble collapse intensity to be expected; longer saturation times result in greater ratios. With the recent development of a user subroutine for the FE solver saturation time is now provided over the entire mercury domain. Its pattern agrees with spots of damage seen above and below the beam axis on the SNS inner vessel beam window and elsewhere. The other simulation result being compared to observed damage patterns is mercury velocity at the wall. Related R&D has provided evidence for the damage mitigation that higher wall velocity provides. In comparison to observations in SNS targets, inverse correlation of high velocity to damage is seen. In effect, it is the combination of the patterns of saturation time and low velocity that seems to match actual damage patterns.

  12. Comments on the possibility of cavitation in liquid metal targets for pulsed spallation neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter J.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-06-01

    When short pulses of protons strike the volume of a liquid target, the rapid heating produces a pressurized region which relaxes as the pressure wave propagates outward. Skala and Bauer have modeled the effects of the pressure wave impinging on the container walls of a liquid mercury target under ESS conditions. They find that high pressures and high wall stresses result if the medium is uniform, nearly incompressible liquid. The pressure and the stresses are much reduced if the liquid contains bubbles of helium, due to their high compressibility. However, according to the calculation, the pressure still reaches an atmosphere or so at the surface, which reflects the compressive wave as a rarefaction wave of the same magnitude. Even such modest underpressures can lead to the growth of bubbles (cavitation) at or near the surface, which can collapse violently and erode the container surface. It is necessary to avoid this. Leighton provides a wide ranging discussion of pressure waves in bubbly media, which may provide insights into the nature and control of cavitation phenomena. The paper surveys some of the relevant information from that source.

  13. Novel Large Area High Resolution Neutron Detector for the Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L

    2009-05-22

    , probably at a small fraction of the cost of He-3 detectors. In addition to neutron scattering science, the fully developed base technology can be used as a rugged, low-cost neutron detector in area monitoring and surveying. Radiation monitors are used in a number of other settings for occupational and environmental radiation safety. Such a detector can also be used in environmental monitoring and remote nuclear power plant monitoring. For example, the Department of Energy could use it to characterize nuclear waste dumps, coordinate clean-up efforts, and assess the radioactive contaminants in the air and water. Radiation monitors can be used to monitor the age and component breakdown of nuclear warheads and to distinguish between weapons and reactor grade plutonium. The UN's International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) uses radiation monitors for treaty verification, remote monitoring, and enforcing the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. As part of treaty verification, monitors can be used to certify the contents of containers during inspections. They could be used for portal monitoring to secure border checkpoints, sea ports, air cargo centers, public parks, sporting venues, and key government buildings. Currently, only 2% of all sea cargo shipped is inspected for radiation sources. In addition, merely the presence of radiation is detected and nothing is known about the radioactive source until further testing. The utilization of radiation monitors with neutron sensitivity and capability of operation in hostile port environments would increase the capacity and effectiveness of the radioactive scanning processes.

  14. Time-of-Flight Bragg Scattering from Aligned Stacks of Lipid Bilayers using the Liquids Reflectometer at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jianjun [ORNL; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffraction experiments on aligned stacks of lipid bilayers using the horizontal Liquids Reflectometer at the Spallation Neutron Source are reported. Specific details are given regarding the instrumental setup, data collection and reduction, phase determination of the structure factors, and reconstruction of the one-dimensional neutron scattering length density (NSLD) profile. The validity of using TOF measurements to determine the one-dimensional NSLD profile is demonstrated by reproducing the results of two well known lipid bilayer structures. The method is then applied to show how an antimicrobial peptide affects membranes with and without cholesterol.

  15. Performance characteristics of the new detector array for the SANS2d instrument on the ISIS spallation neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, D.; Heenan, R.; McPhail, D.; Raspino, D.; Rhodes, N.; Rogers, S.; Schooneveld, E.; Spill, E.; Terry, A.

    2014-12-01

    The performance of the new position sensitive neutron detector arrays of the Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) instrument SANS2d is described. The SANS2d instrument is one of the seven instruments currently available for users on the second target station (TS2) of the ISIS spallation neutron source. Since the instrument became operational in 2009 it has used two one metre square multi-wire proportional detectors (MWPC). However, these detectors suffer from a low count rate capability, are easily damaged by excess beam and are then expensive to repair. The new detector arrays each consist of 120 individual position sensitive detector tubes, filled with 15 bar of 3He. Each of the tubes is one metre long and has a diameter of 8mm giving a detector array with an overall area of one square metre. Two such arrays have been built and installed in the SANS2d vacuum tank where they are currently taking user data. For SANS measurements operation of the detector within a vacuum is essential in order to reduce air scattering. A novel, fully engineered approach has been utilised to ensure that the high voltage connections and preamps are located inside the SANS2d vacuum tank at atmospheric pressure, within air tubes and air boxes respectively. The signal processing electronics and data acquisition system are located remotely in a counting house outside of the blockhouse. This allows easy access for maintenance purposes, without the need to remove the detectors from the vacuum tank. The design will be described in detail. A position resolution of 8mm FWHM or less has been measured along the length of the tubes. The initial measurements taken from a standard sample indicate that whilst the detector arrays themselves only represent a moderate improvement in overall detection efficiency (~ 20%), compared to the previous detector, the count rate capability is increased by a factor of 100. A significant advantage of the new array is the ability to change a single tube in situ

  16. The test beamline of the European Spallation Source - Instrumentation development and wavelength frame multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woracek, R.; Hofmann, T.; Bulat, M.

    2016-01-01

    wavelength band between 1.6 A and 10 A by a dedicated wavelength frame multiplication (WFM) chopper system. WFM is proposed for several ESS instruments to allow for flexible time-of-flight resolution. Hence, ESS will benefit from the TBL which offers unique possibilities for testing methods and components...

  17. County rises to hi-tech challenge: Agency vies for pounds 1bn European science project

    CERN Multimedia

    Meek, J

    2002-01-01

    The Yorkshire Forward development agency in northern England is backing the White Rose Consortium to build the European Spallation Source (ESS). One of the rivals for the investment is the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire (1 page).

  18. Safety techniques in the change of nuclear systems. Radiation protection at spallation neutron sources and transmutation facilities; Sicherheitstechnik im Wandel Nuklearer Systeme. Strahlenschutz bei Spallationsneutronenquellen und Transmutationsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuenighoff, Kay

    2009-07-01

    To push the boundary towards higher neutron fluxes concepts based on spallation reactions have been discussed. Here neutrons are produced by bombarding a heavy metal target (e.g. mercury, tungsten, or tantalum) with high energetic protons. Up to now such facilities could not be realised because of the high power particle accelerators needed. Recent developments of the accelerator technology open the possibility of construction and operating proton accelerators in the MW region. This is demonstrated by construction and commissioning of two MW spallation neutron sources, namely SNS (Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA) with a power of 1.4 MW and J-PARC (Japan) with 1 MW. The realisation of proton accelerators at this power level will open the way towards energy amplifiers, as proposed e.g. by Carlo Rubbia. Such a facility will not only produce electric power. Furthermore longliving radionuclides can be transmutated into shortlived or even stable nuclides by neutron induced nuclear reactions. A mitigation of the problem of nuclear waste disposal. The above discussed developments prove that accelerators are not only constructed for research, moreover application of these technology became state of the art. With the emergence of particle accelerators in the MW region, radiation protection is confronted with new kind of problems to be solved. Especially the higher kinetic energies of the primary beam particles requires modification and expansion of computer programs well known in nuclear engineering. In contrast to nuclear reactors with kinetic energies up to 2-3 MeV, in spallation reaction secondary particles up to the incident energy in the GeV region will be produced. Problems related to radiation protection have to be considered in an energy range three orders of magnitude higher than known from nuclear reactors. In this thesis existing computer codes are compared and validated with data from selected experiments. Questions concerning radiation protection covers a broad range

  19. Spallation radiation effects in materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansur, L.K.; Farrell, K.; Wechsler, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Spallation refers to the process whereby particles (chiefly neutrons) are ejected from nuclei upon bombardment by high-energy protons. Spallation neutron sources (SNS`s) use these neutrons for neutron scattering and diffraction research, and SNS`s are proposed as the basis for systems for tritium production and transmutation of nuclear waste. Materials in SNS`s are exposed to the incident proton beam (energies typically about 1000 MeV) and to the spallation neutrons (spectrum of energies extending up to about 1000 MeV). By contrast the fission neutrons in nuclear reactors have an average energy of only about 2 MeV, and the neutrons in fusion reactors would have energies below about 14 MeV. Furthermore, the protons and neutrons in SNS`s for scattering and diffraction research are pulsed at frequencies of about 10 to 60 Hz, from which significant changes in the kinetics of point and extended defects may be expected. In addition, much higher transmutation rates occur in SNS-irradiated materials, On the whole, then, significant differences in microstructural development and macroscopic properties may result upon exposure in SNS systems, as compared with fission and fusion irradiations. In a more general sense, subjecting materials to new radiation environments has almost routinely led to new discoveries. To the extent that data are avaiable, however, the spallation environment appears to increase the degree of damage without introducing totally new effects. The first part of this presentation is an overview of radiation effects in materials, outlining essential concepts and property changes and their physical bases. This background is followed by a description of SNS irradiation environments and the effects on materials of exposure to these environments. A special discussion is given of the selection of target (e.g., liquid mercury), container (e.g., austenitic stainless steel or ferritic/martensitic steel), and structural materials in SNS systems.

  20. Calculation of dose coefficients for radionuclides produced in a spallation neutron source utilizing NUBASE and the evaluated nuclear structure data file databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, J; Eckerman, K; Arndt, A; Gold, C; Patton, P; Rudin, M; Brey, R; Gesell, T; Rusetski, V; Pagava, S

    2006-01-01

    Based on a mercury spallation neutron source target, the UNLV Transmutation Research Program has identified 72 radionuclides with a half-life greater than or equal to a minute as lacking an appropriate reference for a published dose coefficient according to existing radiation safety dose coefficient databases. A method was developed to compare the nuclear data presented in the ENSDF and NUBASE databases for these 72 radionuclides. Due to conflicting or lacking nuclear data in one or more of the databases, internal and external dose coefficient values have been calculated for only 14 radionuclides, which are not currently presented in Federal Guidance Reports Nos. 11, 12, and 13 or Publications 68 and 72 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Internal dose coefficient values are reported for inhalation and ingestion of 1 microm and 5 microm AMAD particulates along with the f1 values and absorption types for the adult worker. Internal dose coefficient values are also reported for inhalation and ingestion of 1 microm AMAD particulates as well as the f1 values and absorption types for members of the public. Additionally, external dose coefficient values for air submersion, exposure to contaminated ground surface, and exposure to soil contaminated to an infinite depth are also presented.

  1. Proceedings of the international workshop on spallation materials technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansur, L.K.; Ullmaier, H. [comps.

    1996-10-01

    This document contains papers which were presented at the International Workshop on Spallation Materials Technology. Topics included: overviews and thermal response; operational experience; materials experience; target station and component design; particle transport and damage calculations; neutron sources; and compatibility.

  2. Finite element analysis and frequency shift studies for the bridge coupler of the coupled cavity linear accelerator of the spallation neutron source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z. (Zukun)

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron scattering research facility. The linear accelerator (linac) is the principal accelerating structure and divided into a room-temperature linac and a superconducting linac. The normal conducting linac system that consists of a Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and a Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) is to be built by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The CCL structure is 55.36-meters long. It accelerates H- beam from 86.8 Mev to 185.6 Mev at operating frequency of 805 MHz. This side coupled cavity structure has 8 cells per segment, 12 segments and 11 bridge couplers per module, and 4 modules total. A 5-MW klystron powers each module. The number 3 and number 9 bridge coupler of each module are connected to the 5-MW RF power supply. The bridge coupler with length of 2.5 {beta}{gamma} is a three-cell structure and located between the segments and allows power flow through the module. The center cell of each bridge coupler is excited during normal operation. To obtain a uniform electromagnetic filed and meet the resonant frequency shift, the RF induced heat must be removed. Thus, the thermal deformation and frequency shift studies are performed via numerical simulations in order to have an appropriate cooling design and predict the frequency shift under operation. The center cell of the bridge coupler also contains a large 4-inch slug tuner and a tuning post that used to provide bulk frequency adjustment and field intensity adjustment, so that produce the proper total field distribution in the module assembly.

  3. Design of a TOF-SANS instrument for the proposed Long Wavelength Target Station at the Spallation Neutron Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiyagarajan, P.; Littrell, K.; Seeger, P. A.

    2000-11-28

    We have designed a versatile high-throughput SANS instrument [Broad Range Intense Multipurpose SANS (BRIMS)] for the proposed Long Wavelength Target Station at the SNS by using acceptance diagrams and the Los Alamos NISP Monte Carlo simulation package. This instrument has been fully optimized to take advantage of the 10 Hz source frequency (broad wavelength bandwidth) and the cold neutron spectrum from a tall coupled solid methane moderator (12 cm x 20 cm). BRIMS has been designed to produce data in a Q range spanning from 0.001 to 0.7 {angstrom}{sup {minus}1} in a single measurement by simultaneously using neutrons with wavelengths ranging from 1 to 14.5 {angstrom} in a time of flight mode. A supermirror guide and bender assembly is employed to separate and redirect the useful portion of the neutron spectrum with {lambda} > 1 {angstrom}, by 2.3{degree} away from the direct beam containing high energy neutrons and {gamma} rays. The effects of the supermirror coating of the guide, the location of the bender assembly with respect to the source, the bend angle, and various collimation choices on the flux, resolution and Q{sub min} have been characterized using spherical particle and delta function scatterers. The overall performance of BRIMS has been compared with that of the best existing reactor-based SANS instrument D22 at ILL.

  4. R&D Status for In-Situ Plasma Surface Cleaning of SRF Cavities at Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.-H. Kim, M.T. Crofford, M. Doleans, J.D. Mammosser, J. Saunders

    2011-03-01

    The SNS SCL is reliably operating at 0.93 GeV output energy with an energy reserve of 10MeV with high availability. Most of the cavities exhibit field emission, which directly or indirectly (through heating of end groups) limits the gradients achievable in the high beta cavities in normal operation with the beam. One of the field emission sources would be surface contaminations during surface processing for which mild surface cleaning, if any, will help in reducing field emission. An R&D effort is in progress to develop in-situ surface processing for the cryomodules in the tunnel without disassembly. As the first attempt, in-situ plasma processing has been applied to the CM12 in the SNS SRF facility after the repair work with a promising result. This paper will report the R&D status of plasma processing in the SNS.

  5. Design of a TOF-SANS instrument for the proposed long wavelength target station at the spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiyagarajan, P.; Littrell, K. [Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Seeger, P.A.

    2001-03-01

    We have designed a versatile high-throughput SANS instrument [Broad Range Intense Multipurpose SANS (BRIMS)] for the proposed Long Wavelength Target Station at the SNS by using acceptance diagrams and the Los Alamos NISP Monte Carlo simulation package. This instrument has been fully optimized to take advantage of the 10 Hz source frequency (broad wavelength bandwidth) and the cold neutron spectrum from a tall coupled solid methane moderator (12 cm x 20 cm). BRIMS has been designed to produce data in a Q range spanning from 0.0025 to 0.7 A{sup -1} in a single measurement by simultaneously using neutrons with wavelengths ranging from 1 to 14.5 A in a time of flight mode. A supermirror guide and bender assembly is employed to separate and redirect the useful portion of the neutron spectrum with {lambda}>1 A, by 2.3deg away from the direct beam containing high energy neutrons and {gamma} rays. The effects of various collimation choices on count rate, resolution and Q{sub min} have been characterized using spherical particle and delta function scatterers. The overall performance of BRIMS has been compared with that of the best existing reactor-based SANS instrument D22 at ILL. (author)

  6. Estimation of thermochemical behavior of spallation products in mercury target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Aso, Tomokazu; Teshigawara, Makoto; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-02-01

    In order to examine the radiation safety of a spallation mercury target system, especially source term evaluation, it is necessary to clarify the chemical forms of spallation products generated by spallation reaction with proton beam. As for the chemical forms of spallation products in mercury that involves large amounts of spallation products, these forms were estimated by using the binary phase diagrams and the thermochemical equilibrium calculation based on the amounts of spallation product. Calculation results showed that the mercury would dissolve Al, As, B, Be, Bi, C, Co, Cr, Fe, Ga, Ge, Ir, Mo, Nb, Os, Re, Ru, Sb, Si, Ta, Tc, V and W in the element state, and Ag, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Gd, Hf, Ho, I, In, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, O, Pb, Pd, Pr, Pt, Rb, Rh, S, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, Y, Yb, Zn and Zr in the form of inorganic mercury compounds. As for As, Be, Co, Cr, Fe, Ge, Ir, Mo, Nb, Os, Pt, Re, Ru, Se, Ta, V, W and Zr, precipitation could be occurred when increasing the amounts of spallation products with operation time of the spallation target system. On the other hand, beryllium-7 (Be-7), which is produced by spallation reaction of oxygen in the cooling water of a safety hull, becomes the main factor of the external exposure to maintain the cooling loop. Based on the thermochemical equilibrium calculation to Be-H{sub 2}O binary system, the chemical forms of Be in the cooling water were estimated. Then the Be could exist in the form of cations such as BeOH{sup +}, BeO{sup +} and Be{sup 2+} under the condition of less than 10{sup -8} of the Be mole fraction in the cooling water. (author)

  7. Workshop: Research and development plans for high power spallation neutron testing at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-05

    This report consists of vugraphs from presentations at the meeting. The papers covered the following topics: (1) APS as a proton source; (2) target status for NSNS (National Spallation Neutron Source); (3) spallation neutron source in Japan; (4) liquid LiBi flow loop; and (5) research and development plans for high power tests at the AGS.

  8. Proton and Ion Sources for High Intensity Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Scrivens, R

    2004-01-01

    Future high intensity ion accelerators, including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the European Spallation Source (ESS), the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) etc, will require high current and high duty factor sources for protons and negative hydrogen ions. In order to achieve these goals, a comparison of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance, radio-frequency and Penning ion sources, among others, will be made. For each of these source types, the present operational sources will be compared to the state-of-the-art research devices with special attention given to reliability and availability. Finally, the future research and development aims will be discussed.

  9. ENGINEERING DESIGN OF THE EURISOL MULTI-MW SPALLATION TARGET

    CERN Document Server

    Adonai Herrera-Martinez*, Yacine Kadi, Morteza Ashrafi-Nik, Karel Samec, Janis Freibergs, Ernests Platacis

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam project (EURISOL) is set to design the ‘next-generation’ European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research on nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2010. In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW target assembly, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In this high power target station, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source. This article summarises the work carried out within Task 2 of the EURISOL Design Study, with special attention to the coupled neutronics of the mercury proton-to-neutron converter and the fission targets. The overall performance of the facility, which will sustain fast neutron fluxes of the order ...

  10. Engineering design of the EURISOL multi-MW spallation target

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martínez, A; Ashrafi-Nik, M; Samec, K; Freibergs, J; Platacis, E

    2007-01-01

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam project (EURISOL) is set to design the 'next-generation' European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research on nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2010. In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW target assembly, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In this high power target station, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source. This article summarises the work carried out within Task 2 of the EURISOL Design Study, with special attention to the coupled neutronics of the mercury proton-to-neutron converter and the fission targets. The overall performance of the facility, which will sustain fast neutron fluxes of the order of 1...

  11. GRAIN-SCALE FAILURE IN THERMAL SPALLATION DRILLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, S C; Lomov, I; Roberts, J J

    2012-01-19

    Geothermal power promises clean, renewable, reliable and potentially widely-available energy, but is limited by high initial capital costs. New drilling technologies are required to make geothermal power financially competitive with other energy sources. One potential solution is offered by Thermal Spallation Drilling (TSD) - a novel drilling technique in which small particles (spalls) are released from the rock surface by rapid heating. While TSD has the potential to improve drilling rates of brittle granitic rocks, the coupled thermomechanical processes involved in TSD are poorly described, making system control and optimization difficult for this drilling technology. In this paper, we discuss results from a new modeling effort investigating thermal spallation drilling. In particular, we describe an explicit model that simulates the grain-scale mechanics of thermal spallation and use this model to examine existing theories concerning spalling mechanisms. We will report how borehole conditions influence spall production, and discuss implications for macro-scale models of drilling systems.

  12. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of LBE spallation target for accelerator ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In an accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS), a high-performance spallation neutron source is used to feed the subcritical reactor. Neutron generation depends on the proton beam intensity. If the beam intensity is increased by a given factor, the number of generated neutrons will increase. The mechanism yielding a ...

  13. Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Menges

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the important goals of European energy policy is to increase the share of renewable energy resources in the energy supply. The instruments used in the member states are not fully compatible with the rules of the European internal market. In a theoretical section, this paper analyses possible different instruments for promoting renewable energy. Some countries use feed in tariffs - using fixed prices to increase incentives for producers to invest into renewable energy, other countries use quantity-based systems like quotas that lead to a premium above the market price. In an institutional analysis we show that on the basis of effectiveness and efficiency considerations for the European Union, in the long-term quantity oriented systems of promotion are preferable if combined with elements of a capacity market. The main reason for this conclusion is that price-based systems cannot give enough incentives for backup capacities necessary to cope with intermittent production of renewable sources. In addition price-based systems violate the basic rules of the open internal European market because feed in tariffs are a considerable barrier for trade of renewable energy products.

  14. Migration of radionuclides in a gas cooled solid state spallation target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas; Severin, Gregory; Jensen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The current design of the ESS (European Spallation Source) program proposes a rotating solid tungsten target cooled by helium gas and a pulsed beam of protons. For safety reasons any design has to address whether or not the induced radionuclidic isotopes in the target migrate. In this paper we have...... investigated the diffusion of (primarily) tritium in solid tungsten to see if a pulse driven short-term variation in temperature (temperature peaks separated by one turn of the wheel(2.36 s)) could possibly give rise to wave-like migration of the radionuclides, possibly accelerating the overall release....... In order to calculate the diffusion in the solid tungsten target two approaches have been used. One neglecting the time structure of the beam and thermal cycling of the target, and one numerical, discrete time step simulation to capture the effects of the thermal cycling on the diffusion behavior. We found...

  15. Radiochemical aspects of liquid mercury spallation targets

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhausen, Joerg; Eichler, Bernd; Eller, Martin; Horn, Susanne; Schumann, Dorothea; Stora, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Liquid metal spallation targets using mercury as target material are used in state-of-the-art high power pulsed neutron sources that have been constructed in the USA and Japan within the last decade. Similar target concepts were also proposed for next generation ISOL, beta-beam and neutrino facilities. A large amount of radioactivity will be induced in the liquid metal during operation caused by the interaction of the target material with the intense proton beam. This radioactivity - carried by a wide range of radioisotopes of all the elements of the periodic table from hydrogen up to thallium - must be considered for the assessment of safe operation and maintenance procedures as well as for a final disposal of the used target material and components. This report presents an overview on chemical investigations performed in our laboratory that deal with the behavior of radionuclides in proton irradiated mercury samples. The solubility of elements in mercury was calculated using thermodynamical data obtained by...

  16. Mercury purification in the megawatt liquid metal spallation target of EURISOL-DS

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhausen, Joerg; Eller, Martin; Schumann, Dorothea; Eichler, Bernd; Horn, Susanne

    High power spallation targets are going to be used extensively in future research and technical facilities such as spallation neutron sources, neutrino factories, radioactive beam facilities or accelerator driven systems for the transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste. Within EURISOL-DS, a 4 MW liquid metal spallation target is designed to provide neutrons for a fission target, where neutron rich radionuclides will be produced. For the spallation target, mercury is planned to be used as target material. A large amount of radionuclides ranging from atomic number Z=1 to 81 will be produced in the liquid metal during long term irradiation. It is planned to remove those radionuclides by chemical or physicochemical methods to reduce its radioactivity. For the development of a purification procedure, knowledge about the chemical state of the different elements present in the mixture is required. We present a general concept of applicable separation techniques in a target system and show some results of experiment...

  17. Source Classification Framework for an optimized European wide Emission Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Donner, Erica; Ledin, Anna

    2011-01-01

    of the PS environmental emission. The SCF also provides a well structured approach for European pollutant source and release classification and management. With further European wide implementation, the SCF has the potential or an optimized ECS in order to obtain good chemical status of European water...

  18. Spatial variability and sources of ammonia in three European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Andre S. H.; Elser, Miriam; El Haddad, Imad; Maasikmets, Marek; Bozzetti, Carlo; Robert, Wolf; Richter, Rene; Slowik, Jay; Teinemaa, Erik; Hueglin, Christoph; Baltensperger, Urs

    2017-04-01

    For the assessment of ammonia (NH3) effects on ecosystems and climate, one would ideally know the emission sources and also the spatial distributions. Agriculture is the largest global source of NH3. However traffic, especially gasoline vehicles, biomass burning or waste management can be significant in urban areas. Ambient NH3 measurements using cavity ring-down spectroscopy were performed online at high time resolution on a moving vehicle in three cities: Zurich (Switzerland), Tartu (Estonia) and Tallinn (Estonia). Initial tests showed that a regular inlet cannot be used. A heated line including an auxiliary flow was finally deployed to minimize NH3 adsorption onto the inlet walls. We will present the characterization of the response and recovery times of the measurement system which was used to deconvolve the true NH3 signal from the remaining adsorption-induced hysteresis. Parallel measurements with an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer were used to correct the observed NH3 for the contribution of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) which completely evaporated to NH3 and nitric acid (HNO3) in the heated line at the chosen temperature, in contrast to ammonium sulfate. Finally, quantitative measurements of ambient NH3 are possible with sufficient time resolution to enable measurement of NH3 point or line sources with a mobile sampling platform. The NH3 analyzer and the aerosol mass spectrometer were complemented by an aethalometer to measure black carbon and various gas-phase analyzers to enable a complete characterization of the sources of air pollution, including the spatial distributions and the regional background concentrations and urban increments of all measured components. Although at all three locations similar urban increment levels of organic aerosols were attributed to biomass burning and traffic, traffic emissions clearly dominated the city enhancements of NH3, equivalent black carbon (eBC) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Concentration gradients in areas strongly

  19. Continuity and Change in the Politics of European Scientific Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Hallonsten

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Intergovernmental collaboration in the area of big science has been an important resource for European science since the 1950s. Yet, as a policy area, it has traditionally been left outside of the political integration work of the European Community/Union. Despite this formal detachment, the political realities of the collaborations often draw upon and reflect the (geopolitical dynamics of Europe. This article reports on a study of two big projects in the making (the European Spallation Source and the European X-ray Free Electron Laser, and uses two historical cases for comparison (the European Laboratory for Nuclear Research and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. It highlights critical issues in establishing and operating collaborations, relates these to the broader context of European political integration, and discusses, on the basis of this, signs of continuity and change in this distinct area of European research policy.

  20. Source-sector contributions to European ozone and fine PM in 2010 using AQMEII modeling data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prakash Karamchandani; Yoann Long; Guido Pirovano; Alessandra Balzarini; Greg Yarwood

    2017-01-01

    ...), which track source contributions. We present results from a CAMx source attribution modeling study for a summer month and a winter month using a recently evaluated European CAMx modeling database developed for Phase 3 of the Air...

  1. The spallation neutron source: New opportunities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... begin operations in 2008. When complete, the facility will accommodate 25 instruments enabling researchers from the United States and abroad to study materials science that forms the basis for new technologies in telecommunications, manufacturing, transportation, information technology, biotechnology, and health.

  2. Energy dependence of isotopic spectra from spallation residues; Dependance en energie des spectres isotopiques de residus de spallation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audouin, L

    2003-09-01

    Spallation reactions are collisions between heavy nuclei and light particle with an energy of a few hundreds MeV. The y are considered as a suitable way to create high- flux neutrons sources, which may used for example for the transmutation of nuclear wastes (hybrid reactors). The study of the residues from such reactions is both a way to understand the physics of the spallation and to provide information required for the design of industrial targets. The residues from the spallation of lead by proton at 500 MeV have been measured using the inverse kinematics technique in the FRS (fragments recoil separator). spectrometer from GSI (Barmstadt). This low energy required the use of new technique, for the experimental setup as well as during the analysis. The fragments were identified in-flight, prior to {beta} decay. Complete isotopic distributions are obtained with an accuracy ranging between 10 and 30%. Detailed information on the reaction kinematics are also obtained. Data are in excellent agreement with radio-chemical measurements, and bring new insights about the spallation process. The comparison with data measured on the same system with an incident energy of 1 GeV allows to discuss the influence of the projectile energy on the residues formation. It is concluded that the independence of the shape of the isobaric production cross sections regarding mass and energy of the projectile is preserved at low incident energies. The behaviour of Monte-Carlo codes is discussed with respect to those sets of data. The calculations show an improving agreement with decreasing energy, indicating that high-energy phenomena, for which some common assumptions become questionable, are the main reason for the observed discrepancies. (author)

  3. Simulation of a suite of generic long-pulse neutron instruments to optimize the time structure of the European Spallation Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefmann, Kim; Klenø, Kaspar H.; Birk, Jonas Okkels

    2013-01-01

    is an important input to determining the best accelerator parameters. In addition, we find that in our simple guide systems, most neutrons reaching the sample originate from the central 3-5 cm of the moderator. This result can be used as an input in later optimization of the moderator design. We discuss...... the relevance and validity of defining a single figure-of-merit for a full facility and compare with evaluations of the individual instrument classes....

  4. Heavy density liquid metal spallation target studies for Indian ADS ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    energy heavy particles (incoming proton beam, high energy spallation neutrons and spallation products), to the extent of DPA~100 or more per year). The spallation module design should be based on optimization between neutron yield, material properties and thermal-hydraulic performance while meeting the required ...

  5. Ultra-cold neutron production with superfluid helium and spallation neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, Y

    2000-01-01

    Ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) production in superfluid helium with spallation neutrons is discussed. A source is described, where superfluid helium is located in a cold moderator of deuterium at 20 K surrounded by a thermal moderator of heavy water at 300 K. A lead target is installed in the thermal moderator for neutron production via a medium energy proton induced spallation reaction. A Monte Carlo simulation showed that a UCN density of the order of 10 sup 5 n/cm sup 3 is achievable with an acceptable heat load for the helium cryostat.

  6. Behavior of structural and target materials irradiated in spallation neutron environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, J.F. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Wechsler, M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Borden, M.; Sommer, W.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes considerations for selection of structural and target materials for accelerator-driven neutron sources. Due to the operating constraints of proposed accelerator-driven neutron sources, the criteria for selection are different than those commonly applied to fission and fusion systems. Established irradiation performance of various alloy systems is taken into account in the selection criteria. Nevertheless, only limited materials performance data are available which specifically related to neutron energy spectra anticipated for spallation sources.

  7. Sources of nitrous oxide emitted from European forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2006-01-01

    Forest ecosystems may provide strong sources of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is important for atmospheric chemical and radiative properties. Nonetheless, our understanding of controls on forest N2O emissions is insufficient to narrow current flux estimates, which still are associated with great...

  8. ENERGY ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available European Union adapted the policy of reducing its carbon footprint and embarked on the journey to shift to renewable energy sources in the early 1990s. The whole process started with implementations of binding rules that set up indicative targets for the EU Member States. However, this process had to go hand in hand with high energy costs charged to the consumers. This paper defines various types of renewable sources in the EU and analyses European legislation on renewable energy sources. In addition, it deals with the current situation regarding the energy policies in the European Union and outlines its main criticisms and prospects. The results and conclusions might be of some value for EU main energy providers as well as for the EU partners in the world.

  9. Gas Production in the MEGAPIE Spallation Target

    OpenAIRE

    Thiollière, Nicolas; Zanini, Luca; David, Jean-Christophe; Eikenberg, Jost; Guertin, Arnaud; Konobeyev, Alexander Yu.; Lemaire, Sébastien; Panebianco, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The MEGAwatt PIlot Experiment (MEGAPIE) project was started in 2000 to design, build, and operate a liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) spallation neutron target at the power level of 1 MW. The target was irradiated for 4 months in 2006 at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland. Gas samples wereextracted in various phases of operation and analyzed by g spectroscopy, leading to the determination of the main radioactive isotopes released from the LBE. Comparison with ...

  10. Spallation Neutrons and Pressure SNAP DE-FG02-03ER46085 CLOSE-OUT MAY 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parise, John B

    2009-05-22

    The purpose of the grant was to build a community of scientist and to draw upon their expertise to design and build the world's first dedicated high pressure beamline at a spallation source - the so called Spallation Neutron And Pressure (SNAP) beamline at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at OAk Ridge NAtional LAboratory. . Key to this endeavor was an annual meeting attended by the instrument design team and the executive committee. The discussions at those meeting set an ambitious agenda for beamline design and construction and highlighted key science areas of interest for the community. This report documents in 4 appendices the deliberations at the annual SNAP meetings and the evolution of the beamline optics from concept to construction. The appendices also contain key science opportunities for extreme conditions research.

  11. The European large area ISO survey - III. 90-mu m extragalactic source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    2000-01-01

    We present results and source counts at 90 mum extracted from the preliminary analysis of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). The survey covered about 12 deg(2) of the sky in four main areas and was carried out with the ISOPHOT instrument onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO...

  12. Thermal shock analysis of liquid-mercury spallation target

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikura, S; Futakawa, M; Hino, R; Date, H

    2002-01-01

    The developments of the neutron scattering facilities are carried out under the high-intensity proton accelerator project promoted by JAERI and KEK. To estimate the structural integrity of the heavy liquid-metal (Hg) target used as a spallation neutron source in a MW-class neutron scattering facility, dynamic stress behavior due to the incident of a 1 MW-pulsed proton beam was analyzed by using FEM code. Two-type target containers with semi-cylindrical type and flat-plate type window were used as models for analyses. As a result, it is confirmed that the stress (pressure wave) generated by dynamic thermal shock becomes the largest at the center of window, and the flat-plate type window is more advantageous from the structural viewpoint than the semi-cylindrical type window. It has been understood that the stress generated in the window by the pressure wave can be treated as the secondary stress. (author)

  13. Sources of competitive advantage and business performance in the European meat processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    1. The aim of the paper is to investigate the relative importance of three sets of sources of competitive advantages on business performance in a specific industry context, ie the European meat processing industry. The three sets of competitive sources are Firm Specific Advantages (FSAs), Localiz......1. The aim of the paper is to investigate the relative importance of three sets of sources of competitive advantages on business performance in a specific industry context, ie the European meat processing industry. The three sets of competitive sources are Firm Specific Advantages (FSAs...... the FSAs, LSAs and RSAs and business performance. Also, the direction of causality between the various sets of explanatory variables is considered. The hypotheses are combined in a structural modelling of firm competition. 2. Data and measurements are derived from a survey in the European meat processing...... industry in which 133 meat processors from 10 EU countries agreed to participate. A total of 17 variables of sources of advantage were developed and analysed (nine FSAs, four LSAs and four RSAs). Examples of the FSA measures are level of process technology; product development efforts; new product...

  14. The Effect of Beam Intensity on Temperature Distribution in ADS Windowless Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Spallation Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spallation target is the component coupling the accelerator and the reactor and is regarded as the “heart” of the accelerator driven system (ADS. Heavy liquid metal lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE is served as core coolant and spallation material to carry away heat deposition of spallation reaction and produce high flux neutron. So it is very important to study the heat transfer process in the target. In this paper, the steady-state flow pattern has been numerically obtained and taken as the input for the nuclear physics calculation, and then the distribution of the extreme large power density of the heat load is imported back to the computational fluid dynamics as the source term in the energy equation. Through the coupling, the transient and steady-state temperature distribution in the windowless spallation target is obtained and analyzed based on the flow process and heat transfer. Comparison of the temperature distribution with the different beam intensity shows that its shape is the same as broken wing of the butterfly. Nevertheless, the maximum temperature as well as the temperature gradient is different. The results play an important role and can be applied to the further design and optimization of the ADS windowless spallation target.

  15. Multi-criteria comparative evaluation of spallation reaction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianov, Andrey; Andrianova, Olga; Konobeev, Alexandr; Korovin, Yury; Kuptsov, Ilya

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an approach to a comparative evaluation of the predictive ability of spallation reaction models based on widely used, well-proven multiple-criteria decision analysis methods (MAVT/MAUT, AHP, TOPSIS, PROMETHEE) and the results of such a comparison for 17 spallation reaction models in the presence of the interaction of high-energy protons with natPb.

  16. Surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Elizabeth V; Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning; Stevenson, Jeffry W; Surdoval, Wayne; Khaleel, Mohammad A

    2013-07-16

    A surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation is disclosed. The surface modification includes a ferritic stainless steel substrate having a modified surface. A cross-section of the modified surface exhibits a periodic morphology. The periodic morphology does not exceed a critical buckling length, which is equivalent to the length of a wave attribute observed in the cross section periodic morphology. The modified surface can be created using at least one of the following processes: shot peening, surface blasting and surface grinding. A coating can be applied to the modified surface.

  17. Summary of Adsorption/Desorption Experiments for the European Database on Indoor Air Pollution Sources in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Ulla Dorte; Tirkkonen, T.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental data for adsorption/desorption in building materials. Contribution to the European Database on Indoor Air Pollution Sources in buildings.......Experimental data for adsorption/desorption in building materials. Contribution to the European Database on Indoor Air Pollution Sources in buildings....

  18. On the significance of the energy correlations of spallation neutrons on the neutron fluctuations in accelerator-driven subcritical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pázsit, I; Fhager, V

    2000-01-01

    Studies of neutron fluctuations in spallation-driven subcritical systems require the use of energy-dependent master equations. In particular, calculation of the second moment of the neutron distribution requires knowledge on the energy correlations (two-point distributions) of the source particles. It is shown here that such correlations will exist even if the energies of all neutrons, generated in any single spallation event, are independent, provided that the energy distribution of the neutrons for separate spallation events is dependent on the number of neutrons generated. A simple model of number dependence of the energy spectrum is constructed, and the arising energy correlations are calculated. The error in calculating the second moment of the neutron distribution, arising when assuming zero correlations (i.e. using only one-particle energy spectra), is estimated in a simple model of neutron slowing down.

  19. Spallation studies on shock loaded uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonks, D.L.; Hixson, R.; Gustavsen, R.L.; Vorthman, J.E.; Kelly, A.; Zurek, A.K.; Thissel, W.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Uranium samples at two different purity levels were used for spall strength measurements at three different stress levels. A 50 mm single-stage gas-gun was used to produce planar impact conditions using Z-cut quartz impactors. Samples of depleted uranium were taken from very high purity material and from material that had 300 ppm of carbon added. A pair of shots was done for each impact strength, one member of the pair with VISAR diagnostics and the second with soft recovery for metallographical examination. A series of increasing final stress states were chosen to effectively freeze the microstructural damage at three places in the development to full spall separation. This allowed determination of the dependence of spall mechanisms on stress level and sample purity. This report will discuss both the results of the metallurgical examination of soft recovered samples and the modeling of the free surface VISAR data. The micrographs taken from the recovered samples show brittle cracking as the spallation failure mechanism. Deformation induced twins are plentiful and obviously play a role in the spallation process. The twins are produced in the initial shock loading and, so, are present already before the fracture process begins. The 1 d characteristics code CHARADE has been used to model the free surface VISAR data.

  20. Study of problem of waste chemical current sources in Russia and in European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilenina, V. G.; Ulanova, O. V.; Dornack, C.

    2017-10-01

    This article gives a comparative analysis of handling waste chemical current sources in Russia and in the European countries, presents the effective international documents (Directives, acts) and national legislative acts (state standards, building codes, governmental decrees, etc.), demonstrates the mechanisms for disposal and recycling of waste in the European Union countries. Along with the data of the research works, conducted in other countries during many yearsб it presents the experimental data on leaching out heavy metals from chemical current sources by municipal solid waste landfill filtrate, depending on the morphological composition of domestic waste in the city of Irkutsk. An important point described in the article, is assessment and prediction of negative impact produced on the environment.

  1. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi [Departamento de Organizacion de Empresas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  2. Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sliz-Szkliniarz, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

  3. Synthesis of neutron-rich transuranic nuclei in fissile spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishustin, Igor, E-mail: mishustin@fias.uni-frankfurt.de [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J.-W. Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); “Kurchatov Institute”, National Research Center, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Malyshkin, Yury, E-mail: malyshkin@fias.uni-frankfurt.de [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J.-W. Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pshenichnov, Igor, E-mail: pshenich@fias.uni-frankfurt.de [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J.-W. Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Greiner, Walter [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J.-W. Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    A possibility of synthesizing neutron-rich superheavy elements in spallation targets of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) is considered. A dedicated software called Nuclide Composition Dynamics (NuCoD) was developed to model the evolution of isotope composition in the targets during a long-time irradiation by intense proton and deuteron beams. Simulation results show that transuranic elements up to {sup 249}Bk can be produced in multiple neutron capture reactions in macroscopic quantities. However, the neutron flux achievable in a spallation target is still insufficient to overcome the so-called fermium gap. Further optimization of the target design, in particular, by including moderating material and covering it by a reflector could turn ADS into an alternative source of transuranic elements in addition to nuclear fission reactors.

  4. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Porsbo, Lone Jannok; Boysen, Louise

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2014 in 32 European countries (28 Member States (MS) and four non-MS). Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly re......, molluscs and products thereof’. The report further summarises trends and sources along the food chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile virus and tularaemia....

  5. Determination of spallation neutron flux through spectral adjustment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, M. A.; Engle, J. W.; Jackman, K. R.; Nortier, F. M.; Birnbaum, E. R.

    2016-08-01

    The Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility (IPF) creates medical isotopes using a proton beam impinged on a target stack. Spallation neutrons are created in the interaction of the beam with target. The use of these spallation neutrons to produce additional radionuclides has been proposed. However, the energy distribution and magnitude of the flux is not well understood. A modified SAND-II spectral adjustment routine has been used with radioactivation foils to determine the differential neutron fluence for these spallation neutrons during a standard IPF production run.

  6. Determination of spallation neutron flux through spectral adjustment techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosby, M.A., E-mail: mosbym@lanl.gov; Engle, J.W.; Jackman, K.R.; Nortier, F.M.; Birnbaum, E.R.

    2016-08-15

    The Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility (IPF) creates medical isotopes using a proton beam impinged on a target stack. Spallation neutrons are created in the interaction of the beam with target. The use of these spallation neutrons to produce additional radionuclides has been proposed. However, the energy distribution and magnitude of the flux is not well understood. A modified SAND-II spectral adjustment routine has been used with radioactivation foils to determine the differential neutron fluence for these spallation neutrons during a standard IPF production run.

  7. Migration of radionuclides in a gas cooled solid state spallation target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jørgensen, Thomas; Severin, Gregory; Jensen, Mikael, E-mail: kmje@dtu.dk

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We have investigated diffusion of (primarily) tritium in solid tungsten. • We have used an analytical and a numerical approach. • The temperature of tungsten changes with a short-term pulse driven proton beam. • The time structure of the temperature has a negligible impact on the diffusion. • Radioactive release at the surface can be found by solving the differential equation. - Abstract: The current design of the ESS (European Spallation Source) program proposes a rotating solid tungsten target cooled by helium gas and a pulsed beam of protons. For safety reasons any design has to address whether or not the induced radionuclidic isotopes in the target migrate. In this paper we have investigated the diffusion of (primarily) tritium in solid tungsten to see if a pulse driven short-term variation in temperature (temperature peaks separated by one turn of the wheel (2.36 s)) could possibly give rise to wave-like migration of the radionuclides, possibly accelerating the overall release. In order to calculate the diffusion in the solid tungsten target two approaches have been used. One neglecting the time structure of the beam and thermal cycling of the target, and one numerical, discrete time step simulation to capture the effects of the thermal cycling on the diffusion behavior. We found that the time structure of the of the temperature has a negligible impact on the diffusion, and that the radioactive release at the surface can be calculated safely by solving the differential equation (Fick's law) using an appropriate temperature to calculate the diffusion constant.

  8. European consumers' use of and trust in information sources about fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on identifying segments of consumers based on their use of and trust in information sources about fish. Cross-sectional data were collected through the SEAFOODplus pan-European consumer survey (n = 4786) with samples representative for age and region in Belgium, the Netherlands......, knowledge and behaviour towards fish, and socio-demographic profile. Recommendations for the use of multiple sources targeted to a particular audience's interest and behavioural profile were formulated.......This paper focuses on identifying segments of consumers based on their use of and trust in information sources about fish. Cross-sectional data were collected through the SEAFOODplus pan-European consumer survey (n = 4786) with samples representative for age and region in Belgium, the Netherlands......, Denmark, Spain and Poland. Three distinct clusters, based on use of and trust in fish information sources, were identified: Sceptic (24.0%), Enthusiast (41.4%) and Confident (34.6%). Those consumer segments differed significantly with respect to use of and interest in information cues on fish labels...

  9. Measurements of neutron spallation cross section. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Imamura, M.; Nakao, N.; Shibata, S.; Uwamino, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Tanaka, Su.

    1997-03-01

    Neutron spallation cross section of {sup 59}Co(n,xn){sup 60-x}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 56}Mn, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 58}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 60}Cu, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 61}Cu and {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 65}Ni was measured in the quasi-monoenergetic p-Li neutron fields in the energy range above 40 MeV which have been established at three AVF cyclotron facilities of (1) INS of Univ. of Tokyo, (2) TIARA of JAERI and (3) RIKEN. Our experimental data were compared with the ENDF/B-VI high energy file data by Fukahori and the calculated cross section data by Odano. (author)

  10. Self-healing effect of spallation damageability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buravova, S. N.

    2017-10-01

    The self-healing effect has been found in a study of the microstructure of the bands of localized deformation. It has been shown that interstitial elements (O, C) and the particles of a doping phase migrate to the zone of growing spallation damageability from the matrix material. When considering the wave pattern of the process of localization, it has been ascertained that the formation of bands of localized deformation is accompanied by the process of reverberation which is characterized by the formation of periodically repeated compression-extension cycles. A weak attenuation of the reverberation has led to an increase in the duration of the deformation pulse of the sample by two to three orders of magnitude compared with the time of the initial compression pulse.

  11. Strain rate effects for spallation of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häussler-Combe Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate triaxial constitutive laws are the key for a realistic simulation of high speed dynamics of concrete. The strain rate effect is still an open issue within this context. In particular the question whether it is a material property – which can be covered by rate dependent stress strain relations – or mainly an effect of inertia is still under discussion. Experimental and theoretical investigations of spallation of concrete specimen in a Hopkinson Bar setup may bring some evidence into this question. For this purpose the paper describes the VERD model, a newly developed constitutive law for concrete based on a damage approach with included strain rate effects [1]. In contrast to other approaches the dynamic strength increase is not directly coupled to strain rate values but related to physical mechanisms like the retarded movement of water in capillary systems and delayed microcracking. The constitutive law is fully triaxial and implemented into explicit finite element codes for the investigation of a wide range of concrete structures exposed to impact and explosions. The current setup models spallation experiments with concrete specimen [2]. The results of such experiments are mainly related to the dynamic tensile strength and the crack energy of concrete which may be derived from, e.g., the velocity of spalled concrete fragments. The experimental results are compared to the VERD model and two further constitutive laws implemented in LS-Dyna. The results indicate that both viscosity and retarded damage are required for a realistic description of the material behaviour of concrete exposed to high strain effects [3].

  12. New method for determination of temperature in spallation reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordanov Dragana J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for determination of temperature in spallation events. It is shown that temperature can be determined by applying the friction model of energy dissipation in participant-spectator model of a spallation process. First order estimate of temperature dependence of the participant zone on reaction Q-value is obtained from the Fermi gas model considerations. The heat diffusion process is also discussed.

  13. Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Antimicrobial resistance in the European Union in 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte

    EFSA's Community Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Antimicrobial resistance in the European Union in 2004 was published in December 2005. The zoonoses, meaning infectious diseases transmissible from animals to humans, affected over 380,000 EU citizens in 2004...... of 11 zoonoses, antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic agents as well as foodborne outbreaks. The national zoonoses country reports which have been used as a basis for this Summary report are below. The utmost effort was made to keep the information in the Summary Report and the national reports identical...

  14. Study of the spallation residues in the reaction Au (800 MeV/nucleon) + p; Etude des residus de spallation dans la reaction Au (800 MeV par nucleon) + p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustapha, Brahim [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-09-09

    As a neutron source, the spallation reaction is of importance for different fields of research and for a possible hybrid reactor. The study of spallation residues, their cross sections and their energetic properties, is necessary for such applications and for a better understanding of this process. Several studies of spallation products were done using spectroscopic methods. Only radioactive nuclides were detected. Aiming at a more precise measurement, covering the whole range of spallation residues, this study was done using the reverse kinematics method. A liquid hydrogen target was irradiated by an 800 MeV/nucleon gold beam. The produced nuclei were detected in flight before any radioactive decay with about 10% precision. Independent cross section were then obtained. Velocity distributions were completely reconstructed. In their present forms, the theoretical calculations based upon the two-step model, 'intra-nuclear cascade' + 'evaporation', are unable to reproduce the whole set of experimental aspects. An inter-comparison using different INC/EVA combinations permitted to identify the more significant points in these calculations. The important behaviour of this codes were examined. Due to compensation effects between both steps, cascade and evaporation, this study did not lead to a definite conclusion. (author)

  15. Pedestrian Injuries By Source: Serious and Disabling Injuries in US and European Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Ann; Fredriksson, Rikard; Rosén, Erik; Donnelly, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    US and European pedestrian crash cases were analyzed to determine frequency of injury by body region and by the vehicle component identified as the injury source. US pedestrian data was drawn from the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS). European pedestrian data was drawn from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS). Results were analyzed in terms of both serious injury (AIS 3+) and disabling injury estimated with the Functional Capacity Index (FCI). The results are presented in parallel for a more complete international perspective on injuries and injury sources. Lower extremity injury from bumper impact and head&face injury from windshield impact were the most frequent combinations for both serious and disabling injuries. Serious lower extremity injuries from bumper contact occurred in 43% of seriously injured pedestrian cases in US PCDS data and 35% of European GIDAS cases. Lower-extremity bumper injuries also account for more than 20% of disability in both datasets. Serious head &face injuries from windshield contact occur in 27% of PCDS and 15% of GIDAS serious injury cases. While bumper impacts primarily result in lower extremity injury and windshield impacts are most often associated with head & face injuries, the hood and hood leading edge are responsible for serious and disabling injuries to a number of different body regions. Therefore, while it is appropriate to focus on lower extremity injury when studying bumper performance and on head injury risk when studying windshield impact, pedestrian performance of other components may require better understanding of injury risk for multiple body regions. PMID:23169112

  16. Source-sector contributions to European ozone and fine PM in 2010 using AQMEII modeling data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamchandani, Prakash; Long, Yoann; Pirovano, Guido; Balzarini, Alessandra; Yarwood, Greg

    2017-05-01

    Source apportionment modeling provides valuable information on the contributions of different source sectors and/or source regions to ozone (O3) or fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations. This information can be useful in designing air quality management strategies and in understanding the potential benefits of reducing emissions from a particular source category. The Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) offers unique source attribution tools, called the Ozone and Particulate Source Apportionment Technology (OSAT/PSAT), which track source contributions. We present results from a CAMx source attribution modeling study for a summer month and a winter month using a recently evaluated European CAMx modeling database developed for Phase 3 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). The contributions of several source sectors (including model boundary conditions of chemical species representing transport of emissions from outside the modeling domain as well as initial conditions of these species) to O3 or PM2.5 concentrations in Europe were calculated using OSAT and PSAT, respectively. A 1-week spin-up period was used to reduce the influence of initial conditions. Evaluation focused on 16 major cities and on identifying source sectors that contributed above 5 %. Boundary conditions have a large impact on summer and winter ozone in Europe and on summer PM2.5, but they are only a minor contributor to winter PM2.5. Biogenic emissions are important for summer ozone and PM2.5. The important anthropogenic sectors for summer ozone are transportation (both on-road and non-road), energy production and conversion, and industry. In two of the 16 cities, solvent and product also contributed above 5 % to summertime ozone. For summertime PM2.5, the important anthropogenic source sectors are energy, transportation, industry, and agriculture. Residential wood combustion is an important anthropogenic sector in winter for PM2.5 over

  17. VAT regime affecting the acquisition of electronic information sources in Slovenia and in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilen Mandelj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax legislation system in the Republic of Slovenia as well as that of the European Union does not keep pace with the rapid technological development. A lot of problems arise in the field of purchasing and providing access to electronic information sources, namely electronic journals which are very important to disseminate research results. Problems arising from the application of the EC Directive 2006/112 in the Slovenian legislation system are described. The goal that the Value Added Tax (VAT would not affect the international competitiveness of the EU Member states was not met. Different levels of general and reduced tax rates and even different levels of taxation of electronic information sources put Member States in unequal positions. Tax regimes in Member States and their responses to the problem of VAT are discussed. The article shows the complexity of electronic information sources which can partly be taxed as services and party as goods in electronic form. A simulation of expenditure on electronic information sources at different tax rates and possible changes of tax legislation are presented.

  18. Energy intake and sources of energy intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, M C; Larrañaga, N; Grioni, S; van den Berg, S W; Ferrari, P; Salvini, S; Benetou, V; Linseisen, J; Wirfält, E; Rinaldi, S; Jenab, M; Halkjaer, J; Jakobsen, M U; Niravong, M; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Kaaks, R; Bergmann, M; Moutsiou, E; Trichopoulou, A; Lauria, C; Sacerdote, C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H M; Hjartåker, A; Parr, C L; Tormo, M J; Sanchez, M J; Manjer, J; Hellstrom, V; Mulligan, A; Spencer, E A; Riboli, E; Bingham, S; Slimani, N

    2009-11-01

    To describe energy intake and its macronutrient and food sources among 27 regions in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects aged 35-74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intakes of macronutrients (g/day) and energy (kcal/day) were estimated using standardized national nutrient databases. Mean intakes were weighted by season and day of the week and were adjusted for age, height and weight, after stratification by gender. Extreme low- and high-energy reporters were identified using Goldberg's cutoff points (ratio of energy intake and estimated basal metabolic rate 2.72), and their effects on macronutrient and energy intakes were studied. Low-energy reporting was more prevalent in women than in men. The exclusion of extreme-energy reporters substantially lowered the EPIC-wide range in mean energy intake from 2196-2877 to 2309-2866 kcal among men. For women, these ranges were 1659-2070 and 1873-2108 kcal. There was no north-south gradient in energy intake or in the prevalence of low-energy reporting. In most centres, cereals and cereal products were the largest contributors to energy intake. The food groups meat, dairy products and fats and oils were also important energy sources. In many centres, the highest mean energy intakes were observed on Saturdays. These data highlight and quantify the variations and similarities in energy intake and sources of energy intake among 10 European countries. The prevalence of low-energy reporting indicates that the study of energy intake is hampered by the problem of underreporting.

  19. European Union Funds as a Source of Financing the Companies Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kornet

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs are main beneficiaries of the funds from European Union. The process of financial support from EU for entrepreneurs conducting business activities in Poland is an important issue, which should be taken up by entrepreneurs, government and other offices and institutions, which participate in the process of absorption of the financial support. Introduction of the possibilities of financing and realization of the investment originating from various EU programs in new the 2007–2013 programming perspective, understanding of the stages of preparation of the project and application form, knowled - ge about financing principles of the investments from granted support are essential. Co-financing of project realized from EU financial resources is connected with a lot of advantages. First of all, the donations present an additional source of financial sup - port for enterprises which allow to accomplish the investment bear considerably with lo - wer costs than by using other sources (for example credit. Secondly, the donation allows accomplishing the investment faster, to create new additional job positions and utilize modern technology, which company couldn’t afford to by using its own funds. Moreover, the resources from various European Funds have a favorable effect (impact on enterprise develop ment and on improvement its competitiveness in the market. The company and all technologies, which could be implemented, can become more innovative. If the firm has an access to such sources of financing, it would have an opportunity for considera - bly faster development in comparison with other forms of financing its activity. Thirdly, the range of support for enterprises is very wide. Company can request for funding of project from various areas, from purchasing fixed as sets and buying land or from purcha - sing intangible as sets to take advantage of an advisory service.

  20. Free and Open Source Software underpinning the European Forest Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Aseretto, Dario; Di Leo, Margherita; de Rigo, Daniele; Corti, Paolo; McInerney, Daniel; Camia, Andrea; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    Worldwide, governments are growingly focusing [1] on free and open source software (FOSS) as a move toward transparency and the freedom to run, copy, study, change and improve the software [2]. The European Commission (EC) is also supporting the development of FOSS (see e.g., [3]). In addition to the financial savings, FOSS contributes to scientific knowledge freedom in computational science (CS) [4] and is increasingly rewarded in the science-policy interface within the emerging paradigm of open science [5-8]. Since complex computational science applications may be affected by software uncertainty [4,9-11], FOSS may help to mitigate part of the impact of software errors by CS community-driven open review, correction and evolution of scientific code [10,12-15]. The continental scale of EC science-based policy support implies wide networks of scientific collaboration. Thematic information systems also may benefit from this approach within reproducible [16] integrated modelling [4]. This is supported by the EC strategy on FOSS: "for the development of new information systems, where deployment is foreseen by parties outside of the EC infrastructure, [F]OSS will be the preferred choice and in any case used whenever possible" [17]. The aim of this contribution is to highlight how a continental scale information system may exploit and integrate FOSS technologies within the transdisciplinary research underpinning such a complex system. A European example is discussed where FOSS innervates both the structure of the information system itself and the inherent transdisciplinary research for modelling the data and information which constitute the system content. The information system. The European Forest Data Centre (EFDAC, http://forest.jrc.ec.europa.eu/efdac/) has been established at the EC Joint Research Centre (JRC) as the focal point for forest data and information in Europe to supply European decision-makers with processed, quality checked and timely policy relevant

  1. High acceptance of urine source separation in seven European countries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienert, Judit; Larsen, Tove A

    2010-01-15

    Urine source separation (NoMix-technology) is a promising innovation aiming at a resource-oriented, decentralized approach in urban water management. However, NoMix-technology has a sensitive end-point: people's bathrooms. NoMix-technology is increasingly applied in European pilot projects, but the success from a user point-of-view has rarely been systematically monitored. We aim at closing this gap. We review surveys on acceptance, including reuse of human urine as fertilizer, from 38 NoMix-projects in 7 Northern and Central European countries with 2700 respondents. Additionally, we identify explanatory variables with logistic regression of a representative Swiss library survey. NoMix-technology is well accepted; around 80% of users liked the idea, 75-85% were satisfied with design, hygiene, smell, and seating comfort of NoMix-toilets, 85% regarded urine-fertilizers as good idea (50% of farmers), and 70% would purchase such food. However, 60% of users encountered problems; NoMix-toilets need further development. We found few differences among countries, but systematic differences between public and private settings, where people seem more critical. Information was positively correlated with acceptance, and, e.g., a good mood or environmentally friendly behavior. For future success of NoMix-projects, we recommend authorities follow an integral strategy. Lay people will then find the NoMix-concept appealing and support this promising bathroom innovation.

  2. Unaccounted variability in NH3 agricultutral sources detected by IASI contributing to European spring haze episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortems-Cheiney, Audrey; Dufour, Gaelle; Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Foret, Gilles; SIour, Guillaume; Van Damme, Martin; Meleux, Frederik; Coheur, Pierre; Clerbaux, Cathy; Clarisse, Lieven; Wallasch, Markus; Beekmann, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3), which main source is agriculture, is an important precursor gas for particulate matter concentrations. For the first time, we derived ammonia emissions from space, using NH3 total columns from the IASI instrument onboard Metop-A, at a high resolution (grid-cell of 0.5° x 0.5°, at a daily scale), for the European spring haze episode of March 2014, 8th to 15th. During this period, IASI reveals higher NH3 emissions than in the European reference EMEP inventory over Central Europe (especially over Germany, Czech Republic and eastern France), exhibiting in addition a large day-to-day variability. This suggests emissions due to punctual spreading practices, that are difficult to anticipate with an inventory-based approach. The increase or NH3 emissions, that could reach +300% locally, leads both to an increase of NH3 and PM25 surface concentrations and conducts to a better comparison with independent measurements (in terms of bias, root mean square error and correlation). The robustness of this preliminary study is promising for future quantification of NH3 emission estimates by atmospheric inversions.

  3. Monte Carlo modeling of spallation targets containing uranium and americium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshkin, Yury; Pshenichnov, Igor; Mishustin, Igor; Greiner, Walter

    2014-09-01

    Neutron production and transport in spallation targets made of uranium and americium are studied with a Geant4-based code MCADS (Monte Carlo model for Accelerator Driven Systems). A good agreement of MCADS results with experimental data on neutron- and proton-induced reactions on 241Am and 243Am nuclei allows to use this model for simulations with extended Am targets. It was demonstrated that MCADS model can be used for calculating the values of critical mass for 233,235U, 237Np, 239Pu and 241Am. Several geometry options and material compositions (U, U + Am, Am, Am2O3) are considered for spallation targets to be used in Accelerator Driven Systems. All considered options operate as deep subcritical targets having neutron multiplication factor of k∼0.5. It is found that more than 4 kg of Am can be burned in one spallation target during the first year of operation.

  4. On the role of secondary pions in spallation targets

    CERN Document Server

    Mancusi, Davide; Colonna, Nicola; Boudard, Alain; Cortés-Giraldo, Miguel Antonio; Cugnon, Joseph; David, Jean-Christophe; Leray, Sylvie; Lerendegui-Marco, Jorge; Massimi, Cristian; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2017-01-01

    We use particle-transport simulations to show that secondary pions play a crucial role for the development of the hadronic cascade and therefore for the production of neutrons and photons from thick spallation targets. In particular, for the n_TOF lead spallation target, irradiated with 20-GeV/c protons, neutral pions are involved in the production of ~90% of the high-energy photons; charged pions participate in ~40% of the integral neutron yield. Nevertheless, photon and neutron yields are shown to be relatively insensitive to large changes of the average pion multiplicity in the individual spallation reactions. We characterize this robustness as a peculiar property of hadronic cascades in thick targets.

  5. On the role of secondary pions in spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancusi, Davide [Paris-Saclay Univ., Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Den-Service d' Etude des Reacteurs et de Mathematiques Appliquees (SERMA); Lo Meo, Sergio [ENEA, Research Centre ' ' Ezio Clementel' ' , Bologna (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Colonna, Nicola [INFN, Bari (Italy); Boudard, Alain; David, Jean-Christophe; Leray, Sylvie [Paris-Saclay Univ., Gif-sur-Yvette (France). IRFU, CEA; Cortes-Giraldo, Miguel Antonio; Lerendegui-Marco, Jorge [Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Fisica; Cugnon, Joseph [Liege Univ. (Belgium). AGO Dept.; Massimi, Cristian [INFN, Bologna (Italy); Bologna Univ. (Italy). Physics and Astronomy Dept.; Vlachoudis, Vasilis [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-05-15

    We use particle-transport simulations to show that secondary pions play a crucial role for the development of the hadronic cascade and therefore for the production of neutrons and photons from thick spallation targets. In particular, for the nTOF lead spallation target, irradiated with 20 GeV/c protons, neutral pions are involved in the production of ∝ 90% of the high-energy photons; charged pions participate in ∝ 40% of the integral neutron yield. Nevertheless, photon and neutron yields are shown to be relatively insensitive to large changes of the average pion multiplicity in the individual spallation reactions. We characterize this robustness as a peculiar property of hadronic cascades in thick targets. (orig.)

  6. Neutron spallation source and the Dubna cascade code

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, V; Goel, U; Barashenkov, V S

    2003-01-01

    Neutron multiplicity per incident proton, n/p, in collision of high energy proton beam with voluminous Pb and W targets has been estimated from the Dubna cascade code and compared with the available experimental data for the purpose of benchmarking of the code. Contributions of various atomic and nuclear processes for heat production and isotopic yield of secondary nuclei are also estimated to assess the heat and radioactivity conditions of the targets. Results obtained from the code show excellent agreement with the experimental data at beam energy, E < 1.2 GeV and differ maximum up to 25% at higher energy. (author)

  7. Neutron spallation source and the Dubna Cascade Code

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    into a stationary state sometimes emitting several nucleons. At the third and the last stage the excited residual nucleus decays by competitive successive evaporation of nucleons, fission and emission of γ-quanta. Dubna Cascade Code [4] developed for the purpose of mathematical modeling of ADSS allows one to estimate ...

  8. Neutron spallation source and the Dubna Cascade Code

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neutron multiplicity per incident proton, /, in collision of high energy proton beam with voluminous Pb and W targets has been estimated from the Dubna Cascade Code and compared with the available experimental data for the purpose of benchmarking of the code. Contributions of various atomic and nuclear processes ...

  9. Mexican American and European American College Students' Beliefs about Causes, Cures, and Sources of Help for Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Donald R.; Abreu, Jose M.; Ortiz-Bush, Yvonne; Brewer, Scott

    1998-01-01

    Mexican-American and European-American college students rated an empirically derived list of the causes, cures, and sources of help for anxiety. There were significant differences in ratings of cause and cure beliefs for anxiety between men and women. Level of acculturation was not found to be related among Mexican Americans. (Author/MKA)

  10. Neutronic performance of the MEGAPIE spallation target under high power proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel-Sendis, F. [CEA - Saclay, Irfu/Service de Physique Nucleaire, F91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chabod, S. [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 38000 Grenoble (France); Letourneau, A. [CEA - Saclay, Irfu/Service de Physique Nucleaire, F91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Panebianco, S., E-mail: stefano.panebianco@cea.f [CEA - Saclay, Irfu/Service de Physique Nucleaire, F91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Zanini, L. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    The MEGAPIE project, aiming at the construction and operation of a megawatt liquid lead-bismuth spallation target, constitutes the first step in demonstrating the feasibility of liquid heavy metal target technologies as spallation neutron sources. In particular, MEGAPIE is meant to assess the coupling of a high power proton beam with a window-concept heavy liquid metal target. The experiment has been set at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland and, after a 4-month long irradiation, has provided unique data for a better understanding of the behavior of such a target under realistic irradiation conditions. A complex neutron detector has been developed to provide an on-line measurement of the neutron fluency inside the target and close to the proton beam. The detector is based on micrometric fission chambers and activation foils. These two complementary detection techniques have provided a characterization of the neutron flux inside the target for different positions along its axis. Measurements and simulation results presented in this paper aim to provide important recommendations for future accelerator driven systems (ADS) and neutron source developments.

  11. Heavy density liquid metal spallation target studies for Indian ADS ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An R&D programme has been initiated to address various physics and technology issues of ADS target. Under this programme, mercury and LBE experimental facilities are presently being set up. Along with these facilities, computational tools related to spallation physics (FLUKA) and CFD are being developed, and the ...

  12. Analytic model of heat deposition in spallation neutron target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, D. J. S.

    2015-12-01

    A simple analytic model for estimating deposition of heat in a spallation neutron target is presented-a model that can readily be realised in an unambitious spreadsheet. The model is based on simple representations of the principal underlying physical processes, and is intended largely as a 'sanity check' on results from Monte Carlo codes such as FLUKA or MCNPX.

  13. Evaluation of aerosol sources at European high altitude background sites with trajectory statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, P.; Artíñano, B.; Pio, C. A.; Afonso, J.; Puxbaum, H.; Legrand, M.; Hammer, S.; Kaiser, A.

    2009-04-01

    During the last years, the analysis of a great number of back-trajectories from receptor sites has turned out to be a valuable tool to identify sources and sinks areas of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) or to reconstruct their average spatial distribution. A number of works have applied different trajectory statistical methods (TSM), which allow working simultaneously with back-trajectories computed from one or several receptor points and PM concentration values registered there. In spite of these methods have many limitations, they are simple and effective methods to detect the relevant source regions and the air flow regimes which are connected with regional and large-scale air pollution transport. In this study 5-day backward air trajectories arriving over 3 monitoring sites, were utilised and analysed simultaneously with the PM levels and chemical composition values registered there. These sites are located in the centre of Europe and can be classified into natural continental background (Schauinsland-SIL in Germany (1205 m asl), Puy de Dôme-PDD in France (1450 m asl) and Sonnblick-SBO in Austria (3106 m asl)). In the framework of the CARBOSOL European project, weekly aerosol samples were collected with High Volume Samplers (DIGITEL DH77) and PM10 (SIL and PDD) or PM2.5 (SBO) inlets, on quartz fibre filters. Filter samples were treated and analyzed for determining the levels of major organic fractions (OC, EC) and inorganic ions. Additionally, analyses for specific organic compounds were also carried out whenever was possible (Pio et al., 2007). For each day of the sampling period, four trajectories ending at 00:00, 06:00, 12:00 and 18:00 h UTC have been computed by the Norwegian Institute for Air Research NILU (SIL and PDD) and the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geophysics of Austria (SBO) using the FLEXTRA model (Stohl et al., 1995). In all, more than 8000 complete trajectories were available for analysis, each with 40 endpoints. Firstly air mass

  14. GEMAS - Tin and Tungsten: possible sources of enriched concentrations in soils in European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    João Batista, Maria; Filipe, Augusto; Reimann, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    Tin and tungsten occur related with magmatic differentiation and can be installed in fissures and veins of magmatic rocks or in the neighbor metasediments. Generally, both elements have low chemical mobility in the superficial environment although effectively mobile in detrital media such as stream sediments and deposited in alluvial soils. The most important tin-tungsten deposits in Europe are in Variscides. From the northern Europe, 985 samples and from southern Europe 1123 samples were collected both in agricultural and grazing lands. Analysis were made of Sn , W, pH, TOC, SiO2 from the upper 20 and 10 cm of agricultural and grazing soils, respectively. The present study is part of the GEMAS project a joint project of European geochemical mapping between the EuroGeoSurvey Geochemical Expert Group and EuroMetaux. The results show that in general, at the European (continental) scale natural processes are dominant. It is clear the distinction between NE Europe and SW European tin and tungsten concentrations in soils. Tin geometric mean concentrations in the northern Europe is 0.57 mg kg-1 in agricultural soils and 0.62 mg kg-1 in grazing land; southern Europe 0.91 mg kg-1 in agricultural soils and 0.95 mg kg-1 in grazing land. Tungsten geometric mean concentrations in northern Europe is 0.067 mg kg-1 in agricultural soils and 0.073 mg kg-1 in grazing land and in southern Europe is 0.085 mg kg-1 in agricultural soils and 0.090 mg kg-1 in grazing land. Limit between north and south is the maximum extent of the last glaciation. Grazing land, undisturbed soils for a period of several years, have higher concentrations of Sn and W than agricultural soils which raises the question that if only natural processes are observed. Parent material seems to be the main source of Sn and W to soil. Sn-W rich Variscan granitic intrusions of Central Iberian Zone, Massif Central, Brittany, Cornwall and Bohemia are reflected in soil concentrations. TOC is higher in northern than in

  15. The share of renewable energy in the EU. Country Profiles. Overview of Renewable Energy Sources in the Enlarged European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The promotion of renewable energy has an important role to play in addressing the growing dependence on energy imports in Europe and in tackling climate change. Since 1997, the Union has been working towards the ambitious target of a 12% share of renewable energy in gross inland consumption by 2010. In 1997, the share of renewable energy was 5.4%; by 2001 it had reached 6%. This Staff Working Document gives an overview of the different situations of renewable energy sources in the European Union. It includes part of the formal report that the Commission is required to make under Article 3 of Directive 2001/77/EC on electricity from renewable energy sources, and it completes the overall picture with information at a country level on the heat produced from renewable energies and biofuels in the transport sector. This Staff Working Document complements the Communication on 'The share of Renewable Energy sources in the EU'. Data is based on different sources. Firstly, on the reports from Member States on national progress in achieving the targets on electricity from renewable energy sources. Secondly, on a study launched by the Commission on the evolution of renewable energy sources. And thirdly, on a variety of sources like the European Barometer of renewable energies, data from the industry, etc. With the enlargement of the European Union, the new Member States are required to adopt the RES-E Directive (renewable energy sources for electricity) by 1 May 2004. In the accession treaty, national indicative targets are set and the overall renewable electricity target for the enlarged Union will therefore be 21% of gross electricity consumption by 2010. The Commission has the legal obligation to report on the degree of achievement of new Member States' targets by 2006. Although it is too early to assess RES-policy in the new Member States due to very recently adopted regulations, this document also includes national information on the States now joining the

  16. An inventory of European data sources for the long-term safety evaluation of methylphenidate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murray, M.L.; Insuk, S.; Banaschewski, T.; Neubert, A.C.; McCarthy, S.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Coghill, D.; Dittmann, R.W.; Konrad, K.; Panei, P.; Rosenthal, E.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.; Wong, I.C.

    2013-01-01

    To compile an inventory of European healthcare databases with potential to study long-term effects of methylphenidate (MPH) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Potential databases were identified through expert opinion, the website of the European Network of Centres for

  17. English as a Lingua Franca: A Source of Identity for Young Europeans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnutzmann, Claus; Jakisch, Jenny; Rabe, Frank

    2014-01-01

    As a result of globalisation and the European integration process, identity concepts of young Europeans are becoming more and more diverse and possibly heterogeneous. The factors that influence the development of identity formation and impact on identity constructions are complex--but language seems to be of central importance. It is generally…

  18. MEGAPIE, a 1 MW pilot experiment for a liquid metal spallation target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Spallation Neutron Source Division, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Salvatores, M. [CEA Cadarache, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Heusener, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Projekt Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    MEGAPIE (Megawatt Pilot Target Experiment) is an initiative launched by Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France) and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany) in collaboration with Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland), to demonstrate, in an international collaboration, the feasibility of a liquid lead bismuth target for spallation facilities at a beam power level of 1 MW. Such a target is under consideration for various concepts of accelerator driven systems (ADS) to be used in transmutation of nuclear waste and other applications world-wide. It also has the potential of increasing significantly the thermal neutron flux available at the spallation neutron source (SINQ) for neutron scattering. SINQ's beam power being close to 1 MW already, this facility offers a unique opportunity to realize such an experiment with a reasonably small number of new ancillary systems. The paper describes the basic features of the experiment and its boundary conditions, the technical concept of the target and underlying research carried out at participating laboratories. (author)

  19. Spallation radiation damage and dosimetry for accelerator transmutation of waste applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wechsler, M.S.; Lin, C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Ferguson, P.D. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Sommer, W.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Proposals are currently being made for systems to treat radioactive waste based on the use of accelerator-driven neutron sources. A linear proton accelerator with energies as high as 1600 MeV and currents up to 250 ma are anticipated for the driver. The neutron fluxes may reach up to 10{sup 20} neutrons/m{sup 2}s as generated by the spallation reactions that occur when the protons strike target materials. Calculations are described to determine radiation fluxes and flux spectra inherent in such systems and to estimate likely radiation effects on system components. The calculations use LAHET, a Monte Carlo high-energy transport code, and MCNP, a generalized-geometry, coupled neutron-photon Monte Carlo transport code. Cross sections for displacement and helium production are presented for spallation neutrons of energies from 21 MeV to 1600 MeV for Inconel 718 (Ni plus 18.5, 18.5, 5.1, and 3 wt % of Cr, Fe, Nb, and Mo, respectively), an alloy that is used for the proton beam entry window in several accelerators. In addition, results for this alloy are presented for the primary knocked-on atom (PKA) spectrum and the transmutation yield for 1600 MeV incident neutrons.

  20. LATIS modeling of laser induced midplane and backplane spallation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinksky, M.E.; Bailey, D.S.; London, R.A.

    1997-03-05

    The computer code LATIS is used to simulate midplane and backplane spallation resulting from short pulsed laser absorption. A 1-D planar geometry is simulated with an exponential laser absorption profile. The laser pulse length is assumed to be much shorter than the sound transit time across the laser absorption length. The boundary conditions are a fixed front plane and free backplane (backplane spall) and a free front plane and a fixed midplane (midplane spall). The NBS/NRC equation of state for water is used with a self- consistent yet empirical material strength and failure model. The failure model includes the effects of void nucleation, growth and coalescence. Definite signatures of the nucleation and coalescence thresholds are found in the back surface motion for backplane spallation.

  1. A non-equilibrium microscopic description of spallation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitani, P.; Colonna, M.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the prompt emission of few intermediate-mass fragments in spallation reactions induced by protons and deuterons in the 1GeV range. Such emission has a minor contribution to the total reaction cross section, but it may overcome evaporation and fission channels in the formation of light nuclides. The role of mean-field dynamics and phase-space fluctuations in these reactions is investigated through the Boltzmann-Langevin transport equation. We found that a process of frustrated fragmentation and re-aggregation is a prominent mechanism of production of IMFs which can not be assimilated to the statistical decay of a compound nucleus. Very interestingly, this process may yield a small number of IMF in the exit channel, which may even reduce to two, and be wrongly confused with ordinary asymmetric fission. This interpretation, inspired by nuclear-spallation experiments, can be generalised to heavy-ion collisions approaching the fragmentation threshold.

  2. Spallation and fracture resulting from reflected and intersecting stress waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinslow, R.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the effects of stress waves produced in solid by explosions or high-velocity impacts. These waves rebound from free surfaces in the form of tensile waves that are capable of causing internal fractures or spallation of the material. The high-speed framing camera is shown to be an important tool for observing the stress waves and fracture in transparent targets, and its photographs provide valuable information on the mechanics of fracture.

  3. Astrophysical Li-7 as a product of big bang nucleosynthesis and galactic cosmic-ray spallation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.

    1992-01-01

    The astrophysical Li-7 abundance is considered to be largely primordial, while the Be and B abundances are thought to be due to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spallation reactions on top of a much smaller big bang component. But GCR spallation should also produce Li-7. As a consistency check on the combination of big bang nucleosynthesis and GCR spallation, the Be and B data from a sample of hot population II stars is used to subtract from the measured Li-7 abundance an estimate of the amount generated by GCR spallation for each star in the sample, and then to add to this baseline an estimate of the metallicity-dependent augmentation of Li-7 due to spallation. The singly reduced primordial Li-7 abundance is still consistent with big bang nucleosynthesis, and a single GCR spallation model can fit the Be, B, and corrected Li-7 abundances for all the stars in the sample.

  4. Integral measurements of neutron production in spallation targets; Mesure integrale de la production de neutrons dans des cibles de spallation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frehaut, J.; Deneuville, D.; Ledoux, X.; Lochard, J.P.; Longuet, J.L.; Petibon, E.; Alrick, K.; Bownan, D.; Cverna, F.; King, N.S.P.; Morgan, G.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Greene, G.; Hanson, A.; Snead, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Thompson, R. [Bechtel Nevada Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ward, T

    1998-12-31

    Measurements of neutron production for thick iron, tungsten and lead targets of different diameter prototypic for spallation systems have been made at SATURNE in an incident proton energy range from 400 MeV to 2 GeV. TIERCE code system calculations are in good agreement with experiment for iron and large diameter tungsten and lead targets. They overestimate the measured neutron production for tungsten and lead targets for diameter {<=}20 cm. (author) 10 refs.

  5. Sources and methods to reconstruct past masting patterns in European oak species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, Péter

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2012), s. 203-214 ISSN 0307-1375 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812 Grant - others:ERC - European Union(XE) FP7/2007-2013 ERC no. 278065 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : mast * oak * historical ecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  6. A spallation-based irradiation test facility for fusion and future fission materials

    CERN Document Server

    Samec, K; Kadi, Y; Luis, R; Romanets, Y; Behzad, M; Aleksan, R; Bousson, S

    2014-01-01

    The EU’s FP7 TIARA program for developing accelerator-based facilities has recently demonstrated the unique capabilities of a compact and powerful spallation source for irradiating advanced nuclear materials. The spectrum and intensity of the neutron flux produced in the proposed facility fulfils the requirements of the DEMO fusion reactor for ITER, ADS reactors and also Gen III / IV reactors. Test conditions can be modulated, covering temperature from 400 to 550°C, liquid metal corrosion, cyclical or static stress up to 500 MPa and neutron/proton irradiation damage of up to 25 DPA per annum. The entire “TMIF” facility fits inside a cube 2 metres on a side, and is dimensioned for an accelerator beam power of 100 kW, thus reducing costs and offering great versatility and flexibility.

  7. Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Wolfgang; Lazaridis, Iosif; Patterson, Nick; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Llamas, Bastien; Brandt, Guido; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Harney, Eadaoin; Stewardson, Kristin; Fu, Qiaomei; Mittnik, Alissa; Bánffy, Eszter; Economou, Christos; Francken, Michael; Friederich, Susanne; Pena, Rafael Garrido; Hallgren, Fredrik; Khartanovich, Valery; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Kunst, Michael; Kuznetsov, Pavel; Meller, Harald; Mochalov, Oleg; Moiseyev, Vayacheslav; Nicklisch, Nicole; Pichler, Sandra L; Risch, Roberto; Rojo Guerra, Manuel A; Roth, Christina; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Wahl, Joachim; Meyer, Matthias; Krause, Johannes; Brown, Dorcas; Anthony, David; Cooper, Alan; Alt, Kurt Werner; Reich, David

    2015-06-11

    We generated genome-wide data from 69 Europeans who lived between 8,000-3,000 years ago by enriching ancient DNA libraries for a target set of almost 400,000 polymorphisms. Enrichment of these positions decreases the sequencing required for genome-wide ancient DNA analysis by a median of around 250-fold, allowing us to study an order of magnitude more individuals than previous studies and to obtain new insights about the past. We show that the populations of Western and Far Eastern Europe followed opposite trajectories between 8,000-5,000 years ago. At the beginning of the Neolithic period in Europe, ∼8,000-7,000 years ago, closely related groups of early farmers appeared in Germany, Hungary and Spain, different from indigenous hunter-gatherers, whereas Russia was inhabited by a distinctive population of hunter-gatherers with high affinity to a ∼24,000-year-old Siberian. By ∼6,000-5,000 years ago, farmers throughout much of Europe had more hunter-gatherer ancestry than their predecessors, but in Russia, the Yamnaya steppe herders of this time were descended not only from the preceding eastern European hunter-gatherers, but also from a population of Near Eastern ancestry. Western and Eastern Europe came into contact ∼4,500 years ago, as the Late Neolithic Corded Ware people from Germany traced ∼75% of their ancestry to the Yamnaya, documenting a massive migration into the heartland of Europe from its eastern periphery. This steppe ancestry persisted in all sampled central Europeans until at least ∼3,000 years ago, and is ubiquitous in present-day Europeans. These results provide support for a steppe origin of at least some of the Indo-European languages of Europe.

  8. Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Wolfgang; Lazaridis, Iosif; Patterson, Nick; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Llamas, Bastien; Brandt, Guido; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Harney, Eadaoin; Stewardson, Kristin; Fu, Qiaomei; Mittnik, Alissa; Bánffy, Eszter; Economou, Christos; Francken, Michael; Friederich, Susanne; Pena, Rafael Garrido; Hallgren, Fredrik; Khartanovich, Valery; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Kunst, Michael; Kuznetsov, Pavel; Meller, Harald; Mochalov, Oleg; Moiseyev, Vayacheslav; Nicklisch, Nicole; Pichler, Sandra L.; Risch, Roberto; Rojo Guerra, Manuel A.; Roth, Christina; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Wahl, Joachim; Meyer, Matthias; Krause, Johannes; Brown, Dorcas; Anthony, David; Cooper, Alan; Alt, Kurt Werner; Reich, David

    2016-01-01

    We generated genome-wide data from 69 Europeans who lived between 8,000–3,000 years ago by enriching ancient DNA libraries for a target set of almost 400,000 polymorphisms. Enrichment of these positions decreases the sequencing required for genome-wide ancient DNA analysis by a median of around 250-fold, allowing us to study an order of magnitude more individuals than previous studies1–8 and to obtain new insights about the past. We show that the populations of Western and Far Eastern Europe followed opposite trajectories between 8,000–5,000 years ago. At the beginning of the Neolithic period in Europe, 8,000–7,000 years ago, closely related groups of early farmers appeared in Germany, Hungary and Spain, different from indigenous hunter-gatherers, whereas Russia was inhabited by a distinctive population of hunter-gatherers with high affinity to a 24,000-year-old Siberian6. By 6,000–5,000 years ago, farmers throughout much of Europe had more hunter-gatherer ancestry than their predecessors, but in Russia, the Yamnaya steppe herders of this time were descended not only from the preceding eastern European hunter-gatherers, but also from a population of Near Eastern ancestry. Western and Eastern Europe came into contact 4,500 years ago, as the Late Neolithic Corded Ware people from Germany traced 75% of their ancestry to the Yamnaya, documenting a massive migration into the heartland of Europe from its eastern periphery. This steppe ancestry persisted in all sampled central Europeans until at least 3,000 years ago, and is ubiquitous in present-day Europeans. These results provide support for a steppe origin9 of at least some of the Indo-European languages of Europe. PMID:25731166

  9. Preliminary Results of the first European Source Apportionment intercomparison for Receptor and Chemical Transport Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belis, Claudio A.; Pernigotti, Denise; Pirovano, Guido

    2017-04-01

    Source Apportionment (SA) is the identification of ambient air pollution sources and the quantification of their contribution to pollution levels. This task can be accomplished using different approaches: chemical transport models and receptor models. Receptor models are derived from measurements and therefore are considered as a reference for primary sources urban background levels. Chemical transport model have better estimation of the secondary pollutants (inorganic) and are capable to provide gridded results with high time resolution. Assessing the performance of SA model results is essential to guarantee reliable information on source contributions to be used for the reporting to the Commission and in the development of pollution abatement strategies. This is the first intercomparison ever designed to test both receptor oriented models (or receptor models) and chemical transport models (or source oriented models) using a comprehensive method based on model quality indicators and pre-established criteria. The target pollutant of this exercise, organised in the frame of FAIRMODE WG 3, is PM10. Both receptor models and chemical transport models present good performances when evaluated against their respective references. Both types of models demonstrate quite satisfactory capabilities to estimate the yearly source contributions while the estimation of the source contributions at the daily level (time series) is more critical. Chemical transport models showed a tendency to underestimate the contribution of some single sources when compared to receptor models. For receptor models the most critical source category is industry. This is probably due to the variety of single sources with different characteristics that belong to this category. Dust is the most problematic source for Chemical Transport Models, likely due to the poor information about this kind of source in the emission inventories, particularly concerning road dust re-suspension, and consequently the

  10. Comparison between calculations and experimental results on spallation reactions of interest for hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volant, C.; Boudard, A.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Wlazlo, W.

    1999-11-01

    Data on proton induced spallation reactions concerning the production of neutrons obtained at SATURNE and of spallation residues at GSI have been compared with two-step models including different Intra-Nuclear Cascades (INC) followed by different evaporation codes. Results and improvements of the codes are discussed.

  11. Factors associated with sugar intake and sugar sources in European children from 1 to 8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawellek, I; Grote, V; Theurich, M; Closa-Monasterolo, R; Stolarczyk, A; Verduci, E; Xhonneux, A; Koletzko, B

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends to limit intake of free sugars to 5% of total energy per day because of the great impact of high sugar intake on body fat deposition, adiposity and dental caries. However, little data exist about total intake and sources of sugar in European children. Therefore, this paper aims to describe sugar intake and dietary sugar sources and associated factors. Three-day weighed dietary records were obtained at eight time points from children 1 to 8 years of age (n=995) in five European countries. Food items were classified into subgroups according to food composition. Linear mixed models were used to examine associated factors. Total sugar intake increased from 65 g/day (30.0% of energy intake (E%)) at 12 months of age to 83 g/day (20.9 E%) at 96 months of age. Around 80% of children's sugar intake was derived from the following sources: milk and dairy products, fruits and fruit products, confectionary and sugar sweetened beverages (SSB). Total sugar intake and dietary sugar sources varied significantly by country of residence. Boys had a significantly (P=0.003) higher total sugar consumption than girls.SSB consumption was significantly higher in children from young mothers while sugar intake from fruit products was lower in children from mothers with lower educational status and those with higher birth order. Sugar intake in our population was lower than in other studies. Total sugar intake was associated with country of residence and gender, while dietary sugar sources varied by country of residence, maternal age, education and birth order.

  12. Studies on physical characteristics of spallation neutron target

    CERN Document Server

    Wan Jun Sheng; Xia Hai Hong; Zhang Li; Zhang Ying

    2002-01-01

    The spallation target of ADS was studied using DCM/CEM program. The simulation of the lead target of 0.6 m length and 0.2 m in diameter bombarded with 0.1 - 1.6 GeV proton beams was carried out. The neutron spectra, neutron fluence distribution over the lead target, energy deposition and neutron production in the lead target were studied. Some former experimental results can be explained very well with the calculated results. The simulation results agree very well with the former theoretical and experimental results

  13. The Christian Nobles at the Court of Great Khan, as Described in Mediaeval European Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Liščák

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research objectives: “Moreover, the chief princes of his whole empire, more than thirty thousand in number, who are called Alans, and govern the whole Orient, are Christians either in fact or in name, calling themselves the Pope’s slaves, and ready to die for the Franks.” With these words John of Marignola, a notable traveller to the Far East in the fourteenth century and a legate to the Great Khan of Cathay, attested in his Cronica Boemorum the presence of certain Christian nobles of the Alan race in the service of the Mongol-Chinese emperor. The immediate impetus for Marignola’s mission was that in 1336 the Great Khan Ukhaghatu Toghon-Temür sent a delegation of sixteen “Franks” (Franquis, as the Mongols called Europeans, ad Papam, Dominum Christianorum in Franchiam. They brought two letters to the pope: one purporting to be from the Great Khan himself, and the other from certain princes of the Christian Alans in his service. By the coming of the Mongolian legation in Avignon in 1338, we are informed, among others, that the successor of John of Montecorvino, the first archbishop in Khanbalik, had never reached his destination, as well as the other succeeding archbishops to Khanbalik. Research materials: Marignola’s mission was important not only with its spiritual message, but rather with an excellent choice of gift for the Great Khan. Western messengers brought with them, among the gifts from the Pope in Rome, a singularly auspicious present: a magnificent black horse with white hind hooves. Marignola, in his Cronica Boemorum, identifies the Christian dignitaries at the court of the Great Khan as the Alans. We know of them from earlier sources, but mostly under the generic name “Christians” or “Nestorian Christians”. John of Montecorvino reportedly converted many Alans (he did not mention their name to Roman Catholic Christianity in addition to Armenians in China. According to the Annals of the Yuan Dynasty, in 1229 and

  14. Prevalence of antibiotic use: a comparison across various European health care data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruigómez, Ana; Downey, Gerry; Bate, Andrew; Garcia Rodriguez, Luis Alberto; Huerta, Consuelo; Gil, Miguel; de Abajo, Francisco; Requena, Gema; Alvarez, Yolanda; Slattery, Jim; de Groot, Mark; Souverein, Patrick; Hesse, Ulrik; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Schmiedl, Sven; de Vries, Frank; Tepie, Maurille Feudjo; Schlienger, Raymond; Smeeth, Liam; Douglas, Ian; Reynolds, Robert; Klungel, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose There is widespread concern about increases in antibiotic use, but comparative data from different European countries on rates of use are lacking. This study was designed to measure and understand the variation in antibiotic utilization across five European countries. Methods Seven European healthcare databases with access to primary care data from Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK were used to measure and compare the point and 1‐year‐period prevalence of antibiotic use between 2004 and 2009. Descriptive analyses were stratified by gender, age and type of antibiotic. Separate analyses were performed to measure the most common underlying indications leading to the prescription of an antibiotic. Results The average yearly period prevalence of antibiotic use varied from 15 (Netherlands) to 30 (Spain) users per 100 patients. A higher prevalence of antibiotic use by female patients, the very young (0–9 years) and old (80+ years), was observed in all databases. The lowest point prevalence was recorded in June and September and ranged from 0.51 (Netherlands) to 1.47 (UK) per 100 patients per day. Twelve percent (Netherlands) to forty‐nine (Spain) percent of all users were diagnosed with a respiratory tract infection, and the most common type of antibiotic prescribed were penicillin. Conclusion Using identical methodology in seven EU databases to assess antibiotic use allowed us to compare drug usage patterns across Europe. Our results contribute quantitatively to the true understanding of similarities and differences in the use of antibiotic agents in different EU countries. © 2015 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26152658

  15. Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Haak, Wolfgang; Lazaridis, Iosif; Patterson, Nick; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Llamas, Bastien; Brandt, Guido; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Harney, Eadaoin; Stewardson, Kristin; Fu, Qiaomei; Mittnik, Alissa; Bánffy, Eszter; Economou, Christos; Francken, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We generated genome-wide data from 69 Europeans who lived between 8,000-3,000 years ago by enriching ancient DNA libraries for a target set of almost four hundred thousand polymorphisms. Enrichment of these positions decreases the sequencing required for genome-wide ancient DNA analysis by a median of around 250-fold, allowing us to study an order of magnitude more individuals than previous studies and to obtain new insights about the past. We show that the populations of western and far east...

  16. Flowing lead spallation target design for use in an ADTT experimental facility located at LAMPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, C. A.; Bracht, R. R.; Buksa, J. J.; Chaves, W.; DeVolder, B. G.; O'Brien, H.; Park, J. J.; Parker, R. B.; Pillai, C.; Potter, R. C.; Reid, R. S.; Trujillo, D. A.; Vela, O. A.; Venneri, F.; Weinacht, D. J.; Wender, S. A.; Wilson, W. B.; Woloshun, K. A.

    1995-09-01

    A conceptual design has been initiated for a flowing lead spallation target for use in an ADTT experimental facility located at LAMPF. The lead is contained using Nb-1Zr as the structural material. This material was selected based on its favorable material properties as well as its compatibility with the flowing lead. Heat deposited in the lead and the Nb-1Zr container by the 800-MeV, 1-mA beam is removed by the flowing lead and transferred to helium via a conventional heat exchanger. The neutronic, thermal hydraulic, and stress characteristics of the system have been determined. In addition, a module to control the thaw and freeze of the lead has been developed and incorporated into the target system design. The entire primary target system (spallation target, thaw/freeze system, and intermediate heat exchanger) has been designed to be built as a contained module to allow easy insertion into an experimental ADTT blanket assembly and to provide multiple levels of containment for the lead. For the 800-MeV LAMPF beam, the target delivers a source of approximately 18 neutrons/proton. A total of 540 kW are deposited in the target. The lead temperature ranges from 400 to 500 C. The peak structural heating occurs at the beam interface, and the target is designed to maximize cooling at this point. An innovative thin-window structure has been incorporated that allows direct, convective cooling of the window by the inlet flowing lead. Safe and reliable operation of the target has been maximized through simple, robust engineering.

  17. Recent advances in the source term area within the SARNET European severe accident research network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E., E-mail: luisen.herranz@ciemat.es [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medio Ambientales y Tecnologica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Haste, T. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Kärkelä, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT Espoo (Finland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Main achievements of source term research in SARNET are given. • Emphasis on the radiologically important iodine and ruthenium fission products. • Conclusions on FP release, transport in the RCS and containment behaviour. • Significance of large-scale integral experiments to validate the analyses used. • A thorough list of the most recent references on source term research results. - Abstract: Source Term has been one of the main research areas addressed within the SARNET network during the 7th EC Framework Programme of EURATOM. The entire source term domain was split into three major areas: oxidising impact on source term, iodine chemistry in the reactor coolant system and containment and data and code assessment. The present paper synthesises the main technical outcome stemming from the SARNET FWP7 project in the area of source term and includes an extensive list of references in which deeper insights on specific issues may be found. Besides, based on the analysis of the current state of the art, an outlook of future source term research is outlined, where major changes in research environment are discussed (i.e., the end of the Phébus FP project; the end of the SARNET projects; and the launch of HORIZON 2020). Most probably research projects will be streamlined towards: release and transport under oxidising conditions, containment chemistry, existing and innovative filtered venting systems and others. These will be in addition to a number of projects that have been completed or are ongoing under different national and international frameworks, like VERDON, CHIP and EPICUR started under the International Source Term Programme (ISTP), the OECD/CSNI programmes BIP, BIP2, STEM, THAI and THAI2, and the French national programme MIRE. The experimental PASSAM project under the 7th EC Framework programme, focused on source term mitigation systems, is highlighted as a good example of a project addressing potential enhancement of safety systems

  18. Sources of growth: Evidence from ten central and Eastern European countries during 1993-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Silaghi Monica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper carries out a growth accounting exercise for the 10 Central and Eastern European (CEE countries that are part of the European Union over the period 1993-2008. We estimate the capital share (α from a Cobb-Douglas production function in an intensive form, by employing panel data techniques. The Hausman and Chi-Square tests indicate that a Cross- Section Random Effects with Period Fixed Effects model best suits our data. Based on this model, we find a capital share between 0.45 and 0.83, higher than the usual 0.3-0.4 used in growth accounting literature. When we take into consideration the quality of labour force the estimated capital share slightly decreases, but still remains high, in a range between 0.39 and 0.79. Our growth accounting results reveal that, on average, capital per worker accumulation is the main engine of growth in CEE, followed by the contribution of total factor productivity (TFP. However, when dividing by sub-periods, we found that the contribution of TFP cannot be neglected since during 1997-2004 it proved to be the main engine of growth in some CEE countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Lithuania and Romania. Some policy implications are offered based on our results.

  19. Elaborating European Pharmacopoeia monographs for biotherapeutic proteins using substances from a single source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, M; Wicks, S; Charton, E

    2016-01-01

    For more than twenty years, the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monographs for biotherapeutic proteins have been elaborated using the multisource approach (Procedure 1), which has led to robust quality standards for many of the first-generation biotherapeutics. In 2008, the Ph. Eur. opened up the way towards an alternative mechanism for the elaboration of monographs (Procedure 4-BIO pilot phase), which is applied to substances still under patent protection, based on a close collaboration with the Innovator company, to ensure a harmonised global standard and strengthen the quality of the upcoming products. This article describes the lessons learned during the P4-BIO pilot phase and addresses the current thinking on monograph elaboration in the field of biotherapeutics. Case studies are described to illustrate the standardisation challenges associated with the complexity of biotherapeutics and of analytical procedures, as well as the approaches that help ensure expectations are met when setting monograph specifications and allow for compatibility with the development of biosimilars. Emphasis is put on monograph flexibility, notably by including tests that measure process-dependent microheterogeneity (e.g. glycosylation) in the Production section of the monograph. The European Pharmacopoeia successfully concluded the pilot phase of the P4-BIO during its 156 th session on 22-23 November 2016.

  20. Sweden to host a new neutron source

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The first European neutron source, currently under development, should commence operations by the end of this decade. Its aim: to produce beams of neutrons that can penetrate into the heart of matter without damaging it and reveal its secrets.   An artist's impression of what the ESS should look like in 2019. At the southern end of Sweden, a town called Lund is preparing for the arrival of the world's most powerful neutron source: the European Spallation Source (ESS). Construction is scheduled to start at the beginning of next year, and the facility is expected to become operational by 2019, when it will produce its first neutron beams. “The ESS is the result of an idea that began 20 years ago!” underlines Mats Lindroos, in charge of the ESS Accelerator Division. “Today, 17 European countries support the project, including Sweden, Denmark and Norway, who together account for 50% of the construction funding.” The ESS, whose design is al...

  1. R&D-needs and opportunities to broaden the data base on materials and technology for liquid metal spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.S.

    1996-06-01

    Liquid metals have so far only been used to a very limited extent as spallation targets, notably at the ISOLDE-facility at CERN (Pb and La) to produce radioactive isotopes. Virtually no systematic studies have been carried out so far. The available data base is by no means sufficient to answer conclusively very important questions such as predicting reliably the service time of medium-to-high power target systems or determining precisely what technological measures are required and appropriate to maintain an optimum coolant quality, to mitigate the effects of pressure waves in short pulse sources and others. During the workshop several areas have been identified, where there exists an urgent need for improved knowledge and reliable data, and opportunities have been presented to acquire such knowledge and to generate such data. Opportunities to do such research and pertinent know-how, although scarce, are spread over institutions in several countries, and efforts to use these opportunities often require substantial resources both in man power and money. The workshop participants therefore unanimously supported the view that a coordinated and internationally concerted effort should be undertaken to make the best possible use of existing opportunities and available resources in order to develop the knowledge and technology necessary for the deployment and safe operation of target systems suitable for pulsed spallation neutron sources in the multi-megawatt range of beam power.

  2. Institutional challenges caused by the integration of renewable energy sources in the European electricity sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijlbergh, R.A.; de Vries, L.J.; Dijkema, G.P.J.; Herder, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of large amounts of variable renewable energy poses fundamental challenges to the operation and governance of the energy system. In this article we address the main institutional challenges that are caused by the integration of variable renewable energy sources like solar and wind

  3. Financial Regulations and the Diversification of Funding Sources in Higher Education Institutions: Selected European Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak-Kudla, Monika; Kudla, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of the financial regulations' impact on the share of private financing in higher education institutions (HEIs). The authors postulate the trade-off between the size and stability of public financing and the regulations fostering stability of HEIs' funds. If the public sources are insufficient then the regulations…

  4. The Christian Nobles at the Court of Great Khan, as Described in Mediaeval European Sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liščák, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2017), s. 276-289 ISSN 2308-152X Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : religion in mediaeval China * Yuan Dynasty China * Christianity in the Great Khan court * Franciscan missions * Christian Alan nobility * Western mediaeval sources Subject RIV: AB - History

  5. Replacement of soybean meal in compound feed by European protein sources : effects on carbon footprint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de H.C.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Blonk, H.; Tyszler, M.

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim was to investigate if soybean products from South American can be replaced by protein sources produced in Europe in a sustainable way. Based on data from literature, and based on the systematics of the FeedPrint programme, the nutritional value and the carbon footprint (CFP) of these

  6. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSES OF SPALLATION NEUTRONS GENERATED BY 100 MEV PROTONS AT THE KYOTO UNIVERSITY CRITICAL ASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEOL HO PYEON

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutron spectrum analyses of spallation neutrons are conducted in the accelerator-driven system (ADS facility at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA. High-energy protons (100 MeV obtained from the fixed field alternating gradient accelerator are injected onto a tungsten target, whereby the spallation neutrons are generated. For neutronic characteristics of spallation neutrons, the reaction rates and the continuous energy distribution of spallation neutrons are measured by the foil activation method and by an organic liquid scintillator, respectively. Numerical calculations are executed by MCNPX with JENDL/HE-2007 and ENDF/B-VI libraries to evaluate the reaction rates of activation foils (bismuth and indium set at the target and the continuous energy distribution of spallation neutrons set in front of the target. For the reaction rates by the foil activation method, the C/E values between the experiments and the calculations are found around a relative difference of 10%, except for some reactions. For continuous energy distribution by the organic liquid scintillator, the spallation neutrons are observed up to 45 MeV. From these results, the neutron spectrum information on the spallation neutrons generated at the target are attained successfully in injecting 100 MeV protons onto the tungsten target.

  7. Chemical contaminants entering the marine environment from sea-based sources: A review with a focus on European seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero, Victoria; Hanke, Georg

    2016-11-15

    Anthropogenic contaminants reach the marine environment mostly directly from land-based sources, but there are cases in which they are emitted or re-mobilized in the marine environment itself. This paper reviews the literature, with a predominant focus on the European environment, to compile a list of contaminants potentially released into the sea from sea-based sources and provide an overview of their consideration under existing EU regulatory frameworks. The resulting list contains 276 substances and for some of them (22 antifouling biocides, 32 aquaculture medicinal products and 34 warfare agents) concentrations and toxicity data are additionally provided. The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive Descriptor 8, together with the Water Framework Directive and the Regional Sea Conventions, provides the provisions against pollution of marine waters by chemical substances. This literature review should inform about the current state of knowledge regarding marine contaminant sources and provide support for setting-up of monitoring approaches, including hotspots screening. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Historical Y. pestis Genomes Reveal the European Black Death as the Source of Ancient and Modern Plague Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Maria A; Tukhbatova, Rezeda I; Feldman, Michal; Drath, Joanna; Kacki, Sacha; Beltrán de Heredia, Julia; Arnold, Susanne; Sitdikov, Airat G; Castex, Dominique; Wahl, Joachim; Gazimzyanov, Ilgizar R; Nurgaliev, Danis K; Herbig, Alexander; Bos, Kirsten I; Krause, Johannes

    2016-06-08

    Ancient DNA analysis has revealed an involvement of the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis in several historical pandemics, including the second plague pandemic (Europe, mid-14(th) century Black Death until the mid-18(th) century AD). Here we present reconstructed Y. pestis genomes from plague victims of the Black Death and two subsequent historical outbreaks spanning Europe and its vicinity, namely Barcelona, Spain (1300-1420 cal AD), Bolgar City, Russia (1362-1400 AD), and Ellwangen, Germany (1485-1627 cal AD). Our results provide support for (1) a single entry of Y. pestis in Europe during the Black Death, (2) a wave of plague that traveled toward Asia to later become the source population for contemporary worldwide epidemics, and (3) the presence of an historical European plague focus involved in post-Black Death outbreaks that is now likely extinct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Operation of the European FEL at ELETTRA Below 190 nm A Tunable Laser Source for VUV Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    De Ninno, G; Curbis, F; Danailov, M B; Diviacco, B; Marsi, M; Trovò, M

    2005-01-01

    Thanks to an intensive technological effort in the framework of the EEC Contract HPRI CT-2001-50025 (EUFELE), the European FEL at ELETTRA was able to break the previous record for the shortest wavelength of an FEL oscillator. Novel solutions were adopted for multilayer mirrors to allow FEL operation in the wavelength region between 160 and 190 nm, which is one of the main targets of the project. The characteristics of the FEL pulses measured at 176 nm (spectral profiles, high intensity, meV bandpass, MHz repetition rate) make it a competitive light source for spectroscopy, in particular for fluorescence studies in the VUV spectral range. Proof of principle experiments have been performed on different types of silica glasses, yielding information on the mechanisms of light absorption in this material.

  10. Guidelines of care for vascular lasers and intense pulse light sources from the European Society for Laser Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamič, M; Pavlović, M D; Troilius Rubin, A; Palmetun-Ekbäck, M; Boixeda, P

    2015-09-01

    Lasers and non-coherent intense pulse light sources (IPLS) are based on the principle of selective photothermolysis and can be used for the treatment of many vascular skin lesions. A variety of lasers has been developed for the treatment of congenital and acquired vascular lesions which incorporate these concepts into their design. Although laser and light sources are very popular due to their non-invasive nature, caution should be considered by practitioners and patients to avoid permanent side-effects. The aim of these guidelines is to give evidence-based recommendations for the use of lasers and IPLS in the treatment of vascular lesions. These guidelines were produced by a Consensus Panel made up of experts in the field of vascular laser surgery under the auspices of the European Society of Laser Dermatology. Recommendations on the use of vascular lasers and IPLS were made based on the quality of evidence for efficacy, safety, tolerability, cosmetic outcome, patient satisfaction/preference and, where appropriate, on the experts' opinion. The recommendations of these guidelines are graded according to the American College of Chest Physicians Task Force recommendations on Grading Strength of Recommendations and Quality of Evidence in Clinical Guidelines. Lasers and IPLS are very useful and sometimes the only available method to treat various vascular lesions. It is of a paramount importance that the type of laser or IPLS and their specific parameters are adapted to the indication but also that the treating physician is familiar with the device to be used. The crucial issue in treating vascular lesions is to recognize the immediate end-point after laser treatment. This is the single most important factor to ensure both the efficacy of the treatment and avoidance of serious side-effects. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Spallation RI beam facility and heavy element nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagame, Yuichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    An outline of the spallation RI (Radioactive Ion) beam facility is presented. Neutron-rich nuclides are produced in the reaction of high intensity (10-1000 {mu}A) protons with energy of 1.5 GeV and an uranium carbide target. Produced nuclides are ionized in an isotope separator on-line (ISOL) and accelerated by the JAERI tandem and the booster linac. Current progress and a future project on the development of the RI beam facility are given. Studies of transactinide elements, including the synthesis of superheavy elements, nuclear structure far from stability, and RI-probed material science are planned with RI beams. An outlook of the transactinide nuclear chemistry studies using neutron-rich RI beams is described. (author)

  12. European Food Safety Authority, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Helle; Borck Høg, Birgitte; Helwigh, Birgitte

    The European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control have analysed the information on the occurrence of zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks in 2009 submitted by 27 European Union Member States. In 2009, 108,614 salmonellosis cases in humans were reported and...

  13. MEGAPIE spallation target: Design, manufacturing and preliminary tests of the first pro-typical spallation target for future ADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latge, Ch.; Laffont, G. [CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Groeschel, F.; Thomsen, K.; Wagner, W. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Agostini, P. [Centro Ricerche ENEA - Brasimone, c.p. no.1 - 40035 Castiglione dei Pepoli (Italy); Dierckx, M. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, BR1 Building, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Fazio, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz, 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kirchner, T. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 4 rue Alfred Kastler, La Chantrerie - BP 20722, 44307 Nantes cedex (France); Kurata, Y. [JAERI, Meijiyasuda-seimei Kahiwa Fames, 14-1 Suehiro-cho, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba-ken 277-0842 (Japan); Song, T. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, PO Box 7, Daedok Science Town, Daejun 302-353 (Korea, Republic of); Woloshun, K. [DOE-LANL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) techniques could contribute to reduce the radioactive inventory and its associated radiotoxicity. Sub-critical Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are potential candidates as dedicated transmutation systems, and thus their development is a relevant R and D topic in Europe. Following a first phase focused on the understanding of the basic principles of ADS (e.g. the programme MUSE), the R and D has been streamlined and focused on practical demonstration key issues. These demonstrations cover high intensity proton accelerators (beam current in the range 1 to 20 mA), spallation targets of high power and their effective coupling with a subcritical core. Presently there is general consensus that up to 1 MW of beam power solid targets are feasible from a heat removal point of view. For higher power levels liquid metal targets are the option of choice because of their higher heat removal capability, higher spallation material density in the volume and lower specific radioactivity, Therefore, a key experiment in the ADS road map, the Megawatt Pilot Experiment (MEGAPIE) (1 MW) was initiated in 1999 in order to design and build a liquid lead-bismuth spallation target, then to operate it into the Swiss spallation neutron facility SINQ at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). It has to be equipped to provide the largest possible amount of scientific and technical information without jeopardizing its safe operation. The minimum design service life has been fixed at 1 year (6000 mAh). Whereas the interest of the partner institutes is driven by the development needs of ADS, PSI interest lies also in the potential use of a LM target as a SINQ standard target providing a higher neutron flux than the current solid targets. Calculations of the radial distribution of the undisturbed thermal neutron flux for the LBE target in comparison to the former Zircaloy and current steel-clad solid lead target were done with different nuclear codes; nevertheless

  14. Optimization of $^{178m2}$/Hf isomer production in spallation reactions at projectile energies up to 100 MeV using STAPRE and ALICE code simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kirischuk, V I; Khomenkov, V P; Strilchuk, N V; Zheltonozhskij, V A

    2004-01-01

    /sup 178m2/Hf isomer production in different spallation reactions with protons, alpha particles and neutrons at projectile energies up to 100 MeV has been analyzed using both STAPRE and ALICE code simulations. The STAPRE code was used to calculate the isomeric ratios, while the ALICE code was used to simulate the excitation functions of the respective ground states. A number of spallation reactions have been compared taking into account not only /sup 178m2 /Hf isomer productivity but also, first, the isomeric ratios calculated by the STAPRE code; second, the accumulation of the most undesirable Hf isotopes and isomers, such as /sup 172/Hf, /sup 175 /Hf, and /sup 179m/Hf; and, third, the production of other admixtures and by-products that could degrade the quality of the produced /sup 178m2/Hf isomer sources, including all stable Hf isotopes as well. Possibilities and ways of optimizing /sup 178m2/Hf isomer production in spallation reactions at projectile energies up to 100 MeV are discussed. This can be consi...

  15. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS was deployed to investigate the size-resolved chemical composition of single particles at an urban background site in Paris, France, as part of the MEGAPOLI winter campaign in January/February 2010. ATOFMS particle counts were scaled to match coincident Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS data in order to generate hourly size-resolved mass concentrations for the single particle classes observed. The total scaled ATOFMS particle mass concentration in the size range 150–1067 nm was found to agree very well with the sum of concurrent High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP mass concentration measurements of organic carbon (OC, inorganic ions and black carbon (BC (R2 = 0.91. Clustering analysis of the ATOFMS single particle mass spectra allowed the separation of elemental carbon (EC particles into four classes: (i EC attributed to biomass burning (ECbiomass, (ii EC attributed to traffic (ECtraffic, (iii EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium sulfate (ECOCSOx, and (iv EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium nitrate (ECOCNOx. Average hourly mass concentrations for EC-containing particles detected by the ATOFMS were found to agree reasonably well with semi-continuous quantitative thermal/optical EC and optical BC measurements (r2 = 0.61 and 0.65–0.68 respectively, n = 552. The EC particle mass assigned to fossil fuel and biomass burning sources also agreed reasonably well with BC mass fractions assigned to the same sources using seven-wavelength aethalometer data (r2 = 0.60 and 0.48, respectively, n = 568. Agreement between the ATOFMS and other instrumentation improved noticeably when a period influenced by significantly aged, internally mixed EC particles was removed from the intercomparison. 88% and 12% of EC particle

  16. Detailed characterization of electron sources yielding first demonstration of European X-ray Free-Electron Laser beam quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Stephan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The photoinjector test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ, was built to develop and optimize photoelectron sources for superconducting linacs for high-brilliance, short-wavelength free-electron laser (FEL applications like the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH and the European x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL. In this paper, the detailed characterization of two laser-driven rf guns with different operating conditions is described. One experimental optimization of the beam parameters was performed at an accelerating gradient of about 43  MV/m at the photocathode and the other at about 60  MV/m. In both cases, electron beams with very high phase-space density have been demonstrated at a bunch charge of 1 nC and are compared with corresponding simulations. The rf gun optimized for the lower gradient has surpassed all the FLASH requirements on beam quality and rf parameters (gradient, rf pulse length, repetition rate and serves as a spare gun for this facility. The rf gun studied with increased accelerating gradient at the cathode produced beams with even higher brightness, yielding the first demonstration of the beam quality required for driving the European XFEL: The geometric mean of the normalized projected rms emittance in the two transverse directions was measured to be 1.26±0.13  mm mrad for a 1-nC electron bunch. When a 10% charge cut is applied excluding electrons from those phase-space regions where the measured phase-space density is below a certain level and which are not expected to contribute to the lasing process, the normalized projected rms emittance is about 0.9 mm mrad.

  17. EFSA and ECDC (European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2013 in 32 European countries (28 Member States and four non-Member States). Campylobacter iosis was the most comm...... chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma , rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile Virus and tularaemia....

  18. Intake of total, animal and plant proteins, and their food sources in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halkjaer, J.; Olsen, A.; Bjerregaard, L. J.; Deharveng, G.; Tjonneland, A.; Welch, A. A.; Crowe, F. L.; Wirfalt, E.; Hellstrom, V.; Niravong, M.; Touvier, M.; Linseisen, J.; Steffen, A.; Ocke, M. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Chirlaque, M. D.; Larranaga, N.; Ferrari, P.; Contiero, P.; Frasca, G.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Misirli, G.; Kosti, M.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.; Bingham, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a

  19. Plans for an Ultra Cold Neutron source at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seestrom, S.J.; Bowles, T.J.; Hill, R.; Greene, G.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Ultra Cold Neutrons (UCN) can be produced at spallation sources using a variety of techniques. To date the technique used has been to Bragg scatter and Doppler shift cold neutrons into UCN from a moving crystal. This is particularly applicable to short-pulse spallation sources. We are presently constructing a UCN source at LANSCE using method. In addition, large gains in UCN density should be possible using cryogenic UCN sources. Research is under way at Gatchina to demonstrate technical feasibility of be a frozen deuterium source. If successful, a source of this type could be implemented at future spallation source, such as the long pulse source being planned at Los Alamos, with a UCN density that may be two orders of magnitude higher than that presently available at reactors. (author)

  20. European isotopic signatures for lead in atmospheric aerosols. A source apportionment based upon 206Pb/207Pb ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flament, Pascal; Deboudt, Karine [Laboratoire de Biogeochimie et Environnement du Littoral (LABEL), Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, CNRS/INSU 8013 ' ELICO' , 32 Avenue Foch, F-62930 Wimereux (France); Bertho, Marie-Laure; Puskaric, Emile [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire en Sciences de l' Environnement (LISE), Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, CNRS/INSU 8013 ' ELICO' , 32 Avenue Foch, F-62930 Wimereux (France); Veron, Alain [Universite d' Aix-Marseille III, Geosciences de l' Environnement (UMR CNRS 6536) CEREGE, BP 80, F-13545 Cedex 4 Aix en Provence (France)

    2002-09-16

    To investigate the capability of the lead isotope signature technique to support a source apportionment study at a Continental scale, atmospheric particulate matter was collected at Cap Gris-Nez (Eastern Channel, northern France), over one year (1995-1996). Four days retrospective trajectories of air masses were available during each sampling experiment. Twenty-eight samples, for which the origin of aerosols was unambiguously determined, were selected for isotopic measurements. Considering the Enrichment Factors, EF{sub Crust} of lead and its size distribution, we show that lead is mostly from anthropogenic origin and mainly associated with [0.4sources influence the lead abundance in aerosols is exhibited by considering both the lead concentration and the origin of air masses. Lead concentration is higher by a factor of approximately seven, when air masses are derived from Continental Europe, by comparison with marine air masses. Taking into account these concentrations and the vertical movements of air masses, we compare the different isotopic compositions using a statistical non-parametric test (Kolmogorov-Smirnov). We produce evidence that, for most of the cases, air masses originating from Continental Europe exhibit a more radiogenic composition (1.134<{sup 206}Pb/207Pb<1.172) than air masses coming from the United Kingdom (1.106<{sup 206}Pb/207Pb<1.124). Generally, lead isotopic compositions in aerosols are clearly distinct from the gasoline signatures in European countries, strongly suggesting that automotive lead is no longer the major component of this metal in the air. Gasoline and industrial isotopic signatures could explain the origin of lead in our aerosol samples. A source apportionment based upon 206Pb/207Pb ratios, suggests that the difference between British (206Pb/207Pb=1.122{+-}0.038) and Continental (206Pb/207Pb=1.155{+-}0.022) signatures may be largely explained by

  1. Preparation and testing of corrosion and spallation-resistant coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, John P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Cavalli, Matthew N. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2016-06-30

    its standard oxidation, spallation, and corrosion testing, which was scheduled for completion in the spring of 2016. However, because of commercial demands, the tests were not completed by the time of this report except some initial spallation tests at 1150°C. In those tests, several of the APMT plates separated from the CM247LC, likely because of the remaining aluminum oxide scale on the surface of the CM247LC. This implies that surface preparation may need to include machining to remove the oxide scale before bonding rather than just sandblasting. In previous tensile testing at 950°C, the breaks in the tensile samples always occurred in the APMT and not at the joints. Gasifier sampling was completed to determine what types of trace contaminants may occur in cleaned and combusted syngas and that could lead to corrosion or deposition in turbines firing coal syngas. The sampling was done from a pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier and a pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. The particles captured on a filter from syngas were typically 0.2 to 0.5 μm in diameter, whereas those captured from the combusted syngas were slightly larger and more spherical. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy done at Oak Ridge National Laboratory showed that the particles do not contain any metals and have an atomic composition almost identical to that of the polycarbonate filter. This indicates that the particles are primarily soot-based and not formed from volatilization of metals in the gasifiers.

  2. Experimental and numerical investigation of liquid-metal free-surface flows in spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batta, A., E-mail: batta@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany Hermann-von-Helmholtz-PLATZ 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Class, A.G.; Litfin, K.; Wetzel, Th. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany Hermann-von-Helmholtz-PLATZ 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Moreau, V.; Massidda, L. [CRS4 Centre for Advanced Studies, Research and Development in Sardinia, Polaris, Edificio 1, 09010 Pula, CA (Italy); Thomas, S.; Lakehal, D. [ASCOMP GmbH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Angeli, D.; Losi, G. [DIEF – Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy); Mooney, K.G. [University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Amherst (United States); Van Tichelen, K. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Experimental study of free surface for lead bismuth eutectic target. • Numerical investigation of free surface of a liquid metal target. • Advanced free surface modelling. - Abstract: Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are extensively investigated for the transmutation of high-level nuclear waste within many worldwide research programs. The first advanced design of an ADS system is currently developed in SCK• CEN, Mol, Belgium: the Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications (MYRRHA). Many European research programs support the design of MYRRHA. In the framework of the Euratom project ‘Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative nuclear Systems (THINS)’ a liquid-metal free-surface experiment is performed at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory (KALLA) of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The experiment investigates a full-scale model of the concentric free-surface spallation target of MYRRHA using Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) as coolant. In parallel, numerical free surface models are developed and tested which are reviewed in the article. A volume-of-fluid method, a moving mesh model, a free surface model combining the Level-Set method with Large-Eddy Simulation model and a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics approach are investigated. Verification of the tested models is based on the experimental results obtained within the THINS project and on previous water experiments performed at the University Catholic de Louvain (UCL) within the Euratom project ‘EUROpean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS)’. The design of the target enables a high fluid velocity and a stable surface at the beam entry. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of both experimental and numerical results obtained for free surface target characterization. Without entering in technical details, the status, the major achievements and lessons for the future with respect to

  3. Observation of fs-laser spallative ablation using soft X-ray laser probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikino, Masaharu; Hasegawa, Noboru; Tomita, Takuro; Minami, Yasuo; Eyama, Takashi; Kakimoto, Naoya; Izutsu, Rui; Baba, Motoyoshi; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Suemoto, Tohru

    2017-03-01

    The initial stages of femtosecond laser ablation of gold were observed by single-shot soft X-ray laser interferometer and reflectometer. The ablation front surface and the spallation shell dome structure were observed from the results of the soft X-ray interferogram, reflective image, and shadowgraph. The formation and evolution of soft X-ray Newton's rings (NRs) were found by reflective imaging at the early stages of the ablation dynamics. The soft X-ray NRs are caused by the interference between the bulk ablated surface and nanometer-scale thin spallation layer. The spallation layer was kept at the late timing of the ablation dynamics, and the height of that reached over 100 μm. The temporal evolution of the bulk ablated surface was observed in the ablation dynamics. From these results, we have succeeded in obtaining the temporal evolution of the ablation front exfoliated from the gold surface.

  4. Oxidation Kinetics and Spallation Model of Oxide Scale during Cooling Process of Low Carbon Microalloyed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guangming; Li, Zhifeng; Tang, Junjian; Sun, Xianzhen; Liu, Zhenyu

    2017-09-01

    The spallation behavior of oxide scale on the surface of low carbon microalloyed steel (510L) is investigated during the laminar cooling of hot rolling strip. Surface, cross-section morphology and phase composition of oxide scale in different laminar cooling rate are observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Moreover, a spallation mathematic model is established based on empirical formula to predict the critical thickness of oxide scale and the test of high temperature oxidation kinetics at different temperatures between 500 °C to 900 °C provides oxidation rate constant for the model calculation. The results of heat-treatment test and model calculation reveal that laminar cooling rate plays an important role in controlling the thickness of oxide scale and suppressing spallation behavior.

  5. An empirical formula for isotopic yield in Fe + p spallation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Xu, Jing-Li

    2017-12-01

    An empirical formula is proposed for predicting the cross sections of fragments in a spallation reaction. The cross sections of fragments measured in the 300, 500, 750, 1000 and 1500 MeV u‑1 56Fe + p spallation reactions are analysed. The mass and incident energy dependence of the isotopic yield have been considered in the empirical formula. The cross sections of fragments predicted by the proposed empirical formula and the spallation residue cross section (spacs) parameterizations have been compared to the experimental results, showing that both of them can predict the results well. The cross sections of fragments in the 1000 MeV u‑1 136Xe + p reactions can also be predicted by the proposed formula, while the spacs parameterizations significantly underestimate the measured results. The empirical formula is useful for predicting the yield of radioactive nuclei produced in proton therapy.

  6. Using surveillance and monitoring data of different origins in a Salmonella source attribution model: a European Union example with challenges and proposed solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Knegt, L V; Pires, S M; Hald, T

    2015-04-01

    Microbial subtyping approaches are commonly used for source attribution of human salmonellosis. Such methods require data on Salmonella in animals and humans, outbreaks, infection abroad and amounts of food available for consumption. A source attribution model was applied to 24 European countries, requiring special data management to produce a standardized dataset. Salmonellosis data on animals and humans were obtained from datasets provided by the European Food Safety Authority. The amount of food available for consumption was calculated based on production and trade data. Limitations included different types of underreporting, non-participation in prevalence studies, and non-availability of trade data. Cases without travel information were assumed to be domestic; non-subtyped human or animal records were re-identified according to proportions observed in reference datasets; missing trade information was estimated based on previous years. The resulting dataset included data on 24 serovars in humans, broilers, laying hens, pigs and turkeys in 24 countries.

  7. Detection of the multiple spallation parameters and the internal structure of a particle cloud during shock-wave loading of a metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, A. V., E-mail: fedorovsarov@mail.ru; Mikhailov, A. L.; Finyushin, S. A.; Kalashnikov, D. A.; Chudakov, E. A.; Butusov, E. I.; Gnutov, I. S. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    The results of experiments on studying spallation and the ejection of particles from the surfaces of copper and lead samples are presented. A laser interferometry method is used to detect the particle cloud velocity and the multiple spallation parameters. Angular detectors are used to detect the depth profile of the particle cloud velocity dispersion and the structure of metal spallation.

  8. Lead contamination of small cetaceans in European waters – The use of stable isotopes for identifying the sources of lead exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Caurant, F; Aubail, A; Lahaye, V; Van Canneyt, O.; Rogan, E; López, A; Addink, M.; Churlaud, C; Robert, M.; Bustamante, Paco

    2006-01-01

    Lead concentrations and isotopic composition have been measured in bone and teeth of small cetaceans belonging to three species (Delphinus delphis, Phocoena phocoena and Stenella coeruleoalba), to evaluate the toxicological risk and to determine sources of lead in the European waters. Lead concentrations, far lower than threshold value inducing toxic effects in human, were higher in teeth than in bones, but highly correlated between the two tissues (r = 0.92, p < 0.001). Large variations of P...

  9. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2014. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Helle; Helwigh, Birgitte; Sørensen, Anna Irene Vedel

    continuing to be high in broiler meat. The number of salmonellosis cases in humans decreased by 4.7 % compared with 2011. A statistically significant decreasing trend in the European Union was observed over the period 2008‑2012. In total, 91,034 confirmed human cases were reported in 2012. It is assumed...... compared with 2011, and 1,642 confirmed human cases were reported in 2012. A statistically significant increasing trend in the European Union was observed over the period 2008‑2012, though only slowly increasing, along with a seasonal pattern. As in previous years, a high fatality rate (17......, indicating the wide distribution of the parasite among different animal and wildlife species. One domestically acquired human case and one imported human case of rabies were reported in the European Union in 2012. The general decreasing trend in the total number of rabies cases in animals observed...

  10. The spallation in reverse kinematics: what for a coincidence measurement?; La spallation en cinematique inverse: pourquoi faire une mesure en coincidence?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducret, J.E

    2006-07-15

    The Spaladin installation has been designed to study spallation reactions in reverse kinematics. Furthermore, the heavy and light fragments are detected by coincidence which allows us to get an instantaneous picture of the reaction at a level of accuracy better than that obtained through inclusive measurement. The first part is dedicated to the theoretical description of the different mechanisms involved in the spallation reactions. In the second part we describe the Spaladin installation and report some results on the reaction: Fe{sup 56} + p at an energy of 1 GeV/nucleon. In the third part we expose the performance of the installation through its simulation with the Geant-IV model. We present a study about the sensitivity of the Spaladin installation to theoretical predictions. The fourth part is dedicated to the future experiments that will be performed with the Spaladin installation. (A.C.)

  11. Preparation and Testing of Corrosion and Spallation-Resistant Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, John

    2015-11-01

    with the Rene 80. One-inch-diameter buttons were machined from each of the bonded blocks and sent to Siemens for standard oxidation, spallation, and corrosion testing, which should be complete in the spring of 2016.

  12. Dissertation: Precompound Emission of Energetic Light Fragments in Spallation Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerby, Leslie Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-04

    Emission of light fragments (LF) from nuclear reactions is an open question. Different reaction mechanisms contribute to their production; the relative roles of each, and how they change with incident energy, mass number of the target, and the type and emission energy of the fragments is not completely understood. None of the available models are able to accurately predict emission of LF from arbitrary reactions. However, the ability to describe production of LF (especially at energies ≳ 30 MeV) from many reactions is important for different applications, such as cosmic-ray-induced Single Event Upsets (SEUs), radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and heavy-ion beams, to name just a few. The Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) version 03.03 and the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM) version 03.03 event generators in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code version 6 (MCNP6) describe quite well the spectra of fragments with sizes up to ⁴He across a broad range of target masses and incident energies (up to ~ 5 GeV for CEM and up to ~ 1 TeV/A for LAQGSM). However, they do not predict the high energy tails of LF spectra heavier than ⁴He well. Most LF with energies above several tens of MeV are emitted during the precompound stage of a reaction. The current versions of the CEM and LAQGSM event generators do not account for precompound emission of LF larger than ⁴He. The aim of our work is to extend the precompound model in them to include such processes, leading to an increase of predictive power of LF-production in MCNP6. This entails upgrading the Modified Exciton Model currently used at the preequilibrium stage in CEM and LAQGSM. It also includes expansion and examination of the coalescence and Fermi break-up models used in the precompound stages of spallation reactions within CEM and LAQGSM. Extending our models to include emission of fragments heavier than ⁴He at the precompound stage has indeed provided results that have much

  13. Safety analysis and lay-out aspects of shieldings against particle radiation at the example of spallation facilities in the megawatt range; Sicherheitstechnische Analyse und Auslegungsaspekte von Abschirmungen gegen Teilchenstrahlung am Beispiel von Spallationsanlagen im Megawatt Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslik, R.

    2006-08-15

    This paper discusses the shielding of particle radiation from high current accelerators, spallation neutron sources and so called ADS-facilities (Accelerator Driven Systems). ADS-facilities are expected to gain importance in the future for transmutation of long-lived isotopes from fission reactors as well as for energy production. In this paper physical properties of the radiation as well as safety relevant requirements and corresponding shielding concepts are discussed. New concepts for the layout and design of such shielding are presented. Focal point of this work will be the fundamental difference between conventional fission reactor shielding and the safety relevant issues of shielding from high-energy radiation. Key point of this paper is the safety assessment of shielding issues of high current accelerators, spallation targets and ADS-blanket systems as well as neutron scattering instruments at spallation neutron sources. Safety relevant shielding requirements are presented and discussed. For the layout and design of the shielding for spallation sources computer base calculations methods are used. A discussion and comparison of the most important methods like semi-empirical, deterministic and stochastic codes are presented. Another key point within the presented paper is the discussion of shielding materials and their shielding efficiency concerning different types of radiation. The use of recycling material, as a cost efficient solution, is discussed. Based on the conducted analysis, flowcharts for a systematic layout and design of adequate shielding for targets and accelerators have been developed and are discussed in this paper. By use of these flowcharts layout and engineering design of future ADS-facilities can be performed. (orig.)

  14. Thermal hydraulic studies of spallation target for one-way coupled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pp. 355–363. Thermal hydraulic studies of spallation target for one-way coupled Indian accelerator driven systems with low energy proton beam. V MANTHA1, A K MOHANTY2 and P SATYAMURTHY1. 1Laser and Plasma Technology Division; 2Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic. Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, ...

  15. Including non-dietary sources into an exposure assessment of the European Food Safety Authority: The challenge of multi-sector chemicals such as Bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Goetz, N; Pirow, R; Hart, A; Bradley, E; Poças, F; Arcella, D; Lillegard, I T L; Simoneau, C; van Engelen, J; Husoy, T; Theobald, A; Leclercq, C

    2017-04-01

    In the most recent risk assessment for Bisphenol A for the first time a multi-route aggregate exposure assessment was conducted by the European Food Safety Authority. This assessment includes exposure via dietary sources, and also contributions of the most important non-dietary sources. Both average and high aggregate exposure were calculated by source-to-dose modeling (forward calculation) for different age groups and compared with estimates based on urinary biomonitoring data (backward calculation). The aggregate exposure estimates obtained by forward and backward modeling are in the same order of magnitude, with forward modeling yielding higher estimates associated with larger uncertainty. Yet, only forward modeling can indicate the relative contribution of different sources. Dietary exposure, especially via canned food, appears to be the most important exposure source and, based on the central aggregate exposure estimates, contributes around 90% to internal exposure to total (conjugated plus unconjugated) BPA. Dermal exposure via thermal paper and to a lesser extent via cosmetic products may contribute around 10% for some age groups. The uncertainty around these estimates is considerable, but since after dermal absorption a first-pass metabolism of BPA by conjugation is lacking, dermal sources may be of equal or even higher toxicological relevance than dietary sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. BEER - The Beamline for European Materials Engineering Research at the ESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, J.; Rouijaa, M.; Šaroun, J.; Kampmann, R.; Staron, P.; Nowak, G.; Pilch, J.; Beran, P.; Šittner, P.; Strunz, P.; Brokmeier, H.-G.; Ryukhtin, V.; Kadeřávek, L.; Strobl, M.; Müller, M.; Lukáš, P.; Schreyer, A.

    2016-09-01

    The Beamline for European Materials Engineering Research (BEER) will be built at the European Spallation Source (ESS). The diffractometer utilizes the high brilliance of the long-pulse neutron source and offers high instrument flexibility. It includes a novel chopper technique that extracts several short pulses out of the long pulse, leading to substantial intensity gain of up to an order of magnitude compared to pulse shaping methods for materials with high crystal symmetry. This intensity gain is achieved without compromising resolution. Materials of lower crystal symmetry or multi-phase materials will be investigated by additional pulse shaping methods. The different chopper set-ups and advanced beam extracting techniques offer an extremely broad intensity/resolution range. Furthermore, BEER offers an option of simultaneous SANS or imaging measurements without compromising diffraction investigations. This flexibility opens up new possibilities for in-situ experiments studying materials processing and performance under operation conditions. To fulfil this task, advanced sample environments, dedicated to thermo-mechanical processing, are foreseen.

  17. Study of particle transport in a high power spallation target for an accelerator-driven transmutation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, Nikhil Vittal

    2013-01-31

    AGATE is a project envisaged to demonstrate the feasibility of transmutation in a gas (helium) cooled accelerator-driven system using solid spallation target. Development of the spallation target module and assessing its safety aspects are studied in this work. According to the AGATE concept parameters, 600 MeV protons are delivered on to the segmented tungsten spallation target. The Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4 has been used in the simulation of particle transport. Binary cascade is used to simulate intra-nuclear cascades, along with the G4NDL neutron data library for low energy neutrons (<20 MeV).

  18. Spallation Neutron Spectrum on a Massive Lead/Paraffin Target Irradiated with 1 GeV Protons

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, J; Barashenkov, V S; Brandt, R; Golovatiouk, V M; Kalinnikov, V G; Katovsky, K; Krivopustov, M I; Kumar, V; Kumawat, H; Odoj, R; Pronskikh, V S; Solnyshkin, A A; Stegailov, V I; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V M; Westmeier, W

    2004-01-01

    The spectra of gamma-ray emitted by decaying residual nuclei, produced by spallation neutrons with (n, xn), (n,xnyp), (n,p), (n,gamma) reactions in activation threshold detectors - namely, ^{209}Bi, ^{197}Au, ^{59}Co, ^{115}In, ^{232}Th, were measured in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (LNP), JINR, Dubna, Russia. Spallation neutrons were generated by bombarding a 20 cm long cylindrical lead target, 8 cm in diameter, surrounded by a 6 cm thick layer of paraffin moderator, with a 1 GeV proton beam from the Nuclotron accelerator. Reaction rates and spallation neutron spectrum were measured and compared with CASCADE code calculations.

  19. Mild test anxiety influences neurocognitive performance among African Americans and European Americans: Identifying interfering and facilitating sources

    OpenAIRE

    Thames, AD; Panos, SE; Arentoft, A; Byrd, DA; Hinkin, CH; Arbid, N

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 American Psychological Association. The current study examined ethnic/racial differences in test-related anxiety and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in a community sample of African American (n = 40) and European American (n = 36) adults. The authors hypothesized the following: (a) Test-anxiety related to negative performance evaluation would be associated with lower neurocognitive performance, whereas anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation would be associated with hig...

  20. A survey of sources of incoherent artificial optical radiation in a hospital environment in accordance with European Directive 2006/25/EC: evaluation of the related exposure risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavatorta, Claudia; Lualdi, Manuela; Meroni, Silvia; Polita, Giovanni; Bolchi, Mauro; Pignoli, Emanuele

    2016-03-01

    The evaluation of incoherent artificial optical radiation (AOR) exposure in hospital environments is a complex task due to the variety of sources available. This study has been designed to provide a proposal for the precautionary assessment of the related risk. This survey suggested that, in our Institution, at least three kinds of AOR sources required specific investigations: ambient lighting, theatre operating lighting and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) sources. For each kind of evaluated sources a specific measurement approach was developed. All irradiance measurements were made using a commercial spectroradiometer. The obtained results were compared with the appropriate exposure limit values (ELVs) defined in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines and adopted by the European Directive 2006/25/EC. The risk related to the evaluated AOR exposure was finally assessed according to our risk matrix. According to our results, the emission of ambient lighting in the actual exposure conditions was always in accordance with the ELVs and the related risk was classifiable as not relevant. The risk related to the exposure to theatre operating lighting resulted not negligible, especially when two or more sources were used with focal spots overlapping on reflective objects. UVR sources emission may represent a health hazard depending, in particular, on the set up of the device containing the source. In case of laminar flow cabinets and closed transilluminators, if the UVR source is well contained within an enclosure with interlock, it presents no risk of exposure. Otherwise, the emission arising from UVR lamps, open transilluminators or sources not provided with interlock, may represent a risk classifiable as high even in the actual working conditions. The personal protective equipment used by workers were also assessed and their suitability was discussed.

  1. International workshop on cold neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, G.J.; West, C.D. (comps.) (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The first meeting devoted to cold neutron sources was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on March 5--8, 1990. Cosponsored by Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, the meeting was organized as an International Workshop on Cold Neutron Sources and brought together experts in the field of cold-neutron-source design for reactors and spallation sources. Eighty-four people from seven countries attended. Because the meeting was the first of its kind in over forty years, much time was spent acquainting participants with past and planned activities at reactor and spallation facilities worldwide. As a result, the meeting had more of a conference flavor than one of a workshop. The general topics covered at the workshop included: Criteria for cold source design; neutronic predictions and performance; energy deposition and removal; engineering design, fabrication, and operation; material properties; radiation damage; instrumentation; safety; existing cold sources; and future cold sources.

  2. The general principles of European Union law - a source of inspiration for the development of a modern administrative law in the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas SCHMITZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To attain the quality of public administration that Moldova needs in the 21st century, the upcoming modernization of public administration must include the development of a modern, sophisticated administrative law. The general principles of European Union law, unwritten principles reflecting the common European legal heritage that have been worked out and elaborated in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice, present a valuable source of inspiration to meet this challenge. Most principles serve to protect human rights or to implement the rule of law in the Union. The latter group includes the principles of legality, legal certainty and clarity, the protection of legitimate expectations and a couple of specific principles for a fair administrative procedure (in particular the right to be heard, the right of access to one’s file and the obligation of the authority to state reasons. Of particular interest are those principles that focus on ensuring the effectiveness, the „effet utile” of the law - a central concern in a system based on the rule of law.

  3. Estimating the costs of work-related accidents and ill-health: An analysis of European data sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, S. van den; Zwaan, L. van der; Dam, L. van; Oude Hengel, K.M.; Eekhout, I.; Emmerik, M.L. van; Oldenburg, C.; Brück, C.; Janowski, P.; Wilhelm, C.

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of national and international data sources on the costs of work-related injuries, illnesses and deaths. The aim was to evaluate the quality and comparability of different sources as a first step towards estimating the costs of accidents and ill-health at

  4. Spallation recoil II: Xenon evidence for young SiC grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, U.; Altmaier, M.; Herpers, U.; Kuhnhenn, J.; Merchel, S.; Michel, R.; Mohapatra, R. K.

    2005-11-01

    We have determined the recoil range of spallation xenon produced by irradiation of Ba glass targets with ˜1190 and ˜268 MeV protons, using a catcher technique, where spallation products are measured in target and catcher foils. The inferred range for 126Xe produced in silicon carbide is ˜0.19 μm, which implies retention of ˜70% for 126Xe produced in "typical" presolar silicon carbide grains of 1 μm size. Recoil loss of spallation xenon poses a significantly smaller problem than loss of the spallation neon from SiC grains. Ranges differ for the various Xe isotopes and scale approximately linearly as function of the mass difference between the target element, Ba, and the product. As a consequence, SiC grains of various sizes will have differences in spallation Xe composition. In an additional experiment at ˜66 MeV, where the recoil ranges of 22Na and 127Xe produced on Ba glass were determined using γ-spectrometry, we found no evidence for recoil ranges being systematically different at this lower energy. We have used the new data to put constraints on the possible presolar age of the SiC grains analyzed for Xe by Lewis et al. (1994). Uncertainties in the composition of the approximately normal Xe component in SiC (Xe-N) constitute the most serious problem in determining an age, surpassing remaining uncertainties in Xe retention and production rate. A possible interpretation is that spallation contributions are negligible and that trapped 124Xe/126Xe is ˜5% lower in Xe-N than in Q-Xe. But also for other reasonable assumptions for the 124Xe/126Xe ratio in Xe-N (e.g., as in Q-Xe), inferred exposure ages are considerably shorter than theoretically expected lifetimes for interstellar grains. A short presolar age is in line with observations by others (appearance, grain size distribution) that indicate little processing in the interstellar medium (ISM) of surviving (crystalline) SiC. This may be due to amorphization of SiC in the ISM on a much shorter time scale

  5. Többnyelvű névtani lexikográfia: a Dictionary of Medieval Names from European Sources elnevezésű nemzetközi szótári projekt [Cross-Linguistic Onomastic Lexicography: the Dictionary of Medieval Names from European Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uckelman, Sara L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the international project entitled Dictionary of Medieval Names from European Sources, initiated by European researchers. The authors enumerate the reasons for and the aims of the establishment of this online onomasticon; its contents, structure and technical background are revealed; the editorial guidelines are also presented (with special emphasis on explaining the method of crowd-sourcing, documentation and attribution. The paper underlines the significance of the dictionary, as it can be used in different fields (by linguists, sociologists, historians and the general public; then the authors focus on two basic technical issues of editing: the determination of the head forms and the conditions under which a name is considered a variant of another name. The paper accounts for the features of DMNES that are different from those of Hungarian onomasticons; explains the relevance of the dictionary in Hungarian Onomastics; and finally introduces the blog connected to the project.

  6. Studies of short-lived products of spallation fission reactions at TRIUMF

    CERN Document Server

    Bischoff, G; D'Auria, J M; Dautet, H; Lee, J K P; Pate, B D; Wiesehahn, W

    1976-01-01

    The gas-jet recoil transport technique has been used to transport products from spallation and fission reactions from a target chamber to a shielded location for nuclear spectroscopic studies. These involve X- beta - gamma coincidence measurements and (shortly) time- of-flight mass spectroscopy. It has been deduced that the proton beam at present intensities has no appreciable effect on the ability of ethylene and other cluster-producing gases to transport radioactivity. Preliminary results will be presented for shortlived fission products from uranium, and for spallation products of iodine and argon. The latter were obtained from the bombardment of gas and aerosol targets mixed with the transporting gas in the target chamber, which appears to be a generally useful technique.

  7. Negative Pressures and Spallation in Water Drops Subjected to Nanosecond Shock Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Claudiu A; Willmott, Philip R; Stone, Howard A; Koglin, Jason E; Liang, Mengning; Aquila, Andrew L; Robinson, Joseph S; Gumerlock, Karl L; Blaj, Gabriel; Sierra, Raymond G; Boutet, Sébastien; Guillet, Serge A H; Curtis, Robin H; Vetter, Sharon L; Loos, Henrik; Turner, James L; Decker, Franz-Josef

    2016-06-02

    Most experimental studies of cavitation in liquid water at negative pressures reported cavitation at tensions significantly smaller than those expected for homogeneous nucleation, suggesting that achievable tensions are limited by heterogeneous cavitation. We generated tension pulses with nanosecond rise times in water by reflecting cylindrical shock waves, produced by X-ray laser pulses, at the internal surface of drops of water. Depending on the X-ray pulse energy, a range of cavitation phenomena occurred, including the rupture and detachment, or spallation, of thin liquid layers at the surface of the drop. When spallation occurred, we evaluated that negative pressures below -100 MPa were reached in the drops. We model the negative pressures from shock reflection experiments using a nucleation-and-growth model that explains how rapid decompression could outrun heterogeneous cavitation in water, and enable the study of stretched water close to homogeneous cavitation pressures.

  8. Process technology and effects of spallation products: Circuit components, maintenance, and handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, B.; Haines, S.J.; Dressler, R.; McManamy, T.

    1996-06-01

    Working Session D included an assessment of the status of the technology and components required to: (1) remove impurities from the liquid metal (mercury or Pb-Bi) target flow loop including the effects of spallation products, (2) provide the flow parameters necessary for target operations, and (3) maintain the target system. A series of brief presentations were made to focus the discussion on these issues. The subjects of these presentations, and presenters were: (1) Spallation products and solubilities - R. Dressler; (2) Spallation products for Pb-Bi - Y. Orlov; (3) Clean/up/impurity removal components - B. Sigg; (4) {open_quotes}Road-Map{close_quotes} and remote handling needs - T. McManamy; (5) Remote handling issues and development - M. Holding. The overall conclusion of this session was that, with the exception of (i) spallation product related processing issues, (ii) helium injection and clean-up, and (iii) specialized remote handling equipment, the technology for all other circuit components (excluding the target itself) exists. Operating systems at the Institute of Physics in Riga, Latvia (O. Lielausis) and at Ben-Gurion University in Beer Shiva, Israel (S. Lesin) have demonstrated that other liquid metal circuit components including pumps, heat exchangers, valves, seals, and piping are readily available and have been reliably used for many years. In the three areas listed above, the designs and analysis are not judged to be mature enough to determine whether and what types of technology development are required. Further design and analysis of the liquid metal target system is therefore needed to define flow circuit processing and remote handling equipment requirements and thereby identify any development needs.

  9. Spallation-based neutron target for direct studies of neutron-induced reactions in inverse kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifarth, René; Göbel, Kathrin; Heftrich, Tanja; Weigand, Mario; Jurado, Beatriz; Käppeler, Franz; Litvinov, Yuri A.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss the possibility to build a neutron target for nuclear reaction studies in inverse kinematics utilizing a storage ring and radioactive ion beams. The proposed neutron target is a specially designed spallation target surrounded by a large moderator of heavy water (D2O ). We present the resulting neutron spectra and their properties as a target. We discuss possible realizations at different experimental facilities.

  10. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  11. The Spallator and APEX Nuclear Fuel Cycle a New Option for Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, M.

    1983-02-01

    A new nuclear fuel cycle is described which provides a long term supply of nuclear fuel for the thermal LWR nuclear power reactors and eliminates the need for long-term storage of radioactive waste. Fissile fuel is produced by the Spallator which depends on the production of spallation neutrons by the interaction of high energy (1 to 2 GeV) protons on a heavy metal target. The neutrons are absorbed in a surrounding natural uranium or thorium blanket in which fissile Pu-239 or U-233 is produced. Advances in linear accelerator technology makes it possible to design and construct a high beam current continuous wave proton linac for production purposes. The target is similar to a sub-critical reactor and produces heat which is converted to electricity for supplying the linac. The Spallator is a self-sufficient fuel producer, which can compete with the fast breeder. The APEX fuel cycle depends on recycling the transuranics and long-lived fission products while extracting the stable and short-lived fission products when reprocessing the fuel. Transmutation and decay within the fuel cycle and decay of the short-lived fission products external to the fuel cycle eliminates the need for long-term geological age storage of fission product waste.

  12. Experimental Study of the Phenomenology of Spallation Neutrons in a Large Lead Block

    CERN Multimedia

    Galvez Altamirano, J; Lopez, C; Perlado, J M; Perez-Navarro, A

    2002-01-01

    %PS211 %title \\\\ \\\\The purpose of PS211 is to determine how neutrons, produced by spallation inside a large Lead volume are slowed down by undergoing a very large number of scatterings, losing each time a small fraction ($\\sim$ 1\\%) of their kinetic energy. The focus is in determining the probability for a spallation neutron produced at an energy of several MeV or more, to survive capture on Lead resonances and to reach resonance energies of materials to be transmuted, such as 5.6 eV for $^{99}$Tc. This process, of Adiabatic Resonance Crossing, involves a subtle interplay between the capture resonances of the Lead medium and of selected impurities. This phenomenology of spallation neutrons in a large Lead volume, is the physics foundation of the Fast Energy Amplifier proposed by C. Rubbia, and could open up new possibilities in the incineration of long-lived nuclear waste such as Actinides or Fission Fragments (e.g. $^{99}$Tc, $^{129}$I, etc.).\\\\ \\\\334 tons of high purity Lead, installed in t7, are exposed to...

  13. MYCONET : European network of information sources for an identification system of emerging mycotoxins in wheat based supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Booij, C.J.H.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the results of the MYCONET project, an international research project aimed at initiating a sustainable platform (network) of information sources that proactively provides specified information for an emerging risk identification system. As a case study, the project focused on

  14. Development of an open source package for the processing of sun-sky photometric data in the European Skyrad Users network (ESR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelles, V.; Smyth, T.; Campanelli, M.; Utrillas, M. P.

    2009-04-01

    ; therefore, 1) the instrument absence generates considerable data gaps, 2) it is also a chance for equipment damage during the transport, and 3) the proprietary group must cope with the economical cost of these international insured deliveries. Moreover, the protocol constrains the network capability to handle a large amount of instruments. In fact, AERONET is very reluctant at the moment to accept new sites in Europe. ESR has developed an improved version of the Langley plot technique (SKYIL) that allows the users to perform a continuous in situ calibration. Previous results show that the obtained uncertainties in the calibration factors (1.0 - 2.5%) are very similar to the uncertainty values for field instruments in AERONET (1.0 - 2.0%). A third difference that could make ESR more appealing to some European research groups is related to the algorithms itself. The core inversion code (Skyrad.pack), the calibration codes and all the automatization scripts are free open source codes that can be further customized by the users. Therefore, an advanced user could easily access and modify the algorithms for new improvements. As a conclusion, the ESR users network has been conceived as a flexible network and collaborative platform for European groups whose main research is focused on atmospheric aerosols characterization and model development. The package we have developed for the network is an open source product that is available for public use, both for Cimel CE318 and Prede POM instruments.

  15. Sources

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Sources Fondation Pablo Iglesias. Alcala de Henares. Sections : Archives privées de Manuel ArijaArchives extérieuresArchives FNJS de EspañaPrensa Archives Générales de l’Administration. Alcala de Henares. Sections : Opposition au franquismeSig. 653 Sig TOP 82/68.103-68.602.Índice de las cartas colectivas, Relaciones, Cartas al Ministro de Información de Marzo de 1965. c.662. Sources cinématographiques Filmothèque Nationale d’Espagne.NO.DO. N° 1157C. 08/03/1965.aguirre Javier, Blanco vertical....

  16. Competition between the various fossil sources of energy on the European and world markets through the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, G.

    1980-06-01

    Crude oil will continue to dominate the world energy market and play the price-setting role through the year 2000, but its share of the total energy consumption in the non-Communist world should decline to approx. 50%. World crude oil production should stabilize at approx. 65 million bbl/day in the 1990's, of which approx. 30 million bbl/day would be produced by non-OPEC countries. The price of natural gas should remain to be linked to that of fuel oil, as long as the latter is in abundant supply. With the production costs of $45-$100/ton petroleum equivalent (tpe), most of West European coal is not competitive with the imported coal or with fuel oil and is expected to remain so through 2000. Outside Europe, particularly in the U.S., coal is entirely competitive and increasingly will be shipped to Europe and also converted to high-Btu gas. Nuclear energy and coal should progressively replace fuel oil and will compete in electricity production. Petroleum production from heavy crudes, oil shales, and tar sands is not expected to exceed 150 million tpe in 2000 because of the high costs of production, i.e., about $35,000/bbl/day by that time, and environmental problems.

  17. Effects of drought on leaf carbon source and growth of European beech are modulated by soil type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Feng; Arend, Matthias; Yang, Wen-Juan; Schaub, Marcus; Ni, Yan-Yan; Gessler, Arthur; Jiang, Ze-Ping; Rigling, Andreas; Li, Mai-He

    2017-02-01

    Drought potentially affects carbon balance and growth of trees, but little is known to what extent soil plays a role in the trade-off between carbon gain and growth investment. In the present study, we analyzed leaf non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) as an indicator of the balance of photosynthetic carbon gain and carbon use, as well as growth of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) saplings, which were grown on two different soil types (calcareous and acidic) in model ecosystems and subjected to a severe summer drought. Our results showed that drought led in general to increased total NSC concentrations and to decreased growth rate, and drought reduced shoot and stem growth of plants in acidic soil rather than in calcareous soil. This result indicated that soil type modulated the carbon trade-off between net leaf carbon gain and carbon investment to growth. In drought-stressed trees, leaf starch concentration and growth correlated negatively whereas soluble sugar:starch ratio and growth correlated positively, which may contribute to a better understanding of growth regulation under drought conditions. Our results emphasize the role of soil in determining the trade-off between the balance of carbon gain and carbon use on the leaf level and growth under stress (e.g. drought).

  18. Sources and composition of organic matter for bacterial growth in a large European river floodplain system (Danube, Austria)

    OpenAIRE

    Besemer, Katharina; Luef, Birgit; Preiner, Stefan; Eichberger, Birgit; Agis, Martin; Peduzzi, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM) distribution, lignin phenol signatures, bulk elemental compositions, fluorescence indices and microbial plankton (algae, bacteria, viruses) in a temperate river floodplain system were monitored from January to November 2003. We aimed to elucidate the sources and compositions of allochthonous and autochthonous organic matter (OM) in the main channel and a representative backwater in relation to the hydrological regime. Additionally, bacter...

  19. Identification and characterization of fine and coarse particulate matter sources in a middle-European urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Zs., E-mail: zsofi@atomki.h [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Ion Beam Applications, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/C (Hungary); Szoboszlai, Z.; Angyal, A. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Ion Beam Applications, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/C (Hungary); University of Debrecen - ATOMKI, Department of Environmental Physics, P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Dobos, E.; Borbely-Kiss, I. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Ion Beam Applications, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/C (Hungary)

    2010-06-15

    In this work a source apportionment study is presented which aimed to characterize the PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5-10} sources in the urban area of Debrecen, East-Hungary by using streaker samples, IBA methods and positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis. Samples of fine (PM{sub 2.5}) and coarse (PM{sub 2.5-10}) urban particulate matter were collected with 2 h time resolution in the frame of five sampling campaigns during 2007-2009 in different seasons in the downtown of Debrecen. Elemental concentrations from Al to Pb of over 1000 samples were obtained by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE); concentrations of black carbon (BC) were determined with a smoke stain reflectometer. On this data base source apportionment was carried out by using the PMF method. Seven factors were identified for both size fractions, including soil dust, traffic, secondary aerosol - sulphates, domestic heating, oil combustion, agriculture and an unknown factor enriched with chlorine. Seasonal and daily variation of the different factors was studied as well as their dependence on meteorological parameters. Besides determining the time patterns characteristic to the city, several emission episodes were identified including a Saharan dust intrusion on 21st-24th May, 2008.

  20. Identification and characterization of fine and coarse particulate matter sources in a middle-European urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertész, Zs.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Angyal, A.; Dobos, E.; Borbély-Kiss, I.

    2010-06-01

    In this work a source apportionment study is presented which aimed to characterize the PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 sources in the urban area of Debrecen, East-Hungary by using streaker samples, IBA methods and positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis. Samples of fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) urban particulate matter were collected with 2 h time resolution in the frame of five sampling campaigns during 2007-2009 in different seasons in the downtown of Debrecen. Elemental concentrations from Al to Pb of over 1000 samples were obtained by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE); concentrations of black carbon (BC) were determined with a smoke stain reflectometer. On this data base source apportionment was carried out by using the PMF method. Seven factors were identified for both size fractions, including soil dust, traffic, secondary aerosol - sulphates, domestic heating, oil combustion, agriculture and an unknown factor enriched with chlorine. Seasonal and daily variation of the different factors was studied as well as their dependence on meteorological parameters. Besides determining the time patterns characteristic to the city, several emission episodes were identified including a Saharan dust intrusion on 21st-24th May, 2008.

  1. Comparison of the availability of groundwater information sources in Poland with other European countries. Knowledge inventory for hydrogeology research - project KINDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Barbara; Dendys, Marta; Tyszer, Magdalena

    2017-11-01

    Regulations of the Water Framework Directive 200/60/EC (WFD) had been applied by European Union countries into their legislation system. However, it does not guarantee that the groundwater research has the same standard and quality in EU countries. KINDRA international research project was launched to assessment of existing groundwater-related practical and scientific knowledge based on a new Hydrogeological Research Classification System (HRC-SYS). This classification is supported by a web-service - the European Inventory of Groundwater Research (EIGR). The main goal of the project is implementation policy of optimization in groundwater research in EU. The preliminary result of survey about groundwater management shows that in Poland is a good state of implementation WFD. Good level of implementation is especially related with groundwater monitoring. It is because a lot of institutions and municipal entities carry out their tasks referring to quality or quantity assessment. Results of their works are published as reports, newsletters, maps, bulletins etc. These materials are potential source of information which can be a valuable contribution to EIGR. However, a lot of information are published only in polish language, so it is impossible to spread this knowledge in Europe.

  2. Comparison of the availability of groundwater information sources in Poland with other European countries. Knowledge inventory for hydrogeology research – project KINDRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulations of the Water Framework Directive 200/60/EC (WFD had been applied by European Union countries into their legislation system. However, it does not guarantee that the groundwater research has the same standard and quality in EU countries. KINDRA international research project was launched to assessment of existing groundwater-related practical and scientific knowledge based on a new Hydrogeological Research Classification System (HRC-SYS. This classification is supported by a web-service – the European Inventory of Groundwater Research (EIGR. The main goal of the project is implementation policy of optimization in groundwater research in EU. The preliminary result of survey about groundwater management shows that in Poland is a good state of implementation WFD. Good level of implementation is especially related with groundwater monitoring. It is because a lot of institutions and municipal entities carry out their tasks referring to quality or quantity assessment. Results of their works are published as reports, newsletters, maps, bulletins etc. These materials are potential source of information which can be a valuable contribution to EIGR. However, a lot of information are published only in polish language, so it is impossible to spread this knowledge in Europe.

  3. $^{206}$ Po sources for production and release studies relevant for high power spallation targets

    CERN Multimedia

    The knowledge of the evaporation behaviour of Po is of essential importance for several scientific and technological applications, like accelerator driven systems (ADS) or the LIEBE project at CERN-ISOLDE. Fundamental investigations on the experimental conditions for the formation of volatile Po species as well as on the chemical composition of the volatile compounds are necessary for a safe operation of such facilities. $^{206}$Po, a mainly $\\gamma$- ray-emitting Po isotope with a half-life of 8.8 d, is best suited for model studies, due to the lower radiation hazard compared to the longer-lived $\\alpha$-emitting isotopes $^{208-210}$Po as well as the easy-to-measure $\\gamma$-ray emission. We propose the production of $^{206}$Po samples in several matrices via the implantation of its precursor $^{210}$Fr into selected metal foils at CERN-ISOLDE. Using these samples, experiments will be carried out at PSI studying the volatilization of Po from different matrices under varying chemical conditions.

  4. Fundamental Problems of Neutron Physics at the Spallation Neutron Source at the ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Gudkov

    2008-07-16

    We propose to provide theoretical support for the experimental program in fundamental neutron physics at the SNS. This includes the study of neutron properties, neutron beta-decay, parity violation effects and time reversal violation effects. The main purpose of the proposed research is to work on theoretical problems related to experiments which have a high priority at the SNS. Therefore, we will make a complete analysis of beta-decay process including calculations of radiative corrections and recoil corrections for angular correlations for polarized neutron decay, with an accuracy better that is supposed to be achieved in the planning experiments. Based on the results of the calculations, we will provide analysis of sensitivity of angular correlations to be able to search for the possible extensions of the Standard model. Also we will help to plan other experiments to address significant problems of modern physics and will work on their theoretical support.

  5. Fringe field interference of neighbor magnets in China spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L., E-mail: lli@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Dongguan Neutron Science Center, Dongguan 523803 (China); Dongguan Key Laboratory of High Precision Magnetic Field Measurement, Dongguan 523803 (China); Kang, W.; Wu, X.; Deng, C.D.; Li, S.; Yang, M.; Zhou, J.X.; Liu, Y.Q.; Wu, Y.W. [Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Dongguan Neutron Science Center, Dongguan 523803 (China); Dongguan Key Laboratory of High Precision Magnetic Field Measurement, Dongguan 523803 (China)

    2016-12-21

    In CSNS accelerator construction, the field measurement of all RCS magnets have been finished and the magnets have been installed in the tunnel before the end of 2015. The electromagnetic quadrupoles have a large aperture and the core-to-core distance between magnets is rather short in some places. The corrector magnet or the sextupole magnet is closer to one of the quadrupole magnets which caused certain interference. The interference caused by magnetic fringe field has been appeared and it becomes a significant issue in beam dynamics for beam loss control in this high-intensity proton accelerator. We have performed 3D computing simulations to study integral field distributions between the quadrupole and the corrector magnets, and the sextupole and the other quadrupole magnets. The effect of the magnetic fringe field and the interference has been investigated with different distances of the neighbor magnets. The simulation and the field measurement results will be introduced in this paper.

  6. Sources and composition of organic matter for bacterial growth in a large European river floodplain system (Danube, Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besemer, Katharina; Luef, Birgit; Preiner, Stefan; Eichberger, Birgit; Agis, Martin; Peduzzi, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM) distribution, lignin phenol signatures, bulk elemental compositions, fluorescence indices and microbial plankton (algae, bacteria, viruses) in a temperate river floodplain system were monitored from January to November 2003. We aimed to elucidate the sources and compositions of allochthonous and autochthonous organic matter (OM) in the main channel and a representative backwater in relation to the hydrological regime. Additionally, bacterial secondary production was measured to evaluate the impact of organic carbon source on heterotrophic prokaryotic productivity. OM properties in the backwater tended to diverge from those in the main channel during phases without surface water connectivity; this was likely enhanced due to the exceptionally low river discharge in 2003. The terrestrial OM in this river floodplain system was largely derived from angiosperm leaves and grasses, as indicated by the lignin phenol composition. The lignin signatures exhibited significant seasonal changes, comparable to the seasonality of plankton-derived material. Microbially-derived material contributed significantly to POM and DOM, especially during periods of low discharge. High rates of bacterial secondary production (up to 135 μg C L(-1) d(-1)) followed algal blooms and suggested that autochthonous OM significantly supported heterotrophic microbial productivity.

  7. AIRUSE-LIFE+: a harmonized PM speciation and source apportionment in five southern European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The AIRUSE-LIFE+ project aims at characterizing similarities and heterogeneities in particulate matter (PM sources and contributions in urban areas from southern Europe. Once the main PMx sources are identified, AIRUSE aims at developing and testing the efficiency of specific and non-specific measures to improve urban air quality. This article reports the results of the source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 conducted at three urban background sites (Barcelona, Florence and Milan, BCN-UB, FI-UB and MLN-UB, one suburban background site (Athens, ATH-SUB and one traffic site (Porto, POR-TR. After collecting 1047 PM10 and 1116 PM2.5 24 h samples during 12 months (from January 2013 on simultaneously at the five cities, these were analysed for the contents of OC, EC, anions, cations, major and trace elements and levoglucosan. The USEPA PMF5 receptor model was applied to these data sets in a harmonized way for each city. The sum of vehicle exhaust (VEX and non-exhaust (NEX contributes between 3.9 and 10.8 µg m−3 (16–32 % to PM10 and 2.3 and 9.4 µg m−3 (15–36 % to PM2.5, although a fraction of secondary nitrate is also traffic-related but could not be estimated. Important contributions arise from secondary particles (nitrate, sulfate and organics in PM2.5 (37–82 % but also in PM10 (40–71 %, mostly at background sites, revealing the importance of abating gaseous precursors in designing air quality plans. Biomass burning (BB contributions vary widely, from 14–24 % of PM10 in POR-TR, MLN-UB and FI-UB, 7 % in ATH-SUB, to  <  2 % in BCN-UB. In PM2.5, BB is the second most important source in MLN-UB (21 % and in POR-TR (18 %, the third one in FI-UB (21 % and ATH-SUB (11 %, but is again negligible (< 2 % in BCN-UB. This large variability among cities is mostly due to the degree of penetration of biomass for residential heating. In Barcelona natural gas is very well supplied across the city and is used as fuel in 96 % of

  8. Modelling of the spallation reaction: analysis and testing of nuclear models; Simulation de la spallation: analyse et test des modeles nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toccoli, C

    2000-04-03

    The spallation reaction is considered as a 2-step process. First a very quick stage (10{sup -22}, 10{sup -29} s) which corresponds to the individual interaction between the incident projectile and nucleons, this interaction is followed by a series of nucleon-nucleon collisions (intranuclear cascade) during which fast particles are emitted, the nucleus is left in a strongly excited level. Secondly a slower stage (10{sup -18}, 10{sup -19} s) during which the nucleus is expected to de-excite completely. This de-excitation is performed by evaporation of light particles (n, p, d, t, {sup 3}He, {sup 4}He) or/and fission or/and fragmentation. The HETC code has been designed to simulate spallation reactions, this simulation is based on the 2-steps process and on several models of intranuclear cascades (Bertini model, Cugnon model, Helder Duarte model), the evaporation model relies on the statistical theory of Weiskopf-Ewing. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the ability of the HETC code to predict experimental results. A methodology about the comparison of relevant experimental data with results of calculation is presented and a preliminary estimation of the systematic error of the HETC code is proposed. The main problem of cascade models originates in the difficulty of simulating inelastic nucleon-nucleon collisions, the emission of pions is over-estimated and corresponding differential spectra are badly reproduced. The inaccuracy of cascade models has a great impact to determine the excited level of the nucleus at the end of the first step and indirectly on the distribution of final residual nuclei. The test of the evaporation model has shown that the emission of high energy light particles is under-estimated. (A.C.)

  9. Future opportunities with pulsed neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.D. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1996-05-01

    ISIS is the world`s most powerful pulsed spallation source and in the past ten years has demonstrated the scientific potential of accelerator-driven pulsed neutron sources in fields as diverse as physics, earth sciences, chemistry, materials science, engineering and biology. The Japan Hadron Project gives the opportunity to build on this development and to further realize the potential of neutrons as a microscopic probe of the condensed state. (author)

  10. Climatological aspects of the extreme European rainfall of August 2002 and a trajectory method for estimating the associated evaporative source regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. James

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available During the first half of August 2002, a sequence of extreme precipitation episodes affected many regions of central and southern Europe, culminating in one of the most severe flooding events ever experienced along sections of the river Elbe and its tributaries. In this paper, the synoptic meteorological situation during the primary flooding event, 11-13 August 2002, and its recent background is illustrated and discussed. Then, backward trajectory modelling of water vapour transport is employed to determine the sources and transport pathways of the moisture which rained out during the event. The Lagrangian trajectory model FLEXTRA is used together with high resolution operational meteorological analyses from the ECMWF to track a very large number of trajectories, initialized in a dense three-dimensional grid array over the extreme rainfall region. Specific humidity changes along each trajectory are mapped out to yield source-receptor relationships between evaporation and subsequent precipitation for the event. Regions of significant surface evaporation of moisture which later rained out were determined to be parts of the Aegean and Ligurian Seas during the initial stages of the event, while strong evaporation from eastern European land surfaces and from the Black Sea became dominant later on. The method also provides precipitation estimates based solely on specific humidity changes along Lagrangian airmass trajectories, which can be compared to ECMWF model forecast precipitation estimates.

  11. Relationships between organic matter, black carbon and persistent organic pollutants in European background soils: Implications for sources and environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jae Jak; Gustafsson, Orjan; Kurt-Karakus, Perihan; Breivik, Knut; Steinnes, Eiliv; Jones, Kevin C

    2008-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) and total organic carbon (TOC) contents of UK and Norwegian background soils were determined and their relationships with persistent organic pollutants (HCB, PAHs, PCBs, co-planar PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs) investigated by correlation and regression analyses, to assess their roles in influencing compound partitioning/retention in soils. The 52 soils used were high in TOC (range 54-460 mg/g (mean 256)), while BC only constituted 0.24-1.8% (0.88%) of the TOC. TOC was strongly correlated (p<0.001) with HCB, PCBs, co-PCBs and PBDEs, but less so with PCDD/Fs (p<0.05) and PAHs. TOC explained variability in soil content, as follows: HCB, 80%; PCBs, 44%; co-PCBs, 40%; PBDEs, 27%. BC also gave statistically significant correlations with PBDEs (p<0.001), co-PCBs (p<0.01) and PCBs, HCB, PCDD/F (p<0.05); TOC and BC were correlated with each other (p<0.01). Inferences are made about possible combustion-derived sources, atmospheric transport and air-surface exchange processes for these compounds.

  12. Seasonal and daily source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in PM10 in a semirural European area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Drooge, Barend L; Pérez Ballesta, Pascual

    2009-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were analyzed from ambient air particulate matter (PM10) that was collected near Lago Maggiore (Lombardy) in Northern Italy from August 2008 to January 2009. Highest individual PAH concentrations ranged from 0.05 ng/m3 during mid-days in summer to about 6 ng/m3 duringthe nights of the coldest period. A multivariate experimental regression model for the estimation of PAH concentrations was used to apportion the identified local sources of PAHs. This model included specific markers (i.e., levoglucosan for wood combustion and hopanes for traffic emission) and meteorological parameters (i.e., ambient air temperature and atmospheric mixing layer heights). In autumn and winter, wood combustion on a daily average contributed from 30 to 70% to the PAHs in ambient air PM10. In this period, the contribution of the wood combustion was less than 30% during mid-day, increasing sometimes to more than 80% during the night In the samples taken during the summer period, traffic contribution to PAH concentrations was about 30%, while wood combustion was insignificant.

  13. Sources

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Archives Archivo Histórico del Estado de Jalisco Fondo Gobernación, Asunto Pasaportes y Salvoconductos : G-8-877/9773-9775 G-8-878/9774, 9776, 9777 et 9781 G-8-879/9782-9788 G-8-880/9789-9798 G-8-881-882/9803 G-8-882/9804-9805 G-8-883/9806-9811 G-8-884/9813 G-8-885/9817-9820 G-8-886/9822-9825 G-8-887/9826-9830 G-8-888/9835 G-8-889-890/9837 G-8-889/9839 Sources imprimées Livres et chroniques O’Farrill Romulo, (2004) Reseña histórica estadística y comercial de México y sus estados, directorio g...

  14. Mitigation and Prediction of Spallation of Oxide Scales on Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Y. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephens, Elizabeth V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Zhijie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevenson, Jeffry W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-04

    This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program. The results indicate that application of physical surface modifications, such as surface blasting, prior to application of protective surface coatings can substantially increase oxide scale spallation resistance during long-term exposure to elevated temperatures (e.g., 800-850ºC). To better understand and predict the benefits of surface modification, an integrated modeling framework was developed and applied to the obtained experimental results.

  15. SEE cross section calibration and application to quasi-monoenergetic and spallation facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alía Rubén García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an approach to calibrate SEE-based detectors in monoenergetic fields and apply the resulting semi-empiric responses to more general mixed-field cases in which a broad variety of particle species and energy spectra are involved. The calibration of the response functions is based both on experimental proton and neutron data and considerations derived from Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code. The application environments include the quasi-monoenergetic neutrons at RCNP, the atmospheric-like VESUVIO spallation spectrum and the CHARM high-energy accelerator test facility.

  16. First results of the new n-TOF spallation target commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthoumieux, E.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Becares, V.; Becvar, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthier, B.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calvino, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapico, C.; Cennini, P.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Cortes-Giraldo, M.A.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Duran, I.; Fernandez-Ordonez, M.; Ferrari, A.; Ganesan, S.; Giubrone, G.; Gomez-Hornillos, M.B.; Goncalves, I.F.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Harrisopulos, S.; Heil, M.; Ioannides, K.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Kappeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Krticka, M.; Lebbos, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Losito, R.; Lozano, M.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martinez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.F.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Mosconi, M.; Nolte, R.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plag, R.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sarmento, R.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tarrio, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Vykydal, Z.; Wallner, A.; Weib, C.

    2009-07-01

    The Neutron Time of Flight facility n-TOF located at CERN started to take data in 2001. Due to an increase of radioactivity released in the cooling water the experiment was stopped by end of 2004. In 2008 a new spallation target has been installed. In 2009 the collaboration has performed the full commissioning of the facility, consisting in the determination of the fluence, the beam profile, and the energy resolution of the neutron beam. After a brief description of the new target assembly, very preliminary results concerning the shape of the neutron fluence and its absolute value will be given. Measurements of the neutron beam profile will also be shown. (authors)

  17. Spallation study with proton beams around 1 GeV: neutron production

    CERN Document Server

    Boudard, A; Brochard, F; Crespin, S; Drake, D; Duchazeaubeneix, J C; Durand, D; Durand, J M; Frehaut, J; Hanappe, F; Kowalski, L A; Lebrun, C; Lecolley, F R; Lecolley, J F; Ledoux, X; Lefèbvres, F; Legrain, R; Leray, S; Louvel, M; Martínez, E; Meigo, S I; Ménard, S; Milleret, G; Patin, Y; Petibon, E; Plouin, F; Pras, P; Schapira, J P; Stuttgé, L; Terrien, Y; Thun, J; Uematsu, M; Varignon, C; Volant, C; Whittal, D M; Wlazlo, W

    2000-01-01

    Experiments performed at Lab. Nat. SATURNE on neutron produced by spallation from proton beams in the range 0.8 - 1.6 GeV are presented. Experimental data compared with codes show a significant improvement of the recent intra-nuclear cascade (J. Cugnon). This is also true in the same way for the neutron production from thick targets. However the model underestimates the energetic neutrons produced in the backward direction and other quantities as residual nuclei cross sections are not accurately predicted.

  18. Dietary sources and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián, Cristina; Mouratidou, Theodora; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Valtueña, Jara; González-Gross, Marcela; Ferrari, Marika; Gottrand, Frederic; Manios, Yannis; de la O, Alejandro; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnár, Dénes; Kafatos, Antonios; Sjöström, Michael; Kersting, Mathilde; Gunter, Marc J; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Huybrechts, Inge

    2017-06-01

    To investigate dietary sources of Ca and vitamin D (VitD) intakes, and the associated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, among European adolescents. Linear regression mixed models were used to examine sex-specific associations of Ca and VitD intakes with parental education, family affluence (FAS), physical activity and television (TV) watching while controlling for age, Tanner stage, energy intake and diet quality. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA)Cross-Sectional Study. Adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years (n 1804). Milk and cheese were the main sources of Ca (23 and 19 % contribution to overall Ca intake, respectively). Fish products were the main VitD source (30 % contribution to overall VitD intake). Ca intake was positively associated with maternal education (β=56·41; 95 % CI 1·98, 110·82) and negatively associated with TV viewing in boys (β=-0·43; 95 % CI -0·79, -0·07); however, the significance of these associations disappeared when adjusting for diet quality. In girls, Ca intake was positively associated with mother's (β=73·08; 95 % CI 34·41, 111·74) and father's education (β=43·29; 95 % CI 5·44, 81·14) and FAS (β=37·45; 95 % CI 2·25, 72·65). This association between Ca intake and mother's education remained significant after further adjustment for diet quality (β=41·66; 95 % CI 0·94, 82·38). Girls with high-educated mothers had higher Ca intake. Low-educated families with poor diet quality may be targeted when strategizing health promotion programmes to enhance dietary Ca.

  19. Neutron sources and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D.L. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rush, J.J. [ed.] [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

  20. Spallation reactions in shock waves at supernova explosions and related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinova, G. K.

    2013-05-01

    The isotopic anomalies of some extinct radionuclides testify to the outburst of a nearby supernova just before the collapse of the protosolar nebula, and to the fact that the supernova was Sn Ia, i.e. the carbon-detonation supernova. A key role of spallation reactions in the formation of isotopic anomalies in the primordial matter of the Solar System is revealed. It is conditioned by the diffusive acceleration of particles in the explosive shock waves, which leads to the amplification of rigidity of the energy spectrum of particles and its enrichment with heavier ions. The quantitative calculations of such isotopic anomalies of many elements are presented. It is well-grounded that the anomalous Xe- HL in meteoritic nanodiamonds was formed simultaneously with nanodiamonds themselves during the shock wave propagation at the Sn Ia explosion. The possible effects of shock wave fractionation of noble gases in the atmosphere of planets are considered. The origin of light elements Li, Be and B in spallation reactions, predicted by Fowler in the middle of the last century, is argued. All the investigated isotopic anomalies give the evidence for the extremely high magneto- hydrodynamics (MHD) conditions at the initial stage of free expansion of the explosive shock wave from Sn Ia, which can be essential in solution of the problem of origin of cosmic rays. The specific iron-enriched matter of Sn Ia and its MHD-separation in turbulent processes must be taking into account in the models of origin of the Solar System.

  1. X-ray quantitative analysis on spallation response in high purity copper under sweeping detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang, E-mail: yangyanggroup@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); National Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metals Material Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chen, Jixiong; Peng, Zhiqiang [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Guo, Zhaoliang; Tang, Tiegang; Hu, Haibo [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Hu, Yanan [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-06-14

    The 3-D quantitative investigation of spall behavior in high purity copper plants with different heat treatment histories was characterized using X-ray computer tomography (XRCT). The effect of shock stress and grain size on the spatial distribution and morphology of incipient spall samples were discussed. The results revealed that, in samples with similar microstructure, the ranges of void distribution decrease with the increasing of shock stress. The characteristic parameters (such as mean elongation, mean flatness and mean sphericity of voids) determined using XRCT herein as a function of shock stress and grain size. The quantitative analyses of spallation datasets render functional relationships between the microscopic parameters (like volume, frequency) of spallation voids and the microstructure. The XRCT observations show that voids are prone to coalescence in thermo-mechanical treatments (TMT) sample, while the final maximum and mean volume of void were smaller than that of annealed sample. This is due to the smaller grain size of TMT sample, which means more nucleation sites of voids, this made the voids get closer and easier to coalescence, and flat voids formed ultimately.

  2. Surface Laser Scanning Measurements for the n_TOF spallation target

    CERN Document Server

    Vlachoudis, V; Cennini, P; Lebbos, E; Lettry, J

    2010-01-01

    The n_TOF spallation target is made of pure lead immersed into cooling water. The target was operating normally from 2001 until august 2004, when an increased transfer of radioactive products from the spallation target to the cooling circuit has been observed. The target was considered damaged by the safety commission (SC/RP), and an investigation campaign started to verify the actual status of the target. According to FLUKA and Ansys calculations the target was working in the elastoplastic regime of the lead material, therefore a deformation might be expected. The present paper describes a laser photographic method and the results of a possible such deformation. The target had a surface activity of the order of 20 mSv/h, therefore we were forced to perform the measurement from distance. The used method, is based on a linelaser and a high resolution digital camera for retrieving the 3D position of the surface of the lead target. Similar methods are used in the film industry and animation studios for scanning ...

  3. Study of the Production of Radioactive Isotopes through Cosmic Muon Spallation in KamLAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KamLAND Collaboration; Abe, S.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, M.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Terashima, A.; Watanabe, H.; Yonezawa, E.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Busenitz, J.; Classen, T.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; Leonard, D. S.; McKee, D.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Bloxham, T.; Detwiler, J. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Gray, F.; Guardincerri, E.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Lendvai, C.; Luk, K.-B.; O' Donnell, T.; Steiner, H. M.; Winslow, L. A.; Dwyer, D. A.; Jillings, C.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Vogel, P.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B. E.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Foster, J.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Dazeley, S.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Heeger, K. M.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2009-06-30

    Radioactive isotopes produced through cosmic muon spallation are a background for rare event detection in {nu} detectors, double-beta-decay experiments, and dark-matter searches. Understanding the nature of cosmogenic backgrounds is particularly important for future experiments aiming to determine the pep and CNO solar neutrino fluxes, for which the background is dominated by the spallation production of {sup 11}C. Data from the Kamioka Liquid scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) provides valuable information for better understanding these backgrounds, especially in liquid scintillator, and for checking estimates from current simulations based upon MUSIC, FLUKA, and Geant4. Using the time correlation between detected muons and neutron captures, the neutron production yield in the KamLAND liquid scintillator is measured to be (2.8 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -4} n/({mu} {center_dot} (g/cm{sup 2})). For other isotopes, the production yield is determined from the observed time correlation related to known isotope lifetimes. We find some yields are inconsistent with extrapolations based on an accelerator muon beam experiment.

  4. Small Gas Bubble Experiment for Mitigation of Cavitation Damage and Pressure Waves in Short-pulse Mercury Spallation Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL; Sangrey, Robert L [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL; West, David L [ORNL; Shea, Thomas J [ORNL; Hasegawa, Shoichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Kogawa, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Naoe, Dr. Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Farny, Dr. Caleb H. [Boston University; Kaminsky, Andrew L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Populations of small helium gas bubbles were introduced into a flowing mercury experiment test loop to evaluate mitigation of beam-pulse induced cavitation damage and pressure waves. The test loop was developed and thoroughly tested at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) prior to irradiations at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center - Weapons Neutron Research Center (LANSCE-WNR) facility. Twelve candidate bubblers were evaluated over a range of mercury flow and gas injection rates by use of a novel optical measurement technique that accurately assessed the generated bubble size distributions. Final selection for irradiation testing included two variations of a swirl bubbler provided by Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) collaborators and one orifice bubbler developed at SNS. Bubble populations of interest consisted of sizes up to 150 m in radius with achieved gas void fractions in the 10^-5 to 10^-4 range. The nominal WNR beam pulse used for the experiment created energy deposition in the mercury comparable to SNS pulses operating at 2.5 MW. Nineteen test conditions were completed each with 100 pulses, including variations on mercury flow, gas injection and protons per pulse. The principal measure of cavitation damage mitigation was surface damage assessment on test specimens that were manually replaced for each test condition. Damage assessment was done after radiation decay and decontamination by optical and laser profiling microscopy with damaged area fraction and maximum pit depth being the more valued results. Damage was reduced by flow alone; the best mitigation from bubble injection was between half and a quarter that of flow alone. Other data collected included surface motion tracking by three laser Doppler vibrometers (LDV), loop wall dynamic strain, beam diagnostics for charge and beam profile assessment, embedded hydrophones and pressure sensors, and sound measurement by a suite of conventional and contact microphones.

  5. Testicular Cancer on the Web-an Appropriate Source of Patient Information in Concordance with the European Association of Urology Guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffenholz, Pia; Salem, Johannes; Borgmann, Hendrik; Nestler, Tim; Pfister, David; Ruf, Christian; Tsaur, Igor; Haferkamp, Axel; Heidenreich, Axel

    2017-08-04

    Despite the continuous growth of the internet, little is known about the quality of online information on testicular cancer, the most common solid malignancy in young men. In our study, we analysed the quality, readability and popularity of the most popular websites on testicular cancer. Therefore, we performed a web search for the term "testicular cancer" using www.google.com . Fifty-one websites were evaluated for HONcode quality certification, Alexa Popularity Rank and readability levels. Furthermore, the websites' content on eight major topics of the current European Association of Urology Guidelines on testicular cancer was assessed. Fourteen (28%) had a HONcode quality certificate and the mean Alexa Popularity Rank of all 51 websites was 54,040 (interquartile range 6648-282,797). Websites were difficult to read requiring 9 years of US school education to properly understand the information. The websites mentioned 80% of the guideline topics on average, revealing "prognosis" (59%) and "follow-up" (57%) as underrepresented subtopics. Furthermore, 12% of all topics were displayed incorrectly, particularly due to wrong information concerning "aetiology" (42%). Sixty percent of the topics were mentioned in an incomplete fashion, with less than half of the websites displaying complete information on "staging" (47%), "diagnostic evaluation" (49%) or "disease management" (45%). In general, online health information concerning testicular cancer is mentioned correctly on most websites. However, improvement regarding readability and completeness of the given information is needed. Nevertheless, highly selected websites on testicular cancer can serve as an appropriate source of patient information.

  6. Formation of x-ray Newton’s rings from nano-scale spallation shells of metals in laser ablation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nishikino, Masaharu; Hasegawa, Noboru; Tomita, Takuro; Minami, Yasuo; Eyama, Takashi; Kakimoto, Naoya; Izutsu, Rui; Baba, Motoyoshi; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Suemoto, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    .... The formation and evolution of soft x-ray Newton’s rings (NRs) were found for the first time. The soft x-ray NRs are caused by the interference between the bulk ablated surface and nanometer-scale thin spallation layer...

  7. HOTLAB: European hot laboratories research and capacities and needs. Plenary meeting 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberlaender, B.C.; Jenssen, H.K. (ed.)

    2005-01-01

    The report presents proceedings from the 2004 annual HOTLAB plenary meeting at Halden and Kjeller, Norway. The goal of the yearly plenary meeting was to: Exchange experience on analytical methods, their implementation in hot cells, the methodologies used and their application in nuclear research. Share experience on common infrastructure exploitation matters such as remote handling techniques, safety features, QA-certification, waste handling, etc. Promote normalisation and co-operation, e.g. by looking at mutual complementarities. Prospect present and future demands from the nuclear industry and to draw strategic conclusions regarding further needs. The main themes of the five topical oral sessions of the Halden plenary meeting cover: Work package leaders report and specific papers, presentation of PIE facility databases, i.e. one worldwide (IAEA) and one inside the European communities. Reports from present and future needs and on nuclear transports. Refabrication and instrumentation: Available equipment, technical characteristics such as fabrication procedures, hot-cell compatibility, and practical experiences. Post irradiation examination: Updated and new remote techniques and methodologies, new materials such as inert matrix fuels, spallation sources and neutron absorber materials. Refurbishment and decommissioning: reports on refurbishment and decommissioning of PIE facilities. Waste and transport: Hot laboratory waste characteristics and handling, spent fuel research. Several posters are presented.

  8. Does the Information Source Matter? Newspaper Readership, Political Preferences and attitudes towards the European Union in the United Kingdom, France and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leruth, B.; Kutiyski, Yordan; Krouwel, A.P.M.; Startin, N.; Caiani, M.; Guerra, S.

    2017-01-01

    This volume focuses on the relationship between the media and European democracy, as important factors of EU legitimacy. The contributors show how the media play a crucial role in making European governance accountable, and how it can act as an intermediate link between citizens and their elected

  9. Environmental protection law of the European Community (EU). Source index and content index including the jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice with actual jurisdiction service and special literature according to the individual legal regulations. 34. ed.; Umweltschutzrecht der Europaeischen Union (EU). Fundstellen- und Inhaltsnachweis, einschliesslich der Rechtsprechung des Europaeischen Gerichtshofes - EuGH; mit aktuellem Rechtsprechungsdienst und Spezialliteratur zu den einzelnen Rechtsvorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Bernd

    2009-07-01

    The 34th edition of the source index of the environment law of the European Union contains the documentary evidence of the total jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice (Luxemburg) with respect to the following topics: (a) General infrastructure / integral environment law; (b) Nature protection, landscape protection as well as protection of species; (c) Dangerous materials and preparations; (d) Waste management law; (e) Water legislation; (f) environmental traffic law; (g) law of air pollution control of climate protection; (h) noise control; (i) environmental commercial law; (j) environmental law of energy.

  10. Detrital zircon age patterns from turbidites of the Balagne and Piedmont nappes of Alpine Corsica (France): Evidence for an European margin source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Rossi, Philippe; Faure, Michel; Li, Xian-Hua; Ji, Wenbin; Chu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    At the front of metamorphic Cenozoic Alpine nappe of Schistes Lustrés, Western Alpine Corsica (France) exposes non- to very low grade metamorphic nappes, such as the Piedmont nappes, Upper nappes, and the Balagne nappe. The provenance of the Balagne nappe remains still opened: an origin close to the Corsican continental margin; or an origin far East from the Corsican margin toward the "Apenninic" oceanic domain. This would constrain that the Balagne ophiolite be derived from the opposite OCT (Ocean - Continent transition), close to a microcontinent located to the East of the Mesozoic Corsican margin. A systematic U-Pb dating of 586 detrital zircon grains collected from the turbidites in the Balagne and Piedmont nappes has been performed to constrain the source of sediments. The zircon grains yield U-Pb age spectra ranging from Neoarchean to Late Paleozoic with age peaks at 2600 Ma, 2080 Ma, 1830 Ma, 910 Ma, 600 Ma, 560 Ma, 450 Ma, 330 Ma and 280 Ma with different continental model ages (TDM2) from 3.5 Ga to 1.0 Ga. The variety of composition of the Corsican batholith, unique in its present Mediterranean environment, and in spite of Alpine transcurrent movements, provide a key to analyze the detrital zircon age distribution patterns of sedimentary rocks. These new results i) confirm the lack of any Cretaceous zircon that validates absence of a magmatic arc of this age, at least in the surroundings of the turbiditic formations from the Balagne and the Piedmont nappes; ii) fully support an European provenance of detritus of the Balagne nappe, iii) put forward evidence that no ophiolitic zircon was contained neither in the Cretaceous nor in the Eocene turbidites samples, and iv) question both the deposition of the Piedmont Narbinco flysch within the ocean continent transition and its possible relationships with the Late Cretaceous Pyrenean basins.

  11. Qualified and Unqualified (N-R C) mental health nursing staff - minor differences in sources of stress and burnout. A European multi-centre study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Unqualified/non-registered caregivers (N-R Cs) will continue to play important roles in the mental health services. This study compares levels of burnout and sources of stress among qualified and N-R Cs working in acute mental health care. Methods A total of 196 nursing staff - 124 qualified staff (mainly nurses) and 72 N-R Cs with a variety of different educational backgrounds - working in acute wards or community mental teams from 5 European countries filled out the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the Mental Health Professional Scale (MHPSS) and the Psychosocial Work Environment and Stress Questionnaire (PWSQ). Results (a) The univariate differences were generally small and restricted to a few variables. Only Social relations (N-R Cs being less satisfied) at Work demands (nurses reporting higher demands) were different at the .05 level. (b) The absolute scores both groups was highest on variables that measured feelings of not being able to influence a work situation characterised by great demands and insufficient resources. Routines and educational programs for dealing with stress should be available on a routine basis. (c) Multivariate analyses identified three extreme groups: (i) a small group dominated by unqualified staff with high depersonalization, (ii) a large group that was low on depersonalisation and high on work demands with a majority of qualified staff, and (iii) a small N-R C-dominated group (low depersonalization, low work demands) with high scores on professional self-doubt. In contrast to (ii) the small and N-R C-dominated groups in (i) and (iii) reflected mainly centre-dependent problems. Conclusion The differences in burnout and sources of stress between the two groups were generally small. With the exception of high work demands the main differences between the two groups appeared to be centre-dependent. High work demands characterized primarily qualified staff. The main implication of the study is that no special measures

  12. Comparisons of the simulation results using different codes for ADS spallation target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hong Wei; Shen Qing Biao; Wan Jun Sheng; Zhao Zhi Xiang

    2002-01-01

    The calculations to the standard thick target were made by using different codes. The simulation of the thick Pb target with length of 60 cm, diameter of 20 cm bombarded with 800, 1000, 1500 and 2000 MeV energetic proton beam was carried out. The yields and the spectra of emitted neutron were studied. The spallation target was simulated by SNSP, SHIELD, DCM/CEM (Dubna Cascade Model /Cascade Evaporation Mode) and LAHET codes. The Simulation Results were compared with experiments. The comparisons show good agreement between the experiments and the SNSP simulated leakage neutron yield. The SHIELD simulated leakage neutron spectra are in good agreement with the LAHET and the DCM/CEM simulated leakage neutron spectra

  13. Single Event Effect cross section calibration and application to quasi-monoenergetic and spallation facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alía Rubén García

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an approach to calibrate Single Event Effect (SEE-based detectors in monoenergetic fields and apply the resulting semi-empiric responses to more general mixed-field cases in which a broad variety of particle species and energy spectra are present. The calibration of the response functions is based both on experimental proton (30–200 MeV and neutron (5–300 MeV data and considerations derived from Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The application environments include the quasi-monoenergetic neutrons at RCNP, the atmospheric-like VESUVIO spallation spectrum and the CHARM high-energy accelerator test facility. The agreement between the mixed-field response and that predicted through the mono-energetic calibration is within ±30% for the broad variety of cases considered and thus regarded as highly successful for mixed-field monitoring applications.

  14. Geant4 simulations of the neutron production and transport in the n_TOF spallation target

    CERN Document Server

    Lerendegui-Marco, J; Guerrero, C; Quesada,, J , M

    2016-01-01

    The neutron production and transport in the spallation target of the n TOF facility at CERN has been simulated with Geant4. The results obtained with the different hadronic Physics Lists provided by Geant4 have been compared with the experimental neutron flux in n TOF-EAR1. The best overall agreement in both the absolute value and the energy dependence of the flux from thermal to 1 GeV, is obtained with the INCL++ model coupled with the Fritiof Model(FTFP). This Physics List has been thus used to simulate and study the main features of the new n TOF-EAR2 beam line, currently in its commissioning phase.

  15. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr on proton and deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H., E-mail: wanghe@ribf.riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otsu, H.; Sakurai, H.; Ahn, D.S. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aikawa, M. [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Doornenbal, P.; Fukuda, N.; Isobe, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kawakami, S. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Koyama, S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kubo, T.; Kubono, S.; Lorusso, G. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Maeda, Y. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Makinaga, A. [Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, North-14, West-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8648 (Japan); Momiyama, S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakano, K. [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Niikura, M. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shiga, Y. [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Söderström, P.-A. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); and others

    2016-03-10

    We have studied spallation reactions for the fission products {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The spallation cross sections on the proton and deuteron were obtained in inverse kinematics for the first time using secondary beams of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr at 185 MeV/nucleon at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. The target dependence has been investigated systematically, and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter spallation products. The experimental data are compared with the PHITS calculation, which includes cascade and evaporation processes. Our results suggest that both proton- and deuteron-induced spallation reactions are promising mechanisms for the transmutation of radioactive fission products.

  16. Measurements of gas and volatile element production rates from an irradiated molten lead and lead-bismuth spallation target with proton beams of 1 and 1.4 GeV; Mesures de taux de production d'elements gazeux et volatiles lors de reactions induites par des protons de 1 et 1,4 GeV sur des cibles epaisses de plomb et plomb-bismuth liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tall, Y

    2008-03-15

    The integrated project EUROTRANS (European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) of the 6. EURATOM Framework Programme aims to demonstrate the transmutation of radioactive waste in ADS (Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system). It will carry out a first advanced design of an experimental facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of transmutation, and will produce a conceptual design of an industrial facility dedicated to transmutation. An ADS consists of three fundamental elements: the accelerator of protons, the sub-critical core and the spallation target. SUBATECH (physique Sub-Atomique et des Technologies associees) laboratory is involved to the study of the chosen liquid lead-bismuth as a spallation ADS target. The irradiation of liquid lead-bismuth target with energetic proton beam generates in addition to neutrons, volatile and radioactive residues. In order to determine experimentally the production rates of gas and volatile elements following a spallation reaction in a lead-bismuth target, the experiment IS419 was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN (Centre Europeen de la Recherche Nucleaire). This experiment constitutes the frame of the thesis whose main objective is to assess and study the production and release rates of many gas and volatile element from the irradiated lead-bismuth target with an energetic proton beam. The obtained data are compared to Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNPX) results in order to test the intranuclear cascade model of Bertini and of Cugnon, and the evaporation options of Dresner and Schmidt. (author)

  17. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  18. Gadolinium-148 And Other Spallation Production Cross Section Measurements For Accelerator Target Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, K C

    2004-01-01

    At the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center accelerator complex, protons are accelerated to 800 MeV and directed to two tungsten targets, Target 4 at the Weapons Neutron Research facility and the 1L target at the Lujan Center. The Department of Energy requires hazard classification analyses to be performed on these targets and places limits on certain radionuclide inventories in the targets to avoid characterizing the facilities as “nuclear facilities.” Gadolinium-148 is a radionuclide created from the spallation of tungsten. Allowed isotopic inventories are particularly low for this isotope because it is an alpha-particle emitter with a 75-year half-life. The activity level of Gadolinium-148 is low, but it encompasses almost two-thirds of the total dose burden for the two tungsten targets based on present yield estimates. From a hazard classification standpoint, this severely limits the lifetime of these tungsten targets. The cross section is not well-established experimentally and this is t...

  19. Ranking and validation of spallation models for isotopic production cross sections of heavy residua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sushil K.; Kamys, Boguslaw [Jagiellonian University, The Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Goldenbaum, Frank; Filges, Detlef [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    The production cross sections of isotopically identified residual nuclei of spallation reactions induced by {sup 136}Xe projectiles at 500 AMeV on hydrogen target were analyzed in a two-step model. The first stage of the reaction was described by the INCL4.6 model of an intranuclear cascade of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleon collisions whereas the second stage was analyzed by means of four different models; ABLA07, GEM2, GEMINI++ and SMM. The quality of the data description was judged quantitatively using two statistical deviation factors; the H-factor and the M-factor. It was found that the present analysis leads to a different ranking of models as compared to that obtained from the qualitative inspection of the data reproduction. The disagreement was caused by sensitivity of the deviation factors to large statistical errors present in some of the data. A new deviation factor, the A factor, was proposed, that is not sensitive to the statistical errors of the cross sections. The quantitative ranking of models performed using the A-factor agreed well with the qualitative analysis of the data. It was concluded that using the deviation factors weighted by statistical errors may lead to erroneous conclusions in the case when the data cover a large range of values. The quality of data reproduction by the theoretical models is discussed. Some systematic deviations of the theoretical predictions from the experimental results are observed. (orig.)

  20. On the nucleon effective mass role to the high energy proton spallation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, B.M., E-mail: biank_ce@if.uff.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Praça General Tibúrcio 80, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinheiro, A.R.C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Acre, BR 364 km 04, 69920-900 Rio Branco, AC (Brazil); Gonçalves, M. [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rua General Severiano 90, 22290-901 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, S.B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cabral, R.G. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Praça General Tibúrcio 80, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    We explore the effect of the nucleon effective mass to the dynamic evolution of the rapid phase of proton–nucleus spallation reactions. The analysis of the relaxation time for the non-equilibrium phase is studied by variations in the effective mass parameter. We determine the final excitation energy of the hot residual nucleus at the end of cascade phase and the de-excitation of the nuclear system is carried out considering the competition of particle evaporation and fission processes. It was shown that the excitation energy depends of the hot compound residual nucleus at the end of the rapid phase on the changing effective mass. The multiplicity of particles was also analyzed in cascade and evaporation phase of the reaction. The use of nucleon effective mass during cascade phase can be considered as an effect of the many-body nuclear interactions not included explicitly in a treatment to the nucleon–nucleon interaction inside the nucleus. This procedure represents a more realistic scenario to obtain the neutron multiplicity generated in this reaction, which is a benchmark for the calculation of the neutronic in the ADS reactors.

  1. Ranking and validation of spallation models for isotopic production cross sections of heavy residua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sushil K.; Kamys, Bogusław; Goldenbaum, Frank; Filges, Detlef

    2017-07-01

    The production cross sections of isotopically identified residual nuclei of spallation reactions induced by 136Xe projectiles at 500AMeV on hydrogen target were analyzed in a two-step model. The first stage of the reaction was described by the INCL4.6 model of an intranuclear cascade of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleon collisions whereas the second stage was analyzed by means of four different models; ABLA07, GEM2, GEMINI++ and SMM. The quality of the data description was judged quantitatively using two statistical deviation factors; the H-factor and the M-factor. It was found that the present analysis leads to a different ranking of models as compared to that obtained from the qualitative inspection of the data reproduction. The disagreement was caused by sensitivity of the deviation factors to large statistical errors present in some of the data. A new deviation factor, the A factor, was proposed, that is not sensitive to the statistical errors of the cross sections. The quantitative ranking of models performed using the A-factor agreed well with the qualitative analysis of the data. It was concluded that using the deviation factors weighted by statistical errors may lead to erroneous conclusions in the case when the data cover a large range of values. The quality of data reproduction by the theoretical models is discussed. Some systematic deviations of the theoretical predictions from the experimental results are observed.

  2. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  3. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  4. Using surveillance and monitoring data of different origins in a Salmonella source attribution model: a European Union example with challenges and proposed solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Leonardo; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    2015-01-01

    , requiring special data management to produce a standardized dataset. Salmonellosis data on animals and humans were obtained from datasets provided by the European Food Safety Authority. The amount of food available for consumption was calculated based on production and trade data. Limitations included...... information was estimated based on previous years. The resulting dataset included data on 24 serovars in humans, broilers, laying hens, pigs and turkeys in 24 countries....

  5. The Ultracold Neutron Source at Los Alamos National Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makela, M.; Hogan, G.; . Morris, C. L.; Saunders, A.; Seestrom, S.; Ito, T. M.; Rios, R.; Mammei, R.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Back, H. O.; Broussard, L.; Holley, A.; Pattie, R.; Young, A. R.

    2007-04-01

    The Ultracold Neutron (UCN) source at Los Alamos National Lab (LANL) has completed a second run cycle of operation. In the LANL UCN source spallation neutrons are cooled in a moderator then down scattered in solid deuterium (via a super thermal process) to UCN temperatures (1-4 mK). The UCN reach experiments after passing through 8 meters of guide. During the 2006 run cycle several changes were made to the source and guide system. This talk will give an overview of the LANL UCN source, its current status and results from source test runs during the 2006 run cycle.

  6. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  7. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  8. Pulsed neutron source based on accelerator-subcritical-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Makoto; Noda, Akira; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Okamoto, Hiromi; Shirai, Toshiyuki [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Research

    1997-03-01

    A new pulsed neutron source which consists of a 300MeV proton linac and a nuclear fuel subcritical assembly is proposed. The proton linac produces pulsed spallation neutrons, which are multipied by the subcritical assembly. A prototype proton linac that accelerates protons up to 7MeV has been developed and a high energy section of a DAW structure is studied with a power model. Halo formations in high intensity beam are also being studied. (author)

  9. First experimental implementation of pulse shaping for neutron diffraction on pulsed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russina, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum-Berlin, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Kali, Gy.; Santa, Zs. [HAS Research Institute for Solid State Physics, Konkoly Thege ut. 29-33, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); Mezei, F., E-mail: f.mezei@esshungary.eu [HAS Research Institute for Solid State Physics, Konkoly Thege ut. 29-33, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, 22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-10-21

    One of the central issues in the design and the use of pulsed neutron sources is the control of pulse length in elastic scattering experiments, most significantly diffraction on crystalline matter. On the existing short pulse spallation sources the strongly wavelength dependent source pulse length that determines the resolution is permanently fixed on each beam line by the type of the moderator it faces. We have experimentally implemented for the first time the wavelength frame multiplication (WFM) multiplexing chopper method, an earlier proposed variant of the by now fully tested repetition rate multiplication technique for inelastic scattering spectroscopy on pulsed neutron sources. We have operated the time-of-flight diffractometer at the continuous reactor source at BNC in an unconventional multiplexing mode that emulates a pulsed source. As a full proof of principle of the WFM method we have experimentally demonstrated the extraction from each source pulse a series of polychromatic, chopper shaped neutron pulses, which can continuously cover any wavelength band. The achieved 25 {mu}s FWHM pulse length is shorter than that can be obtained at all at short pulse spallation sources for cold neutrons. The method allows us to build efficient, high and variable resolution diffractometers at long pulse spallation sources.

  10. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  11. Study of proton- and deuteron-induced spallation reactions on the long-lived fission product 93Zr at 105 MeV/nucleon in inverse kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Shoichiro; Nakano, Keita; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Wang, He; Otsu, Hideaki; Sakurai, Hiroyoshi; Ahn, Deuk Soon; Aikawa, Masayuki; Ando, Takashi; Araki, Shouhei; Chen, Sidong; Chiga, Nobuyuki; Doornenbal, Pieter; Fukuda, Naoki; Isobe, Tadaaki; Kawakami, Shunsuke; Kin, Tadahiro; Kondo, Yosuke; Koyama, Shunpei; Kubono, Shigeru; Maeda, Yukie; Makinaga, Ayano; Matsushita, Masafumi; Matsuzaki, Teiichiro; Michimasa, Shin'ichiro; Momiyama, Satoru; Nagamine, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Takashi; Niikura, Megumi; Ozaki, Tomoyuki; Saito, Atsumi; Saito, Takeshi; Shiga, Yoshiaki; Shikata, Mizuki; Shimizu, Yohei; Shimoura, Susumu; Sumikama, Toshiyuki; Söderström, Pär-Anders; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Taniuchi, Ryo; Togano, Yasuhiro; Tsubota, Jun'ichi; Uesaka, Meiko; Watanabe, Yasushi; Wimmer, Kathrin; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Koichi

    2017-09-01

    Spallation reactions for the long-lived fission product ^{93}Zr have been studied in order to provide basic data necessary for nuclear waste transmutation. Isotopic-production cross sections via proton- and deuteron-induced spallation reactions on ^{93}Zr at 105 MeV/nucleon were measured in inverse kinematics at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Remarkable jumps in isotopic production originating from the neutron magic number N=50 were observed in Zr and Y isotopes. The experimental results were compared to the PHITS calculations considering both the intranuclear cascade and evaporation processes, and the calculations greatly overestimated the measured production yield, corresponding to few-nucleon-removal reactions. The present data suggest that the spallation reaction is a potential candidate for the treatment of ^{93}Zr in spent nuclear fuel.

  12. Formation of x-ray Newton's rings from nano-scale spallation shells of metals in laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikino, Masaharu; Hasegawa, Noboru; Tomita, Takuro; Minami, Yasuo; Eyama, Takashi; Kakimoto, Naoya; Izutsu, Rui; Baba, Motoyoshi; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Suemoto, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    The initial stages of the femtosecond (fs) laser ablation process of gold, platinum, and tungsten were observed by single-shot soft x-ray imaging technique. The formation and evolution of soft x-ray Newton's rings (NRs) were found for the first time. The soft x-ray NRs are caused by the interference between the bulk ablated surface and nanometer-scale thin spallation layer; they originate from the metal surface at pump energy fluence of around 1 J/cm2 and work as a flying soft x-ray beam splitter.

  13. Formation of x-ray Newton’s rings from nano-scale spallation shells of metals in laser ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Nishikino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial stages of the femtosecond (fs laser ablation process of gold, platinum, and tungsten were observed by single-shot soft x-ray imaging technique. The formation and evolution of soft x-ray Newton’s rings (NRs were found for the first time. The soft x-ray NRs are caused by the interference between the bulk ablated surface and nanometer-scale thin spallation layer; they originate from the metal surface at pump energy fluence of around 1 J/cm2 and work as a flying soft x-ray beam splitter.

  14. Experimental and numerical study on the flow pattern of the ADS windowless spallation target with a second free surface downstream using model fluid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Zhenqin, E-mail: zqxiong@sjtu.edu.cn; Gu, Hanyang; Gong, Shenjie

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A windowless spallation target with a buffer tank is tested. • Shape of the main free surface is recorded. • Streamline is obtained with the planar laser induced fluorescence method. • Stability of free surface is improved by the buffer tank. • Flow structure is simulated using RNG k-e turbulence model and VOF model. - Abstract: The windowless spallation targets are a promising design solution for accelerator driven system (ADS) due to their extended life compared to the spallation targets with a window. Keeping the stability of the free surface and reducing the recirculation zone is one of the key tasks for the design of a windowless spallation target. A windowless spallation target with a second free surface downstream (which is a buffer used to stabilize the main free surface of the flow) is studied experimentally and numerically using water at atmospheric pressure. By using planar laser induced fluorescence technique (LIF), the flow pattern inside the target zone is visualized for Reynolds numbers varying between 3.5 × 10{sup 4} and 7.0 × 10{sup 4} and pressure differences from 100 to 804 Pa. The experimental results reveal that the stability of the free surface is improved by adding a buffer in the downstream thus making it easier to control the height of the surface. The effect of the pressure difference between the void above the second free surface (high pressure side) and beam pipe (low pressure side) on the flow pattern is analyzed, as well as the inlet flow rate. The height of the surface length decreases with an increase in the pressure difference. The formation of the spallation zone is simulated with Fluent using the LES turbulence model and VOF model. The interface predicted agrees well with the experimental results.

  15. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...... coming from new global streaming services. Comparing cases of historical, contemporary and crime drama from several countries, this study shows the importance of creative co-production and transnational mediated cultural encounters between national cultures of Europe....

  16. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd on proton and deuteron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spallation reactions for the long-lived fission products 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd have been studied for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The cross sections on the proton- and deuteron-induced spallation were obtained in inverse kinematics at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Both the target and energy dependences of cross sections have been investigated systematically. and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter fragments. The experimental data are compared with the SPACS semi-empirical parameterization and the PHITS calculations including both the intra-nuclear cascade and evaporation processes.

  17. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd on proton and deuteron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Otsu, Hideaki; Sakurai, Hiroyoshi; Ahn, DeukSoon; Aikawa, Masayuki; Ando, Takashi; Araki, Shouhei; Chen, Sidong; Chiga, Nobuyuki; Doornenbal, Pieter; Fukuda, Naoki; Isobe, Tadaaki; Kawakami, Shunsuke; Kawase, Shoichiro; Kin, Tadahiro; Kondo, Yosuke; Koyama, Shupei; Kubono, Shigeru; Maeda, Yukie; Makinaga, Ayano; Matsushita, Masafumi; Matsuzaki, Teiichiro; Michimasa, Shinichiro; Momiyama, Satoru; Nagamine, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Takashi; Nakano, Keita; Niikura, Megumi; Ozaki, Tomoyuki; Saito, Atsumi; Saito, Takeshi; Shiga, Yoshiaki; Shikata, Mizuki; Shimizu, Yohei; Shimoura, Susumu; Sumikama, Toshiyuki; Söderström, Pär-Anders; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Taniuchi, Ryo; Togano, Yasuhiro; Tsubota, Junichi; Uesaka, Meiko; Watanabe, Yasushi; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Wimmer, Kathrin; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Koichi

    2017-09-01

    Spallation reactions for the long-lived fission products 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd have been studied for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The cross sections on the proton- and deuteron-induced spallation were obtained in inverse kinematics at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Both the target and energy dependences of cross sections have been investigated systematically. and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter fragments. The experimental data are compared with the SPACS semi-empirical parameterization and the PHITS calculations including both the intra-nuclear cascade and evaporation processes.

  18. Innovative approach toward new generation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The world neutron community needs more neutrons and more opportunities at a much less expense. A worldwide neutron net work proposed here would be a future dream of the community. A neutron source being able to satisfy such requirements is the innovative neutron source. A new FFAG synchrotron will be the best candidate to realize such a network consisting of various spallation sources ranging from kW to MW in beam power. There would be many advantages with this accelerator. The next are the target issues: how to accept a higher beam-power beyond 5 MW. Some thoughts are discussed here. Various moderators are discussed in connection with the requirements from the instruments proposed for JSNS, mainly focussed on the performance and utilization of a coupled hydrogen moderator with optimized premoderator, aiming at more efficient use of neutrons. A new idea for pulse shaping, 'mechanical poisoning' is proposed. At an existing spallation source the number of instruments is much smaller than at a reactor. In order to install as many instruments as possible, the beam extraction and branching methods become very important. However, even at a reactor, where mainly monochromatic neutrons are used, the neutron-intensity losses due to beam multiplexing uses are significant. This problem becomes more serious in case of a pulsed source, where in many cases polychromatic beams are required. This issue is also discussed. (author)

  19. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  20. Design of a TOF-SANS instrument for the proposed long-wavelength target station at the spallation neutron source

    CERN Document Server

    Littrell, K C; Carpenter, J M; Seeger, P A

    2002-01-01

    We have designed a versatile high-data-rate SANS instrument (broad-range intense multipurpose SANS (BRIMS)) for the proposed long-wavelength target station at the SNS using the Los Alamos NISP Monte Carlo simulation package. BRIMS is designed to produce data spanning a Q range from 0.0025 to 0.7 A sup - sup 1 in a single measurement by simultaneously using neutrons with wavelengths from 1 to 14.5 A in a time-of-flight mode. The effects of various collimation choices, including multiple confocal pinhole apertures, on count rate, resolution, and Q range have been characterized with simulations using spherical particle and delta-function scatterers. We compare the anticipated performance of BRIMS with that of the premier reactor-based SANS instrument, D22, at ILL. (orig.)

  1. Application of new radiation detection techniques at the Paul Scherrer Institut, especially at the spallation neutron source

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann, E; Williams, T; Pralong, C

    1999-01-01

    The demands on modern irradiation detection systems are diverse, encompassing spatial resolution, dynamic range, sensitivity and reproducibility. Nevertheless, there are two important new methods which can satisfy most of these demands in several applications: camera based systems and imaging plates. Imaging plates have primarily been used as gamma- and beta-sensitive detectors in biology and medicine, but are now available also as neutron sensitive systems. These methods are ideally suited for applications in neutron radiography because of their high sensitivity, linearity and digital output. Image processing, quantification of the image data and automated pattern recognition can easily be performed using modern software tools. The imaging plate system at PSI is shared between groups in reactor physics, radiation protection, biology, proton therapy and nuclear medicine. The collected experience from these different interests establishes the basis for a most effective application of this technique. The utilis...

  2. Ewald: an extended wide-angle Laue diffractometer for the second target station of the Spallation Neutron Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Leighton; Robertson, Lee

    2017-08-01

    Visualizing hydrogen atoms in biological materials is one of the biggest remaining challenges in biophysical analysis. While X-ray techniques have unrivaled capacity for high-throughput structure determination, neutron diffraction is uniquely sensitive to hydrogen atom positions in crystals of biological materials and can provide a more complete picture of the atomic and electronic structures of biological macromolecules. This information can be essential in providing predictive understanding and engineering control of key biological processes, for example, in catalysis, ligand binding and light harvesting, and to guide bioengineering of enzymes and drug design. One very common and large capability gap for all neutron atomic resolution single-crystal diffractometers is the weak flux of available neutron beams, which results in limited signal-to-noise ratios giving a requirement for sample volumes of at least 0.1 mm3. The ability to operate on crystals an order of magnitude smaller (0.01 mm3) will open up new and more complex systems to studies with neutrons which will help in our understanding of enzyme mechanisms and enable us to improve drugs against multi resistant bacteria. With this is mind, an extended wide-angle Laue diffractometer, 'Ewald', has been designed, which can collect data using crystal volumes below 0.01 mm3.

  3. Assessment of Cavitation-Erosion Resistance of Potential Pump Impeller Materials for Mercury Service at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

    2007-03-01

    Using a standard vibratory horn apparatus, the relative cavitation-erosion resistance of a number of cast alloys in mercury was evaluated to facilitate material selection decisions for Hg pumps. The performance of nine different alloys - in the as-cast condition as well as following a case-hardening treatment intended to increase surface hardness - was compared in terms of weight loss and surface profile development as a function of sonication time in Hg at ambient temperature. The results indicated that among several potentially suitable alloys, CD3MWCuN perhaps exhibited the best overall resistance to cavitation in both the as-cast and surface treated conditions while the cast irons examined were found unsuitable for service of this type. However, other factors, including cost, availability, and vendor schedules may influence a material selection among the suitable alloys for Hg pumps.

  4. Nominative/accusative to ergative/absolutive shift in Indo-Aryan and its Proto-Indo-European sources: Reranking syntactic constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulikov, L.I.

    2004-01-01

    The nominative/accusative to ergative/absolutive shift in Indo-Aryan has been the subject of several studies; yet much remains unclear about its nature, mechanisms and reasons. It is common knowledge that at the sources of the modern Indo-Aryan ergativity lies the Sanskrit pattern with perfect

  5. Evaluation of moisture sources for the Central European summer flood of May/June 2013 based on regional climate model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanni D. Kelemen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy precipitation affected Central Europe in May/June 2013, triggering damaging floods both on the Danube and the Elbe rivers. Based on a modelling approach with COSMO-CLM, moisture fluxes, backward trajectories, cyclone tracks and precipitation fields are evaluated for the relevant time period 30 May–2 June 2013. We identify potential moisture sources and quantify their contribution to the flood event focusing on the Danube basin through sensitivity experiments: Control simulations are performed with undisturbed ERA-Interim boundary conditions, while multiple sensitivity experiments are driven with modified evaporation characteristics over selected marine and land areas. Two relevant cyclones are identified both in reanalysis and in our simulations, which moved counter-clockwise in a retrograde path from Southeastern Europe over Eastern Europe towards the northern slopes of the Alps. The control simulations represent the synoptic evolution of the event reasonably well. The evolution of the precipitation event in the control simulations shows some differences in terms of its spatial and temporal characteristics compared to observations. The main precipitation event can be separated into two phases concerning the moisture sources. Our modelling results provide evidence that the two main sources contributing to the event were the continental evapotranspiration (moisture recycling; both phases and the North Atlantic Ocean (first phase only. The Mediterranean Sea played only a minor role as a moisture source. This study confirms the importance of continental moisture recycling for heavy precipitation events over Central Europe during the summer half year.

  6. Results from the TARC experiment: spallation neutron phenomenology in lead and neutron-driven nuclear transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing.

    CERN Document Server

    Abánades, A; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Angelopoulos, Angelos; Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Arnould, H; Belle, E; Bompas, C A; Brozzi, Delecurgo; Bueno, J; Buono, S; Carminati, F; Casagrande, Federico; Cennini, P; Collar, J I; Cerro, E; Del Moral, R; Díez, S; Dumps, Ludwig; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid, M; Fernández, R; Gálvez, J; García, J; Gelès, C; Giorni, A; González, E; González, O; Goulas, I; Heuer, R D; Hussonnois, M; Kadi, Y; Karaiskos, P; Kitis, G; Klapisch, Robert; Kokkas, P; Lacoste, V; Le Naour, C; Lèpez, C; Loiseaux, J M; Martínez-Val, J M; Méplan, O; Nifenecker, H; Oropesa, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Pérez-Enciso, E; Pérez-Navarro, A; Perlado, M; Placci, A; Poza, M; Revol, Jean Pierre Charles; Rubbia, Carlo; Rubio, J A; Sakelliou, L; Saldaña, F; Savvidis, E; Schussler, F; Sirvent, C; Tamarit, J; Trubert, D; Tzima, A; Viano, J B; Vieira, S L; Vlachoudis, V; Zioutas, Konstantin; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    2000-01-01

    The results of the TARC experiment are summarized herewith, whose main purpose is to demonstrate the possibility of using Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) to destroy efficiently Long-Lived Fission Fragments (LLFFs) in accelerator-driven systems and to validate a new simulation developed in the framework of the Energy Amplifier programme. An experimental set-up was installed in a CERN PS proton beam line to study how neutrons, produced by spallation at relatively high energy (En * 1 MeV), slow down quasi adiabatically, with almost flat isolethargic energy distribution and reach the capture resonance energy of an element to be transmuted where they will have a high probability of being captured. Precision measurements of energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (using 2.5 GeV/c and 3.5 GeV/c protons) slowing down in a 3.3 m x 3.3 m x 3 m lead volume and of neutron capture rates on LLFFs 99Tc, 129I, and several other elements were performed. An appropriate formalism and appropriate computational t...

  7. {sup 48}Ti(n,xnpa{gamma}) reaction cross sections using spallation neutrons for E{sub n} = 1 to 20 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dashdorj, D; Mitchell, G E; Garrett, P E; Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Cooper, J R; Hoffman, R D; Younes, W; Devlin, N; Fotiades, N; Nelson, R O

    2005-01-06

    {gamma}-ray excitation functions have been measured for the interaction of fast neutrons with {sup 48}Ti (neutron energy from 1 MeV to 250 MeV). The Los Alamos National Laboratory spallation neutron source, at the LANSCE/WNR facility, provided a ''white'' neutron beam which is produced by bombarding a natural W target with a pulsed proton beam. The prompt-reaction {gamma} rays were measured with the large-scale Compton-suppressed Ge spectrometer, GEANIE. Neutron energies were determined by the time-of-flight technique. Excitation functions were converted to partial {gamma}-ray cross sections, taking into account the dead-time correction, the target thickness, the detector efficiency, and neutron flux (monitored with an in-line fission chamber). The data analysis is presented here for neutron energies between 1 to 20 MeV. Partial {gamma}-ray cross sections for transitions in {sup 47,48}Ti, {sup 48}Sc, and {sup 45}Ca have been determined. These results are compared to Hauser-Feshbach predictions calculated using the STAPRE code, which includes compound nuclear and pre-equilibrium emission. The partial cross sections for {gamma} rays, whose discrete {gamma}-ray cascade path leads to the ground state in {sup 48}Ti, {sup 47}Ti, {sup 48}Sc, and {sup 45}Ca have been summed to obtain estimates of the lower limits for reaction cross sections. Partial cross sections for unobserved {gamma}-rays are predicted from the STAPRE code. These lower limits are combined with Hauser-Feshbach calculations to deduce {sup 48}Ti(n,n'){sup 48}Ti, {sup 48}Ti(n,2n){sup 47}Ti, {sup 48}Ti(n,p){sup 48}Sc, and {sup 48}Ti(n,{alpha}){sup 45}Ca reaction channel cross sections.

  8. Statistical sources and methodology of elaboration for the regional, national and European energy indicators; Fonti statistiche e metodologie di elaborazione per gli indicatori energetici regionali, nazionali ed europei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianco, R.; Perrella, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-10-01

    This report is aimed to presenting the energy-economic and structural data system called EIS (energy indicators system), about the statistical sources and the different methodologies of data valuation and indicators elaboration. This system, elaborated in the activity of ERG-PROM Division of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), is aimed to analyze the energy by quantity and quality use, in the different sectors, for each final aim and for every source. In the report are defined all the procedure and unit of measure used to process the data bank, so the reader can to interpret the right meaning of the variables and indicators and can make further process.

  9. The European and Japanese outbreaks of H5N8 derive from a single source population providing evidence for the dispersal along the long distance bird migratory flyways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Dalby

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The origin of recent parallel outbreaks of the high pathogenicity H5N8 avian flu virus in Europe and in Japan can be traced to a single source population, which has most likely been spread by migratory birds. By using Bayesian coalescent methods to analyze the DNA sequences of the virus to find the times for divergence and combining this sequence data with bird migration data we can show the most likely locations and migratory pathways involved in the origin of the current outbreak. This population was most likely located in the Siberian summer breeding grounds of long-range migratory birds. These breeding grounds provide a connection between different migratory flyways and explain the current outbreaks in remote locations. By combining genetic methods and epidemiological data we can rapidly identify the sources and the dispersion pathways for novel avian influenza outbreaks.

  10. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  11. Evaluation of moisture sources for the Central European summer flood of May/June 2013 based on regional climate model simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Kelemen, Fanni D.; Ludwig, Patrick; Reyers, Mark; Ulbrich, Sven; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy precipitation affected Central Europe in May/June 2013, triggering damaging floods both on the Danube and the Elbe rivers. Based on a modelling approach with COSMO-CLM, moisture fluxes, backward trajectories, cyclone tracks and precipitation fields are evaluated for the relevant time period 30 May–2 June 2013. We identify potential moisture sources and quantify their contribution to the flood event focusing on the Danube basin through sensitivity experiments: Control simulations are per...

  12. Evaluation of moisture sources for the Central European summer flood of May/June 2013 based on regional climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Fanni Dora; Ludwig, Patrick; Reyers, Mark; Ulbrich, Sven; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-04-01

    Heavy precipitation affected Central Europe in May/June 2013, triggering damaging floods both on the Danube and the Elbe rivers. A modelling approach with COSMO-CLM is used for a detailed analysis of the evolution of the event. Moisture flux, backward trajectories, evaporation and cyclone track analysis are evaluated for the relevant time period 30 May to 2 June 2013. The aim is to identify potential moisture sources and to quantify their contribution to the flood event in the Danube basin. Control simulations with undisturbed ERA-Interim boundary conditions and sensitivity experiments with modified evaporation characteristics are performed to estimate the role of moisture evaporated from different marine and land areas. The simulated cyclone tracks and upper level flow are compared against reanalysis. Simulated precipitation amounts are validated against E-OBS precipitation data. Two relevant cyclones are identified, which moved counterclockwise in a retrograde path from Southeastern Europe over Eastern Europe towards the northern slopes of the Alps. The control simulations represent the cyclone characteristics and tracks reasonably well. The evolution of the precipitation event in the simulations shows some minor differences to the Reanalysis in terms of its spatial and temporal characteristics. Our sensitivity experiment results provide evidence that the two main sources contributing to the event were the continental evapotranspiration (moisture recycling) and the North Atlantic Ocean. The Mediterranean Sea played only a minor role as a moisture source. This study confirms the importance of continental moisture recycling for heavy precipitation events over Central Europe during the summer half year.

  13. Pulsed neutron source and instruments at neutron facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshigawara, Makoto; Aizawa, Kazuya; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Morii, Yukio; Watanabe, Noboru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    We report the results of design studies on the optimal target shape, target - moderator coupling, optimal layout of moderators, and neutron instruments for a next generation pulsed spallation source in JAERI. The source utilizes a projected high-intensity proton accelerator (linac: 1.5 GeV, {approx}8 MW in total beam power, compressor ring: {approx}5 MW). We discuss the target neutronics, moderators and their layout. The sources is designed to have at least 30 beam lines equipped with more than 40 instruments, which are selected tentatively to the present knowledge. (author)

  14. Has the burden and distribution of PCBs and PBDEs changed in European background soils between 1998 and 2008? Implications for sources and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jasmin K; Gioia, Rosalinda; Moeckel, Claudia; Agarwal, Tripti; Bucheli, Thomas D; Breivik, Knut; Steinnes, Eiliv; Jones, Kevin C

    2011-09-01

    Background soils were collected from 70 locations on a latitudinal transect in the United Kingdom and Norway in 2008, ten years after they had first been sampled in 1998. The soils were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCs), to see whether there had been any change in the loadings or distributions of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The same transect has also been used to sample air between the mid-1990s and the present, so the air and soil spatial and temporal trends provide information on air-soil transfers, source-receptor relationships, long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT), and recycling phenomena. Comparisons of the 2008 and 1998 data sets show a general decline for PBDEs in surface soil, and a smaller averaged net decline of PCBs. Changes between the years were observed for total POP concentrations in soil and also for correlations with site and sample characteristics assumed to affect those concentrations. POP concentrations were correlated to distance and strength of possible sources, a relationship that became weaker in the 2008 data. Fractionation, a commonly discussed process for the global cycling of POPs was also lost in the 2008 data. As in 1998, soil organic matter content continues to have a strong influence on the loadings of POPs in surface soils, but changes in the PCB loads were noted. These factors indicate an approach to air-surface soil equilibrium and a lessening of the influence of primary sources on POP concentrations in soil between 1998 and 2008.

  15. Genotypic characterisation by PFGE of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage types 1, 4, 6, and 8 isolated from animal and human sources in three European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laconcha, I.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Rementeria, A.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 101 strains of Salmonella Enteritidis phage types (PT) 1, 4, 6, and 8 from Denmark, England and Spain were studied by PFGE to elucidate genetic relationships among strains isolated from animal, human and environmental sources between 1983 and 1997. Analysis with Xba I, Bin I and Spe I...... profile A10-A10-A1 was predominant and specific for this phage type. It is concluded that PFGE, in combination with phage typing, represents a suitable tool for the epidemiological typing of Salmonella Enteritidis strains which could be used for investigations or surveillance of the international spread...

  16. The effects of shockwave profile shape and shock obliquity on spallation in Cu and Ta: kinetic and stress-state effects on damage evolution(u)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-14

    Widespread research over the past five decades has provided a wealth of experimental data and insight concerning shock hardening and the spallation response of materials subjected to square-topped shock-wave loading profiles. Less quantitative data have been gathered on the effect of direct, in-contact, high explosive (HE)-driven Taylor wave (or triangular-wave) loading profile shock loading on the shock hardening, damage evolution, or spallation response of materials. Explosive loading induces an impulse dubbed a 'Taylor Wave'. This is a significantly different loading history than that achieved by a square-topped impulse in terms of both the pulse duration at a fixed peak pressure, and a different unloading strain rate from the peak Hugoniot state achieved. The goal of this research is to quantify the influence of shockwave obliquity on the spallation response of copper and tantalum by subjecting plates of each material to HE-driven sweeping detonation-wave loading and quantify both the wave propagation and the post-mortem damage evolution. This talk will summarize our current understanding of damage evolution during sweeping detonation-wave spallation loading in Cu and Ta and show comparisons to modeling simulations. The spallation responses of Cu and Ta are both shown to be critically dependent on the shockwave profile and the stress-state of the shock. Based on variations in the specifics of the shock drive (pulse shape, peak stress, shock obliquity) and sample geometry in Cu and Ta, 'spall strength' varies by over a factor of two and the details of the mechanisms of the damage evolution is seen to vary. Simplistic models of spallation, such as P{sub min} based on 1-D square-top shock data lack the physics to capture the influence of kinetics on damage evolution such as that operative during sweeping detonation loading. Such considerations are important for the development of predictive models of damage evolution and spallation in metals

  17. Imported poultry meat as a source of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant CMY-2-producing Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Minnesota in the European Union, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Joana; Mourão, Joana; Silveira, Leonor; Saraiva, Margarida; Correia, Cristina Belo; Maçãs, Ana Paula; Peixe, Luísa; Antunes, Patrícia

    2018-01-01

    Extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Salmonella have been described at a low level in the EU, nevertheless the increasing importation of poultry meat could be an important source of epidemic strains carrying ESC resistance genes. This study evaluated ESC resistance and its genetic platform among Salmonella isolates from poultry meat products imported into Portugal as well as clonal relatedness of the isolates. All Salmonella isolates recovered from samples of fresh meat destined for import into the EU in the scope of Portuguese official border control (2014-2015) were studied. Antibiotic susceptibility and β-lactamase production was determined by disk diffusion/microdilution. Molecular studies included detection of genes encoding acquired AmpC and extended-spectrum β-lactamases, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance and other antibiotic resistance genes by PCR/sequencing, and clonality by MLST and XbaI-PFGE. Plasmid characterisation was assessed by conjugation assays, replicon typing (PCR-PBRT/pMLST) and hybridisation experiments (I-CeuI/S1-PFGE nuclease). Isolates belonged to Salmonella Heidelberg (n = 6; ST15/eBG26) and Salmonella Minnesota (n = 1; ST548/eBG77) and presented multidrug-resistant profiles, including to ESCs and/or fluoroquinolones. All but one carried blaCMY-2, located on two epidemic plasmids, IncA/C (ST2, n = 5) or transferable IncI1 (ST12, n = 1). Salmonella Heidelberg was associated with five PFGE types, including one similar to an American epidemic clone. This study reveals imported poultry products as a source of uncommon and/or invasive ESC-resistant Salmonella strains in the EU. The increase of clinically relevant poultry-related serotypes in Europe must be taken into account in the current monitoring of antibiotic resistance trends and in re-evaluation of food regulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  18. Modelling winter organic aerosol at the European scale with CAMx: evaluation and source apportionment with a VBS parameterization based on novel wood burning smog chamber experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciarelli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated a modified VBS (volatility basis set scheme to treat biomass-burning-like organic aerosol (BBOA implemented in CAMx (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions. The updated scheme was parameterized with novel wood combustion smog chamber experiments using a hybrid VBS framework which accounts for a mixture of wood burning organic aerosol precursors and their further functionalization and fragmentation in the atmosphere. The new scheme was evaluated for one of the winter EMEP intensive campaigns (February–March 2009 against aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements performed at 11 sites in Europe. We found a considerable improvement for the modelled organic aerosol (OA mass compared to our previous model application with the mean fractional bias (MFB reduced from −61 to −29 %. We performed model-based source apportionment studies and compared results against positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis performed on OA AMS data. Both model and observations suggest that OA was mainly of secondary origin at almost all sites. Modelled secondary organic aerosol (SOA contributions to total OA varied from 32 to 88 % (with an average contribution of 62 % and absolute concentrations were generally under-predicted. Modelled primary hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA and primary biomass-burning-like aerosol (BBPOA fractions contributed to a lesser extent (HOA from 3 to 30 %, and BBPOA from 1 to 39 % with average contributions of 13 and 25 %, respectively. Modelled BBPOA fractions were found to represent 12 to 64 % of the total residential-heating-related OA, with increasing contributions at stations located in the northern part of the domain. Source apportionment studies were performed to assess the contribution of residential and non-residential combustion precursors to the total SOA. Non-residential combustion and road transportation sector contributed about 30–40 % to SOA formation (with increasing

  19. Modelling winter organic aerosol at the European scale with CAMx: evaluation and source apportionment with a VBS parameterization based on novel wood burning smog chamber experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; El Haddad, Imad; Bruns, Emily A.; Crippa, Monica; Poulain, Laurent; Äijälä, Mikko; Carbone, Samara; Freney, Evelyn; O'Dowd, Colin; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-06-01

    We evaluated a modified VBS (volatility basis set) scheme to treat biomass-burning-like organic aerosol (BBOA) implemented in CAMx (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions). The updated scheme was parameterized with novel wood combustion smog chamber experiments using a hybrid VBS framework which accounts for a mixture of wood burning organic aerosol precursors and their further functionalization and fragmentation in the atmosphere. The new scheme was evaluated for one of the winter EMEP intensive campaigns (February-March 2009) against aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements performed at 11 sites in Europe. We found a considerable improvement for the modelled organic aerosol (OA) mass compared to our previous model application with the mean fractional bias (MFB) reduced from -61 to -29 %. We performed model-based source apportionment studies and compared results against positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis performed on OA AMS data. Both model and observations suggest that OA was mainly of secondary origin at almost all sites. Modelled secondary organic aerosol (SOA) contributions to total OA varied from 32 to 88 % (with an average contribution of 62 %) and absolute concentrations were generally under-predicted. Modelled primary hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and primary biomass-burning-like aerosol (BBPOA) fractions contributed to a lesser extent (HOA from 3 to 30 %, and BBPOA from 1 to 39 %) with average contributions of 13 and 25 %, respectively. Modelled BBPOA fractions were found to represent 12 to 64 % of the total residential-heating-related OA, with increasing contributions at stations located in the northern part of the domain. Source apportionment studies were performed to assess the contribution of residential and non-residential combustion precursors to the total SOA. Non-residential combustion and road transportation sector contributed about 30-40 % to SOA formation (with increasing contributions at urban and near

  20. Evaluation of moisture sources of the Central European summer flood of May/June 2013 based on an ensemble of regional climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Fanni D.; Ludwig, Patrick; Reyers, Mark; Ulbrich, Sven; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2015-04-01

    In May/June 2013, heavy precipitation hit Central Europe, triggering damaging floods both on the Danube and on Elbe basins. In this study, we perform a detailed analysis of the synoptic development of the event based on an ensemble of regional climate model simulations performed with the COSMO-CLM. Simulations are performed with reanalysis data boundary conditions in multiple set-ups and horizontal resolutions of 0.375° and 0.125°. In particular, the aim is to identify potential moisture sources, and how they contributed to the event quantitatively. A control simulation with undisturbed (reanalysis) boundary conditions and sensitivity experiments with modified evaporation characteristics are performed to distinguish the role of moisture evaporated from marine and land areas. To keep the structure of the simulations close to reality as possible, spectral nudging is applied on the upper level atmospheric wind fields. For all simulations, the synoptic situations and cyclone tracks are evaluated against an independent reanalysis dataset, and simulated precipitation amounts are validated against E-OBS precipitation data. In general, the upper level atmospheric characteristics, which trigger the cyclones, are similar in the simulations compared to the reanalysis. Moreover, the time evolution of the precipitation event is well simulated. Nevertheless there are some differences in the spatial and temporal distribution of the precipitation. In both, the reanalysis and the control simulation, the cyclones relevant for this event were moving westward (retrograde movement), counterclockwise from the Mediterranean region over Eastern Europe towards the northern slopes of the Alps. The pre-existing moist soil over East and Central Europe and the circulation associated with the cyclones contributed to intense evapotranspiration, and thus the westward propagating cyclones brought a lot of moisture along their tracks towards Central Europe. The sensitivity studies performed with

  1. Light nuclides produced in the proton-induced spallation of {sup 238}U at 1 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardi, M.V.; Armbruster, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Benlliure, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (ES)] [and others

    2005-09-01

    The production of light and intermediate-mass nuclides formed in the reaction {sup 1}H+{sup 238}U at 1 GeV was measured at the fragment separator (FRS) at GSI, Darmstadt. The experiment was performed in inverse kinematics, shooting a 1 A GeV {sup 238}U beam on a thin liquid-hydrogen target. 254 isotopes of all elements in the range 7{<=}Z{<=}37 were unambiguously identified, and the velocity distributions of the produced nuclides were determined with high precision. The results show that the nuclides are produced in a very asymmetric binary decay of heavy nuclei originating from the spallation of uranium. All the features of the produced nuclides merge with the characteristics of the fission products as their mass increases. (orig.)

  2. European Vegetation Archive (EVA): an integrated database of European vegetation plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chytrý, M; Hennekens, S M; Jiménez-Alfaro, B

    2015-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and regional...... data source for large-scale analyses of European vegetation diversity both for fundamental research and nature conservation applications. Updated information on EVA is available online at http://euroveg.org/eva-database....

  3. Investigations on the electron bunch distribution in the longitudinal phase space at a laser driven RF electron source for the European X-FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roensch, Juliane

    2010-01-15

    The Photoinjector Test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site, (PITZ) is aiming for the optimization of electron guns for SAS-FELs. For this it is necessary to investigate the characteristics of the six dimensional phase space of the bunch produced by a photoinjector. This thesis is focused on the analysis of the longitudinal properties of the electron bunch distribution, this means the temporal current distribution and the momentum distribution as well as the correlation of both properties. The complete distribution of the electron bunch in longitudinal phase space of a photoinjector was measured directly for the first time at a beam momentum of about 5 MeV/c, using an existing apparatus. This system had been designed for an accelerating gradient of 40 MV/m. Its subcomponents were analysed to understand sources of uncertainties of the measurement system. The usage of higher accelerating gradients in the gun (60 MV/m, resulting in a beam momentum of about 6.8 MeV/c) demands major modifications of the existing measurement system for the longitudinal phase space distribution. An upgrade of the facility by an additional accelerating cavity required the design of further longitudinal diagnostics systems for the analysis at higher momenta (up to 40 MeV/c). Measurements of the longitudinal beam properties to determine the influence of different operation parameters, like RF launch phase, charge, accelerating field gradient and laser distribution were performed and compared to simulations. (orig.)

  4. European energy security : Challenges and green opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmati, Almas; Abolhosseini, Shahrouz

    2017-01-01

    This research reviews relevant literature on the current state and effectiveness of developing renewable energy on energy security in general, and on energy security in the European Union in particular. The paper elaborates on primary energy import sources, possible alternatives, and how energy security is affected by the sources of supply. It also gives an analysis of the effects of the Ukrainian crisis, the isolation of Iran on diversification sources, and on European energy security. It ex...

  5. Cross section measurements of the yield of spallation reactions related to the study of hybrid reactor systems; Measures de sections efficaces de production de produits de reactions en rapport avec l`etude de systemes de reacteurs hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernas, M.; Mustapha, B.; Stephan, C. [Experimental Research Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)] [and others

    1999-11-01

    Studies presently developed on the design of hybrid systems need the knowledge of spallation products and their production rate. To obtain this information we have performed cross-section measurements using the inverse kinematical method. (authors) 2 figs.

  6. Science facilities and stakeholder management: how a pan-European research facility ended up in a small Swedish university town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasson, Anna; Carlile, Colin

    2017-06-01

    This is the story of how a large research facility of broad European and global interest, the European Spallation Source (ESS), ended up in the small university town of Lund in Sweden. This happened in spite of the fact that a number of influential European countries were at one time or another competitors to host the facility. It is also a story about politics which attempts to illustrate how closely intertwined politics and science are, and how the interplay between those interests affects scientific progress. ESS became an arena for individual ambitions and political manoeuvring. The different stakeholders, in their striving to ensure that their own interests were realised, in various ways and with different degrees of success over the years, have influenced the key decisions that, during the already 30 year history of ESS, have driven the course that this project has taken. What emerges is that the interests of the stakeholders and the interests of the project itself are frequently not in harmony. This imposes challenges on the management of large research facilities as they have to not only navigate in the scientific landscape, which they often are more familiar with, but also in the political landscape. This story is therefore an attempt to shed light on the role of managers of large research facilities and the often delicate balancing act they have to perform when trying to comply with the different and often conflicting stakeholder interests. What is especially worthwhile examining, as we do in this paper, is the role that individuals, and the interaction between individuals, have played in the process. This shows that the focus of stakeholder theory on organisations, rather than the people in the organisations, needs to be redirected on to the individuals representing those organisations and their inter-relationships. At the same time it is clear that the developing field of stakeholder management theory has not emerged into the consciousness of science

  7. Analysis of the spallation residues and the associated particles in the reaction Fe+p at 1 GeV per nucleon; Analyse des residus de spallation et des particules associees dans la reaction Fe+p a 1 GeV par nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gentil, E

    2006-09-15

    SPALADIN is a new type of spallation experiment that has been carried out at the GSI accelerator facility (Germany) in order to improve the modelling of the spallation reaction. This experiment is based on the coincidence measurement in inverse kinematics of the spallation residues and the de-excitation fragments. This work presents the analysis of Fe{sup 56} + p reaction at 1 GeV per nucleon. Results on cross-sections and heavy residue velocity spectra are compared to previous data and enabled us to characterize the setup. Most of the element production cross-sections have been obtained with an uncertainty below 10 per cent. In the particular case of helium, its production cross-section has been measured to be {sigma}(1 GeV) = (598 {+-} 67) mb. The knowledge of this cross-section is important to assess the irradiation damage undergone by the window separating the accelerator from the target. The study of the de-excitation of the pre-fragment shows that the evaporation of light particles (Z {<=} 2) is the main way of de-excitation whatever the collision centrality. However, the de-excitation through the emission of intermediate mass fragments is observed in 5% of the events and most of these events correspond to a very asymmetric binary breaking. The velocity distributions of light residues (with regards to the mass of the projectile) show a significant disagreement with the average velocities predicted by spallation codes. (A.C.)

  8. Measurement of the spallation reaction {sup 56}Fe+p in inverse kinematics; Messung der Spallationsreaktion {sup 56}Fe+p in inverser Kinematik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, M.

    2006-09-25

    In this work the spallation reaction {sup 56}Fe+p was investigated in inverse kinematics with regard to complete identification of the heavy residues. A ring imaging Cerenkov counter was used for velocity measurements in the experimental setup located at GSI in Darmstadt. A new fast readout electronic was developed and has been operated successfully in the experiment. Momentum reconstruction was carried out with the ALADiN spectrometer and a new software package written for this purpose. Cross sections and velocity distributions for more than 100 mass separated isotopes could be extracted from the dataset and compared with empirical models and other spallation experiments. The experiences gained in this experiment will be used for systematic improvements in the setup of the new spectrometer R3B at FAIR. (orig.)

  9. ENERGY POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Pazderníková, Kamila

    2006-01-01

    This work focuses on the reasons and beginnings of creation of European energy policy, the role of environment in this policy and different kinds of energy sources with special focus on the renewable ones. The hot topic of liberalization of European energy policy is also discussed. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)

  10. Volume and Surface-Enhanced Volume Negative Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Stockli, M.P.

    2013-12-16

    H- volume sources and, especially, caesiated H- volume sources are important ion sources for generating high-intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This chapter discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium-enhanced (surface) production of H- ions. Starting with Bacal's discovery of the H- volume production, the chapter briefly recounts the development of some H- sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H- beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding caesiated surfaces to supplement the volume-produced ions with surface-produced ions, as illustrated with other H- sources. Finally, the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H- output and in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source.

  11. Isotopic production cross-sections and recoil velocities of spallation-fission fragments in the reaction 238U(1A GeV)+e

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, J; Wlazlo, W; Benlliure, J; Casarejos, E; Armbruster, P; Bernas, M; Enqvist, T; Legrain, R; Leray, S; Rejmund, F; Mustapha, B; Schmidt, K.-H; Stéphan, C; Taïeb, J; Tassan-Got, L; Volant, C; Boudard, A; Czajkowski, S; 10.1103/PhysRevC.75.014602

    2007-01-01

    Fission fragments of 1A GeV 238U nuclei interacting with a deuterium target have been investigatedwith the Fragment Separator (FRS) at GSI (Darmstadt) by measuring their isotopicproduction cross-sections and recoil velocities. The results, along with those obtained recently forspallation-evaporation fragments, provide a comprehensive analysis of the spallation nuclear productionsin the reaction 238U(1A GeV)+d. Details about experiment performance, data reductionand results will be presented.

  12. Accumulation of the $^{178m2}Hf$ Isomeric Nuclei Through Spallation with Intermediate-Energy Protons of Tantalum and Rhenium Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Karamian, S A; Adam, J; Filossofov, D V; Henzlova, D; Henzl, V; Kalinnikov, V G; Lebedev, N A; Novgorodov, A F; Collins, C B; Popescu, I I; Ur, C A

    2001-01-01

    The productivity of the spallation reactions at proton energies of 100-660 MeV for accumulation of the radioactive isotopes and isomers has been studied experimentally. Spectra of Ta and Re targets activated at Dubna synchrocyclotron were measured using the methods of radiochemistry and gamma-spectroscopy. Many radioactive products of the spallation and fission reactions are identified, and their yields are compared with the LAHET code simulations. Cross sections, \\sigma_m and isomer-to-ground state ratios, \\sigma_m/\\sigma_g are deduced for nuclear isomers, in particular, for high-spin isomers, as ^{179m2}Hf, ^{179m2}Hf and ^{177m2}Lu. Spin distributions for the spallation-residue nuclei are estimated to understand the \\sigma_m/\\sigma_g ratios. Possibilities to optimize the methods for the long-lived isomers production are discussed, and it would be a necessary step on the way to accumulate such exotic radionuclides in milligram amount under reasonable cost and radiation safety conditions.

  13. Influence of Shock-Wave Profile Shape (``Taylor-Wave'' versus Square-Topped) on the Shock-Hardening and Spallation Response of 316L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, G. T.; Bourne, N. K.; Millett, J. C. F.; Lopez, M. F.

    2004-07-01

    While much has been learned over the past five decades concerning shock hardening and the spallation response of materials shock-loaded using "square-topped" shock profiles, achieved via flyer plate loading, considerably less quantitative information is known concerning direct in-contact HE-driven or triangular-wave loading profile shock prestraining on metals and alloys. In this paper the influence of shock-wave profile, using both "square-topped" and triangular-wave pulses, on the shock hardening and spallation response of 316L stainless steel is presented. The shock hardening in 316L SS, using a triangular-shaped pulse and square-topped pulse (pulse duration of 0.75 μsec) to a peak shock pressure of 6.6 GPa was found to be reasonably similar. Square-wave loading at 6.6 GPa is observed to result in incipient spallation in 316L SS while triangular-wave loading to an equivalent peak stress is quantified to exhibit no wave-profile "pull-back" nor damage evolution.

  14. Good or bad credits from European sources?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    statsbudgetter kunne aflastes væsentligt gennem låntagning på EU-plan, hvorigennem grebet i skatteborgernes lommer kunne mindskes. Via kapitalmarkederne kunne opsparing omsættes i investeringer, hvis der forelå enighed om fornuftige projekter som f.eks. på energi- og klimaområdet med massiv støtte til el...

  15. Good or bad credits from European sources?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    statsbudgetter kunne aflastes væsentligt gennem låntagning på EU-plan, hvorigennem grebet i skatteborgernes lommer kunne mindskes. Via kapitalmarkederne kunne opsparing omsættes i investeringer, hvis der forelå enighed om fornuftige projekter som f.eks. på energi- og klimaområdet med massiv støtte til el...

  16. Design of an experimental device dedicated to the measurement of spallation reactions; Mise au point d'un dispositif experimental pour des mesures exclusives des reactions de spallation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafriakh, A

    2005-12-15

    Spallation mechanisms are not yet completely understood, especially because of the difficulty of experimentally disentangling the effects of the different steps of the reaction. In order to understand these mechanisms, we have developed a new experimental device able to perform inclusive measurements. We propose a detection system based on a combination of ionization chambers and proportional counters and on a wall of plastic scintillators to measure light charged particles. In particular the detection of light charged particles is described in detail. In order to validate our device, we have compared our preliminary results obtained on the Fe{sup 56} + p system at 1 GeV/u with inclusive measurements previously obtained at the FRS spectrometer of the GSI facility. A comparison of charge differential cross section shows reasonable agreement. However, our new device allowed extension of those measurements down to Z = 1 and Z = 2. These cross sections are important for material damage studies. Taking into account our error brackets, the evolution of mean longitudinal velocities with respect to residue masses is comparable to that obtained at the FRS. These first results, although preliminary, allow us to validate our experimental device. It is now possible to exploit the strong points of our exclusive measurements, namely correlations between different measured observables. Finally, experimental problems encountered will be taken into account in the future experimental programs, in order to ensure the best measurements conditions.

  17. Studies of a lead reflector for a pulsed neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.D.; Russell, G.J.; Meier, M.M.; Robinson, H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the consequences of adopting a non-moderating reflector and compares its performance to that of beryllium. Reflector studies on a time modulated source have shown lead to be an excellent reflector, maintaining the structure of the long time pulse (500 ..mu..s) marginally better than beryllium and with a slightly superior yield. Engineering, fabrication and cost factors as well as improved gamma and fast neutron shielding properties further favour lead as a reflector for these sources. Even for truly pulsed sources which rely primarily on time of flight for energy selection, Monte Carlo studies have shown that a lead reflector maintains an excellent time structure in hydrogenous moderators in the slowing down region. This paper describes the experimental comparison of lead and beryllium reflectors for the case of a pulsed spallation source. The target-moderator-reflector configuration used was a mock-up of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory's SNS geometry. The experiments were performed in the low current target area of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's spallation source, the WNR. This work was complemented by Monte Carlo calculations using the TIMOC code.

  18. Development of the DCHAIN-SP code for analyzing decay and build-up characteristics of spallation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kosako, Kazuaki

    1999-03-01

    For analyzing the decay and build-up characteristics of spallation products, the DCHAIN-SP code has been developed on the basis of the DCHAIN-2 code by revising the decay data and implementing the neutron cross section data. The decay data are newly processed from the data libraries of EAF 3.1, FENDL/D-1 and ENSDF. The neutron cross section data taken from FENDL/A-2 data library are also prepared to take account of the transmutation of nuclides by the neutron field at the produced position. The DCHAIN-SP code solves the time evolution of decay and build-up of nuclides in every decay chain by the Beteman method. The code can estimate the following physical quantities of produced nuclides: inventory, activity, decay heat by the emission of {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma}-rays, and {gamma}-ray energy spectrum, where the nuclide production rate estimated by the nucleon-meson transport code such as NMTC/JAERI97 is used as an input data. This paper describes about the function, the solution model and the database adopted in the code and explains how to use the code. (author)

  19. Monte carlo simulations of the n_TOF lead spallation target with the Geant4 toolkit: A benchmark study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerendegui-Marco J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo (MC simulations are an essential tool to determine fundamental features of a neutron beam, such as the neutron flux or the γ-ray background, that sometimes can not be measured or at least not in every position or energy range. Until recently, the most widely used MC codes in this field had been MCNPX and FLUKA. However, the Geant4 toolkit has also become a competitive code for the transport of neutrons after the development of the native Geant4 format for neutron data libraries, G4NDL. In this context, we present the Geant4 simulations of the neutron spallation target of the n_TOF facility at CERN, done with version 10.1.1 of the toolkit. The first goal was the validation of the intra-nuclear cascade models implemented in the code using, as benchmark, the characteristics of the neutron beam measured at the first experimental area (EAR1, especially the neutron flux and energy distribution, and the time distribution of neutrons of equal kinetic energy, the so-called Resolution Function. The second goal was the development of a Monte Carlo tool aimed to provide useful calculations for both the analysis and planning of the upcoming measurements at the new experimental area (EAR2 of the facility.

  20. [Consumption patterns and the principal sources of lipids and fatty acids in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation on Diet and Cancer (EPIC). The EPIC Group in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-06

    To evaluate the fat consumption and main sources of specific fatty acids in adults from the south and north of Spain. Dietary data from 25,816 women and 15,635 men, aged 29-69 years, participants in the European Prospective Study on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) recruited in the north (Asturias, Navarra and Guipúzcoa) and south (Murcia and Granada) of Spain, were used in a cross-sectional study. Information of habitual diet was collected by personal interview by means a computerized version of a diet history questionnaire. Energy and nutrient intake was estimated using a conversion table of more than 700 items compiled for the study in Spain. Saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) provided respectively between 11.2 to 13.3%, 15.6 to 20.0% and 5.6 to 7.4% of total calories intake. MUFA/SFA ratio showed values from 1.7 in males to 1.3 in females, the PUFA/SFA ratio showed values from 0.7 in males to 0.5 in males and females, and the n-6/n-3 ratio showed values from 10.8 in females to 7.4 in males. Olive oil was the major contributor (78% in women and 67% in men) of vegetable oils intake, which provides between 7 to 8% of total calories intake and between 31 to 48% of MUFA intake. Daily intake of n-3 fatty acids from fish was between 0.3 to 1.2 g. In most of the provinces whole milk and cheeses in women and preserved meat in men were the major contributors of SFA intake while contribution of red meat was less important. Patterns of fat consumption in adult population from the north and south of Spain are very similar.

  1. EUROPEAN AUSTERITY WITHOUT GROWTH? EUROPEAN GROWTH WITHOUT EUROPEAN DEMOCRACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montani Guido

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European project is facing a crisis. Citizens no longer understand what the EU is about. Young people and the new ruling class have forgotten the clear message of the European project launched just after the Second World War "No wars ever again among Europeans." The founding fathers of the European Union are mentioned in history textbooks, but today Europe is felt as an irritating bureaucracy. In Europe, peace and economic stability are considered as a natural state, a gift from above. Why keep a useless EU alive? The state of the European Union is swiftly degenerating. In almost all the member states, the anti-European forces are gaining ground. Populism is not a new ideology and is not necessarily European: let's recall Peronism. In today's Europe populism is the new manifestation of nationalism. In Italy the Lega Nord is in Berlusconi's eurosceptic government. In France, the National Front is endangering UMP's hegemony. In Belgium the rows between the Flemish and the Walloons threatens the state's unity. In the Netherlands, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Austria and Finland, populist forces are either in the government or strongly influencing the government. National-populism is different from the nationalism of the past. De Gaulle's nationalism was an ideology founded on the "grandeur" of France's history and on a certain idea of Europe, which was "l'Europe de patrie", a kind of European unity accepting French leadership in world politics. Today national-populism is a form of micro-nationalism: it opposes the European project but without having a serious alternative. This is why populism is dangerous. Its real goal is not only the breaking down of the European Union but also the disintegration of the old nation states into micro-ethnic states, as what happened in former Yugoslavia.

  2. Turkey and European Security Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    relationships between Turkey, the United States, the Kurds, and Europe. As a source often critical of Turkey and the United States ( Noam Chomsky ...2008, http://consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/080220Altheaupdate10. pdf . 129 Ibid. 130 Ibid. 131 Ibid. 132 The Council of the European Union...Factsheet, “EU Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (EUPM),” March 2006, http://consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/Factsheet_060312. pdf . 48

  3. Coprecipitation experiment with Sm hydroxide using a multitracer produced by nuclear spallation reaction: A tool for chemical studies with superheavy elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Yoshitaka; Yokokita, Takuya; Toyomura, Keigo; Shigekawa, Yudai; Haba, Hiromitsu; Kanaya, Jumpei; Huang, Minghui; Ezaki, Yutaka; Yoshimura, Takashi; Morita, Kosuke; Shinohara, Atsushi

    2016-12-01

    To establish a new methodology for superheavy element chemistry, the coprecipitation behaviors of 34 elements with samarium hydroxide were investigated using multitracer produced by a spallation of Ta. The chemical reactions were rapidly equilibrated within 10s for many elements. In addition, these elements exhibited individual coprecipitation behaviors, and the behaviors were qualitatively related to their hydroxide precipitation behaviors. It was demonstrated that the ammine and hydroxide complex formations of superheavy elements could be investigated using the established method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of sweeping detonation-wave loading on damage evolution during spallation loading of tantalum in both a planar and curved geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, George Thompson III [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hull, Lawrence Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Livescu, Veronica [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Faulkner, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Briggs, Matthew E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meyer, Ross Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andrews, Heather Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hare, Steven John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jakulewicz, Micah Shawn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Shinas, Michael A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Widespread research over the past five decades has provided a wealth of experimental data and insight concerning the shock hardening, damage evolution, and the spallation response of materials subjected to square-topped shock-wave loading profiles. However, fewer quantitative studies have been conducted on the effect of direct, in-contact, high explosive (HE)-driven Taylor wave (unsupported shocks) loading on the shock hardening, damage evolution, or spallation response of materials. Systematic studies quantifying the effect of sweeping-detonation wave loading are yet sparser. In this study, the damage evolution and spallation response of Ta is shown to be critically dependent on the peak shock stress, the geometry of the sample (flat or curved plate geometry), and the shock obliquity during sweeping-detonation-wave shock loading. Sweepingwave loading in the flat-plate geometry is observed to: a) yield a lower spall strength than previously documented for 1-D supported-shock-wave loading, b) exhibit increased shock hardening as a function of increasing obliquity, and c) lead to an increased incidence of deformation twin formation with increasing shock obliquity. Sweeping-wave loading of a 10 cm radius curved Ta plate is observed to: a) lead to an increase in the shear stress as a function of increasing obliquity, b) display a more developed level of damage evolution, extensive voids and coalescence, and lower spall strength with obliquity in the curved plate than seen in the flat-plate sweeping-detonation wave loading for an equivalent HE loading, and c) no increased propensity for deformation twin formation with increasing obliquity as seen in the flat-plate geometry. The overall observations comparing and contrasting the flat versus curved sweeping-wave spall experiments with 1D loaded spallation behavior suggests a coupled influence of obliquity and geometry on dynamic shock-induced damage evolution and spall strength. Coupled experimental and modeling research

  5. Spallation neutron production by 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6 GeV protons on various targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, S.; Borne, F.; Crespin, S.; Fréhaut, J.; Ledoux, X.; Martinez, E.; Patin, Y.; Petibon, E.; Pras, P.; Boudard, A.; Legrain, R.; Terrien, Y.; Brochard, F.; Drake, D.; Duchazeaubeneix, J. C.; Durand, J. M.; Meigo, S. I.; Milleret, G.; Whittal, D. M.; Wlazlo, W.; Durand, D.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, F. R.; Lecolley, J. F.; Lefebvres, F.; Louvel, M.; Varignon, C.; Hanappe, F.; Ménard, S.; Stuttge, L.; Thun, J.

    2002-04-01

    Spallation neutron production in proton induced reactions on Al, Fe, Zr, W, Pb, and Th targets at 1.2 GeV and on Fe and Pb at 0.8 and 1.6 GeV measured at the SATURNE accelerator in Saclay is reported. The experimental double differential cross sections are compared with calculations performed with different intranuclear cascade models implemented in high energy transport codes. The broad angular coverage also allowed the determination of average neutron multiplicities above 2 MeV. Deficiencies in some of the models commonly used for applications are pointed out.

  6. Spallation Neutron Production by 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6 GeV Protons on Pb Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, X.; Borne, F.; Boudard, A.; Brochard, F.; Crespin, S.; Drake, D.; Duchazeaubeneix, J. C.; Durand, D.; Durand, J. M.; Fréhaut, J.; Hanappe, F.; Kowalski, L.; Lebrun, C.; Lecolley, F. R.; Lecolley, J. F.; Lefebvres, F.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Louvel, M.; Martinez, E.; Meigo, S. I.; Ménard, S.; Milleret, G.; Patin, Y.; Petibon, E.; Plouin, F.; Pras, P.; Stuttge, L.; Terrien, Y.; Thun, J.; Uematsu, M.; Varignon, C.; Whittal, D. M.; Wlazło, W.

    1999-05-01

    Spallation neutron production in proton induced reactions on Pb targets at 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6 GeV has been measured at the SATURNE accelerator. Double-differential cross sections were obtained over a broad angular range from which averaged neutron multiplicities per reaction were inferred for energies above 2 MeV. The results are compared with calculations performed with a high energy transport code including two different intranuclear cascade (INC) models: it is shown that the Cugnon INC model gives a better agreement with the data than the Bertini one, mainly because of improved nucleon-nucleon cross sections and Pauli blocking treatment.

  7. Regional Economic Integration: The European Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Jacquet

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional initiatives have flourished since the end of the Cold War. Given the degree of integration it has achieved, the European Union is often cited as a model of regional integration. This article argues that European integration has been the product of very specific historical conditions, implying that the politics and dynamics of regional integration in Europe may not be appropriate for and replicable in other regions. It also discusses European monetary union (EMU and argues that integration within EMU is still incomplete in particular because economic policies are not sufficiently coordinated. Finally, it discusses the contribution of regional integration to global governance and suggests that the "European model" can be a source of inspiration for the rest of the world not as much as a process to emulate as for the lessons that can be learned from the dynamics and experience of European integration about some important issues in managing economic interdependence.

  8. The european union as subjects of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fila R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the international level it is recognized that development and progress of the new and unique international organization – European Union – is one of the appropriate form of the international organization’s integration. Although European Union was establish as international economic organization, it has gradually integrated the various “best practices” ideas from different governmental systems. Encouragement and motives for cooperation of Member states indicate that member states give more competences of government to the international organization’s institutes. Wherewith, it is observed that the economic and political internationalization has led to disappearance of integrity of territory of member states. The above mentioned opinion is not based on research of the European Union as international organization from standpoint of international law, but from standpoint of theory law – could give juridical estimate regarding executive power in European Union and who could define particular source and entity of administrative law of European Union.

  9. Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generatora)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnikov, V.; Johnson, R. P.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2012-02-01

    A prototype RF H- surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA/kW. Control experiments with H- beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing.

  10. Educating in European Identity?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enrique Banús

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades, the claim for a "European identity" has been manifested sometimes as a solution for the citizens' distance to the European project, sometimes also as a precondition for a further...

  11. The European radon mapping project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P., E-mail: pbossew@bfs.de [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Tollefsen, T.; Gruber, V.; De Cort, M., E-mail: tore.tollefsen@jrc.ec.europa.eu, E-mail: valeria.gruber@gmail.com, E-mail: marc.de-cort@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Ispra, VA (Italy). DG Joint Research Centre. European Commission

    2013-07-01

    There is almost unanimous agreement that indoor radon (Rn) represents a hazard to human health. Large-scale epidemiological studies gave evidence that Rn is the second-most important cause o flung cancer after smoking and that also relatively low Rn concentrations can be detrimental. This has increasingly led to attempts to limit Rn exposure through regulation, mainly building codes. The proposed Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) require Member States to establish Rn action plans aimed at reducing Rn risk, and to set reference values for Imitating indoor Rn concentration. In 2006 the JRC started a project on mapping Rn at the European level, in addition and complementary lo (but not as a substitute for) national efforts. These maps are part of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation project. which is planned eventually 10 comprise geographical assessments of ali sources of exposure to natural radiation. Started first, a map of indoor Rn is now in an advanced phase, but still incomplete as national Rn surveys are ongoing in a number of European countries. A European map of geogenic Rn, conceptually and technically more complicated, was started in 2008. The main difficulty encountered is heterogeneity of survey designs, measurement and evaluation methods and database semantics and structures. An important part or the work on the Atlas is therefore to harmonize data and methods. We present the current state of the Rn maps and discuss some of the methodological challenges. (author)

  12. Europeanization and transnational states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsson, Bengt; Lægreid, Per; Pedersen, Ove K.

    This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization and the transforma......This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization...... in central government agencies. It concludes that the consequences of Europeanization can be described as the growth of a transnational administration where identities as well as loyalties are created in processes that transcend the borders of states....

  13. Standard Practice for Conducting Irradiations at Accelerator-Based Neutron Sources

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for irradiations at accelerator-based neutron sources. The discussion focuses on two types of sources, namely nearly monoenergetic 14-MeV neutrons from the deuterium-tritium T(d,n) interaction, and broad spectrum neutrons from stopping deuterium beams in thick beryllium or lithium targets. However, most of the recommendations also apply to other types of accelerator-based sources, including spallation neutron sources (1). Interest in spallation sources has increased recently due to their proposed use for transmutation of fission reactor waste (2). 1.2 Many of the experiments conducted using such neutron sources are intended to simulate irradiation in another neutron spectrum, for example, that from a DT fusion reaction. The word simulation is used here in a broad sense to imply an approximation of the relevant neutron irradiation environment. The degree of conformity can range from poor to nearly exact. In general, the intent of these simulations is to establish the fundam...

  14. MAPPING EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS TENDENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Avadanei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the main tendencies influencing European capitalmarkets development. In order to point out their implications, we structured our study onfour chapters. The first one illustrates the consolidation of stock exchanges at the Europeanlevel; the seconds presents some considerations about the deregulation/re-regulation of EUcapital markets; the third section highlights the globalization implications on their evolutionand the fourth one indicates the effects of financial innovation. The progressive integrationof European capital markets over the past decade contributed to the lowering of capital costas a result of increased risk diversification opportunities and reduced transaction costs dueto the specialization of financial system provisions. Moreover, the expansion of thesemarkets improved firms financing decisions, leading to an increased share of non-bankfunding sources.

  15. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, together with a project extension from 36 to 44 months. The project is co-funded by the European Commission's Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) and will end in October 2016. In broad terms, the ELF Project will deliver a unique gateway to the authoritative reference geospatial information for Europe (harmonised pan-European maps, geographic and land information) sourced from the National Mapping and Cadastral Authorities (NMCAs) around Europe and including transparent licensing. This will be provided as an online ELF web service that will deliver an up-to-date topographic base map and also as view & download services for access to the ELF datasets. To develop and build up the ELF, NMCAs are accompanied and collaborate with several research & academia institutes, a standardisation body, system integrators, software developers and application providers. The harmonisation is in progress developing and triggering a number of geo-tools like edge-matching, generalisation, transformation and others. ELF will provide also some centralised tools like Geo Locator for searching location based on geographical names, addresses and administrative units, and GeoProduct Finder for discovering the available web-services and licensing them. ELF combines national reference geo-information through the ELF platform. ELF web services will be offered to users and application developers through open source (OSKARI) and proprietary (ArcGIS Online) cloud platforms. Recently, 29 NMCAs plus the

  16. The European XFEL Project

    CERN Document Server

    Trunk, U

    2008-01-01

    The European XFEL project is a 4th generation photon source to be built in Hamburg. Electron bunches, accelerated to 17.5GeV by the XFEL linac, are distributed to three long SASE undulators. There photon pulses with full lateral coherence and wavelengths between 0.1nm and 4.9nm (12.4 keV and 0.8 keV) are generated for three beamlines. It will deliver around 1012photons within each 100 fs pulse, reaching a peak brilliance of 1033photonss−1mm−2mrad−2(0.1%BW)−1. Thus it will offer unprecedented possibilities in photon science research including nano-object imaging and studies (e.g. by coherent X-ray scattering) and ultra fast dynamic analysis of plasma and chemical reactions (e.g. by X-ray photo correlation spectroscopy). The detector requirements for such studies are extremely challenging: position sensitive area detectors have to provide a dynamic range of ≥ 104, with single-photon sensitivity, while withstanding radiation doses up to 1GGy (TID). Furthermore the detectors have to record data from tra...

  17. Cross section measurement of residues produced in proton- and deuteron-induced spallation reactions on 93Zr at 105 MeV/u using the inverse kinematics method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Shoichiro; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Wang, He; Otsu, Hideaki; Sakurai, Hiroyoshi; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Togano, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Maeda, Yukie; Ahn, Deuk Soon; Aikawa, Masayuki; Araki, Shouhei; Chen, Sidong; Chiga, Nobuyuki; Doornenbal, Pieter; Fukuda, Naoki; Ichihara, Takashi; Isobe, Tadaaki; Kawakami, Shunsuke; Kin, Tadahiro; Kondo, Yosuke; Koyama, Shunpei; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Kubono, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Meiko; Makinaga, Ayano; Matsushita, Masafumi; Matsuzaki, Teiichiro; Michimasa, Shin'ichiro; Momiyama, Satoru; Nagamine, Shunsuke; Nakano, Keita; Niikura, Megumi; Ozaki, Tomoyuki; Saito, Atsumi; Saito, Takeshi; Shiga, Yoshiaki; Shikata, Mizuki; Shimizu, Yohei; Shimoura, Susumu; Sumikama, Toshiyuki; Söderström, Pär-Anders; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Taniuchi, Ryo; Tsubota, Jun'ichi; Watanabe, Yasushi; Wimmer, Kathrin; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Koichi

    2017-09-01

    Isotopic production cross sections in the proton- and deuteron-induced spallation reactions on 93Zr at an energy of 105 MeV/u were measured in inverse kinematics conditions for the development of realistic nuclear transmutation processes for long-lived fission products (LLFPs) with neutron and light-ion beams. The experimental results were compared to the PHITS calculations describing the intra-nuclear cascade and evaporation processes. Although an overall agreement was obtained, a large overestimation of the production cross sections for the removal of a few nucleons was seen. A clear shell effect associated with the neutron magic number N = 50 was observed in the measured isotopic production yields of Zr and Y isotopes, which can be reproduced reasonably by the PHITS calculation.

  18. RENEWABLE ENERGY STRATEGIES: WHERE EUROPEAN UNION HEADED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The states from European Union must take advantage from renewable energy sources in order to revive the economy. Climate change creates new jobs and could reduce energy imports which would stimulate the economy of those states. The European Union should support research in the field, apply more efficient policies in energy, and create economies of scale to get an integrated European energy market in which the main actors can reduce the cost of production of renewable energy. In addition, it is possible to use the comparative advantages of the Member States and not only, like Greece, through solar energy, Southern Mediterranean, through distribution networks interconnections with EU, Russia and Ukraine, through biomass and the North Sea, through wind energy. This paper refers to the evolution and trends of the renewable energy sources and presents some scenarios of it.

  19. Corrigendum to "Fundamental neutron physics beamline at the spallation neutron source at ORNL" [Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 773 (2015) 45-51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, N.; Greene, G. L.; Allen, R. R.; Cianciolo, V.; Crawford, C.; Ito, T. M.; Huffman, P. R.; Iverson, E. B.; Mahurin, R.; Snow, W. M.

    2015-07-01

    The authors regret that there was an error in the author list of the original publication. The name of author Dr. Ito was misspelled. The correct author list is as above. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  20. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  1. THE EUROPEAN BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ion

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction of European Monetary Union has raised several questions about the existence of a common business cycle, a European one. The lack of cyclical synchronization would complicate the monetary and fiscal policies in the Union, being a negative

  2. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  3. European Industry, 1700 - 1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  4. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  5. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2003-01-01

    The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  6. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  7. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.

    2017-01-01

    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  8. Europeanization : A Poststructuralist Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuman-Stanivukovic, Senka

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation begins from the hypothesis that the direction and extent of Europeanization depends on domestic perception of the European Union and its norms. Accordingly, it was my empirical ambition to study how competing articulations of the EU and its norms constructed debates in EU member

  9. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  10. The European carbon balance. Part 2: croplands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciais, P.; Wattenbach, M.; Vuichard, N.; Smith, P.; Piao, S.L.; Don, A.; Luyssaert, S.; Janssens, I.A.; Bondeau, A.; Dechow, R.; Leip, A.; Smith, P.C.; Beer, C.; van der Werf, G.R.; Gervois, S.; Van Oost, K.; Tomelleri, E.; Freibauer, A.; Schulze, E.D.

    2010-01-01

    We estimated the long-term carbon balance [net biome production (NBP)] of European (EU-25) croplands and its component fluxes, over the last two decades. Net primary production (NPP) estimates, from different data sources ranged between 490 and 846 gC m

  11. The debates of the European Parliament as Linked Open Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. van Aggelen (Astrid); L. Hollink (Laura); M. (Max) Kemman; M. (Martijn) Kleppe; Beunders, H. (Henri)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe European Parliament represents the citizens of the member states of the European Union (EU). The accounts of its meetings and related documents are open data, promoting transparency and accountability, and are used as source data by researchers. However, the official portal of these

  12. Low dimensional neutron moderators for enhanced source brightness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mezei, Ferenc; Zanini, Luca; Takibayev, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In a recent numerical optimization study we have found that liquid para-hydrogen coupled cold neutron moderators deliver 3–5 times higher cold neutron brightness at a spallation neutron source if they take the form of a flat, quasi 2-dimensional disc, in contrast to the conventional more voluminous...... for cold neutrons. This model leads to the conclusions that the optimal shape for high brightness para-hydrogen neutron moderators is the quasi 1-dimensional tube and these low dimensional moderators can also deliver much enhanced cold neutron brightness in fission reactor neutron sources, compared...... to the much more voluminous liquid D2 or H2 moderators currently used. Neutronic simulation calculations confirm both of these theoretical conclusions....

  13. Energy-selective neutron transmission imaging at a pulsed source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockelmann, W.; Frei, G.; Lehmann, E. H.; Vontobel, P.; Santisteban, J. R.

    2007-08-01

    Energy-selective neutron radiography experiments were carried out at the ISIS pulsed spallation source. This neutron transmission imaging technique combines the hardware used for conventional neutron radiography with the Bragg edge transmission features of time-of-flight methods. The main component of the energy-selective radiography set-up was a gated image-intensified CCD camera that viewed a neutron sensitive scintillation screen via a mirror. Energy resolution was obtained via synchronization of the light-intensifier with the pulse structure of the neutron source. It is demonstrated that contrast enhancement of materials can be straightforwardly achieved, and that microstructural features in metal samples can be directly visualized with high spatial resolution by taking advantage of the Bragg edges in the energy dependent neutron cross sections.

  14. In-Pile 4He Source for UCN Production at the ESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Klinkby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ESS will be a premier neutron source facility. Unprecedented neutron beam intensities are ensured by spallation reactions of a 5 MW, 2.0 GeV proton beam impinging on a tungsten target equipped with advanced moderators. The work presented here aims at investigating possibilities for installing an ultra cold neutron (UCN source at the ESS. One consequence of using the recently proposed flat moderators is that they take up less space than the moderators originally foreseen and thus leave more freedom to design a UCN source, close to the spallation hotspot. One of the options studied is to place a large 4He UCN source in a through-going tube which penetrates the shielding below the target. First calculations of neutron flux available for UCN production are given, along with heat-load estimates. It is estimated that the flux can give rise to a UCN production at a rate of up to 1.5·108 UCN/s. A production in this range potentially allows for a number of UCN experiments to be carried out at unprecedented precision, including, for example, quantum gravitational spectroscopy with UCNs which rely on high phase-space density.

  15. Automated source classification of new transient sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, M.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Wilms, J.; DeLuca, A.

    2017-10-01

    The EXTraS project harvests the hitherto unexplored temporal domain information buried in the serendipitous data collected by the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard the ESA XMM-Newton mission since its launch. This includes a search for fast transients, missed by standard image analysis, and a search and characterization of variability in hundreds of thousands of sources. We present an automated classification scheme for new transient sources in the EXTraS project. The method is as follows: source classification features of a training sample are used to train machine learning algorithms (performed in R; randomForest (Breiman, 2001) in supervised mode) which are then tested on a sample of known source classes and used for classification.

  16. Americium Oxide Surrogates for European Radioisotope Power Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, E. J.; Ambrosi, R. M.; Williams, H. R.; Sarsfield, M. J.; Tinsley, T. P.; Stephenson, K.

    2014-07-01

    The European space nuclear power programme comprises two main research areas: fuel source development and the development of conversion technologies, which are thermoelectric or dynamic, for electricity production. This abstract addresses the former.

  17. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    , the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  18. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  19. Differences in dietary intakes, food sources and determinants of total flavonoids between Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Luján-Barroso, Leila

    2013-01-01

    A greater adherence to the traditional Mediterranean (MED) diet is associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases. This dietary pattern is based on higher consumption of plant products that are rich in flavonoids. We compared the total flavonoid dietary intakes, their food sources...... and various lifestyle factors between MED and non-MED countries participating in the EPIC study. Flavonoid intakes and their food sources for 35 628 subjects, aged 35–74 years and recruited between 1992 and 2000, in twenty-six study centres were estimated using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC...

  20. Women in European Culture and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh

    A new and major collection of documents, Women in European Culture and Society: A Sourcebook includes a range of transnational sources which encompass the history of women in Europe from the beginning of the eighteenth century to the present day. Including documents from across Europe, from France...... language into English for the first time. Ideal for use on its own or as a companion volume to Women in European Culture and Society: Gender, Skill and Identity since 1700, this sourcebook is an invaluable and essential collection showing how women lived throughout Europe....

  1. Short-termism in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Therese

    2016-01-01

    an influential source of inspiration for politicians and lawmakers in foreign jurisdictions. The European Commission currently proposes to amend the Shareholder Rights Directive (2007/36/EC) to counterbalance the financial sector’s alleged triumph over industry. The initiative is motivated primarily...... that the short-termism concept, despite its contemporary authority in the post-financial crisis era on both sides of the Atlantic, is misguided, and even more so in the European context. The Article concludes that the proposed amendments should not be expected to solve short-termism problems or alter...

  2. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  3. European Economic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  4. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  5. The European University Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraio, Cinzia; Bonaccorsi, Andrea; Geuna, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a new and systematic characterization of 488 universities, from 11 European countries: Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and UK. Using micro indicators built on the integrated Aquameth database, we characterize the Euro...

  6. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example......-economic resources. In a second step, the 28 EU member countries were clustered into six country clusters based on their representation of mobility styles. The country clusters indicate the existence of considerably different mobility cultures across the EU. Sub-regions can be identified that have highly different...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  7. European Cyber Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiek, Annegret

    2012-01-01

    The gradually developing European cyber security policy tries to establish minimum standards in all EU member states with regard to prevention, resilience and international cooperation. It aims to foster national security without compromising democratic principles or unduly limiting individual liberties. However, it is hard to find a balance between these goals, and the EU’s measures thus inevitably raise questions about the democratic implications of European cyber security policy. Are the i...

  8. Timetabling on European Corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Lischke, Andreas; Führer, B. (Bernhard); Garavagno, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Path Allocation Re-engineering of Timetable Networks for European Railways (PARTNER) project aims to demonstrate a new way of train path allocation and assembly along international corridors towards a faster and more coordinated railway infrastructure capacity management. PARTNER will assist two neighbour infrastructure managers to develop a common understanding of the effects of international train paths. The results of a survey of European infrastructure managers and railway underta...

  9. European Physical Society awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The winners of the 2004 Accelerator Prizes, awarded by the European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Accelerators (EPS-IGA), have been announced. Vladmir Shiltsev (Fermilab) and Igor Meshkov (JINR, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna) will be presented with their awards during the 9th European Particle Accelerator Conference, EPAC'04, on 8 July 2004 in Lucerne. Both physicists will also give a talk about their work. More details on: http://epac.web.cern.ch/

  10. European Banking Union

    OpenAIRE

    Breuss, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing Euro crisis and the worse economic development in Europe than in the USA are grounded, not the least in the delayed implementation of reforms of the banking sector. Whereas the leaks in economic governance of EMU have been fixed the banking sector is still not stabilised, even five years after Lehman Brothers. From the grand solution of a "European Banking Union" (EBU) only the first pillar, the European Bank Supervision with the single supervisory mechanism (SSM) will come into e...

  11. European DHC Research Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltshire, Robin; Williams, Jonathan (Building Research Establishment, BRE, Bucknalls Lane, Watford (United Kingdom)); Werner, Sven (Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering, Halmstad (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Euroheat and Power is now working towards a European Technology Platform for District Heating and Cooling. In response to this important European DHC research initiative, a preliminary detailed list of research issues within 18 dimensions was elaborated and communicated to more than 100 people in February 2008. After additions and comments received, an updated list of research issues was again distributed in July 2008. This paper contains the current list of suggested research issues

  12. European energy law in Germany; Europaeisiertes Energierecht in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwardt, C.

    2006-07-01

    The book focuses on deregulation and unbundling of the European electricity market. The structure of the European power supply industry is described, with the focus on Germany. European and German boundary conditions are outlined, and the German Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (Renewables Act) and its amendments is discussed in detail. The author discusses if the mechanism claimed in this Act for funding of renewable energy sources is compatible with European law, especially as regards competition and free trading as well as financial aids. It is found that there should be no doubts on a European level as any obstacles set by the Act are justified by European environmental policy. The case is different on a national scale as the mechanism concerning exceptions form the rule is incompatible with the equality principle laid down in the German constitution. (orig.)

  13. European Flood Awareness System - now operational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alionte Eklund, Cristina.; Hazlinger, Michal; Sprokkereef, Eric; Garcia Padilla, Mercedes; Garcia, Rafael J.; Thielen, Jutta; Salamon, Peter; Pappenberger, Florian

    2013-04-01

    The European Commission's Communication "Towards a Stronger European Union Disaster Response" adopted and endorsed by the Council in 2010, underpins the importance of strengthening concerted actions for natural disasters including floods, which are amongst the costliest natural disasters in the EU. The European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) contributes in the case of major flood events. to better protection of the European Citizen, the environment, property and cultural heritage. The disastrous floods in Elbe and Danube rivers in 2002 confronted the European Commission with non-coherent flood warning information from different sources and of variable quality, complicating planning and organisation of aid. Thus, the Commission initiated the development of a European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) which is now going operational. EFAS has been developed and tested at the Joint Research Centre, the Commission's in house science service, in close collaboration with the National hydrological and meteorological services, European Civil Protection through the Monitoring and Information Centre (MIC) and other research institutes. EFAS provides Pan-European overview maps of flood probabilities up to 10 days in advance as well as detailed forecasts at stations where the National services are providing real time data. More than 30 hydrological services and civil protection services in Europe are part of the EFAS network. Since 2011, EFAS is part of the COPERNICUS Emergency Management Service, (EMS) and is now an operational service since 2012. The Operational EFAS is being executed by several consortia dealing with different operational aspects: • EFAS Hydrological data collection centre —REDIAM and ELIMCO- will be collecting historic and realtime discharge and water levels data in support to EFAS • EFAS Meteorological data collection centre —outsourced but running onsite of JRC Ispra. Will be collecting historic and realtime meteorological data in support to EFAS

  14. A calibration of the production rate ratio P-21/P-26 by low energy secondry neutrons: Identification of Ne spallation components at the 10(exp 6) atoms/g level in terrestrial samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, TH.; Niedermann, S.; Marti, K.

    1993-01-01

    The spallation ratio (Ne-22/Ne-21)(sub c) from Si was determined as 1.243 plus or minus 0.022 in a terrestrial quartz sample. We carried out a calibration of the in-situ production rate ratio P-21/P-26 in quartz samples for which Be-10 and Al-26 production rates were previously measured. A ratio P-21/P-26 of 0.67 plus or minus 0.12 is obtained.

  15. European primary care surveillance networks: an overview of structure and operation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, J.G.M.; Paget, W.J.; Schellevis, F.G.; Fleming, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    In many European countries, primary care networks have a important role in public health surveillance. The networks are organised and function differently in EU member states. Their information is a potential source for a European health information and monitoring system as envisaged in the European

  16. The benefit of the European User Community from transnational access to national radiation facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrier, Elise; Manuel Braz Fernandes, Francisco; Bujan, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Transnational access (TNA) to national radiation sources is presently provided via programmes of the European Commission by BIOSTRUCT-X and CALIPSO with a major benefit for scientists from European countries. Entirely based on scientific merit, TNA allows all European scientists to realise synchr...

  17. UCN Source at an External Beam of Thermal Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lychagin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for production of ultracold neutrons (UCNs in superfluid helium. The principal idea consists in installing a helium UCN source into an external beam of thermal or cold neutrons and in surrounding this source with a solid methane moderator/reflector cooled down to ~4 K. The moderator plays the role of an external source of cold neutrons needed to produce UCNs. The flux of accumulated neutrons could exceed the flux of incident neutrons due to their numerous reflections from methane; also the source size could be significantly larger than the incident beam diameter. We provide preliminary calculations of cooling of neutrons. These calculations show that such a source being installed at an intense source of thermal or cold neutrons like the ILL or PIK reactor or the ESS spallation source could provide the UCN density 105 cm−3, the production rate 107 UCN/s−1. Main advantages of such an UCN source include its low radiative and thermal load, relatively low cost, and convenient accessibility for any maintenance. We have carried out an experiment on cooling of thermal neutrons in a methane cavity. The data confirm the results of our calculations of the spectrum and flux of neutrons in the methane cavity.

  18. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  19. Status of the Ultracold Neutron Source at Los Alamos National Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, R.

    2007-10-01

    The ultracold neutron (UCN) source at Los Alamos (LANL) is currently in its third year of operation. High energy neutrons are produced via spallation from the LANSCE 800 MeV proton beam directed onto a tungsten target. These neutrons are then reflected and partially moderated in a Be ``flux trap'' (surrounded also by a layer of graphite), within which is located a cold polyethylene moderator. A small percentage of the cold neutrons are downscatttered within solid deuterium to colder temperatures (1-4 mK) and are then guided to the experimental area through 4-in diameter stainless steel guides. Modifications were made to the source for the 2006 and 2007 run cycles to increase UCN production. This talk will give an overview of the LANL UCN source, it's current status, and results from the 2006 and 2007 source test runs.

  20. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. GOVERNING EUROPEAN UNION TO FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion-Lucian CATRINA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last four years, a significant part of the European Union members has recorded a real decline in the sustainability of their public debt. The failure of Greece, Italy, Belgium or Spain to easily find funding at previous interest rates has induced the fear that the European Monetary Union would disintegrate. Such as scenario is not realistic because does not take into account the economic interdependencies that have been created between the countries participating at the monetary zone. Nevertheless, we can say that the Stability and Growth Pact which aimed towards the coordination of national fiscal policies for ensuring the stability and prudence of the budgetary climate, has failed. This failure was primarily due to the lack of specific sanctions for those members that have not fought against the fiscal imbalances and secondly to the stopping the steps forward towards a common fiscal policy. Thus, we can say that the European Monetary Union is driven now by the wrong rule of “no taxation with representation”. For these reasons, this paper aims at showing that the European fiscal federalism is still far away from becoming reality and that the new instruments chosen for the new stability of the European Monetary Union will be the task of the Member States themselves. This paper will also review the main rules that are projected to be the source for the future European financial stability and growth: the balanced budgets and the deficits built only on the “Golden Rule” premises, for which other amendments on European Treaties are expected.

  2. INNOVATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR-CODRIN IONESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary knowledge-based society, innovation, as a vector used for the application and promotion of inventions and innovations, is one of the main sources used for obtaining a sustainable competitive advantage. The present paper points out the main directions which the European Commission aims to develop in the sphere of innovation, within the context of the Initiative: “A Union of Innovation”, which is part of the Europe 2020 Strategy. The paper analyses the performances accomplished by the EU states in the area of innovation while developing an international perspective that may represent the starting point in identifying solutions whereby the EU could reduce the gaps that exist in relation to the main international competitors, i.e. South Korea, USA and Japan.

  3. IFMIF, the European–Japanese efforts under the Broader Approach agreement towards a Li(d,xn neutron source: Current status and future options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Knaster

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of a neutron source for fusion materials research was identified already in the 70s. Though neutrons induced degradation present similarities on a mechanistic approach, thresholds energies for crucial transmutations are typically above fission neutrons spectrum. The generation of He via 56Fe (n,α 53Cr in future fusion reactors with around 12 appm/dpa will lead to swelling and structural materials embrittlement. Existing neutron sources, namely fission reactors or spallation sources lead to different degradation, attempts for extrapolation are unsuccessful given the absence of experimental observations in the operational ranges of a fusion reactor. Neutrons with a broad peak at 14MeV can be generated with Li(d,xn reactions; the technological efforts that started with FMIT in the early 80s have finally matured with the success of IFMIF/EVEDA under the Broader Approach Agreement. The status today of five technological challenges, perceived in the past as most critical, are addressed. These are: 1. the feasibility of IFMIF accelerators, 2. the long term stability of lithium flow at IFMIF nominal conditions, 3. the potential instabilities in the lithium screen induced by the 2×5 MW impacting deuteron beam, 4. the uniformity of temperature in the specimens during irradiation, and 5. the validity of data provided with small specimens. Other ideas for fusion material testing have been considered, but they possibly are either not technologically feasible if fixed targets are considered or would require the results of a Li(d,xn facility to be reliably designed. In addition, today we know beyond reasonable doubt that the cost of IFMIF, consistently estimated throughout decades, is marginal compared with the cost of a fusion reactor. The less ambitious DEMO reactor performance being considered correlates with a lower need of fusion neutrons flux; thus IFMIF with its two accelerators is possibly not needed since with only one accelerator as

  4. The Europeanization of Eurosceptics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Bossetta Jr, Michael Joseph

    with the case of Sweden. Sweden is a good example because it has a high density of internet use, a politically active population as reflected in voter turnout and many politicians and political parties with a web presence. The main research questions of the paper are: Which actors are involved in the Swedish...... of a Europeanized network of anti-European voices for European integration and democracy. We plan to operationalize our research question through the use of webcrawling (i.e. Issue Crawler) and social media analytic softwares (Twitonomy and Bluenod). Using these softwares we will be able to discern whether...... or not non-Swedish Twitter users are participating in and/or affecting the Swedish Eurosceptic dialogue on social media....

  5. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges...... for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...... a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect...

  6. European Universe Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  7. The European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martinelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available European identity is not only a scientifically interesting question, but also a politically important issue: in fact, sixty years after the signing of the Treaty of Rome, the European Union finds itself for the first time facing risks that threaten its own existence. The European Union is a limited and incomplete project because Europe’s economic integration has not been accompanied by a genuine supranational political union and greater cultural integration. The deficit of democratic representation and cultural integration is due to the fact that the community process is based only on economic rationality and not on a feeling of common belonging. In the current situation in which the Union faces difficult challenges which threaten to undermine the future, it necessary to affirm the policy of interests with a policy of identity. In this essay, we will first concentrate on the concept of identity – that is on the nucleus of values and common institutions –; then we will discuss how the European identity has changed over time (also in relation to national identities and what are the mechanisms that may favour its taking root in the current situation. The European project of political unification needs to be re-emphasized, finding the way to a European collective identity, not contrasted with but alongside the different national identities, referring to loyalty and shared commitment to a whole collection of cultural values: fundamental human rights, civil liberties, democratic political institutions, rule of law, freedom of movement of people, goods and capital, social justice and non-violent resolution of conflicts.

  8. Patient and consumer organisations at the European Medicines Agency : Financial disclosure and transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perehudoff, Katrina; Alves, Teresa Leonardo

    Background: The transparency criteria adopted by the European Medicines Agency require eligible patient and consumer organisations to disclose the names and contributions of their public and private revenue sources. Despite various transparency initiatives, the exact funding sources of, and amounts

  9. A source classification framework supporting pollutant source mapping, pollutant release prediction, transport and load forecasting, and source control planning for urban environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Donner, Erica; Wickman, Tonie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Implementation of current European environmental legislation such as the Water Framework Directive requires access to comprehensive, well-structured pollutant source and release inventories. The aim of this work was to develop a Source Classification Framework (SCF) ideally suited...

  10. European Gas Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsen, Iben; Bieber, Martin; Gandrup, Tobias; Lehmann, Tina; Weinberger, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The focal point of the project is, as it is implied in the title, European gas dependency, to be more specific; the dependency of Russian gas. We chose Russia, because the EU's import of gas is mainly supplied by Russia. We present background information and knowledge to describe why the case is of relevance and that a situation of dependency exists. We solely look at the dependency from the European Union's point of view, taking point of departure in the Green Paper. The Green Paper is a pap...

  11. European Values and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Theisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance, Social Market Economy, Culture and Education are the decisive elements for Human Development. We need a third way between the extremes of the Utopian Global Free Market and a new nationalism. A Social Market Economy and the European Model of a Union could be such third way. For a new Social Market Economy we need a renaissance of the European dialectics between culture and society, idealism and materialism, religion and enlightenment, solidarity and profitability. The balancing of those poles is deeply rooted in our best traditions. 

  12. Monte Carlo calculations on transmutation of trans-uranic nuclear waste isotopes using spallation neutrons difference of lead and graphite moderators

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemi-Nezhad, S R; Brandt, R; Krivopustov, M I; Kulakov, B A; Odoj, R; Sosnin, A N; Wan, J S; Westmeier, W

    2002-01-01

    Transmutation rates of sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu and some minor actinides ( sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np, sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am, sup 2 sup 4 sup 5 Cm and sup 2 sup 4 sup 6 Cm), in two accelerator-driven systems (ADS) with lead or graphite moderating environments, were calculated using the LAHET code system. The ADS that were used had a large volume (approx 32 m sup 3) and contained no fissile material, except for a small amount of fissionable waste nuclei that existed in some cases. Calculations were performed at an incident proton energy of 1.5 GeV and the spallation target was lead. Also breeding rates of sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu and sup 2 sup 3 sup 3 U as well as the transmutation rates of two long-lived fission products sup 9 sup 9 Tc and sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I were calculated at different locations in the moderator. It is shown that an ADS with graphite moderator is a much more effective transmuter than that with lead moderator.

  13. Study of the spallation of 136Xe in collision with 1H and 12C at 1 GeV per nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbinet, T.; Aumann, T.; Bianchin, S.; Borodina, O.; Boudard, A.; Caesar, C.; Casajeros, E.; Czech, B.; Ducret, J.-É.; Hlavac, S.; Kurz, N.; Langer, C.; Le Bleis, T.; Leray, S.; Lukasik, J.; Pawlowski, P.; Pietri, S.; Salsac, M.-D.; Simon, H.; Veselsky, M.; Ayyad, Y.; Yordanov, O.

    2012-10-01

    The collision of 136Xe with a proton and with 12C at 1 GeV per nucleon has been studied in inverse kinematics with the SPALADIN setup at GSI. The detection in coincidence of the final state fragments (projectile residues, neutrons and Z ⩾ 2 charged fragments) with a large geometrical efficiency is provided by the inverse kinematics combined with a large-aperture dipole magnet and large detectors. Such a coincidence, measured on an event basis, allows us to select the excitation energy of the prefragment formed after the nuclear cascade and study its different de-excitation channels such as evaporation of light particles, asymmetric binary decay or multifragmentation. After a short summary of spallation reactions modeling, followed by the description of the setup, some preliminary results will be shown including the cross-sections of the reaction on the proton, compared in particular to other measurements as well as the cross-sections for the various fragment multiplicities. In the last section, we explain our method for the selection of the prefragment excitation energy and give a hint of the variables available in our experiment to study the excitation energy dependence of the prefragment de-excitation mechanism for both reactions.

  14. Capture and Fission rate of 232-Th, 238-U, 237-Np and 239-Pu from spallation neutrons in a huge block of lead.

    CERN Document Server

    Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2000-01-01

    The study is centered on the research of the incineration possibility of nuclear waste, by the association of a particle accelerator with a multiplying medium of neutrons, in the project "Energy Amplifier" of C. Rubbia. It consists of the experimental determination of the rates of capture and fission of certain elements (232-Th, 238-U, 237-Np and 239-Pu) subjected to a fluence of fast spallation neutrons. These neutrons are produced by the interaction of high kinetic energy protons (several GeV) provided by the CERN-PS accelerator, on a large lead solid volume. The measurement techniques used in this work, are based on the activation of elements in the lead volume and the subsequent gamma spectroscopy of the activated elements, and also by the detection of fission fragment traces. The development, of a Monte Carlo code makes it possible, on one hand, to better understand the relevant processes, and on the other hand, to validate the code, by comparison with measurements, for the design and the construction of...

  15. Transmutation of $^{239}$Pu and Other Nuclides Using Spallation Neutrons Produced by Relativistic Protons Reacting with Massive U- and Pb-Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, J; Bamblevski, V P; Barabanov, M Yu; Bradnova, V; Chaloun, P; Hella, K M; Kalinnikov, V G; Krivopustov, M I; Kulakov, B A; Perelygin, V P; Pronskikh, V S; Pavliouk, A V; Solnyshkin, A A; Sosnin, A N; Stegailov, V I; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V M; Zaverioukha, O S; Adloff, J C; Debeauvais, M; Brandt, R; Langrock, E J; Vater, P; Van, J S; Westmeier, W; Dwivedi, K K; Guo Shi Lun; Li Li Qiang; Hashemi-Nezhad, S R; Kievets, M K; Lomonosova, E M; Zhuk, I V; Modolo, G; Odoj, R; Zamani-Valassiadou, M

    2001-01-01

    Experimental studies on the transmutation of some long-lived radioactive waste nuclei, such as ^{129}I, ^{237}Np, and ^{239}Pu, as well as on natural uranium and lanthanum (all of them used as sensors) were carried out at the Synchrophasotron of the Laboratory for High Energies (JINR, Dubna). Spallation neutrons were produced by relativistic protons with energies in the range of 0.5 GeV\\le E(p)\\le 1.5 GeV interacting with 20 cm long uranium or lead target stacks. The targets were surrounded by 6 cm paraffin moderators. The radioactive sensors mentioned above were positioned on the outside surface of the moderator and contained typically approximately 0.5 up to 1 gram of long-lived isotopes. The highly radioactive targets were produced perfectly well-sealed in aluminum containers by the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Russia. From the experimentally observed transmutation rates one can easily extrapolate, that in a subcritical nuclear power assembly (or "energy amplifier") using a 10 mA pr...

  16. Developing Open Source System Expertise in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Mads; Gustafsson, Finn; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2011-01-01

    source software systems. In addition the program focuses on the students learning interpersonal skills, such as personal and professional skills, multidisciplinary teamwork, communication, communication in a foreign language and leadership. The target group consists of European engineering students who...

  17. What do different databases tell about the use of opioids in seven European countries in 2002?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamunen, Katri; Laitinen-Parkkonen, Pirjo; Paakkari, Pirkko

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to analyse opioid consumption in a number European countries using different sources of data.......The objective of this paper was to analyse opioid consumption in a number European countries using different sources of data....

  18. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality...

  19. Measuring European selves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka

    Taking the perspective of cross-cultural psychology, the current thesis sets out to investigate self in a European context. For this purpose, the thesis first thoroughly reviews the most prominent conceptualizations of self in cross-cultural psychology, specifically focusing on disentangling...... to the field of cross-cultural psychology, specifically highlighting the utility of autobiographical memories as measures of self....

  20. European Psychology Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA SCHÖN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID compiled an extensive list of European psycho-logical organizations, comprised of university departments, research institutions, professional associa-tions and publishing houses. The list is available on the ZPID website, together with a web mapping applet that indicates the exact geographical location of the organizations.