Sample records for european space agency

  1. European Space Agency Sentinel-2 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sentinel-2A satellite is operated by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Sentinel Multispectral Instrument (MSI) acquires 13 spectral bands ranging from Visible...

  2. Space weather: European Space Agency perspectives (United States)

    Daly, E. J.; Hilgers, A.

    Spacecraft and payloads have become steadily more sophisticated and therefore more susceptible to space weather effects. ESA has long been active in applying models and tools to the problems associated with such effects on its spacecraft. In parallel, ESA and European agencies have built a highly successful solar-terrestrial physics capability. ESA is now investigating the marriage of these technological and scientific capabilities to address perceived user needs for space weather products and services. Two major ESA-sponsored studies are laying the groundwork for a possible operational European space weather service. The wide-ranging activities of ESA in the Space Weather/Space Environment domain are summarized and recent important examples of space weather concerns given.

  3. 41st symposium of the European Space Agency

    CERN Document Server

    Macchetto, F Duccio


    The Hubble Space Telescope has facilitated major contributions to a wide range of topics in astronomy: The study of nearby planets The processes of star and planet formation The stellar and interstellar components of galaxies The discovery that most, if not all, galactic nuclei harbor a massive black hole that profoundly affects their evolution The realisation that the universe as a whole is undergoing acceleration as a result of a yet unknown form of "dark energy". This volume offers a broad perspective of the advancements made possible by the HST over its almost two decades of operation and emphasises their impact on European astronomical research. These proceedings of 41st symposium in the ESLAB series of the European Space Agency collect the oral and poster papers that were presented and discussed during the meeting.

  4. The technology management process at the European space agency (United States)

    Guglielmi, M.; Williams, E.; Groepper, P.; Lascar, S.


    Technology is developed at the European Space Agency (ESA) under several programmes: corporate and domain specific, mandatory and optional, with different time horizons and covering different levels of the TRL scale. To improve the transparency and efficiency of the complete process, it was felt necessary to establish an agreed end to end process for the management of all technology R&D activity that could: Include all ESA programmes and consider the requirements of European users Lead to coordinated multi-year work plan and yearly procurement plans Prepare and enable future European space programmes Be harmonized with national initiatives in Europe Thereby establishing the basis for a product policy to reduce risks to technology users, reduce costs and delays, and enhance industrial competitiveness and non-dependence. In response to the above needs, ESA has developed a technology management process called the ESA End-to-End process (E2E), from establishment of the strategy to the monitoring and evaluation of R&D results. In this paper, the complete process will be described in detail including a discussion on its strengths and limitations, and its links to the wider European Harmonization process. The paper will be concluded with the introduction of the ESA Technology Tree: a basic tool to structure and facilitate communication about technology issues.

  5. European Space Agency announces contest to "Name the Cluster Quartet" (United States)


    1. Contest rules The European Space Agency (ESA) is launching a public competition to find the most suitable names for its four Cluster II space weather satellites. The quartet, which are currently known as flight models 5, 6, 7 and 8, are scheduled for launch from Baikonur Space Centre in Kazakhstan in June and July 2000. Professor Roger Bonnet, ESA Director of Science Programme, announced the competition for the first time to the European Delegations on the occasion of the Science Programme Committee (SPC) meeting held in Paris on 21-22 February 2000. The competition is open to people of all the ESA member states (*). Each entry should include a set of FOUR names (places, people, or things from history, mythology, or fiction, but NOT living persons). Contestants should also describe in a few sentences why their chosen names would be appropriate for the four Cluster II satellites. The winners will be those which are considered most suitable and relevant for the Cluster II mission. The names must not have been used before on space missions by ESA, other space organizations or individual countries. One winning entry per country will be selected to go to the Finals of the competition. The prize for each national winner will be an invitation to attend the first Cluster II launch event in mid-June 2000 with their family (4 persons) in a 3-day trip (including excursions to tourist sites) to one of these ESA establishments: ESRIN (near Rome, Italy): winners from France, Ireland, United Kingdom, Belgium. VILSPA (near Madrid, Spain): winners from The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Finland. ESTEC (near Amsterdam, The Netherlands): winners from Germany, Denmark, Switzerland, Austria. ESOC (in the Rhine Valley, Germany): winners from Italy, Spain , Portugal. During the first Cluster II launch event (June 2000) the chosen four names for the spacecraft will be announced. The grand prize will be: * a trip for the winner and family (4 people) to Paris where ESA's headquarters are

  6. Priorities in national space strategies and governance of the member states of the European Space Agency (United States)

    Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina; Sagath, Daniel; Papastefanou, Anastasia


    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty Member States with a variety of strategic priorities and governance structures regarding their space activities. A number of countries engage in space activities exclusively though ESA, while others have also their own national space programme. Some consider ESA as their prime space agency and others have additionally their own national agency with respective programmes. The main objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of strategic priorities and the national space governance structures in 20 ESA Member States. This analysis and assessment has been conducted by analysing the Member States public documents, information provided at ESA workshop on this topic and though unstructured interviews. The paper is structured to include two main elements: priorities and trends in national space strategies and space governance in ESA Member States. The first part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators that boost engagement in space. These vary from one Member State to another and include with different levels of engagement in technology domains amongst others: science and exploration, navigation, Earth observation, human space flight, launchers, telecommunications, and integrated applications. Member States allocate a different role of space as enabling tool adding to the advancement of sustainability areas including: security, resources, environment and climate change, transport and communication, energy, and knowledge and education. The motivators motivating reasoning which enhances or hinders space engagement also differs. The motivators identified are industrial competitiveness, job creation, technology development and transfer, social benefits

  7. International Living With a Star - Contributions from the European Space Agency (United States)

    Opgenoorth, H. J.

    The new ILWS initiative aims at the understanding of the governing processes in Solar, heliospheric and Solar-terrrestrial physics, through which the variability of the Sun influences Earth, the human society and human equipment on Earth and in space. Any potentially successful approach to such a global enterprise demands simultaneous observations in all key regions of space - a task which is practically impossible to be carried out by one space agency alone. ESA, the European Space Agency has a number of missions in its present program, which are considered to make major contributions to the ILWS program. ESA also actively seeks for opportunities to support missions of other space agencies with payload, ground-stations or other logistical contributions, which might improve the scientific outcome and level of coordination for missions in the ILWS realm. In particular ESA seeks to identify synergistic effects of missions in the wider scientific realm of ILWS, in order to widen the scope and scientific applicability of the present program. In this presentation the key ESA missions for ILWS will be reviewed, and plans for dedicated ESA contributions to other missions of partner agencies will be described. Opportunites for synergistic missions with other research areas will be pointed out.

  8. MOEMS for space application: the European Space Agency strategy for photonics components (United States)

    Hernandez, Stephan; Zahir, Mustapha; Filhol, Fabien; Marchand, Laurent


    Miniaturisation of scientific instrumentation for space applications leads to better use of the available resources (e.g. volume, mass and power) which can create the potential to integrate more complex functionality. MEMS and in particular MOEMS devices have already a wide range of applications in terrestrial industries (beamers, telecom switching, etc). MOEMS are, of course, very promising for future space applications because of their potential to reduce mass, size and consequently launch costs. However, ESA interest in MOEMS is above all generated by their mission enabling capabilities such as for example MEMS shutters or micro-mirrors for MOS (Multi-Object Spectrometers). The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS), and to illustrate the available European sources of MOEMS components for applications in space. The paper will also give a general overview of the ESA strategy for Photonics components with space applications in mind. This strategy is documented in the Photonics dossier currently being drafted to capture future technology needs related to European space activities for the forthcoming 5 years.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey distribution of European Space Agency's Sentinel-2 data (United States)

    Pieschke, Renee L.


    A partnership established between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) allows for USGS storage and redistribution of images acquired by the MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) on the European Union's Sentinel-2 satellite mission. The MSI data are acquired from a pair of satellites, Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B, which are part of a larger set of ESA missions focusing on different aspects of Earth observation. The primary purpose of the Sentinel-2 series is to collect multispectral imagery over the Earth’s land surfaces, large islands, and inland and coastal waters. Sentinel-2A was launched in 2015 and Sentinel-2B launched in 2017.The collaborative effort between ESA and USGS provides for public access and redistribution of global acquisitions of Sentinel-2 data at no cost, which allows users to download the MSI imagery from USGS access systems such as Earth- Explorer, in addition to the ESA Sentinels Scientific Data Hub. The MSI sensor acquires 13 spectral bands that are highly complementary to data acquired by the USGS Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). The product options from USGS include a Full-Resolution Browse (FRB) image product generated by USGS, along with a 100-kilometer (km) by 100-km tile-based Level-1C top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance product that is very similar (but not identical) to the currently (2017) distributed ESA Level 1C product.

  10. United Nations/European Space Agency Workshops on Basic Space Science (United States)

    Haubold, H. J.; Ocampo, A.; Torres, S.; Wamsteker, W.


    In 1958, the United Nations (UN) formally recognized a new potential for international cooperation by establishing an ad hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). A year later the Committee became a permanent body, and by 1983 membership had expanded to 53 states, with more than half of the members coming from the developing world. In 1970, COPUOS established the UN Program on Space Applications in order to strengthen cooperation in space science and technology between non-industrialized and industrialized countries. In the last few years, the UN and its COPUOS have paid increasing attention to education and research in space science and technology, including basic space science. In 1991 the UN, in cooperation with ESA, initiated the organization of annual Workshops in Basic Space Science for developing countries. These Workshops are designed to be held in one of the following major regions: Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. Accordingly, Basic Space Science Workshops have already been held in India (1991), Costa Rica and Colombia (1992), and Nigeria (1993). The fourth Workshop was held from 27 June to 1 July 1994 at the Cairo University, in Egypt, for Western Asia.

  11. Microbial biodiversity assessment of the European Space Agency's ExoMars 2016 mission. (United States)

    Koskinen, Kaisa; Rettberg, Petra; Pukall, Rüdiger; Auerbach, Anna; Wink, Lisa; Barczyk, Simon; Perras, Alexandra; Mahnert, Alexander; Margheritis, Diana; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine


    The ExoMars 2016 mission, consisting of the Trace Gas Orbiter and the Schiaparelli lander, was launched on March 14 2016 from Baikonur, Kazakhstan and reached its destination in October 2016. The Schiaparelli lander was subject to strict requirements for microbial cleanliness according to the obligatory planetary protection policy. To reach the required cleanliness, the ExoMars 2016 flight hardware was assembled in a newly built, biocontrolled cleanroom complex at Thales Alenia Space in Turin, Italy. In this study, we performed microbiological surveys of the cleanroom facilities and the spacecraft hardware before and during the assembly, integration and testing (AIT) activities. Besides the European Space Agency (ESA) standard bioburden assay, that served as a proxy for the microbiological contamination in general, we performed various alternative cultivation assays and utilised molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR and next generation sequencing, to assess the absolute and relative abundance and broadest diversity of microorganisms and their signatures in the cleanroom and on the spacecraft hardware. Our results show that the bioburden, detected microbial contamination and microbial diversity decreased continuously after the cleanroom was decontaminated with more effective cleaning agents and during the ongoing AIT. The studied cleanrooms and change room were occupied by very distinct microbial communities: Overall, the change room harboured a higher number and diversity of microorganisms, including Propionibacterium, which was found to be significantly increased in the change room. In particular, the so called alternative cultivation assays proved important in detecting a broader cultivable diversity than covered by the standard bioburden assay and thus completed the picture on the cleanroom microbiota. During the whole project, the bioburden stayed at acceptable level and did not raise any concern for the ExoMars 2016 mission. The cleanroom complex at

  12. European Space Agency's launcher multibody dynamics simulator used for system and subsystem level analyses (United States)

    Baldesi, Gianluigi; Toso, Mario


    Virtual simulation is currently a key activity in the specification, design, verification and operations of space systems. System modelling and simulation support in fact a number of use cases across the spacecraft development life cycle, including activities such as system design validation, software verification and validation, spacecraft unit and sub-system test activities, etc. As the reliance on virtual modelling, simulation and justification has substantially grown in recent years, a more coordinated and consistent approach to the development of such simulation tools across project phases can bring substantial benefit in reducing the overall space programme schedule, risk and cost. By capitalizing on the ESA (European Space Agency) Structures and Mechanisms division's strong expertise in dynamics (multibody software), a generic multibody flight simulator was created to simulate a wide variety of launch vehicle dynamics and control problems at system level since 2001. The backbone of the multibody dynamics simulator is DCAP (Dynamic and Control Analysis Package), a multibody software, developed by ESA together with industry, with more than 30 years heritage in space applications. This software is a suite of fast, effective computer programs that provides the user with capabilities to model, simulate and analyze the dynamics and control performances of coupled rigid and flexible structural systems subjected to possibly time-varying structural characteristics and space environmental loads. The simulator uses the formulation for the dynamics of multi-rigid/flexible-body systems based on Order( n) algorithm. This avoids the explicit computation of a global mass matrix and its inversion, and the computational burden in these schemes increases only linearly with the number n of the system's degrees of freedom. A dedicated symbolic manipulation pre-processor is then used in the coding optimization. With the implementation of dedicated interfaces to other specialised

  13. Human factors requirements for telerobotic command and control: The European Space Agency experimental programme (United States)

    Stone, Robert J.


    Space Telerobotics research, performed under contract to the European Space Agency (ESA), concerning the execution of human factors experiments, and ultimately leading to the development of a telerobotics test bed, has been carried out since 1985 by a British Consortium consisting of British Aerospace, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and, more recently, the UK National Advanced Robotics Research Centre. The principal aim of the first study of the series was to derive preliminary requirements for a teleoperation servicing system, with reference to two mission model scenarios. The first scenario introduced the problem of communications time delays, and their likely effect on the ground-based operator in control of a manipulator system on board an unmanned servicing vehicle in Low Earth Orbit. In the second scenario, the operator was located on the NASA Orbiter aft flight deck, supervising the control of a prototype manipulator in the 'servicing' of an experimental payload in the cargo bay area. Human factors analyses centered on defining the requirements for the teleoperator workstation, such as identifying basic ergonomic requirements for workstation and panel layouts, defining teleoperation strategies, developing alphanumeric and graphic screen formats for the supervision or direct control of the manipulator, and the potential applications of expert system technology. The second study for ESA involved an experimental appraisal of some of the important issues highlighted in the first study, for which relevant human factors data did not exist. Of central importance during the second study was the issue of communications time delays and their effect on the manual control of a teleoperated manipulator from a ground-based command and control station.

  14. Exploiting the parallels - maximising the outreach potentials for the European Space Agency's Rosetta comet chaser mission (United States)

    Pillinger, C. T.; Pillinger, J. M.


    The European Space Agency (ESA)'s comet chaser mission, Rosetta, has been more than a quarter of a century in coming to fruition. Whilst it might sound a long time humankind has been interested in comets for much longer. For over a thousand years depictions of comets have been appearing in Art 1 including many humorous cartoons 2. There are numerous cometary metaphors throughout literature. With this in mind we have recognised that there is a tremendous opportunity with comets to introduce science to different non-scientific audiences who would not necessarily believe they were interested in science. A similar approach was adopted with great success for the Beagle 2 involvement in ESA's Mars Express 3,4. By exploiting the perhaps sometimes less obvious connections to the Rosetta mission we hope to capture the attention of non-scientists and introduce them to science unawares - a case of a little sugar to help the medicine go down. It is our belief that the Rosetta mission has enormous potential for bringing science to the unconverted. We give here one example of a connection between Art and the Rosetta mission. By choosing the allegorical name Rosetta for its cometary mission, ESA have immediately invited comparison with the stone tablet which provided the key to translating the languages of ancient cultures, particularly Egyptian hieroglyphics. It is well known that a scientist, Thomas Young, foreign secretary of The Royal Society, made the break through which recognised the name Ptolemy in a cartouche on the Rosetta stone which can be seen today at the British Museum. The events concerning the 'capture' of the Rosetta stone were witnessed by scientists Sir William Hamilton (a renowned geophysicist as well as husband of Horatio Nelson's notorious mistress Lady Hamilton) and Edward Daniel Clarke, a geologist who would become first Professor of Mineralogy at Cambridge and an early meteoricist. Young's inspiration allowed Jean-Francois Champollion to decipher the

  15. European Space Agency Campaign Activities in Support of Earth Observation Projects: Examples for Snow and Ice (United States)

    Schüttemeyer, D.; Davidson, M.; Casal, T.; Perrera, A.; Bianchi, R.; Kern, M.; Scipal, K.


    In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out groundbased and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans and atmosphere. Campaigns in support of future mission development have technological, geophysical and simulation objectives while exploitation projects need validation for the assessment of the quality of the earth observation products and of the service provision. ESA has been conducting airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 by deploying a broad range of active and passive instrumentation in both the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum such as lidars, limb/nadir sounding interferometers/spectrometers, high-resolution spectral imagers, advanced synthetic aperture radars, altimeters and radiometers. These campaigns take place inside and outside Europe in collaboration with national research organisations in the ESA member states as well as with international organisations harmonising European campaign activities. For the different activities a rich variety of datasets has been recorded, are archived and users can access campaign data through the EOPI web portal []. In 2005, ESA released a call for the next Earth Explorer Core Mission Ideas with the aim to select a 7th Earth Explorer (EE7) mission to be launched in the next decade. Twenty-four proposals were received and subject to detailed scientific and technical assessment. During the so-called Phase 0, six concepts were selected and further investigated. A down-selection was made after the User Consultation Meeting held in Lisbon, Portugal in January 2009. Three candidate mission concepts were selected for further feasibility phase (phase A) investigation. Each of the candidate missions are being elaborated through two parallel industrial

  16. Cross-Cultural Issues of Intra- and Inter-Organisational Cooperation in Space Operations: A Survey Study with Ground Personnel of the European Space Agency (United States)

    Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Manzey, Dietrich

    Today's space operations often involve close co-working of people with different ethnical, professional and organizational backgrounds. The aim of the study was to examine the implications of cultural diversity for efficient collaboration within the European Space Agency (ESA), and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. Methods: A web-based survey was answered by 905 employees at the European Astronaut Centre and at the European Space Technology Centre. An adapted version of the Flight Management Attitude Questionnaire by Helmreich and Merrit was used. Personnel were also asked about interpersonal and operational issues that interfered with efficient co-working within ESA and in relation to other space agencies. Results: Collaboration within ESA: A descriptive analysis was conducted of the rank orders of challenges perceived by members of different nationalities (the Netherlands (N=68), German (N=138), Italian (N=135), French (N=124), British (N=84) and Scandinavian (27).Rank orders show a surprisingly uniformity across nationalities. Most respondents perceived differences in the preferred leadership style as the main challenge for co-working in multi-national groups followed by differences in dealing with conflicts and misunderstandings. In contrast communication problems due different languages and differences in non-verbal behaviour, as well as differences in gender stereotypes were among the lowest rated issues. However, Scandinavian respondents showed a different pattern from other nationalities. Collaboration between agencies: The most significant issues reported to interfere with the efficiency of inter-agency collaboration varied. Most difficulties were reported in relation to clarity of communication, insufficient sharing of task related information, understanding the process of decision making in partner organization, and authoritarian leadership style in the partner organization Conclusion: Cultural differences in leadership and

  17. Towards a cooperation between the arts, space science research and the European Space Agency - Preliminary findings of the ESA Topical Team Arts and Sciences (ETTAS) (United States)

    Pell, Sarah Jane; Imhof, Anna Barbara; Waldvogel, Christian; Kotler, J. Michelle; Peljhan, Marko


    The arts offer alternative insights into reality, which are explored by science in general, and broadened by the activities conducted by the European Space Agency [4] and other space agencies. Similar to the way the members of ESA are ambassadors for spaceflight and science, artists and cultural professionals are ambassadors for human expression, experimentation, and exploration. In June 2011, the ESA Topical Team Arts and Sciences (ETTAS) held a three-day workshop at the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany. During this workshop, topics and ideas were discussed to develop initiatives between the arts, sciences and ESA. The aim was to foster and expand the human and cultural aspects of space exploration, and at the same time offer a means of communication that aims to reach audiences beyond the scope of traditional space-related channels. The consensus of the team was that establishing and sustaining a transdisciplinary professional community consisting of ESA representatives, scientists and artists would fuel knowledge transfer, and mutual inspiration. Potential ways to provide a sustainable cooperation within and between the various groups were discussed. We present the preliminary findings including a number of measures and mechanisms to initiate and conduct such an initiative. Plausible organisational measures, procedures and consequences, as well as a proposition on how to proceed are also discussed. Overall, the involvement and cooperation between the arts, space science research and ESA will enhance in the citizens of the ESA member states the sense of public ownership of ESA results, and participation in ESA's research.

  18. how to enable cross-continental interoperability of the European Space Agency and Australian Geoscience Landsat datacubes (United States)

    Mantovani, Simone; Barboni, Damiano; Natali, Stefano; Evans, Ben; Steer, Adam; Hogan, Patrik; Baumann, Peter


    Globally, billions of dollars are invested annually in Earth observations that support public services, commercial activity, and scientific inquiry. The Common Data Framework [1] for Earth Observation data summarises the current standards for the international community to adopt a common approach so that this significant data can be readily accessible. Concurrently, the "Copernicus Cooperation Arrangement" between the European Commission and the Australian Government is just one in a number of recent agreements signed to facilitate Satellite Earth Observation data sharing among the users' communities. The typical approach implemented in these initiatives is the establishment of a regional data access hub managed by the regional entity to collect data at full scale or over the local region, improve access services and provide high-performance environment in which all the data can be analysed. Furthermore, a number of datacube-aware platforms and services have emerged that enable a new collaborative approach for analysing the vast quantities of satellite imagery and other Earth Observations, making it quicker and easier to explore a time series of image data. In this context, the H2020-funded EarthServer2 project brings together multiple organisations in Europe, Australia and United States to allow federated data holdings to be analysed using web-based access to petabytes of multidimensional geospatial datasets. The aim is to create and ensure that these large spatial data sources can be accessed based on OGC standards, namely Web Coverage Service (WCS) and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS) that provide efficient&timely retrieval of large volumes of geospatial data as well as on-the-fly processing. In this study, we provide an overview of the existing European Space Agency and Australian Geoscience Landsat datacubes, how the regional datacube structures differ, how interoperability is enabled through standards, and finally how the datacubes can be visualized on

  19. The role of physiotherapy in the European Space Agency strategy for preparation and reconditioning of astronauts before and after long duration space flight. (United States)

    Lambrecht, Gunda; Petersen, Nora; Weerts, Guillaume; Pruett, Casey; Evetts, Simon; Stokes, Maria; Hides, Julie


    Spaceflight and exposure to microgravity have wide-ranging effects on many systems of the human body. At the European Space Agency (ESA), a physiotherapist plays a key role in the multidisciplinary ESA team responsible for astronaut health, with a focus on the neuro-musculoskeletal system. In conjunction with a sports scientist, the physiotherapist prepares the astronaut for spaceflight, monitors their exercise performance whilst on the International Space Station (ISS), and reconditions the astronaut when they return to Earth. This clinical commentary outlines the physiotherapy programme, which was developed over nine long-duration missions. Principles of physiotherapy assessment, clinical reasoning, treatment programme design (tailored to the individual) and progression of the programme are outlined. Implications for rehabilitation of terrestrial populations are discussed. Evaluation of the reconditioning programme has begun and challenges anticipated after longer missions, e.g. to Mars, are considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of pigments of halophilic endoliths from gypsum: Raman portable instrument and European Space Agency's prototype analysis. (United States)

    Culka, Adam; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Hutchinson, Ian; Ingley, Richard; McHugh, Melissa; Oren, Aharon; Edwards, Howell G M; Jehlička, Jan


    A prototype instrument, under development at the University of Leicester, for the future European Space Agency (ESA) ExoMars mission, was used for the analysis of microbial pigments within a stratified gypsum crust from a hypersaline saltern evaporation pond at Eilat (Israel). Additionally, the same samples were analysed using a miniaturized Raman spectrometer, featuring the same 532 nm excitation. The differences in the position of the specific bands, attributed to carotenoid pigments from different coloured layers, were minor when analysed by the ESA prototype instrument; therefore, making it difficult to distinguish among the different pigments. The portable Delta Nu Advantage instrument allowed for the discrimination of microbial carotenoids from the orange/green and purple layers. The purpose of this study was to complement previous laboratory results with new data and experience with portable or handheld Raman systems, even with a dedicated prototype Raman system for the exploration of Mars. The latter is equipped with an excitation wavelength falling within the carotenoid polyene resonance region. The ESA prototype Raman instrument detected the carotenoid pigments (biomarkers) with ease, although further detailed distinctions among them were not achieved. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Simplified spacecraft vulnerability assessments at component level in early design phase at the European Space Agency's Concurrent Design Facility (United States)

    Kempf, Scott; Schäfer, Frank K.; Cardone, Tiziana; Ferreira, Ivo; Gerené, Sam; Destefanis, Roberto; Grassi, Lilith


    During recent years, the state-of-the-art risk assessment of the threat posed to spacecraft by micrometeoroids and space debris has been expanded to the analysis of failure modes of internal spacecraft components. This method can now be used to perform risk analyses for satellites to assess various failure levels - from failure of specific sub-systems to catastrophic break-up. This new assessment methodology is based on triple-wall ballistic limit equations (BLEs), specifically the Schäfer-Ryan-Lambert (SRL) BLE, which is applicable for describing failure threshold levels for satellite components following a hypervelocity impact. The methodology is implemented in the form of the software tool Particle Impact Risk and vulnerability Analysis Tool (PIRAT). During a recent European Space Agency (ESA) funded study, the PIRAT functionality was expanded in order to provide an interface to ESA's Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). The additions include a geometry importer and an OCDT (Open Concurrent Design Tool) interface. The new interface provides both the expanded geometrical flexibility, which is provided by external computer aided design (CAD) modelling, and an ease of import of existing data without the need for extensive preparation of the model. The reduced effort required to perform vulnerability analyses makes it feasible for application during early design phase, at which point modifications to satellite design can be undertaken with relatively little extra effort. The integration of PIRAT in the CDF represents the first time that vulnerability analyses can be performed in-session in ESA's CDF and the first time that comprehensive vulnerability studies can be applied cost-effectively in early design phase in general.

  2. Which benefits and limits derive from ESA membership for European Countries owning ;medium-sized; space agencies? (United States)

    Petroni, Giorgio; Bigliardi, Barbara; Galati, Francesco; Petroni, Alberto


    This study investigates the benefits and limits deriving from membership with ESA of six medium-sized space agencies in terms of strengthening and development (or not) of space technologies, as well as their contribution to the growth of productive activities and to the increase of services for citizens. This research contributes to the more general issue of the usefulness of space activities, not only for scientific or military-political purposes but also for economic and social development. Results show that, on the one hand, the membership with ESA has allowed smaller Countries to access space programs, to develop advanced technologies and to support the growth of their firms in some significant markets, but, on the other hand, the membership has also limited the access to space to few companies, without encouraging the broad dissemination of technological knowledge.

  3. Exercise in space: the European Space Agency approach to in-flight exercise countermeasures for long-duration missions on ISS. (United States)

    Petersen, Nora; Jaekel, Patrick; Rosenberger, Andre; Weber, Tobias; Scott, Jonathan; Castrucci, Filippo; Lambrecht, Gunda; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Damann, Volker; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Mester, Joachim


    To counteract microgravity (µG)-induced adaptation, European Space Agency (ESA) astronauts on long-duration missions (LDMs) to the International Space Station (ISS) perform a daily physical exercise countermeasure program. Since the first ESA crewmember completed an LDM in 2006, the ESA countermeasure program has strived to provide efficient protection against decreases in body mass, muscle strength, bone mass, and aerobic capacity within the operational constraints of the ISS environment and the changing availability of on-board exercise devices. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of ESA's individualised approach to in-flight exercise countermeasures and an up-to-date picture of how exercise is used to counteract physiological changes resulting from µG-induced adaptation. Changes in the absolute workload for resistive exercise, treadmill running and cycle ergometry throughout ESA's eight LDMs are also presented, and aspects of pre-flight physical preparation and post-flight reconditioning outlined. With the introduction of the advanced resistive exercise device (ARED) in 2009, the relative contribution of resistance exercise to total in-flight exercise increased (33-46 %), whilst treadmill running (42-33 %) and cycle ergometry (26-20 %) decreased. All eight ESA crewmembers increased their in-flight absolute workload during their LDMs for resistance exercise and treadmill running (running speed and vertical loading through the harness), while cycle ergometer workload was unchanged across missions. Increased or unchanged absolute exercise workloads in-flight would appear contradictory to typical post-flight reductions in muscle mass and strength, and cardiovascular capacity following LDMs. However, increased absolute in-flight workloads are not directly linked to changes in exercise capacity as they likely also reflect the planned, conservative loading early in the mission to allow adaption to µG exercise, including personal comfort issues

  4. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection (ESA2C) and Curation Facility for Exploration Missions. (United States)

    Smith, C. L.; Rumsey, M. S.; Manick, K.; Gill, S.-J.; Mavris, C.; Schroeven-Deceuninck, H.; Duvet, L.


    The ESA2C will support current and future technology development activities that are required for human and robotic exploration of Mars, Phobos, Deimos, C-Type Asteroids and the Moon.The long-term goal of this work is to produce a useful, useable and sustainable resource for engineers and scientists developing technologies for ESA space exploration missions.

  5. Integration of a Higher Plant Chamber into the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant: The Canadian Role in Advanced Life Support Test-Bed Development (United States)

    Waters, Geoffrey; Lawson, Jamie; Gidzinski, Danuta; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Peiro, Enrique; Godia, Francesc; Paille, Christel; Fossen, Arnaud; Lamaze, Brigitte; Lasseur, Christophe

    The European Space Agency's Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project has been conceived as a tool for developing the technology of future biological life support systems required for long-term human space exploration missions to the Moon or Mars. The main life support functions of MELiSSA are the recycling of waste (inedible plant biomass, human excrement), carbon dioxide and minerals and the production of food, fresh water and air revitalization. Based on the principle of an aquatic ecosystem, MELiSSA is comprised of four microbial compartments and a higher plant compartment integrated in a closed loop. Each compartment is studied, designed and demonstrated at laboratory scale before being scaled-up for subsequent integration into the MELISSA Pilot Plant (MPP) at the Universitat Aut`noma de Barcelona. Work related to higher plant cultivation systems, o which have been historically focussed at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility (CESRF), has included design of the HPC for the MPP, the metabolic characterization of MELiSSA candidate crops and the validation of theoretical gas exchange and nutrient dynamic models, The presented paper will review some of the recent data and HPC design work of CESRF conducted as part of Canada's involvement in the MELiSSA program and its partnership in the development of the MPP terrestrial demonstration test-bed.

  6. The Marco Polo space mission: sample return from a primitive Near-Earth Object under assessment study in the Cosmic Vision Program of the European Space Agency (United States)

    Michel, P.


    Marco Polo is a joint European-Japanese mission study to perform a sample return from a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO). On October 2007, this mission project passed the first evaluation process in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme 2015-2025. The aim of Marco Polo is to reach a primitive NEO, to perform a multiple scale characterization of its physical properties, and to bring samples back to the Earth for detailed analysis in laboratory. The NEO population is composed by asteroids and comets that are thought to be the primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. Due to their small sizes, their chemical composition is believed to have kept some memory of the original chemical composition of the solar nebula, contrary to larger planetary bodies who experienced major thermal processes in their interior. They may also carry some important information related to life formation as current exobiological scenarios invoke an exogeneous delivery of organic matter to the early Earth for the origin of terrestrial life. Finally, the hazard caused by these small bodies needs mitigation strategies which efficiency relies on our understanding of their physical properties. Marco Polo will give us the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials. This sample return space mission has therefore the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials, essential to undestand the conditions for planet formation and emergency of life. Current mission studies and expected results will be presented and discussed.

  7. New Interface for Accessing Archived European Space Agency Planetary Science Data, Such as the New Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment Data Set (United States)

    Grotheer, E.; Barbarisi, I.; Rios, C.; Macfarlane, A. J.; Docasal, R.; Arviset, C.; Besse, S.; Heather, D.; Gonzalez, J.; De Marchi, G.; Martinez, S.; Lim, T.; Fraga, D.


    All Venus Express (VEX) instruments delivered their data products according to the Planetary Data System version 3 (PDS3) standard, and the atmospheric drag experiment (ADE) data was no exception. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Planetary Science Archive (PSA), which can be accessed at, is being upgraded to make PDS4 data available from newer missions such as ExoMars and BepiColombo. Thus, the PSA development team has been working to ensure that the legacy PDS3 data will be accessible via the new interface as well. We will preview some of the new methods of accessing legacy VEX data via the new interface, with a focus being placed on the ADE data set. We will show how the ADE data can be accessed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and our plans for making this and other data sets compatible with the Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access (VESPA) project for creating a virtual observatory. From February 2010 through March 2014, ESA's Venus Express mission conducted 11 ADE campaigns. During these observation campaigns, VEX's pericenter was in the range of 165 to 190 km, while the spacecraft was near Venus' North pole, and the entire spacecraft was used to make in situ measurements of the atmospheric density. This was done by rotating the solar panels in a manner that somewhat resembles a windmill. Also, VEX 's attitude and orbit control system was tasked with maintaining the spacecraft in a 3-axis stabilized mode during these pericenter passes. The torques that the reaction wheels had to exert to maintain this attitude were then analyzed to yield density readings.

  8. Optical design of the single-detector planetary stereo camera for the BepiColombo European Space Agency mission to Mercury. (United States)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Naletto, Giampiero; Cremonese, Gabriele; Calamai, Luciano


    We present the catadioptric optical design solution for the stereo channel of the imaging system SIMBIOSYS for the BepiColombo European Space Agency mission to Mercury. The main scientific objectives of the instrument are the three-dimensional global mapping of the entire surface of Mercury in the panchromatic band and imaging of selected areas in four broad colored bands; both tasks have to be accomplished with a scale factor of 50?m per pixel at periherm. The system consists of an original compact layout in which the two stereo subchannels share a common detector; also, the optical components are common to the two subchannels, with the exception of the first element, which is a rhomboid prism. The field of view of each subchannel is about 5 degrees x5 degrees with a scale factor of 23 arcsec/pixel. The ray-tracing simulation of the system shows that the design guarantees optimal aberration balancing over the entire field of view and the entire wavelength range covered by the instrument, with ensquared energy of the order of 80% in one pixel.

  9. Building an Open Data Portal for the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative based on an Iterative Development Methodology and Linked Data Technologies (United States)

    Kershaw, P.; Bennett, V. L.; Stephens, A.; Wilson, A.; Waterfall, A. M.; Petrie, R.; Iwi, A.; Donegan, S.; Juckes, M. N.; Parton, G.


    The Climate Change Initiative (CCI) programme was initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2009 to address the GCOS Essential Climate Variable (ECV) requirements to provide stable, long-term, satellite-based data products to characterise the climate system and its changes. CEDA, working as part of a project consortium, were awarded the contract to build the Open Data Portal, consisting collectively of a central archive and single point of access for dissemination of the data to the international user community. Reflecting climate and earth observation community requirements, the system needed to support a range of access services in use by this domain and specifically, to integrate into existing infrastructure in the form of the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). This range of requirements together with the heterogeneity of the ECV datasets presented significant challenges. However, the use of Linked Data technologies and an iterative approach to data model development and data publishing have been instrumental in meeting the objectives and building a cohesive system. The portal supports data discovery based on the OGC CSW specification and on ESGF's powerful faceted search. These services provide complementary content at different levels of granularity and it therefore became clear that a common data model was needed. Key terms are defined in vocabularies serialised in SKOS and OWL and are accessible from a central vocabulary server to provide a single authoritative source for applications consuming metadata content. Exploiting the vocabulary service therefore, it has been possible to develop an innovative solution tagging ISO 19115 records for the CSW with the equivalent vocabulary terms used for the ESGF faceted search system. In this way it has been possible to create a rich user interface for the portal combining search results from both search services and the ability to dynamically populate facet selection and context-based help information from the

  10. The accountability of European agencies: legal provisions and ongoing practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busuioc, E.M.


    The book ''The Accountability of European Agencies: Legal Provisions and Ongoing Practices '' addresses one of the most relevant yet under- researched topic in current European governance: the accountability of European agencies. European agencies have been created at a rapid pace in recent years,

  11. Basic Space Science; United Nations/European Space Agency Workshops for Developing Countries, 2nd, Bogota, Colombia, November 9-13, 1992 (United States)

    Haubold, Hans J. (Editor); Torres, Sergio (Editor)


    The conference primarily covered astrophysical and astronomical topics on stellar and solar modeling and processes, high magnetic field influence on stellar spectra, cosmological topics utilizing Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) data and radioastronomic mapping as well as cosmic gravitational instability calculations, astrometry of open clusters amd solar gravitational focusing, extremely energetic gamma rays, interacting binaries, and balloon-borne instrumentation. Other papers proposed an active Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) communication scheme to neighboring solar-like systems and more direct involvement of and with the public in astronomy and space exploration projects.

  12. Meeting staff representatives of the European Agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


      The AASC (Assembly of Agency Staff Committee) held its 27th Meeting of the specialized European Agencies on 26 and 27 May on the premises of the OHIM (Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market) in Alicante, Spain. Two representatives of the CERN Staff Association, in charge of External Relations, attended as observers. This participation is a useful complement to regular contacts we have with FICSA (Federation of International Civil Servants' Associations), which groups staff associations of the UN Agencies, and the annual CSAIO conferences (Conference of Staff Associations of International Organizations), where each Autumn representatives of international organizations based in Europe meet to discuss themes of common interest to better promote and defend the rights of the international civil servants. All these meetings allow us to remain informed on items that are directly or indirectly related to employment and social conditions of our colleagues in other international and Europ...

  13. Making Sense of the ‘Agency Programme’ in post-Lisbon Europe: Mapping European Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Margaretha Ekelund


    Full Text Available The institutional landscape of the EU has been transformed through the establishment of agencies and changes brought by the Lisbon Treaty. This article seeks to contribute to our conceptual and empirical understanding of European agencies post-Lisbon. It maps the current European agencies according to timing of establishment, size, functions, governance structures and financial arrangements, and discusses the findings in relation to studies and classifications of agencies in national settings. It shows that variations between different European agencies correspond to variations observed between agencies in national settings and argues that what is innovative is the political level at which they are created, not the agency type. Focusing on the functions, governance structure and financial arrangements of European agencies, it develops a classification model for European agencies. It concludes that there are four main types of agencies, distinguished by their formal functions and formal autonomy from the European Union’s core executive institutions.

  14. Making Sense of the ‘Agency Programme’ in post-Lisbon Europe: Mapping European Agencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ekelund, Helena


    .... It maps the current European agencies according to timing of establishment, size, functions, governance structures and financial arrangements, and discusses the findings in relation to studies...

  15. Making Sense of the ‘Agency Programme’ in post-Lisbon Europe: Mapping European Agencies


    Helena Margaretha Ekelund


    The institutional landscape of the EU has been transformed through the establishment of agencies and changes brought by the Lisbon Treaty. This article seeks to contribute to our conceptual and empirical understanding of European agencies post-Lisbon. It maps the current European agencies according to timing of establishment, size, functions, governance structures and financial arrangements, and discusses the findings in relation to studies and classifications of agencies in national settings...

  16. National Space Agencies vs. Commercial Space: Towards Improved Space Safety (United States)

    Pelton, J.


    assume that thiscondition will not change. This seems particularly true for high profile, multi-billion dollar programs.The second part of the paper focuses on new commercial space programs that appear to be undertaken in a less restrictive manner; i.e. outside the constraints of politically-driven national space policies. Here the drivers—even within international consortia—seem to be on reliable performance and commercial return. Since sustained accident-free performance is critical to commercial programs very existence and profitability, the inherent role of safety in commercial space industry would seem clear. The question of prime interest for this paper is whether or not it might be possible for smaller and more focused commercial space entities, free from the constraints of space agency organizational and political constraints, to be more "risk adverse" and thus be more nimble in designing "safe" vehicles? If so how can this "safety first" corporate philosophy and management practice be detected and even objectively measured? Could, in the future, risk reduction at the level of design, quality verification, etc., be objectively measured?

  17. Constructing a European Governance Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny

    . On the basis of that discussion, Eurostat launched another public consultation named; ‘Towards implementing European Public Sector Accounting Standards for EU member states-Public consultation on future EPSAS governance principles and structures’. This paper seeks to provide an in-depth understanding......Financial crisis has emphasized the need for harmonized public sector accounts in Europe. After a public consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States, the European Commission considers that the proper way is the development of European Union Standards adapted to IPSAS (renaming...... of the negotiations and interactions that took place prior to, during and after the issuance of the public consultation on the ‘Suitability of IPSAS’. The focus of this paper is therefore on a systematic analysis of the construction of regional-transnational governance of public sector accounting, using the EPSAS...

  18. European Space Science Scales New Heights (United States)


    Satellites, comprising nine tonnes of hardware and sixty experiments, will be placed in orbit with a view to giving scientists a new perspective on the Sun, the Earth's magnetic environment and the universe in general. ISO, the Infrared Space Observatory, will allow astronomers to study all types of objects in the so1al. system - from nearby planets to the farthermost galaxies - with unparalleled sensitivity through the invisible, cold light of infrared radiation. Soho, the solar observatory, will be the fist satellite to continuously observe the Sun in detail, and will do so for at least two yews. The quartet of identical Cluster satellites will probe the Earth's magnetosphere in order to study the storms that can occur there which disrupt radio communications or electrical power supplies on Earth. As Roger Bonnet, Director of the European Space Agency's science programme, points out: "For the programme, this year marks the culmination often years of endeavour now drawing to a close. This shows that Europe is now taking the lead in in situ exploration of the universe". On 23 May ISO successfully completed final testing which validated the satellite's technical performance. It is currently on its way to Guiana onboard the Ariana. It will be launched from the Space Centre at Kourou by an Ariane 44P launcher in late October. On 14 June Soho will undergo similar checkouts which should give it a clean bill of health for dispatch to the Kennedy Space Center (Florida). It is scheduled for a launch on 30 October by NASA's Atlas rocket. Authorisation to dispatch the Cluster quartet to Kourou should be given in late June with a view to a launch at the end of the year on a flagship launcher: the first Ariane-5, which is set to become the most competitive launcher on the world market, Another milestone in space exploration is in the offing: the journey over the Sun's north pole by ESA's Ulysses probe begins this month and will continue through to September. During this phase

  19. European activities in space radiation biology and exobiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horneck, G. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)


    In view of the space station era, the European Space Agency has initiated a review and planning document for space life sciences. Radiation biology includes dosimetry of the radiation field and its modification by mass shielding, studies on the biological responses to radiation in space, on the potential impact of space flight environment on radiation effects, and assessing the radiation risks and establishing radiation protection guidelines. To reach a better understanding of the processes leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life, exobiological activities include the exploration of the solar system, the collection and analysis of extraterrestrial samples and the utilization of space as a tool for testing the impact of space environment on organics and resistant life forms. (author)

  20. Standardizing the European Education Policy Space (United States)

    Lawn, Martin


    Countries in Europe, through the European Union, are creating, as part of the market and its governance, a new policy space in education. It is being formed through law, regulation, networking and harmonization. The development of standards across the different fields of policy, statistical calculation and commerce underpins and extends the…

  1. Green space, health and wellbeing: making space for individual agency. (United States)

    Bell, Sarah L; Phoenix, Cassandra; Lovell, Rebecca; Wheeler, Benedict W


    This essay examines the assumptions of green space use underpinning much existing green space and health research. It considers opportunities to move the field forward through exploring two often overlooked aspects of individual agency: the influence of shifting life circumstances on personal wellbeing priorities and place practices, and the role of personal orientations to nature in shaping how green space wellbeing opportunities are perceived and experienced. It suggests such efforts could provide more nuanced insights into the complex, personal factors that define and drive individual choices regarding the use of green spaces for wellbeing over time, thereby strengthening our understanding of the salutogenic potential (and limits) of green spaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. European Identity through Space Space Activities and Programmes as a Tool to Reinvigorate the European Identity

    CERN Document Server

    Baranes, Blandina


    Space activities are one particularly visible area, where Europe can shape its identity. This publication investigates the effect space activities have already had on building a European “spirit” (e.g. through European missions or European astronauts). It also looks into the effects that activities labelled “national” have on the emergence of a European identity. Based on this analysis, the book's intention is to identify creative ways and means for how to further use space for shaping the European identity. For this purpose the focus is not only on policy analysis but also on expertise from the fields of cultural science and the arts in order to tap their creative potential and also their theoretical approaches to the topic. Selecting this theme provides ESPI with another opportunity to develop its trans-disciplinary approach.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the perspective of the European financial space which should allow the professional intermediaries – the credit establishments, the insurance companies or investment services, to propose their services to the entire community of customers. Actually, here are considered the traditional banking services, such as those that provide insurance, especially those relating to life insurance.The access to regulated markets, it takes place in the perspective of this financial space, especially after coming into circulation of Euro coin. It should be insight, that the access to these markets, often requires the using of intermediaries. We can not speak about the existence of the financial space, without the freedom of action of these professional intermediaries. Concerning the freedom of these services, we can say that they depend on the movement of capital, and the movement capital is engaged since the directive of May 11, 1966, and subsequently is required after the June 24, 1988 and was confirmed by the Maastricht Treaty. Thus, we can discuss about the liberty of movement of capital, through angle the coordination of national legislation in matters of banks, the insurance and the investment services through a significant number of directives adopted. Nowadays, the European financial space is overtake, the EU borders and the internationalization of operations is require the extensive possible legal framework of application, also all the directives issued in matters of banks and insurance are covered by Annex VIII of the Agreement on the European Financial Space. The agreement also provides the interdictions of restrictions or discrimination concerning the movements of capital. As a consequence, the study is approach both to aspects concerning the European financial space and the interdictictions of restrictions or discrimination concerning the movements of capital.

  4. European astronaut selected for the third Hubble Space Telescope (United States)


    The STS-104 crew will rendezvous with the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, which is the size of a city bus, capture it using the Shuttle's Canadian robot arm and secure it in Columbia's payload bay. Then, working in teams of two, the four astronauts will leave the Shuttle's pressurised cabin and venture into the payload bay, performing a variety of tasks that will improve the productivity and reliability of the telescope. The four astronauts will perform a series of six "extravehicular" activities in the open space environment. Such activities are commonly called spacewalks, but this term does little justice to the considerable physical and mental efforts that astronauts need to make in doing the very demanding work involved. The Shuttle commander and pilot for this flight have not yet been appointed, but the four designated mission specialists begin training for the STS-104 mission immediately. "The ambitious nature of this mission, with its six spacewalks, made it important for the payload crew to begin training as early as possible," said David C. Leestma, NASA Director of Flight Crew Operations at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, to which Claude Nicollier is on resident assignment from ESA's European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany, the home base of the European astronaut corps. The Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit in April 1990. It is one of the most capable optical telescopes available to astronomers today, producing images and spectral observations at the forefront of astronomy. The European Space Agency contributed a 15 share to the development of Hubble. One of the five scientific instruments on board, the Faint Object Camera, was built by a European industrial consortium made up of British Aerospace, Dornier and Matra under a contract with the European Space Agency. The solar arrays which provide Hubble with electrical power were manufactured by British Aerospace and Dornier. In its eight years of operation, the telescope has not

  5. European Agencies for Criminal Justice and Shared Enforcement (Eurojust and the European Public Prosecutor’s Office)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luchtman, Michiel; Vervaele, John


    European agencies are playing an increasing role in the criminal judicial area. When it comes to the applicable law for their investigative acts, the picture is not that European, but rather a vague mix of some European and mostly national law. This results not only in great legal uncertainty as to

  6. The European Space Information System (ESIS) (United States)

    Giommi, P.; Ansari, S.

    The European Space Information System (ESIS) is an ESA service that provides uniform access to astronomical data and bibliographical information from several remote archives. ESIS is a new generation data system that gives access to astronomical catalogues and data products such as images, spectra and lightcurves using a powerful and easy-to-use graphic user interface. Extensive facilities to visualize, compare and correlate data from different archives are included. Currently ESIS supports data retrieval from the IUE, EXOSAT, HST, Einstein and SIMBAD databases. Several catalogues and mission logs, including GINGA, and ROSAT are also available. A first version of the ESIS system has been recently released and can be publicly accessed through computer networks. A client-server version of the system is also available and has been installed at a number of astronomical institutes. Demonstrations will be given during the conference.

  7. European Medicines Agency, CAT Secretariat & US Food and Drug Administration. (United States)


    The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) are responsible for reviewing applications for marketing authorization for Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMP), which include (stem) cell-based medicines, for the ATMP classification and certification procedure, and to provide scientific advice to developers of ATMPs. The CAT, an expert committee dedicated to ATMPs, was established by the Regulation (EC) No 1394/2007 on Advanced Therapies. The CAT came into operation in January 2009. ATMPs are defined in this Regulation as gene therapy and cell therapy medicinal products, and tissue-engineered products. The US FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research is responsible for ensuring the safety, purity, potency and effectiveness of many biologically derived products, including blood intended for transfusion, blood components and derivatives, vaccines and allergenic extracts, and cell, tissue and gene therapy products for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of human diseases, conditions or injury. Human cells or tissue intended for implantation, transplantation, infusion or transfer into a human recipient are regulated as human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products (HCT/Ps).

  8. In the footsteps of Columbus European missions to the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    O'Sullivan, John


    The European Space Agency has a long history of cooperating with NASA in human spaceflight, having developed the Spacelab module for carrying in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle. This book tells of the development of ESA’s Columbus microgravity science laboratory of the International Space Station and the European astronauts who work in it. From the beginning, ESA has been in close collaboration on the ISS, making a significant contribution to the station hardware. Special focus is given to Columbus and Copula as well as station resupply using the ATV. Each mission is also examined individually, creating a comprehensive picture of ESA's crucial involvement over the years. Extensive use of color photographs from NASA and ESA to depict the experiments carried out, the phases of the ISS construction, and the personal stories of the astronauts in space highlights the crucial European work on human spaceflight.

  9. 28 August 2013 - Director of Technical Quality Management Head of ESTEC Establishment European Space Agency F. Ongaro visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Technology Department J.-P. Tock; visiting the ATLAS experimental area with ATLAS Deputy Spokesperson T. Wengler and signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer. Accompanied throughout by F. Bordry and V. Parma.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer


    28 August 2013 - Director of Technical Quality Management Head of ESTEC Establishment European Space Agency F. Ongaro visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Technology Department J.-P. Tock; visiting the ATLAS experimental area with ATLAS Deputy Spokesperson T. Wengler and signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer. Accompanied throughout by F. Bordry and V. Parma.

  10. Teachers' Perceived Professional Space and their Agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oolbekkink-Marchand, H.W.; Hadar, L.L.; Smith, K.; Ulvik, M.; Helleve, I.


    In order to increase student performance, governments stress the importance of standardization for teaching which is seen as a threat to teachers' professionalism. In this small-scale study we investigated the way teachers use their professional space in these changing circumstances. We studied

  11. Historical space steps of Turkey: It is high time to establish the Turkish space agency (United States)

    Ercan, Cihan; Kale, İzzet


    This paper discusses the importance of space in today's space driven world, the current space activities of Turkey, its space organizations with legislation background information and calls for the necessity for the establishment of the Turkish Space Agency (TSA). Firstly, the importance of space is given which is followed by a brief background and current space activities in Turkey. Then, the answers to why Turkey needs a National Space Agency are outlined by stating its expected role and duties. Additionally, the framework for space policy for Turkey is proposed and the findings are compared with other developing regional space actors. Lastly, it is proposed and demonstrated that Turkey is on the right track with its space policy and it is suggested that the establishment of the TSA is critical both for a coherent space policy and progress as well as the successful development of its national space industry, security and international space relations.

  12. Open innovation in the European space sector: Existing practices, constraints and opportunities (United States)

    van Burg, Elco; Giannopapa, Christina; Reymen, Isabelle M. M. J.


    To enhance innovative output and societal spillover of the European space sector, the open innovation approach is becoming popular. Yet, open innovation, referring to innovation practices that cross borders of individual firms, faces constraints. To explore these constraints and identify opportunities, this study performs interviews with government/agency officials and space technology entrepreneurs. The interviews highlight three topic areas with constraints and opportunities: 1) mainly one-directional knowledge flows (from outside the space sector to inside), 2) knowledge and property management, and 3) the role of small- and medium sized companies. These results bear important implications for innovation practices in the space sector.

  13. Issues in space segment regulation in the european community (United States)

    Verhoef, Paul

    A major restructuring of the satellite communications market in the European Community has been set in motion with the advent of the European Commission's Satellite Green Paper. The first detailed proposals for Community legislation however, address mainly ground segment issues, such as type-approval of satellite equipment and the mutual recognition of licences. Space segment issues remain an important area for further reflection. This paper presents some background to these space segment issues within the context of the Community satellite communications policy.

  14. Governing by inspection? European inspectorates and the creation of a European education policy space


    Grek, Sotiria; Lawn, Martin; Ozga, Jenny; Segerholm, Christina


    This paper draws on the first, completed phase of a research project on inspection as governing in three European inspection systems. The data presented here draw attention to the rather under-researched associational activities of European inspectorates and their developing practices of policy learning and exchange, and highlight their significance as contributing to an emergent European Education Policy Space (EEPS). The paper is framed by original approaches to inspection that locate it as...

  15. Canada's space program, 1958 1989: A program without an agency (United States)

    Gainor, Christopher


    Canada's space program began in 1958 with the work that led to the launch of Canada's first satellite, Alouette 1, in 1962. In 1967, two major reports on Canadian space research efforts called for a Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The Canadian government declined to set up an agency but chose instead in 1969 to establish an interdepartmental committee to coordinate Canada's space efforts. The CSA finally began operations on March 1, 1989. This paper will look at government documents, reports and statements about Canadian space efforts during this time to trace the efforts to establish a CSA. This paper will also examine the creation of the Interdepartmental Committee on Space in 1969. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Canadian government focused on satellites as a communications tool and as a means of encouraging high technology industry in Canada. After joining the US space shuttle program in the 1970s, Canada was invited in the 1980s to send astronauts into space and take part in the US space station program. Although the committee structure was awkward and inconvenient, Canada's space efforts during that time saw a high degree of political and economic success.

  16. County rises to hi-tech challenge: Agency vies for pounds 1bn European science project

    CERN Multimedia

    Meek, J


    The Yorkshire Forward development agency in northern England is backing the White Rose Consortium to build the European Spallation Source (ESS). One of the rivals for the investment is the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire (1 page).

  17. Patient and consumer organisations at the European Medicines Agency : Financial disclosure and transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perehudoff, Katrina; Alves, Teresa Leonardo

    Background: The transparency criteria adopted by the European Medicines Agency require eligible patient and consumer organisations to disclose the names and contributions of their public and private revenue sources. Despite various transparency initiatives, the exact funding sources of, and amounts

  18. European agencies and their boards: too much board, too little monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busuioc, M.


    European agencies have become an established part of the European Union’s architectural set up and are the most proliferating institutional entities at the EU level. However, as their relevance and prevalence in the EU institutional landscape has increased, so have concerns with regards to the

  19. Study on the Evaluation of the European Union Agency for Network and Information Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attström, Karin; Ludden, Vanessa; Lessmann, Franziska

    The European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA) was established in 2004. The Agency provides advice and recommendations, data analysis, and supports awareness raising and cooperation by the EU bodies and Member States in the field of cybersecurity. ENISA uses its expertise ...

  20. Mobility and power in networked European space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper seeks to contribute to debates about how urban, social and critical theory can conceptualise the socio-technologies of connection, resilience, mobility, and collapse in contemporary urban space. The paper offers a theoretical frame for conceptualising this New Urban Condition, focusing...

  1. The Performance of Export Credit Agencies in European Post-Communist Countries


    Pšenáková, Lucia


    This thesis contributes to current literature dealing with the topic of sovereign export promotion in form of government-back export credit agencies by analysing a very homogenous group of Central European countries. Export credit agencies in the Visegrad region indeed foster export. Different institu- tional forms of export credit agencies are compared and using example of a small open economy, the Czech Republic, it is suggested that the most prof- itable and effective strategy for governme...

  2. European Space Science gets new Programme Director (United States)


    Prof. Southwood, born on 30 June 1945, holds a BA in Mathematics and a Ph.D in Physics from Imperial College, London. He has spent most of his career at Imperial College, apart from two periods at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles), as Postdoctoral Fellow and later as Visiting Professor. In 1997 he joined ESA as Earth Observation Future Programme Strategy Manager. He is currently Imperial College Pro Rector responsible for external academic affairs. Prof. Southwood has received five awards/honours and held many chairmanships, including those of the Science Programme Committee and Space Science Advisory Committee at ESA. His role as Principal Investigator for the Cassini Saturn Orbiter Magnetometer is his most recent project. He has been active over the years, both in Europe and in the United States, in public outreach on space science. He has around 200 publications and 100 invited papers to his name. "David Southwood ranks among the most prominent space science experts in Europe", said ESA's Director General, Antonio Rodotà, welcoming Prof. Southwood's appointment, "and I am sure that he, like his predecessor, Prof. Bonnet, will do a first-rate job for the excellent scientific community in our member states".

  3. Complexity and the media in the European space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Navarro Colorado


    Full Text Available This article focuses on an analysis of complexity and identity in relation to social communication. More specifically, on the mass media and how language is used in them. The aim of the article, therefore, isto determine to what extent intercultural dialogue in the European space seeks to overcome the abuse of forms and concepts in social communication.

  4. Diasporic proximities: spaces of ‘home’ in European documentary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivieri, D.


    This essay explores the relation between the genre of experimental observational documentary and transnational European spaces. It engages with documentaries that focus on the everyday and the uneventful, and that present alternative representations of liminal places and subjects. The three films

  5. European Space Agency studies of the solar probe (United States)

    Roxburgh, I. W.


    The feasibility and scientific objectives of a solar probe were studied by a Mission Definition Group in 1975 and 1976. The orbit analysis program was developed and an extended study of the orbit analysis was done in 1977. The results of these studies are in the Report of the Mission Definition Study (1976) and an E.S.O.C. report (1978), and the reader is referred to these sources for greater details. In this report, only brief discussion on mission concept and objectives, satellite design, orbit, orbit analysis, are presented.

  6. Payload operations management of a planned European SL-Mission employing establishments of ESA and national agencies (United States)

    Joensson, Rolf; Mueller, Karl L.


    Spacelab (SL)-missions with Payload Operations (P/L OPS) from Europe involve numerous space agencies, various ground infrastructure systems and national user organizations. An effective management structure must bring together different entities, facilities and people, but at the same time keep interfaces, costs and schedule under strict control. This paper outlines the management concept for P/L OPS of a planned European SL-mission. The proposal draws on the relevant experience in Europe, which was acquired via the ESA/NASA mission SL-1, by the execution of two German SL-missions and by the involvement in, or the support of, several NASA-missions.

  7. The scaling of green space coverage in European cities. (United States)

    Fuller, Richard A; Gaston, Kevin J


    Most people on the planet live in dense aggregations, and policy directives emphasize green areas within cities to ameliorate some of the problems of urban living. Benefits of urban green spaces range from physical and psychological health to social cohesion, ecosystem service provision and biodiversity conservation. Green space coverage differs enormously among cities, yet little is known about the correlates or geography of this variation. This is important because urbanization is accelerating and the consequences for green space are unclear. Here, we use standardized major axis regression to explore the relationships between urban green space coverage, city area and population size across 386 European cities. We show that green space coverage increases more rapidly than city area, yet declines only weakly as human population density increases. Thus, green space provision within a city is primarily related to city area rather than the number of inhabitants that it serves, or a simple space-filling effect. Thus, compact cities (small size and high density) show very low per capita green space allocation. However, at high levels of urbanicity, the green space network is robust to further city compaction. As cities grow, interactions between people and nature depend increasingly on landscape quality outside formal green space networks, such as street plantings, or the size, composition and management of backyards and gardens.

  8. The reorganisation of European pharmacovigilance. Part 2. From spontaneous reports to agency reviews and decisions. (United States)


    Despite the fact that adverse effects are vastly under-reported, spontaneous reporting remains the foundation of pharmacovigilance. A small series of properly documented cases, when very specific, can suffice to constitute a signal. In France, reporting adverse effects to Regional Pharmacovigilance Centres (CRPVs) permits high-quality analysis of pharmacovigilance signals, so that they can be brought to the attention of the national agency responsible for making decisions about drugs, the French Health Products Agency (ANSM). The ANSM can use this information to protect patients by implementing the measures within its power or by initiating a European referral. When a decision taken at the national level concerns a drug marketed in several Member States of the European Union, a "harmonisation" procedure results in a decision taken at community level, applicable in all Member States. This means that a safety issue raised by a single Member State sometimes leads to a decision that protects the population of the entire European Union. But it also means that other European decisions can compel national agencies to allow back onto the market a drug that they sought to withdraw in order to protect their citizens. Negotiations with other Member States, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the European Commission must be supported by robust data: this is yet another reason for each country to have its own effective national pharmacovigilance database, the contents of which should be publicly accessible. This is unfortunately not yet the case in France in 2014. It also provides another good reason for healthcare professionals and patients to report adverse effects, so that the details can be recorded in national and European databases.

  9. Parking spaces for people with disabilities at bank agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ferreira Mazetto


    Full Text Available Environment accessibility influences the quality of performance of the activities developed by individuals in their daily lives with autonomy and independence, and also guarantees the equal right to ‘come and go’. Thisstudy aimed to assess the parking spaces reserved for people with disabilities at bank branches in Uberaba, Minas Gerais state, analyzing whether they are in accordance with the current technical standards of accessibility. The study is characterized by being a quantitative survey with a sample consisting of bank branches established in the municipality. Data was collected using a form with nine questions to be filled through observation of space - outdoor parking spaces at the agency. The data were processed using the technique of content analysis, pointing as a result four categories according to the verification carried out, namely: (i signaling, (ii parking spaces, (iii accessible route, and (iv other elements. Thirty-seven banks were listed; eight were excluded for not meeting the inclusion criteria. Of the 29 banks included in the study, only nine had reserved parking spaces for people with disabilities and, from those, six were adequate.

  10. The European Person Equivalent: Measuring the personal environmental space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik


    European person equivalent is a quantification of the average person’s environmental impact in a near future according to the current politically set environmental targets. In addition to expressing the current societal priorities in pollution reduction, the targeted PE expresses the environmental space...... and interpretation of environmental impacts from all kinds of man-made activities, technologies and systems. The paper presents the determination of the person equivalents for different impact categories and consumption of resources. Its relation to the sustainability-based ecological space and its use as a common...... yardstick for industry in the presentation and comparison of environmental impact are discussed....

  11. European integration and cooperation, basic vectors of European space of freedom, security and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Balaceanu


    Full Text Available European integration and cooperation, basic vectors of European space of freedom, security and justiceAbstract: The European countries joining to the Schengen area had the effect elimination of internal border controls between Schengen member countries, that use permenent provisions of the Schengen acquis, being a single external border where operational checks are carried out according to a set of clear rules on immigration, visas, the asylum, as well as some decisions concerning police cooperation, judicial or customs. This means that the border crossing can be made at any time through many places, and citizens of member countries who are traveling in the Schengen area must present a valid ID. Overcoming internal border can be equated with a journey through the country.

  12. Space, agency, and the transfiguring of lesbian/queer desire. (United States)

    Hammers, Corie


    In this study, the author uses ethnographic and interview data from Pussy Palace, a lesbian/queer bathhouse in Toronto, Canada, to examine the ways in which the bathhouse space impacted participants' sexuality, behaviors, and notions of self. The Toronto Women's Bathhouse Committee (TWBC), an explicitly feminist and queer organization, is responsible for putting on Pussy Palace events and in creating an atmosphere that is simultaneously sexual and safe. Findings indicate elements of both spatial praxis and sexual agency, wherein individuals expressed being able to "take risks," "find their sexuality," and "discover who they are" in a safe space, where nonnormative bodies and sexualities are to be celebrated. Although participants expressed feeling "liberated," many also described feeling anxious, awkward, and insecure. Within a sexual space where bodies are exposed and highly salient, these anxieties worked to inhibit and curtail bodily expression. The author concludes by discussing the significance of spaces like Pussy Palace for lesbian/queer individuals when it comes to sexual expression and the need for further research when it comes to examining lesbian/queer sexualities and public sexual cultures.

  13. Driven by Expertise and Insulation? The Autonomy of European Regulatory Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Ossege


    Full Text Available Expertise and autonomy are cornerstones to the effective operation and legitimacy of European Regulatory Agencies (ERAs. Yet, we know little about ERAs’ actual autonomy, nor about factors shaping it. This article studies ERAs’ actual autonomy from public and private actors, emphasising two crucial explanatory factors: expertise and rulemaking competences. The lack of insights on expertise is particularly striking, as expertise—the “raison d’être” and main resource of expert bodies—provides ERAs with a potentially powerful means to increase autonomy. Relying on a rational institutionalist framework within which ERAs enjoy substantive discretion to pursue their goals, the study empirically compares three powerful ERAs—the European Medicines Agency, the European Chemicals Agency, and the European Food Safety Authority. Based on the analysis of 39 semi-structured expert interviews, findings show that expertise is a crucial explanation for ERAs’ substantive autonomy from the Commission. Towards research intensive private stakeholders, the role of expertise becomes less pronounced. Instead, ERAs are more successful in protecting their autonomy by engaging in the risk-averse interpretation of the regulatory framework and by adapting rules over time to adapt their needs: they engage in “procedural insulation”. Political salience provides a scope condition for ERAs to use expert knowledge and rulemaking competences more strategically—potentially undermining scientific quality.

  14. European utilisation plan for the International Space Station (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew; Clancy, Paul


    This document was finalised only days before the Space Shuttle Columbia accident of 1 February 2003. It is a comprehensive overview of the projected utilisation by Europe of the ISS, covering the science planned, the facilities under development and planned, and a full database of all the selected proposals in life and physical sciences, space science and technology. It also covers utilisation planning in the commercialisation and education areas. The information given here is an accurate reflection of the European plan as it stood at the end of January 2003. Assuming a successful recovery of the Space Shuttle programme and the re-establishment of regular Shuttle flights to complete, maintain and utilise the ISS, along with continuing support from our Russian partner, the Executive expects this plan to be re-joined in due course, albeit with some time delays occasioned by the loss of Columbia.

  15. Long Duration Balloon flights development. (Italian Space Agency) (United States)

    Peterzen, S.; Masi, S.; Dragoy, P.; Ibba, R.; Spoto, D.

    Stratospheric balloons are rapidly becoming the vehicle of choice for near space investigations and earth observations by a variety of science disciplines. With the ever increasing research into climatic change, earth observations, near space research and commercial component testing, instruments suspended from stratospheric balloons offer the science team a unique, stable and reusable platform that can circle the Earth in the polar region or equatorial zone for thirty days or more. The Italian Space Agency (ASI) in collaboration with Andoya Rocket Range (Andenes, Norway) has opened access in the far northern latitudes above 78º N from Longyearbyen, Svalbard. In 2006 the first Italian UltraLite Long Duration Balloon was launched from Baia Terra Nova, Mario Zuchelli station in Antarctica and now ASI is setting up for the their first equatorial stratospheric launch from their satellite receiving station and rocket launch site in Malindi, Kenya. For the equatorial missions we have analysed the statistical properties of trajectories considering the biennial oscillation and the seasonal effects of the stratospheric winds. Maintaining these launch sites offer the science community 3 point world coverage for heavy lift balloons as well as the rapidly deployed Ultra-light payloads and TM systems ASI developed to use for test platforms, micro experiments, as well as a comprehensive student pilot program. This paper discusses the development of the launch facilities and international LDB development.

  16. ANITA: The European Technology Demonstrator for Trace Gas Monitoring in the International Space Station Atmosphere (United States)

    Tan, Gijsbert; Mosebach, Herbert; Honne, Atle


    The accumulation of toxic or otherwise harmful trace gases in a spacecraft cabin is a very serious concern in terms of health and safety of the crew. Much progress has been made in developing techniques for monitoring the air quality on board and in near-real-time. The technique developed in Europe has reached the state of an in-flight technology demonstrator. ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red) Spectrometry. ANITA is calibrated to identify and quantify quasi online more than 30 contaminants at low ppm (part per million) or sub-ppm detection limits.ANITA is a European Space Agency (ESA) - National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) cooperative programme.ANITA will be launched with Jules Verne, the maiden flight of the Automatic Transfer Vehicle (ATV) currently scheduled for June 2007.

  17. 41 CFR 102-73.70 - Are Executive agencies required to acquire leased space by negotiation? (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are Executive agencies required to acquire leased space by negotiation? 102-73.70 Section 102-73.70 Public Contracts and Property... acquire leased space by negotiation? Yes, Executive agencies must acquire leased space by negotiation...

  18. Ionospheric forecasts for the European region for space weather applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsagouri Ioanna


    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent advances in the implementation and validation of the Solar Wind driven autoregression model for Ionospheric short-term Forecast (SWIF that is running in the European Digital upper Atmosphere Server (DIAS to release ionospheric forecasting products for the European region. The upgraded implementation plan expands SWIF’s capabilities in the high latitude ionosphere while the extensive validation tests in the two solar cycles 23 and 24 allow the comprehensive analysis of the model’s performance in all terms. Focusing on disturbed conditions, the results demonstrate that SWIF’s alert detection algorithm forecasts the occurrence of ionospheric storm time disturbances with probability of detection up to 98% under intense geomagnetic storm conditions and up to 63% when storms of moderate intensity are also considered. The forecasts show relative improvement over climatology of about 30% in middle-to-low and high latitudes and 40% in middle-to-high latitudes. This indicates that SWIF is able to capture on average more than one third (35% of the storm-associated ionospheric disturbances. Regarding the accuracy, the averaged mean relative error during storm conditions usually ranges around 20% in middle-to-low and high latitudes and 24% in the middle-to-high latitudes. Our analysis shows clearly that SWIF alert criteria were designed to effectively anticipate the ionospheric storm time effects that occurred under specific interplanetary conditions, e.g., cloud Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs and/or associated sheaths. The results provide valuable input in advancing our ability in predicting the space weather effects in the ionosphere for future developments, and further work is proposed to enhance the model forecasting efficiency to support operational applications.

  19. The common objectives of the European Nordic countries and the role of space (United States)

    Lehnert, Christopher; Giannopapa, Christina; Vaudo, Ersilia


    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty two Member States with common goals of engaging in European space activities. However, the various Member States have a variety of governance structures, strategic priorities regarding space and other sectorial areas depending on their cultural and geopolitical aspirations. The Nordic countries, namely Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, have similarities which result often in common geopolitical and cultural aspects. These in turn shape their respective priorities and interests in setting up their policies in a number of sectorial areas like shipping and fisheries, energy, immigration, agriculture, security and defence, infrastructures, climate change and the Arctic. Space technology, navigation, earth observation, telecommunication and integrated applications can assist the Nordic countries in developing, implementing and monitoring policies of common interest. This paper provides an in-depth overview and a comprehensive assessment of these common interests in policy areas where space can provide support in their realisation. The first part provides a synthesis of the Nordic countries respective priorities through analysing their government programmes and plans. The priorities are classified according to the six areas of sustainability: energy, environment and climate change, transport, knowledge and innovation, natural resources (fisheries, agriculture, forestry, mining, etc), and security and external relations. Although the national strategies present different national perspectives, at the same time, there are a number of similarities when it comes to overall policy objectives in a number of areas such as the Arctic and climate change. In other words, even though the Arctic plays a different role in each country's national context and there are clear differences as regards geography, access to resources and security policies, the strategies display common general interest in sustainable development and management of

  20. University Autonomy, Agenda Setting and the Construction of Agency: The Case of the European University Association in the European Higher Education Area (United States)

    Nokkala, Terhi; Bacevic, Jana


    This article analyses the ways in which a policy actor constructs its agency through the production of knowledge. Taking the example of the concept of "autonomy" as constructed in the discourse of the European University Association (EUA), the article draws on the theory of discursive framing and agenda setting, as well as on Meyer and…

  1. Contribution of the spanish agency for medicines and healthcare products to the European committee for the evaluation of medicinal products for human use. (United States)

    Alonso-Gutiérrez, A; Díaz-Ramos, P; Sulleiro-Avendaño, E; de Miguel-Marañón, M; Padilla-Gallego, M E; Sancho-López, A; Ruiz-Antúnez, S; Prieto-Yerro, C


    The centralized procedure for registering medicinal products involves a joint assessment by all regulatory agencies of European Union member states, which are coordinated by the European Medicines Agency. Since its implementation in 1995, the Spanish Agency for Medicines and Healthcare Products (AEMPS) has actively contributed to the committee on medicinal products for human use. The therapeutic areas in which AEMPS has the greatest presence are cardiovascular, sensory organs (mainly ophthalmology) and genitourinary/sexual hormones. The technical staff of AEMPS contributes their expertise and extensive experience to this task, as do the practitioners of the Spanish healthcare system who act as external experts, providing their clinical vision and bringing the daily clinical practice to the evaluation of medicinal products. As with other European decision spaces, the joint participation of the member states is not homogeneous, with a minority of countries still heading the majority of assessments for the committee on medicinal products for human use, although all member countries take part in the final decision. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  2. European astronomers' successes with the Hubble Space Telescope* (United States)


    can bend the light from more distant objects, so magnifying and intensifying their images. In one spectacular case, cluster Abell 2218 creates in Hubble's WFPC2 camera more than a hundred images of galaxies lying beyond it. Without the magnifying effect of the cluster, many of these remote objects would be too faint to study in detail. Compared with man-made optics, the gravitational lenses are complex. They produce multiple images (as many as seven or more views of the same object) and they also smear the images into arcs. Team-member Jean-Paul Kneib, who is now at Toulouse, uses the distortions as a guide to distance. The more distorted the image, the farther off a galaxy is. The galaxies imaged by Abell 2218 are 5 to 8 billion light-years away, and Kneib's estimates have been confirmed by Tim Ebbels of Cambridge using the William Herschel Telescope located on the Spanish island of La Palma. Seen as they were early in the history of the Universe, the objects seem surprisingly similar to nearer and more mature galaxies. The cosmic scale Gustav Tammann of Basel and his collaborators use the Hubble Space Telescope to measure the Hubble Constant. Both are named after Edwin Hubble who discovered, almost 70 years ago, that the galaxies are spreading apart. The Hubble Constant is the rate of expansion -- and the most important number in cosmology, because it fixes the size and the maximum age of the observable Universe. Since the launch of the space telescope in 1990, two independent teams have tried to fix the constant but their answers disagree. A high expansion rate, which makes the Universe relatively young, is preferred by Wendy Freedman's team consisting largely of American astronomers. A lower value for Hubble's Constant, implying an older Universe, comes from a mainly European team led by the American astronomer Allan Sandage. Tammann belongs to the latter, "old Universe" camp and he is philosophical about the delay in reaching a consensus. "I've been waiting

  3. Eurosdr - the Pan-European Network for Mapping Agencies and Academia (United States)

    Streilein, A.; Remondino, F.; Pfeifer, N.; Trollvik, J. A.; Stoter, J.; Crompvoets, J.; Potůčková, M.


    EuroSDR ( is a non-profit organisation that provides a pan-European network that brings together mapping / cadastre agencies and academia for the purpose of applied research, and securing timely, research-based knowledge that allows the agencies to play their role as content providers and government competence centres for geographic information and spatial data infrastructures. EuroSDR is the recognised provider of research-based knowledge to a Europe where citizens can readily benefit from geographic information. Its mission is to develop and improve methods, systems and standards for the acquisition, processing, production, maintenance, management, visualization, and dissemination of geographic reference data in support of applications and service delivery. EuroSDR delivers advanced research-based knowledge. Its value is generated by facilitating interaction between research organisations and the public and private sector with the aim of exchanging ideas and knowledge about relevant research topics; by facilitating and contributing to research projects; and by transferring knowledge and research results to real world applications. The paper gives an overview about EuroSDR research principles, research alliances, objectives and action plans of each of the technical commissions.

  4. Experiences of technology-rich innovation in European schools within the Open Discovery Space project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia PEINADO


    Full Text Available The Open Discovery Space (ODS project was conceived to introduce innovative resource-based teaching and learning practices in European schools, to promote the creation of communities between European school members and to boost the demand for open educational resources among teachers. After 3 years of applying the ODS innovation model, more than 2,000 European schools have carried out diverse experiences of technology-rich innovation to achieve the project aims. This paper describes the experiences and results of ODS in 7 different European countries, along with the international activities that aim at expanding the scope of the project beyond the European limits.

  5. The Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises Office (SME Office) at the European Medicines Agency. (United States)

    Carr, M


    On 15 December 2005, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) launched an "SME Office" to provide financial and administrative assistance to micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), with the aim of promoting innovation and the development of new human and veterinary medicinal products by SMEs. According to current EU definition of an SME, companies with fewer than 250 employees, and an annual turnover of not more than 50 million euro or an annual balance sheet total of not more than 43 million euro, are eligible for assistance from the SME Office. Incentives available from the EMEA for SMEs, include: Administrative and procedural assistance from SME Office within the Agency; Fee reductions (90%) for scientific advice and inspections; Fee exemptions for certain administrative services (excluding parallel distribution); Deferral of the fee payable for an application for marketing authorisation or related inspection until after the grant of the marketing authorisation; Conditional fee exemption where scientific advice followed and marketing application is unsuccessful; Assistance with translations of the product information documents. At the end of May 2009, more than 380 companies from 21 countries across the European Economic Area (EEA) had SME status assigned by the EMEA. The large majority of companies are developing medicinal products for human use, 16 are veterinary companies, 15 companies are developing products for both human and veterinary use and 38 are regulatory consultants. Since the SME initiative started the Agency has processed more than 130 requests for scientific advice with fee reductions totalling of 6.9 million euro. Regulatory assistance has been provided to more than 170 companies and 12 companies have benefited from the SME translation service. Stakeholders have acknowledged the significant role the SME Office now plays as a service provider. In the period between January 2006 and June 2009, 34 applications for marketing authorization


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica PANAINTE


    Full Text Available In this article, we propose to analyze the content of the Manifesto on European Criminal Procedure Law of 2013, and how this document can represent a foundation for the legal cooperation of the European states, and also for creating a unique, common space of European criminal justice. Elaborated by the European Criminal Policy Initiative and launched on November 2013, the Manifesto on European Criminal Procedure Law contains the principles and the rules that should be followed by the European penal legislator when gives shape to the laws in the field of Criminal Procedure. This document represents a natural following of the first Manifesto, in the field of substantive criminal law of 2009. The Manifesto concerns mainly the rules and the principles of criminal procedure because, as its authors affirm, this kind of rules have increasingly been shaped lately in European regulations, and also because the regulations in this field must reflect and respect the highest standards of the rule of law, as they must continuously and without exception guarantee the fundamental rights. In this study, we propose to focus upon the legal solutions found out by the authors of the Manifesto in order to attain, during the criminal proceedings, an equilibrium between the interest of the state and even of the Union to realize an effective criminal proceedings, and the individual human rights that are affected, and also an equilibrium between the actual legal order and the traditions of the member states.

  7. European labs fight back against cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    König, R


    Germany's 1997 budget contains cuts amounting to 3.7% in funding of domestic research programs and in contributions to international labs. Contributions will be cut to the European Space Agency, the European Synchrotron facility and CERN.

  8. Governing by Inspection? European Inspectorates and the Creation of a European Education Policy Space (United States)

    Grek, Sotiria; Lawn, Martin; Ozga, Jenny; Segerholm, Christina


    This paper draws on the first, completed phase of a research project on inspection as governing in three European inspection systems. The data presented here draw attention to the rather under-researched associational activities of European inspectorates and their developing practices of policy learning and exchange, and highlight their…

  9. Towards a line-of-sight, implementation of performance measurement by road agencies : A European and Western Australian perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmaker, R.; Van der Lei, T.T.E.


    This paper is the result of an international, explorative study of the alignment of government and road authority goals from different European countries and Western Australia. The goal of the study is to advance the understanding of the development of performance management of road agencies.

  10. The Integrative Dimension of the Economic Globalization in European Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mariana Alexandrache


    Full Text Available We believe that globalization and its socio-economic implications of the world and world economic crisis is one of the most debated issues from several years. The publication "The Economist’’ named globalization as the most used word of the century. The most relevant dimension of globalization is the economy with the more dynamic factors: technological development, the hegemony of liberal conceptions (closely linked to the triumph of the ideology of market economy and explosive development of countries or regions. Economic globalization has manifested a series of visible effects such as: the emergence of new markets and foreign trade (interconnected at global level, the appearance of: transnational companies, multilateral agreements on trade, broadening the scope of WTO, transformation of multinational companies in transnational companies and the emergence of global economic markets. Regionally, we noticed that the trendof concentration of economic activity is more pronounced and advanced in the European continent. Expanding globalization in Europe was achieved because of the fall of communism, and the neoliberal reformation which took place in Western European countries. Events like the fall of the Berlin Wall, followed by the fall of communism eradicated many political, economic, religious or cultural barriers. There were born new relations between state and market, public and private. European Union is, in our view, a regional office ofglobalization, representing the best performing integrative system in the world (by creating free trade area, customs union, common market, the Economic and Monetary Union. In terms of the European Commission,European model is a third way towards globalization, a middle path between protectionism and uncontrolled economy. To understand why the EU is an advanced approximation of globalization, perhaps a regional model of globalization, we must first understand the link between globalization and regional

  11. The system of Regional Contact Offices for promoting GMES services and the use of Space Technologies in European Regions. (United States)

    Carrara, Paola; Antoninetti, Massimo; Bacai, Hina; Basoni, Anna; Bosc, Christelle; Clave, Magali; Cornacchia, Carmela; L'Astorina, Alba; Monbet, Philippe; Mueller, Bastian; Nicolau, Sonia; Pergola, Nicola; Rampini, Anna; Tramutoli, Valerio; Schumacher, Volker; Wells, Alan; Zepeda Juarez, Jesus; Zolotikova, Svetlana


    In 2005, the EU made the strategic choice of developing a space-based programme, called Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES). GMES is an independent Earth monitoring initiative led by the European Union and carried out in partnership with the Member States and the European Space Agency (ESA). Its primary objective is to provide information services that give access to accurate data and information in the field of the environment and security and are tailored to the needs of users. However, at the regional level, stakeholders are often not aware about the potential benefits of services Europe's GMES initiative can provide; yet Europe's ca. 350 regions represent a large reservoir of potential GMES users where GMES services can add value to existing services. Refining data, products and services from global GMES services in the various domains (i.e. land, marine, atmosphere, emergency response, security and climate change), GMES downstream services may be customised to individual user needs, many of which are to be found a the regional level. Within a number of regions, links between the different types of stakeholders have grown over the years. Often, individual actors have developed inter-regional links but their linkage is in most cases not formalised. When looking at the European scale, that overall awareness of GMES downstream opportunities is still very low with respect to the potential benefits regions could draw from a wider participation. However, being aware of the potential of GMES, of the important role they can play and of the need for exchanging experiences, pioneering Local and Regional Authorities (LRAs) intending to retrieve benefit from space technologies, including GMES, have now started to collaborate within structured networks, NEREUS being the most advanced example. The logically next step is that LRAs engage in a dialogue with service-industry and European decision-makers to maximize the benefits from these innovative tools

  12. Using Space to Inspire and Engage Children (United States)

    Clements, Allan


    The European Space Education Resources Office (ESERO-UK) is a project of the European Space Agency (ESA) and national partners including the Department for Education (DfE), The UK Space Agency (UKSA) and the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). The key objective of the project is to promote space as an exciting inspirational context…

  13. The scaling of green space coverage in European cities


    Fuller, Richard A.; Gaston, Kevin J.


    Most people on the planet live in dense aggregations, and policy directives emphasize green areas within cities to ameliorate some of the problems of urban living. Benefits of urban green spaces range from physical and psychological health to social cohesion, ecosystem service provision and biodiversity conservation. Green space coverage differs enormously among cities, yet little is known about the correlates or geography of this variation. This is important because urbanization is accelerat...

  14. European Law – Medicinal products and essential similarity: the preliminary ruling in R v Medicines Control Agency ex parte Generics


    Wooldridge, Frank


    The author explains how the European Court of Justice (ECJ) ruling in the case of R v Medicines Control Agency ex parte Generics (Case C-368/96) elucidated the controversial meaning of the concept of essential similarity involved in the authorisation of medicinal products under EC legislation. Article by Dr Frank Wooldridge (University of Notre Dame, London) published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and its Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal ...

  15. STS-46 MS Hoffman takes Italian Space Agency (ASI) personnel on tour of JSC (United States)


    STS-46 Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jeffrey A. Hoffman escorts representatives from the Italian Space Agency (ASI) on a tour of the Space Station Mockup and Trainer Facility (SSMTF) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9B. Hoffman (center), wearing microphone, briefs visitors on the SSMTF Habitation Module galley area. At the far left is STS-46 backup Payload Specialist Umberto Guidoni. At Hoffman's right is STS-46 Payload Specialist Franco Malerba (glasses hanging around his neck).

  16. Russian space agency activities on the problem of technogenic space debris (United States)

    Blagun, V. P.; Kulik, S. V.; Lukyashchenko, V. I.


    In this paper the main directions and the major results of the activities on the problem of technogenic near-earth space (NES) orbital debris are discussed. With regard to monitoring the NES debris environment, the following issues are considered: the catalogue of space objects which includes objects in the geostationary ring, orbital debris models, and ground- and space-based observations. For the protection of spacecraft and Space Station from debris particles multilayer and other shields are used, as well as avoidance manoeuvres. Important issues are the determination of the location of impacts and restoration of the station wall tightness. The BUFFER program has been developed for the risk assessment of impacts of orbital debris particles with the Space Station. Measures are taken to reduce technogenic pollution of NES which include those to prevent launch vehicles and spacecraft explosions. Special attention is placed on the safe utilization of the geostationary orbit. From the results of these studies regulatory documents are issued.

  17. How do we avoid disaster when exiting the European Medicines Agency? Making the most of Brexit in pharmaceutical regulation. (United States)

    Hatswell, Anthony James


    As the UK prepares to leave the EU, it must decide what path it is to take with a large number of regulatory and technical agencies who provide collaboration at the European level. In the case of pharmaceuticals, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) provides pan-European licencing for novel pharmaceuticals. Should the UK depart from the EMA system, this article highlights the loss to patients immediately (slower access to novel treatments), and in the long term by having no access to some novel products as companies choose not to launch in the UK. The lack of access then may also preclude the access to these treatments as generic medicines, causing harm far into the future. The other costs considered are the cost for duplicating the functions of the EMA, or the alternative of using the decisions of other regulators without input to decisions made. An alternative is then set out, of how the UK can prosper under 'Brexit', by remaining a member of the EMA, but accepting the decisions without political oversight (as currently happens with the European Commission). Additional freedom could be given to a UK regulator to accept decisions (where appropriate) from other agencies such as the Food & Drug Administration-further speeding access and making the UK a more attractive market. Such an arrangement would put the UK in a better position than the good position it is in currently. This would give patients (both now and in the future) the best access to treatment possible, and promote/attract an industry which employs (directly and indirectly) 500,000 jobs.

  18. How do we avoid disaster when exiting the European Medicines Agency? Making the most of Brexit in pharmaceutical regulation (United States)

    Hatswell, Anthony James


    As the UK prepares to leave the EU, it must decide what path it is to take with a large number of regulatory and technical agencies who provide collaboration at the European level. In the case of pharmaceuticals, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) provides pan-European licencing for novel pharmaceuticals. Should the UK depart from the EMA system, this article highlights the loss to patients immediately (slower access to novel treatments), and in the long term by having no access to some novel products as companies choose not to launch in the UK. The lack of access then may also preclude the access to these treatments as generic medicines, causing harm far into the future. The other costs considered are the cost for duplicating the functions of the EMA, or the alternative of using the decisions of other regulators without input to decisions made. An alternative is then set out, of how the UK can prosper under ‘Brexit’, by remaining a member of the EMA, but accepting the decisions without political oversight (as currently happens with the European Commission). Additional freedom could be given to a UK regulator to accept decisions (where appropriate) from other agencies such as the Food & Drug Administration—further speeding access and making the UK a more attractive market. Such an arrangement would put the UK in a better position than the good position it is in currently. This would give patients (both now and in the future) the best access to treatment possible, and promote/attract an industry which employs (directly and indirectly) 500,000 jobs. PMID:28717397

  19. A New European High Fidelity Solar Array Simulator for Near Earth and Deep Space Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorvardarson Hjalti Pall


    Full Text Available Following an intensive design, development, and testing effort of almost 3 years, Rovsing with ESA assistance succeeded in the development of a new European high fidelity Solar Array Simulator (SAS for near Earth and deep space applications. ESA now has a versatile, highly modular and efficient SAS at its disposition that serves at simulating modern high power solar arrays for Earth observation, science or telecom satellites as well as for future deep space missions.

  20. Lost in Translation? A Case Study of Macao in Fabricating a European Education Space in Asia (United States)

    Vong, Teresa Sou-Kuan; Wong, Matilda


    The creation of a European education space has been extensively discussed in Europe. Many scholars are concerned about the way in which the emergence of "global governmentality," such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)'s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), has produced a "soft…

  1. Engineers' Spatial Orientation Ability Development at the European Space for Higher Education (United States)

    Carrera, C. Carbonell; Perez, J. L. Saorin; Cantero, J. de la Torre; Gonzalez, A. M. Marrero


    The aim of this research was to determine whether the new geographic information technologies, included as teaching objectives in the new European Space for Higher Education Engineering degrees, develop spatial abilities. Bearing this in mind, a first year seminar using the INSPIRE Geoportal (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe) was…

  2. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M.; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.


    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent

  3. NASA in Crisis: The Space Agency's Public Relations Efforts Regarding the Hubble Space Telescope. (United States)

    Kauffman, James


    Examines the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) public relations efforts concerning the Hubble telescope. Proposes that NASA's poor public relations exacerbated problems: NASA oversold the telescope before it was deployed, failed to develop a plan for release of images, provided misleading flight reports, and reported…

  4. CSAIO – a progressive tool at the service of staff associations of international organizations and European agencies

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association


    Every year in autumn, a two-day CSAIO (Conference of Staff Associations of International Organizations) conference is organized for staff associations of international organizations based mainly in Europe, as well as European agencies. Creation, objectives and progress CSAIO, created by the staff associations of CERN and OECD in 2000, invites about 30 staff associations to share their experiences and ideas to better identify the expectations and aspirations of a personnel evolving at the heart of international and European organizations. Over time, the preparation of the conference has evolved to better accommodate the requests of the staff representatives coming from different horizons. For two years, there has been an initiative to institutionalize the informal follow-up, during the first half-day of the conference, of themes discussed the previous year. This follow-up allows participants to share their experience on the implementation and impacts of certain propositions as reflected in their organizations ...

  5. Why do science in space? Researchers' Night at CERN 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    Nellist, Clara


    Space topic and debate "Why do science in space?" With the special presence of Matthias Maurer, European Space Agency astronaut, and Mercedes Paniccia, PhD, Senior Research Associate for space experiment AMS.

  6. Space for ambitions : the Dutch space program in changing European and transatlantic contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baneke, David


    Why would a small country like the Netherlands become active in space? The field was monopolized by large countries with large military establishments, especially in the early years of spaceflight. Nevertheless, the Netherlands established a space program in the late 1960s. In this paper I will

  7. Gadolinium retention after administration of contrast agents based on linear chelators and the recommendations of the European Medicines Agency. (United States)

    Dekkers, Ilona A; Roos, Rick; van der Molen, Aart J


    The Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) earlier this year recommended to suspend some marketing authorisations for Gadolinium Containing Contrast Agents (GCCAs) based on linear chelators due to the potential risk of gadolinium retention in the human body. These recommendations have recently been re-evaluated by EMA's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP), and confirmed the final opinion of the European Medicines Agency. This editorial provides an overview of the available GCCAs and summarises the recent evidence of gadolinium retention. Moreover, a critical appraisal of the strengths and limitations of the scientific evidence currently available on gadolinium retention is given. • EMA recommended suspension of some EU marketing authorisations of four linear GCCAs. • Brain MRI findings indicating gadolinium retention have been confirmed by mass spectrometry. • Current scientific evidence for gadolinium retention has several methodological limitations. • No clear clinical evidence exists indicating that gadolinium retention causes neurotoxicity. • Long-term safety of GCCAs, however, remains unclear.

  8. Rethinking the Learning Space at Work and Beyond: The Achievement of Agency across the Boundaries of Work-Related Spaces and Environments (United States)

    Kersh, Natasha


    This paper focuses on the notion of the learning space at work and discusses the extent to which its different configurations allow employees to exercise personal agency within a range of learning spaces. Although the learning space at work is already the subject of extensive research, the continuous development of the learning society and the…

  9. Implementation of the Harmonized EU Isotretinoin Pregnancy Prevention Programme A Questionnaire Survey among European Regulatory Agencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crijns, Ineke; Straus, Sabine; Luteijn, Michiel; Gispen-de Wied, Christine; Raine, June; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje


    Background: There is little information on the status of the implementation of the isotretinoin Pregnancy Prevention Programme (PPP) in the EU, and on compliance with this programme by the regulatory agencies. Objective: The aim of the study was to obtain information on implementation of the

  10. The politics of civil society building: European private aid agencies and democratic transitions in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biekart, C.H.


    Strengthening civil society may be all the rage in the international donor community, but what does it mean in practice? This seminal work critically examines the political aspects of civil society building and the role of non-governmental development aid agencies during recent democratic

  11. ESSC-ESF Position Paper: Science-Driven Scenario for Space Exploration: Report from the European Space Sciences Committee (ESSC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worms, Jean-Claude; Lammer, Helmut; Barucci, Antonella


    Abstract In 2005 the then ESA Directorate for Human Spaceflight, Microgravity and Exploration (D-HME) commissioned a study from the European Science Foundation's (ESF) European Space Sciences Committee (ESSC) to examine the science aspects of the Aurora Programme in preparation for the December...... in NASA's budget that was taking place at that time; e.g., the postponement sine die of the Mars Sample Return mission. At the time of this study, ESSC made it clear to ESA that the timeline imposed prior to the Berlin Conference had not allowed for a proper consultation of the relevant science community......'s exploration programme, dubbed "Emergence and co-evolution of life with its planetary environments," focusing on those targets that can ultimately be reached by humans, i.e., Mars, the Moon, and Near Earth Objects. Mars was further recognized as the focus of that programme, with Mars sample return...

  12. The Cooperation of Fyrom’s Local Authority Agencies with Local Authorities in the European Union and the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Magoulios


    Full Text Available This article examines the modern role of local authorities in the new Balkan and European environment as well as the institutions, means and experiences of cooperation among local authorities agencies of the FYR of Macedonia and those of Balkan and European countries. Based on the results of a primary research survey undertaken in the FYR of Macedonia, this paper examines top priority sectors of such inter-regional cooperation. Countries for cooperation were selected on the basis of factors of importance, such as geography, scale of economic cooperation, intra-Balkan conflicts and the degree of participation of Balkan countries in the European integration process; sectors of cooperation are ranked on the basis of specific local authorities needs in each country. More specifically, in the case of Balkan countries, cooperation between local societies, apart from contributing to local development and strengthening the role of local authorities, it could also contribute towards reinforcing security, stability, peace and friendship among the populations of the region.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ema Cioclea


    Full Text Available The European Union is interested in ensuring that each national administration offers comparable administrative capacity through quality of public services and professionalism from the civil servants. At the same time, the European states are characterised by long and varied institutional histories, with different trajectories in their evolution. That is why, public administration structures and regulations vary among the Member States and a set of common principles can guide them towards administrative convergence and performance. This paper aims to analyze the shared principles of a common European Administrative Space and also to address the link between these principles and the performance of public institutions from a managerial point of view. The study is based on review and analysis of academic research, government documents and personal perspectives, extracting and linking key findings from existing research and practice. The paper argues that managerial theories on performance are compatible with public administration organizations and some of the criteria are common to those promoted by the principles of the European Administrative Space.

  14. Globalization and the transformation of the national political space: Six european countries compared


    Kriesi, Hanspeter; Grande, Edgar; Lachat, Romain; Dolezal, Martin; Bornschier, Simon; Frey, Timotheo


    In this paper, we present the basic ideas, the design and some key results of an ongoing research project on the transformation of the national political space in Western Europe. We start from the assumption that the current process of globalization or denationaliza-tion leads to the formation of a new structural conflict in Western European countries, opposing those who benefit from this process to those who tend to loose in the course of the events. The structural opposition between globali...

  15. Europeanization in VET Policy as a Process of Reshaping the Educational Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Loogma


    Full Text Available The EU represents a transforming educational space, where national and supranational boundaries in educational governance are becoming blurred. The EU has become an  important actor in educational governance and an important arena for policy learning and transfer. This paper explores how the process of reshaping the educational space manifests itself in the process of the Europeanization of VET policy in the case of Estonia. In Estonia, this process was followed by the growth of executive VET institutions and has developed from rather uncritical initial policy transfer to more active learning from the EU, although conformism can still be seen in cases of the introduction of standardizing policy tools.

  16. Review of the Tri-Agency Space Nuclear Reactor Power System Technology Program (United States)

    Ambrus, J. H.; Wright, W. E.; Bunch, D. F.


    The Space Nuclear Reactor Power System Technology Program designated SP-100 was created in 1983 by NASA, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Attention is presently given to the development history of SP-100 over the course of its first year, in which it has been engaged in program objectives' definition, the analysis of civil and military missions, nuclear power system functional requirements' definition, concept definition studies, the selection of primary concepts for technology feasibility validation, and the acquisition of initial experimental and analytical results.

  17. Multiple Identities, Negotiations, and Agency across Time and Space: A Narrative Inquiry of a Foreign Language Teacher Candidate (United States)

    Kayi-Aydar, Hayriye


    Drawing on the post-structural views and the literature on teacher identity and agency, and using narrative inquiry, this paper describes how one teacher candidate majoring in Spanish negotiated her identities across time and space and how her identity negotiations interacted with her agency. The recursive analysis of qualitative data sources…

  18. Evaluation of oncology drugs at the European Medicines Agency and US Food and Drug Administration: when differences have an impact on clinical practice. (United States)

    Trotta, Francesco; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Schellens, Jan H M; Laing, Richard; Tafuri, Giovanni


    The aims of this study were to compare the approaches of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the evaluation and approval of new anticancer indications and to identify possible clinical implications associated with these differences. Information on the European Union therapeutic indications for the cohort of anticancer drugs was extracted from the European Public Assessment Reports and from the FDA review reports. Overall, 42 anticancer drugs were approved by EMA between 1995 and 2008, corresponding to a total of 100 indications. In 47 of 100 indications, a difference was found. For 19 of these 47 indications, the difference was that one agency approved an indication, whereas the other agency did not. For the remaining 28 indications, the same indication was approved by both of the agencies and differences were evaluated through an algorithm; in 10 cases, discrepancies in therapeutic indications between EMA and FDA were considered clinically relevant. We found an overall trend that the agency that was second to give a positive approval was usually more restrictive in terms of wording of the indication compared with the agency that provided approval first. Regarding the use and robustness of available clinical data for evaluation, no clear associations could be found. Clinically relevant differences in the outcome of the EMA and FDA approval process of oncology products were found. Neither of the agencies seems to have a prevailing restrictive behavior over the other. Further efforts on harmonizing decision making between regulatory systems are needed.

  19. The Future of Human Space Exploration: Toward Cooperation or Competition? (United States)


    ELDO European Launch Development Organization ERA European Robotic Arm ESA European Space Agency ESOC European Space Operations Centre ESRO...Patterns of International Cooperation in Space, The Chinese Space Program: A Mystery Within a Maze , and ―Will China overtake America in space?‖ In...six member permanent crew originally planned.83 Canada was called on again for its advanced robotics . Unlike the other partners, Canada would not


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Леонід Герганов


    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the current state of training of seafarers at Maritime higher educational institutions of Ukraine in accordance with the needs of the national economy and the requirements of the international labour market. There have been suggested measures for the gradual integration of Maritime education into the European educational space, an integrated approach in scientific and methodical support of innovative activity of the teaching staff of the mentioned above institutions in the introduction of new pedagogical technologies into the practice of training specialists for the marine industry. It has been determined, that the implementation of a quality system at marine higher educational institution is not only an urgent task of their administrator, but also it is due to the requirements of the international STCW Convention to the formation of a common European space in the field of Maritime education, the solution of the problem of recognition of the competence and qualifications of the Ukrainian seafarers, the development of the European unified system of training, retraining and qualification improvement of specialists in the Maritime industry.

  1. The Italian Space Agency Support in the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) (United States)

    Pisani, Anna Rita; Virelli, Maria; Zoffoli, Simona; Coletta, Alessandro; Candela, Laura Giulia


    The Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is an important political, economical and societal objective to reduce severe losses and damages caused by natural phenomena or human activity.The Earth Observation (EO) satellites data have been recognised as a useful support for politicians, decision- makers and major stakeholders in all phases of the Disaster Risk Management (DRM).In this framework since 2013 the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has established the Working Group on Disasters (WG Disasters) to coordinate space agencies efforts in projects focussed on the challenge of the DRR through the EO data exploitation.In order to achieve this purpose CEOS activated three thematic pilot projects (Volcano, Seismic and Flood) and the Recovery Observatory (RO) and supports the Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories (GSNL) initiative of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO). The Italian Space Agency (ASI) participates in CEOS activities since 1986 supporting the GSNL since 2012 and the DRM pilot projects and the RO since the beginning, providing COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) data.In this work recent results achieved by some among the projects in the framework of the CEOS WG Disaster projects, also reported during the last Working Group on Disasters 5th meeting held in Bonn (March 8th-10th, 2016), will be presented, with a focus on the DRM Seismic and Volcano pilots projects (Lefkada earthquake and Cordon Caulle Volcano) and on some Supersites (Hawaii, Bardarbunga and Campi Flegrei).

  2. The effect of knowledge sharing behavior on organizational performance (Case Study: Iranian Space Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Philsoophian


    Full Text Available Purpose: One of the main activities in the field of knowledge management, is knowledge sharing, because employees can play an important role in organizational competitive advantages. Effective knowledge sharing  can improve the quality of R&D activities. On the other hand it seems that, knowledge sharing behavior improvs organizational performances and competitive advantages for the organization. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of knowledge sharing (with regards to attitude, intention and behavior on organizational performances. Methodology: The research method is based on descriptive - survey and questionnaire methods that uses partial least squares by “SMARTPLS” software. Result and findings: Studying of 85 collected  questionnaire  showed that " attitude "  has positive and significant effect on " intention " and  " intention "has  a significant positive impact on "behavior". Also the knowledge sharing affects strongly on the performance of the Iranian Space Agency. Remarkably, the results indicate that all financial performance, processes performance and internal performance have positive impact on Iranian Space Agency performance.

  3. National Policy Brokering and the Construction of the European Education Space in England, Sweden, Finland and Scotland (United States)

    Grek, Sotiria; Lawn, Martin; Lingard, Bob; Ozga, Jenny; Rinne, Risto; Segerholm, Christina; Simola, Hannu


    This paper draws on a comparative study of the growth of data and the changing governance of education in Europe. It looks at data and the "making" of a European Education Policy Space, with a focus on "policy brokers" in translating and mediating demands for data from the European Commission. It considers the ways in which…

  4. Professor Gerschenkron goes to Brussels. Russian Catch-up Economics and the Common European Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hedlund


    Full Text Available Ongoing discussions between Russia and the EU on the formation of a Common European Economic Space bring back to mind Alexander Gerschenkron's classic essay on economic backwardness in historical perspective. This paper argues that the institutions that once produced a specific kind of catch-up economics in Czarist Russia still remain largely the same. Unless negotiations between Moscow and Brussels take into consideration such fundamental institutional incompatibility, attempts at harmonization, expressed by Brussels as an attempt tp spread Western values, will be doomed to fail. A cynical conlusion views potential convergence as adaptation by Brussels to traditional Russian institutional patterns of rule evasion, rather than a Westernization of Russia

  5. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities. (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P


    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania). 3771 adults living in 124 neighbourhoods answered questions on mental health, neighbourhood social environment, and amount and quality of green space. Additionally, audit data on neighbourhood green space were collected. Multilevel regression analyses examined the relation between neighbourhood green space and individual mental health and the influence of neighbourhood social environment. Mental health was only related to green (audit) in Barcelona. The amount and quality of neighbourhood green space (audit and perceived) were related to social cohesion in Doetinchem and Stoke-on-Trent and to neighbourhood attachment in Doetinchem. In all four cities, mental health was associated with social contacts. Neighbourhood green was related to mental health only in Barcelona. Though neighbourhood green was related to social cohesion and attachment, the neighbourhood social environment seems not the underlying mechanism for this relationship.

  6. Evaluation of the SBAS InSAR Service of the European Space Agency’s Geohazard Exploitation Platform (GEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pedro Galve


    Full Text Available The analysis of remote sensing data to assess geohazards is being improved by web-based platforms and collaborative projects, such as the Geohazard Exploitation Platform (GEP of the European Space Agency (ESA. This paper presents the evaluation of a surface velocity map that is generated by this platform. The map was produced through an unsupervised Multi-temporal InSAR (MTI analysis applying the Parallel-SBAS (P-SBAS algorithm to 25 ENVISAT satellite images from the South of Spain that were acquired between 2003 and 2008. This analysis was carried out using a service implemented in the GEP called “SBAS InSAR”. Thanks to the map that was generated by the SBAS InSAR service, we identified processes not documented so far; provided new monitoring data in places affected by known ground instabilities; defined the area affected by these instabilities; and, studied a case where GEP could have been able to help in the forecast of a slope movement reactivation. This amply demonstrates the reliability and usefulness of the GEP, and shows how web-based platforms may enhance the capacity to identify, monitor, and assess hazards that are associated to geological processes.

  7. Systems Analysis of Interaction between Russia and the European Union in the Post-Soviet Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasfilov


    Full Text Available This article analyzes post-Soviet relations between Russia and the European Union using the theoretical framework of neoclassical realism. It finds that the post-Soviet level of competition between Russia and the EU is higher than required by the international system. The reason is rooted in the influence of a number of internal factors (or intervening variables. Consequently, elites in both Russia and the EU are not able to adequately understand the signals sent by the international system. There is a wide variety of intervening variables; for example, there are factors caused by the political elites’ perceptions of each other’s intentions and of the international situation, factors related to inadequate information, factors related to the complex institutional structure of the EU and factors related to domestic political issues. In addition, the current international environment, characterized by a high degree of uncertainty, increases the effects of these intervening variables. These effects result in inaccurate and incorrect processing of the signals of the international system by Russian and European elites. As a result, a subsystem of international relations has arisen in the post-Soviet space, featuring a highly competitive environment. However, there are only two major actors in the region: Russia and the EU. Small countries are too weak, so must choose to align themselves with either Russia or the Euone or the other. This causes a rivalry between Russia and the EU for influence on small and medium-sized countries in the post-Soviet space.

  8. National report 2012 to the Agency for the cooperation of energy regulators and to the European Commission. Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is a national report prepared by the Energy Market Authority to the Agency for the Co-operation of Energy Regulators and the European Commission on the state of the Finnish electricity and natural gas markets in 2011 as required by Article 37 (1)(e) in the Directive for the Internal Market in Natural Gas (2009/73/EC). Although this is the first national report after the entry into force of the above-mentioned directives, the report continues the series of annual national reports published since 2004. The document covers the steps the Energy Market Authority has taken and the results obtained as regards each of the tasks listed in the Article 37 of the Electricity Market Directive and the Article 41 of Natural Gas Market Directive. It contains a description of the power and tasks of the regulatory authority, an overview of the regulation and performance of electricity and natural gas sectors and an update of security of supply with regard to both gas and electricity.

  9. Quality Issues Identified During the Evaluation of Biosimilars by the European Medicines Agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use. (United States)

    Cilia, Mark; Ruiz, Sol; Richardson, Peter; Salmonson, Tomas; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Wirth, Francesca; Borg, John Joseph


    The aim of this study was to identify trends in deficiencies raised during the EU evaluation of the quality part of dossiers for marketing authorisation applications of biosimilar medicinal products. All adopted day 120 list of questions on the quality module of 22 marketing authorisation applications for biosimilars submitted to the European Medicines Agency and concluded by the end of October 2015 was analysed. Frequencies of common deficiencies identified were calculated and summarised descriptions included. Frequencies and trends on quality deficiencies were recorded and presented for 22 biosimilar applications. Thirty-two 'major objections' for 9 products were identified from 14 marketing authorisation applications with 15 raised for drug substance and 17 for drug product. In addition, 547 'other concerns' for drug substance and 495 for drug product were also adopted. The frequencies and trends of the identified deficiencies together with their impact were discussed from a regulatory perspective and how these impact key manufacturing processes and key materials used in the production of biosimilars. This study provides an insight to the regulatory challenges prospective companies need to consider when developing biosimilars; it also helps elucidate common pitfalls in the development and production of biosimilars and in the submission of dossiers for their marketing authorisations. The results are expected to be of interest to pharmaceutical companies but also to regulators to obtain consistent information on medicinal products based on transparent rules safeguarding the necessary pharmaceutical quality of medicinal products.

  10. Comparative Study of the Local Collectivity in the European Administrative Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Georgeta ALEXANDRU


    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the need of an unitary research on the local collectivity issue with the objective of highlightening the necesity for standardization and adjustment to social and economic realities inside the european administrative space. The paper will be structured into three parts so that the study will begin to clarify the notion of competece, then determining the place and role of local communities-we will identify common features and criteria for their differentiation.Given this objective we propose to realise a comparative study of local collectivities skills in Europe, to identify their relationship with the State. The conducted research continues others concerning the timeliness of this research in the theoretical plan, therefore the following are necesary: establishing the place and role, definition and identification of its legal nature, emphasizing key features of the functions and criteria in relation with the State. The work may be useful to the Romanian authorities involved in the enforcement of local collectivities in the context of decentralization. The results and the essential contribution of the work, its originality, consist of the general examination of the categories of local collectivities elected for representation and the diversity of european experiences, regarding the local administrative device -organizatoric forms, in federal states, decentralized unitary states and unitary states partial or non-centralized.

  11. The European Robotic Arm: A High-performance Mechanism Finally on Its Way to Space (United States)

    Cruijssen, H. J.; Ellenbroek, M.; Henderson, M.; Petersen, H.; Verzijden, P.; Visser, M.


    This paper describes the design and qualification of the European Robotic Arm (ERA), which is planned to be launched by the end of 2015. After years of changes, a shift of launcher and new loads, launch preparation is underway. The European Robotic Arm ERA has been designed and manufactured by Dutch Space and its subcontractors such as Astrium, SABCA and Stork with key roles for the mechanical aspects. The arm was originally designed to be launched by the STS (mounted on a Russian module for the ISS) in 2001. However, due to delays and the STS disaster, a shift was made to the Russian Proton rocket. ERA will be launched on the Multipurpose Laboratory Module (MLM). This module, which is now planned for launch to the ISS in 2015, will carry the ERA. The symmetrical design of the arm with a complete 3 degree-of-freedom wrist and general-purpose end effector on both sides, allows ERA to relocate on the station by grappling a new base point and releasing the old one, and move to different working locations.

  12. An Innovation Teaching Experience Following Guidelines of European Space of Higher Education in the Interactive Learning (United States)

    Zamorano, M.; Rodríguez, M. L.; Ramos-Ridao, A. F.; Pasadas, M.; Priego, I.

    The Area of Environmental Technology in Department of Civil Engineering has developed an innovation education project, entitled Application of new Information and Communication Technologies in Area of Environmental Technology teaching, to create a Web site that benefits both parties concerned in teaching-learning process, teachers and students. Here teachers conduct a supervised teaching and students have necessary resources to guide their learning process according to their capacities and possibilities. The project has also included a pilot experience to introduce European Space of Higher Education (ESHE) new teaching concept based on student's work, in one subject of Environmental Science degree, considering interactive learning complementary to presence teaching. The experience has showed strength and weakness of the method and it is the beginning in a gradual process to guide e-learning education in future.

  13. The contributions of the European Medicines Agency and its pediatric committee to the fight against childhood leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose K


    Full Text Available Klaus Rose,1,* Philip D Walson,2,* 1klausrose Consulting, Pediatric Drug Development and More, Riehen, Switzerland; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Medical School, Goettingen, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Although the diagnosis of childhood leukemia is no longer a death sentence, too many patients still die, more with acute myeloid leukemia than with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The European Union pediatric legislation was introduced to improve pharmaceutical treatment of children, but some question whether the European Medicines Agency (EMA approach is helping children with leukemia. Some have even suggested that the decisions of EMA pediatric committee (PDCO are counterproductive. This study was designed to investigate the impact of PDCO-issued pediatric investigation plans (PIPs for leukemia drugs.Methods: All PIPs listed under “oncology” were downloaded from the EMA website. Non-leukemia decisions including misclassifications, waivers (no PIP, and solid tumors were discarded. The leukemia decisions were analyzed, compared to pediatric leukemia trials in the database, and discussed in the light of current literature.Results: The PDCO leukemia decisions demand clinical trials in pediatric leukemia for all new adult drugs without prioritization. However, because leukemia in children is different and much rarer than in adults, these decisions have resulted in proposed studies that are scientifically and ethically questionable. They are also unnecessary, since once promising new compounds are approved for adults, more appropriate, prioritized pediatric leukemia trials are initiated worldwide without PDCO involvement.Conclusion: EMA/PDCO leukemia PIPs do little to advance the treatment of childhood leukemia. The unintended negative effects of the flawed EMA/PDCO's standardized requesting of non-prioritized testing of every new adult leukemia drug in

  14. Benefits and Misunderstandings of Free Software in the European Space Industry (United States)

    Comar, C.; Gasperoni, F.; Dewar, R.

    Free Software [1] is the term coined by Richard Stallman in the 80s to denote programs whose sources are available to whoever receives a copy of the software and come with the freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software. In Europe Free Software is sometimes referred to as Libre Software [2] for reasons that will become clear in the remainder of this article. As Richard Stallman's GNU Project grew, and with subsequent advent of GNU/Linux, Free Software has received a great deal of attention and media publicity. With attention and publicity came expectations as well as a number of misunderstandings and confusions. In the context of the European Space Industry, those expectations are exemplified by the Fresco Project [6] whose objective is to coordinate the efforts revolving around the GNU tools for the ERC32 processor. The objective of this article is to clarify some common misunderstandings and confusions that exist today in the European space industry when it comes to Free Software, while pointing out the benefits of Free Software. Is Free Software Public Domain? People often confuse Free Software with public domain software. Free Software is not public domain. A Free Software program is copyrighted. This means that the author(s) own it and control the conditions under which it can be copied (loading a program onto your computer is considered copying). On the other hand no one owns public domain software. Public domain software can be copied and modified at will without having to follow any rule. It is even possible for someone to place a copyright on public domain software, thus rendering it both un-free and un-public. Page

  15. The influence of personal belief, agency mission and city size on open space decision making processes in three southwestern cities (United States)

    Megan Friggens; Carol Raish; Deborah Finch; Alice McSweeney


    The southwest has experienced dramatic population increases over the last 30 years, a trend that is expected to continue. Open space conservation is important both from the standpoint of preserving ecosystem services as well as maintaining quality of life for urban populations. Federal agencies manage a large proportion of the public land in the Southwestern U.S. We...

  16. The patients' and consumers' working party at the European Medicines Agency: a model of interaction between patients, consumers, and medicines regulatory authorities. (United States)

    Moulon, Isabelle; Dedes, Nikos


    Since the European Medicines Agency was created in 1995, it has engaged in dialogue with its various stakeholders, including patients and other representatives of civil society. The establishment of the Patients' and Consumers' Working Party represented a key step forward in the formalization of this interaction. The working party has played a crucial role in facilitating the integration of patients and consumers in various regulatory activities. This article describes how this group operates and gives a detailed overview of the interaction between the agency and the patients' and consumers' organizations focusing on the main achievements to date.

  17. Enhanced Paediatric Pharmacovigilance at the European Medicines Agency: A Novel Query Applied to Adverse Drug Reaction Reports. (United States)

    Blake, Kevin V; Saint-Raymond, Agnes; Zaccaria, Cosimo; Domergue, Francois; Pelle, Benjamin; Slattery, Jim


    Databases of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a cornerstone of pharmacovigilance. With increasing numbers of reports, additional statistical approaches are needed to better use the data. The present study was aimed at elucidating the European Medicines Agency's (EMA) use of a novel 'paediatric' query to analyse the data in its ADR database 'EudraVigilance'. The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a measure of disproportionality for which the underlying principle is that a drug-event pair of interest is reported more often than expected relative to an independence model. The EMA's paediatric query, based on PRRs, was applied to the data in EudraVigilance to investigate the extent to which the known association between enalapril and renal toxicity was reflected in reported ADRs comparing children with adults and with adjustment for the effect of multiplicity. The comparison of PRRs for children (14.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 13.05-17.04) versus adults (2.66, 95% CI 2.52-2.82) confirmed a higher risk of renal ADRs with enalapril when used in children compared with all other medicines and compared with adults. The EMA's paediatric query can be used to highlight an imbalance for a drug-event pair among ADRs for a medicine when used in children and as compared with adults. Applying the query in practice can help the EMA to decide on whether stand-alone paediatric medicine development is warranted, and which, if any, further studies are necessary. Ongoing evaluation of the query is contributing to the development of new methods and guidance.

  18. Teacher Agency in Curriculum Making: Agents of Change and Spaces for Manoeuvre (United States)

    Priestley, Mark; Edwards, Richard; Priestley, Andrea; Miller, Kate


    In the wake of new forms of curricular policy in many parts of the world, teachers are increasingly required to act as agents of change. And yet, teacher agency is under-theorised and often misconstrued in the educational change literature, wherein agency and change are seen as synonymous and positive. This article addresses the issue of teacher…

  19. Post space mission lumbo-pelvic neuromuscular reconditioning: a European perspective. (United States)

    Evetts, Simon N; Caplan, Nick; Debuse, Dorothée; Lambrecht, Gunda; Damann, Volker; Petersen, Nora; Hides, Julie


    Long-duration exposure to the space environment causes physical adaptations that are deleterious to optimal functioning on Earth. Post-mission rehabilitation traditionally concentrates on regaining general muscle strength, neuromuscular control, and lumbo-pelvic stability. A particular problem is muscle imbalance caused by the hypertrophy of the flexor and atrophy of the extensor and local lumbo-pelvic muscles, increasing the risk of post-mission injury. A method currently used in European human spaceflight to aid post-mission recovery involves a motor control approach, focusing initially on teaching voluntary contraction of specific lumbo-pelvic muscles and optimizing spinal position, progressing to functional retraining in weight bearing positions. An alternative approach would be to use a Functional Readaptive Exercise Device to appropriately recruit this musculature, thus complementing current rehabilitation programs. Advances in post-mission recovery of this nature may both improve astronaut healthcare and aid terrestrial healthcare through more effective treatment of low back pain and accelerated post bed rest rehabilitation.

  20. The teacher of English for specific purposes and the European Space for Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role of the teacher of English for Specific Purposes (ESP from the beginning of ESP research in the 80’s to date when educators are faced with the challenges of the European Space for Higher Education (ESHE and its implementation in educational systems across Europe. Firstly, the most outstanding aspects published in the relevant literature and dealing with the ESP teacher are explored and summarized. Secondly, the new roles to be played under the framework of ESHE are presented and discussed – it has been found that these new roles are not distinctively prescribed by ESHE but references to them are spread through the existing literature. Next, particular attention will be paid to «interdisciplinary collaboration». This notion is highlighted across ESHE instruments of implementation as a brand new practice in tertiary education but in the context of ESP it is a long-established goal with practical approaches adopted worldwide. As a way of conclusion, ESP teacher’s duties are listed bearing in mind the existing bibliography and the ESHE requirements.

  1. 41 CFR 102-73.155 - What types of space can Federal agencies acquire with a categorical space delegation? (United States)


    ..., and other animals; (l) Ranger stations, i.e., facilities that typically include small offices staffed... (p) Space for short-term use (such as conferences and meetings, judicial proceedings, and emergency...

  2. Agency rivalry in a shared regulatory space and its impact on social welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Max


    This article is grounded in public choice theory and develops a framework to explain how non-benevolent behavior on the part of public regulators and the resulting lack of collaboration between different agencies have been affecting aquaculture growth. Although regulators are assumed to work for ...... larger relative power of a pro-industry agency leads to higher growth, as is the case in developing countries....

  3. NEREUS- Network of European Regions Using Space - an initiative of regions to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe (United States)

    Ayazi, Roya


    NEREUS- Network of European Regions Using Space - an initiative of regions to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe (Roya Ayazi, Secretary General NEREUS NEREUS currently unites 25 European regions and 39 Associate Members with the common objective to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe for the benefit of regions and their citizens. As voice of European Regions, NEREUS serves as an advocate for the regions in matters of space uses and also as a direct channel to the regional users of space technologies (such as local authorities, SMEs, universities and research institutes and citizens). EO/GMES, Global Satellite Navigation and Telecommunication are identified by the NEREUS Political Charta as core areas of cooperation. NEREUS holds the view that broad societal awareness and involvement is vital to fully exploit Euope's space systems. Understanding the potentials of Copernicus and EGNOS/Galileo is in the first place an essential step for the development of the downstream sector. Therefore NEREUS makes special efforts to contribute with numerous network activities to communicate and promote the added value of space uses for public policies but also as valuable new business opportunities. In economic terms space uses are suited to stimulate economic growth and innovation dynamics at regional level. The network community produced several illustrative communication tools (publications, video, web-based tools, mobile NEREUS-exhibition) portraying examples how regions already use space systems and the concrete benefits for the citizens. Most of the NEREUS-publications and video are online: Pooling a considerable wealth of capabilities and expertise, the network offers its members a dynamic platform to collaborate and share experiences and knowledge inter regionally. But these tools were not only the outcome of an intensive regional collaboration but

  4. Visiting green space is associated with mental health and vitality: A cross-sectional study in four european cities. (United States)

    van den Berg, Magdalena; van Poppel, Mireille; van Kamp, Irene; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Balseviciene, Birute; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Ellis, Naomi; Hurst, Gemma; Masterson, Daniel; Smith, Graham; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Uzdanaviciute, Inga; de Wit, Puck; van Mechelen, Willem; Gidlow, Christopher; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Maas, Jolanda


    Many epidemiological studies have found that people living in environments with more green space report better physical and mental health than those with less green space. However, the association between visits to green space and mental health has seldom been studied. The current study explored the associations between time spent in green spaces by purposeful visits and perceived mental health and vitality in four different European cities, and to what extent gender, age, level of education, attitude towards nature and childhood nature experience moderate these associations. Data was gathered using a questionnaire administered in four European cities (total n=3748). Multilevel analyses showed significant positive associations between time spent visiting green spaces and mental health and vitality in the pooled data, as well as across the four cities. Significant effect modification was found for level of education and childhood nature experience. The findings confirm the hypothesis that more time spent in green space is associated with higher scores on mental health and vitality scales, independent of cultural and climatic contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Status of Emergency Contraceptives in Europe One Year after the European Medicines Agency's Recommendation to Switch Ulipristal Acetate to Non-Prescription Status. (United States)

    Italia, Salvatore; Brand, Helmut


    In November 2014, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended switching the emergency contraceptive (EMC) ulipristal acetate to non-prescription status. This study's objective is to assess the current legal status of the two EMCs ulipristal acetate and levonorgestrel in Europe and to report on the development of sales figures for EMCs since they were made freely available. Health authorities were contacted in autumn 2015 and asked about the current status of EMCs and whether the sales figures had changed after a switch to non-prescription status. Additionally, data on consumption were collected in 18 German community pharmacies. As of November 2015, most countries in the European Union (EU) have followed the EMA recommendation. Hungary kept the prescription-only status. In Malta, EMC drugs are not authorized. Germany and Croatia switched levonorgestrel to non-prescription status as well. Of the EU candidate and European Free Trade Association countries, ulipristal acetate is available without prescription in Norway and Bosnia and Herzegovina only. Several countries reported an increase in EMC sales since the switch. An EMA recommendation can strongly contribute to the harmonization of a drug's legal status in the EU. In most European countries, ulipristal acetate and/or levonorgestrel are now freely available. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Reviving agency: Taking time and making space for rethinking diversity and inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghorashi, H.; Ponzoni, E.


    The path of social inclusion has proven difficult for minority groups in the European context. In this article, we focus on the inclusion of refugees, particularly in the labor market, and show how the difficulties they faced were related to dominant discourses on migration. Uncovering the hegemonic

  7. The European Medicines Agency Review of Pertuzumab for the treatment of adult patients with HER2-positive metastatic or locally recurrent unresectable breast cancer : summary of the scientific assessment of the committee for medicinal products for human use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boix-Perales, Hector; Borregaard, Jeanett; Jensen, Kristina Bech; Ersbøll, Jens; Galluzzo, Sara; Giuliani, Rosa; Ciceroni, Cinzia; Melchiorri, Daniela; Salmonson, Tomas; Bergh, Jonas; Schellens, Jan H; Pignatti, Francesco

    Pertuzumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that specifically targets the extracellular dimerization domain (subdomain II) of HER2. Based on the positive opinion from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) on March 4, 2013, a marketing authorization valid throughout the European Union

  8. Advanced stellar compass deep space navigation, ground testing results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn


    Deep space exploration is in the agenda of the major space agencies worldwide and at least the European Space Agency (SMART & Aurora Programs) and the American NASA (New Millennium Program) have set up programs to allow the development and the demonstration of technologies that can reduce the risks...

  9. Innovative Approaches to Vocational Education Teachers' Training within the Educational Space of European Countries (United States)

    Marynchenko, Yevhenii


    The article examines the main approaches to content, forms and methods of training future teachers of vocational education in Europe. It has been found that the structure and content according to national traditions and European standards have led to success of European vocational education. It has been proved that training is practice-oriented,…

  10. Professional Competence as a Benchmark for a European Space of Vocational Education and Training (United States)

    Grollmann, Philipp


    Purpose: The paper's aim is to present a critical review of the current European process of co-operation in VET with a special view to the European Qualification Framework and its competence orientation. Design/methodology/approach: The approach reviews the official documentation and the consultation process and a contrastive analysis of the state…

  11. Ways toward a European Vocational Education and Training Space: A "Bottom-Up" Approach (United States)

    Blings, Jessica; Spottl, Georg


    Purpose: This paper seeks to concentrate on bottom-up approaches in order to promote a European vocational education and training (VET) concept. The overall aim of this article is to demonstrate that sophisticated approaches still have a chance of becoming common practice in European countries. Design/methodology/approach: The centre of the…

  12. 41 CFR 102-79.25 - May Federal agencies allot space in Federal buildings for the provision of child care services? (United States)


    ... allot space in Federal buildings for the provision of child care services? 102-79.25 Section 102-79.25... Federal buildings to individuals or entities who will provide child care services to Federal employees if... Utilization of Space Child Care § 102-79.25 May Federal agencies allot space in Federal buildings for the...

  13. A new broom? The space agency faces a shake-up

    CERN Multimedia


    The results of a recent report have pointed a grim picture of the agency's mismanagement of the ISS. The newly appointed administrator of NASA is likely to implement some combination of mission cancellations and staff lay-offs to cut costs (1/2 page)

  14. 78 FR 51732 - The Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency Orphan Product Designation and Grant... (United States)


    ... the workshop. For participants who cannot attend the morning meetings, simultaneous live interactive... Designation and Grant Workshop is being conducted in partnership with the European Organisation for Rare Diseases, Genetic Alliance, and the National Organization for Rare Disorders. The morning program includes...

  15. Atlas of INSPIRE : Evaluating SDI Development through an Inventory of INSPIRE Experiences of European National Mapping Agencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, W.T.; Crompvoets, J.; Stoter, J.; VandenBerghe, I.


    The paper describes how practice of INSPIRE implementation are affecting Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) development. It contains the results of a EuroSDR (European Spatial Data Research) project ‘Atlas of INSPIRE implementation methods’. Aim of the project was to make an inventory of experiences

  16. Space Educational Opportunities and Outreach Activities at the Dawn of the 21st Century. A European Students Perspective (United States)

    Ferretti, S.; Robinson, D.; Manfletti, C.; Amadori, K.; Boccalatte, A.; Alessandrini, M.; Bedogna, P.; Corradi, P.; Marcuccio, M.


    Taking part in space activities and participating in the development and growth of space project has now become an undeniable reality. Thanks to academic institutions and outreach activities space enthusiasts can engage in numerous and diverse yet unique opportunities. The ESA Outreach Office sees students of every background taking part in its activities. This unique mixture of students of diverse nationalities enthusiastically co-operating ensures the program's interdisciplinarity. The added value of such an environment to the programs is significant and must not be forgotten. The friendship that blossom, and lose with which cultural and language barriers are overcome during the time spent working on the projects offered to university student and young professionals are invaluable. The purpose of this abstract is to give our perspective to the space community and to the general public on the importance of developing a space culture. The academic value of the space research projects mainly in which the authors have participated, the importance of such projects for the future of European relations and personal and social development through experience of international teams are topics that will be addressed. The activities discussed are : Attending sessions of congresses around the world, making contacts of major companies and players in the space sector, dealing of topics such as space engineering, policy and law, life sciences, business and finance, satellite applications, the exhilaration of floating in zero-g, the interdisciplinary, international and intercultural approach, the chance of quickly learning about many new concepts are just some of the marvellous experiences and opportunities that these programs offer. Reaching out to the general public is the second purpose of these unique activities.Images, photos and reports can seep into every house thanks to the great instrument that is the media, thus informing almost everyone about the activities and

  17. The emergence of the problem of Bukovina within the European geopolitical space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Lavric


    Full Text Available The problem of the North-Western Moldavia (named later on, by the Austrian occupants, Bukovina emerged within the European geopolitical space in 1775, when the territory has been annexed by the Habsburg Empire. However, before that moment, the Northern part of the future Bukovina (Şipeniţ district was disputed by Poland and Moldavia Yet, the Polish-Moldavian border was clearly established, including the Northern part of Bucovina (wanted by Poland within the Moldavian Principality. The Austrian emperor and administration used a few motivations for the annexation of the North-Western Moldavia: 1. the imposition of a cordon against the plague („which burned down long time before in Moldavia”; 2. „the need” to annex „a strip” (in reality, two big districts were annexed from the territory of Moldavia for the construction of a road linking Transylvania with Galicia; 3. the historical rights of the Pocuţia (i.e., Galicia, which have come in possession of Austria, on the North of Moldavia (Şipeniţ County. Some of the real reasons of occupation were: 1. „insatiable hunger for new territorial acquisitions; lust for the expansion of the Empire and seizing new territories bringing profit; 2. to compensate for the loss of another territory – Oltenia – in this case, with the North-Western Moldavia; 3. a desire to have a strategic area to be pursued in a subsequent expansion in Moldavia and Wallachia, respectively in the Danube region and in the Eastern Balkans. As in June 1940, the Soviet authorities have linked the issue of Bessarabia with the issue of Bukovina, I believe that the problem of Transnistria (Moldavia should be viewed in connection with the issue of ethnic Romanian Community territory of Northern Bukovina (now in Cernăuţi region. A solution for the problem of the Romanian community in Northern Bukovina is possible by the passage of municipalities inhabited by Romanians from Northern Bukovina to Republic of Moldavia, in

  18. The European Medicines Agency review of pitolisant for treatment of narcolepsy: summary of the scientific assessment by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use. (United States)

    Kollb-Sielecka, Marta; Demolis, Pierre; Emmerich, Joseph; Markey, Greg; Salmonson, Tomas; Haas, Manuel


    On 31 March 2016, the European Commission issued a decision for a marketing authorisation valid throughout the European Union (EU) for pitolisant (Wakix) for the treatment of narcolepsy with or without cataplexy in adults. Pitolisant is an antagonist/inverse agonist of the human histamine H3 receptor. The dose should be selected using an up-titration scheme depending on individual patient response and tolerance and should not exceed 36 mg/day. The main evidence of efficacy of pitolisant was based on two Phase III clinical trials. The improvement on excessive daytime sleepiness was shown against placebo in the Harmony I study (-3.33 points; 95% confidence interval (CI) [-5.83; -0.83]; p = 0.024) and in Harmony CTP (-3.41 points; 95% CI [-4.95; -1.87]; p European Medicines Agency website ( Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Regulation Framework for the Banking Sector: The EMU, European Banks and Rating Agencies before and during the Recent Financial and Debt Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Thalassinos


    Full Text Available A regulation framework for the banking sector should be characterised by transparency,responsibility and performance in several important areas. These areas are the global and Europeanframework for corporate financial reporting (CFR, risk management (RM, stockholder value creation(SVC, corporate governance (CG, corporate social responsibility (CSR and sustainable development (SD.The regulation framework for the banking sector must also consider the fiscal and monetary environment inwhich a banking institution operates. The global rating system and the rating agencies will also have animportant impact on any regulation framework for the banking sector. These two factors play a key role whena financial, credit or debt crisis occurs. In this article, a holistic regulation framework for the banking sector ispresented. The article is based on European banks that are part of the European Monetary Union (EMU.Initially, it focuses on the timelines and review the integration of the European Monetary Union, relevantlegislation and information on member countries’ banking sectors. This information creates the frameworkfor the proposed model. The article considers all of the above factors in creating a holistic regulationframework for the banking sector to present in the context of the recent financial, credit and debt crises thathave taken place in the EMU.

  20. Space weather and risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lappalainen


    Full Text Available The term space weather is used for the solar driven variability in particle and electromagnetic conditions of the near-Earth space that may harm the performance of ground-based and space-borne technology. The European Union (EU and the European Space Agency (ESA have started a common programme called the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES. Many of the GMES operational services will rely on technology prone to space weather phenomena. For long-term environmental monitoring this is not a problem, but for applications of risk management in emergency situations the impact of space weather should be considered and evaluated. In this paper, we discuss how ESA's previous activity together with European national initiatives in the space weather area can be used to support GMES and how EU could participate in this work in its Framework Programmes and within the European Research Area (ERA.

  1. Repression of violence at public meetings and sporting events within the European legal space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Milenko


    Full Text Available Violence and unbecoming behaviour at sporting events stand for a most acute problem in numerous European countries. However, the method and modes of its' repression have been determined within the frames of each country, that is its' national legislation. Thus, a wide range of various regulations referring to the distinctions of this type of violence can be spotted in legislative of each European country. Nevertheless, along with the development and maturing of the idea of the necessity of implementation of both international and regional legal instruments, used for setting up national law of individual states, a number of European legal instruments have also come to life. It comes as no surprise, though, the growing need for more both general and separate legal instruments in the repression of violence and unbecoming behaviour at sporting events in the European legislative. Based on the analysis, it is possible to single out the ones to achieve the strongest effect to our national legislative. Consequently, the general frames of the repression of violence and unbecoming behaviour at sporting events are founded on European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950, whereas the separated ones lie in the Convention of the European Council on the Repression of Violence and Unbecoming Behaviour at Sporting Events, especially the soccer games, with the Recommendation (1985. The subject of this paper is based on analysis of the legal frames established by the European legal instruments in the field of the repression of violence and unbecoming behaviour at sporting events. The methodological framework throughout the research considers the usage of various methods: historical, linguistic, sociological, logical, normative, analysis of content, etc.

  2. International Space Agency CIO Forum Industrial Control System (ICS) and Cyber (United States)

    Powell, Robert


    This briefing covers Industrial Control System (ICS) best practices for enhancing cyber protection. The briefing provides a very high-level overview of best practices currently being pursued by NASA as well as by other US government agencies such as NIST and DHS ICS-CERT. All information presented in this slide deck is publicly available and no sensitive information is provided in these slides. These slides will be used to generate discussion around best practices within the international community in the area of ICS cyber protections.

  3. Public funding for research on antibacterial resistance in the JPIAMR countries, the European Commission, and related European Union agencies: a systematic observational analysis. (United States)

    Kelly, Ruth; Zoubiane, Ghada; Walsh, Desmond; Ward, Rebecca; Goossens, Herman


    Antibacterial resistant infections are rising continuously, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. With no new antibiotic classes entering the market and the possibility of returning to the pre-antibiotic era, the Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance (JPIAMR) was established to address this problem. We aimed to quantify the scale and scope of publicly funded antibacterial resistance research across JPIAMR countries and at the European Union (EU) level to identify gaps and future opportunities. We did a systematic observational analysis examining antibacterial resistance research funding. Databases of funding organisations across 19 countries and at EU level were systematically searched for publicly funded antibacterial resistance research from Jan 1, 2007, to Dec 31, 2013. We categorised studies on the basis of the JPIAMR strategic research agenda's six priority topics (therapeutics, diagnostics, surveillance, transmission, environment, and interventions) and did an observational analysis. Only research funded by public funding bodies was collected and no private organisations were contacted for their investments. Projects in basic, applied, and clinical research, including epidemiological, public health, and veterinary research and trials were identified using keyword searches by organisations, and inclusion criteria were based on the JPIAMR strategic research agenda's six priority topics, using project titles and abstracts as filters. We identified 1243 antibacterial resistance research projects, with a total public investment of €1·3 billion across 19 countries and at EU level, including public investment in the Innovative Medicines Initiative. Of the total amount invested in antibacterial resistance research across the time period, €646·6 million (49·5%) was invested at the national level and €659·2 million (50·5%) at the EU level. When projects were classified under the six priority topics we found that 763 (63

  4. An overview on European SPS activities (United States)

    Reinhartz, K. K.


    The organization of space and energy research in Europe is discussed. The European situation is highlighted with emphasis on the dependency of energy imports and on the energy requirements of Europe. The status of SPS research in the countries that form the European Space Agency was reviewed. It is concluded that in view of the unfavorable geographical and climatic situation of large parts of Europe, terrestrial solar energy conversion is unlikely to make a significant contribution to Europe's future energy supply. Thus, SPS development is of special interest to the European community.

  5. Filling the gap in the European administrative space: the role of administrative networks in EU implementation and enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Mastenbroek, Ellen


    European administrative networks (EANs) are a key building block of the European Administrative Space (EAS). Crucially, they are to fill the gap between the EU’s policy ambitions and its limited administrative capacities. Whereas ample research has been done on policy preparation networks, the role......, it reports divergent findings on EAN establishment, functioning and impact, as well as variant normative evaluations. These variant findings partly relate to a lack of comparative research, selective policy coverage and predominant focus on North-western states. We conclude by suggesting a number of lines...... for future research on these four important themes, arguing that the crucial question will be which impact these EANs have on the national implementation and enforcement of EU law....

  6. On the Implementation of a European Space Traffic Management System - I. A White Paper


    Tüllmann, Ralph; Arbinger, Christian; Baskcomb, Stuart; Berdermann, Jens; Fiedler, Hauke; Klock, Erich; Schildknecht, Thomas


    There are high expectations for a global commercial space travel market which is expected to turn into a multi-billion Euro business in the next two decades. Several key players in the space business, companies like Virgin Galactic, SpaceX, Blue Origin or SNC are preparing to serve this market by developing their own ballistic reusable space vehicles to carry humans and cargo payloads into suborbital and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space. Europe’s single stage to orbit concepts, e.g., REL’s Skylon ...

  7. Reconsidering Regionalisation in Global Higher Education: Student Mobility Spaces of the European Higher Education Area (United States)

    Shields, Robin


    This paper examines international student mobility between member states of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), a group of 47 countries that committed to reforming their higher education systems to improve the comparability and compatibility of degrees. While increased student mobility is a key goal in its official documents, little…

  8. Thrown for a loss : (American) football and the European Sport Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, Maarten


    This article discusses the cultural insignificance of football in Europe despite the receptiveness of Europeans to American popular culture in general. It is argued that this anomaly can be explained by a sociohistorical perspective on the differential popularization of sports and the changing

  9. Thrown for a Loss. (American) football and the European Sport Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. Maarten van Bottenburg


    This article dilates on the culturally insignificance of football in Europe in spite of the receptiveness of Europeans to American popular culture in general. It is argued that this anomaly can be explained by a sociohistorical perspective on the differential popularization of sports and the

  10. Governing Education through Data: Scotland, England and the European Education Policy Space (United States)

    Grek, Sotiria; Ozga, Jenny


    This paper draws on interview data from national policy makers in England, Scotland and the European Commission to illustrate differences in the referencing of "Europe" in education policy-making in England and Scotland in order to highlight the emergent complexity of post-devolution policy-making in education through a focus on…

  11. DSPACE hardware architecture for on-board real-time image/video processing in European space missions (United States)

    Saponara, Sergio; Donati, Massimiliano; Fanucci, Luca; Odendahl, Maximilian; Leupers, Reiner; Errico, Walter


    The on-board data processing is a vital task for any satellite and spacecraft due to the importance of elaborate the sensing data before sending them to the Earth, in order to exploit effectively the bandwidth to the ground station. In the last years the amount of sensing data collected by scientific and commercial space missions has increased significantly, while the available downlink bandwidth is comparatively stable. The increasing demand of on-board real-time processing capabilities represents one of the critical issues in forthcoming European missions. Faster and faster signal and image processing algorithms are required to accomplish planetary observation, surveillance, Synthetic Aperture Radar imaging and telecommunications. The only available space-qualified Digital Signal Processor (DSP) free of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) restrictions faces inadequate performance, thus the development of a next generation European DSP is well known to the space community. The DSPACE space-qualified DSP architecture fills the gap between the computational requirements and the available devices. It leverages a pipelined and massively parallel core based on the Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) paradigm, with 64 registers and 8 operational units, along with cache memories, memory controllers and SpaceWire interfaces. Both the synthesizable VHDL and the software development tools are generated from the LISA high-level model. A Xilinx-XC7K325T FPGA is chosen to realize a compact PCI demonstrator board. Finally first synthesis results on CMOS standard cell technology (ASIC 180 nm) show an area of around 380 kgates and a peak performance of 1000 MIPS and 750 MFLOPS at 125MHz.

  12. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? (United States)


    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? No. Section 636 of Public Law 104-52 prohibits the sale of tobacco products in vending...

  13. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Green Space Quality and Accessibility—Evidence from a Southern European City (United States)

    Hoffimann, Elaine; Barros, Henrique; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel


    Background: The provision of green spaces is an important health promotion strategy to encourage physical activity and to improve population health. Green space provision has to be based on the principle of equity. This study investigated the presence of socioeconomic inequalities in geographic accessibility and quality of green spaces across Porto neighbourhoods (Portugal). Methods: Accessibility was evaluated using a Geographic Information System and all the green spaces were audited using the Public Open Space Tool. Kendall’s tau-b correlation coefficients and ordinal regression were used to test whether socioeconomic differences in green space quality and accessibility were statistically significant. Results: Although the majority of the neighbourhoods had an accessible green space, mean distance to green space increased with neighbourhood deprivation. Additionally, green spaces in the more deprived neighbourhoods presented significantly more safety concerns, signs of damage, lack of equipment to engage in active leisure activities, and had significantly less amenities such as seating, toilets, cafés, etc. Conclusions: Residents from low socioeconomic positions seem to suffer from a double jeopardy; they lack both individual and community resources. Our results have important planning implications and might contribute to understanding why deprived communities have lower physical activity levels and poorer health. PMID:28809798

  14. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Green Space Quality and Accessibility-Evidence from a Southern European City. (United States)

    Hoffimann, Elaine; Barros, Henrique; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel


    Background: The provision of green spaces is an important health promotion strategy to encourage physical activity and to improve population health. Green space provision has to be based on the principle of equity. This study investigated the presence of socioeconomic inequalities in geographic accessibility and quality of green spaces across Porto neighbourhoods (Portugal). Methods: Accessibility was evaluated using a Geographic Information System and all the green spaces were audited using the Public Open Space Tool. Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficients and ordinal regression were used to test whether socioeconomic differences in green space quality and accessibility were statistically significant. Results: Although the majority of the neighbourhoods had an accessible green space, mean distance to green space increased with neighbourhood deprivation. Additionally, green spaces in the more deprived neighbourhoods presented significantly more safety concerns, signs of damage, lack of equipment to engage in active leisure activities, and had significantly less amenities such as seating, toilets, cafés, etc. Conclusions: Residents from low socioeconomic positions seem to suffer from a double jeopardy; they lack both individual and community resources. Our results have important planning implications and might contribute to understanding why deprived communities have lower physical activity levels and poorer health.

  15. The Food and Drug Administration reports provided more data but were more difficult to use than the European Medicines Agency reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Abdel-Sattar, Maher; Bero, Lisa


    OBJECTIVES: To compare the accessibility, comprehensiveness, and usefulness of data available from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug reports. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: This is a cross-sectional study. All new molecular drugs approved between January...... 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012 from the FDA and EMA Web sites were eligible. RESULTS: We included 27 drug reports. Most were searchable, but the FDA table of contents did not match the file's page numbers. Several FDA documents must be searched compared with a single EMA document, but the FDA reports...... contain more summary data on harms. Detailed information about harms was reported for 93% of the FDA reports (25 of 27 reports) and 26% of the EMA reports (7 of 27 reports). The reports contained information about trial methodology but did not include trial registry IDs or investigator names. All reports...

  16. Urban Green Space Policies : A Comparative Study on Performance and Success Conditions in European Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Peter; Baycan-Levent, T.


    Urban green spaces play a key role in improving the liveability of our towns and cities. The quality and viability of cities depend largely on the design, management and maintenance of urban green as well as on open and public spaces that make up an important social constellation and offer a

  17. Europeanization in VET Policy as a Process of Reshaping the Educational Space (United States)

    Loogma, Krista


    The EU represents a transforming educational space, where national and supranational boundaries in educational governance are becoming blurred. The EU has become an important actor in educational governance and an important arena for policy learning and transfer. This paper explores how the process of reshaping the educational space manifests…

  18. Geographical Education and Values of Space: A Comparative Assessment from Five European Countries (United States)

    Planinc, Tatjana Resnik


    This paper discusses the teaching of the values of space, and the development of sustainable regions, as viewed through a prism of values, and which should become an integral part of the geography curriculum. The author is convinced that new methodologies for the teaching of space-related topics in primary and secondary schools across Europe…

  19. Development of New European VLIW Space DSP ASICS, IP Cores and Related Software via ESA Contracts in 2015 and Beyond (United States)

    Trautner, R.


    European space industry needs a new generation of payload data processors in order to cope with in-creasing payload data processing requirements. ESA has defined a roadmap for the development of future payload processor hardware which is being implemented. A key part of this roadmap addresses the development of VLIW Digital Signal Processor (DSP) ASICs, IP cores and associated software. In this paper, we first present an overview of the ESA roadmap and the key development routes. We recapitulate the activities that have created the technology base for the ongoing DSP development, and present the ASIC development and several accompanying activities that will lead to the availability of a new space qualified DSP - the Scalable Sensor Data Processor (SSDP) - in the near future. We then present the expected future evolution of this technology area, and summarize the corresponding ESA roadmap part on VLIW DSPs and related IP and software.

  20. European Union - Space of Regeneration, Learning and Innovation in the Context of Sustainable Multidisciplinary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Răzvan Bălășescu


    Full Text Available Objective The Lisbon Strategy set a new goal for the EU economy: the transition to a knowledge based economy, competitive and sustainable at macro and regional levels, by creating the European Research Area – a geographic area without frontiers for researches, where scientific resources are better managed to create more jobs and improve Europe's competitiveness. That means an interaction between specific and multidisciplinary research network. Approach However, general research methodology sustains the importance of static and revolutionary specific criteria of Scientific Research Programs but also reveals the natural process of multidisciplinary researches. In this context, the European Union could be regarded as a specific and multidisciplinary research area, as a network of flows, connections, relationships, interdependencies, and interferences between natural - experimental and social-humanistic research spheres (economics, management, sociology and complex systems ecology. Prior Work: In this respect some researchers suggested that both natural and social systems could be considered as multidisciplinary complex adaptive systems consisting of specific cluster network connections ( in the form of biotic and abiotic nodes, respectively, the competitive and regional poles with the ability to continuous self-organizing, learning and regenerating process especially in crisis situations. Implications and Value Paper Utility The present paper might be useful to illustrate the contribution of technical-economic and socio-ecological researches to increasing the sustainability framework of European Research Area by considering the transition from the R&D approach (development through research process to the L&D approach (development through learning process.

  1. Negotiating power relations, gender equality, and collective agency: are village health committees transformative social spaces in northern India? (United States)

    Scott, Kerry; George, Asha S; Harvey, Steven A; Mondal, Shinjini; Patel, Gupteswar; Sheikh, Kabir


    Participatory health initiatives ideally support progressive social change and stronger collective agency for marginalized groups. However, this empowering potential is often limited by inequalities within communities and between communities and outside actors (i.e. government officials, policymakers). We examined how the participatory initiative of Village Health, Sanitation, and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs) can enable and hinder the renegotiation of power in rural north India. Over 18 months, we conducted 74 interviews and 18 focus groups with VHSNC members (including female community health workers and local government officials), non-VHSNC community members, NGO staff, and higher-level functionaries. We observed 54 VHSNC-related events (such as trainings and meetings). Initial thematic network analysis supported further examination of power relations, gendered "social spaces," and the "discourses of responsibility" that affected collective agency. VHSNCs supported some re-negotiation of intra-community inequalities, for example by enabling some women to speak in front of men and perform assertive public roles. However, the extent to which these new gender dynamics transformed relations beyond the VHSNC was limited. Furthermore, inequalities between the community and outside stakeholders were re-entrenched through a "discourse of responsibility": The comparatively powerful outside stakeholders emphasized community responsibility for improving health without acknowledging or correcting barriers to effective VHSNC action. In response, some community members blamed peers for not taking up this responsibility, reinforcing a negative collective identity where participation was futile because no one would work for the greater good. Others resisted this discourse, arguing that the VHSNC alone was not responsible for taking action: Government must also intervene. This counter-narrative also positioned VHSNC participation as futile. Interventions to strengthen

  2. EUROCMOSHF: demonstration of a fully European supply chain for space image sensors (United States)

    De Moor, P.; De Munck, K.; Haspeslagh, L.; Guerrieri, S.; Van Olmen, J.; Meynants, G.; Beeckman, G.; Vanwichelen, K.; Van Esbroeck, K.; Ghiglione, Alexandre; Gilbert, Teva; Demiguel, Stéphane


    Europe has currently no full supply chain of CMOS image sensors (CIS) for space use, certainly not in terms of image sensor manufacturing. Although a few commercial foundries in Europe manufacture CMOS image sensors for consumer and automotive applications, they are typically not interested in adapting their process flow to meet high-end performance specifications, mainly because the expected manufacturing volume for space imagers is extremely low.

  3. The Canadian Space Agency, Space Station, Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics Program technology development activity in protection of materials from the low Earth orbit space environment (United States)

    Francoeur, J. R.


    The Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program is managing a number of development contracts to improve the protection of spacecraft materials from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space environment. The project is structured in two phases over a 3 to 4 year period with a budget of 3 to 4 million dollars. Phase 1 is designed to demonstrate the technical feasibility and commercial potential of a coating/substrate system and its associated application process. The objective is to demonstrate a prototype fabrication capability using a full scale component of a commercially viable process for the protection of materials and surface finishes from the LEO space environment, and to demonstrate compliance with a set of performance requirements. Only phase 1 will be discussed in this paper.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope (United States)


    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  5. Modelling of the Global Space Radiation Field at Aircraft Altitudes by the European Code EPCARD (United States)

    Heinrich, W.; Schraube, H.; Roesler, S.

    Supported by the European Commission the European Program Package for the Calculation of Aviation Route Doses (EPCARD) was developed. For this purpose we combined the state of the art models to (i) describe the cosmic radiation field with respect to solar modulation, geomagnetic shielding and to (ii) describe the particle interaction and production in the atmosphere and to (iii) determine the appropriate dose quantities. Spectral fluence rates of different particles (n, p, , , e, μ) produced in the atmosphere by interactions of primary cosmic rays have been determined by Monte Carlo calculations for different periods of solar modulation, geomagnetic shielding conditions and depths in the atmosphere. These data are used as basis in EPCARD. For any chosen flight route and profile, operational and effective doses can be determined in full agreement with the ICRU/ICRP definitions, and also the readings of airborne instruments can be determined. The results of the model predictions agree generally within +/-30% or significantly better with experimental data. Differences are caused by model uncertainties and also by uncertainties in the fundamental understanding of the response characteristics of experimental devices employed. Several examples of comparison between model predictions and experimental data are given. Finally we discuss the capabilities of model predictions for the estimation of radiation doses due to solar particle events. Large uncertainties arise due to the extremely complicated situation of the incident solar particles: their non-isotropy, asymptotic arrival directions, time dependence of spectral fluxes and geomagnetic disturbances, which are known to exist, but are not known in detail.

  6. The accessibility of Poland’s Space to the Trans-European Transport Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiśniewski Szymon


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyse the land transport accessibility of two trans-European corridors within the boundaries of Poland. The adjustment of the course of transport routes to the distribution of the population and the country’s land development (including economic potential and logistic infrastructure was outlined using measurements of cumulative accessibility. The results were presented in both cartographic form (isochrone approach and tabular form (cumulative approach. Research was conducted adopting different forms of transport used for relocation (including foot traffic, car, rail and multimodal transport and both the current and target layout of the transport network. This made it possible to determine the changes that will effectively run the process of investment in transport infrastructure on Polish territory. This allowed the identification of the areas of Poland which are particularly conveniently located in relation to domestic connections (in terms of the international network and those for which the European transport network remains difficult to access.

  7. Optical In-Situ Monitor – A Step towards European Space-Based Debris Observations (United States)

    Utzmann, J.; Ferreira, L.; Vives, G.; Métrailler, L.; Lièvre, N.; Flohrer, T.

    The aim of the ESA activity "Optical In-Situ Monitor“ is to design and test a breadboard of a space-based space debris camera and to develop and test its end-to-end processing chain. The corresponding future flight model shall be used for the detection of small-sized (down to 1 mm) space debris in LEO as well as larger objects in GEO. It is intended to be flown on a platform in sun-synchronous orbit near the terminator plane. The breadboard system will constitute a unique facility to perform realistic tests of the end-to-end chain for debris observations within a controlled environment. This E2E chain starts from signal generation via the scene generator, is followed by the acquisition of images via the breadboard instrument and finally performs the data processing until the astrometric and photometric reduction step. The paper provides details on requirements and design of the breadboard system.

  8. The European Space Agency´s FlySafe project, looking at the bird strike problem from another perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.; van Gasteren, H.; Bouten, W.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Borst, A.; Holleman, I.; Dokter, A.; Ginati, A.; Garofalo, G.


    The bird strike problem is a negative side effect of the aerial mobility of both aircraft and birds. A successful prevention strategy should therefore be based on knowledge of the mobility of both parties involved. While we know all the details of aircraft mobility, surprisingly little is known

  9. The European Space Agency's FlySafe project, looking at the bird strike problem from another perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.; Gasteren, H. van; Bouten, W.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Borst, A.J.M.; Holleman, I.; Dokter, A.; Ginati, A.; Garofalo, G.


    The bird strike problem is a negative side effect of the aerial mobility of both aircraft and birds. A successful prevention strategy should therefore be based on knowledge of the mobility of both parties involved. While we know all the details of aircraft mobility, surprisingly little is known

  10. Space Use and Movement Patterns in a Semi-Free-Ranging Herd of European Bison (Bison bonasus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Ramos

    Full Text Available The successful reintroduction and restocking of the European Bison demands a reliable knowledge of the biology of this species. Yet little is known to date about the European bison, and empirical data remains insufficient to set up a reliable plan ensuring the reintroduction, maintenance and survival of populations in habitats that have been largely modified by human activity. Studies of the ecology, social behaviour and management of bison are therefore crucial to the conservation of this species and its cohabitation with humans. To meet these challenges, we focused on movement patterns and space use in a semi-free-ranging herd of European bison living in the Réserve Biologique des Monts-d'Azur (France. Bison spend over 80% of their time foraging and resting; foraging mainly occurs around the artificial feeding sites (i.e., hay racks or in meadows. The time of day and the presence of snow have no influence on the time budget allocated to each activity. Animals, however, spend more time at the food racks in winter. Bison also spend most of their time in small groups of individuals, confirming the occurrence of both fission-fusion dynamics and sexual segregation in this species. Bison seem to follow a Lévy walk pattern of movement, which is probably related to the geographical distribution and size of food patches in the reserve. The conclusions of this study provide a better understanding of the sociality, life habits and habitat use of bison, and also describe how the provision of hay affects all these behaviours. These results could be useful in the development of tools to select the most suitable habitats for the reintroduction, management and conservation of bison populations.

  11. Space Use and Movement Patterns in a Semi-Free-Ranging Herd of European Bison (Bison bonasus). (United States)

    Ramos, Amandine; Petit, Odile; Longour, Patrice; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Sueur, Cédric


    The successful reintroduction and restocking of the European Bison demands a reliable knowledge of the biology of this species. Yet little is known to date about the European bison, and empirical data remains insufficient to set up a reliable plan ensuring the reintroduction, maintenance and survival of populations in habitats that have been largely modified by human activity. Studies of the ecology, social behaviour and management of bison are therefore crucial to the conservation of this species and its cohabitation with humans. To meet these challenges, we focused on movement patterns and space use in a semi-free-ranging herd of European bison living in the Réserve Biologique des Monts-d'Azur (France). Bison spend over 80% of their time foraging and resting; foraging mainly occurs around the artificial feeding sites (i.e., hay racks) or in meadows. The time of day and the presence of snow have no influence on the time budget allocated to each activity. Animals, however, spend more time at the food racks in winter. Bison also spend most of their time in small groups of individuals, confirming the occurrence of both fission-fusion dynamics and sexual segregation in this species. Bison seem to follow a Lévy walk pattern of movement, which is probably related to the geographical distribution and size of food patches in the reserve. The conclusions of this study provide a better understanding of the sociality, life habits and habitat use of bison, and also describe how the provision of hay affects all these behaviours. These results could be useful in the development of tools to select the most suitable habitats for the reintroduction, management and conservation of bison populations.

  12. Space debris removal by ground-based lasers: main conclusions of the European project CLEANSPACE. (United States)

    Esmiller, Bruno; Jacquelard, Christophe; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Wnuk, Edwin


    Studies show that the number of debris in low Earth orbit is exponentially growing despite future debris release mitigation measures considered. Specifically, the already existing population of small and medium debris (between 1 cm and several dozens of cm) is today a concrete threat to operational satellites. A ground-based laser solution which can remove, at low expense and in a nondestructive way, hazardous debris around selected space assets appears as a highly promising answer. This solution is studied within the framework of the CLEANSPACE project which is part of the FP7 space program. The overall CLEANSPACE objective is: to propose an efficient and affordable global system architecture, to tackle safety regulation aspects, political implications and future collaborations, to develop affordable technological bricks, and to establish a roadmap for the development and the future implantation of a fully functional laser protection system. This paper will present the main conclusions of the CLEANSPACE project.

  13. Revitalization of Public Spaces as a High Priority Strategy for European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Kozlova


    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, public spaces have been suffering from a progressive dystrophy. Prevalence of private cars in the absence of a good alternative to public transport and fragmentation of the city in the absence of its proper complex organization do a lot of harm to the city’s image.Many foreign cities started to value urban public spaces and to revitalize them about forty years ago. Examples of successful cities and various inspiring decisions encourage us to create a city structure as a place where people meet. Each city has an individual approach, but common features of the cities are: aspiration to create a comfort environment for a human being, a strong leader who can realize this idea and sequential and decisive actions to create a humane city for people.

  14. Properties of colour reference solutions of the European Pharmacopoea in CIE L*a*b* colour space. (United States)

    Subert, J; Farsa, O; Gajdosová, Z


    The coordinates of CIE L*a*b* uniform colour space have been acquired from the transmitance spectra of colour reference solutions of European Pharmacopoeia (Ph.Eur.). Calculation of colour differences of these solutions from purified water deltaE* gave their values in the range between 0.7 (B9 solution) to 36 (Y1 solution) CIE units. Excluding red colour reference soulutions, deltaE* values did not depend on concentrations of colour compounds linearly. Small deltaE* values founded by the brown and brownish-yellow colour reference solutions of the lowest concentrations can possibly cause some problems of visual examination of the degree of coloration of liquids according to Ph.Eur.

  15. The SWENET Online Archive: 10 Years of a European Space Weather Community Resource (United States)

    Laurens, Hannah; Glover, Alexi; Hilgers, Alain; Beltrami, Pablo; Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Amata, Ermanno; Clarke, Ellen

    The SWENET archive was initially developed as part of the ESA Space Weather Applications Pilot Project, starting in 2003. The Pilot Project supported the development of a network of prototype space weather services, many of which are still active and have been developed further in the intervening time. SWENET was established as the common access portal and data repository for these services, providing a series of analysis tools and added functionalities to both service developers and users. SWENET gives users access to a wealth of space weather data and products that cover ground, Ionospheric and spacecraft effects. The archive has stored information since 2003 and currently houses a large amount of data from ~20 different providers. As part of the initial SWENET development a set of preliminary metrics, or index quality statistics, were provided as an additional service via the SWENET web portal. The objective of this project is to review the database and revisit the existing metrics with a view to assessing the performance of a number of the original prototype services. Understanding the strengths and limitations of these forecasts ensures a reliable service to the end user. As an initial case study, we have selected two services which forecast geomagnetic indices and/or data for analysis, namely the BINCASTS and GIFINT (Dst forecast). We have assessed the corresponding data in the SWENET archive using a selection of metrics that are currently in use by the space weather and meteorology community. Appropriate metrics to each service have been used to compare the model performance to actual observations, helping to identify and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each model.

  16. Space weather on October 2003 and HF popagation in the Asian and European longitudinal sectors (United States)

    Kurkin, V. I.; Blagoveshchensky, D. V.; Pirog, O. M.; Stocker, A. J.; Vertogradov, G. G.; Uryadov, V. P.; Warrington, E. M.

    There are presented the results derived from investigating of the HF propagation peculiarities on the subauroral and mid-latitudinal radio paths in the Asian and European longitudinal sectors during the geomagnetic disturbances on October 2003. Intensive negative disturbances of MOF (30-50%) during the moderate disturbance on October 20-22 were marked on the mid-latitudinal paths Khabarovsk-Irkutsk, Magadan-Irkutsk, Khabarovsk-Rostov and Irkutsk-Rostov in the daytime. The signal was not registered on the long paths in the night. During the moderate disturbance from 12 UT to 23 UT on October 24, there were marked an absence of signal passing on the subpolar paths Norilsk- Irkutsk, Dikson-St.Peterburg and Murmansk- St.Peterburg, a abrupt decrease of MOF on the mid-latitudinal paths and an appearance of spread signals off-great circle propagation. It was caused by the strong displacement of the main ionospheric trough (MIT) to the mid latitudes, while according to the data on path Murmansk- St.Peterburg in the quiet time on October 23, the poleward wall of (MIT) was fixing at the invariant latitude 60N during a few hours around midnight. The generation region of ionospheric irregularities in equatorward edge of auroral zone was arrived to the invariant latitude 55N. During the investigated disturbance an increase of MOF was observed 7 hours before to To (the beginning of growth phase) and also 7 hours after Te (the end of growth phase). The strongest ionospheric disturbance was registered on October 29-31, as reaction to two powerful X17.2 and X10 class flares. The displacement of the MIT poleward wall to the invariant latitude 45N resulted in the deep electron density depletion and the absence of signal passing on the subpolar paths in the Asian longitudinal sector on October 29-31. In the European longitudinal sector on the mid-latitudinal path Inskip-Rostov the signals off-great circle propagation were registered in the evening. This testifies about the strong

  17. Yearbook on space policy 2015 access to space and the evolution of space activities

    CERN Document Server

    Baranes, Blandina; Hulsroj, Peter; Lahcen, Arne


    The Yearbook on Space Policy, edited by the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI), is the reference publication analysing space policy developments. Each year it presents issues and trends in space policy and the space sector as a whole. Its scope is global and its perspective is European. The Yearbook also links space policy with other policy areas. It highlights specific events and issues, and provides useful insights, data and information on space activities. The first part of the Yearbook sets out a comprehensive overview of the economic, political, technological and institutional trends that have affected space activities. The second part of the Yearbook offers a more analytical perspective on the yearly ESPI theme and consists of external contributions written by professionals with diverse backgrounds and areas of expertise. The third part of the Yearbook carries forward the character of the Yearbook as an archive of space activities. The Yearbook is designed for government decision-makers and agencies...

  18. 31% European InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs Solar Cells for Space Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campesato Roberta


    Full Text Available We report a triple junction InGaP/GaAs/InGaNAs solar cell with efficiency of ~31% at AM0, 25 °C fabricated using a combined molecular beam epitaxy (MBE and metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD processes. The prototype cells comprise of InGaNAs (Indium Gallium Nitride Arsenide bottom junction grown on a GaAs (Gallium Arsenide substrate by MBE and middle and top junctions deposited by MOCVD. Repeatable cell characteristics and uniform efficiency pattern over 4-inch wafers were obtained. Combining the advantages offered by MBE and MOCVD opens a new perspective for fabrication of high-efficiency space tandem solar cells with three or more junctions. Results of radiation resistance of the sub-cells are also presented and critically evaluated to achieve high efficiency in EOL conditions.

  19. Nanophotonic biosensor for space exploration (PBSA instrument) (United States)

    Pantoja, S.; Parro, V.; Nestler, J.; Geidel, S.; Martins, R.; Cuesta, F.; Elvira, J. G.; Sousa, A.


    One of the biggest challenges of Astrobiology is the search for clear signs of present or past life on other planetary bodies. Thus, this poster will describe the project "Photonic Biosensor for Space Application" (PBSA, founded by the Directorate-General for Enterprise and Industry (DG ENTR) within the European Commission and managed by the Unit S2 (Space Research) of the Research European Agency (REA).

  20. Spaceship earth: take your classroom into space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartevelt, S.; van den Putte, W.; Wamsteker, J.; de Vet, S.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Celton, E.; Savage, N.D.L.


    Schools in Europe actively participated in the educational project "Spaceship Earth", part of ESA astronaut André Kuipers’ PromISSe mission. The initiative, conceptualized by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Netherlands Space Office (NSO) also involved a unique collaboration of a team

  1. Investing in space the challenge for Europe

    CERN Document Server

    European Space Agency. Noordwijk. Long-Term Space Policy Committee; Naja, G


    This is the second report of the European Space Agency's Long-term Space Policy Committee (LSPC). The report addresses three challenges that Europe faces at the turn of the century, challenges that will influence its future based on economic prosperity, quality of life, collective security and global solidarity.

  2. The Quest for a European Space Mission in Stellar Seismology and Planet Finding (United States)

    Roxburgh, Ian W.


    The idea of a space mission for stellar activity and seismology was conceived in France 1981-2 and underwent a series of developments leading to the EVRIS experiment as a passenger experiment on Mars96. Modified versions of EVRIS were proposed for other missions including SOHO, and it was eventually launched on Mars96 and immediately lost when Mars96 failed. In parallel more ambitious and larger missions were proposed to ESA including PRISMA, STARS and Eddington. CoRoT was originally conceived as a follow up mission to EVRIS but has matured into the present CNES/International project that is the subject of this volume. Initially these missions were devoted to stellar seismology and activity, but were expanded to incorporate searching for planets. The Eddington mission was initially selected by ESA in 2000 with reserve status, then fully approved in 2002, but withdrawn from the ESA programme in 2004, as part of the programme reduction needed to solve the financial problems of ESA's Science Programme. The small Danish seismology mission MONS was approved in 2002 but also subsequently cancelled, whereas the Canadian microsatellite mission MOST was proposed in 1997, successfully launched in 2003 and is currently collecting data.

  3. Peter Van Elsuwege and Roman Petrov, eds. Legislative Approximation and Application of EU Law in the Eastern Neighbourhood of the European Union: Towards a Common Regulatory Space?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Tyushka


    Full Text Available Peter Van Elsuwege and Roman Petrov, eds. Legislative Approximation and Application of EU Law in the Eastern Neighbourhood of the European Union: Towards a Common Regulatory Space? London and New York: Routledge, 2014. xxx, 268 pp. Notes on Contributors. Preface by Marc Maresceau. Foreward by Kostiantyn Yelisieiev. Illustrations. Informative table and list. Index. $145.00, cloth.

  4. Does the health impact of exposure to neighbourhood green space differ between population groups? An explorative study in four European cities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, A.; Droomers, M.; Kruize, H.; Kempen, E. van; Gidlow, C.J.; Hurst, G.; Andrusaityte, S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Maas, J.; Hardyns, W.; Stronks, K.; Groenewegen, P.P.


    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European

  5. Space Astronomy Update: Stars Under Construction (United States)


    A discussion of the images obtained by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is featured on this video. The discussion panel consists of Dr. Jeff Hester (Arizona State Univ.), Dr. Jon Morse (Space Telescope Science Inst.), Dr. Chris Burrows (European Space Agency), Dr. Bruce Margon (Univ. of Washington), and host Don Savage (Goddard Space Flight Center). A variety of graphics and explanations are provided for the images of star formations and other astronomical features that were viewed by the HST.

  6. ECLIPSE, an Emerging Standardized Modular, Secure and Affordable Software Toolset in Support of Product Assurance, Quality Assurance and Project Management for the Entire European Space Industry (from Innovative SMEs to Primes and Institutions) (United States)

    Bennetti, Andrea; Ansari, Salim; Dewhirst, Tori; Catanese, Giuseppe


    The development of satellites and ground systems (and the technologies that support them) is complex and demands a great deal of rigor in the management of both the information it relies upon and the information it generates via the performance of well established processes. To this extent for the past fifteen years Sapienza Consulting has been supporting the European Space Agency (ESA) in the management of this information and provided ESA with ECSS (European Cooperation for Space Standardization) Standards based Project Management (PM), Product Assurance (PA) and Quality Assurance (QA) software applications. In 2009 Sapienza recognised the need to modernize, standardizing and integrate its core ECSS-based software tools into a single yet modularised suite of applications named ECLIPSE aimed at: • Fulfilling a wider range of historical and emerging requirements, • Providing a better experience for users, • Increasing the value of the information it collects and manages • Lowering the cost of ownership and operation • Increasing collaboration within and between space sector organizations • Aiding in the performance of several PM, PA, QA, and configuration management tasks in adherence to ECSS standards. In this paper, Sapienza will first present the toolset, and a rationale for its development, describing and justifying its architecture, and basic modules composition. Having defined the toolset architecture, this paper will address the current status of the individual applications. A compliance assessment will be presented for each module in the toolset with respect to the ECSS standard it addresses. Lastly experience from early industry and Institutional users will be presented.

  7. Study Design and Evaluation of Risk Minimization Measures: A Review of Studies Submitted to the European Medicines Agency for Cardiovascular, Endocrinology, and Metabolic Drugs. (United States)

    Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Straus, Sabine M J; Arlett, Peter; da Silva, Daniela; Janssen, Heidi; Raine, June; Alteri, Enrica


    Studies measuring the effectiveness of risk minimization measures (RMMs) submitted by pharmaceutical companies to the European Medicines Agency are part of the post-authorization regulatory requirements and represent an important source of data covering a range of medicinal products and safety-related issues. Their objectives, design, and the associated regulatory outcomes were reviewed, and conclusions were drawn that may support future progress in risk minimization evaluation. Information was obtained from risk management plans, study protocols, clinical study reports, and assessment reports of 157 medicinal products authorized for cardiovascular, endocrinology, and metabolic indications. We selected observational studies measuring, as outcomes of interest, the relationship between the RMMs in place and (1) implementation measures, such as clinical knowledge or physicians` compliance to recommendations contained in the RMMs; and (2) occurrence or reduced severity of the adverse drug reactions for which the RMMs were required. Of 59 eligible studies (24 completed, 35 ongoing), 44 assessed implementation measures, whereas only 15 assessed safety outcomes (1 study as a single endpoint and 14 studies with other endpoints). Fifty-one studies used non-experimental designs and 25 studies employed electronic healthcare databases for analysis. Of the 24 completed studies, 17 were considered satisfactory and supported immediate regulatory decision making, 6 were considered inconclusive and required new evaluations, and 1 was terminated early because new safety restrictions were required, thereby necessitating a new evaluation. Compliance with agreed deadlines was considered acceptable in 21 of 24 completed studies; the average time for a submission was 37 months (standard deviation ± 17), with differences observed by type of data source employed. Three important gaps in the evaluation plans of RMMs were identified: lack of early feedback on implementation, limited

  8. Collaborating with Space-related Research Institutes, Government Agencies and an Artistic team to create a series of Space-themed public events in Ireland in 2014 (United States)

    Shaw, N.; McSweeney, C.; Smyth, N.; O'Neill, S.; Foley, C.; Phelan, R.; Crawley, J.; Henderson, C.; Cullinan, M.; Baxter, S.; Colley, D.; Macaulay, C. J.; Conroy, L.


    A suite of informal interactive public engagement initiatives was created, to promote the importance of Space exploration, to ignite curiosity and discover new and engaging platforms for science in the Arts & in STEM Education, and to increase awareness of careers in Ireland's Space science industries. These included: (1)'To Space'- A live multimedia theatre performance aimed at the general public & young adult, (2) an adaptation of 'To Space' for 13- 17 year old students entitled 'ToSpace for School leavers' and (3) 'My Place in Space', created for families. Blending humour, warmth and humanity and positioning science within story is a highly effective public engagement tool in igniting curiosity across many audience types. The nurturing and investment of artists working within these new cross-disciplinary relationships should be encouraged and supported to further broaden and develop new methodology in public engagement of the planetary sciences.

  9. OpportunitiesandPerceptionofSpaceProgramsintheDevelopingCountries (United States)

    Abubakar, B.


    Although the space program as a whole is a true reflection of the level of achievement in human history in the field of Science and Technology, but it is also important to note that there are numbers of communities and societies on this earth that are ignorant about this great achievement, hence leading to the continuous diverting of Potential Astronomers, Aerospace Engineers and Astrologist to other disciplines, thereby undermining the development of the space program over time. It was in view of the above that this research was conducted and came up with the under listed Suggestions/Recommendations:- (1) The European Space Agency (ESA), National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) and the Russian Space Agency, should be organising and sponsoring public enlightenment conferences, seminars and workshops towards creating awareness and attracting Potential Astronomers and other Space Scientist mostly in the developing countries into the space program. (2) Esteemed organisations in space programs like NASA, ESA and others should be awarding scholarships to potential space scientist that lacks the financial capability to pursue studies in the field of space science from the developing countries. (3) The European Space Agency, National Aeronautic Space Agency and the Russian Space Agency, should open their offices for the development of the space program in the third world countries. I believe that if the above suggestions/recommendations are adopted and implemented it will lead to the development of the space program in general, otherwise the rate at which potential Astronomers, Aerospace Engineers and Astrologists will be diverting into other disciplines will ever remain on the increase. Thanks for listening.

  10. Working in a developing communication space. Facebook and Twitter as journalistic tools for European information pure-player websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Tixier


    Full Text Available Since the creation of the European Union, European information has been a very important issue of communication. Numerous Europe-specialized information websites were born in the first decade of the 21st century, thus creating a European informational landscape on the Internet. In a context of journalistic technological and economical evolutions, journalists have to adapt rapidly their ways of working. A new function in terms of management of socio-numeric networks has appeared: community management. This research aims at analyzing the uses of Facebook and Twitter in the community management of online European information websites. We will be specifically observing how information makers integrate these technologies, which originally were not part of the journalistic work patterns, and how they use these new means of communication to circulate European ideas through self-promotion practices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángeles González Galán


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is not to turn over the creation and development of the European Space for Higher Education, nor to analyse the suitability of the conclusions and guidelines adopted at international seminars by those countries that signed the Bologna Declaration, but to provide information on how the Spanish National University for Distance Education (UNED has tried to give shape to these guidelines in its Degrees of Pedagogy and Social Education to be introduced shortly.

  12. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities. (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P


    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  13. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ruijsbroek


    Full Text Available It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002, Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989, Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847, and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933 as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  14. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J.; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.


    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas. PMID:28594390

  15. Space Use and Movement Patterns in a Semi-Free-Ranging Herd of European Bison (Bison bonasus)


    Amandine Ramos; Odile Petit; Patrice Longour; Cristian Pasquaretta; Cédric Sueur


    The successful reintroduction and restocking of the European Bison demands a reliable knowledge of the biology of this species. Yet little is known to date about the European bison, and empirical data remains insufficient to set up a reliable plan ensuring the reintroduction, maintenance and survival of populations in habitats that have been largely modified by human activity. Studies of the ecology, social behaviour and management of bison are therefore crucial to the conservation of this sp...

  16. [What can be done and by who in Public Health? Professional competencies as a base for the design of University degrees curricula in the European Space for Higher Education]. (United States)

    Davó, Mari Carmen; Gil-González, Diana; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Ronda, Elena; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocío; Ruiz-Cantero, María Teresa


    To conform a frame of reference for the organization of the public health teaching in university degrees in Spain, in agreement with the directives of the European Space for Higher Education. Specific professional competencies in public health have been extracted from the Libros blancos published by the ANECA (National Agency of Quality Evaluation) for the degrees on medicine, pharmacy, nursing, human nutrition and dietetics, optics and optometry, veterinary, social work, occupational relations, teacher training, and environmental sciences. Following the framework proposed by the Working Group on professional competencies in public health in Spain, we have selected those competences that enable future professionals to participate in the development of the public health from their field of activity. We have also identified and correlated the specific competences of each degree with the corresponding activities and functions. All the studied degrees have competences in public health functions. The majority has also defined activities in community health analysis, design and implementation of health interventions and programmes, promotion of social participation and citizen's control of their own health. There is academic space for the multidisciplinary development of the public health in Spain beyond the health professions. The identification of the specific competencies of each degree related with activities on public health reveal what are the contents to be in included in each syllabus.

  17. The European Medicines Agency review of cabazitaxel (Jevtana®) for the treatment of hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer: summary of the scientific assessment of the committee for medicinal products for human use. (United States)

    Pean, Elias; Demolis, Pierre; Moreau, Alexandre; Hemmings, Robert James; O'Connor, Daniel; Brown, David; Shepard, Terry; Abadie, Eric; Pignatti, Francesco


    On March 17, 2011 the European Commission issued a marketing authorization valid throughout the European Union for Jevtana® (Sanofi-Aventis, Paris, France) for the treatment of patients with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer previously treated with a docetaxel-containing regimen. The active substance of Jevtana® is cabazitaxel acetone solvate, an antineoplastic agent that acts by disrupting the microtubular network in cells. The recommended dose of cabazitaxel is 25 mg/m2 administered as a 1-hour i.v. infusion every 3 weeks in combination with oral prednisone or prednisolone, 10 mg, administered daily throughout treatment. In the main study submitted for this application, a 2.4-month longer median overall survival time and a 30% lower risk for death were observed for cabazitaxel, compared with mitoxantrone. The most common side effects with cabazitaxel were anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and diarrhea. This paper summarizes the scientific review of the application leading to approval in the European Union. The detailed scientific assessment report and product information, including the summary of product characteristics, are available on the European Medicines Agency Web site (

  18. The European NEO Coordination Centre (United States)

    Perozzi, E.; Borgia, B.; Micheli, M.

    An operational approach to NEO (Near-Earth Object) hazard monitoring has been developed at European level within the framework of the Space Situational Awareness Program (SSA) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Through federating European assets and profiting of the expertise developed in European Universities and Research Centers, it has been possible to start the deployment of the so-called SSA NEO Segment. This initiative aims to provide a significant contribution to the worldwide effort to the discovery, follow-up and characterization of the near-Earth object population. A major achievement has been the inauguration in May 2013 of the ESA NEO Coordination Centre located at ESRIN (Frascati, Italy). The goal of the NEOCC Precursor Service operations is twofold: to make available updated information on the NEO population and the associated hazard and to contribute to optimize the NEO observational efforts. This is done by maintaining and improving a Web Portal publicly available at and by performing follow-up observations through a network of collaborating telescopes and facilities. An overview of the SSA-NEO System and a summary of the first two years of NEOCC operations is presented.

  19. Negotiating power relations, gender equality, and collective agency: are village health committees transformative social spaces in northern India?


    Scott, Kerry; George, Asha S; Harvey, Steven A.; Mondal, Shinjini; Patel, Gupteswar; Sheikh, Kabir


    Background Participatory health initiatives ideally support progressive social change and stronger collective agency for marginalized groups. However, this empowering potential is often limited by inequalities within communities and between communities and outside actors (i.e. government officials, policymakers). We examined how the participatory initiative of Village Health, Sanitation, and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs) can enable and hinder the renegotiation of power in rural north India. M...

  20. Uninterrupted power system, carried by a bogie truck, for National Space Development Agency; Uchu Kaihatsu Jigyodan muke unpan daishayo muteiden dengen sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    National Space Development Agency is constructing a rocket launching station for H-IIA rockets at its Tanegashima Space Center, to strengthen international competitive power for launching rockets. Fuji Electric has delivered the uninterrupted system, carried by a bogie truck, to supply power to the rocket devices, e.g., computer, while the rocket is transferred from the assembling line to launching site. The system has the following major features. The structure is of a horizontal type with limited height, to satisfy the special condition of being carried by a bogie truck. It is a completely closed, air-tight structure, cooled by an air conditioner, to prevent corrosion by salt, in consideration of severe natural conditions because the center is near sea. It is also designed to be resistant to vibration, to be safely carried by a bogie truck. (NEDO)

  1. European global navigation satellite launches (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    The European Space Agency launched its first Galileo satellite on 28 December 2005.When fully deployed, the Galileo system will provide a European global navigation alternative to the U.S. global positioning system (GPS) and the Russian global navigation satellite system (Glonass).The Galileo system will consist of 30 satellites (27 operational plus three active spare satellites) that are scheduled to be launched and fully operational by the end of 2008.The system will provide real-time positioning within one meter of accuracy and be fully inter-operable with the U.S. and Russian systems. However, unlike GPS and Glonass, Galileo will be under civilian rather than military control.

  2. Efficacy testing of cosmetic products. A proposal to the European Community by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Ministry of Environment and Energy. (United States)

    Serup, J


    Regulations for cosmetic products primarily address safety of the products that may be used by large populations of healthy consumers. Requirements for documentation of efficacy claims are only fragmentary. This synopsis aims to review and conclude a set of standards that may be acceptable to the European Community, and the cosmetic industry, as a legal standard for efficacy documentation in Europe in the future. Ethical, formal, experimental, statistical and other aspects of efficacy testing are described, including validation, quality control and assurance. The importance of user relevant clinical end points, a controlled randomized trial design and evidence-based cosmetic product documentation, validation of methods, statistical power estimation and proper data handling, reporting and archiving is emphasized. The main principles of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) good clinical practice (GCP) should be followed by the cosmetics industry in a spirit of good documentation standard and scientific soundness, but full GCP is not considered mandatory in the field of cosmetics. Documentation by validated bio-instrumental methods may be acceptable, but efficacy documentation based on information about raw materials, reference to literature and laboratory experiments are only acceptable in exceptional cases. Principles for efficacy substantiation of cosmetic products in Europe, as described in this synopsis, are officially proposed by the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy to the European Community as a basis for an amendment to the Cosmetics Directive or otherwise implemented as a European Community regulation.

  3. On the design of a planar phased array radar antenna architecture for space debris situational awareness


    Garcia-Gasco Trujillo, Javier; Noval Sánchez de Toca, Alvaro; Montesinos Ortego, Ignacio; Fernández González, José Manuel; Sierra Pérez, Manuel


    The Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program from the European Space Agency (ESA) protects Europe's citizens and their satellite-based services by detecting space hazards. ESA Ground Systems (GS) division is currently designing a phased array radar composed of thousands of radiating elements for future stages of the SSA program [1]. The radar shall guarantee the detection of most of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space debris, providing a general map of space junk. While range accuracy is mainly ...

  4. NASA's Public Participation Universe: Why and How the U.S. Space Agency Is Democratizing Its Approaches to Innovation (United States)

    Kaminski, Amy; Buquo, Lynn; Roman, Monsi; Beck, Beth; Thaller, Michelle


    This paper analyzes NASA's increasing effort to invite greater public participation in its techno scientific work through open innovation methodologies. First we examine why NASA has expanded its use of these approaches, noting the roles of an intertwined set of forcing functions including budget constraints, the availability of technological resources, and committed individuals. Next we outline the strategies the agency has invoked to engage the public in research, technology development, and other activities to advance and shape NASA's mission. As we show, promoting greater public involvement has entailed facilitating the NASA workforce's familiarity with open innovation approaches as well as developing projects and creating outreach strategies appropriate to the envisioned participant base. We then discuss the wide variety of outcomes NASA's open innovation initiatives have yielded in support of NASA research and development objectives as well as benefits to participants and others. We conclude with a discussion of the remaining barriers to the use of open innovation techniques as a standard practice and the strategies in work to overcome those barriers so the full potential of a democratized approach to innovation can be realized.

  5. Differences in the carcinogenic evaluation of glyphosate between the international agency for research on cancer (IARC) and the european food safety authority (EFSA)


    Martin, Francis L.


    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs Programme identifies chemicals, drugs, mixtures, occupational exposures, lifestyles and personal habits, and physical and biological agents that cause cancer in humans and has evaluated about 1000 agents since 1971. Monographs are written by ad hoc Working Groups (WGs) of international scientific experts over a period of about 12 months ending in an eight-day meeting. The WG evaluates all of the publicly available scientific in...

  6. Combined raman/laser-induced breakdown spectrometer: space and non-space applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandtke, M.; Laan, E.C.; Ahlers, B.


    TNO has developed the combination of two spectroscopic analysis methods in one instrument. Raman spectroscopy and Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) were brought together for an instrument to be flown on the ExoMars mission from the European Space Agency (ESA) to investigate the Martian

  7. ECS - The European Communication Satellite system (United States)

    Wooster, C. B.


    The evolution of the European Communication Satellite system (ECS) is traced from feasibility studies in 1970 to the development and launch in 1978 of the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS) by the European Space Agency to prove the new satellite and radio transmission technology being used on ECS. This was followed by the establishment of 'Interim EUTELSAT' in 1979 as the organization to operate ECS. The satellite, which operates at 11/14 GHz, covers all the capitals in Europe via three spot beam antennas, supplemented by a 'Eurobeam' regional coverage antenna which extends the range to cover all of Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Telephony channels are transmitted digitally using time division multiple access (TDMA) with digital speech interpolation (DSI) to optimize satellite capacity. Television transmission is by analog FM over the Eurobeam antenna to North African as well as European capitals. System implications of TDMA operation are discussed, and the EUTELSAT policy for Special Services or satellite business systems is discussed.

  8. Europeanization and transnational states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsson, Bengt; Lægreid, Per; Pedersen, Ove K.

    This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization and the transforma......This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization...... in central government agencies. It concludes that the consequences of Europeanization can be described as the growth of a transnational administration where identities as well as loyalties are created in processes that transcend the borders of states....

  9. Payloads development for European land mobile satellites: A technical and economical assessment (United States)

    Perrotta, G.; Rispoli, F.; Sassorossi, T.; Spazio, Selenia


    The European Space Agency (ESA) has defined two payloads for Mobile Communication; one payload is for pre-operational use, the European Land Mobile System (EMS), and one payload is for promoting the development of technologies for future mobile communication systems, the L-band Land Mobile Payload (LLM). A summary of the two payloads and a description of their capabilities is provided. Additionally, an economic assessment of the potential mobile communication market in Europe is provided.

  10. Supernovae and cosmology with future European facilities. (United States)

    Hook, I M


    Prospects for future supernova surveys are discussed, focusing on the European Space Agency's Euclid mission and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), both expected to be in operation around the turn of the decade. Euclid is a 1.2 m space survey telescope that will operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and has the potential to find and obtain multi-band lightcurves for thousands of distant supernovae. The E-ELT is a planned, general-purpose ground-based, 40-m-class optical-infrared telescope with adaptive optics built in, which will be capable of obtaining spectra of type Ia supernovae to redshifts of at least four. The contribution to supernova cosmology with these facilities will be discussed in the context of other future supernova programmes such as those proposed for DES, JWST, LSST and WFIRST.

  11. The European Medicines Agency review of Tegafur/Gimeracil/Oteracil (Teysuno™) for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer when given in combination with cisplatin: summary of the Scientific Assessment of the Committee for medicinal products for human use (CHMP). (United States)

    Matt, Petra; van Zwieten-Boot, Barbara; Calvo Rojas, Gonzalo; Ter Hofstede, Hadewych; Garcia-Carbonero, Rocio; Camarero, Jorge; Abadie, Eric; Pignatti, Francesco


    The product Teysuno™ (S-1) contains tegafur, a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and two modulators of 5-FU metabolism, gimeracil and oteracil. The main clinical study in this application was a randomized controlled study comparing S-1 plus cisplatin with 5-FU plus cisplatin. In this study, median overall survival times of 8.6 months and 7.9 months for S-1 plus cisplatin and 5-FU plus cisplatin, respectively, were observed (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.05). The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency concluded that S-1 in combination with cisplatin (75 mg/m²) was noninferior to 5-FU plus cisplatin (100 mg/m²) in patients with advanced gastric cancer and adopted a positive opinion recommending the marketing authorization for this product for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer when given in combination with cisplatin. The recommended dose of S-1 is 25 mg/m² (expressed as tegafur content) twice a day, for 21 consecutive days followed by 7 days rest (one treatment cycle), in combination with 75 mg/m² cisplatin i.v. administered on day 1. This treatment cycle is repeated every 4 weeks. The most common side effects reported in the pivotal study were anemia, neutropenia, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight decrease, anorexia, and fatigue. The objective of this paper is to summarize the scientific review of the application leading to approval in the EU. The full scientific assessment report and the summary of product characteristics are available on the European Medicines Agency website (

  12. Agency IP Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Public data set for NASA Agency Intellectual Property (IP). The distribution contains both Patent information as well as General Release of Open Source Software.

  13. On the use of distributed targets for the calibration imagery from the European SAR-580 campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.


    In 1981 ESA (European Space Agency) organized a large measurement campaign in Europe to stimulate the interest in radar, especially SAR. The Canadian SAR 580 system visited testsites during a 1 month period. Imagery was acquired in X, C and L band. Since several experiments called for calibrated

  14. Evaluation of seven European aerosol optical depth retrieval algorithms for climate analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Holzer-Popp, T.; Bevan, S.; Davies, W.H.; Descloitres, J.; Grainger, R.G.; Griesfeller, J.; Heckel, A.; Kinne, S.; Klüser, L.; Kolmonen, P.; Litvinov, P.; Martynenko, D.; North, P.; Ovigneur, B.; Pascal, N.; Poulsen, C.; Ramon, D.; Schulz, M.; Siddans, R.; Sogacheva, L.; Tanré, D.; Thomas, G.E.; Virtanen, T.H.; von Hoyningen Huene, W.; Vountas, M.; Pinnock, S.


    Satellite data are increasingly used to provide observation-based estimates of the effects of aerosols on climate. The Aerosol-cci project, part of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), was designed to provide essential climate variables for aerosols from satellite data. Eight

  15. The European Medicines Agency Review of Carfilzomib for the Treatment of Adult Patients with Multiple Myeloma Who Have Received at Least One Prior Therapy. (United States)

    Tzogani, Kyriaki; Camarero Jiménez, Jorge; Garcia, Isabel; Sancho-López, Arantxa; Martin, Marc; Moreau, Alexandre; Demolis, Pierre; Salmonson, Tomas; Bergh, Jonas; Laane, Edward; Ludwig, Heinz; Gisselbrecht, Christian; Pignatti, Francesco


    On November 19, 2015, a marketing authorization valid through the European Union was issued for carfilzomib in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone for the treatment of adult patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who have received at least one prior therapy.In a phase III trial in patients with relapsed MM, median progression-free survival (PFS) for patients treated with carfilzomib in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (CRd) was 26.3 months versus 17.6 months for those receiving lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone (hazard ratio = 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.83; one-sided log-rank p value free survival compared with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, which was supported by a clear trend in overall survival benefit, although the data were not mature. At the time of the marketing authorization of carfilzomib, the delay in disease progression appeared superior to available alternatives in the setting of relapsed multiple myeloma. In terms of safety, the overall accepted safety profile was considered manageable. © AlphaMed Press 2017.

  16. GEROS-ISS: GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry onboard the International Space Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickert, Jens; Cardellach, Estel; Bandeiras, Jorge


    GEROS-ISS stands for GNSS REflectometry, radio occultation, and scatterometry onboard the International Space Station (ISS). It is a scientific experiment, successfully proposed to the European Space Agency in 2011. The experiment as the name indicates will be conducted on the ISS. The main focus...

  17. Cryogenic Far-IR Laser Absorptivity Measurements of the Herschel Space Observatory Telescope Mirror Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, J.; Klaassen, T.O.; Hovenier, J.W.; Jakob, G.; Poglitsch, A.; Sternberg, O.


    Far-infrared laser calorimetry was used to measure the absorptivity, and thus the emissivity, of aluminum-coated silicon carbide mirror samples produced during the coating qualification run of the Herschel Space Observatory telescope to be launched by the European Space Agency in 2007. The samples

  18. Bayesian salamanders: analysing the demography of an underground population of the European plethodontid Speleomantes strinatii with state-space modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvidio Sebastiano


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that Plethodontid salamanders are excellent candidates for indicating ecosystem health. However, detailed, long-term data sets of their populations are rare, limiting our understanding of the demographic processes underlying their population fluctuations. Here we present a demographic analysis based on a 1996 - 2008 data set on an underground population of Speleomantes strinatii (Aellen in NW Italy. We utilised a Bayesian state-space approach allowing us to parameterise a stage-structured Lefkovitch model. We used all the available population data from annual temporary removal experiments to provide us with the baseline data on the numbers of juveniles, subadults and adult males and females present at any given time. Results Sampling the posterior chains of the converged state-space model gives us the likelihood distributions of the state-specific demographic rates and the associated uncertainty of these estimates. Analysing the resulting parameterised Lefkovitch matrices shows that the population growth is very close to 1, and that at population equilibrium we expect half of the individuals present to be adults of reproductive age which is what we also observe in the data. Elasticity analysis shows that adult survival is the key determinant for population growth. Conclusion This analysis demonstrates how an understanding of population demography can be gained from structured population data even in a case where following marked individuals over their whole lifespan is not practical.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope cycle 5 call for proposals (United States)

    Bond, Howard E. (Editor)


    This document invites and supports participation by the international astronomical community in the HST General Observer and Archival Research programs. These documents contain the basic procedural and technical information required for HST proposal preparation and submission, including applicable deadlines. The telescope and its instruments were built under the auspices of the NASA and the European Space Agency.

  20. Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Nekovee


    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is being intensively researched as the enabling technology for license-exempt access to the so-called TV White Spaces (TVWS, large portions of spectrum in the UHF/VHF bands which become available on a geographical basis after digital switchover. Both in the US, and more recently, in the UK the regulators have given conditional endorsement to this new mode of access. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in technology, regulation, and standardisation of cognitive access to TVWS. It examines the spectrum opportunity and commercial use cases associated with this form of secondary access.

  1. Comparisons of Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency risk management implementation for recent pharmaceutical approvals: report of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and outcomes research risk benefit management working group. (United States)

    Lis, Yvonne; Roberts, Melissa H; Kamble, Shital; J Guo, Jeff; Raisch, Dennis W


    1) To compare the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) and European Medicines Agency's (EMA's) Risk Management Plan (RMP) guidances and 2) to compare REMS and RMPs for specific chemical entities and biological products. FDA, EMA, and pharmaceutical company Web sites were consulted for details pertaining to REMS and RMPs. REMS requirements include medication guides, communication plans, elements to ensure safe use, implementation systems, and specified assessment intervals. RMP requirements are increased pharmacovigilance and risk minimization activities. We compared these requirements for drugs requiring both REMS and RMPs. We identified 95 drugs on FDA's REMS list as of March 2010. Of these, there were 29 drugs (11 biologics and 18 new chemical entities) with EMA RMPs. REMS and RMPs are similar in objectives, with comparable toolkits. Both allow flexibility in product-specific actions, recognizing adverse effects of potential concern. Of the 29 drugs reviewed, REMS requirements not included in RMPs were patient medication guides (100% of the drugs), provider communication plans (38%), and routine monitoring of REMS (66%). RMP requirements not included in REMS were specific adverse event reporting (45% of the drugs), prospective registry studies (34%), prospective epidemiology studies (24%), additional trial data (28%), and Summary of Product Characteristics contraindications (76%). Both REMS and RMPs provide positive guidance for identification, monitoring, and minimization of risk to patient safety. Currently, neither agency provides specific guidance on how risk should be related to benefit either qualitatively or quantitatively. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. New science chief must juggle missions and politics space scientists hope David Southwood can balance ESA's research with its widening interests

    CERN Multimedia

    Watson, A


    Southward, 55, will takeover next May as the European Space Agency's science director. He will need to balance the aspirations of scientist from the organisations 15 member states with calls to tie the agency more closely to the business and security industries (1 page).

  3. The Space Shuttle Columbias vertical stabilizer appears to point to the four stars of the Southern (United States)


    STS-75 ONBOARD VIEW --- The Space Shuttle Columbias vertical stabilizer appears to point to the four stars of the Southern Cross. The scene was captured with a 35mm camera just prior to a sunrise. The seven member crew was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 22, 1996, and landed on March 9, 1996. Crew members were Andrew M. Allen, mission commander; Scott J. Horowitz, pilot; Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, payload commander; and Maurizio Cheli, European Space Agency (ESA); Jeffrey A. Hoffman and Claude Nicollier, ESA, all mission specialists; along with payload specialist Umberto Guidioni of the Italian Space Agency (ASI).

  4. Space assets, technology and services in support of energy policy (United States)

    Vasko, C. A.; Adriaensen, M.; Bretel, A.; Duvaux-Bechon, I.; Giannopapa, C. G.


    Space can be used as a tool by decision and policy makers in developing, implementing and monitoring various policy areas including resource management, environment, transport, security and energy. This paper focuses on the role of space for the energy policy. Firstly, the paper summarizes the European Union's (EU) main objectives in energy policy enclosed in the Energy Strategy 2020-2030-2050 and demonstrates how space assets can contribute to achieving those objectives. Secondly, the paper addresses how the European Space Agency (ESA) has established multiple initiatives and programs that directly finance the development of space assets, technology and applications that deliver services in support of the EU energy policy and sector. These efforts should be continued and strengthened in order to overcome identified technological challenges. The use of space assets, technology and applications, can help achieve the energy policy objectives for the next decades.

  5. Availability of evidence of benefits on overall survival and quality of life of cancer drugs approved by European Medicines Agency: retrospective cohort study of drug approvals 2009-13. (United States)

    Davis, Courtney; Naci, Huseyin; Gurpinar, Evrim; Poplavska, Elita; Pinto, Ashlyn; Aggarwal, Ajay


    Objective  To determine the availability of data on overall survival and quality of life benefits of cancer drugs approved in Europe. Design  Retrospective cohort study. Setting  Publicly accessible regulatory and scientific reports on cancer approvals by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) from 2009 to 2013. Main outcome measures  Pivotal and postmarketing trials of cancer drugs according to their design features (randomisation, crossover, blinding), comparators, and endpoints. Availability and magnitude of benefit on overall survival or quality of life determined at time of approval and after market entry. Validated European Society for Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS) used to assess the clinical value of the reported gains in published studies of cancer drugs. Results  From 2009 to 2013, the EMA approved the use of 48 cancer drugs for 68 indications. Of these, eight indications (12%) were approved on the basis of a single arm study. At the time of market approval, there was significant prolongation of survival in 24 of the 68 (35%). The magnitude of the benefit on overall survival ranged from 1.0 to 5.8 months (median 2.7 months). At the time of market approval, there was an improvement in quality of life in seven of 68 indications (10%). Out of 44 indications for which there was no evidence of a survival gain at the time of market authorisation, in the subsequent postmarketing period there was evidence for extension of life in three (7%) and reported benefit on quality of life in five (11%). Of the 68 cancer indications with EMA approval, and with a median of 5.4 years' follow-up (minimum 3.3 years, maximum 8.1 years), only 35 (51%) had shown a significant improvement in survival or quality of life, while 33 (49%) remained uncertain. Of 23 indications associated with a survival benefit that could be scored with the ESMO-MCBS tool, the benefit was judged to be clinically meaningful in less than half (11/23, 48%). Conclusions

  6. An Overview of the Smart Sensor Inter-agency Reference Testbench (SSIART) (United States)

    Wagner, R. S.; Dufour, J.; Braham, S. P.; Barton, R. J.

    In this paper, we present an overview of a proposed collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA), which is designed to facilitate the introduction of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) radios for smart-sensing applications into international spaceflight programs and projects. The proposed work will produce test hardware reference designs, test software reference architectures and example implementations, test plans in reference test environments, and test results, all of which will be shared between the agencies and documented for future use by mission planners. The proposed collaborative structure together with all of the anticipated tools and results produced under the effort is collectively referred to as the Smart Sensor Inter-agency Reference Testbench or SSIART. It is intended to provide guidance in technology selection and in increasing the related readiness levels of projects and missions as well as the space industry.

  7. White Label Space GLXP Mission (United States)

    Barton, A.


    This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.

  8. United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) 1991-2012 and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Mathai, A M; Balogh, W R


    This paper contains an overview and summary on the achievements of the United Nations basic space science initiative in terms of donated and provided planetariums, astronomical telescopes, and space weather instruments, particularly operating in developing nations. This scientific equipment has been made available to respective host countries, particularly developing nations, through the series of twenty basic space science workshops, organized through the United Nations Programme on Space Applications since 1991. Organized by the United Nations, the European Space Agency (ESA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States of America, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the basic space science workshops were organized as a series of workshops that focused on basic space science (1991-2004), the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (2005-2009), and the International Space Weather Initiative (2010-2012) proposed by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Spac...

  9. El Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior y las competencias enfermeras The European Higher Education Space and the Nursing Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Palomino Moral


    Full Text Available El Proyecto Tuning pretende impulsar la construcción de un Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior a través de un movimiento de debate y reflexión sobre el papel de la Universidad en la formación de los profesionales preparados para el desempeño en la sociedad del siglo XXI. En su base se encuentran profundas transformaciones en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje, el rol a desempeñar por profesores y alumnos, la definición de un sistema de créditos, etc. El concepto de competencia ocupa un lugar central en el lenguaje de la organización del currículum y la definición de los perfiles de competencias permitirá comparar el desempeño y guiar la docencia hacia objetivos concretos impulsando un nuevo paradigma educativo basado en el aprendizaje. Este artículo analiza el concepto de competencia y su relación con los cuidados como objeto y fundamento del saber enfermero.The Tuning Project aims at promoting the construction of a European Higher Education Space through a process of debate and reflection on the role of the universities in training qualified students for their future professional duties in the 21st century. For this purpose, deep transformations will have to be implemented with regard to the teaching/learning process, the role of teachers and students, the new definition of the credits system, etc. The concept of competence is a major constituent of the organization of the curriculum. Defining that competence will permit to analyse duty performance, guide teaching procedures towards concrete objectives and promote a new learner-based educational system. This articles analyses the concept of competence and its relation to nursing attention and care.

  10. The First European Parabolic Flight Campaign with the Airbus A310 ZERO-G (United States)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Rouquette, Sebastien; Friedrich, Ulrike; Clervoy, Jean-Francois; Gharib, Thierry; Gai, Frederic; Mora, Christophe


    Aircraft parabolic flights repetitively provide up to 23 seconds of reduced gravity during ballistic flight manoeuvres. Parabolic flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in Physical and Life Sciences and in Technology, to test instrumentation prior to space flights and to train astronauts before a space mission. The use of parabolic flights is complementary to other microgravity carriers (drop towers, sounding rockets), and preparatory to manned space missions on board the International Space Station and other manned spacecraft, such as Shenzhou and the future Chinese Space Station. After 17 years of using the Airbus A300 ZERO-G, the French company Novespace, a subsidiary of the ' Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency), based in Bordeaux, France, purchased a new aircraft, an Airbus A310, to perform parabolic flights for microgravity research in Europe. Since April 2015, the European Space Agency (ESA), CNES and the ` Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.' (DLR, the German Aerospace Center) use this new aircraft, the Airbus A310 ZERO-G, for research experiments in microgravity. The first campaign was a Cooperative campaign shared by the three agencies, followed by respectively a CNES, an ESA and a DLR campaign. This paper presents the new Airbus A310 ZERO-G and its main characteristics and interfaces for scientific experiments. The experiments conducted during the first European campaign are presented.

  11. On Our Way to the European Higher Education Space--A Proposal for a Teaching Guide for the Management Control Course in the Business Management and Administration Degree (United States)

    Ruiz, Mercedes; Tirado, Pilar; Menor; Esther


    In order to adapt curricula to the new European system of credits, ECTS (European Credit Transfer System), it is necessary to previously elaborate a teaching guide. The teaching guide clarifies the subject syllabus making it easier for learners to understand, sets objectives related to the competencies and skills to be acquired, plans activities…

  12. ATLAS Physicist in Space

    CERN Multimedia

    Bengt Lund-Jensen


    On December 9, the former ATLAS physicist Christer Fuglesang was launched into space onboard the STS-116 Space Shuttle flight from Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Christer worked on the development of the accordion-type liquid argon calorimeter and SUSY simulations in what eventually became ATLAS until summer 1992 when he became one out of six astronaut trainees with the European Space Agency (ESA). His selection out of a very large number of applicants from all over the ESA member states involved a number of tests in order to choose the most suitable candidates. As ESA astronaut Christer trained with the Russian Soyuz programme in Star City outside of Moscow from 1993 until 1996, when he moved to Houston to train for space shuttle missions with NASA. Christer belonged to the backup crew for the Euromir95 mission. After additional training in Russia, Christer qualified as ‘Soyuz return commander’ in 1998. Christer rerouting cables during his second space walk. (Photo: courtesy NASA) During...

  13. Long term dose monitoring onboard the European Columbus module of the international space station (ISS) in the frame of DOSIS and DOSIS 3D project - results from the active instruments (United States)

    Burmeister, Soenke; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Boehme, Matthias; Haumann, Lutz; Labrenz, Johannes

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station ISS is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European COLUMBUS module the experiment DOSIS (Dose Distribution Inside the ISS) under the lead of DLR has been launched on July 15 (th) 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The experimental package was transferred from the Space Shuttle into COLUMBUS on July 18 (th) . It consists of a combination of passive detector packages (PDP) distributed at 11 locations inside the European Columbus Laboratory and two active radiation detectors (Dosimetry Telescopes = DOSTELs) with a DDPU (DOSTEL Data and Power Unit) in a Nomex pouch (DOSIS MAIN BOX) mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module rack (EPM) inside COLUMBUS. The active components of the DOSIS experiment were operational from July 18 (th) 2009 to June 16 (th) 2011. After refurbishment the hardware has been reactivated on May 15 (th) 2012 as active part of the DOSIS 3D experiment and provides continuous data since this activation. The presentation will focus on the latest results from the two DOSTEL instruments as absorbed dose, dose equivalent and the related LET spectra gathered within the DOSIS (2009 - 2011) and DOSIS 3D (2012 - 2014) experiment. The CAU contributions to DOSIS and DOSIS 3D are

  14. 14 CFR 1262.308 - Agency review. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency review. 1262.308 Section 1262.308... PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 1262.308 Agency review. (a) Within 30 calendar days of... applicant or agency counsel may seek Agency review of the decision; or, the NASA Administrator, upon the...

  15. Recent Developments in Space Debris Mitigation Policy and Practices (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.


    In recent years, emphasis has shifted from national efforts to control the space debris population to international ones. Here, too, great progress has been made, most notably by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) and the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) of the United Nations. Today, a firm international consensus is rapidly building on the principal space debris mitigation measures. The IADC is an association of the space agencies of ten countries (China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Russia, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and the European Space Agency, representing 17 countries of which four (France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom) are also full IADC members. At the 17th meeting of the IADC in October 1999, a new Action Item (AI 17.2) was adopted to develop a set of consensus space debris mitigation guidelines. The purpose of the activity was to identify the most valuable space debris mitigation measures and to reach an international agreement on common directives. The IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines ( were formally adopted in October 2002 during the Second World Space Congress in Houston, Texas. Two years later a companion document, entitled Support to the IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines, was completed to provide background and clarification for the guidelines.

  16. The Citizen, the Culture and European Union

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marine Imberechts


    From the beginning of its work (1988), the European Centre of Culture tried to attract theattention of the European institutions on the urgent need to bring in the greatest number of citizens asense of belonging to a new space...

  17. Design of an On Ground Experimental Growth Unit (OGEGU) for space applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Tse, T.C.; Vanrobaeys, X.; Hagenbeek, D.; Chaerle, L.; Straeten, D. van der; Mas, J.L.; Elvira, J.; Hovland, S.


    The capacity of producing fresh food meeting crew's nutritional requirements is an essential need for long-term planetary missions. To this end, the European Space Agency (ESA) has commissioned a feasibility study of Food Production Units (FPU) for their application in microgravity, transit and

  18. Scattering-parameter extraction and calibration techniques for RF free-space material characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaniecki, M.; Saenz, E.; Rolo, L.


    This paper demonstrates a method for material characterization (permittivity, permeability, loss tangent) based on the scattering parameters. The performance of the extraction algorithm will be shown for modelled and measured data. The measurements were carried out at the European Space Agency...

  19. Space strategy and governance of ESA small member states (United States)

    Sagath, Daniel; Papadimitriou, Angeliki; Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina


    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty-two Member States with a variety of governance structures and strategic priorities regarding their space activities. The objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of the national space governance structures and strategic priorities of the eleven smaller Member States (based on annual ESA contributions). A link is made between the governance structure and the main strategic objectives. The specific needs and interests of small and new Member States in the frame of European Space Integration are addressed. The first part of the paper focuses on the national space governance structures in the eleven smaller ESA Member States. The governance models of these Member States are identified including the responsible ministries and the entities entrusted with the implementation of space strategy/policy and programmes of the country. The second part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in the eleven smaller ESA Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators for space investments. In a third and final part, attention is given to the specific needs and interests of the smaller Member States in the frame of European space integration. ESA instruments are tailored to facilitate the needs and interests of the eleven smaller and/or new Member States.

  20. Diplomatic agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca


    Diplomatic agency is intriguing. On the one hand, diplomats are crucial to the management of day-to-day international relations and the negotiation of war and peace. On the other hand, most diplomatic action is highly constrained or invisible. This chapter provides an overview of the ways in which...... diplomatic agency has been conceptualized in International Relations theory (English School, game theory, Foreign Policy Analysis, constructivism, practice theory, post-positivism) before presenting and exemplifying major and overlapping types of diplomatic agency, including communication, negotiation...

  1. Building galaxies, stars, planets and the ingredients for life between the stars. The science behind the European Ultraviolet-Visible Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Appourchaux, Thierry; Barstow, Martin A.; Barthelemy, Mathieu; Baudin, Frederic; Benetti, Stefano; Blay, Pere; Brosch, Noah; Bunce, Emma; de Martino, Domitilla; Deharveng, Jean-Michel; Ferlet, Roger; France, Kevin; García, Miriam; Gänsicke, Boris; Gry, Cecile; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Josselin, Eric; Kehrig, Carolina; Lamy, Laurent; Lapington, Jon; Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain; LePetit, Frank; López-Santiago, Javier; Milliard, Bruno; Monier, Richard; Naletto, Giampiero; Nazé, Yael; Neiner, Coralie; Nichols, Jonathan; Orio, Marina; Pagano, Isabella; Peroux, Céline; Rauw, Gregor; Shore, Steven; Spaans, Marco; Tovmassian, Gagik; ud-Doula, Asif; Vilchez, José


    This contribution gathers the contents of the white paper submitted by the UV community to the Call issued by the European Space Agency in March 2013, for the definition of the L2 and L3 missions in the ESA science program. We outlined the key science that a large UV facility would make possible and

  2. Hospice Agencies (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all Hospice Agencies that have been certified by Medicare. The list includes addresses, phone numbers, and date of original CMS certification, as well as...

  3. Advertising Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian


    Advertising agencies are the most significant organizations in the development of advertising and marketing worldwide. An advertising agency is an independent service company, composed of business, marketing and creative people, who develop, prepare, and place advertising in advertising media...... for their clients, the advertisers, who are in search of customers for their goods and services. Agencies thus mediate between three different but interlocking social groups: industry, media, and consumers. The history of advertising is largely the history of the advertising agencies that have served the needs...... of these three groups. They link industry and media by creating new forms for messages about products and services; industry and consumers by developing comprehensive communications campaigns and providing information thereon; and media and consumers by conducting audience research to enable market segmentation...

  4. Global Trends in Space Access and Utilization (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim A.; Keim, Nicholas S.; Zeender, Peter E.


    In the not-so-distant past, space access and air/space technology superiority were within the purview of the U.S. and former Soviet Union's respective space agencies, both vying for global leadership in space exploitation. In more recent years, with the emergence of the European Space Agency (ESA) member countries and Asian countries joining the family of space-faring nations, it is truer now more than ever that space access and utilization has become a truly global enterprise. In fact, according to the Space Report 2007, this enterprise is a $251-billion economy. It is possible to gauge the vitality of worldwide efforts from open sources in today's transparent, media-based society. In particular, print and web broadcasters regularly report and catalog global space activities for defense and civil purposes. For the purposes of this paper, a representative catalog of missions is used to illustrate the nature of the emerging "globalization." This paper highlights global trends in terms of not only the providers of space access, but also the end-users for the various recently accomplished missions. With well over 50 launches per year, in recent years, the launch-log reveals a surprising percentage of "cooperative or co-dependent missions" where different agencies, countries, and/or commercial entities are so engaged presumably to the benefit of all who participate. Statistics are cited and used to show that recently over d0% of the 50-plus missions involved multiple nations working collectively to deliver payloads to orbit. Observers, space policy professionals, and space agency leaders have eloquently proposed that it might require the combined resources and talents of multiple nations to advance human exploration goals beyond low earth orbit. This paper does not intend to offer new information with respect to whether international collaboration is necessary but to observe that, in continuing to monitor global trends, the results seem to support the thesis that a

  5. Transformative Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency...... is achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

  6. A journey from particle physics to outer space

    CERN Multimedia


    Particle physics can take you a long way - even into space! Astronaut Christer Fuglesang recently jetted into orbit on his first space mission, 14 years after he left CERN to join the European Space Agency. Christer Fuglesang near the launch pad area at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, Florida, in preparation for the STS-116 mission. (photo: ESA, S.Corvaja)Christer Fuglesang in space (photo: NASA). In CERN's years of efforts to explore the fundamentals of the Universe, it has not yet sent anyone beyond planet Earth. On 10 December 2006, Christer Fuglesang boldly went where no CERN scientist had ever gone before. The 49-year-old ex-CERN physicist-turned-astronaut embarked on his first mission on board space shuttle Discovery. Originally from Stockholm, he also had the honour of being the first Swedish national in space. Christer Fuglesang is an astronaut with the European Space Agency (ESA), a partner of the International Space Station (ISS) - a research facility that is being assembled in orbit around the Earth...

  7. A Management Model for International Participation in Space Exploration Missions (United States)

    George, Patrick J.; Pease, Gary M.; Tyburski, Timothy E.


    This paper proposes an engineering management model for NASA's future space exploration missions based on past experiences working with the International Partners of the International Space Station. The authors have over 25 years of combined experience working with the European Space Agency, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Canadian Space Agency, Italian Space Agency, Russian Space Agency, and their respective contractors in the design, manufacturing, verification, and integration of their elements electric power system into the United States on-orbit segment. The perspective presented is one from a specific sub-system integration role and is offered so that the lessons learned from solving issues of technical and cultural nature may be taken into account during the formulation of international partnerships. Descriptions of the types of unique problems encountered relative to interactions between international partnerships are reviewed. Solutions to the problems are offered, taking into consideration the technical implications. Through the process of investigating each solution, the important and significant issues associated with working with international engineers and managers are outlined. Potential solutions are then characterized by proposing a set of specific methodologies to jointly develop spacecraft configurations that benefits all international participants, maximizes mission success and vehicle interoperability while minimizing cost.

  8. The Space House TM : Space Technologies in Architectural Design (United States)

    Gampe, F.; Raitt, D.


    The word "space" has always been associated with and had a profound impact upon architectural design. Until relatively recently, however, the term has been used in a different sense to that understood by the aerospace community - for them, space was less abstract, more concrete and used in the context of space flight and space exploration, rather than, say, an empty area or space requiring to be filled by furniture. However, the two senses of the word space have now converged to some extent. Interior designers and architects have been involved in designing the interior of Skylab, the structure of the International Space Station, and futuristic space hotels. Today, architects are designing, and builders are building, houses, offices and other structures which incorporate a plethora of new technologies, materials and production processes in an effort not only to introduce innovative and adventurous ideas but also in an attempt to address environmental and social issues. Foremost among these new technologies and materials being considered today are those that have been developed for and by the space industry. This paper examines some of these space technologies, such as energy efficient solar cells, durable plastics, air and water filtration techniques, which have been adapted to both provide power while reducing energy consumption, conserve resources and so on. Several of these technologies have now been employed by the European Space Agency to develop a Space House TM - the first of its kind, which will be deployed not so much on planets like Mars, but rather here on Earth. The Space House TM, which exhibits many innovative features such as high strength light-weight carbon composites, active noise-damped, (glass and plastic) windows, low-cost solar arrays and latent heat storage, air and water purification systems will be described.

  9. Space Science and Interdisciplinary Education (United States)

    Foing, B. H.

    The contribution of space science to an education cursus can be conceived as a series of educational modules (each including text books for teacher and pupil, exercises, CD-roms, observations or study projects, kits for hands-on projects, and Internet products from space agencies) covering different age groups (elementary 7-10, middle 10-14, high school 15-17). These modules should not be limited to the science teacher area, but must pervade in all topics of education the same way as space is part of everyday life. Space agencies can contribute to this by supporting a pilot group of teachers on sabbatical residence to develop these modules. These teachers should cover different European languages (e.g. English, French, German, other languages), different educational systems experience, and different backgrounds (Language/arts, science, history, technology). These modules could be developed in one year, in partnership with education ministers, publishers, for validation and production. They should be distributed and inserted in curricula via education authorities and networks of teachers. We list some examples of space (science) modules to be developed, in different teachers courses for a total of about 20 hours courses/yr, with basic modules for age group (7-10 yr) and Advanced Modules for (10-15 yr).

  10. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James


    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  11. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul


    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting, and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... ante (‘hidden characteristics’) as well as ex post information asymmetry (‘hidden action’), and examines conditions under which various kinds of incentive instruments and monitoring arrangements can be deployed to minimize the welfare loss. Its clear predictions and broad applicability have allowed...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

  12. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... ante (“hidden characteristics”) as well as ex post information asymmetry (“hidden action”), and examines conditions under which various kinds of incentive instruments and monitoring arrangements can be deployed to minimize the welfare loss. Its clear predictions and broad applicability have allowed...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

  13. The 30th AAS Goddard Memorial Symposium. World space programs and fiscal reality: Synopsis (United States)


    A full proceedings of the symposium will be issued later in the year. This synopsis consists of summations of three sessions by appointed rapporteurs. International figures in space and in politics spoke at the sessions. Themes of international cooperation and fiscal reality pervaded the conference. International speakers from Canada, the European Space Agency, Russia, Japan and China and other countries addressed the topic of the symposium. American representation included Senator Barbara Mikulski, former NASA administrator James Beggs and other speakers.

  14. Conference: “Space and Research: Which future for the coming generation” | 18 September | Uni Mail

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi


      On Friday, 18 September, Luca Parmitano (Major in the Italian Air Force and European Space Agency astronaut), Guido Tonelli (CERN phycisist) and Amalia Ercoli Finzi (Emeritus Professor in the Aerospace department of the Polytechnic University of Milan and a Principal Investigator of the ESA Rosetta spacecraft) will present their visions of the future of research and space exploration. Free entrance. Limited number of seats - registration is essential, click here. For more information contact

  15. Constituting the Social Basis of the EU: Reflections from the European Margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Sekulic


    Full Text Available The article addresses significant aspects of the constitution of the European Union’s social basis from the broader perspective of a European space under construction. The specific point of view regards the process of Europeanization through enlargement to the post-socialist Eastern and South European countries, and conditionality as its main instrument. In the light of the five-year moratorium proposed by the Juncker Commission in 2015, the process is examined particularly from its margins by considering the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH, i.e. the last country in the ‘Western Balkans’, together with Kosovo, that is not yet a candidate for EU membership. The analysis aims to shed light on two different and conflictual forms of agency: first, the institution building process through accession procedures; second, social dissent patterns and citizens’ mobilization in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The purpose is to analyze if and how these diverse agencies cross borders and soften boundaries to constitute an emerging European society. A constant methodological concern of this study is if and how an ethnography of the process may contribute to the analysis of European integration in its complex, non-linear and often contradictory nature (Kauppi 2013

  16. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian


    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  17. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet


    political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  18. Air Liquide cryocoolers for space applications (United States)

    Buquet, J.; Trollier, T.; Tanchon, J.; Ravex, A.; Crespi, P.


    AL/DTA became a major supplier in the field of space cryogenics for the European Space Industry. From MELFI freezer for the International Space Station (ISS) to HERSCHEL and PLANCK satellites for Cosmic Vision, AL/DTA has acquired a large know-how in space cryogenic systems. Convinced by the great interest of Pulse Tube technology for space applications and especially for Earth Observation or Surveillance Tracking, AL/DTA started its first development in mid nineteenths. Then the European Space Agency started to support the development in 2000. Partnerships were launched with CEA/SBT (France; Thales Cryogenics B.V. (The Netherlands) in order to take the advantage of the competencies and experience of each other. Based on the will to improve important issues such as reliability and mechanical robustness, technology improvements are now available in AL/DTA Pulse Tube coolers. This paper proposes an overview of AL/DTA cryocoolers for space applications following by a detailed description of Pulse Tube Coolers and particularly their integration.

  19. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera


    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  20. The social dimension of the Russian students’ life in the context of the European integration of the educational space: Methodological aspects of the research (on the example of PFUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Narbut


    Full Text Available The set of mechanisms for the implementation of the idea of the single European space of higher education including the access to higher education, advice and guidance for the students, their material support, providing equal opportunities and social equality allows the majority of young people to achieve a high level of education and facilitates their personal self-realization. The social dimension as one of the areas of the Bologna process implementations was first announced in the context of mobility support and the strategy of lifelong learning, in the present time it is a complex system of social support for students including accommodation, medical care, nutrition and other social services. All these aspects of the social dimension of the students’ life have become the subject of the European research project Eurostudent taking place in 25 European countries. Russia for the first time took part in this project as an associate member: in the spring of 2014, we conducted a survey with the methodology of the international research project. The methodological issues of the project techniques are considered in the article as well as some conclusions based on the results of the survey conducted at the People’s Friendship University of Russia.

  1. The externalisation of migration control in the European Union: first steps towards the external dimension of the space of freedom, security and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabov Yuri


    Full Text Available The creation of an area of freedom, security and justice is one of the most rapidly developing aspects of European integration. It this paper, we take a look at the foreign policies involved in this process — aside from the internal development of the European Union, they concern a significant number of third countries, including Russia. In our view, the efforts to manage the flow of migrants and asylum seekers constitute a viable part of the external dimension within the AFSJ policies. Much of this article is based on the theoretical postulates introduced by the scholars of the Paris School, a school within the discipline of security studies that conceptualized the connection between migration, terrorism, asylum, crime and ethnic clashes, and its role as a major threat facing the European Union. Externalization of this complex threat (that is, externalization in relation to the European Union is thus seen as one of the key prerequisites to advancement of migration management activities beyond the EU (i. e. externalization of migration management. In this article, we analyze the role the EU plays at the international scene and categorize the actions it took to manage the influx of migrants and asylum seekers from the 1980s until the time when supranational administrative bodies were granted mandates in the spheres of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA of the EU Member States. We conclude that it was as early as the 1990-s that the EU launched the policy which later allowed to transfer part of its security concerns to third countries.

  2. The Outer Space as an Educational Motivation (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Melquíades; Hernández-López, Montserrat


    STEAM is an educational approach to learning that uses Science, Technology, Engineering, the Arts and Mathematics as access points for guiding student inquiry, dialogue, and critical thinking. The end results are students who take thoughtful risks, engage in experiential learning, persist in problem-solving, embrace collaboration, and work through the creative process. The Outer Space is a window to the past and the future of our travel around the history of the Universe and can be used as a educational tool in primary and secondary education. This paper talks about the integration of the resources of European Space Agency, Space Awareness, Nuclio, Scientix and Schoolnet as motivation to integrate STEAM methodology in secondary education. Keywords: STEAM, outer space, motivation, methodology

  3. A European mobile satellite system concept exploiting CDMA and OBP (United States)

    Vernucci, A.; Craig, A. D.


    This paper describes a novel Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) concept applicable to networks allowing access to a large number of gateway stations ('Hubs'), utilizing low-cost Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT's). Efficient operation of the Forward-Link (FL) repeater can be achieved by adopting a synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technique, whereby inter-code interference (self-noise) is virtually eliminated by synchronizing orthogonal codes. However, with a transparent FL repeater, the requirements imposed by the highly decentralized ground segment can lead to significant efficiency losses. The adoption of a FL On-Board Processing (OBP) repeater is proposed as a means of largely recovering this efficiency impairment. The paper describes the network architecture, the system design and performance, the OBP functions and impact on implementation. The proposed concept, applicable to a future generation of the European LMSS, was developed in the context of a European Space Agency (ESA) study contract.

  4. Exchanges between formal and informal learning Spaces. In: Understanding European School Buildings: Policies, People and Practices. Edited by Anna Kristín Sigurðardóttir, Gonçalo Canto Moniz, Pamela Woolner, Ulrike Stadler Altmann

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Emmerik Damgaard; Hjartasson, Torfi; Gjessing, Eva

    The aim of this chapter is to illustrate how exchanges between formal and informal learning spaces beyond the framework of a classroom might enrich school practice, and help to identify important pedagogical challenges and opportunities. This is analyzed with references to a case on Icelandic...... in schools and other agencies, such as cultural institutions, companies, public libraries, NGO’s, and local organizations. Earlier collaborations have helped to encourage creativity, bridge gaps between theory and practice, and promote personal competencies among students. Central themes concerning the roles...

  5. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette


    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  6. Sleep in space as a new medical frontier: the challenge of preserving normal sleep in the abnormal environment of space missions. (United States)

    Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Gonfalone, Alain A


    Space agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States, the Russian Federal Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the China National Space Administration, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Indian Space Research Organization, although differing in their local political agendas, have a common interest in promoting all applied sciences that may facilitate man's adaptation to life beyond the earth. One of man's most important adaptations has been the evolutionary development of sleep cycles in response to the 24 hour rotation of the earth. Less well understood has been man's biological response to gravity. Before humans ventured into space, many questioned whether sleep was possible at all in microgravity environments. It is now known that, in fact, space travelers can sleep once they leave the pull of the earth's gravity, but that the sleep they do get is not completely refreshing and that the associated sleep disturbances can be elaborate and variable. According to astronauts' subjective reports, the duration of sleep is shorter than that on earth and there is an increased incidence of disturbed sleep. Objective sleep recordings carried out during various missions including the Skylab missions, space shuttle missions, and Mir missions all support the conclusion that, compared to sleep on earth, the duration in human sleep in space is shorter, averaging about six hours. In the new frontier of space exploration, one of the great practical problems to be solved relates to how man can preserve "normal" sleep in a very abnormal environment. The challenge of managing fatigue and sleep loss during space mission has critical importance for the mental efficiency and safety of the crew and ultimately for the success of the mission itself. Numerous "earthly" examples now show that crew fatigue on ships, trucks, and long-haul jetliners can lead to inadequate performance and sometimes fatal consequences, a reality which has

  7. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  8. Report realized on the behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission on the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the added protocol ratification to the agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Etrangeres sur le projet de Loi, adopte par le Senat, autorisant la ratification du protocole additionnel a l'accord entre la France, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document presents the analyse of the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the added protocol ratification to the agreement between France, the Atomic Energy European Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France. It deals with the nuclear proliferation fight in France and the the program of enhancement of guaranties in the framework of the IAEA. (A.L.B.)

  9. Building for the Future: China’s Progress in Space Technology During the Tenth 5-Year Plan and the U.S. Response (United States)


    Eventually China wants to land a robotic vehicle on the moon much in the same way as the United States landed a robotic vehicle on Mars. Double Star . The... Double Star satellite project is the result of an agreement signed on July 9, 2001, between the China NSA and the European Space Agency (ESA) to...approach is being used by the Europeans and Chinese on the Double Star project to research the sun. Such cooperation is not unprecedented when it

  10. Data and agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Kennedy


    Full Text Available This introduction to the special issue on data and agency argues that datafication should not only be understood as the process of collecting and analysing data about Internet users, but also as feeding such data back to users, enabling them to orient themselves in the world. It is important that debates about data power recognise that data is also generated, collected and analysed by alternative actors, enhancing rather than undermining the agency of the public. Developing this argument, we first make clear why and how the question of agency should be central to our engagement with data. Subsequently, we discuss how this question has been operationalized in the five contributions to this special issue, which empirically open up the study of alternative forms of datafication. Building on these contributions, we conclude that as data acquire new power, it is vital to explore the space for citizen agency in relation to data structures and to examine the practices of data work, as well as the people involved in these practices.

  11. European visit

    CERN Multimedia


    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  12. European Mobile Satellite Services (EMSS): A regional system for Europe (United States)

    Loisy, C.; Edin, P.; Benedicto, F. J.


    The European Space Agency is presently procuring two L-band payloads in order to promote a regional system for the provision of European Mobile Satellite Services (EMSS). These are the EMS payload on the Italsat I-F2 satellite and the LLM payload on the ARTEMIS satellite. Telecommunication system studies have been concentrating on mobile applications where full European geographical coverage is required. Potential applications include high priority Private Mobile Radio networks requiring national or European coverage, such as civil security, fire brigades, police and health services, as well as a dedicated system for provision of Air Traffic Services to the civil aviation community. A typical application is an intelligent road traffic management system combining a geographically selective traffic data collection service based on probe vehicles with a geographically selective traffic information broadcast service. Network architectures and bearer services have been developed both for data only and voice/data services. Vehicle mounted mobile transceivers using CDMA access techniques have been developed. The EMSS operational phase will start with the EMS payload in orbit in 1996 and continue with the LLM payload in 1997.

  13. Meteor observation from space - The Smart Panoramical Optical Sensor (SPOSH) (United States)

    Koschny, D.; di Martino, M.; Oberst, J.

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is funding two parallel studies for a ``Smart Panoramic Optical Head''. The main goal is to develop the technology for a space-qualified, very light-sensitive camera with a wide field of view, both from the hardware and the software side. The scientific application is to allow imaging of phenomena on the dark side of planets or moons, e.g. lightning flashes from thunderstorms or electrical discharges in sand storms, meteors, impact flashes, aurorae, etc. This paper will concentrate on the potential of this camera for the study of meteors from an orbit around a planet.

  14. Space-Based Gravitational-wave Mission Concept Studies (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.


    The LISA Mission Concept has been under study for over two decades as a spacebased gravitational-wave detector capable of observing astrophysical sources in the 0.0001 to 1 Hz band. The concept has consistently received strong recommendations from various review panels based on the expected science, most recently from the US Astr02010 Decadal Review. Budget constraints have led both the US and European Space agencies to search for lower cost options. We report results from the US effort to explore the tradeoffs between mission cost and science return, and in particular a family of mission concepts referred to as SGO (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory).

  15. Precision Gravity Tests with Atom Interferometry in Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tino, G.M.; Sorrentino, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia and LENS, Università di Firenze, INFN Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Aguilera, D. [Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center, Robert-Hooke-Strasse 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Battelier, B.; Bertoldi, A. [Laboratoire Photonique, Numérique et Nanosciences, LP2N - UMR5298 - IOGS - CNRS Université Bordeaux 1, Bâtiment A30 351 cours de la Libération F-33405 TALENCE Cedex France (France); Bodart, Q. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia and LENS, Università di Firenze, INFN Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bongs, K. [Midlands Ultracold Atom Research Centre School of Physics and Astronomy University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Bouyer, P. [Laboratoire Photonique, Numérique et Nanosciences, LP2N - UMR5298 - IOGS - CNRS Université Bordeaux 1, Bâtiment A30 351 cours de la Libération F-33405 TALENCE Cedex France (France); Braxmaier, C. [Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center, Robert-Hooke-Strasse 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Cacciapuoti, L. [European Space Agency, Research and Scientific Support Department, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Gaaloul, N. [Institute of Quantum Optics, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Welfengarten 1, D 30167 Hannover (Germany); Gürlebeck, N. [University of Bremen, Centre of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM), Am Fallturm, D - 29359 Bremen (Germany); Hauth, M. [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); and others


    Atom interferometry provides extremely sensitive and accurate tools for the measurement of inertial forces. Operation of atom interferometers in microgravity is expected to enhance the performance of such sensors. This paper presents two possible implementations of a dual {sup 85}Rb-{sup 87}Rb atom interferometer to perform differential gravity measurements in space, with the primary goal to test the Weak Equivalence Principle. The proposed scheme is in the framework of two projects of the European Space Agency, namely Q-WEP and STE-QUEST. The paper describes the baseline experimental configuration, and discusses the technology readiness, noise and error budget for the two proposed experiments.

  16. Challenges in the Multipolar Space-Power Environment (United States)


    multisatellite observation and control plans and real - time automatic monitoring of the observation and control pro- cess.”1 Thanks to mid-2005, with an unprece- dented real -time location error within the meter range.22 Prior to the launch of Galileo, satellite navigation users in...European Space Agency [ESA]. “Alcatel Space and Astrium Forge Agreement for AlphaBus,” 20 June 2003. http://www.esa .int/ esaTE /SEMADPVO4HD_index_0.html

  17. Mobile satellite business networks: A part of the European mobile system (United States)

    deMateo, M. L.; Jongejans, A.; Loisy, C.; VanHimbeeck, C.; Marchal, J. P.; Borella, A.; Sartori, M.


    The European Space Agency (ESA) is presently procuring an L-band payload EMS, to be embarked on the ITALSAT-2 satellite due for launch in early 1996, in order to promote a regional European mobile system. One of the Land Mobile Communication systems supported by EMS is the MSBN (Mobile Satellite Business Network) voice and data system which will offer the services of a business network on a seamless European coverage. This paper will first recall the characteristics of the MSBN system, which is based on quasi-synchronized CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) techniques in both directions, and then describe the CDMA receivers implementation. Main validation test results will also be reported confirming predicted performances.

  18. Space shuttle crew training at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Paola Catapano

    From 13 to 16 October, the crew of NASA Space Shuttle mission STS-134 came to CERN for a special physics training programme. Invited here by Samuel Ting, they will deliver the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) detector to the International Space Station (ISS).   The STS134 crew in the Lodge at the Aiguille du Midi wearing CERN fleeces. From left to right: Captain Mark Kelly, US Navy; Pilot Gregory Johnson, USAF ret.; Mission Specialist Andrew Feustel; Mission Specialist Mike Fincke, USAF, Mission Specialist Gregory Chamitoff and Mission Specialist Roberto Vittori, ESA and Italian Air Force. Headed by Commander Mark Kelly, a US Navy captain, the crew included pilot Gregory Johnson, a US Air Force (USAF) colonel, and mission specialists Mike Fincke (also a USAF Colonel), Andrew Feustel, and Gregory Chamitoff of NASA, as well as Colonel Roberto Vittori of the European Space Agency (ESA). Two flight directors, Gary Horlache and Derek Hassmann of NASA, and the engineer responsible for the Ext...

  19. UNIGE in space... hunting astroparticles

    CERN Multimedia


    Switzerland has a long history of involvement in cosmic-ray physics and space research projects: some of the most notable examples are its pioneering research since the beginning of the 20th century; its co-founding of major European space organisations; its provision of state-of-the-art scientific equipment to major international space agencies and the missions of a Swiss astronaut in the 1990s.   The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) project, whose control centre is at CERN, has benefitted from the cutting-edge knowhow of the Nuclear and Corpuscular Physics Department (DNPC) of the University of Geneva (UNIGE). An extremely sensitive, high-resolution spectrometer was built for the project and was installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2011. The DNPC was responsible for designing the particle tracker – the device at the heart of both the AMS 01 prototype and the final model sent into space, AMS 02. The aim of this research project is to advance humankind’s kno...

  20. Expertise and Power: Agencies Operating in Complex Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Zito


    Full Text Available This contribution investigates the strategies that environmental agencies develop to enhance their policy autonomy, in order to fulfil their organisational missions for protecting the environment. This article asks whether there are particular strategic moves that an agency can make to augment this policy autonomy in the face of the principals. Critiquing principal agent theory, it investigates the evolution of three environmental agencies (the European Environment Agency, the England and Wales Environment Agency and the United States Environmental Protection Agency, focusing on the case study of climate change. The contribution examines how the agencies influence environmental policy on domestic, regional and global levels, with a special focus on the principals that constrain agency autonomy. A greater focus on different multi-level contexts, which the three agencies face, may create other possible dynamics and opportunities for agency strategies. Agencies can use particular knowledge, network and alliance building to strengthen their policy/political positions.

  1. Investigations on the electron bunch distribution in the longitudinal phase space at a laser driven RF electron source for the European X-FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roensch, Juliane


    The Photoinjector Test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site, (PITZ) is aiming for the optimization of electron guns for SAS-FELs. For this it is necessary to investigate the characteristics of the six dimensional phase space of the bunch produced by a photoinjector. This thesis is focused on the analysis of the longitudinal properties of the electron bunch distribution, this means the temporal current distribution and the momentum distribution as well as the correlation of both properties. The complete distribution of the electron bunch in longitudinal phase space of a photoinjector was measured directly for the first time at a beam momentum of about 5 MeV/c, using an existing apparatus. This system had been designed for an accelerating gradient of 40 MV/m. Its subcomponents were analysed to understand sources of uncertainties of the measurement system. The usage of higher accelerating gradients in the gun (60 MV/m, resulting in a beam momentum of about 6.8 MeV/c) demands major modifications of the existing measurement system for the longitudinal phase space distribution. An upgrade of the facility by an additional accelerating cavity required the design of further longitudinal diagnostics systems for the analysis at higher momenta (up to 40 MeV/c). Measurements of the longitudinal beam properties to determine the influence of different operation parameters, like RF launch phase, charge, accelerating field gradient and laser distribution were performed and compared to simulations. (orig.)

  2. Physics Research on the International Space Station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The International Space Station (ISS) is orbiting Earth at an altitude of around 400 km. It has been manned since November 2000 and currently has a permanent crew of six. On-board ISS science is done in a wide field of sciences, from fundamental physics to biology and human physiology. Many of the experiments utilize the unique conditions of weightlessness, but also the views of space and the Earth are exploited. ESA’s (European Space Agency) ELIPS (European Programme Life and Physical sciences in Space) manages some 150 on-going and planned experiments for ISS, which is expected to be utilized at least to 2020. This presentation will give a short introduction to ISS, followed by an overview of the science field within ELIPS and some resent results. The emphasis, however, will be on ISS experiments which are close to the research performed at CERN. Silicon strip detectors like ALTEA are measuring the flux of ions inside the station. ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space) will provide unprecedented global ti...

  3. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas


    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  4. Cytauxzoon Infections in Wild Felids from Carpathian-Danubian-Pontic Space: Further Evidence for a Different Cytauxzoon Species in European Felids. (United States)

    Gallusová, Martina; Jirsová, Dagmar; Mihalca, Andrei D; Gherman, Călin Mircea; D'Amico, Gianluca; Qablan, Moneeb A; Modrý, David


    Parasitic protists of the genus Cytauxzoon are detected in a wide range of wild and domestic felids. Bobcats are a confirmed reservoir of Cytauxzoon felis in North America while domestic cats are susceptible hosts suffering from severe or fatal illness. Cytauxzoon infections are mainly reported from American felids and, recently, several sub-clinical and clinical findings were reported from European, Asian, and African felids. In 2014, the collection of organs of 4 Eurasian lynx and 12 wild cats from 11 Romanian localities was carried out to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of Cytauxzoon spp. We detected an overall high prevalence of 62.5% in both species of wild felids; 50% in wild cats and 100% in Eurasian lynx. The phylogenetic analysis indicates 2 distinct clades of Cytauxzoon in felids, with all of our sequences clustering with sequences of Cytauxzoon sp./Cytauxzoon manul from Palaearctic felids. Further studies, development of new genetic markers, and experimental transmission studies are required for clarifying the taxonomy and life cycle of feline Cytauxzoon in the Old World.



    Oana Mihaela MARIOARA (ORHEIAN); Ioana Gabriela GRIGORESCU


    This article makes an analysis of the main regulations used by the credit rating agencies on the financial market. The article describes the main specific legislation on credit rating agencies existing on the market. Credit rating agencies are issuing independent opinions on the reliability of an entity, of a debt, of financial obligations, or of a certain financial instrument. The credit ratings issued by the credit rating agencies established in the European Union are analysed by investo...

  6. Looking into space (United States)


    A new challenge for young Europeans has been issued by the European Space Agency to coincide with its launch of the new x-ray space observatory, XMM. This X-ray Multi-Mirror will revolutionize cosmic x-ray astronomy by harvesting more x-rays per hour than any previous mission, enabling astronomers to analyse many strong sources of cosmic x-rays very quickly and also to discover and characterize many faint sources. In partnership with the unique education network `European Schoolnet', ESA has launched three competitions for schools in its member states, details of which can be found on the special competition website at The `Draw me a telescope!' competition asked classes of 8 to 12 year-olds to provide an illustration of a telescope within a circle of 20 - 50 cm diameter. The 14 winning entries, one per member state, are to be included in a specially designed official XMM mission logo to be unveiled on the day in December when the observatory will be launched. A representative of each winning class will be invited to Kourou for the launch event. `What's new Mr Galileo?' involved classes in writing an essay (in English) of no more than 500 words describing space-based astronomy and its benefits for humanity. Again the 14 winners from the member states would be invited to Kourou to witness the final XMM launch preparations. The final competition of the three was intended for final-year physics classes interested in making use of the XMM telescope. The class, assisted by the scientific community, had to submit an observation project; all 14 winning proposals would then be put into practice at a summer camp to be held during 2000. Further details would then be announced once XMM was in orbit. Further information about the competitions can be found from the ESA Science Programme Communication Service (tel: +31-71-565-4604) or ESA Public Relations Division (tel: +33(0), or by visiting the following websites: www

  7. Homo habitus: agency, structure and the transformation of tradition in the constitution of the TRB foraging-farming communities in the North European plain (ca 4500–2000 BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Zvelebil


    Full Text Available The current generally accepted view of the dispersal of farming into Europe is that farming groups in the eastern Mediterranean colonised selectively optimal farming areas. The role of contact between indigenous hunter-gatherers and incoming farmers was very important to the operation of this process. This general view of the spread of farming at a broad inter-regional scale gives us our understanding of the origins of the Neolithic but merits closer examination at the local and regional level, as increasingly it is becoming apparent that the causes and motivations may have differed. In this paper, Mesolithic to Neolithic communities with evidence of the transition from hunter-gatherer to farmer will be examined at a regional scale, in the central part of the north European plain, focussing on Kujavia. Additionally, the theory of structuration will be applied in order to elucidate the transition process at this level.

  8. Overview of the Development of the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (United States)

    Heloret, Jean-Yves; Laine, Robert


    The Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is being developed by the European Space Agency to contribute to the logistics servicing of the International Space Station. The ATV is a 20 ton class space ship, launched by Ariane 5 versatile, performing rendezvous and docking with the Russian segment of the station. It is bringing dry cargo items, fluids, refuel propellant to the ISS as well as a support to the ISS reboost and attitude control. The total net cargo capability of ATV is 9,5 tonnes. The ATV is a complete logistic transportation vehicle that is developed by EADS-Launch Vehicles as the Prime Contractor together with major European industrial partners. The ATV development features some technical challenges, in particular in the field of Navigation, Guidance and Safety vis-à-vis ISS, as well as tight development schedule with a first ATV flight in September 2004. The ATV Preliminary Design Review was successfully concluded in December 2000. ATV "test phase" has started in December 2001 by the delivery of a complete mechanical and thermal model on which environment tests are being performed. An Electrical Model will be delivered in August 2002 for electrical and functional tests of the avionics and software systems. In parallel, the Critical Design Reviews of equipment and subsystems are running in 2002 before ATV Critical Design Review to be held beginning of 2003. The integration of the first flight vehicle ("protoflight" model) has begun in March 2002 with the Avionics bay. The complete vehicle integration is planned for November 2003.

  9. Entre a Arbitragem Brasileira e a Arbitragem Europeia: Um estudo acerca da Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações (ANATEL e a Office of Comunications (OFCOM / Between the Brazilian and European Arbitration: A study of the National Telecommunications Agency (ANATEL and the Office of Communications (OFCOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Albenes Bezerra Júnior


    Full Text Available Purpose: The demand for arbitration as a dispute resolution is important due to the large volume of cases to be adjudicated at the Judiciary system and its lack of technical expertise to do so. The topic of alternative dispute resolution is clouded with debates of how far should it go before interfering in the core functions of the Judiciary. Thus, this paper seeks to support the use of arbitration in the Brazilian telecommunications sector, inspired by the experience of OFCOM. Methodology/Approach/Design: The paper starts with a historical analysis on the institute of the arbitrage followed by its connection with the regulatory phenomenon in Brazil and Europe. The study format follows a comparative approach by identifying the main characteristics of arbitration in both Brazilian and European telecommunications models. Results: One of the duties of the regulatory agencies is precisely the solution of conflicts between players in the sector at the administrative level. When analyzing the forms of dispute resolution in the European Union, a peculiar behavior can be highlighted. In major disputes that occur on the continent, it is more common to use arbitration than the judiciary. In fact, arbitration can be used by ANATEL as an important tool to ensure a broad, free and fair competition between providers of telecommunications services, as it dodges the slowness of the judiciary and the possibility of sham litigations, enabling the rapid adoption of a decision that often affects the rights of a great number of users of telecommunications services. The high prestige enjoyed by these methods of dispute resolution pays homage to their characteristic of being a neutral forum positioned far from a regulatory agency of a specific country and close to referees chosen by common agreement, or even connected to international institutions that provide the arbitration services in commercial disputes.

  10. GEROS-ISS: Ocean Remote Sensing with GNSS Reflectometry from the International Space Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickert, Jens; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Camps, Adriano

    In response to an European Space Agency (ESA) announcement of opportunity for climate change relevant science aboard the ISS, the GEROS-ISS (GEROS hereafter) proposal was submitted in 2011 and accepted by ESA to proceed to Phase A. GEROS-ISS is an innovative experiment primarily focused on exploi......In response to an European Space Agency (ESA) announcement of opportunity for climate change relevant science aboard the ISS, the GEROS-ISS (GEROS hereafter) proposal was submitted in 2011 and accepted by ESA to proceed to Phase A. GEROS-ISS is an innovative experiment primarily focused...... such as soil moisture, vegetation biomass, and mid-latitudes snow/ice properties to better understand anthropogenic climate change. A Science Advisory Group (SAG) was formed by ESA Mid 2013 and the initial definition of the GEROS mission and system requirements was completed end of 2013. Two industrial phase...

  11. LISA Pathfinder and the road to space-based detection of gravitational waves (United States)

    Thorpe, James


    The LISA Pathfinder spacecraft was launched on Dec 3rd, 2015 and began science operations in March 2016. Led by the European Space Agency with contributions from a number of European national agencies, universities, and NASA, LISA Pathfinder will demonstrate several key technologies and measurement technqiues for future space-based gravitational wave observatories. A successful LISA Pathfinder will retire much of the technical risk for such missions, which are the only proposed instruments capable of observing gravitational waves in the milliHertz band, a source-rich region expected to include singals from merging extragalactic massive black holes, capture of stellar-mass compact objects by massive black holes, and millions of individual close compact binaries in the Milky Way. I will present an overview of the LISA Pathfinder mission, it's current status, and the plans for operations and data analysis.

  12. Global Monitoring for Environment and Security - Europe's next space initiative takes shape (United States)

    Liebig, Volker; Aschbacher, Josef


    At the first Space Council in November 2004, Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) was proclaimed as the next flagship initiative for space in Europe after Galileo. This underlines that GMES has come a long way since its beginnings in 1998. Initially conceived as a relatively loosely coordinated forum for cooperation among space agencies, GMES today stands on firm ground. The European Commisson has assumed political leadership for GMES, and the European Union's policy priorities have been confirmed. A strong user base has been built up through numerous GMES projects funded since 2001 by ESA and the Commission. Currently ESA is preparing, with its Member States, a firm proposal for the 2005 Ministerial Council to start building up the space infrastructure necessary to sustain operational GMES services in the long term.

  13. Entering Space (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert

    The authors is giving a classification of civilisations depending on the degree of colonisation of the Earth, Solar System and Our Galaxy. The problems of: History of geographic discoveries (The great geographical discoveries during the Middle Age, the concurence of Chinnese and Europeans in this Area); The Astrophysics, such as: Asteroids, Water and Atmosphere on outer planets, Planet Mars Planet, Agriculture on outer planets, Minerals on outer planets; Cosmic flights: Fuels, Robotics, Moon (as an intermediary basis for interplanetary flights), Mars colonisation; Interstellar flights, Space research costs, strategy and tactics of the space colonisation; Policy: War and Peace, International Collaboration are discussed.

  14. A Grand Vision for European Astronomy (United States)


    , community-based Infrastructure Roadmap, crucial to keep Europe at the forefront of astronomical research," says de Zeeuw. ESO PR Photo 44a/07 European astronomy today is fully competitive on the global scene and is at the forefront in many domains with such breakthroughs as the first detection of a planet around a sun-like star, the successful landing on Titan, the proof that a massive black hole exists in the centre of our own Galaxy, the discovery of gravitational arcs around galaxy clusters, and the proof that most Gamma Ray Bursts are caused by huge exploding stars. The rise of European astronomy to this top position by the end of last century has been achieved through extensive cooperation and coordination of efforts, in particular through ESO for optical astronomy and ESA for space astronomy. To strengthen this position and to extend it to all branches of astronomy and all nations of the new Europe, a group of European funding agencies set up the ASTRONET programme with the goal to establish a comprehensive long-term development plan of European astronomy. ASTRONET therefore covers all astrophysical domains from cosmology to the Solar system, and every observing window, from space and from the ground, and from electromagnetic radiation to particles and gravitational waves. It addresses the whole astronomical 'food chain' from infrastructure and technology development to observation, data access, modelling and theory, and the human resources needed to make it all work. This effort is quite similar in scope to the 'decadal surveys' conducted in the USA over the last half-century, but unlike its American counterpart, ASTRONET was set up directly by the national funding agencies, with strong support from the European Commission. "A shared long-term Science Vision for European astronomy is the fundamental first step in the process, soon to be followed by a detailed infrastructure and technology development roadmap," says Johannes Andersen (NOTSA, Denmark), the ASTRONET

  15. The European Medicines Agency Review of Decitabine (Dacogen) for the Treatment of Adult Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Summary of the Scientific Assessment of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use. (United States)

    Nieto, Maria; Demolis, Pierre; Béhanzin, Eliane; Moreau, Alexandre; Hudson, Ian; Flores, Beatriz; Stemplewski, Henry; Salmonson, Tomas; Gisselbrecht, Christian; Bowen, David; Pignatti, Francesco


    : On September 20, 2012, a marketing authorization valid throughout the European Union (EU) was issued for decitabine for the treatment of adult patients aged 65 years and older with newly diagnosed de novo or secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are not candidates for standard induction chemotherapy. Decitabine is a pyrimidine analog incorporated into DNA, where it irreversibly inhibits DNA methyltransferases through covalent adduct formation with the enzyme. The use of decitabine was studied in an open-label, randomized, multicenter phase III study (DACO-016) in patients with newly diagnosed de novo or secondary AML. Decitabine (n = 242) was compared with patient's choice with physician's advice (n = 243) of low-dose cytarabine or supportive care alone. The primary endpoint of the study was overall survival. The median overall survival in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population was 7.7 months among patients treated with decitabine compared with 5.0 months for those in the control arm (hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-1.04; p = .1079). Mature survival data after an additional year of follow-up were consistent with these results, with a median overall survival of 7.7 months in patients treated with decitabine and 5.0 months in the control arm (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.99; p = .0373). Secondary endpoints, including response rates, progression-free survival, and event-free survival, were increased in favor of decitabine when compared with control treatment. The most common adverse drug reactions reported during treatment with decitabine are pyrexia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, febrile neutropenia, neutropenia, nausea, and diarrhea. This paper summarizes the scientific review of the application leading to approval of decitabine in the EU. The detailed scientific assessment report and product information (including the summary of product characteristics) for this product are available on the EMA website ( Acute

  16. Public spaces - public life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan; Gemzøe, Lars


    A handbook on how to create human qualities in the city comparing European cities in general to what is obtained in Copenhagen. A metod of assessing urban quality and a thorough insigt into how people use urban spaces....

  17. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator- NB38 -Space Telescope (United States)


    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) to operate a long-lived space-based observatory. It was the flagship mission of NASA's Great Observatories program. The HST program began as an astronomical dream in the 1940s. During the 1970s and 1980s, the HST was finally designed and built becoming operational in the 1990s. The HST was deployed into a low-Earth orbit on April 25, 1990 from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31). The design of the HST took into consideration its length of service and the necessity of repairs and equipment replacement by making the body modular. In doing so, subsequent shuttle missions could recover the HST, replace faulty or obsolete parts and be re-released. Pictured is MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) that served as the test center for shuttle astronauts training for Hubble related missions. Shown are astronauts Bruce McCandless and Sharnon Lucid being fitted for their space suits prior to entering the NBS to begin training on the space telescope axial scientific instrument changeout.

  18. The European medicines agency review of bosutinib for the treatment of adult patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia: summary of the scientific assessment of the committee for medicinal products for human use. (United States)

    Hanaizi, Zahra; Unkrig, Christoph; Enzmann, Harald; Camarero, Jorge; Sancho-Lopez, Arantxa; Salmonson, Tomas; Gisselbrecht, Christian; Laane, Edward; Pignatti, Francesco


    On March 27, 2013, a conditional marketing authorization valid throughout the European Union was issued for bosutinib (Bosulif) for the treatment of adult patients with chronic-phase, accelerated-phase, and blast-phase Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph⁺) chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) previously treated with one tyrosine kinase inhibitor or more and for whom imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib are not considered appropriate treatment options. Bosutinib is a kinase inhibitor that targets the BCR-ABL kinase. The recommended dose is 500 mg of bosutinib once daily. The main evidence of efficacy for bosutinib was based on a CML subgroup analysis of study 3160A4-200, a phase I/II study of bosutinib in Ph⁺ leukemia in imatinib-resistant or intolerant CML. The subgroup was defined based on the presence of a BCR-ABL kinase domain mutation that would be expected to confer resistance to dasatinib (F317, E255) or nilotinib (E255, Y253, F359) and expected to have sensitivity to bosutinib or based on the presence of medical conditions or prior toxicities that may predispose the patient to unacceptable risk in the setting of nilotinib or dasatinib therapy. A conditional marketing authorization was granted because of the limited evidence of efficacy and safety currently supporting this last-line indication.

  19. Space-Data Routers: Enhancing Deep Space communications for scientific data transmission and exploitation from Mars through Space Internetworking (United States)

    Sykioti, Olga; Daglis, Ioannis; Rontogiannis, Athanasios; Tsaoussidis, Vassilis; Diamantopoulos, Sotirios


    Dissemination and exploitation of data from Deep Space missions, such as planetary missions, face two major impediments: limited access capabilities due to narrow connectivity window via satellites (thus, resulting to confined scientific capacity) and lack of sufficient communication and dissemination mechanisms between deep space missions such the current missions to Mars, space data receiving centers, space-data collection centers and the end-user community. Although large quantities of data have to be transferred from deep space to the operation centers and then to the academic foundations and research centers, due to the aforementioned impediments more and more stored space data volumes remain unexploited, until they become obsolete or useless and are consequently removed. In the near future, these constraints on space and ground segment resources will rapidly increase due to the launch of new missions. The Space-Data Routers (SDR) project aims into boosting collaboration and competitiveness between the European Space Agency, the European Space Industry and the European Academic Institutions towards meeting these new challenges through Space Internetworking. Space internetworking gradually replaces or assists traditional telecommunication protocols. Future deep space operations, such as those to Mars, are scheduled to be more dynamic and flexible; many of the procedures, which are now human-operated, will become automated, interoperable and collaborative. As a consequence, space internetworking will bring a revolution in space communications. For this purpose, one of the main scientific objectives of the project is, through the examination of a specific scenario, the enhanced transmission and dissemination of Deep Space data from Mars, through unified communication channels. Specifically, the scenario involves enhanced data transmission acquired by the OMEGA sensor on-board ESA's Mars Express satellite. We consider two separate issues considering the

  20. The European-wide Geo-Seas data space for marine geological and geophysical data and its novel approach in Metadata, Data models and Semantics emerging from the case of Seismic data. (United States)

    Diviacco, Paolo; Busato, Alessandro; Glaves, Helen M.; Schaap, Dick M. A.


    The Geo-Seas EU FP7 project aims at providing means to deliver and access integrated sets of primary marine geological and geophysical data. These are among the most important elements in the process of scientific and applied marine research, economic activities, and sustainable environmental management, at regional, European and global scales. Such data space requires an European-wide services infrastructure, standardised practices by the data repositories, and middleware so that end users can identify, locate and access the data they might be interested in. Being Geo-Seas a sibling of the SeaDataNet project, it adopts technologies developed within the latter, extending them and introducing new paradigms. Within this perspective a specific attention was reserved to Seismic data, due to its value in commercial use and scientific community positioning, on one hand, and to the difficulties in handling its file size on the other. To tackle these issues a novel approach was devised, that uses web based data-owner-side visualization facilities installed at each data provider premise. This overcomes the limitations of the common practices in data dissemination, where eventually the data is downloaded and used "off-line" at the end-user workstation. This solution is based on a seismic data visualization software that is strictly integrated with the GeoSeas (and SeaDataNet) project middleware and that therefore allows to perform consistent user authentications and requests handling across all domains and partners. Considering the large and ever increasing number of datasets made available within the project, and that deep examination of seismic data via the viewer could take time, it was devised to introduce a more efficient way to select useful hits within the Geo-Seas data space extending the already existent ISO19115-based SeaDataNet discovery mechanism (CDI). This has been achieved through the introduction of a "browsing" level linked to the CDI where further

  1. ESMN / European Solar Physics Research Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.


    I briefly present the European Solar Magnetometry Network as a contemporary example of solar physics collaboration across European borders,and I place it in larger-scale context by discussing the past and future of Europe-wide solar physics organization.Solar physics from space is inherently

  2. Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Contact Us Share White House Infrastructure ... Response Respuesta a huracanes California wildfires update U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Video Highlights EPA provides over $3. ...

  3. Beyond spaces of counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Mads; Nissen, Morten


    The article articulates experiments with spatial constructions in two Danish social work agencies, basing on (a) a sketchy genealogical reconstruction of conceptualisations and uses of space in social work and counselling, (b) a search for theoretical resources to articulate new spaces, and (c...... spaces are forms of spatialisations which might be taken as prototypical in attempts to develop social work and counselling...

  4. EFSA AHAW Panel (EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare), ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control) and EMA (European Medicines Agency), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the possible risks posed by the Influenza A(H3N2v) virus for animal health and its potential spread and implications for animal and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette

    of respiratory nature and follows a relatively mild course with fever, coughing and inappetence, similar to that of the endemic swine influenza viruses. Immunity resulting from vaccination with European vaccines may provide some cross-protection against infection with H3N2v virus whereas vaccines based on US...... swine H3N2 strains would offer superior protection. It is not possible to predict which changes within H3N2v virus might enable it to develop pandemic properties. Hence, it is not possible at present to set up a specific system to monitor such a risk. Nevertheless, it is recommended to reinforce...

  5. European Accreditation of Public Health Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Otok


    Full Text Available The European Agency for Accreditation in Public Health Education (APHEA was launched in 2011. This followed nearly two decades of efforts in a variety of programmes supported by international donor agencies, and others that provided experience and field testing of peer review systems for schools of public health in Europe. The Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER Public Health Education European Review (PEER project, devised with the aid of WHO EURO in the early 1990s and later by the Open Society Institute (OSI within the framework of a joint ASPHER-OSI Program from 2000-2005, helped to develop a cadre of expertise on the process of international peer review and standards that are compatible with a full accreditation process.The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the background, criteria and current pilot phase of European accreditation for the Master of Public Health degree and equivalent study programmes. Undergoing the accreditation process will help longstanding and new schools review their programmes to meet new European accreditation system standards and provide students, graduates and potential employers with confidence in the future acceptability of their credentials. The new accreditation agency was established by a consortium of European public health organisations and represents a new phase for development of standards and quality of education systems in Europe to face the challenges of workforce development for a “New Public Health” era in the 21st century.

  6. Regulating private human suborbital flight at the international and European level: Tendencies and suggestions (United States)

    Masson-Zwaan, Tanja; Moro-Aguilar, Rafael


    In the context of the FAST20XX project (Future High-Altitude High-Speed Transport) that started in 2009 under the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union (EU), the authors reexamined the legal status of private human suborbital flight, and researched whether it might be regulated as aviation or as spaceflight. International space law is ambiguous as to accommodating suborbital activities. While some provisions of the UN outer space treaties would seem to exclude them, generally there is not any explicit condition in terms of reaching orbit as a requirement for application. International air law presents equal difficulties in dealing with this activity. The classic definition of "aircraft" as contained in the Annexes to the Chicago Convention does not really encompass the kind of rocket-powered vehicles that are envisaged here. As a result, it is unclear whether the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS), the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), or both could be involved in an eventual international regulation of suborbital flight. In the absence of a uniform international regime, each state has the sovereign right to regulate human suborbital flights operating within its airspace. So far, two practical solutions have been realised or proposed, and will be analyzed. On the one hand, the USA granted power for regulation and licensing over private human suborbital flight to the Office of Commercial Space Transportation of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA/AST). Subsequent regulations by the FAA have set out a series of requirements for companies that want to operate these flights, enabling a market to develop. On the other side of the Atlantic, both the European Space Agency (ESA) and a group of representatives of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) of the European Union (EU) seem to rather regard this activity as aviation, potentially subject to the regulation and certification competences of EASA


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDO Naomi


    Full Text Available This study compares Japanese pedestrian decks and European plazas as public pedestrian spaces. The characteristics of both types of spaces will be clarified through a schematic analysis. The connections of these spaces with their surroundings will also be analyzed. Further, the spatial image of these spaces are discussed. Pedestrian spaces in Romania will be discussed as well.

  8. Economic effects and spin-offs in a small space economy: the case of Canada. (United States)

    Amesse, Fernand; Cohendet, Patrick; Poirier, Alain; Chouinard, Jean-Marc


    Canada, through a well-focused space program (telecommunications, earth observation, robotics), has succeeded in developing a space industry largely based on SMEs. The result has been significant economic benefits and technological spin-offs. In this article, the results of two programs, the ESA (European Space Agency) and the STEAR (Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics), are compared. The ESA program has generated significant indirect effects and spin-offs for Canadian exports. ESA's reputation and network have enabled SMEs to increase export sales of both space products and other commercial products derived from space technologies. The STEAR program has been highly successful in promoting a new generation of SMEs for space robotics, encouraging both spin-in and spin-offs of technologies. The analysis highlights the complementarity of mission- and diffusion-oriented programs in the technology transfer process.

  9. Reputation-Seeking by a Government Agency in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækkeskov, Erik


    Reputation-seeking can explain some decisions of U.S. federal agencies. However, it has remained unclear whether it could be used in the European context where agencies have proliferated in national and regional governance in the past few decades. This article shows that reputation-seeking can...

  10. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration (United States)


    This illustration depicts a side view of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  11. Stereo images from space (United States)

    Sabbatini, Massimo; Collon, Maximilien J.; Visentin, Gianfranco


    The Erasmus Recording Binocular (ERB1) was the first fully digital stereo camera used on the International Space Station. One year after its first utilisation, the results and feedback collected with various audiences have convinced us to continue exploiting the outreach potential of such media, with its unique capability to bring space down to earth, to share the feeling of weightlessness and confinement with the viewers on earth. The production of stereo is progressing quickly but it still poses problems for the distribution of the media. The Erasmus Centre of the European Space Agency has experienced how difficult it is to master the full production and distribution chain of a stereo system. Efforts are also on the way to standardize the satellite broadcasting part of the distribution. A new stereo camera is being built, ERB2, to be launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in September 2008: it shall have 720p resolution, it shall be able to transmit its images to the ground in real-time allowing the production of live programs and it could possibly be used also outside the ISS, in support of Extra Vehicular Activities of the astronauts. These new features are quite challenging to achieve in the reduced power and mass budget available to space projects and we hope to inspire more designers to come up with ingenious ideas to built cameras capable to operate in the hash Low Earth Orbit environment: radiations, temperature, power consumption and thermal design are the challenges to be met. The intent of this paper is to share with the readers the experience collected so far in all aspects of the 3D video production chain and to increase awareness on the unique content that we are collecting: nice stereo images from space can be used by all actors in the stereo arena to gain consensus on this powerful media. With respect to last year we shall present the progress made in the following areas: a) the satellite broadcasting live of stereo content to D

  12. 18 March 2004. Nine of CERN's 20 Member States today signed a new Protocol on privileges and immunities. This brings the Organization into line with other European intergovernmental organizations, such as the European Space Agency and the European Southern Observatory, which already enjoy international status in all of their Member States.

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez


    As well as having an immediate practical benefit for the Organization, the Protocol also has an important symbolic value for the future. The Protocol is not only open to CERN Member States for signature, but also to other States collaborating with CERN. "Although this seems symbolic today", explained CERN Director General Robert Aymar in an address to CERN's governing Council today, "I believe that in the future, with the increasing globalisation of particle physics, this will become a valuable tool in helping CERN remain a powerful force in science."

  13. The space exposure platforms BIOPAN and EXPOSE to study living organisms in space (United States)

    Schulte, W.

    BIOPAN and EXPOSE are two European space exposure platforms developed for the European Space Agency by Kayser-Threde GmbH Munich Germany to offer flight opportunities to the science community of exo astrobiology research in low earth orbit Both platforms are conceived for the research on the behaviour of living organisms in the environment of space and on simulated conditions of other planets Mars The conditions for a possible transfer of life between planets can be studied Both facilities can also be used for materials and components validation and as test bed for advanced technologies envisaged for future exploration missions radio-protection miniaturized devices electronic components Since 1992 BIOPAN has flown five times aboard the Russian FOTON re-entry capsule 25 experiments in exo astrobiology radiation biology and radiation dosimetry have been conducted so far The pan-shaped experiment container BIOPAN can be installed onto the outer surface of its carrier satellite The orbital flight duration is typically two weeks The re-entry capsule with its experiments is recovered after landing and the experiment samples are returned to the ground laboratories of the scientific investigators for post-flight analysis Experiments flown so far with BIOPAN include bacterial spores mixed with Martian soil analogues to test the alleged toxicity of the Martian soil while irradiated in space by solar UV at dose and wavelength levels comparable to those on Mars experiment MARSTOX permafrost soil samples with their embedded natural ancient

  14. Gendering agency in transitional justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Selimovic, Johanna Mannergren


    . To address this lacuna we conceptualize and unpack the meaning of gendered agency, by identifying its critical elements and by locating it in space and in time. The conceptual work that we undertake is underpinned by empirical mapping of the transitional justice spaces in post-conflict Bosnia......Mainstream transitional justice and peacebuilding practices tend to re-entrench gendered hierarchies by ignoring women or circumscribing their presence to passive victims in need of protection. As a consequence we have limited knowledge about the multifaceted ways women do justice and build peace......-Herzegovina, where we point out instances of critical, creative, and transformative agency performed by women that challenge or negotiate patterns of gendered relations of domination. We collect women’s oral narratives and explore new sets of questions to capture women’s unique experiences in doing justice...

  15. Agency and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns Holger Rutz


    Full Text Available Although the concept of algorithms has been established a long time ago, their current topicality indicates a shift in the discourse. Classical definitions based on logic seem to be inadequate to describe their aesthetic capabilities. New approaches stress their involvement in material practices as well as their incompleteness. Algorithmic aesthetics can no longer be tied to the static analysis of programs, but must take into account the dynamic and experimental nature of coding practices. It is suggested that the aesthetic objects thus produced articulate something that could be called algorithmicity or the space of algorithmic agency. This is the space or the medium – following Luhmann’s form/medium distinction – where human and machine undergo mutual incursions. In the resulting coupled “extimate” writing process, human initiative and algorithmic speculation cannot be clearly divided out any longer. An observation is attempted of defining aspects of such a medium by drawing a trajectory across a number of sound pieces. The operation of exchange between form and medium I call reconfiguration and it is indicated by this trajectory. 

  16. ASTRONET: Strategic Planning for European Astronomy 2005-2025 (United States)

    Andersen, Johannes; Mourard, Denis


    European astronomy, with ESO and ESA, is supported by a wide variety of independent national agencies or similar bodies, which jointly provide ~98% of the total funding (with ~2% EU grants). In 2005 these agencies concluded that common strategic planning would be a more cost-effective approach, so they founded a consortium, ASTRONET (, to prototype such an effort for all of Europe, with EU support. A bottom-up process resulted in a Science Vision (2007) and Infrastructure Roadmap (2008) for European astronomy, with recent updates (2014).These ASTRONET reports cover all branches of astronomy; infrastructures at all electromagnetic wavelengths as well as particles etc., on the ground and in space; laboratory work, software and archiving; and training, recruitment and public outreach. In short, they are agreed blueprints for what Europe plans to accomplish in the next 1-2 decades.Subsequently, a systematic and sustained pragmatic effort has been made to implement the strategy laid out in the Roadmap, including a common European participation in projects and facilities of global dimensions. Decisions on the organisation and construction of several major research facilities have been taken as foreseen (E-ELT, SKA, CTA,…), and they are on track for completion around 2025. The task for global astronomy is now to optimise the overall scientific returns and cost-effectiveness of these investments across wavelength domains, scientific disciplines, and political and financial borders. Accordingly, ASTRONET is currently transforming itself into a permanent, self-sustaining activity reaching out to the world.The ideal of a fully integrated global astronomy may not be reached until ~2050, but no science is better suited than astronomy to set such an example: One Universe surrounds us all, and one Earth is our platform. The IAU General Assembly is a springboard towards this goal.

  17. NASA/First Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) Module Inserts Development for the International Space Station (United States)

    Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, Bill; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul


    The Material Science Research Rack 1 (MSRR-1) of the Material Science Research Facility (MSRF) contains an Experiment Module (EM) being developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). This NASA/ESA EM will accommodate several different removable and replaceable Module Inserts (MIs) which are installed on orbit. Two of the NASA MIs being developed for specific material science investigations are described herein.

  18. EXPOSE-E: an ESA astrobiology mission 1.5 years in space. (United States)

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, André; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Willnecker, Rainer; Baglioni, Pietro; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan; Reitz, Guenther


    The multi-user facility EXPOSE-E was designed by the European Space Agency to enable astrobiology research in space (low-Earth orbit). On 7 February 2008, EXPOSE-E was carried to the International Space Station (ISS) on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform in the cargo bay of Space Shuttle STS-122 Atlantis. The facility was installed at the starboard cone of the Columbus module by extravehicular activity, where it remained in space for 1.5 years. EXPOSE-E was returned to Earth with STS-128 Discovery on 12 September 2009 for subsequent sample analysis. EXPOSE-E provided accommodation in three exposure trays for a variety of astrobiological test samples that were exposed to selected space conditions: either to space vacuum, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110 nm and cosmic radiation (trays 1 and 3) or to simulated martian surface conditions (tray 2). Data on UV radiation, cosmic radiation, and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry. A parallel mission ground reference (MGR) experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions. EXPOSE-E performed a successful 1.5-year mission in space.

  19. Space conference of the americas: an initiative for space collaboration in the pan-american continent (United States)

    Ocampo, A.; Aleman, B.; Arevalo, C.; Camacho, S.; Fea, M.; Canutto, V.; Gonzalez, R.; Laffaiteur, M.

    The Space Conference of the Americas was created as an effort to facilitate dialogue and foment collaboration in the field of space in the Americas. The aim of these conferences is to promote cooperation in the areas of space science and space technology for peaceful uses of space among the Pan-American countries to contribute to the economic and social development plans of countries in the region of the Americas and to improve the quality of life of its citizens. The participants in the Conference includedrepresentatives from governments, space agencies, research institutes, academia, NGOs and industry, from within and outside the region. Four conferences have being organized with the stewardship of the United Nations Office of Outer Space Affairs and co-sponsored by the European Space Agency. The first "Space Conference of the Americas (CEA): Prospects in Cooperation," was held in San Jose, Costa Rica March 1990, the second CEA was held in Santiago, Chile in April 1993, the third CEA was held in Montevideo, Uruguay in November 1996 and the fourth CEA in Cartagena, Colombia in May 2002. A Pro-tempore Secretariat (SPT) is created at each of these events and resides in the conference host country. The current SPT is located in Colombia and is responsible for maintaining continuity and promoting the implementation of the recommendations contained in the Plan of Action of the Conference and projects proposed at the IVCEA. A web site for the IVCEA can be found at A summary of the activities being developed by the Pro-tempore Secretariat for the IVCEA will be discussed. These conferences have acted as catalyst to bring about cohesion of space activities for the region. One example is the "Declaration of Santiago" that brought about the formulation of a Chilean civil space agency that is now being established. These regional efforts can prove to be critical for the development of the region and for bridging the gap between developing

  20. Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory (SGO) Mission Concept Study (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey; McNamara, Paul; Jennrich, Oliver


    The LISA Mission Concept has been under study for over two decades as a space-based gravitational-wave detector capable of observing astrophysical sources in the 0.0001 to 1 Hz band. The concept has consistently received strong recommendations from various review panels based on the expected science, most recently from the US Astr02010 Decadal Review. Budget constraints have led both the US and European Space agencies to search for lower cost options. We report results from the US effort to explore the tradeoffs between mission cost and science return.

  1. Inspiring the Next Generation: The International Space Station Education Accomplishments (United States)

    Alleyne, Camille W.; Hasbrook, Pete; Knowles, Carolyn; Chicoine, Ruth Ann; Miyagawa, Yayoi; Koyama, Masato; Savage, Nigel; Zell, Martin; Biryukova, Nataliya; Pinchuk, Vladimir; hide


    international partner agencies, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Canadian Space Agency (CSA), European Space Agency, (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), and a number of non-participating countries, some under commercial agreements. Many of these programs still continue, and others are being developed and added to the stations tasks on a regular basis. These diverse student experiments and programs fall into one of the following categories: student-developed experiments; students performing classroom versions of ISS experiments; students participating in ISS investigator experiments; education competitions; students participating in ISS Engineering Education; Education Demonstrations and Cultural Activities. This paper summarizes some of the main student experiments and educational activities that have been conducted on the space station.

  2. Psychotropic drug prescriptions in Western European nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janus, Sarah I M; van Manen, Jeannette G; IJzerman, Maarten J; Zuidema, Sytse U


    Background: Despite the numerous warnings of European and national drug agencies as well as clinical guidelines since the year 2004, psychotropic drugs are still frequently used in dementia. A systematic review comparing the use of psychotropic drugs in nursing homes from different European

  3. Providing a sound habitat for man in space (United States)

    Stranger-Johannessen, Maria

    Microbiological growth on materials in an indoor environment contributes to the well known "sick building syndrome". The inhabitants' health and well-being is affected by injurious vapours and odours given off to the air. This is particularly pronounced in new and better tightened houses with unconventional building materials and wider employment of air conditioning. The European Space Agency has recognized the problems to be expected in a totally closed and self-supported long-term habitat and has induced work on the selection of materials, resistant to microbiological growth, and on other microbial contamination control measures. Requirements and procedures are being established as a basis for the microbiological cleanliness of the manned space environment and for the avoidance of microbiological growth on materials and equipment. Methods are being developed, suitable for testing and predicting the resistivity to microbiological growth of materials to be used in long-term space habitats.

  4. LISA Pathfinder: picometers and femtoNewtons in space (United States)

    Hewitson, Martin; LISA Pathfinder Team Team


    On December 3rd at 04:04 UTC, The European Space Agency launched the LISA Pathfinder satellite on board a VEGA rocket from Kourou in French Guiana. After a series of orbit raising manoeuvres and a 2 month long transfer orbit, LISA Pathfinder arrived at L1. Following a period of commissioning, the science operations commenced at the start of March, beginning the demonstration of technologies and methodologies which pave the way for a future large-scale gravitational wave observatory in space. This talk will present the scientific goals of the mission, discuss the technologies being tested, elucidate the link to a future space-based observatory, such as LISA, and present preliminary results from the in-orbit operations and experiments.

  5. Unimorph deformable mirror for space telescopes: design and manufacturing. (United States)

    Rausch, Peter; Verpoort, Sven; Wittrock, Ulrich


    Large space telescopes made of deployable and lightweight structures suffer from aberrations caused by thermal deformations, gravitational release, and alignment errors which occur during the deployment procedure. An active optics system would allow on-site correction of wave-front errors, and ease the requirements on thermal and mechanical stability of the optical train. In the course of a project funded by the European Space Agency we have developed and manufactured a unimorph deformable mirror based on piezoelectric actuation. The mirror is able to work in space environment and is designed to correct for large aberrations of low order with high surface fidelity. This paper discusses design, manufacturing and performance results of the deformable mirror.

  6. The Space Technology 7 Disturbance Reduction System (United States)

    O'Donnell, J. R., Jr.; Hsu, O. C.; Hanson, J.; Hruby, V.

    The Space Technology 7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) is an in-space technology demonstration designed to validate technologies that are required for future missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM). The primary sensors that will be used by DRS are two Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRSs) being developed by Stanford University. DRS will control the spacecraft so that it flies about one of the freely-floating Gravitational Reference Sensor test masses, keeping it centered within its housing. The other GRS serves as a cross-reference for the first as well as being used as a reference for the spacecraft's attitude control. Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters being developed by the Busek Co. will be used to control the spacecraft's position and attitude using a six degree-of-freedom Dynamic Control System being developed by Goddard Space Flight Center. A laser interferometer being built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will be used to help validate the results of the experiment. The DRS will be launched in 2008 on the European Space Agency (ESA) LISA Pathfinder spacecraft along with a similar ESA experiment, the LISA Test Package.

  7. Servicing of the future European stations/platforms through European means (United States)

    Eymar, P.; Peyrin, Y.; Cougnet, C.; Brudieu, P.; Dutto, P.

    In order to get a better knowledge of servicing problems and scenarii of the future European In Orbit Infrastructure, CNES (French Space Agency) decided to fund two separate servicing analysis, respectively conducted by Aérospatiale and MATRA. Aérospatiale work deals with several possible manned stations, taking into account a previous study, while MATRA work deals with polar platform aspects. The first part (Servicing of manned Space Stations) deals with a possible optimization of the roles to be played both by the future Ariane 5 launcher in automatic mode and by the Hermes Spaceplane for the servicing of some future manned space stations: the Columbus pressurized module on the U.S. Space Station, a non-evolutive one-module autonomous station and a multi-module one with a growth capability. After having identified the potential cargoes required for the maintenance and servicing of these stations (analysis of payloads, maintenance ORUs, consumales, crew exchange) and the possible frequencies of such a servicing, it is intended to show how it can be achieved through European means. Established scenarii make use of the Ariane 5 launcher combined either with the Hermes vehicle or with an automated payload. Solutions using payload carriers and/or logistic modules are examined, and possible impacts on stations and/or vehicles are identified further, following investigations on orbital transfer operations. The second part (Servicing of polar platforms) describes the possible scenarii of in-orbit implementation and servicing of a polar platform (number of Ariane 5 launches, modes of transfer, type of service vehicles, servicing orbit, …). This part is focused on the in-orbit operation to exchange on ORU (Orbital Replaceable Unit), once both platform and Hermes (or other servicing vehicle) are attached. After a review of the main tasks to be performed and the possible means to be used as manipulator or EVA, the paper describes the scenario (extraction of an ORU

  8. Benchmarking & European Sustainable Transport Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.


    to support Sustainable European Transport Policies. The key message is that transport benchmarking has not yet been developed to cope with the challenges of this task. Rather than backing down completely, the paper suggests some critical conditions for applying and adopting benchmarking for this purpose. One...... way forward is to ensure a higher level of environmental integration in transport policy benchmarking. To this effect the paper will discuss the possible role of the socalled Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism developed by the European Environment Agency. The paper provides an independent......, Benchmarking is one of the management tools that have recently been introduced in the transport sector. It is rapidly being applied to a wide range of transport operations, services and policies. This paper is a contribution to the discussion of the role of benchmarking in the future efforts...

  9. Home Health Care Agencies (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all Home Health Agencies that have been registered with Medicare. The list includes addresses, phone numbers, and quality measure ratings for each agency.

  10. Mobile Marketing Applications of Travel Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Selim Selvi


    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of mobile devices in the marketing world is increasing parallel with technological advances. The main problem of this research is to determine agencies’ use of what type of mobile tools for what type of purposes in the marketing process. The aim of this research is to identify Mobile Marketing (MM applications used by group A travel agencies, and to describe the attitudes towards MM applications of agencies. According to related law, it is only group A agencies give all agency services. Therefore, it is thought that MM is more widely used by those agencies. Thus, this research was made only on the group A agencies. The population of study was consisted of 675 groups A agencies’ representatives deployed in the European and Asian sides of Istanbul. A questionnaire was used as data collection tool. Questionnaire form consisted of two parts. In the first part, questions concerning MM and in the second part, questions regarding demographic issues to managers and travel agents took place. The results were given as descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation on the tables. T-test and One Way ANOVA analysis were performed for the differences of mean among groups. In the study it was concluded that agencies use mobile phones mostly and mobile computers for increasing sales firstly and direct marketing. Thus, the main hypothesis established was confirmed partly.

  11. Mobile Marketing Applications of Travel Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Selim Selvi


    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of mobile devices in the marketing world is increasing parallel with technological advances. The main problem of this research is to determine agencies’ use of what type of mobile tools for what type of purposes in the marketing process. The aim of this research is to identify Mobile Marketing (MM applications used by group A travel agencies, and to describe the attitudes towards MM applications of agencies. According to related law, it is only group A agencies give all agency services. Therefore, it is thought that MM is more widely used by those agencies. Thus, this research was made only on the group A agencies. The population of study was consisted of 675 groups A agencies’ representatives deployed in the European and Asian sides of Istanbul. A questionnaire was used as data collection tool. Questionnaire form consisted of two parts. In the first part, questions concerning MM and in the second part, questions regarding demographic issues to managers and travel agents took place. The results were given as descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation on the tables. T-test and One Way ANOVA analysis were performed for the differences of mean among groups. In the study it was concluded that agencies use mobile phones mostly and mobile computers for increasing sales firstly and direct marketing. Thus, the main hypothesis established was confirmed partly.

  12. A Study on Re-entry Predictions of Uncontrolled Space Objects for Space Situational Awareness (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Cho, Sungki; Lee, Deok-Jin; Kim, Siwoo; Jo, Jung Hyun


    The key risk analysis technologies for the re-entry of space objects into Earth’s atmosphere are divided into four categories: cataloguing and databases of the re-entry of space objects, lifetime and re-entry trajectory predictions, break-up models after re-entry and multiple debris distribution predictions, and ground impact probability models. In this study, we focused on re- entry prediction, including orbital lifetime assessments, for space situational awareness systems. Re-entry predictions are very difficult and are affected by various sources of uncertainty. In particular, during uncontrolled re-entry, large spacecraft may break into several pieces of debris, and the surviving fragments can be a significant hazard for persons and properties on the ground. In recent years, specific methods and procedures have been developed to provide clear information for predicting and analyzing the re-entry of space objects and for ground-risk assessments. Representative tools include object reentry survival analysis tool (ORSAT) and debris assessment software (DAS) developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), spacecraft atmospheric re-entry and aerothermal break-up (SCARAB) and debris risk assessment and mitigation analysis (DRAMA) developed by European Space Agency (ESA), and semi-analytic tool for end of life analysis (STELA) developed by Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES). In this study, various surveys of existing re-entry space objects are reviewed, and an efficient re-entry prediction technique is suggested based on STELA, the life-cycle analysis tool for satellites, and DRAMA, a re-entry analysis tool. To verify the proposed method, the re-entry of the Tiangong-1 Space Lab, which is expected to re-enter Earth’s atmosphere shortly, was simulated. Eventually, these results will provide a basis for space situational awareness risk analyses of the re-entry of space objects.

  13. 22 CFR 210.645 - Federal agency or agency. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 210.645 Section 210.645 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency...

  14. Dedicated Space | Poster (United States)

    The three-story, 330,000-square-foot Advanced Technology Research Facility has nearly 40,000 square feet designated as partnership space (shown in blue) for co-location of collaborators from industry, academia, nonprofit sectors, and other government agencies. The partnership space, combined with multiple conference rooms and meeting areas, encourages both internal and external collaborations.

  15. Application of artificial intelligence (AI) concepts to the development of space flight parts approval model (United States)

    Krishnan, Govindarajapuram Subramaniam


    The National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA), the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) missions involve the performance of scientific experiments in Space. Instruments used in such experiments are fabricated using electronic parts such as microcircuits, inductors, capacitors, diodes, transistors, etc. For instruments to perform reliably the selection of commercial parts must be monitored and strictly controlled. The process used to achieve this goal is by a manual review and approval of every part used to build the instrument. The present system to select and approve parts for space applications is manual, inefficient, inconsistent, slow and tedious, and very costly. In this dissertation a computer based decision support model is developed for implementing this process using artificial intelligence concepts based on the current information (expert sources). Such a model would result in a greater consistency, accuracy, and timeliness of evaluation. This study presents the methodology of development and features of the model, and the analysis of the data pertaining to the performance of the model in the field. The model was evaluated for three different part types by experts from three different space agencies. The results show that the model was more consistent than the manual evaluation for all part types considered. The study concludes with the cost and benefits analysis of implementing the models and shows that implementation of the model will result in significant cost savings. Other implementation details are highlighted.

  16. MOST: Modeling of SpaceWire & SpaceFibre Traffic- Applications and Operations: On-Board Segment (United States)

    Dellandrea, Brice; Gouin, Baptiste; Parkes, Steve; Jameux, David


    MOST(Modeling of SpaceWire Traffic) is a representative and powerful SpaceWire traffic simulator designed to support conception, development and validation of SpaceWire networks. MOST is developed by Thales Alenia Space France (TAS-F) for the European Space Agency (ESA) and for the benefits of the SpaceWire communityThis tool was already presented in DASIA 2011 [6] and DASIA 2012 [7] as Thales Alenia Space was finishing its first step of development. Since then, the software has reached a TRL mature enough to start distributing MOST v2.2r2 to the SpaceWire community under ESA license. This released version will be presented in this paperMoreover, TAS-F is currently developing a major extension of the MOST library targeting the inclusion of S paceFibre [5] components under an University of Du ndee sub-contract. These new features will be also presented in this document.

  17. Did Credit Rating Agencies Cause the European Sovereign Debt Crisis?


    Rosa Abrantes-Metz


    While I confess to being skeptical that a CRA would have the means to provoke a market reaction on sovereign debt, I am even more skeptical that it would have a reason to do so. Rosa Abrantes-Metz (Global Economics Group)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montani Guido


    Full Text Available The European project is facing a crisis. Citizens no longer understand what the EU is about. Young people and the new ruling class have forgotten the clear message of the European project launched just after the Second World War "No wars ever again among Europeans." The founding fathers of the European Union are mentioned in history textbooks, but today Europe is felt as an irritating bureaucracy. In Europe, peace and economic stability are considered as a natural state, a gift from above. Why keep a useless EU alive? The state of the European Union is swiftly degenerating. In almost all the member states, the anti-European forces are gaining ground. Populism is not a new ideology and is not necessarily European: let's recall Peronism. In today's Europe populism is the new manifestation of nationalism. In Italy the Lega Nord is in Berlusconi's eurosceptic government. In France, the National Front is endangering UMP's hegemony. In Belgium the rows between the Flemish and the Walloons threatens the state's unity. In the Netherlands, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Austria and Finland, populist forces are either in the government or strongly influencing the government. National-populism is different from the nationalism of the past. De Gaulle's nationalism was an ideology founded on the "grandeur" of France's history and on a certain idea of Europe, which was "l'Europe de patrie", a kind of European unity accepting French leadership in world politics. Today national-populism is a form of micro-nationalism: it opposes the European project but without having a serious alternative. This is why populism is dangerous. Its real goal is not only the breaking down of the European Union but also the disintegration of the old nation states into micro-ethnic states, as what happened in former Yugoslavia.

  19. Technical Agency in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina


    ) description of hybrid networks in which human and non-human actants are granted agency without differentiating different kinds of agency, EMCA focuses on the member's perspectives and the situated construction of technical agency that is made relevant within an ongoing interaction. Based on an EMCA analysis......The paper combines the discussion of technical agency and hybrid networks of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) with an ethnomethodological/conversation analytical (EMCA) perspective on situated practices in which participants ascribe agency to technical artefacts. While ANT works with (ethnographic...... of three video recordings of situations in which technical agency is made relevant by the human participants, the paper demonstrates different ways in which agency is granted to technical artefacts. Human participants can treat a technology as communication partner, as an active part (and actant...

  20. European parabolic flight campaigns with Airbus ZERO-G: Looking back at the A300 and looking forward to the A310 (United States)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Rouquette, Sebastien; Friedrich, Ulrike; Clervoy, Jean-Francois; Gharib, Thierry; Gai, Frederic; Mora, Christophe


    Aircraft parabolic flights repetitively provide up to 23 s of reduced gravity during ballistic flight manoeuvres. Parabolic flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in Physical and Life Sciences and in Technology, to test instrumentation prior to space flights and to train astronauts before a space mission. The use of parabolic flights is complementary to other microgravity carriers (drop towers, sounding rockets), and preparatory to manned space missions on board the International Space Station and other manned spacecraft, such as Shenzhou and the Chinese Space Station CSS. The European Space Agency (ESA), the 'Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency) and the 'Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.' (DLR, the German Aerospace Centre) have used the Airbus A300 ZERO-G for research experiments in microgravity, and at Moon and Mars gravity levels, from 1997 until October 2014. The French company Novespace, a subsidiary of CNES, based in Bordeaux, France, is in charge of the organisation of Airbus A300 ZERO-G flights. A total of 104 parabolic flight campaigns have been organised by ESA, CNES and DLR since 1997, including 38 ESA, 34 CNES and 23 DLR microgravity campaigns, two Joint European ESA-CNES-DLR Partial-g Parabolic Flight Campaigns, and seven ESA Student campaigns. After 17 years of good and loyal services, this European workhorse for microgravity research in parabolic flights has been retired. The successor aircraft, the Airbus A310 ZERO-G, is being prepared for a first ESA-CNES-DLR cooperative campaign in Spring 2015. This paper looks back over 17 years of microgravity research in parabolic flights with the A300 ZERO-G, and introduces the new A310 ZERO-G that will be used from 2015 onwards.

  1. Interworking and integration of the Inmarsat Standard-M with Pan-European GSM system (United States)

    Tafazolli, R.; Evans, B. G.


    The market demand on mobile telephone communications has been increasing since the introduction of the cellular mobile telephone systems about twelve years ago. In Europe, projections indicate a demand of about 17 million subscribers for a fully deployed Pan European system. The Pan-European GSM system is to harmonize the growth of the terrestrial mobile system. Studies conducted by the European Space Agency (ESA) indicate that even with 60-70 percent of the area being covered by the GSM, a significant traffic demand (voice and data) will still exist for areas not covered by the terrestrial systems. This demand could be satisfied by a land mobile satellite system. The satellite system is therefore seen in a complementary role rather than in competition with the terrestrial system in an integrated telecommunications network. One possible scenario may be that initially the satellite system provides services to the rural areas together with areas still not covered by the GSM system. This service area is then gradually diminished as the terrestrial system expands until an optimum point is reached where the systems co-exist optimally. The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of integration of a space based system, in this case Inmarsat Standard-M, with the GSM (Global System for Mobile communications). One very important advantage of incorporating GSM services in Standard-M is that it will be feasible to extend the GSM services economically worldwide, not only to land mobiles but also to aeronautical and maritime mobiles.

  2. Security-Enhanced Autonomous Network Management for Space Networking Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program is integrating its three current agency networks: Space Network (SN), Deep Space Network (DSN), and Near...

  3. A European Seal of Approval for 'gay' businesses: findings from an HIV-prevention pilot project. (United States)

    Sherriff, Nigel; Gugglberger, Lisa


    'Gay' businesses can be important settings through which to deliver health promotion interventions to vulnerable populations, such as men who have sex with men (MSM) regarding HIV prevention. This article draws on data from the European Everywhere project, which represents the first scheme to develop and pre-test a common framework for HIV/STI prevention in 'gay' businesses across eight European countries. The scientific basis of the Everywhere framework was developed using a comprehensive consensus-building process over 30 months. This process included: formative scoping research; interviews with 54 'gay' businesses; meetings/workshops with representatives from project partners, 'gay' businesses, public health administrations and external experts; 15 interviews and three focus groups with project partners; a five-month pilot action phase in eight countries, together with support from the project's Advisory Group; and all Everywhere project partners including the Scientific Steering Committee. A voluntary European code setting out differentiated HIV/STI-prevention standards for 'gay' businesses (including sex venues, 'gay' and 'gay' friendly social spaces, travel agencies, hotels, dating websites) was developed and piloted in eight European cities. During a five-month pilot action, 83 'gay' businesses were certified with the Everywhere Seal of Approval representing a considerable increase on the expected pilot target of 30. Everywhere offers a major contribution to the public health and/or health promotion field in the form of a practical, policy-relevant, settings-based HIV-prevention framework for 'gay' businesses that is common across eight European countries. Findings suggest that a European-wide model of prevention is acceptable and feasible to businesses.

  4. French local agencies of energy control; Agences locales francaise de maitrise de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In the framework of the SAVE program, the European Commission brings financial assistance to the creation of local or regional agencies of energy control in municipalities and regions. The main criteria are the impacts on the energy demand, the reinforcement of the economic and social cohesion, the environmental quality and the contribution to the economic development and the employment creation. In this document, realized by Energie-Cites, the Ademe objective is to present a state of the art of french local agencies. Ten agencies are presented as case study. Each case deals with the following topics: the main context of the action which details the energy and the environmental policy of the municipality, the creation and the description of the agency, the implemented actions and the perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  5. Towards the integration of orbital space use in Life Cycle Impact Assessment. (United States)

    Maury, Thibaut; Loubet, Philippe; Ouziel, Jonathan; Saint-Amand, Maud; Dariol, Ludovic; Sonnemann, Guido


    A rising sustainability concern is occurring in the space sector: 29,000 human-made objects, larger than 10cm are orbiting the Earth but only 6% are operational spacecrafts. Today, space debris is today a significant and constant danger to all space missions. Consequently, it becomes compelled to design new space missions considering End-of-Life requirements in order to ensure the sustainable use of space orbits. Furthermore, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been identified by the European Space Agency as an adequate tool to measure the environmental impact of spacecraft missions. Hence, our challenge is to integrate orbital space use into Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) to broaden the scope of LCA for space systems. The generation of debris in the near-Earth's orbital regions leads to a decrease in volume availability. The Area-of-Protection (AoP) 'resources' seems to be the most relevant reflection of this depletion. To address orbital space use in a comprehensive way, we propose a first attempt at establishing an impact pathway linking outer space use to resources. This framework will be the basis for defining new indicator(s) related to orbital space use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Translation Centre for the Bodies of the European Union: Purpose and activities


    Fontenelle, Thierry


    The Translation Centre for the Bodies of the European Union was established in 1994 to meet the translation needs of the other decentralized Community agencies. It also participates in the Interinstitutional Committee for Translation and Interpretation, which is working to promote collaboration between the services of the various European institutions and agencies and to achieve economies of scale in the translation field. In this paper, we describe the “raison d‟être” of this agency, whic...

  7. Earth as a Tool for Astrobiology—A European Perspective (United States)

    Martins, Zita; Cottin, Hervé; Kotler, Julia Michelle; Carrasco, Nathalie; Cockell, Charles S.; de la Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Demets, René; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; d'Hendecourt, Louis; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Elsaesser, Andreas; Foing, Bernard; Onofri, Silvano; Quinn, Richard; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Ricco, Antonio J.; Slenzka, Klaus; Stalport, Fabien; ten Kate, Inge L.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Westall, Frances


    Scientists use the Earth as a tool for astrobiology by analyzing planetary field analogues (i.e. terrestrial samples and field sites that resemble planetary bodies in our Solar System). In addition, they expose the selected planetary field analogues in simulation chambers to conditions that mimic the ones of planets, moons and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space conditions, as well as the chemistry occurring in interstellar and cometary ices. This paper reviews the ways the Earth is used by astrobiologists: (i) by conducting planetary field analogue studies to investigate extant life from extreme environments, its metabolisms, adaptation strategies and modern biosignatures; (ii) by conducting planetary field analogue studies to investigate extinct life from the oldest rocks on our planet and its biosignatures; (iii) by exposing terrestrial samples to simulated space or planetary environments and producing a sample analogue to investigate changes in minerals, biosignatures and microorganisms. The European Space Agency (ESA) created a topical team in 2011 to investigate recent activities using the Earth as a tool for astrobiology and to formulate recommendations and scientific needs to improve ground-based astrobiological research. Space is an important tool for astrobiology (see Horneck et al. in Astrobiology, 16:201-243, 2016; Cottin et al., 2017), but access to space is limited. Complementing research on Earth provides fast access, more replications and higher sample throughput. The major conclusions of the topical team and suggestions for the future include more scientifically qualified calls for field campaigns with planetary analogy, and a centralized point of contact at ESA or the EU for the organization of a survey of such expeditions. An improvement of the coordinated logistics, infrastructures and funding system supporting the combination of field work with planetary simulation investigations, as well as an optimization of the scientific return and data processing

  8. A socio-economic impact assessment of the European launcher sector (United States)

    Monte, Luca del; Scatteia, Luigi


    In a context where the economic strains are challenging European policies as well as the very fabric of governmental contributions to public life, innovation and efficacy of public policy in research are called upon to support growth in Europe and to sustain employment and entrepreneurial capacities. Governments need evidence that the investments in space, while providing strategic tools to implement sovereign policies, create jobs and build the competitive European economy of the future. This is particularly true when the decisions at stake have a potential bearing on the future of the European space sector for at least the next 30 years, as it has been the case for the ESA Council at ministerial level meeting in December 2014. On that occasion, Ministers took the decision to start the development of a new Ariane 6 launcher and Vega evolutions having a critical bearing on the Member States' strategic industrial capabilities and on the sustainability of the European guaranteed access to space. Given the importance of the subject, and following similar studies undertaken in the past for e.g. the Ariane 1-4 programme, the Agency has requested an independent consulting team to perform a dedicated study to assess ex-post the direct, indirect and induced socio-economic impacts of the Ariane 5 programme (mid-term evaluation) and of the Vega programme (early evaluation) globally, at European level, and within the economies and industries of each ESA Member State. This paper presents the assessment of the socio-economic impacts allowing the evaluation of the return on public investments in launchers through ESA in a wider perspective, going beyond the purely economic terms. The scope of the assessment covered in total approximately 25 ESA programmatic and activity lines and 30,000 commitments from 1986 to end 2012. In the framework of the study, the economic impact of the European launcher programmes is measured through a GDP impact defined as the straight economic

  9. Staff Acquisition -- Agencies (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Job vacancy and organizational information from customer agencies sufficient to provide requested services: examining, strategic staffing, recruitment and branding,...

  10. Autonomy of State Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Niklasson, Birgitta; Roness, Paul

    NPM-doctrines states that ideal-type agencies should have a high level of managerial autonomy, while being controlled through result-based control instruments, like performance contracts. In this article, the authors present a first preliminary attempt to comparatively analyze the autonomy of state...... agencies in four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. By using survey data from more than 500 state agencies in the four countries, the article analyses whether there is indeed a Scandinavian style of autonomy and result control and assesses which structural, cultural, and environmental...... variables might explain similarities and differences in the autonomy of agencies....

  11. European pharmacovigilance: increasingly outsourced to drug companies. (United States)


    New regulations reorganising pharmacovigilance at the European level were adopted in late 2010, then revised in 2012 in the wake of the Mediator (benfluorex) disaster. The European Commission's original proposals, released in 2008, would have represented a major step backwards in the protection afforded to European citizens, in particular by facilitating earlier marketing authorisations. Thanks to the mobilisation of civil society, the Members of the European Parliament have improved these proposals, supported by EU health ministers. The role of the new European Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) has been strengthened. Patients in every Member State have the right to report adverse drug effects directly to health authorities. EU drug regulatory agencies are required to provide greater transparency, and public access to information about adverse effects has been improved. However, one major regression persists: the central role given to pharmaceutical companies in the collection and interpretation of reports of adverse drug effects, despite their conflicts of interest. Drug companies are asked to record the adverse effect reports of which they are aware in a vast European centralised database, Eudravigilance, without going through drug regulatory agencies. Pharmaceutical companies remain responsible for producing "a scientific evaluation of the risk-benefit balance" of their drug, as part of the periodic benefit-risk assessment reports they are required to submit to drug regulatory agencies. These reports are analysed for the entire EU by two Member States (one rapporteur and one co-rapporteur), so that harmonised decisions can be taken. But these decisions are based on data preanalysed by the drug companies. In addition, the independence of the European Medicines Agency is undermined by its financial reliance on the fees paid by pharmaceutical companies in exchange for these assessments. In 2012, following France's Mediator disaster, several modest

  12. EU Space Awareness: Initial implemenation (United States)

    Russo, Pedro


    EU Space Awareness uses the excitement of space to attract young people into science and technology and stimulate European and global citizenship. The project will show children and teenagers the opportunities offered by space science and engineering and inspire primary-school children when their curiosity is high and their value systems are being formed. EU Space Awareness, a 3-year project, has started in March 2015 with 10 partner organisations and 15 network nodes in 17 European countries and the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development. During this talk we will give a update about the intial implementation of the project and its relevant for astronomy for development.

  13. Educating in European Identity?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enrique Banús


    In the last decades, the claim for a "European identity" has been manifested sometimes as a solution for the citizens' distance to the European project, sometimes also as a precondition for a further...

  14. Globalization and Europeanization. A Projection on a European Model of Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Matei


    , also by standards. These assertions, to which we can add also others, are leading to a new model of public administration, whose area overlaps with the space of European Union, incorporating the effects of globalization under its European expression, Europeanization. Consequently, the proposed model, emphasizing the process of European Union construction will comprise transparency, accountability and participation of the interested parties to public decision. The new public administration aims to use efficiently the resources in order to create favourable conditions for its citizens to become more competitive on the world market and to reduce the gap between the poorest and the richest inhabitants of the world. The current paper aims to conceptualize and to describe a model of public administration. The architecture of this model will be that of a complex system, with a mixed architecture, emphasizing connections with different intensities among its various levels: European, regional, national etc. The feedback mechanisms will be different and specific for each level and they will be ensured by different institutions on compatible normative grounds(1.

  15. Science on Spacelab. [astronomy, high energy astrophysics, life sciences, and solar, atmospheric and space physics (United States)

    Schmerling, E. R.


    Spacelab was developed by the European Space Agency for the conduction of scientific and technological experiments in space. Spacelab can be taken into earth orbit by the Space Shuttle and returned to earth after a period of 1-3 weeks. The Spacelab modular system of pallets, pressurized modules, and racks can contain large payloads with high power and telemetry requirements. A working group has defined the 'Atmospheres, Magnetospheres, and Plasmas-in-Space' project. The project objectives include the absolute measurement of solar flux in a number of carefully selected bands at the same time at which atmospheric measurements are made. NASA is committed to the concept that the scientist is to play a key role in its scientific programs.

  16. 41 CFR 102-85.145 - When are customer agencies responsible for Rent charges? (United States)


    ... agencies responsible for Rent charges? 102-85.145 Section 102-85.145 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.145 When are customer agencies responsible for Rent charges? (a) When a customer agency occupies cancelable space, it is responsible for Rent...

  17. Current state of development of the European Drought Observatory (United States)

    Niemeyer, S.; de Jager, A.; Kurnik, B.; Laguardia, G.; Magni, D.; Nitcheva, O.; Rossi, S.; Weissteiner, C.


    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC) is developing the prototype of the European Drought Observatory (EDO) for drought forecasting, detection, and monitoring in Europe. EDO is conceived as a web-based information system (, integrating information from various sources and disciplines relevant to monitor and detect droughts throughout Europe. The prototype is currently performing the pre-operational production of drought indices using meteorological information, modelled hydrological parameters, and remote sensing data. In particular, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) shows the general precipitation status according to the historical average in the predefined period. SPI in monthly step is calculated for the 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months averaging periods. Soil moisture estimations are produced daily by the LISFLOOD hydrological model, along with their anomalies and seven days forecasts. Two satellite remote sensing drought indicators are produced: Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetic Active Radiation (fAPAR) anomalies. NDWI 10-day composites are obtained daily from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, while fAPAR anomalies are calculated from 10-day composites delivered by the European Space Agency (ESA) and estimated from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MERIS) data. All these drought indicators are made available online for visualization and querying by means of a map viewer based on University of Minnesota MapServer and Oracle. The tool generates maps of the different indicators and provides functionalities to browse the maps, query the data, produce graphs, and output the maps in various formats.

  18. European Marine Information System. Eumaris; European Marine Information System. Eumaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiaffa, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente


    The present paper summarises the activities developed by ETC/MCE, under European Environment Agency (EEA) contract, on the Geographic Information System. The aim of present paper is to introduce some general concepts about the Geographic Information Systems and to investigate the potential of G.I.S. as tool for the assessment of the European seas. Care has also been taken to explain the main technical and educational reasons that led to EUMARIS GIS birth, its evolution in the last year, till to its presentation at the Inter-Regional Forum of the European Conventions held in Venice. GIS is a technological tool phenomenon involving various aspects and different issues; many examples of thematic maps involving that different subjects are shown in the paper. [Italian] Il presente articolo riassume le attivita' svolte, nell'ambito del Geographic Information System, dall'ETC/MCE sotto contratto con l'Agenzia Europea per l'Ambiente (EEA) che ha sede a Copenhagen. Scopo del presente articolo e' quello di introdurre alcuni concetti generali sui Geographic Information System (GIS) e di dimostrare la possibilita' di utilizzare il GIS stesso come strumento per la valutazione dello stato dei mari dell'Europa. Si e' cercato di spiegare le principali ragioni tecniche che hanno portato alla nascita del progeto del GIS EUMARIS, alla sua realizzazione fino alla sua presentazione all'Inter-Regional Forum of European Conventions tenutosi a Venezia. Si e' cercato anche di mostrare come un GIS per sua natura e' uno strumento che coinvolge vari aspetti tecnologici e differenti tipi di dati; nell'articolo vengono mostrati diversi esempi di mappe tematiche che contengono tali differenti argomenti.

  19. The International Space Station (ISS) Education Accomplishments and Opportunities (United States)

    Alleyne, Camille W.; Blue, Regina; Mayo, Susan


    The International Space Station (ISS) has the unique ability to capture the imaginations of both students and teachers worldwide and thus stands as an invaluable learning platform for the advancement of proficiency in research and development and education. The presence of humans on board ISS for the past ten years has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing that interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines which will lead to an increase in quality of teachers, advancements in research and development, an increase in the global reputation for intellectual achievement, and an expanded ability to pursue unchartered avenues towards a brighter future. Over 41 million students around the world have participated in ISS-related activities since the year 2000. Projects such as the Amateur Radio on International Space Station (ARISS) and Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), among others, have allowed for global student, teacher, and public access to space through radio contacts with crewmembers and student image acquisition respectively. . With planned ISS operations at least until 2020, projects like the aforementioned and their accompanying educational materials will be available to enable increased STEM literacy around the world. Since the launch of the first ISS element, a wide range of student experiments and educational activities have been performed by each of the international partner agencies: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Canadian Space Agency (CSA), European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos). Additionally, a number of non-participating countries, some under commercial agreements, have also participated in Station-related activities. Many of these programs still continue while others are being developed and added to the station crewmembers tasks

  20. Negotiating with Subscription Agencies. (United States)

    McQueen, Judy; Basch, N. Bernard


    This first in a two-part series on how librarians can negotiate services and prices with subscription agencies focuses on how vendors operate. Factors that influence agency costs, revenues, and service charges are described, including economies of scale, discounts from publishers, and prepayment and cash flow. (seven references) (LRW)

  1. Inviting affordances and agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, Rob; Araujo, Duarte; de Poel, Harjo J.

    Recently several authors have suggested that affordances are not mere possibilities for action but can also invite behavior. This reconceptualization of affordances asks for a reconsideratioh of the ecological approach to agency. After a portrayal of the role of agency in ecological psychology, we

  2. Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library (United States)

    Grubbs, Rodney


    The purpose of this presentation was to inform the ISS International Partners of the new NASA Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library (AVAIL) website. AVAIL is a new resource for the public to search for and download NASA-related imagery, and is not intended to replace the current process by which the International Partners receive their Space Station imagery products.

  3. The Role of the European Ombudsman in the Implementation of the Right to Good Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Popescu-Slaniceanu


    Full Text Available The regulations and general conditions of the exercise of the Ombudsman's functions are determined by the European Parliament after receiving the Commission's opinion and the approval ofthe Council. Many of the complaints addressed to the European Ombudsman relate to administrative delays, lack of transparency or refusal of access to information. Some relate to labor relationsbetween European institutions and their agencies, staffing, and the procedure of hiring. Others are related to contractual relations between European institutions and private firms.

  4. Space-Hotel Early Bird - Visions for a Commercial Space Hotel (United States)

    Amekrane, R.; Holze, C.; Apel, U.

    2002-01-01 +49 421 539-24801, +49 421 218-7473, The International Space Station was planed for research purposes. In 2001 the first private man, Denis Tito,visited the ISS and the second private man, Mark Shuttleworth is following him. The gate towards the commercial utilization of manned space flight has been pushed open. Space pioneers as Wernher von Braun and Sir Arthur C. Clarke had the dream that one day a space station in earth orbit will host tourists. It is evident that the ISS is not designed to host tourists. Therefore the dream of the pioneers is still open. By asking the question "how should a space station should look like to host tourists?", the German Aerospace Society DGLR e.V. organized a contest under the patronage of Mr. Joerg Feustel-Buechl, the Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity, European Space Agency (ESA) in April 2001. Because the definition and design of living space is the content of architecture the approach was to gather new ideas from young architects in cooperation with space experts. This contest was directed at students of architecture and the task set was to design a hotel for the earth orbit and to accommodate 220 guests. The contest got the name "Early Bird - Visions of a Space Hotel". The results and models of the student's work were shown in an exhibition in Hamburg/Germany, which was open to the public from September 19th till October 20th 2001. During the summer term of 2001 seventeen designs were completed. Having specialists, as volunteers, in the field of space in charge meant that it could be ensured that the designs reflected a certain possibility of being able to be realized. Within this interdisciplinary project both parties learned from each other. The 17 different designs were focused on the expectations and needs of a future space tourist. The designs are for sure not feasible today, but the designs are in that sense realistic that they could be

  5. Jeksternalizacija migracionnogo kontrolja v Evropejskom sojuze: pervye shagi po formirovaniju vneshnepoliticheskogo izmerenija prostranstva svobody, bezopasnosti i pravosudija [The externalisation of migration control in the European Union: first steps towards the external dimension of the space of freedom, security and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabov Yury


    Full Text Available The creation of an area of freedom, security and justice is one of the most rapidly developing aspects of European integration. It this paper, we take a look at the foreign policies involved in this process — aside from the internal development of the European Union, they concern a significant number of third countries, including Russia. In our view, the efforts to manage the flow of migrants and asylum seekers constitute a viable part of the external dimension within the AFSJ policies. Much of this article is based on the theoretical postulates introduced by the scholars of the Paris School, a school within the discipline of security studies that conceptualized the connection between migration, terrorism, asylum, crime and ethnic clashes, and its role as a major threat facing the European Union. Externalization of this complex threat (that is, externalization in relation to the European Union is thus seen as one of the key prerequisites to advancement of migration management activities beyond the EU (i. e. externalization of migration management. In this article, we analyze the role the EU plays at the international scene and categorize the actions it took to manage the influx of migrants and asylum seekers from the 1980s until the time when supranational administrative bodies were granted mandates in the spheres of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA of the EU Member States. We conclude that it was as early as the 1990-s that th

  6. Surviving space flight: case study on MELiSSA's CIII nitrifying compartment (United States)

    Ilgrande, Chiara; Lasseur, Christophe; Mastroleo, Felice; Paille, Christel; Leys, Natalie; Morozova, Julia; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Clauwaert, Peter; Christiaens, Marlies E. R.; Lindeboom, Ralph E. F.; Vlaeminck, Siegfried; Prat, Delphine; Arroyo, Jose M. C.; Conincx, Ilse; Van Hoey, Olivier; Roume, Hugo; Udert, Kai; Sas, Benedikt


    Space synthetic biology offers key opportunities for long-term space missions. Planets mining, terraformation, space medicine and Life Support technologies would all benefit from an integrative biological approach. However, space is a harsh environment for life: microgravity, temperature, UV and cosmic radiation can affect the health and functionality of microorganisms and plants, possibly preventing the optimal performance of the systems. The European Space Agency's Life Support System (MELiSSA) has been developed as a model for future long term Space missions and Space habitation. MELiSSA is a 5 compartment artificial ecosystem with microorganisms and higher, that aims at completely recycling gas, liquid and solid waste. In this study, the survival and functional activity after Lower Earth Orbit conditions of microbial nitrogen conversions, relevant for MELiSSA's CIII compartment, was tested. Synthetic communities containing Nitrosomonas europeae, Nitrosomonas ureae, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, Nitrospira moscoviensis and Cupriavidus pinatubonensis were exposed to the Lower Earth Orbit conditions of the International Space Station (ISS) for 7 days. Nitrosomonas europeae, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, Cupriavidus pinatubonensis, and three mixed communities (a urine nitrification sludge, a sludge containing aerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria (OLAND), and an aquaculture sludge containing ammonia oxidizing archaea) were exposed to Lower Earth Orbit conditions for 44 days. Survival after both space flights was demonstrated because nitritation, nitratation, denitrification and anammox activity could be restored at a rate comparable to ground storage conditions. Our results validate the potential survival feasibility and suggest future space applications for N-related microorganisms.

  7. Chico Pereira, Ganador del Premio Cinematográfico de la Agencia Europea para la Seguridad y la Salud en el Trabajo con el largometraje "El Invierno de Pablo" The Film "Pablo's Winter" of Chico Pereira, Winner of the film award fron the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Limón Tamés


    Full Text Available La Agencia Europea para la Seguridad y la Salud en el Trabajo (EU-OSHA organiza cada año el Festival de Cine Documental de Leipzig (DOK, Leipzig en el que se otorga el Premio Cinematográfico "Lugares de Trabajo Saludables" al documental que destaque como promotor del debate y la reflexión entre los ciudadanos europeos sobre la importancia de la seguridad y la salud en el trabajo. Este año 2012, el Premio ha sido otorgado al largometraje "El invierno de Pablo" del director español Chico Pereira, que narra la cruda historia de Pablo, un minero jubilado que trabajó extrayendo cinabrio durante 30 años y que actualmente presenta unos pulmones y un corazón seriamente dañados como consecuencia de la continua exposición al sulfuro de mercurio. En España, la Red Española de Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, coordinada por el Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, organizará durante 2013 sesiones de cine forum en la que se podrán visionar las películas ganadoras del Certamen Cinematográfico "Lugares de Trabajo Saludables", como actividad divulgativa para el debate y la promoción de la cultura preventiva.The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA is supporting every year the Healthy Workplaces Film Award for the best documentary on work-related topics. The award is presented at the International Leipzig Festival for Documentary and Animated Film (DOK Leipzig. The award honours a documentary film that promotes the importance of workplace health and safety across Europe. The film "Pablo's Winter" won this year the edition, telling the story of a retired miner who had been working during 30 years in an old mercury mine in Spain and currently has his heart and lungs severely damaged as a result of continued exposure to mercury sulfide. In Spain, the Spanish Network of Safety and Health at Work, coordinated by the National Institute of Safety and Health at Work, is organizing during 2013 video screenings of

  8. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator - NB32 - Large Space Structure (United States)


    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) to operate a long-lived space-based observatory; it was the flagship mission of NASA's Great Observatories program. The HST program began as an astronomical dream in the 1940s. During the 1970s and 1980s, HST was finally designed and built; and it finally became operational in the 1990s. HST was deployed into a low-Earth orbit on April 25, 1990 from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31). The design of the HST took into consideration its length of service and the necessity of repairs and equipment replacement by making the body modular. In doing so, subsequent shuttle missions could recover the HST, replace faulty or obsolete parts and be re-released. MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator served as the training facility for shuttle astronauts for Hubble related missions. Shown is astronaut Sharnon Lucid having her life support system being checked prior to entering the NBS to begin training on the space telescope axial scientific instrument changeout.

  9. European responses to the Ebola crisis- Part I: Initiatives at the European Medicines Agency (EMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo


    While it is evident that the current Ebola crisis requires both immediate responses and more sustainable changes in health care policy, research and regulation, medicines regulators are collaborating internationally to find innovative solutions for enhancing the evaluation of and access...... to potential new medicines to counter Ebola outbreaks. In a statement announced by the International Coalition of Medicines Regulatory Authorities (ICMRA) in September 2014, regulators around the world led by the FDA and the EMA have vowed to collaborate in supporting accelerated evaluation of experimental new...

  10. Orion European Service Module (ESM) Development, Integration and Qualification Status (United States)

    Berthe, Philippe; Over, Ann P.; Picardo, Michelle; Byers, Anthony W.


    ESA and the European Industry are supplying the European Service Module for Orion. An overview of the system and subsystem configuration of the Orion European Service Module (ESM) as designed and built for the EM-1 mission is provided as well as an outline of its development, assembly, integration and verification process performed by ESA and NASA in coordination with their respective Industrial prime contractors, Airbus Defence and Space and Lockheed Martin.

  11. Building the James Webb Space Telescope (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.


    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. JWST will make progress In almost every area of astronomy, from the first galaxies to form in the early universe to exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory Is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Innovations that make JWST possible include large-area low-noise infrared detectors, cryogenic ASICs, a MEMS micro-shutter array providing multi-object spectroscopy, a non-redundant mask for interferometric coronagraphy and diffraction-limited segmented beryllium mirrors with active wavefront sensing and control. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  12. The international handbook of space technology

    CERN Document Server

    Badescu, Viorel


    This comprehensive handbook provides an overview of space technology and a holistic understanding of the system-of-systems that is a modern spacecraft. With a foreword by Elon Musk, CEO and CTO of SpaceX, and contributions from globally leading agency experts from NASA, ESA, JAXA, and CNES, as well as European and North American academics and industrialists, this handbook, as well as giving an interdisciplinary overview, offers, through individual self-contained chapters, more detailed understanding of specific fields, ranging through: ·         Launch systems, structures, power, thermal, communications, propulsion, and software, to ·         entry, descent and landing, ground segment, robotics, and data systems, to ·         technology management, legal and regulatory issues, and project management. This handbook is an equally invaluable asset to those on a career path towards the space industry as it is to those already within the industry.

  13. Space-Hotel EARLY BIRD - A Visionary Prospect of a Space Station (United States)

    Amekrane, R.; Holze, C.

    2002-01-01 +49 421 539-24801, The International Space Station was planed for research purposes. In 2001 the first private man, Denis Tito,visited the ISS and the second private man, Mark Shuttleworth is following him. Space pioneers as Wernher von Braun, Sir Arthur C. Clarke had the dream that one day a space station in earth orbit will host tourists. It is evident that the ISS is not designed to host tourists. Therefore this dream is still open. Asking the question "how should a space station should look like to host tourists?" the German Aerospace Society DGLR e.V. initiated in April 2001 a contest under the patronage of Mr. Joerg Feustel-Buechl, the Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity, European Space Agency (ESA). Because the definition and design of living space is the content of architecture the approach was to gather new ideas from young architects in cooperation with space experts. This contest was directed at students of architecture and the task set was to design a hotel for the earth orbit and to accommodate 220 guests. The contest got the name "Early Bird - Visions of a Space Hotel". The results and models of the student's work were shown in an exhibition in Hamburg/Germany, which was open to the public from September 19th till October 20th 2001. During the summer term of 2001 seventeen designs were completed. Having specialists, as volunteers, in the field of space in charge meant that it could be ensured that the designs reflected a certain possibility of being able to be realized. Within this interdisciplinary project both parties learned from each other. The 17 different designs were focused on the expectations and needs of a future space tourist. The design are for sure not feasible today, but the designs are in that sense realistic that they could be built in future. This paper will present the overview of the 17 designs as visions of a future space hotel. The designs used

  14. The Ilisu dam in Turkey and the role of the export credit agencies and NGO networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christine Eberlein; Heike Drillisch; Ercan Ayboga; Thomas Wenidoppler


    .... This article analyses the actions of three European export credit agencies (ECAs) aimed at improving the outcomes of the Ilisu Dam and hydroelectric power project in Kurdish-populated southeast of Turkey...

  15. Building long-term constituencies for space exploration: The challenge of raising public awareness and engagement in the United States and in Europe (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Peter, N.; Billings, L.


    Space exploration is a multifaceted endeavor and will be a "grand challenge" of the 21st century. It has already become an element of the political agenda of a growing number of countries worldwide. However, the public is largely unaware of space exploration activities and in particular does not perceive any personal benefit. In order to achieve highly ambitious space exploration goals to explore robotically and with humans the inner solar system, space agencies must improve and expand their efforts to inform and raise the awareness of the public about what they are doing, and why. Therefore adopting new techniques aiming at informing and engaging the public using participatory ways, new communication techniques to reach, in particular, the younger generation will be a prerequisite for a sustainable long-term exploration program: as they will enable it and carry most of the associated financial burden. This paper presents an environmental analysis of space exploration in the United States and Europe and investigates the current branding stature of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). We discuss how improved market research and new branding methods can increase public space awareness and improve the image of NASA and ESA. We propose a new participatory approach to engage the public as major stakeholder (along governments, the industrial space sector and the science community) that may provide sufficient resources for and sustainability of a long-term space exploration program.

  16. Detecting Social Innovation agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pel, Bonno; Dorland, Jens; Wittmayer, Julia


    Considering that it is important for the social innovation research field to confront its methodological challenges, this contribution addresses the challenge of choosing appropriate units of analysis. In processes of transformative social innovation, the agency is distributed and therefore...

  17. State Agency Administrative Boundaries (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database comprises 28 State agency boundaries and point of contact. The Kansas Geological Survey collected legal descriptions of the boundaries for various...

  18. Supernatural agency and forgiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwboer, W.; Schie, H.T. van; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.


    The present research examined the hypothesis that supernatural agency attributions underlie the relation between religion and forgiveness. In two experiments a priming procedure was used to make religious concepts temporarily more salient. In Experiment 1, a religion prime marginally enhanced

  19. A Business Analysis of a SKYLON-based European Launch Service Operator (United States)

    Hempsell, Mark; Aprea, Julio; Gallagher, Ben; Sadlier, Greg


    Between 2012 and 2014 an industrial consortium led by Reaction Engines conducted a feasibility study for the European Space Agency with the objective to explore the feasibility of SKYLON as the basis for a launcher that meets the requirements established for the Next Generation European Launcher. SKYLON is a fully reusable single stage to orbit launch system that is enabled by the unique performance characteristic of the Synergetic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine and is under active development. The purpose of the study which was called ;SKYLON-based European Launch Service Operator (S-ELSO); was to support ESA decision making on launch service strategy by exploring the potential implications of this new launch system on future European launch capability and the European industry that supports it. The study explored both a SKYLON operator (S-ELSO) and SKYLON manufacturer as separate business ventures. In keeping with previous studies, the only strategy that was found that kept the purchase price of the SKYLON low enough for a viable operator business was to follow an ;airline; business model where the manufacturer sells SKYLONs to other operators in addition to S-ELSO. With the assumptions made in the study it was found that the SKYLON manufacturer with a total production run of between 30 and 100 SKYLONs could expect an Internal Rate of Return of around 10%. This was judged too low for all the funding to come from commercial funding sources, but is sufficiently high for a Public Private Partnership. The S-ELSO business model showed that the Internal Rate of Return would be high enough to consider operating without public support (i.e. commercial in operation, irrespective of any public funding of development), even when the average launch price is lowered to match the lowest currently quoted price for expendable systems.

  20. Challenges with Electrical, Electronics, and Electromechanical Parts for James Webb Space Telescope (United States)

    Jah, Muzar A.; Jeffers, Basil S.


    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the space-based observatory that will extend the knowledge gained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Hubble focuses on optical and ultraviolet wavelengths while JWST focuses on the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, to see the earliest stars and galaxies that formed in the Universe and to look deep into nearby dust clouds to study the formation of stars and planets. JWST, which commenced creation in 1996, is scheduled to launch in 2018. It includes a suite of four instruments, the spacecraft bus, optical telescope element, Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM, the platform to hold the instruments), and a sunshield. The mass of JWST is approximately 6200 kg, including observatory, on-orbit consumables and launch vehicle adaptor. Many challenges were overcome while providing the electrical and electronic components for the Goddard Space Flight Center hardware builds. Other difficulties encountered included developing components to work at cryogenic temperatures, failures of electronic components during development and flight builds, Integration and Test electronic parts problems, and managing technical issues with international partners. This paper will present the context of JWST from a EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) perspective with examples of challenges and lessons learned throughout the design, development, and fabrication of JWST in cooperation with our associated partners including the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the European Space Agency (ESA), Lockheed Martin and their respective associated partners. Technical challenges and lessons learned will be discussed.

  1. The Columbus-CC—Operating the European laboratory at ISS (United States)

    Kuch, T.; Sabath, D.


    The European ISS Columbus Control Center (Col-CC) joined the club of ISS mission control centers in Moscow, Houston and Huntsville. It took some time to reach that goal. In 1998 the European Space Agency (ESA) awarded the German Aerospace Center DLR to design, develop and implement the Col-CC at its premises in Oberpfaffenhofen, near Munich, Germany. In 2002 a core mission operations team was built up. An integrated team of ESA, industry and control center started to define processes and implemented first operations products and tools. This was accompanied by regular meetings with the international partners in the US and Russia. With intensive training and numerous simulations the team was able to gain experience and is now eagerly waiting for the launch of Columbus. However, thanks to the involvement in some operational activities the Col-CC staff has already been able to gain operational ISS experience. After the inauguration in October 2004 Col-CC supported the Eneide mission in April 2005 when the Italian ESA-Astronaut Roberto Vittori flew onboard a Soyuz to the ISS where he spent 10 days. Another very important milestone was the operations support for ESA's Astrolab mission. The Astrolab mission was of major importance for Europe and particularly for Germany because it implied the first long duration flight of ESA astronaut Thomas Reiter, an astronaut of German nationality. The tasks of Col-CC are described and also the experiences made with the first operational long-term mission which took place from July to December 2006. Meanwhile the Col-CC was able to reach the operational readiness status for the Columbus mission which is set for a launch date later in 2007. Despite the concentration on the challenging Columbus Assembly and Checkout phase emphasis is already laid on the following increments for the European ISS operations. Early 2006 ESA transferred the operational tasks and responsibilities to the hands of the industrial operator. This approach creates

  2. Americium Oxide Surrogates for European Radioisotope Power Systems. (United States)

    Watkinson, E. J.; Ambrosi, R. M.; Williams, H. R.; Sarsfield, M. J.; Tinsley, T. P.; Stephenson, K.


    The European space nuclear power programme comprises two main research areas: fuel source development and the development of conversion technologies, which are thermoelectric or dynamic, for electricity production. This abstract addresses the former.

  3. Is Temporary Agency Employment a Stepping Stone for Immigrants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Rosholm, Michael


    We investigate whether agency employment is a bridge into regular employment for immigrants using the timing-of-events approach. We provide evidence of large positive in-treatment effects for all immigrants. Post-treatment effects are fairly high for male non-western and Eastern European immigrants....

  4. Female Agency in the Urban Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh

    the dynamics of culture – both as definition and as practice. The urban dimension reveals much about how socio-political shifts took place. This book proposes to examine the first of these themes. Situated in eighteenth-century urban culture, it explores the activities and agency of women in these commercial...... identities and the transmission of ideas across local, national and transnational boundaries. This book is the first publication from a pan-European network of established and postgraduate historians from twelve countries whose interests lie in examining the ways that the European urban experience...... was gendered over time and across borders. Their research and subsequent publications will revolve around the operation of gender in three distinct, but interrelated, areas of urban study: the economic, the political and the spatial. The three central themes speak directly to newer ideas of exploring...

  5. Space Culture: Innovative Cultural Approaches To Public Engagement With Astronomy, Space Science And Astronautics (United States)

    Malina, Roger F.


    In recent years a number of cultural organizations have established ongoing programs of public engagement with astronomy, space science and astronautics. Many involve elements of citizen science initiatives, artists’ residencies in scientific laboratories and agencies, art and science festivals, and social network projects as well as more traditional exhibition venues. Recognizing these programs several agencies and organizations have established mechanisms for facilitating public engagement with astronomy and space science through cultural activities. The International Astronautics Federation has established an Technical Activities Committee for the Cultural Utilization of Space. Over the past year the NSF and NEA have organized disciplinary workshops to develop recommendations relating to art-science interaction and community building efforts. Rationales for encouraging public engagement via cultural projects range from theory of creativity, innovation and invention to cultural appropriation in the context of `socially robust science’ as advocated by Helga Nowotny of the European Research Council. Public engagement with science, as opposed to science education and outreach initiatives, require different approaches. Just as organizations have employed education professionals to lead education activities, so they must employ cultural professionals if they wish to develop public engagement projects via arts and culture. One outcome of the NSF and NEA workshops has been development of a rationale for converting STEM to STEAM by including the arts in STEM methodologies, particularly for K-12 where students can access science via arts and cultural contexts. Often these require new kinds of informal education approaches that exploit locative media, gaming platforms, artists projects and citizen science. Incorporating astronomy and space science content in art and cultural projects requires new skills in `cultural translation’ and `trans-mediation’ and new kinds

  6. Three typical examples of activation of the international charter space and major disasters (United States)

    Bessis, J.; Bequignon, J.; Mahmood, A.

    The purpose of the International Charter is to provide a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery for users affected by disasters, to promote co - operation between space agencies and space system operators and to allow participation in the organisation of emergency assistance or subsequent operations. The Charter which is officially in operation since November 1, 2000 was signed on June 20, 2000 by CNES (1) and ESA (2) and enlarged later on with the membership of the CSA (3) in October 2000 and of the NOAA (4) and the ISRO (5), both in September 2001. All Partner agencies undertake to co-operate on a voluntary basis with no exchange of funds between them in the event of a major natural or man-induced disaster. This paper, after a brief description of the Charter organisation and of its implementation procedures, addresses three typical cases of Charter activation and the lessons learned to date. The first example will deal with the major earthquakes in January and February 2001 in El Salvador for the benefit of the Salvadorian National Register Centre, the second concerning flooding in the North East of France early 2002 with quick delivery of flood maps to the French Civil Protection Authority and the last one will focus on the Nyiragongo volcanic eruption near the town of Goma in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It will include feedback from the Authorised Users concerning the usefulness of the Charter and the suggested improvements in terms of response time, sensors capability and resolution, delivered products (scale and ease of operational utilisation) and adapted scenarios.(1) Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, (2) European Space Agency, (3) Canadian Space Agency, (4) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , (5) Indian Space Research Organisation

  7. Space Detectives (United States)

    Tyszka, Steph; Saraiva, Jose; Doran, Rosa


    NUCLIO is a Portuguese non-profit organization with a strong record of investing in science education and outreach. We have developed and implemented many activities mostly directed to a young audience, in a bid to awaken and reinforce the interest that young people devote to Astronomy and all things spatial. In this framework, we have created a week-long program called Space Detectives, supported by the Municipality of Cascais, based on a story-line that provided a number of challenges and opportunities for learning matters as diverse as the electro-magnetic spectrum, means of communication, space travel, the martian environment, coding and robotics. We report on the first session that took place in December 2016. We had as participants several kids aged 9 to 12, with a mixed background in terms of interest in the sciences. Their response varied from enthusiastic to somewhat less interested, depending on the nature of the subject and the way it was presented - a reaction not necessarily related to its complexity. This week was taken as something of a trial run, in preparation for the European Commission- funded project "Stories of Tomorrow", to be implemented in schools. The individual activities and the way they were related to the story-line, as well as the smooth transition from one to the next, were subject to an analysis that will allow for improvements in the next installments of this program. We believe this is an excellent approach to the goals of using Space and Astronomy as an anchor for generating and keeping interest in the scientific areas, and of finding new and richer ways of learning.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kislov, Yevgenia Horobei


    Full Text Available Goal of the paper. The goal of this article is to define the nature, specific features and factors pertaining to the advertising agency marketing management. One of the tools is the use of non-standard approaches to management of advertising agencies, which under certain conditions makes it possible to improve the situation and to bring the agency to a new higher level as well as to improve the efficiency of its functioning in the conditions of transformational economy of Ukraine. Methodology. Monitoring of the marketing behavior of agencies that promote advertising services. The results of monitoring and analysis demonstrated that the majority of agencies have a disorganized approach to the agency marketing, which results in sporadic activities related to the use and organization of agency marketing. Only individual agencies begin to form their own marketing strategy for the implementation of which marketing budgets are allocated. The main marketing functions of a Ukrainian advertising agency have been identified. Practical value. Rapid development of technologies, sophistication and increased variety of goods and services, reduction of their life cycle, higher customer demands, the growth of volume and speed of obtaining information, increased competition – all these changes that are taking place in the external environment make the Ukrainian companies that provide advertising services search for new approaches to ensure better adaptation to these conditions. Uncertainty, unpredictability and instability of the external environment will continue to grow. Therefore, the companies that provide advertising services need to constantly adapt not only to the existing conditions but also ensure that they are able to quickly react in the future. The basic precondition for success is stability of the quality that is achieved through strategic planning, fine-tuned search system, efficient management, which encourages creation of a position of quality

  9. The ESA's Space Trajectory Analysis software suite (United States)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    The European Space Agency (ESA) initiated in 2005 an internal activity to develop an open source software suite involving university science departments and research institutions all over the world. This project is called the "Space Trajectory Analysis" or STA. This article describes the birth of STA and its present configuration. One of the STA aims is to promote the exchange of technical ideas, and raise knowledge and competence in the areas of applied mathematics, space engineering, and informatics at University level. Conceived as a research and education tool to support the analysis phase of a space mission, STA is able to visualize a wide range of space trajectories. These include among others ascent, re-entry, descent and landing trajectories, orbits around planets and moons, interplanetary trajectories, rendezvous trajectories, etc. The article explains that STA project is an original idea of the Technical Directorate of ESA. It was born in August 2005 to provide a framework in astrodynamics research at University level. As research and education software applicable to Academia, a number of Universities support this development by joining ESA in leading the development. ESA and Universities partnership are expressed in the STA Steering Board. Together with ESA, each University has a chair in the board whose tasks are develop, control, promote, maintain, and expand the software suite. The article describes that STA provides calculations in the fields of spacecraft tracking, attitude analysis, coverage and visibility analysis, orbit determination, position and velocity of solar system bodies, etc. STA implements the concept of "space scenario" composed of Solar system bodies, spacecraft, ground stations, pads, etc. It is able to propagate the orbit of a spacecraft where orbital propagators are included. STA is able to compute communication links between objects of a scenario (coverage, line of sight), and to represent the trajectory computations and

  10. 76 FR 51988 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review... (United States)


    ..., European Medicines Agency (EMA) European Community Herbal Monographs, and World Health Organization (WHO... comment stated that several authoritative labeling standards monographs for herbal products specify... that the claim is not scientifically established or are deemed appropriate merely by their history of...

  11. The Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency: Helping You Grow Your Project (United States)

    Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, European Commission, 2011


    The Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) is a public body created by a Decision of the European Commission and operates under its supervision. It is located in Brussels and has been operational since January 2006. Its role is to manage European funding opportunities and networks in the fields of education and training,…

  12. 78 FR 10213 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National... (NASA) announces a meeting of the Commercial Space Committee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This.... Rathjen, Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546...

  13. Agency Correspondence Tracking System (ACTS) (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Agency Correspondence Tracking System: is an executive correspondence tracking system for the Administrator. It collects and organizes information on reports...

  14. Agency in Organisational Change. (United States)

    Thaler, Michaela; And Others

    This paper reports on research conducted in Scotland as part of a 2-year European Union project, Management for Organisational and Human Development (MOHD), through which seven research centers in five countries examined strategies for whole organizational development. Work within the Scottish network of MOHD focused on the understanding of…

  15. Primary Dendrite Array Morphology: Observations from Ground-based and Space Station Processed Samples (United States)

    Tewari, Surendra; Rajamure, Ravi; Grugel, Richard; Erdmann, Robert; Poirier, David


    Influence of natural convection on primary dendrite array morphology during directional solidification is being investigated under a collaborative European Space Agency-NASA joint research program, "Microstructure Formation in Castings of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MICAST)". Two Aluminum-7 wt pct Silicon alloy samples, MICAST6 and MICAST7, were directionally solidified in microgravity on the International Space Station. Terrestrially grown dendritic monocrystal cylindrical samples were remelted and directionally solidified at 18 K/cm (MICAST6) and 28 K/cm (MICAST7). Directional solidification involved a growth speed step increase (MICAST6-from 5 to 50 micron/s) and a speed decrease (MICAST7-from 20 to 10 micron/s). Distribution and morphology of primary dendrites is currently being characterized in these samples, and also in samples solidified on earth under nominally similar thermal gradients and growth speeds. Primary dendrite spacing and trunk diameter measurements from this investigation will be presented.

  16. The CEOS Atmospheric Composition Constellation: Enhancing the Value of Space-Based Observations (United States)

    Eckman, Richard; Zehner, Claus; Al-Saadi, Jay


    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) coordinates civil space-borne observations of the Earth. Participating agencies strive to enhance international coordination and data exchange and to optimize societal benefit. In recent years, CEOS has collaborated closely with the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) in implementing the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) space-based objectives. The goal of the CEOS Atmospheric Composition Constellation (ACC) is to collect and deliver data to improve monitoring, assessment and predictive capabilities for changes in the ozone layer, air quality and climate forcing associated with changes in the environment through coordination of existing and future international space assets. A project to coordinate and enhance the science value of a future constellation of geostationary sensors measuring parameters relevant to air quality supports the forthcoming European Sentinel-4, Korean GEMS, and US TEMPO missions. Recommendations have been developed for harmonization to mutually improve data quality and facilitate widespread use of the data products.

  17. The Application of the DMC Strategy and Experience to Provide Additional Support to a European Global Monitoring System Programme (United States)

    Cutter, M. A.; Giwa, S. C.; Graham, K. L.; Hodgson, D. J.; Mackin, S.; Sweeting, M. N.; Vanotti, M.; Regan, A.


    Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd has reviewed the ability of small satellites to provide additional capability to the presently defined Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) space segment, allowing the broadest set of user requirements to be met. User- focused services have been compared with the instruments defined for the currently proposed Sentinels. SSTL has developed the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) of small satellites at a very low cost, which provide land-focused data products in the visible wavebands with daily access capability. The study undertaken by SSTL for the European Space Agency analysed the DMC operational concept in a GMES context, reviewing a range of possible services with different payload configurations on small satellite platforms. One concept was selected and an appropriate payload definition derived. The chosen mission concept was based on the provision of near time operational oceanography information using a constellation of small satellites. The aim is to provide sea surface height, significant wave height and wind speed.

  18. Operational space weather service for GNSS precise positioning (United States)

    Jakowski, N.; Stankov, S. M.; Klaehn, D.


    The ionospheric plasma can significantly influence the propagation of radio waves and the ionospheric disturbances are capable of causing range errors, rapid phase and amplitude fluctuations (radio scintillations) of satellite signals that may lead to degradation of the system performance, its accuracy and reliability. The cause of such disturbances should be sought in the processes originating in the Sun. Numerous studies on these phenomena have been already carried out at a broad international level, in order to measure/estimate these space weather induced effects, to forecast them, and to understand and mitigate their impact on present-day technological systems. line-height: 20px;"> SWIPPA (Space Weather Impact on Precise Positioning Applications) is a pilot project jointly supported by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) and the European Space Agency (ESA). The project aims at establishing, operating, and evaluating a specific space-weather monitoring service that can possibly lead to improving current positioning applications based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). This space weather service provides GNSS users with essential expert information delivered in the form of several products - maps of TEC values, TEC spatial and temporal gradients, alerts for ongoing/oncoming ionosphere disturbances, etc.

  19. Mapping the space radiation environment in LEO orbit by the SATRAM Timepix payload on board the Proba-V satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granja, Carlos, E-mail:; Polansky, Stepan


    Detailed spatial- and time-correlated maps of the space radiation environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are produced by the spacecraft payload SATRAM operating in open space on board the Proba-V satellite from the European Space Agency (ESA). Equipped with the hybrid semiconductor pixel detector Timepix, the compact radiation monitor payload provides the composition and spectral characterization of the mixed radiation field with quantum-counting and imaging dosimetry sensitivity, energetic charged particle tracking, directionality and energy loss response in wide dynamic range in terms of particle types, dose rates and particle fluxes. With a polar orbit (sun synchronous, 98° inclination) at the altitude of 820 km the payload samples the space radiation field at LEO covering basically the whole planet. First results of long-period data evaluation in the form of time-and spatially-correlated maps of total dose rate (all particles) are given.

  20. Commonality of flight control systems for support of European telecommunications missions (United States)

    Debatin, Kurt


    This paper is concerned with the presentation of mission-independent software systems that provide a common software platform to ground data systems for mission operations. The objectives of such common software platforms are to reduce the cost of the development of mission-dedicated software systems and to increase the level of reliability of the ground data systems for mission operations. In accordance with this objective, the Multi-Satellite Support System (MSSS) was developed at the European Space Operations Center (ESOC). Between 1975 and 1992, the MSSS provided support to 16 European Space Agency (ESA) missions, among them very demanding science missions such as GEOS, EXOSAT, and Giotto. The successful support of these missions proved the validity of the MSSS concept with its extended mission-independent platform. This paper describes the MSSS concept and focuses on the wide use of MSSS as a flight control system for geosynchronous telecommunications satellites. Reference is made to more than 15 telecommunications missions that are operated from Western Europe using flight control systems with an underlying MSSS concept, demonstrating the benefits of a commonly used software platform. Finally, the paper outlines the design of the new generation of flight control systems, which is being developed at ESOC for this decade, following a period of more than 15 years of MSSS support.

  1. Molecular and Cellular Characterization of Space Flight Effects on Microvascular Endothelial Cell Function - PreparatoryWork for the SFEF Project (United States)

    Balsamo, Michele; Barravecchia, Ivana; Mariotti, Sara; Merenda, Alessandra; De Cesari, Chiara; Vukich, Marco; Angeloni, Debora


    Exposure to microgravity during space flight (SF) of variable length induces suffering of the endothelium (the cells lining all blood vessels), mostly responsible for health problems found in astronauts and animals returning from space. Of interest to pre-nosological medicine, the effects of microgravity on astronauts are strikingly similar to the consequences of sedentary life, senescence and degenerative diseases on Earth, although SF effects are accelerated and reversible. Thus, microgravity is a significant novel model for better understanding of common pathologies. A comprehensive cell and molecular biology study is needed in order to explain pathophysiological findings after SFs. This project will study the effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation on endothelial cells (ECs) cultured on the International Space Station through analysis of 1) cell transcriptome, 2) DNA methylome, 3) DNA damage and cell senescence, 4) variations in cell cycle and cell morphology. This project has been selected by the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency and is presently in preparation. The ground study presented here was performed to determine the biological and engineering requirements that will allow us to retrieve suitable samples after culturing, fixing and storing ECs in space. We expect to identify molecular pathways activated by space microgravity in microvascular ECs, which may shed light on pathogenic molecular mechanisms responsible for endothelial suffering shared by astronauts and individuals affected with aging, degenerative and sedentary life-associated pathologies on Earth.

  2. A sense of agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laerkner, Eva; Egerod, Ingrid; Olesen, Finn


    patients, who had been awake for most of the time on mechanical ventilation, were interviewed during the first week after discharge from intensive care. Thirteen of these patients were interviewed again two to four months after discharge. FINDINGS: Three themes were identified: "A sense of agency", "The...... familiar in the unfamiliar situation" and "Awareness of surrounding activities". Patients had the ability to interact from the first days of critical illness and a sense of agency was expressed through initiating, directing and participating in communication and other activities. Patients appreciated...... at the interface between agency and powerlessness as they were able to interact, yet were bound by contextual factors such as bodily weakness, technology, spatial position and relational aspects. This knowledge is important to develop patient-centered nursing practice in the context of lighter sedation....

  3. Experience from the Student Programme REXUS/BEXUS: A Stepping Stone to a Space Career (United States)

    Berquand, A.


    The aim of this paper is to give an inside view to the REXUS/BEXUS programme from the perspective of a student who has been involved in the project. Each year, the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), in cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA), offer the opportunity to European University Students to fly an experiment on board sounding rockets or stratospheric balloons in the frame of the REXUS/BEXUS programme. From December 2012 to May 2014 a team of master students from KTH, the Royal Institute of Technology, worked on ISAAC project, an atmospheric experiment launched on board REXUS 15. The author was part of this student team and was involved in the whole process of the ISAAC project from design building and testing phases to the launch campaign and results analysis. The points raised in this article were presented on the occasion of a keynote speech during the 22nd ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, in Tromsø (Norway) from the 7th to the 12th ofJune 2015. The aim of this presentation was to demonstrate the benefits of hands-on Education programme at University level. In addition to the research opportunities, future space engineers and scientists can profit from a first practical experience under the supervision of experimented experts. The results of the ISAAC project were also presented in the frame of this conference [1].

  4. A hard lesson for Europeans: the ASEAN CDC. (United States)

    Tibayrenc, Michel


    Despite the growing threat of major pandemics, the European Union is planning no more than a meager surveillance agency staffed with 70 people on the 2007 horizon: the new European Centre for Disease Control. I argue that an effective structure should be much larger and include a strong research activity. Asian countries, inspired by the US CDC, are now taking this concept in hand and creating an ASEAN Center For Disease Control, with sophisticated laboratory facilities to be included. This is a tough lesson for us Europeans, and our avarice in this domain could have tragic consequences in the future.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ion


    Full Text Available The construction of European Monetary Union has raised several questions about the existence of a common business cycle, a European one. The lack of cyclical synchronization would complicate the monetary and fiscal policies in the Union, being a negative

  6. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.


    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  7. European Industry, 1700 - 1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.


    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  8. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  9. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne


    The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  10. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne


    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  11. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.


    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  12. Europeanization : A Poststructuralist Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuman-Stanivukovic, Senka


    This dissertation begins from the hypothesis that the direction and extent of Europeanization depends on domestic perception of the European Union and its norms. Accordingly, it was my empirical ambition to study how competing articulations of the EU and its norms constructed debates in EU member

  13. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.


    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  14. 75 FR 51077 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Information From... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA... casings, gelatin, and collagen to the European Community (the EC). DATES: Submit either electronic or...

  15. ARISTOTELES: A European approach for an Earth gravity field recovery mission (United States)

    Benz, R.; Faulks, H.; Langemann, M.


    Under contract of the European Space Agency a system study for a spaceborne gravity field recovery mission was performed, covering as a secondary mission objective geodetic point positioning in the cm range as well. It was demonstrated that under the given programmatic constraints including dual launch and a very tight development schedule, a six months gravity field mission in a 200 km near polar, dawn-dusk orbit is adequate to determine gravity anomalies to better than 5 mgal with a spatial resolution of 100 x 100 km half wavelength. This will enable scientists to determine improved spherical harmonic coefficients of the Earth gravity field equation to the order and degree of 180 or better.

  16. A history of health technology assessment at the European level. (United States)

    Banta, David; Kristensen, Finn Børlum; Jonsson, Egon


    This study summarizes the experience with health technology assessment (HTA) at the European level. Geographically, Europe includes approximately fifty countries with a total of approximately 730 million people. Politically, twenty-seven of these countries (500 million people) have come together in the European Union. The executive branch of the European Union is named the European Commission, which supports several activities, including research, all over Europe and in many other parts of the world. The European Commission has promoted HTA by several policy positions and has funded a series of projects aimed at strengthening HTA in Europe. Around fifteen of the European countries now have formal national programs on HTA and some also have regional public programs. All countries that are members of the European Union and do not have a national approach to HTA have an interest in becoming more involved. The HTA projects sponsored by the European Commission have focused on networking and collaboration among established agencies and institutions for HTA, however, also on capacity building, support, and facilitation in creating mechanisms for HTA in European countries that still do not have any program in the field.

  17. Laser guide stars for optical free-space communications (United States)

    Mata-Calvo, Ramon; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Barrios, Ricardo; Centrone, Mauro; Giggenbach, Dirk; Lombardi, Gianluca; Becker, Peter; Zayer, Igor


    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) performed a measurement campaign together in April and July 2016 at Teide-Observatory (Tenerife), with the support of the European Space Agency (ESA), to investigate the use of laser guide stars (LGS) in ground to space optical communications. Atmospheric turbulence causes strong signal fluctuations in the uplink, due to scintillation and beam wander. In space communications, the use of the downlink channel as reference for pointing and for pre-distortion adaptive optics is limited by the size of the isokinetic and isoplanatic angle in relation to the required point-ahead angle. Pointing and phase errors due to the decorrelation between downward and upward beam due to the point-ahead angle may have a severe impact on the required transmit power and the stability of the communications link. LGSs provide a self-tailored reference to any optical ground-to-space link, independently of turbulence conditions and required point-ahead angle. In photon-starved links, typically in deep-space scenarios, LGSs allow dedicating all downlink received signal to communications purposes, increasing the available link margin. The scope of the joint DLR-ESO measurement campaign was, first, to measure the absolute value of the beam wander (uplink-tilt) using a LGS, taking a natural star as a reference, and, second, to characterize the decrease of correlation between uplink-tilt and downlink-tilt with respect to the angular separation between both sources. This paper describes the experiments performed during the measurement campaigns, providing an overview of the measured data and the first outcomes of the data post-processing.

  18. Analyzing green/open space accessibility by using GIS: case study of northern Cyprus cities (United States)

    Kara, Can; Akçit, Nuhcan


    It is well known that green spaces are vital for increasing the quality of life within the urban environment. World Health Organization states that it should be 9 square meters per person at least. European Environment Agency defines that 5000 square meters of green space should be accessible within 300 meters distance from households. Green structure in Northern Cyprus is not sufficient and effective in this manner. In Northern Cyprus, they have neglected the urban planning process and they have started to lose significance and importance. The present work analyzes the accessibility of green spaces in Northern Cyprus cities. Kioneli, Famagusta, Kyrenia and the northern part of Nicosia are analyzed in this manner. To do that, green space structure is analyzed by using digital data. Additionally, accessibility of the green space is measured by using 300-meter buffers for each city. Euclidean distance is used from each building and accessibility maps are generated. Kyrenia and Famagusta have shortage in green space per capita. The amount of green space in these cities is less than 4 square meters. The factors affecting the accessibility and utilization of public spaces are discussed to present better solutions to urban planning.

  19. A Concept for In-space, System-level Validation of Spacecraft Precision Formation Flying (United States)

    Leitner, Jesse; Carpenter, J. Russell; Naasz, Bo J.; Scharf, Daniel P.; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Ahmed, Asif


    A number of international space agencies and organizations, to include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), to name a few, have embraced the concept of spacecraft formation flying to revolutionize the capabilities of astronomy and Earth remote sensing from space. The concept has been around well over a decade and a wide array of technologies and capabilities have been developed to enable multiple spacecraft to collaborate in a highly-coupled manner as would be required for a formation flying mission. Furthermore, many relevant capabilities for formation flying have been demonstrated in the area of rendezvous and docking, loosely-controlled formations, and in missions with collaborating spacecraft with very precise metrology. .However, in considering the case of precision formation flying (PFF), i.e, when the relative geometry of multiple vehicles must be controlled on-board in a continuous and precise manner, there have been several missions proposed, but the realization in space has not yet occurred due to a range of issues. This paper will briefly examine those issues and present a concept for demonstrating a core capability for performing PFF, necessary for virtually any PFF mission concept, that will help to overcome the problems encountered in prior attempts and help to allay the risks to enable future PFF science missions.

  20. Sequential Common Agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prat, A.; Rustichini, A.


    In a common agency game a set of principals promises monetary transfers to an agent which depend on the action he will take. The agent then chooses the action, and is paid the corresponding transfers. Principals announce their transfers simultaneously. This game has many equilibria; Bernheim and

  1. Data and agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, H.; Poell, T.; van Dijck, J.


    This introduction to the special issue on data and agency argues that datafication should not only be understood as the process of collecting and analysing data about Internet users, but also as feeding such data back to users, enabling them to orient themselves in the world. It is important that

  2. Youth Media and Agency (United States)

    Hauge, Chelsey


    This article addresses how capacity is conceived of and understood in youth media/civic education programming, and how beliefs about agency, development, relationality and youth manifests in the discourses, programmes, and practices of organizations operating youth media programmes. Through attention to a youth media and development programme in…

  3. The Agency of Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Riiber, Jacob


    This paper explores the notion of agency within event-based models. We present an event-based modeling approach that links interdependent generative, analytic and decision making sub-models within a system of exchange. Two case study projects demonstrate the underlying modeling concepts and metho...

  4. On Epistemic Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    about epistemic value, the only goal relevant to inquiry is that of forming true belief; and that our dual tendency for bias and overconfidence gives us reason to implement epistemically paternalistic practices that constrain our freedom to exercise agency in substantial ways. In other words, when...

  5. Agency in Tarot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia


    This essay looks at the cross between archetypal images and symbolic language as expressed in the iconography of tarot cards ranging from the Renaissance period to the turn of the 20th century. It is also an example of how the idea of agency can be both analyzed and applied simultaneously in text...... in textual readings that rely entirely on visual tools....

  6. Normativity, agency, and life. (United States)

    Barham, James


    There is an immense philosophical literature dealing with the notions of normativity and agency, as well as a sizeable and rapidly growing scientific literature on the topic of autonomous agents. However, there has been very little cross-fertilization between these two literatures. As a result, the philosophical literature tends to assume a somewhat outdated mechanistic image of living things, resulting in a quasi-dualistic picture in which only human beings, or the higher animals, can be normative agents properly speaking. From this perspective, the project of 'naturalizing normativity' becomes almost a contradiction in terms. At the same time, the scientific literature tends to misuse 'normativity,' 'agency,' and related terms, assuming that it is meaningful to ascribe these concepts to 'autonomous agents' conceived of as physical systems whose behavior is to be explained in terms of ordinary physical law. From this perspective, the true depth of the difficulty involved in understanding what makes living systems distinctive qua physical systems becomes occluded. In this essay, I begin the attempt to remedy this situation. After some preliminary discussion of terminology and situating of my project within the contemporary philosophical landscape, I make a distinction between two different aspects of the project of naturalizing normativity: (1) the 'Scope Problem,' which consists in saying how widely in nature our concept of normative agency may properly be applied; and (2) the 'Ground Problem,' which consists in rationalizing the phenomenon of normative agency in terms of the rest of our knowledge of nature. Then, in the remainder of this paper, I argue that the Scope Problem ought to be resolved in favor of attributing normative agency, in the proper sense of those words, to living things as such. The Ground Problem will be discussed in a companion paper at a later time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Examination of the Structural Response of the Orion European Service Module to Reverberant and Direct Field Acoustic Testing (United States)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Hughes, William O.; Larko, Jeffrey M.; Bittinger, Samantha A.; Le-Plenier, Cyprien; Fogt, Vincent A.; Ngan, Ivan; Thirkettle, Anthony C.; Skinner, Mitch; Larkin, Paul


    The NASA Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), comprised of the Service Module, the Crew Module, and the Launch Abort System, is the next generation human spacecraft designed and built for deep space exploration. Orion will launch on NASAs new heavy-lift rocket, the Space Launch System. The European Space Agency (ESA) is responsible for providing the propulsion sub-assembly of the Service Module to NASA, called the European Service Module (ESM). The ESM is being designed and built by Airbus Safran Launchers for ESA. Traditionally, NASA has utilized reverberant acoustic testing for qualification of spaceflight hardware. The ESM Structural Test Article (E-STA) was tested at the NASA Plum Brook Stations (PBS) Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility in April-May 2016. However, Orion is evaluating an alternative acoustic test method, using direct field acoustic excitation, for the MPCVs Service Module and Crew Module. Lockheed Martin is responsible for the Orion proof-of-concept direct field acoustic test program. The E-STA was exposed to direct field acoustic testing at NASA PBS in February 2017. This paper compares the dynamic response of the E-STA structure and its components to both the reverberant and direct field acoustic test excitations. Advantages and disadvantages of direct field acoustic test excitation method are discussed.

  8. Survey of European and Major ISC Facilities for Supporting Mars and Sample Return Mission Aerothermodynamics and Tests Required for Thermal Protection System and Dynamic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Bugel


    Full Text Available In the frame of future sample return missions to Mars, asteroids, and comets, investigated by the European Space Agency, a review of the actual aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics capabilities in Europe for Mars entry of large vehicles and high-speed Earth reentry of sample return capsule has been undertaken. Additionally, capabilities in Canada and Australia for the assessment of dynamic stability, as well as major facilities for hypersonic flows available in ISC, have been included. This paper provides an overview of European current capabilities for aerothermodynamics and testing of thermal protection systems. This assessment has allowed the identification of the needs in new facilities or upgrade of existing ground tests for covering experimentally Mars entries and Earth high-speed reentries as far as aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and thermal protection system testing are concerned.

  9. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl


    , the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  10. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy KANDYUK


    Full Text Available EU’s influence at so-called post-Soviet space gradually increases and becomes a significant factor of regional policy. Today we can already speak of the European Union as a full participant in the political processes occurring in the post-Soviet and broader – Eurasian area. Foreign policy of EU is evolving under impact of reasons stemming from both structural and political context and from external geopolitical trends. At the same time, challenges in the geopolitical environment in Europe today require the EU to develop new conceptual approaches helping to deal with the problems of relations with its eastern neighbours and the Russian impact. Only the development of a new Eurasian agenda could help to improve European eastern policy, consolidate the position of EU as a geopolitical actor in this region and foster Europeanization and integration of neighbour countries.

  12. 76 FR 52543 - European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated Areas (United States)


    ... Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the domestic quarantine regulations to expand the regulated area for European larch canker to include additional areas in Maine. We are also correcting some misidentifications...

  13. Space Science is Alive with Art (United States)

    Pell, Sarah Jane; Vermeulen, Angelo


    The history of human space flight and analogue and ground-based space science is alive with art. Artists, scientists and engineers working together build upon diverse frameworks of understanding, but also share tools and processes of investigation. By jointly stepping into new worlds and territories - with common purpose and mutual respect for curiosity - there emerge opportunities for encounters that offer an alternative viewpoint on things. Artists can introduce a meta perspective (taking a step back and inquiring into the practice of research), a historical, conceptual or aesthetic view, all of which can invite those who are researchers, engineers and inventors toward new insight and discovery. Scientist’s methods of inquiry and their particular ways of dealing with natural phenomena and technology can also be a great source of inspiration for artists. Often with technical curiosity, artists can also contribute to concrete R&D just as science can directly impact art and inform aesthetics. So combined, the different philosophies, the experiments and the field work can lead to collaborative outcomes that are positively contributing to research, exploration and advancement. Artist and biologist Angelo Vermeulen has been working together with the European Space Agency (ESA) MELiSSA research program since 2009. In response to the ESA invitation to reflect on the development of future space habitats, Vermeulen set up SEAD (Space Ecologies Art & Design), a platform for artistic research on the transfer of terrestrial ecosystems to space to facilitate space settlement. Artist and diver Sarah Jane Pell has been working with the underwater technology and biotechnology community since 2003. She joined NASA’s Luna Gaia team and the League of New World Explorers analogue space subsea habitat exploration mission Atlantica in 2006. Current and future work by these, and similar partnerships, illustrates a dynamic culture of fieldwork, lab protocols/studio practice, research

  14. Management of psychosocial risks in European workplaces: drivers and barriers in a national and cultural context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, S. van den; Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.M.C.; Eekhout, I.; Houtman, I.L.D.


    Management of psychosocial risks in European workplaces; drivers and barriers in a national and cultural context. General objective of the project commissioned by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) is to support policy makers in stimulating successful psychosocial risk (PSR)

  15. Scientific Method and the Regulation of Health and Nutritional Claims by the European Food Safety Authority (United States)

    Hoad, Darren


    The protection of European consumers from the false or misleading scientific and nutritional claims of food manufacturers took a step forward with the recent opinions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). As a risk assessment agency, the EFSA recently assessed and rejected a vast number of food claim forcing the withdrawal of many claims…

  16. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia


    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  17. European Economic Integration (United States)

    Huston, James A.


    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  18. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia


    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  19. The European University Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraio, Cinzia; Bonaccorsi, Andrea; Geuna, Aldo


    This paper provides a new and systematic characterization of 488 universities, from 11 European countries: Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and UK. Using micro indicators built on the integrated Aquameth database, we characterize the Euro...

  20. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick


    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example......-economic resources. In a second step, the 28 EU member countries were clustered into six country clusters based on their representation of mobility styles. The country clusters indicate the existence of considerably different mobility cultures across the EU. Sub-regions can be identified that have highly different...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  1. Agency, time and causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eWidlok


    Full Text Available Cognitive Scientists interested in causal cognition increasingly search for evidence from non-WEIRD people but find only very few cross-cultural studies that specifically target causal cognition. This article suggests how information about causality can be retrieved from ethnographic monographs, specifically from ethnographies that discuss agency and concepts of time. Many apparent cultural differences with regard to causal cognition dissolve when cultural extensions of agency and personhood to non-humans are taken into account. At the same time considerable variability remains when we include notions of time, linearity and sequence. The article focuses on ethnographic case studies from Africa but provides a more general perspective on the role of ethnography in research on the diversity and universality of causal cognition.

  2. Research as relational agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine


    technologies like iPads are not just educational tools helping teachers teach as books, blackboards and chalk. They are forceful agents with an agency tied to the fact that they are also persuasive signs of innovation and thus preferred by managers over more traditional means. The article discuss how...... the agency of iPads implemented in Danish schools challenged the implementation of a research based auxiliary artefact, the TECS-model, meant to help teachers managing teaching with iPads in Danish schools. Researchers had to develop a special sensitivity to the cultural force of all of these artefacts......Studying the impact of educational technologies ‘in the wild’ put new demands on researchers than when researchers are conducting experiments in a laboratory. When researchers work within institutional boundaries they cannot take for granted that all members engaged in institutional work share...

  3. European Cyber Security Policy


    Bendiek, Annegret


    The gradually developing European cyber security policy tries to establish minimum standards in all EU member states with regard to prevention, resilience and international cooperation. It aims to foster national security without compromising democratic principles or unduly limiting individual liberties. However, it is hard to find a balance between these goals, and the EU’s measures thus inevitably raise questions about the democratic implications of European cyber security policy. Are the i...

  4. Timetabling on European Corridors


    Lischke, Andreas; Führer, B. (Bernhard); Garavagno, G.


    The Path Allocation Re-engineering of Timetable Networks for European Railways (PARTNER) project aims to demonstrate a new way of train path allocation and assembly along international corridors towards a faster and more coordinated railway infrastructure capacity management. PARTNER will assist two neighbour infrastructure managers to develop a common understanding of the effects of international train paths. The results of a survey of European infrastructure managers and railway underta...

  5. European Physical Society awards

    CERN Multimedia


    The winners of the 2004 Accelerator Prizes, awarded by the European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Accelerators (EPS-IGA), have been announced. Vladmir Shiltsev (Fermilab) and Igor Meshkov (JINR, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna) will be presented with their awards during the 9th European Particle Accelerator Conference, EPAC'04, on 8 July 2004 in Lucerne. Both physicists will also give a talk about their work. More details on:

  6. European Banking Union


    Breuss, Fritz


    The ongoing Euro crisis and the worse economic development in Europe than in the USA are grounded, not the least in the delayed implementation of reforms of the banking sector. Whereas the leaks in economic governance of EMU have been fixed the banking sector is still not stabilised, even five years after Lehman Brothers. From the grand solution of a "European Banking Union" (EBU) only the first pillar, the European Bank Supervision with the single supervisory mechanism (SSM) will come into e...

  7. European DHC Research Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltshire, Robin; Williams, Jonathan (Building Research Establishment, BRE, Bucknalls Lane, Watford (United Kingdom)); Werner, Sven (Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering, Halmstad (Sweden))


    Euroheat and Power is now working towards a European Technology Platform for District Heating and Cooling. In response to this important European DHC research initiative, a preliminary detailed list of research issues within 18 dimensions was elaborated and communicated to more than 100 people in February 2008. After additions and comments received, an updated list of research issues was again distributed in July 2008. This paper contains the current list of suggested research issues

  8. Current Developments in Basic Space Science in Nigeria (United States)

    Okeke, P. N.

    Astronomy is important to developing African countries. In this paper, a brief review of the situation of astronomical research in Africa before 1991 is given. During that period only South Africa and Egypt were carrying out observational research in astronomy. In other African countries astronomy research was in its infancy, except the University of Nigeria Space Research Centre (UNNSRC) in theoretical areas. A summary of the important recommendations for Africa at the United Nations/ European Space Agency (UN/ESA) series of workshops on basic space science were itemized to help identify those which have now been accomplished. Additionally, UNNSRC has now embarked on further observational programmes through the establishment of strong collaborative ventures with two observatories in South Africa, the Hartesbeesthoek Radio Astronomical Observatory (Hart RAO) and the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). UNNSRC has also made permanent arrangements with HartRAO, SAAO, and the Jodrell Bank for collaborations in data analysis. A new interest in astronomy appears to have awakened in Nigeria with three more universities joining this area of basic space science. It is recommended that the time has come for all African countries to contribute towards a common facility such as the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The efforts of UN/ESA which resulted in tremendous achievements are commended.

  9. Research-grade CMOS image sensors for demanding space applications (United States)

    Saint-Pé, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Corbière, Franck; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Belliot, Pierre


    Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid- 90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been competing with CCDs for more and more consumer domains (webcams, cell phones, digital cameras...). Featuring significant advantages over CCD sensors for space applications (lower power consumption, smaller system size, better radiations behaviour...), CMOS technology is also expanding in this field, justifying specific R&D and development programs funded by national and European space agencies (mainly CNES, DGA, and ESA). All along the 90s and thanks to their increasingly improving performances, CIS have started to be successfully used for more and more demanding applications, from vision and control functions requiring low-level performances to guidance applications requiring medium-level performances. Recent technology improvements have made possible the manufacturing of research-grade CIS that are able to compete with CCDs in the high-performances arena. After an introduction outlining the growing interest of optical instruments designers for CMOS image sensors, this talk will present the existing and foreseen ways to reach high-level electro-optics performances for CIS. The developments of CIS prototypes built using an imaging CMOS process and of devices based on improved designs will be presented.

  10. O processo de Bolonha no espaço europeu e a reforma universitária brasileira/The Bologna process in the european space and the brazilian higher education reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Célia Barradas Correia Bastos


    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda questões que envolvem o movimento de reformas educacionais na educação superior, a partir do final do Século XX, como a Declaração de Bolonha assinada em 1999, por ministros da Educação europeus, e que promove, atualmente, a reforma chamada Processo de Bolonha. Outros documentos como a Declaração Mundial sobre Educação Superior, 1998, representam marco referencial das reformas a que se refere este texto. Em sua essência, os documentos europeus vinculam o movimento reformista da educação superior às necessidades contextualizadas pelo padrão de globalização da economia. São articulações que têm como base o incentivo à competitividade, mobilidade discente, adaptação ao mercado de trabalho. No Brasil, em que sentido é possível situar os reflexos desse movimento? Na busca desse entendimento, focalizamos o movimento empreendido pelo Ministério da Educação para discutir a reforma universitária para o país, em especial destacamos o Seminário Internacional Universidade XXI e a Declaração de Brasília. Resguardadas as especificidades de cada situação, vislumbramos refletir sobre possíveis intersecções dos movimentos reformistas na educação superior contemporânea. This article approaches questions that involve the movement of educational reforms in the higher education, from the end of Century XX, until the Declaration of Bologna signed in 1999, by European ministers of Education that promoted the reform called Bologna Process. Other documents as the World-wide Declaration on Higher Education, 1998, represent referential landmark of the reforms that this text is related to. In its essence, the European documents tie the reformist movement of the higher education to the necessities contextualized by the economy globalization standard. They are have as base the competitiveness encouragement, learning mobility, and adaptation to the work market. In Brazil, where is possible to point out the

  11. Thermal analysis of a reflective baffle designed for space applications (United States)

    Beck, T.; Lüthi, B. S.; Messina, G.; Piazza, D.; Seiferlin, K.; Thomas, N.


    The implementation and results from thermal mathematical modelling of a Stavroudis-type reflective baffle for the BepiColombo laser altimeter (BELA) are presented. BELA and other instruments on board the European Space Agency's Mercury Planetary Orbiter are exposed to a harsh environment in Mercury orbit. This environment is briefly discussed and the detailed design solution for the baffle is presented. Special attention has been paid to the implementation of the thermal model because specific approximations were required. The results of the thermal mathematical models show the temperature behaviour in orbit and the feasibility of the solution. The work has applications to future missions which will go inside the orbit of Venus (e.g. ESA's Solar Orbiter).

  12. European Strategy Preparatory Group - CALL FOR SUBMISSIONS

    CERN Document Server


    As part of the Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the European Strategy Preparatory Group (ESPG) welcomes submissions on issues related to the strategy from individual physicists, from groups of scientists representing a community (an experiment, a topic of theoretical research, etc.) as well as from Institutions and Organizations (funding agencies, ministries, etc).   These contributions will be discussed at the meetings of the Preparatory Group and during the Open Symposium to be held on 10-12 September 2012 in Cracow, and will be made available to the Strategy Group for drafting the Update of the Strategy. How to submit a contribution? Send your contribution on the scientific issues below using the form under (preferably as an attached PDF file): - Accelerator Physics - Astroparticle Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology - Flavour Physics and Symmetries - Physics at High Energy Frontier - Physics of Neutrinos - Strong Interaction Physics...

  13. Emergency Response and the International Charter Space and Major Disasters (United States)

    Jones, B.; Lamb, R.


    Responding to catastrophic natural disasters requires information. When the flow of information on the ground is interrupted by crises such as earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes, hurricanes, and floods, satellite imagery and aerial photographs become invaluable tools in revealing post-disaster conditions and in aiding disaster response and recovery efforts. USGS is a global clearinghouse for remotely sensed disaster imagery. It is also a source of innovative products derived from satellite imagery that can provide unique overviews as well as important details about the impacts of disasters. Repeatedly, USGS and its resources have proven their worth in assisting with disaster recovery activities in the United States and abroad. USGS has a well-established role in emergency response in the United States. It works closely with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by providing first responders with satellite and aerial images of disaster-impacted sites and products developed from those images. The combination of the USGS image archive, coupled with its global data transfer capability and on-site science staff, was instrumental in the USGS becoming a participating agency in the International Charter Space and Major Disasters. This participation provides the USGS with access to international members and their space agencies, to information on European and other global member methodology in disaster response, and to data from satellites operated by Charter member countries. Such access enhances the USGS' ability to respond to global emergencies and to disasters that occur in the United States (US). As one example, the Charter agencies provided imagery to the US for over 4 months in response to the Gulf oil spill. The International Charter mission is to provide a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to those affected by natural or man-made disasters. Each member space agency has committed resources to support the provisions of the Charter and

  14. 14 CFR 152.105 - Sponsors and planning agencies: Airport planning. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sponsors and planning agencies: Airport planning. 152.105 Section 152.105 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....105 Sponsors and planning agencies: Airport planning. (a) To be eligible to apply for a project for...

  15. 40 CFR 36.645 - Federal agency or agency. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 36.645 Section 36.645 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 36.645...

  16. Address by James C. Fletcher, Administrator National Aeronautics and Space Administration at the National Academy of Engineering, Washington, D.C., 10 November 1975 (United States)


    Future plans and programs of the space agency are discussed. Topics discussed include solar energy, space stations, planetary exploration, interstellar exploration, the space shuttles, and satellites.

  17. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás


    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  18. SpaceTech—Postgraduate space education (United States)

    de Bruijn, Ferdi J.; Ashford, Edward W.; Larson, Wiley J.


    SpaceTech is a postgraduate program geared primarily for mid-career space professionals seeking to gain or improve their expertise in space systems engineering and in business engineering. SpaceTech provides a lifelong impact on its participants by broadening their capabilities, encouraging systematic "end-to-end" thinking and preparing them for any technical or business-related engineering challenges they may encounter. This flexible 1-year program offers high competency gain and increased business skills. It is held in attractive locations in a flexible, multi-cultural environment. SpaceTech is a highly effective master's program certified by the esteemed Technical University of Delft (TUD), Netherlands. SpaceTech provides expert instructors who place no barriers between themselves and participants. The program combines innovative and flexible new approaches with time-tested methods to give participants the skills required for future missions and new business, while allowing participants to meet their work commitments at the same time as they study for their master's degree. The SpaceTech program is conducted in separate sessions, generally each of 2-week duration, separated by periods of some 6-8 weeks, during which time participants may return to their normal jobs. It also includes introductory online course material that the participants can study at their leisure. The first session is held at the TUD, with subsequent sessions held at strategic space agency locations. By participating at two or more of these sessions, attendees can earn certificates of satisfactory completion from TU Delft. By participating in all of the sessions, as well as taking part in the companion Central Case Project (CCP), participants earn an accredited and highly respected master's degree in Space Systems Engineering from the TUD. Seven distinct SpaceTech modules are provided during these sessions: Space Mission Analysis and Design, Systems Engineering, Business Engineering

  19. Space market model development project, phase 2 (United States)

    Bishop, Peter C.


    The results of the prototype operations of the Space Business Information Center are presented. A clearinghouse for space business information for members of the U.S. space industry composed of public, private, and academic sectors was conducted. Behavioral and evaluation statistics were recorded from the clearinghouse and the conclusions from these statistics are presented. Business guidebooks on major markets in space business are discussed. Proprietary research and briefings for firms and agencies in the space industry are also discussed.

  20. 78 FR 11175 - Agency Information Collection Activities (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION... federal agency to determine whether recruitment activities are effectively reaching all segments of the... federal agencies only for evaluating whether an agency's recruitment activities are effectively reaching...

  1. ESA space spin-offs benefits for the health sector (United States)

    Szalai, Bianca; Detsis, Emmanouil; Peeters, Walter


    Humanity will be faced with an important number of future challenges, including an expansion of the lifespan, a considerable increase of the population (estimated 9 billion by 2050) and a depletion of resources. These factors could trigger an increase of chronic diseases and various other health concerns that would bear a heavy weight on finances worldwide. Scientific advances can play an important role in solving a number of these problems, space technology; in general, can propose a panoply of possible solutions and applications that can make life on Earth easier and better for everyone. Satellites, Earth Observation, the International Space Station (ISS) and the European Space Agency (ESA) may not be the first tools that come to mind when thinking of improving health, yet there are many ways in which ESA and its programmes contribute to the health care arena. The research focuses on quantifying two ESA spin-offs to provide an initial view on how space can contribute to worldwide health. This quantification is part of the present strategy not only to show macroeconomic return factors for space in general, but also to identify and describe samples of 'best practice' type of examples close to the general public's interest. For each of the 'best practices' the methodology takes into account the cost of the space hardware/software, a number of tangible and intangible benefits, as well as some logical assumptions in order to determine the potential overall returns. Some of the hindering factors for a precise quantification are also highlighted. In conclusion, the study recommends a way in which ESA's spin-offs can be taken into account early on in the development process of space programmes in order to generate higher awareness with the general public and also to provide measurable returns.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mihaela MARIOARA (ORHEIAN


    Full Text Available This article makes an analysis of the main regulations used by the credit rating agencies on the financial market. The article describes the main specific legislation on credit rating agencies existing on the market. Credit rating agencies are issuing independent opinions on the reliability of an entity, of a debt, of financial obligations, or of a certain financial instrument. The credit ratings issued by the credit rating agencies established in the European Union are analysed by investors, debtors, issuers and governments, helping all these entities in making any decisions on investments and financing. These ratings may also serve as reference for determining their own funds, necessary to ensure the solvency or reference helping the investors in assessing any risks related to their investment activities. Rating agencies and the products they offer on the international capital market are subject of various researches, which mainly refer to market structure and organization, to the architecture of agencies` s rating systems, to the rating functions, to the controversies concerning rating activity, the role of rating agencies and rating quality.

  3. Agency and anxiety


    Rauh, Michael; Seccia, Giulio


    In this paper, we introduce the psychological concept of anxiety into agency theory. An important benchmark in the anxiety literature is the inverted-U hypothesis which states that an increase in anxiety improves performance when anxiety is low but reduces it when anxiety is high. We consider a version of the Holmstrom-Milgrom linear principal-agent model where the agent conforms to the inverted-U hypothesis and investigate the nature of the optimal linear contract. We find that although high...

  4. The sense of agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina

    to their sensorimotor and perceptual problems. The result showed that children with CP have a different perception of control, and that they attribute to a larger extend movements to themselves even though they were not responsible for them. Study IV looked at how an intensive motor, perceptual and cognitive training...... of their own movements. However this perception can be optimized by intensive training. More research has to be carried out to investigate if the sense of agency should be a greater part of rehabilitation for brain lesioned patients in order to improve functionality....

  5. The International Space University (ISU) (United States)

    Peeters, Walter


    The International Space University (ISU) was created in 1986 with a cooperative vision on space activities, compared to the previous, competitive oriented space era. It started of with a Summer School Program and was housed since 2002 in its new campus in Strasbourg, France, housing the permanent master level programs. In all its programs ISU follows the same pedagogical principle, bringing an international group of students together and create this way an intercultural approach towards space activities. Moreover, all aspects of space are covered, as well scientific as technical ones, over business oriented to legal and even humanities related ones. This principle has been consequently baptized the approximately 2006 present alumni can thus be found in all aspects of space activities, both in agencies and governmental organisations, as well in industrial and entrepreneurial space fields. With the growing interest in space exploration, astronomy and planetary sciences are playing an increasingly important role in its curriculum, as will be further described in this chapter.

  6. ESN information bulletin. European science notes information bulletin reports on current European/Middle eastern science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorf, C.R.


    The European Science Notes Information Bulletin (ESNIB) 89-09 is a compilation of reports on recent developments in European science of specific interest to the U.S. research and development community, and is issued in support of the mission of the Office of Naval Research European Office. Issue Number 89-09, in addition to European area news, notes, and abstracts, contains reports in the fields of Acoustics, Computer Science, Condensed-Matter Physics, Materials Science, Mathematics, Physics, Psychology, and Solid-State Physics. It is not intended to be part of the scientific literature. The value of the ESNIB to Americans is to call attention to current activity in European science and technology and to identify the institutions and people responsible for these efforts. The ESNIB authors are primarily ONREUR staff members; other reports are prepared by or in cooperation with staff members of the USAF European Office of Aero space Research and Development or the U.S. Army Research, Development and Standardization Group. Scientists from the U.S. who are traveling in Europe may also be invited to submit reports.

  7. Virtual Planetary Space Weather Services offered by the Europlanet H2020 Research Infrastructure (United States)

    André, N.; Grande, M.; Achilleos, N.; Barthélémy, M.; Bouchemit, M.; Benson, K.; Blelly, P.-L.; Budnik, E.; Caussarieu, S.; Cecconi, B.; Cook, T.; Génot, V.; Guio, P.; Goutenoir, A.; Grison, B.; Hueso, R.; Indurain, M.; Jones, G. H.; Lilensten, J.; Marchaudon, A.; Matthiä, D.; Opitz, A.; Rouillard, A.; Stanislawska, I.; Soucek, J.; Tao, C.; Tomasik, L.; Vaubaillon, J.


    Under Horizon 2020, the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure (EPN2020-RI) will include an entirely new Virtual Access Service, "Planetary Space Weather Services" (PSWS) that will extend the concepts of space weather and space situational awareness to other planets in our Solar System and in particular to spacecraft that voyage through it. PSWS will make twelve new services accessible to the research community, space agencies, and industrial partners planning for space missions. These services will in particular be dedicated to the following key planetary environments: Mars (in support of the NASA MAVEN and European Space Agency (ESA) Mars Express and ExoMars missions), comets (building on the outstanding success of the ESA Rosetta mission), and outer planets (in preparation for the ESA JUpiter ICy moon Explorer mission), and one of these services will aim at predicting and detecting planetary events like meteor showers and impacts in the Solar System. This will give the European planetary science community new methods, interfaces, functionalities and/or plugins dedicated to planetary space weather as well as to space situational awareness in the tools and models available within the partner institutes. A variety of tools (in the form of web applications, standalone software, or numerical models in various degrees of implementation) are available for tracing propagation of planetary and/or solar events through the Solar System and modelling the response of the planetary environment (surfaces, atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres) to those events. But these tools were not originally designed for planetary event prediction and space weather applications. PSWS will provide the additional research and tailoring required to apply them for these purposes. PSWS will be to review, test, improve and adapt methods and tools available within the partner institutes in order to make prototype planetary event and space weather services operational in Europe at the end

  8. 75 FR 16197 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National... announces a meeting of the NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee. DATES: Tuesday, April 13, 2010, 3-5 p.m. CDT. ADDRESSES: NASA Johnson Space Center's Gilruth Center, Lone Star ] Room, 18753 Space...

  9. The Impacts of Bologna Process on European Higher Education Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer ÇELİK


    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the impact of Bologna Process on European higher education systems. It focuses on the influences of the main components of Bologna Process (i.e., implementing two-cycle system, increasing the student and academic staffs' mobility, European Credit Transfer System, quality assurance and qualification framework on the transformation of higher education systems. Although Bologna Process is perceived as a move to increase the quality of higher education system in Turkey, there are very serious criticisms from academics, students, and businessmen to the Bologna Process in various European countries. This study claims that the Process did not achieve its goals, more importantly the main instruments of the Process (qualifications, quality assurance agency etc. brought about hyper-bureaucratization, hierarchization and standardization of European higher education systems.

  10. Network Codes – European Energy Law in the Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Błajszczak


    Full Text Available The European Union is preparing a series of regulations governing in detail various aspects of grid operation and free-market trade in electricity and gas, the so-called network codes. The paper reviews this process of European energy legislation development. Also discussed are the European Union bodies and major stakeholders in this process, as well as the national law making and enforcing agencies. In the past, law in Poland was created by Polish citizens. After joining the European Union the law in effect is largely created elsewhere by someone else, even if with significant participation of Polish representatives. The law on energy is not only important for producers, distributors and trading companies, but it strongly effects industrial competitiveness and hence the quality of life of the population.

  11. Succes sau eşec al modelului multiculturalismului în Uniunea Europeană (Success or Failure for The Model of Multiculturalism in The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Monica STOICA


    Full Text Available A theme that appears frequently in public debate, in recent years, concerns the future and destiny of a united Europe, from the cultural approach of the European integration, the relationship between national and European level, the relationship between the national cultures in the European space and the possibility of the emergence of a European cultural identity with supranational character. Therefore, the present paper starts from Giovanni Sartori’s assertion according to whom, Europe is faced with the dilemma of multiculturalism versus pluralism aiming to examine whether the model of multiculturalism can be viable given that European public space became a geopolitical environment that is experiencing a new institutional arrangement between nation states and a new paradigm of coexistence of the cultural differences.There are analysed, in chronological perspective, the evolution of the European integration process focusing on the fourth level, the cultural one. Thus, the construction of a common European cultural space that, deeply, closes the citizens, the nations, the ethnicities, the societies and the regions proves to be the most difficult task that removes more and more European Union from an European identity and from the emergence of a European demos.

  12. Deep space target location with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Hipparcos data (United States)

    Null, George W.


    Interplanetary spacecraft navigation requires accurate a priori knowledge of target positions. A concept is presented for attaining improved target ephemeris accuracy using two future Earth-orbiting optical observatories, the European Space Agency (ESA) Hipparcos observatory and the Nasa Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Assuming nominal observatory performance, the Hipparcos data reduction will provide an accurate global star catalog, and HST will provide a capability for accurate angular measurements of stars and solar system bodies. The target location concept employs HST to observe solar system bodies relative to Hipparcos catalog stars and to determine the orientation (frame tie) of these stars to compact extragalactic radio sources. The target location process is described, the major error sources discussed, the potential target ephemeris error predicted, and mission applications identified. Preliminary results indicate that ephemeris accuracy comparable to the errors in individual Hipparcos catalog stars may be possible with a more extensive HST observing program. Possible future ground and spacebased replacements for Hipparcos and HST astrometric capabilities are also discussed.

  13. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...... coming from new global streaming services. Comparing cases of historical, contemporary and crime drama from several countries, this study shows the importance of creative co-production and transnational mediated cultural encounters between national cultures of Europe....

  14. The Europeanization of Eurosceptics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Bossetta Jr, Michael Joseph

    with the case of Sweden. Sweden is a good example because it has a high density of internet use, a politically active population as reflected in voter turnout and many politicians and political parties with a web presence. The main research questions of the paper are: Which actors are involved in the Swedish...... of a Europeanized network of anti-European voices for European integration and democracy. We plan to operationalize our research question through the use of webcrawling (i.e. Issue Crawler) and social media analytic softwares (Twitonomy and Bluenod). Using these softwares we will be able to discern whether...... or not non-Swedish Twitter users are participating in and/or affecting the Swedish Eurosceptic dialogue on social media....

  15. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov


    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges...... for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...... a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect...

  16. European Universe Awareness (United States)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.


    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  17. ¿Quiénes y qué pueden hacer en salud pública?: Las competencias profesionales como base para la elaboración de programas en el Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior What can be done and by who in Public Health?: Professional competencies as a base for the design of University degrees curricula in the European Space for Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Carmen Davó


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Contribuir a conformar un marco de referencia para organizar la enseñanza de la salud pública en las titulaciones universitarias españolas, siguiendo las directrices del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior. Métodos: Se extrajeron las competencias profesionales específicas definidas en los Libros Blancos de la Agencia Nacional de Evaluación de la Calidad (ANECA de medicina, farmacia, enfermería, nutrición humana y dietética, óptica y optometría, veterinaria, trabajo social, ciencias laborales y recursos humanos, magisterio y ciencias ambientales. Siguiendo el marco propuesto por el Grupo de Trabajo sobre competencias profesionales en salud pública en España, se seleccionaron las que les capacitan para el desarrollo de la Salud Pública desde su ámbito de actividad. También se identificaron y relacionaron las competencias seleccionadas en cada titulación con las actividades y las funciones. Resultados: Todas las titulaciones cuentan con competencias para las funciones de salud pública. La mayoría pueden participar en actividades de análisis de la situación de salud de la comunidad, y de diseño y puesta en marcha de programas e intervenciones sanitarias, fomento de la participación social y del control de los ciudadanos sobre su salud. Las actividades de control de enfermedades y de gestión de servicios y programas siguen restringidas a las profesiones sanitarias. Conclusiones: Hay espacio académico para el desarrollo multidisciplinario de la salud pública en España mas allá de las profesiones consideradas sanitarias. La vinculación entre las competencias específicas de cada titulación y las actividades de salud pública permite identificar los contenidos de esta materia que deben incluirse en sus programas.Objective: To conform a frame of reference for the organization of the public health teaching in university degrees in Spain, in agreement with the directives of the European Space for Higher Education

  18. The European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martinelli


    Full Text Available European identity is not only a scientifically interesting question, but also a politically important issue: in fact, sixty years after the signing of the Treaty of Rome, the European Union finds itself for the first time facing risks that threaten its own existence. The European Union is a limited and incomplete project because Europe’s economic integration has not been accompanied by a genuine supranational political union and greater cultural integration. The deficit of democratic representation and cultural integration is due to the fact that the community process is based only on economic rationality and not on a feeling of common belonging. In the current situation in which the Union faces difficult challenges which threaten to undermine the future, it necessary to affirm the policy of interests with a policy of identity. In this essay, we will first concentrate on the concept of identity – that is on the nucleus of values and common institutions –; then we will discuss how the European identity has changed over time (also in relation to national identities and what are the mechanisms that may favour its taking root in the current situation. The European project of political unification needs to be re-emphasized, finding the way to a European collective identity, not contrasted with but alongside the different national identities, referring to loyalty and shared commitment to a whole collection of cultural values: fundamental human rights, civil liberties, democratic political institutions, rule of law, freedom of movement of people, goods and capital, social justice and non-violent resolution of conflicts.

  19. 77 FR 14462 - Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants Program (United States)


    ..., improvement, design, and engineering of space transportation infrastructure (including facilities and... applicable, 3. Consent from the head of the appropriate agency, should the project use Government property...

  20. Plans for a Next Generation Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory (NGO) (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.; Stebbins, Robin T.; Jennrich, Oliver


    The European Space Agency (ESA) is currently in the process of selecting a mission for the Cosmic Visions Program. A space-based gravitational wave observatory in the low-frequency band (0.0001 - 1 Hz) of the gravitational wave spectrum is one of the leading contenders. This low frequency band has a rich spectrum of astrophysical sources, and the LISA concept has been the key mission to cover this science for over twenty years. Tight budgets have recently forced ESA to consider a reformulation of the LISA mission concept that wi" allow the Cosmic Visions Program to proceed on schedule either with the US as a minority participant, or independently of the US altogether. We report on the status of these reformulation efforts.