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Sample records for european sea bass

  1. Do the visual conditions at the point of escape affect European sea bass escape behavior?

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    I.E. PAPADAKIS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, an important species for the Mediterranean aquaculture industry, has been reported to escape from sea cage installations. Fish escapes are caused mainly by operational and technical failures that eventually result into a creation of a tear. Escapees may interact with wild stocks through interbreeding, transfer of pathogens and competition for food. The aim of this study was to examine at which extent the presence of a visible obstacle close to a tear on the net have an influence on sea bass propensity to escape. Fish were initially confined into small sea cages, with a tear at one side. The escape behavior was tested under experimental conditions. It is clearly demonstrated that sea bass was able to locate a tear on the net pen, immediately after its appearance. Crossings occurred in all cages, in singles or in a series of up to seven individuals. The presence of an obstacle close to the net tear altered the escape behavior of D. labrax resulting in a delay that eventually reduced the escape rate. Concluding, it is highly recommended that sea bass cages should be kept internally the culture array. Furthermore, the placement of artificial obstacles close to the sea cages could be an efficient practice that mitigates the escape risk after severe environmental conditions.

  2. Changes provoked by boiling, steaming and sous-vide cooking in the lipid and volatile profile of European sea bass.

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    Nieva-Echevarría, Bárbara; Manzanos, María J; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Guillén, María D

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to shed light on the changes provoked by boiling, steaming and sous-vide cooking on the lipids and volatile profile of farmed and wild European sea bass meat. None of the cooking techniques provoked changes due to hydrolytic or oxidation processes detectable by 1 H NMR on sea bass lipids. The lipid profile of main and minor lipidic components was maintained after cooking. However, study by SPME-GC/MS evidenced that steaming and sous-vide cooking modified the volatile profile of sea bass meat, especially in farmed specimens. The compounds generated came from the occurrence, to a very small extent, of lipid and protein degradation. By contrast, boiling scarcely modified the initial characteristics of raw sea bass. Thus, from a sensory point of view and considering the odour-active compounds generated, steaming and sous-vide cooking provoked more noticeable changes than boiling, especially in farmed sea bass meat. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Ketoconazole modulates the infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. (Mesomycetozoa) in vivo in experimentally injected European sea bass

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    Hontoria, Francisco; González, Mª Ángeles; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Palenzuela, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro studies have confirmed the inhibitory effect of the azol-derivative ketoconazole (KZ) on the growth of Ichthyophonus, an important pathogen causing epizootics in wild and cultured fish. We evaluated the effect of KZ in vivo in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with the same Ichthyophonus isolate. Liposomes were used to vehiculate different doses of KZ to increase the effect on Ichthyophonus and lower the toxicity of the drug, and KZ toxicity was assessed ...

  4. Intestinal alterations in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to microplastics: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedà, Cristina; Caccamo, Letteria; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Gai, Francesco; Andaloro, Franco; Genovese, Lucrezia; Perdichizzi, Anna; Romeo, Teresa; Maricchiolo, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates, for the first time, the intestinal responses of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax chronically exposed to microplastics through ingestion. Fish (n = 162) were fed with 3 different treatment diets for 90 days: control, native polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polluted polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pellets. Intestines were fixed and processed for histological analysis using standard techniques. Histopathological alterations were examined using a score value (from 0 to 4). The distal part of intestine in all samples proved to be the most affected by pathological alterations, showing a gradual change varying from moderate to severe related to exposure times. The histological picture that characterizes both groups especially after 90 days of exposure, suggests that the intestinal functions can be in some cases totally compromised. The worst condition is increasingly evident in the distal intestine of fish fed with polluted PVC pellets respect to control groups (p < 0.05) to different exposure times. These first results underline the need to assess the impact of increasing microplastics pollution on the marine trophic web. - Highlights: • Data on microplastics ingestion in European sea bass are reported. • After 60 and 90 days severe histological changes in distal intestine were observed. • Results suggest that the ingestion of microplastics alters intestinal tissues. • Plastics ingestion in fish represents a hazard for the effects on marine ecosystem. - Alterations in intestines of European sea bass exposed to microplastics.

  5. Effect of the addition of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii on the gut microbiota composition and contribution to the well-being of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silvi, Stefania; Nardi, Miria; Sulpizio, Roberto; Orpianesi, Carla; Caggiano, Massimo; Carnevali, Oliana; Cresci, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to test the effects of probiotic treatment on gut microbiota and the contribution to the well-being of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.). A bacterial strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii (AS13B), isolated from adult European sea bass gut, was administered during sea bass development using Brachionus plicatilis and/or Artemia salina as carriers. The effective strain colonization and modulation of the gut microbiota, the mortality and the cor...

  6. The European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax genome puzzle: comparative BAC-mapping and low coverage shotgun sequencing

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    Volckaert Filip AM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food supply from the ocean is constrained by the shortage of domesticated and selected fish. Development of genomic models of economically important fishes should assist with the removal of this bottleneck. European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. (Moronidae, Perciformes, Teleostei is one of the most important fishes in European marine aquaculture; growing genomic resources put it on its way to serve as an economic model. Results End sequencing of a sea bass genomic BAC-library enabled the comparative mapping of the sea bass genome using the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus genome as a reference. BAC-end sequences (102,690 were aligned to the stickleback genome. The number of mappable BACs was improved using a two-fold coverage WGS dataset of sea bass resulting in a comparative BAC-map covering 87% of stickleback chromosomes with 588 BAC-contigs. The minimum size of 83 contigs covering 50% of the reference was 1.2 Mbp; the largest BAC-contig comprised 8.86 Mbp. More than 22,000 BAC-clones aligned with both ends to the reference genome. Intra-chromosomal rearrangements between sea bass and stickleback were identified. Size distributions of mapped BACs were used to calculate that the genome of sea bass may be only 1.3 fold larger than the 460 Mbp stickleback genome. Conclusions The BAC map is used for sequencing single BACs or BAC-pools covering defined genomic entities by second generation sequencing technologies. Together with the WGS dataset it initiates a sea bass genome sequencing project. This will allow the quantification of polymorphisms through resequencing, which is important for selecting highly performing domesticated fish.

  7. Ketoconazole modulates the infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. (Mesomycetozoa) in vivo in experimentally injected European sea bass.

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    Hontoria, Francisco; González, Ma Angeles; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Palenzuela, Oswaldo; Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar

    2013-09-03

    In vitro studies have confirmed the inhibitory effect of the azol-derivative ketoconazole (KZ) on the growth of Ichthyophonus, an important pathogen causing epizootics in wild and cultured fish. We evaluated the effect of KZ in vivo in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with the same Ichthyophonus isolate. Liposomes were used to vehiculate different doses of KZ to increase the effect on Ichthyophonus and lower the toxicity of the drug, and KZ toxicity was assessed in cultured sea bass juveniles. We also studied the effect of liposome-vehiculated KZ included in medicated food on ichthyophoniasis. KZ causes clear toxic effects in D. labrax juveniles at doses >80 mg kg-1, apparent in the reduced survival of fish and histological alterations to livers, kidneys and spleens. Fish injected with Ichthyophonus and treated with KZ dosages of ≤80 mg kg-1 d-1 presented lower ichthyophoniasis prevalence, fewer organs infected per fish, and fewer spores in the affected organs than the untreated fish. KZ seems to delay the onset of infection, but cannot stop further progression once established. However, this behaviour is not clearly reflected in the biometric and haematological data collected from these fish. We hypothesise that KZ's delaying effect would increase, if lower infective doses (more similar to natural situations) were used. The drug administration vehicle (liposomes vs. emulsions) did not affect the results. Our data confirm the potential utility of KZ in treating ichthyophoniasis and reveal its low toxicity for sea bass. Nevertheless, the optimal dose and appropriate application protocol remain to be determined.

  8. Responsiveness of pituitary to galanin throughout the reproductive cycle of male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

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    Pinto, P; Velez, Z; Sousa, C; Santos, S; Andrade, A; Alvarado, M V; Felip, A; Zanuy, S; Canário, A V M

    2017-09-01

    The neuropeptide galanin (Gal) is a putative factor regulating puberty onset and reproduction through its actions on the pituitary. The present study investigated the pituitary responsiveness to galanin and the patterns of galanin receptors (Galrs) expression throughout the reproductive cycle of two years old male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), an important aquaculture species. Quantitative analysis of pituitary and hypothalamus transcript expression of four galr subtypes revealed differential regulation according to the testicular developmental stage, with an overall decrease in expression from the immature stage to the mid-recrudescence stage. Incubation of pituitary cells with mammalian 1-29Gal peptide induced significant changes in cAMP concentration, with sensitivities that varied according to the testicular development stages. Furthermore 1-29Gal was able to stimulate both follicle stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) release from pituitary cell suspensions. The magnitude of the effects and effective concentrations varied according to reproductive stage, with generalized induction of Fsh and Lh release in animals sampled in January (full spermiation). The differential expression of galrs in pituitary and hypothalamus across the reproductive season, together with the differential effects of Gal on gonadotropins release in vitro strongly suggests the involvement of the galaninergic system in the regulation the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis of male sea bass. This is to our knowledge the first clear evidence for the involvement of galanin in the regulation of reproduction in non-mammalian vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. LPXRFa peptide system in the European sea bass: A molecular and immunohistochemical approach.

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    Paullada-Salmerón, José A; Cowan, Mairi; Aliaga-Guerrero, María; Gómez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia; Mañanos, Evaristo; Muñoz-Cueto, José A

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a neuropeptide that suppresses reproduction in birds and mammals by inhibiting GnRH and gonadotropin secretion. GnIH orthologs with a C-terminal LPXRFamide (LPXRFa) motif have been identified in teleost fish. Although recent work also suggests its role in fish reproduction, studies are scarce and controversial, and have mainly focused on cyprinids. In this work we cloned a full-length cDNA encoding an LPXRFa precursor in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. In contrast to other teleosts, the sea bass LPXRFa precursor contains only two putative RFamide peptides, termed sbLPXRFa1 and sbLPXRFa2. sblpxrfa transcripts were expressed predominantly in the olfactory bulbs/telencephalon, diencephalon, midbrain tegmentum, retina, and gonads. We also developed a specific antiserum against sbLPXRFa2, which revealed sbLPXRFa-immunoreactive (ir) perikarya in the olfactory bulbs-terminal nerve, ventral telencephalon, caudal preoptic area, dorsal mesencephalic tegmentum, and rostral rhombencephalon. These sbLPXRFa-ir cells profusely innervated the preoptic area, hypothalamus, optic tectum, semicircular torus, and caudal midbrain tegmentum, but conspicuous projections also reached the olfactory bulbs, ventral/dorsal telencephalon, habenula, ventral thalamus, pretectum, rostral midbrain tegmentum, posterior tuberculum, reticular formation, and viscerosensory lobe. The retina, pineal, vascular sac, and pituitary were also targets of sbLPXRFa-ir cells. In the pituitary, this innervation was observed close to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) cells. Tract-tracing retrograde labeling suggests that telencephalic and preoptic sbLPXRFa cells might represent the source of pituitary innervation. The immunohistochemical distribution of sbLPXRFa cells and fibers suggest that LPXRFa peptides might be involved in some functions as well as reproduction, such as feeding, growth, and behavior.

  10. Behavioural stress responses predict environmental perception in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

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    Millot, Sandie; Cerqueira, Marco; Castanheira, Maria-Filipa; Overli, Oyvind; Oliveira, Rui F; Martins, Catarina I M

    2014-01-01

    Individual variation in the response to environmental challenges depends partly on innate reaction norms, partly on experience-based cognitive/emotional evaluations that individuals make of the situation. The goal of this study was to investigate whether pre-existing differences in behaviour predict the outcome of such assessment of environmental cues, using a conditioned place preference/avoidance (CPP/CPA) paradigm. A comparative vertebrate model (European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax) was used, and ninety juvenile individuals were initially screened for behavioural reactivity using a net restraining test. Thereafter each individual was tested in a choice tank using net chasing as aversive stimulus or exposure to familiar conspecifics as appetitive stimulus in the preferred or non preferred side respectively (called hereafter stimulation side). Locomotor behaviour (i.e. time spent, distance travelled and swimming speed in each tank side) of each individual was recorded and analysed with video software. The results showed that fish which were previously exposed to appetitive stimulus increased significantly the time spent on the stimulation side, while aversive stimulus led to a strong decrease in time spent on the stimulation side. Moreover, this study showed clearly that proactive fish were characterised by a stronger preference for the social stimulus and when placed in a putative aversive environment showed a lower physiological stress responses than reactive fish. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time in sea bass, that the CPP/CPA paradigm can be used to assess the valence (positive vs. negative) that fish attribute to different stimuli and that individual behavioural traits is predictive of how stimuli are perceived and thus of the magnitude of preference or avoidance behaviour.

  11. Vitamin D3 affects innate immune status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

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    Dioguardi, M; Guardiola, F A; Vazzana, M; Cuesta, A; Esteban, M A; Cammarata, M

    2017-08-01

    The effects of vitamin D 3 dietary administration on certain innate immune parameters on the expression of immune-related genes in head-kidney (HK) and gut were investigated in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Vitamin D 3 (vD 3 ) was orally administered to fish in a commercial pellet food supplemented with 0 (control); 3750; 18,750; or 37,500 U kg -1 . Furthermore, gut histology was considered. This study showed a modulation in the activities examined in fish fed with the addition of vD 3 . After just 2 weeks of administration, diet supplementation with the vitamin resulted in increased phagocytic ability, while serum peroxidase content was increased in fish fed with all experimental diets after 4 weeks, no significant differences were observed in protease, anti-protease, natural haemolytic complement activities and total IgM level. At gene level, fbl and rbl transcripts were up-regulated in HK in fish fed with the highest concentration of vD 3 -supplemented diets after 4 weeks, while in the gut, an up-regulation of hep gene was observed in fish fed with the different doses of vD 3 . These results suggest that vD 3 may be of great interest for immunostimulatory purposes in fish farms.

  12. Gene expression patterns during the larval development of European sea bass (dicentrarchus labrax) by microarray analysis.

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    Darias, M J; Zambonino-Infante, J L; Hugot, K; Cahu, C L; Mazurais, D

    2008-01-01

    During the larval period, marine teleosts undergo very fast growth and dramatic changes in morphology, metabolism, and behavior to accomplish their metamorphosis into juvenile fish. Regulation of gene expression is widely thought to be a key mechanism underlying the management of the biological processes required for harmonious development over this phase of life. To provide an overall analysis of gene expression in the whole body during sea bass larval development, we monitored the expression of 6,626 distinct genes at 10 different points in time between 7 and 43 days post-hatching (dph) by using heterologous hybridization of a rainbow trout cDNA microarray. The differentially expressed genes (n = 485) could be grouped into two categories: genes that were generally up-expressed early, between 7 and 23 dph, and genes up-expressed between 25 and 43 dph. Interestingly, among the genes regulated during the larval period, those related to organogenesis, energy pathways, biosynthesis, and digestion were over-represented compared with total set of analyzed genes. We discuss the quantitative regulation of whole-body contents of these specific transcripts with regard to the ontogenesis and maturation of essential functions that take place over larval development. Our study is the first utilization of a transcriptomic approach in sea bass and reveals dynamic changes in gene expression patterns in relation to marine finfish larval development.

  13. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  14. Effects of in vitro lactoferricin and lactoferrin on the head kidney cells of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.).

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    Henry, Morgane A; Alexis, Maria N

    2009-08-15

    Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of lactoferrin have been demonstrated in mammals and in fish. However, in vivo, lactoferrin is digested by gastric pepsin treatment into the N-terminal derived peptide named lactoferricin. This has been so far overlooked in fish in vitro studies. The aim of the present study was to assess in vitro the effects of both lactoferricin and lactoferrin on the head kidney cells of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) in order to determine their potential as dietary additives and to get some insight into their mode of action. In vitro lactoferricin decreased significantly the chemiluminescent response of head kidney cells but did not affect the zymosan-triggered chemiluminescence activity. On the other hand, a high concentration of lactoferrin directly stimulated chemiluminescence but reduced the zymosan-triggered chemiluminescence. The bactericidal activity of head kidney cells was also significantly diminished by pre-incubation with lactoferrin in a dose-dependent manner. Although no significant effect of lactoferricin or lactoferrin was evidenced on head kidney cellular viability, absent or negative effect on the priming of respiratory burst activity suggested that care should be taken when using lactoferrin in the diet of sea bass and high doses should be avoided. Hypotheses about the mechanisms of action of lactoferricin and lactoferrin are presented.

  15. New data on Eimeria dicentrarchi (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), a common parasite of farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the mid-eastern Adriatic

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    This study extends the original description of Eimeria dicentrarchi Daoudi and Marquès, 1987, a common coccidian parasite of European sea bass from the mid-eastern Adriatic, by providing insights into the parasite’s site of infection, development and pathogenicity. E. dicentrarchi was found in vario...

  16. Effect of dietary fat level on carcass traits and flesh quality of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax from mariculture

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    Severino Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the effect of the reduction of dietary fat on juvenile European sea bass nutritional value and quality traits. Fish were reared in floating cages (Trieste Gulf, Italy from July (11 to October (10. Two isoproteic diets were compared: LF (low fat, EE = 19.4% vs. HF (high fat, EE = 24.6%. No significantly different growth performance was observed. LF diet-fed fish were characterized by the reduction of celomatic fat (not edible fraction and by the increase in dressing percentage. The tested dietary fat level also affected both fillet and epiaxial white muscle proximate composition, resulting in a significantly lower fillet lipid concentration in LF diet-fed fish. Dietary treatment influenced cooked fillet colour and texture probably as a consequence of the different intramuscular fat deposition. Fillet from HF-fed fish, in fact, presented higher lightness (L* value and lower instrumental strengthness.

  17. Photoperiodic Modulation of Circadian Clock and Reproductive Axis Gene Expression in the Pre-Pubertal European Sea Bass Brain.

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    Rute S T Martins

    Full Text Available The acquisition of reproductive competence requires the activation of the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG axis, which in most vertebrates, including fishes, is initiated by changes in photoperiod. In the European sea bass long-term exposure to continuous light (LL alters the rhythm of reproductive hormones, delays spermatogenesis and reduces the incidence of precocious males. In contrast, an early shift from long to short photoperiod (AP accelerates spermatogenesis. However, how photoperiod affects key genes in the brain to trigger the onset of puberty is still largely unknown. Here, we investigated if the integration of the light stimulus by clock proteins is sufficient to activate key genes that trigger the BPG axis in the European sea bass. We found that the clock genes clock, npas2, bmal1 and the BPG genes gnrh, kiss and kissr share conserved transcription factor frameworks in their promoters, suggesting co-regulation. Other gene promoters of the BGP axis were also predicted to be co-regulated by the same frameworks. Co-regulation was confirmed through gene expression analysis of brains from males exposed to LL or AP photoperiod compared to natural conditions: LL fish had suppressed gnrh1, kiss2, galr1b and esr1, while AP fish had stimulated npas2, gnrh1, gnrh2, kiss2, kiss1rb and galr1b compared to NP. It is concluded that fish exposed to different photoperiods present significant expression differences in some clock and reproductive axis related genes well before the first detectable endocrine and morphological responses of the BPG axis.

  18. The development of contemporary European sea bass larvae (Dicentrarchus labrax) is not affected by projected ocean acidification scenarios.

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    Crespel, Amélie; Zambonino-Infante, José-Luis; Mazurais, David; Koumoundouros, George; Fragkoulis, Stefanos; Quazuguel, Patrick; Huelvan, Christine; Madec, Laurianne; Servili, Arianna; Claireaux, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Ocean acidification is a recognized consequence of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission in the atmosphere. Despite its threat to marine ecosystems, little is presently known about the capacity for fish to respond efficiently to this acidification. In adult fish, acid-base regulatory capacities are believed to be relatively competent to respond to hypercapnic conditions. However, fish in early life stage could be particularly sensitive to environmental factors as organs and important physiological functions become progressively operational during this period. In this study, the response of European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax ) larvae reared under three ocean acidification scenarios, i.e., control (present condition, [Formula: see text] = 590 µatm, pH total = 7.9), low acidification (intermediate IPCC scenario, [Formula: see text] = 980 µatm, pH total = 7.7), and high acidification (most severe IPCC scenario, [Formula: see text] = 1520 µatm, pH total = 7.5) were compared across multiple levels of biological organizations. From 2 to 45 days-post-hatching, the chronic exposure to the different scenarios had limited influence on the survival and growth of the larvae (in the low acidification condition only) and had no apparent effect on the digestive developmental processes. The high acidification condition induced both faster mineralization and reduction in skeletal deformities. Global (microarray) and targeted (qPCR) analysis of transcript levels in whole larvae did not reveal any significant changes in gene expression across tested acidification conditions. Overall, this study suggests that contemporary sea bass larvae are already capable of coping with projected acidification conditions without having to mobilize specific defense mechanisms.

  19. Metabolism of the polycyclic musk galaxolide and its interference with endogenous and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Denise; Dimastrogiovanni, Giorgio; Blázquez, Mercedes; Porte, Cinta

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the metabolism and mode of action of galaxolide (HHCB) in the European sea bass -Dicentrarchus labrax- following a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg HHCB/kg body weight. In addition, a group of fish was injected with 50 mg/kg of ketoconazole (KCZ), a fungicide that is known to interfere with different Cyp isoenzymes. HHCB was actively metabolised by sea bass and acted as a weak inhibitor of the synthesis of oxyandrogens in gonads of male fish. Both, HHCB and a hydroxylated metabolite were detected in bile. The fungicide ketoconazole was a strong inhibitor of Cyp11β and Cyp3a-catalyzed activities. The work contributes to the better understanding of the impact of synthetic musks on fish and proposes the determination of HHCB and/or its hydroxylated metabolite in bile as a tool to assess environmental exposure in wild fish. -- Highlights: ► The metabolism and mode of action of galaxolide has been investigated in sea bass. ► A hydroxylated metabolite was for the first time identified in fish bile. ► EROD and BCOD activities were not altered by galaxolide exposure. ► Galaxolide decreased moderately the synthesis of oxyandrogens in testes. -- HHCB is actively metabolised by sea bass and acts as a weak inhibitor of the synthesis of oxyandrogens in gonads of male fish

  20. Nutritional history does not modulate hepatic oxidative status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) submitted to handling stress.

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    Castro, Carolina; Peréz-Jiménez, Amalia; Coutinho, Filipe; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stéphane; Peres, Helena; Teles, Aires Oliva; Enes, Paula

    2018-02-19

    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of an acute handling stress on hepatic oxidative status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles fed diets differing in lipid so urce and carbohydrate content. For that purpose, four diets were formulated with fish oil (FO) and vegetable oils (VO) as lipid source and with 20 or 0% gelatinized starch as carbohydrate source. Triplicate groups of fish with 74 g were fed each diet during 13 weeks and then subjected to an acute handling stress. Stress exposure decreased hematocrit (Ht) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Independent of dietary treatment, stress exposure increased hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO). Stressed fish exhibited lower glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, independent of previous nutritional history. In the VO groups, stress exposure increased glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. Diet composition had no effect on Ht and Hb levels. In contrast, dietary carbohydrate decreased hepatic LPO and CAT activity and increased glutathione reductase (GR) and G6PD activities. Dietary lipids had no effect on LPO. Fish fed the VO diets exhibited higher G6PD activity than fish fed the FO diets. In conclusion, dietary carbohydrates contributed to the reduction of oxidative stress in fish. However, under the imposed handling stress conditions, liver enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms were not enhanced, which may explain the overall increased oxidative stress.

  1. Gonadotropin Inhibitory Hormone Down-Regulates the Brain-Pituitary Reproductive Axis of Male European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

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    Paullada-Salmerón, José A; Cowan, Mairi; Aliaga-Guerrero, María; Morano, Francesca; Zanuy, Silvia; Muñoz-Cueto, José A

    2016-06-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release from the pituitary of birds and mammals. However, the physiological role of orthologous GnIH peptides on the reproductive axis of fish is still uncertain, and their actions on the main neuroendocrine systems controlling reproduction (i.e., GnRHs, kisspeptins) have received little attention. In a recent study performed in the European sea bass, we cloned a cDNA encoding a precursor polypeptide that contained C-terminal MPMRFamide (sbGnIH-1) and MPQRFamide (sbGnIH-2) peptide sequences, developed a specific antiserum against sbGnIH-2, and characterized its central and pituitary GnIH projections in this species. In this study, we analyzed the effects of intracerebroventricular injection of sbGnIH-1 and sbGnIH-2 on brain and pituitary expression of reproductive hormone genes (gnrh1, gnrh2, gnrh3, kiss1, kiss2, gnih, lhbeta, fshbeta), and their receptors (gnrhr II-1a, gnrhr II-2b, kiss1r, kiss2r, and gnihr) as well as on plasma Fsh and Lh levels. In addition, we determined the effects of GnIH on pituitary somatotropin (Gh) expression. The results obtained revealed the inhibitory role of sbGnIH-2 on brain gnrh2, kiss1, kiss2, kiss1r, gnih, and gnihr transcripts and on pituitary fshbeta, lhbeta, gh, and gnrhr-II-1a expression, whereas sbGnIH-1 only down-regulated brain gnrh1 expression. However, at different doses, central administration of both sbGnIH-1 and sbGnIH-2 decreased Lh plasma levels. Our work represents the first study reporting the effects of centrally administered GnIH in fish and provides evidence of the differential actions of sbGnIH-1 and sbGnIH-2 on the reproductive axis of sea bass, the main inhibitory role being exerted by the sbGnIH-2 peptide. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  2. Actions of sex steroids on kisspeptin expression and other reproduction-related genes in the brain of the teleost fish European sea bass.

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    Alvarado, M V; Servili, A; Molés, G; Gueguen, M M; Carrillo, M; Kah, O; Felip, A

    2016-11-01

    Kisspeptins are well known as mediators of the coordinated communication between the brain-pituitary axis and the gonads in many vertebrates. To test the hypothesis that gonadal steroids regulate kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression in European sea bass (a teleost fish), we examined the brains of gonad-intact (control) and castrated animals, as well as castrated males (GDX) and ovariectomized females (OVX) that received testosterone (T) and estradiol (E 2 ) replacement, respectively, during recrudescence. In GDX males, low expression of kiss1 mRNA is observed by in situ hybridization in the caudal hypothalamus (CH) and the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), although hypothalamic changes in kiss1 mRNA levels were not statistically different among the groups, as revealed by real-time PCR. However, T strongly decreased kiss2 expression levels in the hypothalamus, which was documented in the MBH and the nucleus of the lateral recess (NRLd) in GDX T-treated sea bass males. Conversely, it appears that E 2 evokes low kiss1 mRNA in the CH, while there were cells expressing kiss2 in the MBH and NRLd in these OVX females. These results demonstrate that kisspeptin neurons are presumably sensitive to the feedback actions of sex steroids in the sea bass, suggesting that the MBH represents a major site for sex steroid actions on kisspeptins in this species. Also, recent data provide evidence that both positive and negative actions occur in key factors involved in sea bass reproductive function, including changes in the expression of gnrh-1/gonadotropin, cyp19b, er and ar genes and sex steroid and gonadotropin plasma levels in this teleost fish. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Effects of pinealectomy on the neuroendocrine reproductive system and locomotor activity in male European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Mairi; Paullada-Salmerón, José A; López-Olmeda, José Fernando; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Muñoz-Cueto, José A

    2017-05-01

    The seasonally changing photoperiod controls the timing of reproduction in most fish species, however, the transduction of this photoperiodic information to the reproductive axis is still unclear. This study explored the potential role of two candidate neuropeptide systems, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (Gnih) and kisspeptin, as mediators between the pineal organ (a principle transducer of photoperiodic information) and reproductive axis in male European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Two seven-day experiments of pinealectomy (Px) were performed, in March (end of reproductive season) and August (resting season). Effects of Px and season on the brain expression of gnih (sbgnih) and its receptor (sbgnihr), kisspeptins (kiss1, kiss2) and their receptors (kissr2, kissr3) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh1, gnrh2, gnrh3) and the main brain receptor (gnrhr-II-2b) genes, plasma melatonin levels and locomotor activity rhythms were examined. Results showed that Px reduced night-time plasma melatonin levels. Gene expression analyses demonstrated a sensitivity of the Gnih system to Px in March, with a reduction in sbgnih in the mid-hindbrain, a region with bilateral connections to the pineal organ. In August, kiss2 levels increased in Px animals but not in controls. Significant differences in expression were observed for diencephalic sbgnih, sbgnihr, kissr3 and tegmental gnrh2 between seasons. Recordings of locomotor activity following surgery revealed a change from light-synchronised to free-running rhythmic behavior. Altogether, the Gnih and Kiss2 sensitivity to Px and seasonal differences observed for Gnih and its receptor, Gnrh2, and the receptor for Kiss2 (Kissr3), suggested they could be mediators involved in the relay between environment and seasonal reproduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Production and characterization of recombinantly derived peptides and antibodies for accurate determinations of somatolactin, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Celis, S Vega-Rubín; Gómez-Requeni, P; Pérez-Sánchez, J

    2004-12-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) growth hormone (GH) was developed and validated. For this purpose, a stable source of GH was produced by means of recombinant DNA technology in a bacteria system. The identity of the purified protein (ion exchange chromatography) was demonstrated by Western blot and a specific GH antiserum was raised in rabbit. In Western blot and RIA system, this antiserum recognized specifically native and recombinant GH, and it did not cross-react with fish prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL). In a similar way, a specific polyclonal antiserum against the now available recombinant European sea bass SL was raised and used in the RIA system to a sensitivity of 0.3 ng/ml (90% of binding of tracer). Further, European sea bass insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was cloned and sequenced, and its high degree of identity with IGF-I peptides of barramundi, tuna, and sparid fish allowed the use of a commercial IGF-I RIA based on barramundi IGF-I antiserum. These assay tools assisted for the first time accurate determinations of SL and GH-IGF-I axis activity in a fish species of the Moronidae family. Data values were compared to those found with gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), which is currently used as a Mediterranean fish model for growth endocrinology studies. As a characteristic feature, the average concentration year round of circulating GH in growing mature males of European sea bass was higher than in gilthead sea bream. By contrast, the average concentration of circulating SL was lower. Concerning to circulating concentration of IGF-I, the measured plasma values for a given growth rate were also lower in European sea bass. These findings are discussed on the basis of a different energy status that might allowed a reduced but more continuous growth in European sea bass.

  5. Growth parameters in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labraxL.: effects of live weight and water temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Ballestrazzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The voluntary feed intake (VFI and growth rate of sea bass were studied for 147 days, based on different starting live  weights, under natural photoperiods and varied water temperatures. Sea bass (n = 720 were divided into five weight  classes (60-70, 90-110, 130-150, 160-180 and 230-250 g and distributed among 20 tanks. Seven different water tem-  peratures were compared: 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 °C. A commercial extruded diet (N x 6.25, 43.7% DM; crude  fat, 25.7% DM was used. The trial was performed in a closed-circuit plant, with a daily water turnover rate of 10%. Each  tank was fitted with an apparatus for collecting the uneaten food. Automatic feeders distributed equal amounts of food  for ten meals per day. The daily food allowance was adjusted, based on fish biomass, to permit ad libitum feeding and  to leave approximately 20% uneaten. Fish were exposed to natural photoperiod (March-July. Non-linear regression  equations were used to calculate the best-fitting curves for the data. 

  6. Melatonin Inhibits GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and GnRH Receptor Expression in the Brain of the European Sea Bass, Dicentrarchus labrax

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    José Antonio Muñoz-Cueto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several evidences supported the existence of melatonin effects on reproductive system in fish. In order to investigate whether melatonin is involved in the modulation of GnRH systems in the European sea bass, we have injected melatonin (0.5 µg/g body mass in male specimens. The brain mRNA transcript levels of the three GnRH forms and the five GnRH receptors present in this species were determined by real time quantitative PCR. Our findings revealed day–night variations in the brain expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and several GnRH receptors (dlGnRHR-II-1c, -2a, which exhibited higher transcript levels at mid-light compared to mid-dark phase of the photocycle. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of melatonin on the nocturnal expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3, and GnRH receptors subtypes 1c, 2a and 2b was also demonstrated. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of melatonin affected the expression of hypophysiotrophic GnRH forms and GnRH receptors that exhibit day–night fluctuations, suggesting that exogenous melatonin reinforce physiological mechanisms already established. These interactions between melatoninergic and GnRH systems could be mediating photoperiod effects on reproductive and other rhythmic physiological events in the European sea bass.

  7. The influence of different dietary energy content and feeding regimes on growth and feed utilization of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.

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    Pier Paolo Gatta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing importance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax in aquaculture underlines the need to optimize the feeding strategy for this fish species. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary energy content and feeding regime on growth performance, feed uti- lization and feeding costs for European sea bass. Seven hundreds and forthyfourfish(averageinitial forthyfourfish(averageinitial four fish ( average initial body weight 68g were randomly allocated into twelve tanks 800 l in a closed recirculation system (water temperature: 22°C; dissolved oxygen ≥90% of saturation. Three isoproteic (47% crude protein extruded diets were formulated with different lipid levels i.e. 16% (diet D16, 24% (diet D24 and 32% (diet D32 and each diet was fed at two different feeding regimes (satiation and 80% satiation accord- ing to a bifactorial experimental design. Feed intake (FI was recorded daily. After 77 days, fish were bulk weighed and growth, SGR and FCR were calculated. Feedingregimesaffectedall theanalysed Feeding regimes affected all the analysed parameters (P<0.05, whereas diet influenced only FCR, FI, protein and lipid intake and the economic efficiency ratio (EER. Fish fed the lowest energy content diet (D16 to satiation resulted in the highest feed intake, a FCR similar to that of fish fed diets D24 and D32 and in the lowest EER.

  8. Cage culture of sea bass in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    The article discusses the cage culture practice of sea bass (Lates calcarifer) in Malaysia. Problems on feed and seed supply and overcrowding are also discussed. Despite these problems, seabass cage culture still continuously booms.

  9. Developmental expression of DAX1 in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax: lack of evidence for sexual dimorphism during sex differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Power Deborah M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DAX1 (NR0B1, a member of the nuclear receptors super family, has been shown to be involved in the genetic sex determination and in gonadal differentiation in several vertebrate species. In the aquaculture fish European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and in the generality of fish species, the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation have not been elucidated. The present study aimed at characterizing the European DAX1 gene and its developmental expression at the mRNA level. Methods A full length European sea bass DAX1 cDNA (sbDAX1 was isolated by screening a testis cDNA library. The structure of the DAX1 gene was determined by PCR and Southern blot. Multisequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis were used to compare the translated sbDAX1 product to that of other vertebrates. sbDAX1 expression was analysed by Northern blot and relative RT-PCR in adult tissues. Developmental expression of mRNA levels was analysed in groups of larvae grown either at 15°C or 20°C (masculinising temperature during the first 60 days, or two groups of fish selected for fast (mostly females and slow growth. Results The sbDAX1 is expressed as a single transcript in testis and ovary encoding a predicted protein of 301 amino acids. A polyglutamine stretch of variable length in different DAX1 proteins is present in the DNA binding domain. The sbDAX1 gene is composed of two exons, separated by a single 283 bp intron with conserved splice sites in same region of the ligand binding domain as other DAX1 genes. sbDAX1 mRNA is not restricted to the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis and is also detected in the gut, heart, gills, muscle and kidney. sbDAX1 mRNA was detected as early as 4 days post hatching (dph and expression was not affected by incubation temperature. Throughout gonadal sex differentiation (60–300 dph no dimorphic pattern of expression was observed. Conclusion The sbDAX1 gene and putative protein coding region is highly conserved

  10. Loss of genetic variation in Greek hatchery populations of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. as revealed by microsatellite DNA analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. LOUKOVITIS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation in four reared stocks of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L., originating from Greek commercial farms, was assessed using five polymorphic microsatellite markers and was compared with that of three natural populations from Greece and France. The total number of alleles per marker ranged from 8 to 22 alleles, and hatchery samples showed the same levels of observed heterozygosity with samples from the wild but substantially smaller allelic richness and expected heterozygosity. The genetic differentiation of cultivated samples between them as well as from the wild origin fish was significant as indicated by Fst analysis. All population pairwise comparisons were statistically significant, except for the pair of the two natural Greek populations. Results of microsatellite DNA analysis herein showed a 37 % reduction of the mean allele number in the hatchery samples compared to the wild ones, suggesting random genetic drift and inbreeding events operating in the hatcheries. Knowledge of the genetic variation in D. labrax cultured populations compared with that in the wild ones is essential for setting up appropriate guidelines for proper monitoring and management of the stocks either under traditional practices or for the implementation of selective breeding programmes.

  11. Interactive effect of high environmental ammonia and nutritional status on ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) acclimated to reduced seawater salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Pipralia, Nitin; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the interactive effect of ammonia toxicity, salinity challenge and nutritional status on the ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were progressively acclimated to normal seawater (32ppt), to brackish water (20ppt and 10ppt) and to hyposaline water (2.5ppt). Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20mg/L ∼1.18mM representing 50% of 96h LC50 value for ammonia) for 12h, 48h, 84h and 180h, and were either fed (2% body weight) or fasted (unfed for 7 days prior to HEA exposure). Biochemical responses such as ammonia (Jamm) and urea excretion rate, plasma ammonia, urea and lactate, plasma ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) and osmolality, muscle water content (MWC) and liver and muscle energy budget (glycogen, lipid and protein), as well as branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and H(+)-ATPase activity, and branchial mRNA expression of NKA and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC1) were investigated in order to understand metabolic and ion- osmoregulatory consequences of the experimental conditions. During HEA, Jamm was inhibited in fasted fish at 10ppt, while fed fish were still able to excrete efficiently. At 2.5ppt, both feeding groups subjected to HEA experienced severe reductions and eventually a reversion in Jamm. Overall, the build-up of plasma ammonia in HEA exposed fed fish was much lower than fasted ones. Unlike fasted fish, fed fish acclimated to lower salinities (10ppt-2.5ppt) could maintain plasma osmolality, [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and MWC during HEA exposure. Thus fed fish were able to sustain ion-osmotic homeostasis which was associated with a more pronounced up-regulation in NKA expression and activity. At 2.5ppt both feeding groups activated H(+)-ATPase. The expression of NKCC1 was down-regulated at lower salinities in both fed and fasted fish, but was upregulated within each salinity after a few days of HEA exposure. Though an

  12. DNA methylation of the gonadal aromatase (cyp19a promoter is involved in temperature-dependent sex ratio shifts in the European sea bass.

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    Laia Navarro-Martín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex ratio shifts in response to temperature are common in fish and reptiles. However, the mechanism linking temperature during early development and sex ratios has remained elusive. We show in the European sea bass (sb, a fish in which temperature effects on sex ratios are maximal before the gonads form, that juvenile males have double the DNA methylation levels of females in the promoter of gonadal aromatase (cyp19a, the enzyme that converts androgens into estrogens. Exposure to high temperature increased the cyp19a promoter methylation levels of females, indicating that induced-masculinization involves DNA methylation-mediated control of aromatase gene expression, with an observed inverse relationship between methylation levels and expression. Although different CpGs within the sb cyp19a promoter exhibited different sensitivity to temperature, we show that the increased methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter, which occurs in the gonads but not in the brain, is not a generalized effect of temperature. Importantly, these effects were also observed in sexually undifferentiated fish and were not altered by estrogen treatment. Thus, methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter is the cause of the lower expression of cyp19a in temperature-masculinized fish. In vitro, induced methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter suppressed the ability of SF-1 and Foxl2 to stimulate transcription. Finally, a CpG differentially methylated by temperature and adjacent to a Sox transcription factor binding site is conserved across species. Thus, DNA methylation of the aromatase promoter may be an essential component of the long-sought-after mechanism connecting environmental temperature and sex ratios in vertebrate species with temperature-dependent sex determination.

  13. Acceleration performance of individual European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax measured with a sprint performance chamber: comparison with high-speed cinematography and correlates with ecological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamm, Joshua P; Marras, Stefano; Claireaux, Guy; Handelsman, Corey A; Nelson, Jay A

    2012-01-01

    Locomotor performance can influence the ecological and evolutionary success of a species. For fish, favorable outcomes of predator-prey encounters are often presumably due to robust acceleration ability. Although escape-response or "fast-start" studies utilizing high-speed cinematography are prevalent, little is known about the contribution of relative acceleration performance to ecological or evolutionary success in a species. This dearth of knowledge may be due to the time-consuming nature of analyzing film, which imposes a practical limit on sample sizes. Herein, we present a high-throughput potential alternative for measuring fish acceleration performance using a sprint performance chamber (SPC). The acceleration performance of a large number of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from two populations was analyzed. Animals from both hatchery and natural ontogenies were assessed, and animals of known acceleration ability had their ecological performance measured in a mesocosm environment. Individuals from one population also had their acceleration performance assessed by both high-speed cinematography and an SPC. Acceleration performance measured in an SPC was lower than that measured by classical high-speed video techniques. However, short-term repeatability and interindividual variation of acceleration performance were similar between the two techniques, and the SPC recorded higher sprint swimming velocities. Wild fish were quicker to accelerate in an SPC and had significantly greater accelerations than all groups of hatchery-raised fish. Acceleration performance had no significant effect on ecological performance (as assessed through animal growth and survival in the mesocosms). However, it is worth noting that wild animals did survive predation in the mesocosm better than farmed ones. Moreover, the hatchery-originated fish that survived the mesocosm experiment, when no predators were present, displayed significantly increased acceleration

  14. Nutritional Status as the Key Modulator of Antioxidant Responses Induced by High Environmental Ammonia and Salinity Stress in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Asard, Han; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    Salinity fluctuation is one of the main factors affecting the overall fitness of marine fish. In addition, water borne ammonia may occur simultaneously with salinity stress. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may encounter food deprivation. The physiological and ion-osmo regulatory adaptive capacities to cope with all these stressors alone or in combination are extensively addressed in fish. To date, studies revealing the modulation of antioxidant potential as compensatory response to multiple stressors are rather lacking. Therefore, the present work evaluated the individual and combined effects of salinity challenge, ammonia toxicity and nutritional status on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in a marine teleost, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were acclimated to normal seawater (32 ppt), to brackish water (20 ppt and 10 ppt) and to hypo-saline water (2.5 ppt). Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20 mg/L representing 50% of 96h LC50 value for ammonia) for 12 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h, and were either fed (2% body weight) or fasted (unfed for 7 days prior to HEA exposure). Results show that in response to decreasing salinities, oxidative stress indices such as xanthine oxidase activity, levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) increased in the hepatic tissue of fasted fish but remained unaffected in fed fish. HEA exposure at normal salinity (32 ppt) and at reduced salinities (20 ppt and 10 ppt) increased ammonia accumulation significantly (84 h-180 h) in both feeding regimes which was associated with an increment of H2O2 and MDA contents. Unlike in fasted fish, H2O2 and MDA levels in fed fish were restored to control levels (84 h-180 h); with a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and

  15. Effects of the total replacement of fish-based diet with plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of two European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax half-sibfamilies showing different growth rates with the plant-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geay Florian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts towards utilisation of diets without fish meal (FM or fish oil (FO in finfish aquaculture have been being made for more than two decades. Metabolic responses to substitution of fishery products have been shown to impact growth performance and immune system of fish as well as their subsequent nutritional value, particularly in marine fish species, which exhibit low capacity for biosynthesis of long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. The main objective of the present study was to analyse the effects of a plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax. Results We report the first results obtained using a transcriptomic approach on the liver of two half-sibfamilies of the European sea bass that exhibit similar growth rates when fed a fish-based diet (FD, but significantly different growth rates when fed an all-plant diet (VD. Overall gene expression was analysed using oligo DNA microarrays (GPL9663. Statistical analysis identified 582 unique annotated genes differentially expressed between groups of fish fed the two diets, 199 genes regulated by genetic factors, and 72 genes that exhibited diet-family interactions. The expression of several genes involved in the LC-PUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways was found to be up-regulated in fish fed VD, suggesting a stimulation of the lipogenic pathways. No significant diet-family interaction for the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathways could be detected by microarray analysis. This result was in agreement with LC-PUFA profiles, which were found to be similar in the flesh of the two half-sibfamilies. In addition, the combination of our transcriptomic data with an analysis of plasmatic immune parameters revealed a stimulation of complement activity associated with an immunodeficiency in the fish fed VD, and different inflammatory status between the two half-sibfamilies. Biological processes related to protein

  16. Combining telephone surveys and fishing catches self-report: the French sea bass recreational fishery assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickaël; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools.

  17. Combining telephone surveys and fishing catches self-report: the French sea bass recreational fishery assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Rocklin

    Full Text Available Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools.

  18. n-TiO{sub 2} and CdCl{sub 2} co-exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles and cadmium: Genomic, DNA and chromosomal damage evaluation in the marine fish European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, M.; Bernardeschi, M. [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Costagliola, D. [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Caserta (Italy); Della Torre, C. [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Siena (Italy); Frenzilli, G., E-mail: giada@biomed.unipi.it [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Guidi, P.; Lucchesi, P. [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Mottola, F.; Santonastaso, M. [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Caserta (Italy); Scarcelli, V. [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Monaci, F.; Corsi, I. [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Siena (Italy); Stingo, V.; Rocco, L. [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Caserta (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • European sea bass was exposed to CdCl{sub 2} and n-TiO{sub 2} alone and in combination. • Genotoxicity was evaluated by RAPD-assay, comet assay and cytome assay. • CdCl{sub 2} induced DNA primary damage but not chromosomal damage. • n-TiO{sub 2} induced chromosomal damage but not DNA primary damage. • Co-exposure effects depend on the biomarker used. - Abstract: Due to the large production and growing use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n-TiO{sub 2}), their release in the marine environment and their potential interaction with existing toxic contaminants represent a growing concern for biota. Different end-points of genotoxicity were investigated in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax exposed to n-TiO{sub 2} (1 mg L{sup −1}) either alone and combined with CdCl{sub 2} (0.1 mg L{sup −1}) for 7 days. DNA primary damage (comet assay), apoptotic cells (diffusion assay), occurrence of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities (cytome assay) were assessed in peripheral erythrocytes and genomic stability (random amplified polymorphism DNA-PCR, RAPD assay) in muscle tissue. Results showed that genome template stability was reduced after CdCl{sub 2} and n-TiO{sub 2} exposure. Exposure to n-TiO{sub 2} alone was responsible for chromosomal alteration but ineffective in terms of DNA damage; while the opposite was observed in CdCl{sub 2} exposed specimens. Co-exposure apparently prevents the chromosomal damage and leads to a partial recovery of the genome template stability.

  19. Vibrio lentus protects gnotobiotic sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae against challenge with Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, M; Duchateau, L; Van den Broeck, W; Van Trappen, S; De Vos, P; Coulombet, C; Boon, N; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2016-03-15

    Due to the mounting awareness of the risks associated with the use of antibiotics in aquaculture, treatment with probiotics has recently emerged as the preferred environmental-friendly prophylactic approach in marine larviculture. However, the presence of unknown and variable microbiota in fish larvae makes it impossible to disentangle the efficacy of treatment with probiotics. In this respect, the recent development of a germ-free culture model for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae opened the door for more controlled studies on the use of probiotics. In the present study, 206 bacterial isolates, retrieved from sea bass larvae and adults, were screened in vitro for haemolytic activity, bile tolerance and antagonistic activity against six sea bass pathogens. Subsequently, the harmlessness and the protective effect of the putative probiotic candidates against the sea bass pathogen Vibrio harveyi were evaluated in vivo adopting the previously developed germ-free sea bass larval model. An equivalence trial clearly showed that no harmful effect on larval survival was elicited by all three selected probiotic candidates: Bacillus sp. LT3, Vibrio lentus and Vibrio proteolyticus. Survival of Vibrio harveyi challenged larvae treated with V. lentus was superior in comparison with the untreated challenged group, whereas this was not the case for the larvae supplemented with Bacillus sp. LT3 and V. proteolyticus. In this respect, our results unmistakably revealed the protective effect of V. lentus against vibriosis caused by V. harveyi in gnotobiotic sea bass larvae, rendering this study the first in its kind. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Farmed and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) volatile metabolites: a comparative study by SPME-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Natalia P; Manzanos, María J; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Guillén, María D

    2016-03-15

    Farmed and wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) could be distinguished by its volatile metabolites, an issue not addressed until now. The aim of this work was to study these metabolites by solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Both farmed and wild sea bass have a great number of volatile metabolites, most of them being in low concentrations. These include alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, alkylfurans, acids, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, terpenes, sulfur and nitrogen derivatives, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol and one derived compound, as well as 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol, this latter compound presumably resulting from environmental contamination. Important differences have been detected between both types of sea bass, and also among individuals inside each group. Farmed specimens are richer in volatile metabolites than the wild counterparts; however, these latter, in general, contain a high number and abundance of metabolites resulting from microbial and enzymatic non-oxidative activity than the former. Clear differences in the volatile metabolites of wild and farmed sea bass have been found. A great deal of valuable information on sea bass volatile metabolites has been obtained, which can be useful in understanding certain aspects of the quality and safety of raw and processed sea bass. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Pyrosequencing survey of intestinal microbiota diversity in cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed functional diets.

    OpenAIRE

    Carda Diéguez, Miguel; Mira, Alex; Fouz Rodríguez, Belén

    2014-01-01

    The routine use of chemotherapy to control bacterial diseases in aquatic populations has resulted in the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The inclusion of immunostimulants in fish diets (functional diets) is one of the main strategies to solve this threat. This study aimed to analyse the intestinal microbiota of cultured European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed two functional diets applying pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. Quality-filtered reads were assigned...

  2. Husbandry streaa during early life stages affects the stress response and health status of juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varsamos, S.; Flik, G.; Pepin, S.E.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Breuil, G.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In aquaculture management it is important to establish objective criteria to assess health and welfare of the fish. Here we show that European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) confronted with husbandry-associated stress (tank cleaning, i.e. scrubbing, and water temperature variation) during

  3. Effects of herbal supplements on growth performance of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax: Change in body composition and some blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVDAN YILMAZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary thyme (Thymus vulgaris, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum as feed additives on growth performance, proximate composition and ammonia excretion of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein and isocaloric (21 kj/g diets were formulated to contain 0% (control or 1% of thyme, rosemary or fenugreek. The thyme supplementation significantly increased protein efficiency ratio, fillet protein levels, protein and energy retentions (P0.05. The results indicate that dietary thyme improved the protein and energy retentions of sea bass.

  4. 75 FR 17618 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Recreational Fishery; Emergency Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Analyst, (978) 281-9104. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Correction Rule NMFS published an emergency rule to... reconsider their previous recommendations regarding the Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC) for black sea bass for the 2010 fishing year. The SSC concluded that the ABC for black sea bass could be increased from 2...

  5. Four types of neoplasms in Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and observe four types of neoplasms on different parts (external and internal organs of an Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer. Methods: The sample was collected from local fish landing center (south east coast of India. Histopathology of normal and tumour tissues were analyzed. Results: A total of 83 tumour masses (neoplasm were recorded on the fish skin, also the neoplasms were recorded in internal organs of fish such as liver, stomach and ovary. Conclusions: Aetiology of such neoplasm’s are unknown, further more researches need to confirm the causative agent for this type of neoplasm.

  6. Otolith Sr concentration analyzed by PIXE in Ariake estuary-dependent sea bass juveniles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Taro; Arai, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Masaru; Yoshida, Koji

    1997-01-01

    Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) is a typical euryhaline marine fish and frequently migrates from salt to freshwater environments during early life stages. We hypothesized that strontium concentrations in the otolith could be a useful index to examine freshwater entry because of its lower concentration in freshwater. Otoliths of Japanese sea bass juveniles collected in the Chikugo river and estuary were analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) to see relationship between strontium concentration and ambient salinity. Strontium concentrations in otoliths of sea bass juveniles are significantly lower in the river samples than in brackish water samples. (author)

  7. Ocean acidification impacts on black sea bass and scup embryos, responses of finfish in laboratory experiments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) and scup (Stenotomus chrysops) compose important recreational and commercial fisheries along the United States Atlantic coast....

  8. Sound of Paddle Wheel on Sea Bass Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafri Din

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is sound effect for brackish water for Sea bass (Cynoscion nobilis. Breeding farm 25x100m, 2m of depth, and 6 paddle wheels which generate the sound are available for research. Sound profile has been measured to investigate the amplitude at various measurement points at various depths by using Cetacean hydrophone C304. The output of hydrophone has been analyzed by using SpectraPlus software. For the second measurement, two cages which size 3x3m have been used for life fish habitat. Then, fish put in the edge cage (20, center cage (20, and out of cage (12500. Sound profile has been measured for position-based (edge/center cage, time-based (morning/noon/evening, and point-based. Time series, spectrum frequency, and phase have been analysis. Fish growth progress has been monthly measured at every cage. Fish in the cage is growth as linearly, while fish growth for out of cage is exponentially. Size and weight of fish in the both cages is less than out of cage. This research concludes that sound have no significantly effect for fish growth. Limited mobility to look for food and stress are more influences to fish growth than sound effect.

  9. Embryonic development of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Patricia; Sucré, Elliott; Santos, Raphaël; Leclère, Jeremy; Charmantier, Guy; Castille, René

    2012-06-01

    The embryonic development of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax during the endotrophic period is discussed. An 8 cells stage, not reported for other studied species, results from two rapid successive cleavages. Blastula occurs at the eighth division when the embryo is made of 128 cells. During gastrulation, the infolded blastoderm creates the endomesoblastic layer. The Kupffer's vesicle is reported to drive the left/right patterning of brain, heart and digestive tract. Heart formation starts at 8 pairs of somites, differentiation of myotomes and sclerotomes starts at the stage 18 pairs of somites; main parts of the digestive tract are entirely formed at 25 pairs of somites. At 28 pairs of somites, a rectal region is detected, however, the digestive tube is closed at both ends, the jaw appears the fourth day after hatching, but the mouth is not opened before the fifth day. Although cardiac beating and blood circulation are observed, gills are not reported in newly hatched individuals; eye melanization appears concomitant with exotrophic behavior.

  10. Gamma irradiation prolongs the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L) storage and delays the lipids membrane degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkallah, Insaf; Mahjoub, Abdelmajid; Cheour, F.

    2005-01-01

    Sea bass have been submitted to gamma rays radiation at doses 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 KGy at 0,087KGY/min rate and stored during 21 days at 1 0 C to evaluate the effects on the development of microorganisms as well as on the conservation and the degradation of membranes lipids Microbiological analysis has revealed only the presence of mesophils germs in muscles which are totally eliminated at dose 4 KGy. The presence of psychrophiles, halophiles, coliformes, fecaux and totals, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium sulfutoreducteurs has been noted in the visceres of sea bass. They are completely eliminated at dose 1KGy. Contents in nitrogen basic fowl (ABVT) and in trimethylamine (TMA), as well as the pH increase during storage of fish in relation with the reduction of phospholipids, the diminution of the degree of insaturation of the phospholipids and the free fat acidic fraction, and the increase of the report sterols on phospholipids. The irradiation to gamma rays allows to slow these changes and consequently reduced the deterioration of the sea bass. We conclude that the irradiation to gamma rays could have prolong the conservation of sea bass sea bass by preserving probably lipids membranes of the degradation and by inhibiting the development of microorganisms

  11. 77 FR 60945 - 2012-2013 Accountability Measure and Closure for Commercial Black Sea Bass in the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 0907271173-0629-03] RIN 0648-XC152 2012-2013 Accountability Measure and Closure for Commercial Black Sea Bass... accountability measure (AM) for the commercial sector of black sea bass in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of...

  12. SeaBASS 2012: A Marine BioAcoustics Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    accepted from six different countries (USA & Puerto Rico, Italy, United Kingdom, Greece, Canada, and Austria). Advertising for SeaBASS was published...there was so much good and varied information in all the lectures, I would have to give it to Paul for his storytelling . • Paul Nachtigall’s lecture

  13. 77 FR 76942 - 2013-2014 Summer Flounder and Scup Specifications; 2013 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (IRFA), and other supporting documents used by the Summer Flounder, Scup, and... http://www.nero.noaa.gov . The Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (FRFA) consists of the IRFA... Specifications Summer Flounder Scup Black Sea Bass 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 ABC million lb 22.34 22.24 38.71 35...

  14. New insights into the factors mediating the onset of puberty in sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espigares, F; Rocha, A; Molés, G; Gómez, A; Carrillo, M; Zanuy, S

    2015-12-01

    In populations of 1-year-old male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), only large males are able to acquire for the first time a functional competence of their reproductive axis; in other words, to attain puberty. To examine the causes and mechanisms involved in the onset of puberty in this species, a size sorting sampling was carried out to obtain two experimental groups of small and large male fish exhibiting different growth rates. As expected, only large fish reached full spermiogenesis (stage V of testicular development) by the end of the experiment. Our study suggests that fish size is a permissive condition to ensure full effectiveness of the hormonal (Gnrh1, gonadotropins and sexual steroids) actions. Thus, though small fish had endocrine profiles similar to those of large fish, their amplitude was much lower, and was most likely the reason why functional competence of the reproductive axis was not achieved. Moreover, this work provides evidence of the involvement of kisspeptin and Gnrh1 systems in the onset of puberty in a marine teleost fish. It also indicates that very likely kisspeptin and Gnrh1 may regulate gonadotropins and sex steroids at specific stages of testicular development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 76 FR 82189 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ..., 200,000 lb (90,718 kg) of butterfish, and 200,000 lb (90,718 kg) of bluefish. Project awards are... species, including summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, longfin squid, butterfish, and Atlantic bluefish...

  16. Quality changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with lemongrass essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mehraj; Benjakul, Soottawat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash

    2012-04-16

    Microbiological, chemical and physical changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with 25% (w/w) lemongrass essential oil (LEO) during storage of 12 days at 4 °C were investigated. Sea bass slices wrapped with LEO film had the retarded growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), psychrophilic bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including H₂S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae throughout storage of 12 days in comparison with the control and those wrapped with gelatin film without LEO (G film) (P<0.05). Lowered changes of colour, K value, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB) and TBARS value were also found in LEO film wrapped samples, compared with those wrapped with G film and control, respectively. Therefore, the incorporation of LEO into gelatin film could enhance the antimicrobial and antioxidative properties of the film, thereby maintaining the qualities and extending the shelf-life of the sea bass slices stored at refrigerated temperature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 77 FR 28305 - Temporary Rule To Delay Start Date of 2012-2013 South Atlantic Black Sea Bass Commercial Fishing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    .... 120501426-2426-01] RIN 0648-BB98 Temporary Rule To Delay Start Date of 2012-2013 South Atlantic Black Sea... this temporary rule to delay the start date of the 2012-2013 fishing season for the commercial black... temporary rule delays the start date of the 2012-2013 commercial fishing season for black sea bass from June...

  18. Effect of different dose gamma radiation and refrigeration on the chemical and sensory properties and microbiological status of aqua cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozden, Ozkan; Inugur, Muege; Erkan, Nuray

    2007-01-01

    Quality and shelf life of non-irradiated and irradiated (2.5 and 5kGy) sea bass in ice conditions and stored at +4 deg. C were investigated by measurement in microbiological, chemical sensory analyses. Microbial counts for non-irradiated sea bass samples were higher than irradiated fish. Among chemical indicators of spoilage, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) values increased to 36.44mg/100g for non-irradiated sea bass during iced storage, whereas for irradiated fish lower values of 25.26mg/100g and 23.61mg/100g were recorded at 2.5 and 5kGy, respectively (day 17). Trimethylamine (TMA-N) values and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values for irradiated samples were lower than that for non-irradiated samples. Acceptability scores for odour, taste and texture of cooked sea bass decreased with storage time. The sensory scores of sea bass stored in control and 2.5-5kGy at +4 deg. C were 13 and 15 days, respectively. The results obtained from this study showed that the shelf life of sea bass stored in ice, as determined by overall acceptability of all data, is 13 days for non-irradiated sea bass and 15 days for 2.5kGy irradiated and 17 days for 5kGy irradiated sea bass

  19. Effect of in vitro exposure to cadmium and copper on sea bass blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Arizza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood cells freshly collected from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu at 10-7 M, 10-5 M, 10-3 M, and exam- ined for neutral red retention capacity and for cell vitality with MTT assay. A relationship between heavy metal exposure and alteration in responses of blood cells in a dose-time-dependent was found. Our results showed that fish blood cells may constitute an interesting biological model for experimen- tal and applied toxicology, especially in the case of environmental pollution.

  20. [Gonadal ontogenesis and sex differentiation in the sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, under fish-farming conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roblin, C; Bruslé, J

    1983-01-01

    The histology of the different stages of gonadal development (appearance of PGC, edification of gonad primordium, organization of an undifferentiated gonad, testicular or ovarian development) has been studied in fingerlings and juveniles of sea-bass in fish-culture conditions. Sex differentiation with a caudo-cranial gradient was direct and more in accordance with length than with age. Ovarian and testicular differentiation occurred in fish 11 to 23 months old and from 90 to 187 mm SL. Testis ova were frequently observed.

  1. Pea protein concentrate as a substitute for fish meal protein in sea bass diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Badini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea seeds, even if lower in protein than oilseed meals, have been shown to successfully replace moderate amounts of fish meal protein in diets for carnivorous fish species (Kaushik et al., 1993, Gouveia and Davies, 2000. A further processing of such pulses provides concentrated protein products which look very promising as fish meal substitutes in aquafeeds (Thiessen et al., 2003. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutrient digestibility, growth response, nutrient and energy retention efficiencies and whole body composition of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. fed complete diets in which a pea protein concentrate (PPC was used to replace graded levels of fish meal protein.

  2. Cellular and molecular immune responses of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) experimentally infected with betanodavirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scapigliati, G.; Buonocore, F.; Randelli, E.

    2010-01-01

    and acquired responses: type I IFN, Mx, IL-1, Cox-2; IL-10, TGF-β, TCRβ, CD4, CD8α, IgM, by using a quantitative PCR array system developed for sea bass. The obtained results showed a detectable increase of T cells and B cells in PBL during betanodavirus infection. Furthermore, leucocytes obtained from blood...... was also observed, while the other tested genes did not show any significant variations with respect to mock-treated fish. Overall, our work represents a first comprehensive analysis of cellular and molecular immune parameters in a fish species exposed to a pathogenic virus....

  3. Is the kisspeptin system involved in responses to food restriction in order to preserve reproduction in pubertal male sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Sebastián; Felip, Alicia; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Previous works on European sea bass have determined that long-term exposure to restrictive feeding diets alters the rhythms of some reproductive/metabolic hormones, delaying maturation and increasing apoptosis during gametogenesis. However, exactly how these diets affect key genes and hormones on the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis to trigger puberty is still largely unknown. We may hypothesize that all these signals could be integrated, at least in part, by the kisspeptin system. In order to capture a glimpse of these regulatory mechanisms, kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression levels and those of their kiss receptors (kiss1r, kiss2r) were analyzed in different areas of the brain and in the pituitary of pubertal male sea bass during gametogenesis. Furthermore, other reproductive hormones and factors as well as the percentage of males showing full spermiation were also analyzed. Treated fish fed maintenance diets provided evidence of overexpression of the kisspeptin system in the main hypophysiotropic regions of the brain throughout the entire sexual cycle. Conversely, Gnrh1 and gonadotropin pituitary content and plasma sexual steroid levels were downregulated, except for Fsh levels, which were shown to increase during spermiation. Treated fish exhibited lower rates of spermiation as compared to control group and a delay in its accomplishment. These results demonstrate how the kisspeptin system and plasma Fsh levels are differentially affected by maintenance diets, causing a retardation, but not a full blockage of the reproductive process in the teleost fish European sea bass. This suggests that a hormonal adaptive strategy may be operating in order to preserve reproductive function in this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. First isolation of Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida from diseased sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L., cultured in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fernández-Álvarez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work represents the first description of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida as causative agent of furunculosis in cultured sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.. Cumulative mortality in affected fish from two floating cages in the Mediterranean coast of Spain was 3.8%. Affected sea bass did not show the typical external signs of furunculosis in the first stages of the disease, however, when the disease progressed, open ulcers appeared on the skin and muscle. Internally, splenomegaly was the only pathological sign observed. Samples from diseased fish were subjected to standardized assays for pathogens screening. Negative results were obtained for parasites and fish viruses. A Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped bacterium was observed in smears from liver, kidney and spleen of all analysed fish. Pure bacterial cultures were recovered from liver, kidney and spleen of all diseased fish sampled during the two different outbreaks. Bacteriological, serological, molecular and chemotaxonomic analysis allowed the identification of the causative agent of sea bass mortalities as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The bacterial strains were susceptible to most of antimicrobial agents usually employed in aquaculture except to oxytetracycline. Pathogenicity assays demonstrated that the isolated bacteria were virulent for sea bass, turbot and rainbow trout.

  5. 77 FR 68723 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... flounder, scup, black sea bass, longfin squid, butterfish, and Atlantic bluefish fisheries. If the total... of butterfish; and 715,830 lb of bluefish. For 2014, projects may collectively be awarded up to 587... Atlantic bluefish, and assessment-quality data for weakfish, Atlantic croaker, spot, several skate and ray...

  6. 75 FR 70192 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... squid, butterfish, and Atlantic bluefish fisheries. If the total amount of RSA is not awarded, NMFS will...; 727,527 lb (330 mt) of Loligo squid; 818,790 lb (371 mt) of bluefish; and 33,069 lb (15 mt) of... stock assessment data for summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, Loligo squid, butterfish, bluefish...

  7. The partial substitution of digestible protein with gelatinized starch as an energy source reduces susceptibility to lipid oxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M J; López-Bote, C J; Diez, A; Corraze, G; Arzel, J; Dias, J; Kaushik, S J; Bautista, J M

    1999-12-01

    We evaluated the influence of dietary gelatinized starch and protein on the fatty acid composition of muscle in rainbow trout and European sea bass and on the susceptibility of flesh to lipid peroxidation. The possibility that flesh peroxidation could be accounted for by lipogenesis and the deposition of fat was also explored. The inclusion of gelatinized starch in the diet of rainbow trout improved growth with respect to that observed in fish fed crude starch (Ptrout led to a lower concentration of total (n-3) (P = .0457) and (n-6) (P = .0522) fatty acids and a higher concentration of total monounsaturated fatty acids (P = .0006). The inclusion of gelatinized starch led to a lower concentration of (n-3) fatty acids (P = .0034) and a higher concentration of saturated fatty acids (P = .0007). The polar fraction was hardly affected by the same treatment. A significantly lower susceptibility of the dorsal muscle to oxidation was observed in groups of European sea bass fed gelatinized starch (Ptrout, although differences were not significant. The findings suggest that the digestible protein concentration of nutrient-dense diets for rainbow trout and European sea bass can be reduced with a beneficial effect on tissue lipid oxidation and no negative effects on growth and muscle composition.

  8. Establishing nursery estuary otolith geochemical tags for Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Is temporal stability estuary dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Diarmuid; Wögerbauer, Ciara; Roche, William

    2016-12-01

    The ability to determine connectivity between juveniles in nursery estuaries and adult populations is an important tool for fisheries management. Otoliths of juvenile fish contain geochemical tags, which reflect the variation in estuarine elemental chemistry, and allow discrimination of their natal and/or nursery estuaries. These tags can be used to investigate connectivity patterns between juveniles and adults. However, inter-annual variability of geochemical tags may limit the accuracy of nursery origin determinations. Otolith elemental composition was used to assign a single cohort of 0-group sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax to their nursery estuary thus establishing an initial baseline for stocks in waters around Ireland. Using a standard LDFA model, high classification accuracies to nursery sites (80-88%) were obtained. Temporal stability of otolith geochemical tags was also investigated to assess if annual sampling is required for connectivity studies. Geochemical tag stability was found to be strongly estuary dependent.

  9. Expression and localization of Aquaporin 1a in the sea-bass (Dicentrarchus labrax during ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone eGiffard-Mena

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The successful establishment of a species in a given habitat depends on the ability of each of its developing stages to adapt to the environment. In order to understand this process we have studied the adaptation of a euryhaline fish, the sea-bass Dicentrarchus labrax, to various salinities during its ontogeny. The expression and localization of Aquaporin 1a (AQP1a mRNA and protein were determined in different osmoregulatory tissues. In larvae, the sites of AQP1a expression are variable and they shift according to age, implying functional changes. In juveniles after metamorphosis (D32-48 post hatch, 15 - 25 mm and in pre-adults, an increase in AQP1a transcript abundance was noted in the digestive tract, and the AQP1a location was observed in the intestine. In juveniles (D87-100 post hatch, 38 - 48 mm, the transcript levels of AQP1a in the digestive tract and in the kidney were higher in sea water than at lower salinity. These observations, in agreement with existing models, suggest that in sea water-acclimated fish, the imbibed water is absorbed via AQP1a through the digestive tract, particularly the intestine and the rectum. In addition, AQP1a may play a role in water reabsorption in the kidney. These mechanisms compensate dehydratation in sea water, and they contribute to the adaptation of juveniles to salinity changes during sea-lagoon migrations. These results contribute to the interpretation of the adaptation of populations to habitats where salinity varies.

  10. Impact of a plant-based diet on behavioural and physiological traits in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    OpenAIRE

    Benhaim, David; Begout, Marie-laure; Pean, Samuel; Manca, Michael; Prunet, Patrick; Chatain, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    Replacing aquaculture feeds based on fisheries-derived resources with plant-based diets could be a relevant strategy to improve the sustainability of aquaculture. Recent studies on sea bass have shown that the total and early replacement of marine products by plant products would have a moderate effect on fish growth and body lipid content. Whether a plant-based diet impacts behavioural and physiological traits possibly linked to fish welfare, is not known, however. Here, we studied the effec...

  11. Characterization of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Bacillus cereus and Brachybacterium sp. Isolated from Asian Sea Bass (Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Orsod

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: EPS extracted from marine bacteria, which associated with Asian sea bass has potential antimicrobial activities.Methodology and Results: Two marine Bacteria were isolated from Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer obtained from aquaculture farm, located at Johor bahru Malaysia. 16S rRNA analysis for bacteria identity revealed that bacteria ors1 had 99 % identity to Bacillus cereus and ors2 had 96 % identity with Brachybacterium sp. All bacteria shared many similarities and variation in terms of biochemical reactions and microscopic observation. Exopolysaccharides (EPSs were extracted and purified from bacteria as they produced mucous colonies. Average analysis of EPS components showed 50 % carbohydrates, 26 % protein and 24 % fatty acids. The FTIR analysis confirmed the functional groups of the EPS. Screening for antimicrobial activities assays using Kirby-Bauer methods against both grams positive and negative had shown presence of inhibition zones.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This study recommends that bacteria isolated from Asian sea bass are having antimicrobial activities and could be used as a potential source for the development of marine drugs.

  12. Growth performance of sea bass fed increasing levels of pea-wheat protein in diets varying in fish meal quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tibaldi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A 11-week trial was carried out to compare the growth performance of sea bass (D. labrax fed six isonitrogenous isocaloric diets where protein from two fish meals of different nutritive value was replaced with graded levels (0, 50 or 75% of a mixture made up by a pea protein concentrate and wheat gluten. Fish meal quality did not affect (P>0.05 weight gain or feed efficiency in fish fed graded levels of plant protein in the diet. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05 as the level of plant protein was increased in the diet but this did not led to impaired growth or feed conversion rate. Protein efficiency and retention were equally improved (P<0.05 only with diets where a poor quality fish meal was substituted by protein rich-plant ingredients. Calculations based on the mass balance of nutrients of sea bass proven the inclusion of a mixture of highly purified plant-protein derivatives in complete diets for the sea bass, to be beneficial in reducing pollution load.

  13. Effect of long-term oral administration of an immunostimulant diet on innate immunity in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagni, M; Archetti, L; Amadori, M; Marino, G

    2000-12-01

    Immunostimulants represent a modern and promising tool in aquaculture, enhancing the resistance of cultured fish to disease and stress. This study investigated the effect of a combination of dietary glucans, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on the innate immune response of cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). After 5 weeks of adaptation on a commercial diet containing 100 p.p.m. ascorbic acid and 200 p.p.m. alpha-tocopherol, sea bass were switched to a diet supplemented with 2% beta-1.3/beta-1.6 glucans and ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol at 500 p.p.m. The supplemented diet was given at 2% of body weight per day over a 2-week period, every 3 months. Plasma lysozyme concentration, content and distribution of major plasma proteins and complement activity were measured prior to feeding the supplemented diet and after 40 weeks. Alternative pathways of complement activation and lysozyme activity were both significantly enhanced in fish fed on glucans and elevated doses of vitamins. No significant differences were observed in protein content or in albumin/globulin ratio. Compared to lysozyme activity, which showed marked individual variation, complement-mediated haemolytic activity has been shown to be a more reliable indicator of sea bass immunocompetence. Further studies are in progress to clarify the effect of each dietary component on the innate immune response and disease resistance.

  14. Consumer preferences regarding the introduction of new organic products. The case of the Mediterranean sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauracher, C; Tempesta, T; Vecchiato, D

    2013-04-01

    The introduction of new products on the market poses several challenges; in particular, whether the characteristics of the proposed product will be judged positively by potential consumers. This paper analyses the preferences of consumers regarding the introduction on the Italian market of a new product: organic Mediterranean sea bass. The aim of this study is to assess the importance given by consumers to four main characteristics of sea bass (country of origin, size, production method - organic or conventional - and price) so as to be able to formulate marketing strategies. We applied a choice experiment (CE) in order to define not only the ordinal ranking of preferences but also the willingness to pay (WTP) for the key characteristics of the newly-introduced product. We found that consumers show a higher WTP for the sea bass country of origin than for the breeding method used. Our results suggest that while organic aquaculture might be a new and important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication, either from a public policy or commercial perspective, and labelling/certification are not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by the final consumers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Infestation of gill copepod Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) and its effect on cage-cultured Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kua, B C; Noraziah, M R; Nik Rahimah, A R

    2012-09-01

    Twenty Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer from a floating cage in Bt. Tambun, Penang were examined for the presence of parasitic gill copepod, Lernanthropus latis. The prevalence of L. latis was 100% with the intensity of infection ranging from 1 to 18 parasites per host or 3.75 of mean intensity. Female parasites having oblong cephalothorax and egg-strings were seen mainly on the entire gill of examined Asian sea bass. The infected gill of Asian sea bass was pale and had eccessive mucus production. Under light and scanning electron microscopies (SEM), L. latis was seen grasping or holding tightly to the gill filament using their antenna, maxilla and maxilliped. These structures are characteristically prehensile and uncinate for the parasite to attach onto the host tissue. The damage was clearly seen under SEM as the hooked end of the antenna was embedded into the gill filament. The parasite also has the mandible which is styliform with eight teeth on the inner margin. The pathological effects such as erosion, haemorrhages, hyperplasia and necrosis along the secondary lamellae of gill filaments were seen and more severe at the attachment site. The combined actions of the antenna, maxilla and maxilliped together with the mandible resulted in extensive damage as L. latis attached and fed on the host tissues.

  16. Influence of different salting processes on the evolution of the volatile metabolites of vacuum-packed fillets of farmed and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) stored under refrigeration conditions: a study by SPME-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Natalia P; Manzanos, María J; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Guillén, María D

    2017-02-01

    Fish shelf-life extension is a topic of great interest. In this study the behaviour of salted and unsalted farmed and wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets during storage was analysed through the evolution of their volatile metabolites. Farmed and wild sea bass fillets were brine-salted for 15 or 75 min, or dry-salted, vacuum-packed and stored at 4 °C for up to 1 month, and their headspaces were studied by Solid Phase Micro extraction-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). At the same storage time, unsalted wild fillets contained, in general, a higher number and abundance of volatile compounds coming from microbiological or endogenous enzymatic activity than unsalted farmed ones. The more intense the salting, the lower the number and abundance of microbiological spoilage metabolites, especially in wild samples. The appearance of oxidation metabolites only in dry-salted wild samples evidences that this kind of salting provokes a certain oxidation in these samples. The better performance of farmed than wild fillets suggests that salted farmed fillets, vacuum-packed and stored under refrigeration conditions, could be a successful alternative to diversify the presence of sea bass in the market. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Mycobiota and Aflatoxin B1 in Feed for Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Manuel d´Almeida Bernardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The safety characteristics of feed used in fish and crustacean aquaculture systems are an essential tool to assure the productivity of those animal exploitations. Safety of feed may be affected by different hazards, including biological and chemical groups. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate fungi contamination and the presence of aflatoxins in 87 samples of feed for sea bass, collected in Portugal. Molds were found in 35 samples (40.2% in levels ranging from 1 to 3.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. Six genera of molds were found. Aspergillus flavus was the most frequent, found in all positive samples, with a range from 2 to 3.2 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus niger was found in 34 samples (39.1%, ranging from 1 to 2.7 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus glaucus was found in 26 samples (29.9% with levels between 1 and 2.4 log10 CFU∙g−1. Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp. were both found in 25 samples (28.7%. Fusarium spp. was found in 22 samples (25.3%, ranging from 1 to 2.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. All feed samples were screened for aflatoxins using a HPLC technique, with a detection limit of 1.0 μg∙kg−1. All samples were aflatoxin negative.

  18. Production of killed vaccine from Streptococcus sp. and its application in sea bass (Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanman, CH.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish with an average length of 3.0-4.0 inches vaccinated with formalin-killed vaccine of Streptococcus sp. either by intraperitoneal injection and immersion methods had a survival rate of 100% indicating that the vaccine is safe to be used with sea bass. The highest efficacy was received when the vaccine containing bacterin at 2.50x1010 CFU/ml. Injection of vaccine together with adjuvant (CFA was highly effective against Streptococcus sp. infection. The relative percent survival (RPS of fish injected with vaccine alone and vaccine plus adjuvant were 100 (10 days post vaccination, 54.06 and 92.29 (20 days post vaccination and 31.58 and 73.68 (30 days post vaccination respectively. The fish which received vaccine by hyperosmotic immersion showed higher resistance to the disease than by direct immersion with the RPS of 30.77 and 71.80 (10 days post vaccination, 9.75 and 70.73 (20 days post vaccination and 7.14 and 16.67 (30 days post vaccination for direct immersion and hyperosmotic immersion, respectively.

  19. Seafood substitutions obscure patterns of mercury contamination in Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides or "Chilean sea bass".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B Marko

    Full Text Available Seafood mislabeling distorts the true abundance of fish in the sea, defrauds consumers, and can also cause unwanted exposure to harmful pollutants. By combining genetic data with analyses of total mercury content, we have investigated how species substitutions and fishery-stock substitutions obscure mercury contamination in Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides, also known as "Chilean sea bass". Patagonian toothfish show wide variation in mercury concentrations such that consumers may be exposed to either acceptable or unacceptable levels of mercury depending on the geographic origins of the fish and the allowable limits of different countries. Most notably, stocks of Patagonian toothfish in Chile accumulate significantly more mercury than stocks closer to the South Pole, including the South Georgia/Shag Rocks stock, a fishery certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC as sustainably fished. Consistent with the documented geography of mercury contamination, our analysis showed that, on average, retail fish labeled as MSC-certified Patagonian toothfish had only half the mercury of uncertified fish. However, consideration of genetic data that were informative about seafood substitutions revealed a complex pattern of contamination hidden from consumers: species substitutions artificially inflated the expected difference in mercury levels between MSC-certified and uncertified fish whereas fishery stock substitutions artificially reduced the expected difference in mercury content between MSC-certified and uncertified fish that were actually D. eleginoides. Among MSC-certified fish that were actually D. eleginoides, several with exogenous mtDNA haplotypes (i.e., not known from the certified fishery had mercury concentrations on par with uncertified fish from Chile. Overall, our analysis of mercury was consistent with inferences from the genetic data about the geographic origins of the fish, demonstrated the potential negative impact of

  20. SeaBASS Bio-optical and pigment data collected from 1979-08-22 to 2011-12-14 (NCEI Accession 0086308)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS) bio-optical, pigment, and other data collected from 1979-08-22 to 2011-12-14....

  1. Effects of dietary energy content on the voluntary feed intake and blood parameters of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lanari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy and protein requirements of sea bass for maximum growth and fasting energy requirements were determined byusing three diets containing increasing DE levels and two fish weights.Five hundred and sixteen sea bass were divided in two body weight (BW classes (A: 67.7 ± 0.85g and B: 128.6 ± 0.88g,mean ± SD live weight and randomly distributed among 24 tanks. They were fed for 12 weeks on three isoproteic dietscharacterized by different levels of digestible energy (DE: low energy (LE, 18.6; medium energy (ME, 19.7; and highenergy (HE, 22.6 MJ kg-1 dry matter (DM. The entire trial lasted 113 d and was divided into two periods: a feeding trialof 83 d and a fasting trial of 30 d. Specific growth rates decreased in fish fed on the HE diet (P weighing 68 g. Voluntary feed intakes and feed conversion ratios were inversely related to dietary energy contents in bothweight classes. During the starvation trial, body depletion increased (Pfeeding experiment. The gross energy requirements (per day for maximum growth were 320 and 221 kJ kg-1 BW for fishweighing 68 g and 128 g, respectively. Fasting metabolisms were 60.6 and 54.1 kJ kg–0.83 BW per day for fish weighing 68gand 128g, respectively.It is concluded that growth performance of sea bass appear to be dependent on digestible dietary energy. Gross energyintake, net energy (production and maintenance requirements of fish were not influenced by dietary treatments.

  2. Cytoarchitectonic study of the brain of a perciform species, the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). I. The telencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá-Reverter, J M; Zanuy, S; Muñoz-Cueto, J A

    2001-03-01

    A cytoarchitectonic analysis of the telencephalon of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, based on cresyl violet-stained serial transverse sections, is presented. Rostrally, the brain of the sea bass is occupied by sessile olfactory bulbs coupled to telencephalic hemispheres. The olfactory bulbs comprise an olfactory nerve fiber layer, a glomerular layer, an external cellular layer, a secondary olfactory fiber layer, and an internal cellular layer. Large terminal nerve ganglion cells are evident in the caudomedial olfactory bulbs. We recognized 22 distinct telencephalic nuclei which were classified in two main areas, the ventral telencephalon and the dorsal telencephalon. The ventral telencephalon displays four periventricular cell masses: the dorsal, ventral, supracommissural, and postcommissural nuclei; and four migrated populations: the lateral, central, intermediate, and entopeduncular nuclei. In addition, a periventricular cell population resembling the lateral septal organ reported in birds is observed in the ventral telencephalon of the sea bass. The dorsal telencephalon contains 13 nuclei, which can be organized into five major zones: the medial part, dorsal part, lateral part and its ventral, dorsal, and posterior divisions, the central part, and posterior part. Based on histological criteria, two cell masses are recognized in the ventral division of the lateral part of the dorsal telencephalon. The nucleus taenia is found in the caudal area of the dorsal telencephalon, close to the ventral area. This study represents a useful tool for the precise localization of the neuroendocrine territories and for the tracing of the neuronal systems participating in the regulation of reproduction and metabolism in this species. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Environmental impact of sea bass cage farming in the north Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lanari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research was to reduce the organic and nutrient load under the net pen fish farms. An exper- iment was conducted to study the effects of artificial barriers fixed under a set of sea cages in order to reduce the envi- ronmental impact. The artificial barriers were made of four submerged galvanized steel pipes coated with plastic and placed on the sea floor (10 m depth in the Trieste gulf. The experimental design was as follows: control (C, cages with barriers (B, cages without barriers (WB. Measurements were taken on the surface as well as at 4 and 8m of depth. The trial lasted from the end of June 2000 to December 2001. Water quality parameters were not significantly influenced by the fish cages. Surface samples were characterised by lower levels of salinity and higher levels of oxygen and nitrate compared to those taken at 4 and 8 m. The artificial barriers favoured the establishment of a rich epiphytic fauna that took advantage of the presence of organic matter derived from fish cages. The two species Nucula nucleusand Neanthes caudataand the total bacterial counts were identified as potential indicators of pollution under the fish cage farms.

  4. Determination of essential and toxic elements in sea bass (Centropomus sp.) and hake (Cynoscion leiarchus) consumed in the city of Sao Paulo by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabiano, Karen C.; Moreira, Edson G.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal was to use the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to evaluate the levels of essential and toxic elements in samples of hake (Cynoscion leiarchus) and sea bass (Centropomus sp.) that are most consumed fish in the town of some Sao Paulo. Ten specimens of hake and sea bass were acquired in Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazens Gerais de Sao Paulo (CEAGESP), main supply center for the population of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. After gutted and cleaned, the edible tissue was freeze-dried, ground and sieved. The elements were determined through the use of hyperpure germanium spectrometer after irradiation in the nuclear research reactor IEAR-1

  5. Evaluation of electrical stunning of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in seawater and killing by chilling: wel;fare aspects, product quality and possibilities for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Burggraaf, D.; Andre, G.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to assess neural, behavioural responses and product quality in farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) upon electrical stunning in seawater. The electrical sinusoidal 50 Hz or pulse square wave alternating 133 Hz current induced a general epileptiform insult with a current of

  6. The Function of Emulsions on the Biogenic Amine Formation and their Indices of Sea Bass Fillets (Dicentrarchus Labrax) Stored in Vacuum Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozogul, Yesim; Durmus, Mustafa; Kuley Boga, Esmeray; Uçar, Yılmaz; Ozogul, Fatih

    2018-02-01

    The impacts of emulsions based on commercial oils on the biogenic amine formation and their indices of vacuumed packed sea bass fillets were investigated. The results showed that among biogenic amines, cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine, serotonin, dopamine, and agmatine were predominant amines in sea bass fillets stored under vacuum packaging. Significant differences (P emulsions were observed. All groups contained histamine lower than 5.0 mg/100 g, regarded as the allowable limit by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Polyamine levels were not affected by application of emulsion. Quality index (QI) showed an increase and after 14 d of storage it decreased in all groups. The control generally seemed to higher QI value than those of treatment groups except at 14 and 18 days while soybean and corn gave lower QI among treatment groups. Only biogenic amine index correlated with sensory acceptability of vacuumed packed sea bass, indicating that this index can be used for determination of the degree of spoilage of vacuumed packed sea bass. Emulsions extended the shelf-life (approximately 2 to 4 d) of vacuumed packed sea bass fillets by inhibiting microbial growth compared to the control. Emulsions have become popular since they are regarded as ideal carrier for the delivery of lipophilic substances due to the ease of preparation, small particle size, their enhanced bioavailability, and long term kinetic stability. They have been proven to be self-preserving antimicrobials due to bound water in their structure and thus no available water to microorganisms. Antimicrobial emulsions have potential applications in many fields because they are inexpensive, stable, and nontoxic agents. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Black Sea Traffic and European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina Urucu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea is a major component of the MeditetmneanSea. It is a bridge between two continents and a factor of cohesionamong ancient neighbouring spaces of civilisation. Someof its geographical peculiatities make of it a half-closed sea betweenEurope and Asia. Its link with the Mediterranean is securedby the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles Straits and thencewith the planetaty ocean. So, the Black Sea ports represent actualgateways to the world for its tiverain countries. These portsboomed or waned in terms of the riverain regions' hist01y. After1990, and moreover after the Soviet Union fell apatt and newsovereign states came into being, the Pontic space has been undergoingmajor geopolitical changes. Traffic suffered radicalchanges, being governed by fresh criteria and directions. Thereis growing competition among the city-ports and, under the1992 Black Sea Economic Co-operation Treaty, new regionaldevelopment opportunities have been cropping up for the individualstates. Viewed at global scale, the Black Sea might play,if integrated into an adequate programme, an essential role ofcohesion and stability in a complex European zone with a histOtyfull of turmoil.

  8. Effects of electro-fishing on galvano-taxis and carcass quality characteristics in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo D’Agaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of electro-fishing in sea water. We evaluated the feasibility of an electro-fishing system using numerical simulations for laboratory tanks and the open sea and performing a laboratory experiment. A non-homogeneous bi-dimensional electric-field model for marine water and fish based on discrete formulation of electro-magnetic field equations was developed using GAME (geometric approach for Maxwell equations software. Voltage gradients inside the fish and close to the body were determined. Re- sults showed that fish in the open sea and in groups had greater internal voltage differences than did fish in tanks and single fish. Sea bass (length:10 and 30 cm were exposed in laboratory tanks to pulsed direct current (PDC, 25-125 Hz and duty cycle (5-40%. We measured the electro-taxis and tetanus thresholds after electrical exposure. It is significant that these values decreased with increasing the size of fish. No differences were found after electro-fishing on overall appearance, internal and external haemorrhage, standard freshness scoring techniques and carcass quality characteristics

  9. International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galil, B S; Marchini, A; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A; Minchin, D; Narščius, A; Ojaveer, H; Olenin, S

    2014-04-01

    The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present.

  10. In situ mortality experiments with juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax in relation to impulsive sound levels caused by pile driving of windmill foundations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Debusschere

    Full Text Available Impact assessments of offshore wind farm installations and operations on the marine fauna are performed in many countries. Yet, only limited quantitative data on the physiological impact of impulsive sounds on (juvenile fishes during pile driving of offshore wind farm foundations are available. Our current knowledge on fish injury and mortality due to pile driving is mainly based on laboratory experiments, in which high-intensity pile driving sounds are generated inside acoustic chambers. To validate these lab results, an in situ field experiment was carried out on board of a pile driving vessel. Juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax of 68 and 115 days post hatching were exposed to pile-driving sounds as close as 45 m from the actual pile driving activity. Fish were exposed to strikes with a sound exposure level between 181 and 188 dB re 1 µPa².s. The number of strikes ranged from 1739 to 3067, resulting in a cumulative sound exposure level between 215 and 222 dB re 1 µPa².s. Control treatments consisted of fish not exposed to pile driving sounds. No differences in immediate mortality were found between exposed and control fish groups. Also no differences were noted in the delayed mortality up to 14 days after exposure between both groups. Our in situ experiments largely confirm the mortality results of the lab experiments found in other studies.

  11. Quality enhancement in the Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) fillets stored at 4°C by chitosan coating incorporated with citric acid or licorice extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xujian; Chen, Shengjun; Liu, Guangming; Yang, Qiuming

    2014-11-01

    The preserving effects of chitosan, chitosan and citric acid, chitosan and licorice extract on fresh Japanese sea bass fillets stored at 4 °C for 12 days were studied. Results showed that citric acid or licorice extract can enhance the preserving function of chitosan significantly by retarding lipid oxidation and inhibiting microbial growth as reflected in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and total plate count, respectively. Both total volatile basic nitrogen values and sensory scores indicated chitosan and citric acid or licorice extract can significantly reduce the quality loss and extend the shelf life of Japanese sea bass fish fillets during refrigerated storage. Citric acid or licorice extract with chitosan could thus be applied in the seafood industry to enhance quality of fish fillets as natural preservatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy savings in sea bass swimming in a school: measurements of tail beat frequency and oxygen consumption at different swimming speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, J; Steffensen, JF

    1998-01-01

    Tail beat frequency of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) (23.5 ± 0·5 cm, LT), swimming at the front of a school was significantly higher than when swimming at the rear, for all water velocities tested from 14·8 to 32 cm s-1. The logarithm of oxygen consumption rate, and the tail beat frequency...... of solitary swimming sea bass (28·8 ± 0·4 cm, LT), were each correlated linearly with swimming speed, and also with one another. The tail beat frequency of individual fish was 9-14% lower when at the rear of a school than when at the front, corresponding to a 9-23% reduction in oxygen consumption rate....

  13. Effects of feeding frequency on growth, survival rate and body composition in sea bass (Lates calcarifer) juveniles fed a commercial diet under laboratory condition

    OpenAIRE

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-01-01

    A 60 day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of different feeding frequencies on the growth, survival rate and body composition of sea bass (Lates calcarifer) juveniles fed commercial diet, reared under laboratory condition. The average initial weight of fish was 4.59 g and its initial total length of 7.11 cm was determined for the conditions factors. Ten fish were stocked in each 12 - 100 L conical fiberglass tanks filled with 90 L seawater at three replicates ...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2012-01-16 to 2012-12-07 (NCEI Accession 0144347)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144347 includes Surface underway data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, East China Sea (Tung Hai), Inland Sea (Seto...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2006-06-27 to 2006-12-09 (NCEI Accession 0144357)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144357 includes Surface underway data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, Solomon Sea,...

  16. Impact of chronic cadmium exposure at environmental dose on escape behaviour in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.; Teleostei, Moronidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucher, Karine; Fichet, Denis; Miramand, Pierre; Lagardere, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    The effect of chronic exposure to a low concentration (0.5 μg l -1 ) of cadmium ions was investigated on escape behaviour of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, using video analysis. Observations were also performed on the microanatomy of lateral system neuromasts. When fish were exposed for 4 h per day over 8 days to the cadmium ions, most of both types of neuromasts observed remained intact. However, some of them presented damaged sensory maculae. Whereas before cadmium exposure, fish responded positively to nearly all the lateral system stimulations, after exposure they decreased by about 10% their positive responses to stimulations. From the 15th day after the beginning of cadmium exposure, neuromasts presented progressively less damage, cadmium accumulation in gills and scales decreased significantly and fish escape behaviour had recovered. This study presents a new concept in ecotoxicology: using behavioural change to reveal the effects of pollution levels, scarcely detectable by currently used techniques (physiological responses). - Cadmium exposure involved a significant bioaccumulation in fish scales, slight damage to the lateral line system and a significant decrease in fish escape behaviour

  17. Impact of chronic cadmium exposure at environmental dose on escape behaviour in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.; Teleostei, Moronidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faucher, Karine [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217, CNRS-Ifremer-ULR, B.P. 5, 17137 L' Houmeau (France)], E-mail: kfaucher@ifremer.fr; Fichet, Denis; Miramand, Pierre [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217, CNRS-Ifremer-ULR, Avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Lagardere, Jean-Paul [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217, CNRS-Ifremer-ULR, B.P. 5, 17137 L' Houmeau (France)

    2008-01-15

    The effect of chronic exposure to a low concentration (0.5 {mu}g l{sup -1}) of cadmium ions was investigated on escape behaviour of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, using video analysis. Observations were also performed on the microanatomy of lateral system neuromasts. When fish were exposed for 4 h per day over 8 days to the cadmium ions, most of both types of neuromasts observed remained intact. However, some of them presented damaged sensory maculae. Whereas before cadmium exposure, fish responded positively to nearly all the lateral system stimulations, after exposure they decreased by about 10% their positive responses to stimulations. From the 15th day after the beginning of cadmium exposure, neuromasts presented progressively less damage, cadmium accumulation in gills and scales decreased significantly and fish escape behaviour had recovered. This study presents a new concept in ecotoxicology: using behavioural change to reveal the effects of pollution levels, scarcely detectable by currently used techniques (physiological responses). - Cadmium exposure involved a significant bioaccumulation in fish scales, slight damage to the lateral line system and a significant decrease in fish escape behaviour.

  18. Carryover of CH3Hg from feed to sea bass and salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Håland, Weronica; Larsen, Bodil Katrine

    toxicokinetic parameters.The study included Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), which is one of the main farmed seafood product consumed in Europe and with production in Northen Europe as well as European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) produced in Southern Europe, where it is a highly consumed seafood...

  19. Genome-Wide SNP Discovery, Genotyping and Their Preliminary Applications for Population Genetic Inference in Spotted Sea Bass (Lateolabrax maculatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing and the collection of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs allow identifying fine-scale population genetic structure and genomic regions under selection. The spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus is a non-model species of ecological and commercial importance and widely distributed in northwestern Pacific. A total of 22 648 SNPs was discovered across the genome of L. maculatus by paired-end sequencing of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD-PE for 30 individuals from two populations. The nucleotide diversity (π for each population was 0.0028±0.0001 in Dandong and 0.0018±0.0001 in Beihai, respectively. Shallow but significant genetic differentiation was detected between the two populations analyzed by using both the whole data set (FST = 0.0550, P < 0.001 and the putatively neutral SNPs (FST = 0.0347, P < 0.001. However, the two populations were highly differentiated based on the putatively adaptive SNPs (FST = 0.6929, P < 0.001. Moreover, a total of 356 SNPs representing 298 unique loci were detected as outliers putatively under divergent selection by FST-based outlier tests as implemented in BAYESCAN and LOSITAN. Functional annotation of the contigs containing putatively adaptive SNPs yielded hits for 22 of 55 (40% significant BLASTX matches. Candidate genes for local selection constituted a wide array of functions, including binding, catalytic and metabolic activities, etc. The analyses with the SNPs developed in the present study highlighted the importance of genome-wide genetic variation for inference of population structure and local adaptation in L. maculatus.

  20. Effects of Thermal Stress on the mRNA Expression of SOD, HSP90, and HSP70 in the Spotted Sea Bass ( Lateolabrax maculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Moon-Kyeong; Park, Ho-Ra; Yeo, Won-Jun; Han, Kyung-Nam

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the thermal stress response in the spotted sea bass ( Lateolabrax maculatus). Spotted sea basses were exposed to 4 different water temperatures (20, 22, 24, and 28°C) in increasing increments of 2°C/h from 18°C (control) for different time periods (0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h). Subsequently, 3 tissues (liver, muscle, and gill) were isolated, and the levels of SOD, HSP90, and HSP70 mRNA were assessed. SOD mRNA expression was maintained at baseline levels of control fish at all water temperatures in the liver, while muscle and gill tissue showed an increase followed by a decrease over each certain time with higher water temperature. HSP90 mRNA expression increased in the liver at ≤ 24°C over time, but maintained baseline expression at 28°C. In muscle, HSP90 mRNA expression gradually increased at all water temperatures, but increased and then decreased at ≥ 24°C in gill tissue. HSP70 mRNA expression exhibited an increase and then a decrease in liver tissue at 28°C, but mainly showed similar expression patterns to HSP90 in all tissues. These results suggest the activity of a defense mechanism using SOD, HSP90, and HSP70 in the spotted sea bass upon rapid increases in water temperature, where the expression of these genes indicated differences between tissues in the extent of the defense mechanisms. Also, these results indicate that high water temperature and long-term thermal stress exposure can inhibit physiological defense mechanisms.

  1. Impact of acute stress on antimicrobial polypeptides mRNA copy number in several tissues of marine sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terova Genciana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparison to higher vertebrates, fish are thought to rely heavily on innate immune system for initial protection against pathogen invasion because their acquired immune system displays a considerably poor immunological memory, and short-lived secondary response. The endogenous antimicrobial polypeptides (AMPPs directly and rapidly killing pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses are included within the realm of innate defenses. In addition to piscidins, AMPPs that in recent years have been shown to be commonly linked to innate defense, are histones and their polypeptide fragments, and peptides derived from the respiratory protein hemoglobin. There is evidence that a number of stresses lead to significant regulation of AMPPs and thus their monitoring could be a highly sensitive measure of health status and risk of an infectious disease outbreak, which is a major impediment to the continued success of virtually all aquaculture enterprises and is often the most significant cause of economic losses. Results We firstly isolated and deposited in Genbank database the cDNA sequences encoding for hemoglobin-β-like protein (Hb-LP [GeneBank: JN410659], H2B histone-like protein 1 (HLP1 GenBank: JN410660], and HLP2 [GenBank: JN410661]. The "de novo" prediction of the three-dimensional structures for each protein is presented. Phylogenetic trees were constructed on Hb-LP, HLP1, and HLP2 sequences of sea bass and those of other teleost, avian, reptiles, amphibian and mammalian species. We then used real time RT-PCR technology to monitor for the first time in sea bass, dynamic changes in mRNA copy number of Hb-LP, HLP1, HLP2, and dicentracin in gills, skin, eyes, stomach and proximal intestine in response to acute crowding/confinement stress. We showed that acute crowding stress induces an increase in the expression levels of the aforementioned genes, in gills and skin of sea bass, but not in other tissues, and that

  2. The Effect of Emamectin Benzoate in the Control of Lernanthropus kroyeri (van Beneden, 1851) (Lernanthropidae) Infestations in Cultured Sea Bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    TOKŞEN, Erol; ÇAĞIRGAN, Haşmet; TANRIKUL, Tansel T.; SAYGI, Hülya

    2006-01-01

    Five different dose groups were formed to evaluate the efficacy of emamectin benzoate as a treatment for Lernanthropus kroyeri (van Beneden, 1851) infestation in cultured sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (L.). Emamectin benzoate was administered in-feed at doses of 0 (control), 10, 25, 50, and 100 µg kg-1 biomass day-1 for 7 consecutive days. Parasites were counted on days 7, 14, and 21, and comparisons were made to untreated control fish. Seawater temperature was 16-16.5 °C. Treatment with ema...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2011-01-04 to 2011-11-22 (NCEI Accession 0157263)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157263 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, Inland Sea...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2010-01-06 to 2010-12-08 (NCEI Accession 0157308)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157308 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, Inland Sea...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2015-01-10 to 2015-11-01 (NCEI Accession 0157329)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157329 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, Inland Sea...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2012-12-18 to 2014-01-02 (NCEI Accession 0157271)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157271 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, Inland Sea...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2014-01-02 to 2015-07-15 (NCEI Accession 0157240)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157240 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, Inland Sea...

  8. Total lipid in the broodstock diet did not affect fatty acid composition and quality of eggs of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Navas

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether an increase in the quantity of lipids ingested by sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax broodstock could improve egg quality, three year-old sea bass were fed three different diets: a natural diet (Control group, and two artificial diets containing 10% or 17% of total lipids. In two consecutive reproductive seasons, the spawning results, the lipid classes and the fatty acid composition of the eggs were studied. No differences in the absolute content of lipids or in the percentage of different lipid classes were observed between the eggs from the three groups. Both experimental groups fed with the artificial diets produced eggs of poor quality, with low percentages of buoyancy and hatching. Those observed in the eggs from the Control Group were significantly higher (p> 0.01 than those of the experimental groups. The higher hatching rate of the eggs from the Control Group was associated with higher DHA:EPA and AA:EPA ratios. The data obtained showed that the fatty acid composition of the eggs was affected by the fatty acid composition of the diets but not by the total quantity of lipids administered to the broodstock.

  9. Heritability of cortisol response to confinement stress in European sea bass dicentrarchus labrax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volckaert, F.A.M.; Hellemans, B.; Batargias, C.; Louro, B.; Massault, C.; Houdt, Van J.K.J.; Haley, C.; Koning, de D.J.; Canario, A.V.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In fish, the most studied production traits in terms of heritability are body weight or growth, stress or disease resistance, while heritability of cortisol levels, widely used as a measure of response to stress, is less studied. In this study, we have estimated heritabilities of two

  10. Biological effects of diethylene glycol (DEG) and produced waters (PWs) released from offshore activities: a multi-biomarker approach with the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefania, Gorbi; Maura, Benedetti; Claudia, Virno Lamberti; Barbara, Pisanelli; Ginevra, Moltedo; Francesco, Regoli

    2009-11-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is largely used during oil and gas exploitation by offshore platforms. The aim of this work was to investigate if this compound induces direct molecular/cellular effects in marine organisms, or indirectly modulate those of produced waters (PWs). Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed to DEG dosed alone or in combination with PWs from an Adriatic platform. A wide array of analysed biomarkers included cytochrome P450-dependent enzymatic activity, bile metabolites, glutathione S-transferases, acetylcholinesterase, peroxisomal proliferation, antioxidant defences (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione), total oxyradical scavenging capacity, malondialdehyde and DNA integrity (single strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei). Results did not reveal marked effects of DEG, while PWs influenced the biotransformation system, the oxidative status and the onset of genotoxic damages. Co-exposures caused only limited differences of biomarker responses at some experimental conditions, overall suggesting a limited biological impact of DEG at levels normally deriving from offshore activities.

  11. The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) increase in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raab, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    Small pelagic fish such as anchovy are of high socio-economic importance worldwide. They are known for strong fluctuations in abundance, for which the mechanisms are not always understood. European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) increased its population in the North Sea starting in

  12. European Attitude to the Disposal of Wastewater in the Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Burrows, R.; Neves, M. J. V.

    1998-01-01

    A network of European organisations with interest in the utilisation of long sea outfalls as an integral element in the sewerage of coastal communities has recently been established. The central aim is to provide a focus both for the adoption of best practices and the identification of outstandin...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2008011 to 2010-10-31 (NODC Accession 0115181)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115181 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, Great...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2008-02-04 to 2008-11-22 (NCEI Accession 0157379)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157379 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, North...

  15. The importance of North Sea gas to European energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probert, R.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas can, of course, be transported over very long distances but, because of the economics of gas transmission, its impact is most often local. This has certainly been the case with North Sea gas, which has clearly contributed significantly to European energy supply and will continue to do so for some time to come. The historical importance of the discovery of gas in the North Sea has been that it has enabled natural gas industries to grow rapidly in North West Europe. Without North Sea gas and Dutch gas it is difficult to see how town gas would have been replaced in North West Europe. Certainly, a much smaller natural gas industry would have emerged. North Sea gas has inevitably had the greatest impact on gas markets in the countries of the European Community and this will remain the case in future. Nevertheless, it is inevitable that gas will, in future, flow across more national boundaries than in the past, and that North Sea gas will have an important part to play in meeting the Central European demand for competitively priced, secure supplies. This paper discusses the United Kingdom market for gas and future demand both in the United Kingdom and more widely in Europe. An examination of the availability of gas supplies from the North Sea suggests that it is unlikely that there will be a surplus of gas for export from the United Kingdom continental shelf. Norway will remain the main source of exports, with the Netherlands also in a strong position. Transportation and political aspects are also considered. (author)

  16. Temporal variability in SeaWiFS derived apparent optical properties in European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantrepotte, V.; Mélin, F.

    2010-02-01

    The 10-year record of ocean color data provided by the SeaWiFS mission is an important asset for monitoring and research activities conducted on the optically complex European seas. This study makes use of the SeaWiFS data set of normalized water leaving radiances LWN to study the major characteristics of temporal variability associated with optical properties across the entire European domain. Specifically, the time series of LWN and associated band ratios are decomposed into terms representing a fixed seasonal cycle, irregular variations and trends, and the contribution of these components to the total variance is described for the various basins. The diversity of the European waters is fully reflected by the range of results varying with regions and wavelengths. Generally, the Mediterranean and Baltic seas appear as two end-members with, respectively, high and low contributions of the seasonal component to the total variance. The existence of linear trends affecting the satellite products is also explored for each basin. By focusing the analysis on LWN and band ratios, the validity of the results is not limited by the varying levels of uncertainty that characterize derived products such as the concentration of chlorophyll a in optically complex waters. Statistically significant, and in some cases large, trends are detected in the Atlantic Ocean west of the European western shelf, the central North Sea, the English Channel, the Black Sea, the northern Adriatic, and various regions of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern Baltic Sea, revealing changes in the concentrations of optically significant constituents in these regions.

  17. Isolation of TDA-producing Phaeobacter strains from sea bass larval rearing units and their probiotic effect against pathogenic Vibrio spp. in Artemia cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grotkjær, Torben; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; D'Alvise, Paul

    2016-01-01

    V. harveyi, which is the major bacterial pathogen in crustaceans and Mediterranean sea bass larvae cultures. Concomitantly, they significantly improved survival of V. harveyi-infected brine shrimp. 16S rRNA gene sequence homology identified the antagonists as Phaeobacter sp., and in silico DNA...... Vibrio anguillarum and reduce mortality in V. anguillarum-infected cod and turbot larvae. In this study, it was demonstrated that antagonistic Roseobacter-clade bacteria could be isolated from sea bass larval rearing units. In addition, it was shown that they not only antagonized V. anguillarum but also......-producing Phaeobacter isolated from Mediterranean marine larviculture are promising probiotic bacteria against pathogenic Vibrio in crustacean live-feed cultures for marine fish larvae....

  18. Biological effects of diethylene glycol (DEG) and produced waters (PWs) released from offshore activities: A multi-biomarker approach with the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefania, Gorbi; Maura, Benedetti [Dipartimento di Biochimica, Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri, Monte d' Ago, 60121 Ancona (Italy); Claudia, Virno Lamberti [Istituto Superiore per la Ricerca e la Protezione Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Casalotti 300 Roma (Italy); Barbara, Pisanelli [Dipartimento di Biochimica, Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri, Monte d' Ago, 60121 Ancona (Italy); Ginevra, Moltedo [Istituto Superiore per la Ricerca e la Protezione Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Casalotti 300 Roma (Italy); Francesco, Regoli, E-mail: f.regoli@univpm.i [Dipartimento di Biochimica, Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri, Monte d' Ago, 60121 Ancona (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is largely used during oil and gas exploitation by offshore platforms. The aim of this work was to investigate if this compound induces direct molecular/cellular effects in marine organisms, or indirectly modulate those of produced waters (PWs). Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed to DEG dosed alone or in combination with PWs from an Adriatic platform. A wide array of analysed biomarkers included cytochrome P450-dependent enzymatic activity, bile metabolites, glutathione S-transferases, acetylcholinesterase, peroxisomal proliferation, antioxidant defences (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione), total oxyradical scavenging capacity, malondialdehyde and DNA integrity (single strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei). Results did not reveal marked effects of DEG, while PWs influenced the biotransformation system, the oxidative status and the onset of genotoxic damages. Co-exposures caused only limited differences of biomarker responses at some experimental conditions, overall suggesting a limited biological impact of DEG at levels normally deriving from offshore activities. - A biological risk for marine organisms can be excluded for DEG concentrations as those normally associated to produced waters discharged in the Adriatic Sea.

  19. Biological effects of diethylene glycol (DEG) and produced waters (PWs) released from offshore activities: A multi-biomarker approach with the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefania, Gorbi; Maura, Benedetti; Claudia, Virno Lamberti; Barbara, Pisanelli; Ginevra, Moltedo; Francesco, Regoli

    2009-01-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is largely used during oil and gas exploitation by offshore platforms. The aim of this work was to investigate if this compound induces direct molecular/cellular effects in marine organisms, or indirectly modulate those of produced waters (PWs). Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed to DEG dosed alone or in combination with PWs from an Adriatic platform. A wide array of analysed biomarkers included cytochrome P450-dependent enzymatic activity, bile metabolites, glutathione S-transferases, acetylcholinesterase, peroxisomal proliferation, antioxidant defences (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione), total oxyradical scavenging capacity, malondialdehyde and DNA integrity (single strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei). Results did not reveal marked effects of DEG, while PWs influenced the biotransformation system, the oxidative status and the onset of genotoxic damages. Co-exposures caused only limited differences of biomarker responses at some experimental conditions, overall suggesting a limited biological impact of DEG at levels normally deriving from offshore activities. - A biological risk for marine organisms can be excluded for DEG concentrations as those normally associated to produced waters discharged in the Adriatic Sea.

  20. The importance of North Sea oil to European energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauw, R. De

    1992-01-01

    There is no doubt about the importance of North Sea oil to the energy supply of the European Community. One might however be used to it and forget about the nature and the size of its impact on our economies. Firstly, this paper intends to estimate this impact - past, present and future. Secondly, a more qualitative approach will explore possible consequences of the implementation of the internal market for North Sea oil. Thirdly, the assistance given by the Community to innovative technologies which enabled North Sea oil to contribute, under better economic conditions and within a safer environment, to our supply is recalled. And finally, some remarks on energy policy form an EC perspective, are offered. (author)

  1. Past and future challenges in managing European seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Blenckner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments have undergone large-scale changes in recent decades as a result of multiple anthropogenic pressures, such as overfishing, eutrophication, habitat fragmentation, etc., causing often nonlinear ecosystem responses. At the same time, management institutions lack the appropriate measures to address these abrupt transformations. We focus on existing examples from social-ecological systems of European seas that can be used to inform and advise future management. Examples from the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea on long-term ecosystem changes caused by eutrophication and fisheries, as well as changes in management institutions, illustrate nonlinear dynamics in social-ecological systems. Furthermore, we present two major future challenges, i.e., climate change and energy intensification, that could further increase the potential for nonlinear changes in the near future. Practical tools to address these challenges are presented, such as ensuring learning, flexibility, and networking in decision-making processes across sectors and scales. A combination of risk analysis with a scenario-planning approach might help to identify the risks of ecosystem changes early on and may frame societal changes to inform decision-making structures to proactively prevent drastic surprises in European seas.

  2. Shelf-life extension of refrigerated sea bass slices wrapped with fish protein isolate/fish skin gelatin-ZnO nanocomposite film incorporated with basil leaf essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfat, Yasir Ali; Benjakul, Soottawat; Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Yarnpakdee, Suthasinee

    2015-10-01

    Microbiological, chemical and sensory changes of sea bass slices wrapped with fish protein isolate (FPI)/fish skin gelatin (FSG) films incorporated with 3 % ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONP) (w/w, based on protein content) and 100 % basil leaf essential oil (BEO) (w/w, based on protein content) during storage of 12 days at 4 °C were investigated. Sea bass slices wrapped with FPI/FSG-ZnONP-BEO film had the lowest growth of psychrophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including Pseudomonas , H2S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae throughout storage of 12 days in comparison with those wrapped with FPI/FSG-BEO, FPI/FSG-ZnONP, FPI/FSG film, polypropylene film (PP film) and the control (without wrapping), respectively (P < 0.05). Lowered increases in pH, total volatile base, peroxide value and TBARS value were found in FPI/FSG-ZnO-BEO film wrapped samples, compared with others (P < 0.05). Sensory evaluation revealed that shelf-life of sea bass slices was longest for samples wrapped with FPI/FSG-ZnONP-BEO film (12 days), as compared to the control (6 days) (P < 0.05).

  3. ANTILISTERIAL ACTYVITY OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM GILTHEAD BREAMS AND SEA BASSES FILLETS PACKAGED MAP AGAINST PRIMITIVE STRAINS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barile

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis typically caused by ready-to-eat processed food that have a refrigerated shelf-life, but lightly preserved fish products also belong to a high-risk category. Aim of the work was to evaluate antimicrobial activity linked bacteriocin-producing of LAB isolated from gilthead breams and sea basses fillets packaged in modified atmospheres. Fifty-five LAB strains were screened against 21 strains of Listeria monocytogenes, 1 Listeria innocua held in the culture collection of Department of Zootechnical Sciences and Food Ispection (SIA and submitted to antagonistic activity using the spot on lawn and the agar well diffusion assay. Lactococcus lactis sub. lactis Sa31 was able to produce bacteriocin in agar and different broth medium. The bacteriocin man31 showed sensitivity to trypsin, pronase E and papain, inactivation at temperatures ≥ 100°C, bactericidal mode of action and antilisterial act, rapidly. The bacteriocin man31 caused a reduction of L. monocytogenes ½ c growth about log10 > 3 UFC/ml, when was applied on indicator strain at 20,480 AU/ml concentration, in vitro.

  4. Fishing for opinions: Stakeholder views on MSFD implementation in European Seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, A.; Jouanneau, C.; Koss, R.; Raakjaer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Stakeholder participation is vital when introducing and implementing ecosystem-based management (EBM) at any scale. This paper presents the results of a survey covering four European Regional Seas (Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North-East Atlantic Ocean) aimed to collect stakeholders¿

  5. Sea-dumped CW munitions - the European component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.; Stock, T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to outline the European magnitude of sea-dumped CW munitions. Hereby the paper attempts to provide an overview on historical dumping activities, both for conventional and chemical munitions. The potential dangers which might result from these dumping activities are discussed in brief. Among others the differences in deep sea dumping and dumping in shallow waters are evaluated. Further, the presentation will outline and discuss the different technology steps: (a) identification, (b) recovery, (c) transportation and (d) destruction (on- or off-shore), necessary for possible cleaning of dumping sites. Thereafter an evaluation of the different technologies available/applied is performed, in particular on the destruction part. Hereby the already practised experience is displayed. Based upon existing treaty regimes an actual judgment of possible application of treaty provisions for demanding cleaning up operations is discussed. The question if treaty obligations can be used to force cleaning operations is debated. A possible match of the technology package available with the scope/magnitude of the munitions dumping problem is discussed. Hereby the gaps between the size of the problem and the most suitable technologies for recovery and destruction are illustrated. The resulting answers should be regarded as possible technical guidelines for future development activities as well existing limitations to solve the problems. The papers will result in some general guidelines for future prospect on the issues of dumped munitions, in particular chemical munitions under the European context.(author)

  6. A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Liopropomini) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Robertson, D. Ross

    2014-01-01

    Collecting reef-fish specimens using a manned submersible diving to 300 m off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species. The new Liopropoma sea bass described here differs from other western Atlantic members of the genus in having VIII, 13 dorsal-fin rays; a moderately indented dorsal-fin margin; a yellow-orange stripe along the entire upper lip; a series of approximately 13 white, chevron-shaped markings on the ventral portion of the trunk; and a reddish-black blotch on the tip of the lower caudal-fin lobe. The new species, with predominantly yellow body and fins, closely resembles the other two “golden basses” found together with it at Curaçao: L. aberransand L. olneyi. It also shares morphological features with the other western Atlantic liopropomin genus,Bathyanthias. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins, includingBathyanthias, are monophyletic with respect to Indo-Pacific Liopropoma, and that Bathyanthias is nested within Liopropoma, indicating a need for further study of the generic limits of Liopropoma. The phylogenetic data also suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins comprise three monophyletic clades that have overlapping depth distributions but different depth maxima (3–135 m, 30–150 m, 133–411 m). The new species has the deepest depth range (182–241 m) of any known western Atlantic Liopropomaspecies. Both allopatric and depth-mediated ecological speciation may have contributed to the evolution of western Atlantic Liopropomini.

  7. Metabarcoding analysis of European hake diet in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Riccioni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available European hake (EH, Merluccius merluccius, is a demersal fish distributed from the North Sea and Atlantic to the Levantine Sea in the Mediterranean. EH is an important predator of deep Mediterranean upper shelf slope communities and it is currently characterised by growth overexploitation. EH adults feed mainly on fish and squids whereas the young (<16 cm feed on crustaceans. All current EH diet studies relied on the morphological identification of prey remains in stomach content, however this method is labour intensive and it precludes the identification of strongly digested food. The development of High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS approaches provide more accurate methods for dietary studies revealing many consumed species simultaneously (DNA metabarcoding. The aim of this study is to use a HTS approach based on COI amplification, contextually to classic microscopic morphological identification, to analyse EH stomach content and to evaluate the efficiency of the molecular method. HTS sequencing has been carried out on the amplicons obtained by PCR amplification (Leray et al. 2013 of stomach remains and all the Miseq Illumina paired-end reads have been analysed by using bioinformatic tools (Boyer et al. 2015 for taxonomic assignment. The selected sequences clustered in OCTUs (Operational Clustered Taxonomic Units and taxonomically assigned, will be used in diversity analyses to compute distance matrices among samples, to compare taxa summaries from different samples, to create networks and perform PCA and PcoA analysis. Classic microscopic morphological analyses on stomach content remains have been carried out contextually to compare the results of the two methods. The molecular approach has proven a promising method to study marine fish dietary habits. All the data will be summarized to reconstruct EH trophic dynamics in the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Cloning and expression analysis of myostatin, fibroblast growth factor 6, insulin-like growth factor I and II in liver and muscle of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. during long-term fasting and refeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saroglia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The exceptionally fast growth that fish experience after periods of fasting has been called “compensatory growth”. This phenomenon has been studied in intensive aquaculture as a means of enhancing growth rates, but the mechanisms by which food intake activates an increase in somatic growth, and especially in muscle growth, are complex and not yet fully understood. In the present paper, we describe the molecular cloning and sequencing of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax myostatin (MSTN and fibroblast growth factor 6 (FGF6, which have been shown to be major genetic determinants of skeletal muscle growth, together with insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI and IGF-II, which are potent mitogens known to play important roles in growth and development. We then report the pattern of expression of the four aforementioned genes, in liver and myotomal muscle in response to prolonged fasting and refeeding. Nutritional status significantly influenced the expression of IGF-I, IGF-II and MSTN, whereas the muscular FGF6 expression levels were not affected by the feeding status of the animals. Taken together these data indicate that IGF-I, IGF-II and MSTN are involved in the sea bass muscle compensatory growth induced by refeeding, whereas FGF6 probably has not a role in this phenomenon.

  9. Warming shelf seas drive the subtropicalization of European pelagic fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Serra, Ignasi; Edwards, Martin; Genner, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Pelagic fishes are among the most ecologically and economically important fish species in European seas. In principle, these pelagic fishes have potential to demonstrate rapid abundance and distribution shifts in response to climatic variability due to their high adult motility, planktonic larval stages, and low dependence on benthic habitat for food or shelter during their life histories. Here, we provide evidence of substantial climate-driven changes to the structure of pelagic fish communities in European shelf seas. We investigated the patterns of species-level change using catch records from 57,870 fisheries-independent survey trawls from across European continental shelf region between 1965 and 2012. We analysed changes in the distribution and rate of occurrence of the six most common species, and observed a strong subtropicalization of the North Sea and Baltic Sea assemblages. These areas have shifted away from cold-water assemblages typically characterized by Atlantic herring and European sprat from the 1960s to 1980s, to warmer-water assemblages including Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic horse mackerel, European pilchard and European anchovy from the 1990s onwards. We next investigated if warming sea temperatures have forced these changes using temporally comprehensive data from the North Sea region. Our models indicated the primary driver of change in these species has been sea surface temperatures in all cases. Together, these analyses highlight how individual species responses have combined to result in a dramatic subtropicalization of the pelagic fish assemblage of the European continental shelf. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Fishing impact and environmental status in European seas: A diagnosis from stock assessments and ecosystem indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gascuel, Didier; Coll, Marta; Fox, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Stock-based and ecosystem-based indicators are used to provide a new diagnosis of the fishing impact and environmental status of European seas. In the seven European marine ecosystems covering the Baltic and the North-east Atlantic, (i) trends in landings since 1950 were examined; (ii) syntheses...

  11. The European Eel Anguilla anguilla (Pisces, Anguillidae. Native or Alien in the Black Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos I. Apostolou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STEFC of EU suggested the Black Sea region should be excluded from the list of natural areas, where the European eel (Anguilla anguilla is distributed. The basic conception of this idea was that the eels caught in the Black Sea region represent escaped specimens from fish farming in some Danubian countries. This article illustrates an effort to be given an indirect answer on the question if Black Sea is the end of natural distribution of European eel. The species is present but never been abundant in the region and do not represent an object of commercial fishing.

  12. Hierarchical Bass model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new model about diffusion of a product which includes a memory of how many adopters or advertisements a non-adopter met, where (non-)adopters mean people (not) possessing the product. This effect is lacking in the Bass model. As an application, we utilize the model to fit the iPod sales data, and so the better agreement is obtained than the Bass model

  13. Hierarchical Bass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Tohru

    2014-03-01

    We propose a new model about diffusion of a product which includes a memory of how many adopters or advertisements a non-adopter met, where (non-)adopters mean people (not) possessing the product. This effect is lacking in the Bass model. As an application, we utilize the model to fit the iPod sales data, and so the better agreement is obtained than the Bass model.

  14. SeaDataNet II - EMODNet Bathymetry - building a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management and a digital high resolution bathymetry for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

    2015-04-01

    The second phase of the project SeaDataNet is well underway since October 2011. The main objective is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via research cruises and monitoring activities in European marine waters and global oceans. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres, and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools,. SeaDataNet is also setting and governing marine data standards, and exploring and establishing interoperability solutions to connect to other e-infrastructures on the basis of standards of ISO (19115, 19139), OGC (WMS, WFS, CS-W and SWE), and OpenSearch. The population of directories has increased considerably in cooperation and involvement in associated EU projects and initiatives. SeaDataNet now gives overview and access to more than 1.6 million data sets for physical oceanography, chemistry, geology, geophysics, bathymetry and biology from more than 100 connected data centres from 34 countries riparian to European seas. Access to marine data is also a key issue for the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The EU communication 'Marine Knowledge 2020' underpins the importance of data availability and harmonising access to marine data from different sources. SeaDataNet qualified itself for an active role in the data management component of the EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) that is promoted in the EU Communication. Starting 2009 EMODnet pilot portals have been initiated for marine data themes: digital bathymetry, chemistry, physical oceanography, geology, biology, and seabed habitat mapping. These portals are being expanded to all

  15. CMIP5-downscaled projections for the NW European Shelf Seas: initial results and insights into uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Jonathan; Palmer, Matthew; Lowe, Jason; Howard, Tom

    2017-04-01

    The North Sea, and wider Northwest European Shelf seas (NWS) are economically, environmentally, and culturally important for a number of European countries. They are protected by European legislation, often with specific reference to the potential impacts of climate change. Coastal climate change projections are an important source of information for effective management of European Shelf Seas. For example, potential changes in the marine environment are a key component of the climate change risk assessments (CCRAs) carried out under the UK Climate Change Act We use the NEMO shelf seas model combined with CMIP5 climate model and EURO-CORDEX regional atmospheric model data to generate new simulations of the NWS. Building on previous work using a climate model perturbed physics ensemble and the POLCOMS, this new model setup is used to provide first indication of the uncertainties associated with: (i) the driving climate model; (ii) the atmospheric downscaling model (iii) the shelf seas downscaling model; (iv) the choice of climate change scenario. Our analysis considers a range of physical marine impacts and the drivers of coastal variability and change, including sea level and the propagation of open ocean signals onto the shelf. The simulations are being carried out as part of the UK Climate Projections 2018 (UKCP18) and will feed into the following UK CCRA.

  16. EMODNet Bathymetry - building and providing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, D.

    2016-12-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) initiative. The EMODnet Bathymetry project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting from SeaDataNet the Common Data Index (CDI) data discovery and access service and the Sextant data products catalogue service. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centres around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. SeaDataNet is also setting and governing marine data standards, and exploring and establishing interoperability solutions to connect to other e-infrastructures on the basis of standards such as ISO and OGC. The SeaDataNet portal provides users a number of interrelated meta directories, an extensive range of controlled vocabularies, and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools. SeaDataNet at present gives overview and access to more than 1.8 million data sets for physical oceanography, chemistry, geology, geophysics, bathymetry and biology from more than 100 connected data centres from 34 countries riparian to European seas. The latest EMODnet Bathymetry DTM has a resolution of 1/8 arcminute * 1/8 arcminute and covers all European sea regions. Use is made of available and gathered surveys and already more than 13.000 surveys have been indexed by 27 European data providers from 15 countries. Also use is made of composite DTMs as generated and maintained by several data providers for their areas of interest. Already 44 composite DTMs are included in the Sextant data products catalogue. For areas without coverage use is made of the latest global DTM of GEBCO who is partner in the EMODnet Bathymetry project. In return GEBCO integrates the EMODnet

  17. Sea trials of MARTIN - a European survey AUV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars; Bjerrum, A.; Ishoy, A.

    1995-01-01

    are currently being performed. A new navigation system has been developed for MARTIN. The low-drag flat-fish shaped, modular designed hull has been thoroughly tested in a towing tank and in the open sea. The hydrodynamic parameters were used in computer simulations of the vehicle dynamics. An autopilot based...... software was developed by the Institute of Automation, Danish Technical University in co-operation with Reson AS and Maridan ApS. The paper includes a description of the navigation system, results from simulations and preliminary results from the first sea trials...

  18. The role of SEA in integrating and balancing high policy objectives in European cohesion funding programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiricka, Alexandra; Pröbstl, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Funding programmes for European cohesion policy are a crucial tool to support the sustainability goals of the European Union and national policies of its member states. All these funding programmes require a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to enhance sustainable development. This article compares five first SEA applications at cohesion policy level to discuss challenges, limitations and benefits of this instrument. In order to support the SEA-process a “Handbook on SEA for Cohesion Policy 2007–13” (GRDP 2006) was developed. The paper examines the special requirements and challenges at the programme level given the special conditions for stakeholder involvement, integration of SEA in the programme development process and strategies to cope with uncertainties to ensure real compatibility with policy goals. Using action research and in-depth interviews with SEA planners and programme managers enabled us to analyse the suitability of the methodology proposed by the handbook. The results show that some recommendations of the handbook should be changed in order to increase the transparency and to enhance the standard and comparability of the SEA-documents. Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals at the EU and national policy levels. Its particular strengths emerged as the process makes uncertainties visible and leads to possible redefinitions while maintaining actual policy goals. - Highlights: ► Comparing five case studies of first applications of SEA at cohesion policy level. ► Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals. ► The study makes uncertainties visible and shows how SEA could lead to possible redefinitions.

  19. The Flexible Bass Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    Multi-purpose concert halls face a dilemma. They host different performance types that require significantly different acoustic conditions in order to provide the best sound quality to both the performers, sound engineers and the audience. Pop and rock music often contains high levels of bass sound...

  20. Biological geography of the European seas: results from the MacroBen database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arvanitidis, C.; Somerfield, P.J.; Rumohr, H.; Faulwetter, S.; Valavanis, V.; Vasileiadou, A.; Chatzigeorgiou, G.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Labrune, C.; Grémare, A.; Zettler, M.L.; Kedra, M.; Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, M.; Aleffi, I.F.; Amouroux, J.M.; Anisimova, N.; Bachelet, G.; Büntzow, M.; Cochrane, S.J.; Costello, M.J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Dahle, S.; Degraer, S.; Denisenko, S.; Dounas, C.; Duineveld, G.; Emblow, C.; Escavarage, V.; Fabri, M.C.; Fleischer, D.; Gray, J.S.; Heip, C.H.R.; Herrmann, M.; Hummel, H.; Janas, U.; Karakassis, I.; Kendall, M.A.; Kingston, P.; Kotwicki, L.; Laudien, J.; Mackie, A.S.Y.; Nevrova, E.L.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A.; Oliver, P.G.; Olsgard, F.; Palerud, R.; Petrov, A.; Rachor, E.; Revkov, N.K.; Rose, A.; Sardá, R.; Sistermans, W.C.H.; Speybroeck, J.; Van Hoey, G.; Vincx, M.; Whomersley, P.; Willems, W.; Zenetos, A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether or not biogeographical and/or managerial divisions across the European seas can be validated using soft-bottom macrobenthic community data. The faunal groups used were: all macrobenthos groups, polychaetes, molluscs, crustaceans, echinoderms, sipunculans and the last 5

  1. Tracer element studies on deep water formation and circulation in the European Artic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenisch, G.

    1991-01-01

    Tracer element investigations (tritium, helium 3, carbon 14, argon 39, krypton 85 and fluorohydrocarbons) were carried out in the European Arctic Sea. The findings are discussed with a view to their validity in the case of deep water formation and circulation. The data cover the period of 1972 through 1989. (BBR) [de

  2. EMODNet Bathymetry - building and providing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet) initiative. EMODNet aims at assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The EMODNet data infrastructure is developed through a stepwise approach in three major phases. Currently EMODNet is entering its 3rd phase with operational portals providing access to marine data for bathymetry, geology, physics, chemistry, biology, seabed habitats and human activities, complemented by checkpoint projects, analyzing the fitness for purpose of data provision. The EMODNet Bathymetry project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting from SeaDataNet the Common Data Index (CDI) data discovery and access service and the Sextant data products catalogue service. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centers around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. SeaDataNet is also setting and governing marine data standards, and exploring and establishing interoperability solutions to connect to other e-infrastructures on the basis of standards such as ISO and OGC. The SeaDataNet portal provides users a number of interrelated meta directories, an extensive range of controlled vocabularies, and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools. SeaDataNet at present gives overview and access to more than 1.8 million data sets for physical oceanography, chemistry, geology, geophysics, bathymetry and biology from more than 100 connected data centers from 34 countries riparian to European seas. The latest EMODNet Bathymetry DTM has a resolution of 1/8 arc minute * 1/8 arc minute and covers all European sea regions. Use is made of

  3. EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping - further developing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, D.; Schmitt, T.

    2017-12-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) initiative. EMODnet aims at assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The EMODnet Bathymetry project has developed Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These have been produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting the SeaDataNet Catalogue services. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centres around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. The latest EMODnet Bathymetry DTM release has a grid resolution of 1/8 arcminute and covers all European sea regions. Use has been made of circa 7800 gathered survey datasets and composite DTMs. Catalogues and the EMODnet DTM are published at the dedicated EMODnet Bathymetry portal including a versatile DTM viewing and downloading service. End December 2016 the Bathymetry project has been succeeded by EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping (HRSM). This continues gathering of bathymetric in-situ data sets with extra efforts for near coastal waters and coastal zones. In addition Satellite Derived Bathymetry data are included to fill gaps in coverage of the coastal zones. The extra data and composite DTMs will increase the coverage of the European seas and its coastlines, and provide input for producing an EMODnet DTM with a common resolution of 1/16 arc minutes. The Bathymetry Viewing and Download service will be upgraded to provide a multi-resolution map and including 3D viewing. The higher resolution DTMs will also be used to determine best-estimates of the European coastline for a range of tidal levels (HAT, MHW, MSL, Chart Datum, LAT), thereby making use of a tidal model for Europe. Extra challenges will be `moving to the

  4. The Governance of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea for Energy Production and Aquaculture: Challenges for Policy Makers in European Seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, Marian; Soma, Katrine; Koundouri, Phoebe; Burg, Van Den Sander; Gerritsen, Alwin; Rockmann, C.

    2016-01-01

    European seas are encountering an upsurge in competing marine activities and infrastructures. Traditional exploitation such as fisheries, tourism, transportation, and oil production are accompanied by new sustainable economic activities such as offshore windfarms, aquaculture, and tidal and wave

  5. How to approach ballast water management in European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matej; Gollasch, Stephan

    2018-02-01

    The latest research continues to show that the ballast water issue is very complex, which makes it very challenging to manage. In 2004, the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) was adopted to globally harmonize action against the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens via ships' ballast water and related sediments. Analyses of the BWM Convention requirements, conducted through different research projects mainly aiming to provide support for the implementation of the BWM Convention, have shown that there are different steps countries need to take and that there are still some open issues which need to be solved. This paper presents some of the main issues identified and the core theoretical and applied measures required to solve these issues, with the aim to support more efficient and coordinated implementation of the BWM Convention requirements in EU seas. The approaches recommended here for the EU may be universally interesting for similar application in other areas of the world.

  6. Offshore wind energy in Mediterranean and other european seas: Technology and potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the last six years (1990-1996) the world wide capacity of grid connected offshore wind plants, at the prototypical stage, has reached 12 MW at energy costs some what higher than fifty per cent of similar on shore plants. Additional offshore installations are close to the construction and proposed for some hundreds MW in north european seas. The technology of the offshore wind turbines is evolving parallely to that of the onshore ones

  7. Offshore wind energy in Mediterranean and other european seas: Technology and potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudiosi, G

    1998-12-31

    In the last six years (1990-1996) the world wide capacity of grid connected offshore wind plants, at the prototypical stage, has reached 12 MW at energy costs some what higher than fifty per cent of similar on shore plants. Additional offshore installations are close to the construction and proposed for some hundreds MW in north european seas. The technology of the offshore wind turbines is evolving parallely to that of the onshore ones.

  8. Some Model Theoretic Remarks on Bass Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Momtahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We study Bass modules, Bass rings, and related concepts from a model theoretic point of view. We observe that the class of Bass modules (over a fixed ring is not stable under elementary equivalence. We observe that under which conditions the class of Bass rings are stable under elementary equivalence.

  9. Necessity of Initial Dilution for Sea Outfall Diffusers in Respect to the European Directive on Municipal Discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    The European Directive on municipal discharges prescribes that discharges of sewage to the sea should at least be treated biologically. The author claims that this treatment is an argument for reducing the requirement for initial dilution for sea outfall diffusers. By reducing the costs...

  10. Advancing marine conservation in European and contiguous seas with the MarCons Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Katsanevakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative human impacts have led to the degradation of marine ecosystems and the decline of biodiversity in the European and contiguous seas. Effective conservation measures are urgently needed to reverse these trends. Conservation must entail societal choices, underpinned by human values and worldviews that differ between the countries bordering these seas. Social, economic and political heterogeneity adds to the challenge of balancing conservation with sustainable use of the seas. Comprehensive macro-regional coordination is needed to ensure effective conservation of marine ecosystems and biodiversity of this region. Under the European Union Horizon 2020 framework programme, the MarCons COST action aims to promote collaborative research to support marine management, conservation planning and policy development. This will be achieved by developing novel methods and tools to close knowledge gaps and advance marine conservation science. This action will provide support for the development of macro-regional and national policies through six key actions: to develop tools to analyse cumulative human impacts; to identify critical scientific and technical gaps in conservation efforts; to improve the resilience of the marine environment to global change and biological invasions; to develop frameworks for integrated conservation planning across terrestrial, freshwater, and marine environments; to coordinate marine conservation policy across national boundaries; and to identify effective governance approaches for marine protected area management. Achieving the objectives of these actions will facilitate the integration of marine conservation policy into macro-regional maritime spatial planning agendas for the European and contiguous seas, thereby offsetting the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in this region.

  11. Using EUNIS habitat classification for benthic mapping in European seas: present concerns and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galparsoro, Ibon; Connor, David W; Borja, Angel; Aish, Annabelle; Amorim, Patricia; Bajjouk, Touria; Chambers, Caroline; Coggan, Roger; Dirberg, Guillaume; Ellwood, Helen; Evans, Douglas; Goodin, Kathleen L; Grehan, Anthony; Haldin, Jannica; Howell, Kerry; Jenkins, Chris; Michez, Noëmie; Mo, Giulia; Buhl-Mortensen, Pål; Pearce, Bryony; Populus, Jacques; Salomidi, Maria; Sánchez, Francisco; Serrano, Alberto; Shumchenia, Emily; Tempera, Fernando; Vasquez, Mickaël

    2012-12-01

    The EUNIS (European Union Nature Information System) habitat classification system aims to provide a common European reference set of habitat types within a hierarchical classification, and to cover all terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats of Europe. The classification facilitates reporting of habitat data in a comparable manner, for use in nature conservation (e.g. inventories, monitoring and assessments), habitat mapping and environmental management. For the marine environment the importance of a univocal habitat classification system is confirmed by the fact that many European initiatives, aimed at marine mapping, assessment and reporting, are increasingly using EUNIS habitat categories and respective codes. For this reason substantial efforts have been made to include information on marine benthic habitats from different regions, aiming to provide a comprehensive geographical coverage of European seas. However, there still remain many concerns on its applicability as only a small fraction of Europe's seas are fully mapped and increasing knowledge and application raise further issues to be resolved. This paper presents an overview of the main discussion and conclusions of a workshop, organised by the MeshAtlantic project, focusing upon the experience in using the EUNIS habitats classification across different countries and seas, together with case studies. The aims of the meeting were to: (i) bring together scientists with experience in the use of the EUNIS marine classification and representatives from the European Environment Agency (EEA); (ii) agree on enhancements to EUNIS that ensure an improved representation of the European marine habitats; and (iii) establish practices that make marine habitat maps produced by scientists more consistent with the needs of managers and decision-makers. During the workshop challenges for the future development of EUNIS were identified, which have been classified into five categories: (1) structure and hierarchy; (2

  12. A comprehensive inventory of ship traffic exhaust emissions in the European sea areas in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Jalkanen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emissions originating from ship traffic in European sea areas were modelled using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM, which uses Automatic Identification System data to describe ship traffic activity. We have estimated the emissions from ship traffic in the whole of Europe in 2011. We report the emission totals, the seasonal variation, the geographical distribution of emissions, and their disaggregation between various ship types and flag states. The total ship emissions of CO2, NOx, SOx, CO, and PM2.5 in Europe for year 2011 were estimated to be 121, 3.0, 1.2, 0.2, and 0.2 million tons, respectively. The emissions of CO2 from the Baltic Sea were evaluated to be more than a half (55 % of the emissions of the North Sea shipping; the combined contribution of these two sea regions was almost as high (88 % as the total emissions from ships in the Mediterranean. As expected, the shipping emissions of SOx were significantly lower in the SOx Emission Control Areas, compared with the corresponding values in the Mediterranean. Shipping in the Mediterranean Sea is responsible for 40 and 49 % of the European ship emitted CO2 and SOx emissions, respectively. In particular, this study reported significantly smaller emissions of NOx, SOx, and CO for shipping in the Mediterranean than the EMEP inventory; however, the reported PM2.5 emissions were in a fairly good agreement with the corresponding values reported by EMEP. The vessels registered to all EU member states are responsible for 55 % of the total CO2 emitted by ships in the study area. The vessels under the flags of convenience were responsible for 25 % of the total CO2 emissions.

  13. Heading south or north: novel insights on European silver eel Anguilla anguilla migration in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Jeroen; Verhelst, Pieterjan; Verhelst, Pieterjan; Deneudt, K.; Goethals, Peter; Moens, Tom; Nagelkerke, Leopold A.J.; Nolting, Carsten; Reubens, Jan; Schollema, Peter Paul; Winter, Hendrik V.; Mouton, Ans

    2016-01-01

    The European eel Anguilla anguilla L. is a critically endangered fish species that migrates from coastal and freshwater habitats to the Sargasso Sea to spawn. However, the exact migration routes and destination of European eel are still unknown. We are the first to observe southward migrating

  14. SeaDataNet: Pan-European infrastructure for ocean and marine data management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichaut, M.; Schaap, D.; Maudire, G.; Manzella, G. M. R.

    2012-04-01

    The overall objective of the SeaDataNet project is the upgrade the present SeaDataNet infrastructure into an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products originating from data acquisition activities by all engaged coastal states, by setting, adopting and promoting common data management standards and by realising technical and semantic interoperability with other relevant data management systems and initiatives on behalf of science, environmental management, policy making, and economy. SeaDataNet is undertaken by the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs), and marine information services of major research institutes, from 31 coastal states bordering the European seas, and also includes Satellite Data Centres, expert modelling centres and the international organisations IOC, ICES and EU-JRC in its network. Its 40 data centres are highly skilled and have been actively engaged in data management for many years and have the essential capabilities and facilities for data quality control, long term stewardship, retrieval and distribution. SeaDataNet undertakes activities to achieve data access and data products services that meet requirements of end-users and intermediate user communities, such as GMES Marine Core Services (e.g. MyOcean), establishing SeaDataNet as the core data management component of the EMODNet infrastructure and contributing on behalf of Europe to global portal initiatives, such as the IOC/IODE - Ocean Data Portal (ODP), and GEOSS. Moreover it aims to achieve INSPIRE compliance and to contribute to the INSPIRE process for developing implementing rules for oceanography. • As part of the SeaDataNet upgrading and capacity building, training courses will be organised aiming at data managers and technicians at the data centres. For the data managers it is important, that they learn to work with the upgraded common Sea

  15. Assessing biological invasions in European Seas: Biological traits of the most widespread non-indigenous species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeccia, Alice; Marchini, Agnese; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Galil, Bella; Gollasch, Stephan; Minchin, Dan; Narščius, Aleksas; Olenin, Sergej; Ojaveer, Henn

    2018-02-01

    The biological traits of the sixty-eight most widespread multicellular non-indigenous species (MWNIS) in European Seas: Baltic Sea, Western European Margin of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea were examined. Data for nine biological traits was analyzed, and a total of 41 separate categories were used to describe the biological and ecological functions of these NIS. Our findings show that high dispersal ability, high reproductive rate and ecological generalization are the biological traits commonly associated with MWNIS. The functional groups that describe most of the 68 MWNIS are: photoautotrophic, zoobenthic (both sessile and motile) and nektonic predatory species. However, these 'most widespread' species comprise a wide range of taxa and biological trait profiles; thereby a clear "identikit of a perfect invader" for marine and brackish environments is difficult to define. Some traits, for example: "life form", "feeding method" and "mobility", feature multiple behaviours and strategies. Even species introduced by a single pathway, e.g. vessels, feature diverse biological trait profiles. MWNIS likely to impact community organization, structure and diversity are often associated with brackish environments. For many traits ("life form", "sociability", "reproductive type", "reproductive frequency", "haploid and diploid dispersal" and "mobility"), the categories mostly expressed by the impact-causing MWNIS do not differ substantially from the whole set of MWNIS.

  16. Geo-Seas: delivering harmonised marine geoscience data on a European scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick

    2013-04-01

    A large amount of both raw and interpreted marine geoscience data is held by an array of European organisations but its discovery and re-use can be very difficult. The data is stored in a variety of different formats and a range of different nomenclatures, scales and co-ordinate systems are used at the organisational, national and international level. This lack of standardisation hinders the user's ability to locate and access these datasets or to use them in an integrated way. The Geo-Seas project, an EU funded Framework 7 initiative, has addressed these barriers to the re-use of marine geological and geophysical data through the development of an on-line data discovery and access service (http://www.geo-seas.eu). It allows the end user to identify, evaluate and download a range of standardised marine geoscience data sets from 26 federated data centres across 17 European maritime countries. The dedicated portal, which currently provides access to more than 100,000 datasets, has been developed by adopting and adapting the existing technologies, standards and methodologies developed by the SeaDataNet project for the management and delivery of oceanographic data. Through the re-use of this pre-existing architecture including the associated common standards and vocabularies a joint infrastructure for both marine geoscientific and oceanographic data has been created which supports the development of multidisciplinary ocean science. The Geo-Seas project has also brought together and incorporated the metadata services developed by previous EU-funded projects such as EUSeaSed and SEISCAN. The formats of this legacy metadata have not only been used as the basis for developing the Geo-Seas metadatabase but it has also lead to these pre-existing metadata catalogues being upgraded to current international standards. The Geo-Seas initiative has lead to a major improvement in the availability of standardised marine geoscientific data throughout Europe allowing end users better

  17. The Governance of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea for Energy Production and Aquaculture: Challenges for Policy Makers in European Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Stuiver

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available European seas are encountering an upsurge in competing marine activities and infrastructures. Traditional exploitation such as fisheries, tourism, transportation, and oil production are accompanied by new sustainable economic activities such as offshore windfarms, aquaculture, and tidal and wave energy. One proposed solution to overcome possible competing claims at sea lies in combining these economic activities as part of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea (MUPS. MUPS can be understood as areas at sea, designated for a combination of activities, either completely integrated in a platform or in shared marine space. MUPS can potentially benefit from each other in terms of infrastructure, maintenance, etc. Developing MUPS in the marine environment demands adequate governance. In this article, we investigate four European sites to find out how governance arrangements may facilitate or complicate MUPs. In particular, we apply a framework specifying policy, economic, social, technical, environmental, and legal (PESTEL factors to explore governance arrangements in four case study sites in different sea basins around Europe (the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, and the Baltic Sea. The article concludes with policy recommendations on a governance regime for facilitating the development of MUPS in the future.

  18. EMODNet Bathymetry - building and providing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.

    2015-04-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The EU communication 'Marine Knowledge 2020' underpins the importance of data availability and harmonising access to marine data from different sources. The European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) is a long term marine data initiative from the European Commission Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (DG MARE) underpinning the Marine Knowledge 2020 strategy. EMODnet is a consortium of organisations assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The main purpose of EMODnet is to unlock fragmented and hidden marine data resources and to make these available to individuals and organisations (public and private), and to facilitate investment in sustainable coastal and offshore activities through improved access to quality-assured, standardised and harmonised marine data which are interoperable and free of restrictions on use. The EMODnet data infrastructure is developed through a stepwise approach in three major phases. Currently EMODnet is in the 2nd phase of development with seven sub-portals in operation that provide access to marine data from the following themes: bathymetry, geology, physics, chemistry, biology, seabed habitats and human activities. EMODnet development is a dynamic process so new data, products and functionality are added regularly while portals are continuesly improved to make the service more fit for purpose and user friendly with the help of users and stakeholders. The EMODnet Bathymetry project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets, that are indexed with metadata by adopting the SeaDataNet Common Data Index (CDI) data discovery and access service and the SeaDataNet Sextant data products catalogue service. The new EMODnet DTM will have a resolution of 1

  19. SeaDataCloud - further developing the pan-European SeaDataNet infrastructure for marine and ocean data management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

    2017-04-01

    SeaDataCloud marks the third phase of developing the pan-European SeaDataNet infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. The SeaDataCloud project is funded by EU and runs for 4 years from 1st November 2016. It succeeds the successful SeaDataNet II (2011 - 2015) and SeaDataNet (2006 - 2011) projects. SeaDataNet has set up and operates a pan-European infrastructure for managing marine and ocean data and is undertaken by National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODC's) and oceanographic data focal points from 34 coastal states in Europe. The infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users a harmonised set of metadata directories and controlled access to the large collections of datasets, managed by the interconnected data centres. The population of directories has increased considerably in cooperation with and involvement in many associated EU projects and initiatives such as EMODnet. SeaDataNet at present gives overview and access to more than 1.9 million data sets for physical oceanography, chemistry, geology, geophysics, bathymetry and biology from more than 100 connected data centres from 34 countries riparian to European seas. SeaDataNet is also active in setting and governing marine data standards, and exploring and establishing interoperability solutions to connect to other e-infrastructures on the basis of standards of ISO (19115, 19139), and OGC (WMS, WFS, CS-W and SWE). Standards and associated SeaDataNet tools are made available at the SeaDataNet portal for wide uptake by data handling and managing organisations. SeaDataCloud aims at further developing standards, innovating services & products, adopting new technologies, and giving more attention to users. Moreover, it is about implementing a cooperation between the SeaDataNet consortium of marine data centres and the EUDAT consortium of e-infrastructure service providers. SeaDataCloud aims at considerably advancing services and

  20. Impact of acute cadmium exposure on the trunk lateral line neuromasts and consequences on the 'C-start' response behaviour of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.; Teleostei, Moronidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucher, Karine; Fichet, Denis; Miramand, Pierre; Lagardere, Jean Paul

    2006-01-01

    Behavioural responses of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax were investigated after exposure to cadmium ions in laboratory-controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to discover whether environmental exposure to cadmium ions inactivates fish lateral line system neuromasts, and to determine the behavioural consequences of such a sensory blockage. For this, fish escape behaviour in response to an artificial water jet was recorded using a 25-frames s -1 analog video camera before and after cadmium exposure. Experimental set up was tested with fish whose lateral line system was artificially inactivated by antibiotics (gentamicin and streptomycin). Histological analyses with scanning electron microscopy showed antibiotic treatment destroyed lateral line system neuromasts. In addition, these fish did not respond to stimulations provoked by the water jet after antibiotic treatment. Fish escape behaviour was then recorded before and after cadmium exposure at two different concentrations. When fish were exposed to the first concentration of cadmium tested (0.5 μg l -1 , which represents the maximal cadmium concentration encountered in contaminated estuaries), no alteration in neuromast tissue was observed. In addition, before cadmium exposure, fish responded positively in 98.41 ± 4.95% of lateral line system stimulations (escape behaviour in response to the water jet). After cadmium exposure, no behavioural modification could be detected: the fish responded positively in 95.16 ± 9.79% of stimulations (χ 2 = 2.464, p = 0.116). In contrast, the high cadmium concentration used (5 μg l -1 , which represents 10 times the concentration occurring in highly polluted estuarine areas) involved severe neuromast tissue damage. Just after such cadmium exposure, fish showed only 41.67 ± 35.36% of positive responses to their lateral line system stimulations, while they responded positively in 95.93 ± 9.10% of stimulations under control conditions (χ 2 = 24.562, p 2 = 2.876, p = 0

  1. Climate change, future Arctic Sea ice, and the competitiveness of European Arctic offshore oil and gas production on world markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Sebastian; Riemann-Campe, Kathrin; Hoog, Sven; Growitsch, Christian; Schwind, Hannah; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Rehdanz, Katrin

    2017-12-01

    A significant share of the world's undiscovered oil and natural gas resources are assumed to lie under the seabed of the Arctic Ocean. Up until now, the exploitation of the resources especially under the European Arctic has largely been prevented by the challenges posed by sea ice coverage, harsh weather conditions, darkness, remoteness of the fields, and lack of infrastructure. Gradual warming has, however, improved the accessibility of the Arctic Ocean. We show for the most resource-abundant European Arctic Seas whether and how a climate induced reduction in sea ice might impact future accessibility of offshore natural gas and crude oil resources. Based on this analysis we show for a number of illustrative but representative locations which technology options exist based on a cost-minimization assessment. We find that under current hydrocarbon prices, oil and gas from the European offshore Arctic is not competitive on world markets.

  2. Joint sea studies of the IAEA and European Union mediterranean partner ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.; Miquel, J.C.; Boisson, F.

    1998-01-01

    Several oceanographic and geographic features of the Mediterranean Sea render it particularly vulnerable to the potential effects of anthropogenic pollutants. The sea is a relatively shallow, semi-enclosed body of water with only limited water exchange taking place at Straits of Gibraltar and through the Bosphorus. Less saline Atlantic surface water enters at Gibraltar and slowly circulates counter clockwise around the Mediterranean basin. There it gradually becomes warmer and more saline due to insolation and intense evaporation. The weak coastal current systems and general lack of tides combine to reduce dispersion of pollutants entering its coastal water. Furthermore, recent construction of dams on some major rivers have substantially reduced spring runoff which tends to cleanse the shelf region of deposited contaminants. Given the Sea's special geographical setting and potential sensitivity to human activity, it is not surprising that over the last decade much effort has been put into studying its biogeochemical structure and functioning. Furthermore, the Sea's restricted size affords marine scientists the opportunity to study, on a reduced scale, processes typical of the world's oceans. Recent trends in oceanography have shown that the degree of our understanding these processes significantly improves when the questions to be answered are addressed in a multidisciplinary way. Recognizing this fact, the European Union (EU) has mounted various large-scale multidisciplinary marine programmes, several of which have focused on the Mediterranean Sea. Because of its long history of collaborative work in the Mediterranean, the IAEA's Marine Environmental Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco has been invited by several EU partner institutes to contribute to these programmes, usually in the area of employing nuclear techniques to study key oceanic processes. These EU-supported programmed have been instrumental in broadening MEL's extrabugetary funding base, which is often

  3. The spatial data infrastructure for the European Seas Observatory Network (ESONET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Robert; Diepenbroek, Michael

    2010-05-01

    ESONET is a Multidisciplinary European Network of Excellence (NoE) in which scientists and engineers from 50 partners and 14 countries cooperate in building the infrastructure for a lasting integration of research and development in deep sea observatories in Europe. This NoE aims to develop strong links between regional nodes of a European network of sub sea observatories and to promote multidiciplinarity and transnationality within each node. Essential for these goals is the provision of an effective data and knowledge infrastructure for both, management and archiving of observatory data as well as knowledge and data sharing among network participants. The ESONET data infrastructure roughly consists of four major components: data policies a common agreement on the data management procedures and prerequisites, data acquisition technologies serve to collect data directly from ESONET observatories, data archives care for long term data management of collected ESONET data and data integration and portal tools which ensure harmonisation of collected data and allow access to the data in a common way. Most critical for ESONET was the development of a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) by using standardised protocols to directly access observatory data in its spatial and temporal context. The ESONET SDI provides means to either access data in quasi real time or harvest locally stored data in order to transfer it to a long term data archive. ESONET SDI largely builds upon the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite of standards. Among those, the Sensor Observation Service (SOS), the Observations & Measurements (O&M), Sensor Markup Language (SensorML) are especially important for the integration of observatory data as well as for the contribution of ESONET data to GEOSS.

  4. Sea-water/groundwater interactions along a small catchment of the European Atlantic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einsiedl, Florian

    2012-01-01

    The geochemistry and isotopic composition of a karstic coastal aquifer in western Ireland has shed light on the effect of sea-water/groundwater interactions on the water quality of Ireland’s Atlantic coastal zone. The use of stable isotope data from the IAEA precipitation station in Valentia, located in SW Ireland has facilitated the characterization of groundwater recharge conditions in the western part of Ireland and suggests that groundwater is mostly replenished by the isotopically light winter precipitation. The dissolved SO 4 2- in the karstic groundwater that was collected during baseflow conditions with δ 34 S values between 4.6‰ and 18‰ may be composed of S stemming from three principal sources: SO 4 2- derived from precipitation which is composed of both sea-spray S (δ 34 S: 20‰) and an isotopically light anthropogenic source (δ 34 S: 1–5‰), SO 4 2- stemming from animal slurries (δ 34 S: ∼5‰), and intruding sea-water SO 4 2- (δ 34 S: 20.2‰). The isotopic composition of δ 18 O in dissolved groundwater SO 4 2- collected during baseflow conditions is interpreted as reflecting sea-water intrusion to the karstic coastal groundwater system. The highest δ 18 O values in dissolved groundwater SO 4 2- were in samples collected near the coast (4.8 ± 0.4‰) and the lowest (2 ± 0.5‰) were collected further inland. The δ 15 N and δ 18 O values of groundwater NO 3 - were between 3.4‰ and 11.4‰ and approximately 7.7‰, respectively, and reflect geochemical conditions in the aquifer that do not promote attenuation of NO 3 - through denitrification. As a result N loading to Kinvara Bay that is controlled by submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was calculated as 5 tons/day on average compared to an estimated N-input that derives from precipitation of approximately 2.5 tons/a. SGD into the bay may result in near coastal sea-water quality changes. These results represent one of the first studies addressing the effect of groundwater

  5. The influence of global sea level changes on European shale distribution and gas exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, P.; Cornelius, C.T.; Clarke, H. [Cuadrilla Resources Ltd., Staffordshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Technological advances in directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology have unlocked new supplies of shale gas from reservoirs that were previously considered to be uneconomic. Several companies, both experienced majors and small independents, are currently evaluating the unconventional resource potential of mainland Europe. This paper demonstrated that global sea level changes govern the distribution of marine black shales. The Hallam Curve was used in this study to identify periods of prospective gas shale deposition. In general, these correspond to post-glacial periods of relatively high sea level. Under-filled marginal sedimentary basins are key exploration targets. The geochemical and petrophysical characteristics of the shales deposited under these conditions are often comparable to North American shales, particularly the Barnett Shale which is currently in production. Many orogenic events influence European shales in terms of organic maturity, hydrocarbon generation and fracture generation. The main prospective horizons in ascending stratigraphic sequence are the Alum Shale, Llandovery Shale, Fammenian/Frasnian Shale, Serpukhovian Shale, Toarcian Shale, Kimmeridge Clay and the Tertiary Eocene and Oligocene shales common to central Europe. This paper presented the authors initial exploration strategy, with particular focus on the Lower Palaeozoic of central Europe, the Namurian of northwest England and the Jurassic Posidonia Formation of the Roer Valley Graben in Holland. The potential obstacles to unconventional exploration in Europe include restricted access to surface locations, high water usage, a lack of convenient pipeline infrastructure, strict environmental regulations, a high population density and lack of suitable drilling rigs and well completion equipment. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  6. SeaDataNet II - EMODNet - building a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

    2014-05-01

    The second phase of the project SeaDataNet is well underway since October 2011 and is making good progress. The main objective is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via research cruises and monitoring activities in European marine waters and global oceans. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres, and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools,. Recently the 1st Innovation Cycle has been completed, including upgrading of the CDI Data Discovery and Access service to ISO 19139 and making it fully INSPIRE compliant. The extensive SeaDataNet Vocabularies have been upgraded too and implemented for all SeaDataNet European metadata directories. SeaDataNet is setting and governing marine data standards, and exploring and establishing interoperability solutions to connect to other e-infrastructures on the basis of standards of ISO (19115, 19139), OGC (WMS, WFS, CS-W and SWE), and OpenSearch. The population of directories has also increased considerably in cooperation and involvement in associated EU projects and initiatives. SeaDataNet now gives overview and access to more than 1.4 million data sets for physical oceanography, chemistry, geology, geophysics, bathymetry and biology from more than 90 connected data centres from 30 countries riparian to European seas. Access to marine data is also a key issue for the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The EU communication 'Marine Knowledge 2020' underpins the importance of data availability and harmonising access to marine data from different sources. SeaDataNet qualified itself for leading the data management component of the

  7. Alternative protein sources in sea bass nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D’Agaro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensive fish farming profitability is declining word-wide. This situation is mainly due to the extensive reliance on fish meal (FM as feed ingredient in finfish diets in order to meet the high dietary protein needs. FM quality and prices are variable and its global supply is decreasing and highly dependent on meteoric events (e.g. El niño. Several protein sources are potentially excellent alternatives to FM...

  8. Comparative pathogenicity study of ten different betanodavirus strains in experimentally infected European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendramin, Niccolò; Toffan, A.; Mancin, M.

    2014-01-01

    nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus and barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus, with the RGNNV genotype appearing as the most widespread in the Mediterranean region, although SJNNV-type strains and reassortant viruses have also been reported. The existence...

  9. Potential impacts of climate change on the primary production of regional seas: A comparative analysis of five European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jason; Schrum, Corinna; Cannaby, Heather; Daewel, Ute; Allen, Icarus; Artioli, Yuri; Bopp, Laurent; Butenschon, Momme; Fach, Bettina A.; Harle, James; Pushpadas, Dhanya; Salihoglu, Baris; Wakelin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Regional seas are potentially highly vulnerable to climate change, yet are the most directly societally important regions of the marine environment. The combination of widely varying conditions of mixing, forcing, geography (coastline and bathymetry) and exposure to the open-ocean makes these seas subject to a wide range of physical processes that mediates how large scale climate change impacts on these seas' ecosystems. In this paper we explore the response of five regional sea areas to potential future climate change, acting via atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial vectors. These include the Barents Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea, Celtic Seas, and are contrasted with a region of the Northeast Atlantic. Our aim is to elucidate the controlling dynamical processes and how these vary between and within these seas. We focus on primary production and consider the potential climatic impacts on: long term changes in elemental budgets, seasonal and mesoscale processes that control phytoplankton's exposure to light and nutrients, and briefly direct temperature response. We draw examples from the MEECE FP7 project and five regional model systems each using a common global Earth System Model as forcing. We consider a common analysis approach, and additional sensitivity experiments. Comparing projections for the end of the 21st century with mean present day conditions, these simulations generally show an increase in seasonal and permanent stratification (where present). However, the first order (low- and mid-latitude) effect in the open ocean projections of increased permanent stratification leading to reduced nutrient levels, and so to reduced primary production, is largely absent, except in the NE Atlantic. Even in the two highly stratified, deep water seas we consider (Black and Baltic Seas) the increase in stratification is not seen as a first order control on primary production. Instead, results show a highly heterogeneous picture of positive and negative change

  10. Assessment of riverine load of contaminants to European seas under policy implementation scenarios: an example with 3 pilot substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Dimitar; Pistocchi, Alberto; Trombetti, Marco; Bidoglio, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    An evaluation of conventional emission scenarios is carried out targeting a possible impact of European Union (EU) policies on riverine loads to the European seas for 3 pilot pollutants: lindane, trifluralin, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The policy scenarios are investigated to the time horizon of year 2020 starting from chemical-specific reference conditions and considering different types of regulatory measures including business as usual (BAU), current trend (CT), partial implementation (PI), or complete ban (PI ban) of emissions. The scenario analyses show that the model-estimated lindane load of 745 t to European seas in 1995, based on the official emission data, would be reduced by 98.3% to approximately 12.5 t in 2005 (BAU scenario), 10 years after the start of the EU regulation of this chemical. The CT and PI ban scenarios indicate a reduction of sea loads of lindane in 2020 by 74% and 95%, respectively, when compared to the BAU estimate. For trifluralin, an annual load of approximately 61.7 t is estimated for the baseline year 2003 (BAU scenario), although the applied conservative assumptions related to pesticide use data availability in Europe. Under the PI (ban) scenario, assuming only small residual emissions of trifluralin, we estimate a sea loading of approximately 0.07 t/y. For PFOS, the total sea load from all European countries is estimated at approximately 5.8 t/y referred to 2007 (BAU scenario). Reducing the total load of PFOS below 1 t/y requires emissions to be reduced by 84%. The analysis of conventional scenarios or scenario typologies for emissions of contaminants using simple spatially explicit GIS-based models is suggested as a viable, affordable exercise that may support the assessment of implementation of policies and the identification or negotiation of emission reduction targets. © 2013 SETAC.

  11. The relationship between phytoplankton distribution and water column characteristics in North West European shelf sea waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehling, Johanna; Davidson, Keith; Bolch, Christopher J S; Brand, Tim D; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the "Ellett Line" cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA), of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations) clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN:DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS) demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community), and both salinity and DIN:DSi (diatoms alone). Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi limitation of

  12. The relationship between phytoplankton distribution and water column characteristics in North West European shelf sea waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Fehling

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the "Ellett Line" cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA, of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN:DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community, and both salinity and DIN:DSi (diatoms alone. Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi

  13. Modelling temporal and spatial dynamics of benthic fauna in North-West-European shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessin, Gennadi; Bruggeman, Jorn; Artioli, Yuri; Butenschön, Momme; Blackford, Jerry

    2017-04-01

    Benthic zones of shallow shelf seas receive high amounts of organic material. Physical processes such as resuspension, as well as complex transformations mediated by diverse faunal and microbial communities, define fate of this material, which can be returned to the water column, reworked within sediments or ultimately buried. In recent years, numerical models of various complexity and serving different goals have been developed and applied in order to better understand and predict dynamics of benthic processes. ERSEM includes explicit parameterisations of several groups of benthic biota, which makes it particularly applicable for studies of benthic biodiversity, biological interactions within sediments and benthic-pelagic coupling. To assess model skill in reproducing temporal (inter-annual and seasonal) dynamics of major benthic macrofaunal groups, 1D model simulation results were compared with data from the Western Channel Observatory (WCO) benthic survey. The benthic model was forced with organic matter deposition rates inferred from observed phytoplankton abundance and model parameters were subsequently recalibrated. Based on model results and WCO data comparison, deposit-feeders exert clear seasonal variability, while for suspension-feeders inter-annual variability is more pronounced. Spatial distribution of benthic fauna was investigated using results of a full-scale NEMO-ERSEM hindcast simulation of the North-West European Shelf Seas area, covering the period of 1981-2014. Results suggest close relationship between spatial distribution of biomass of benthic faunal functional groups in relation to bathymetry, hydrodynamic conditions and organic matter supply. Our work highlights that it is feasible to construct, implement and validate models that explicitly include functional groups of benthic macrofauna. Moreover, the modelling approach delivers detailed information on benthic biogeochemistry and food-web at spatial and temporal scales that are unavailable

  14. Impact of the European Russia drought in 2010 on the Caspian Sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arpe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological budgets of the Volga basin (VB and the Caspian Sea (CS have been analysed. The components of the water balance for the CS were calculated for the period 1993 to 2010 with emphasis on summer 2010 when a severe drought developed over European Russia.

    A drop in precipitation over the VB in July 2010 occurs simultaneously with a decrease in evaporation for the same area, an increase of evaporation over the CS itself and a drop of the Caspian Sea level (CSL. The drop in the precipitation over the VB cannot lead to an instantaneous drop of the CSL because the precipitated water needs some months to reach the CS. The delay is estimated here to be 1 to 3 months for excessive precipitation in summer, longer for deficient precipitation and for winter cases. However, the evaporation over the CS itself is considered to be responsible for a simultaneous drop of the CSL from July to September 2010. The impact on the CSL from the precipitation deficit over the VB occurs in the months following the drought. The water deficit from July to September 2010 calculated from the anomalous precipitation minus evaporation over the VB would decrease the CSL by 22 cm, of which only 2 cm had been observed until the end of September (observed Volga River discharge anomaly. So the remaining drop of 20 cm can be expected in the months to follow if no other anomalies happen. In previous studies the precipitation over the VB has been identified as the main cause for CSL changes, but here from a 10 cm drop from beginning of July to end of September, 6 cm can be directly assigned to the enhanced evaporation over the CS itself and 2 cm due to reduced precipitation over the CS.

    Further periods with strong changes of the CSL are also investigated, which provide some estimates concerning the accuracy of the analysis data. The investigation was possible due to the new ECMWF interim reanalysis data which are used to provide data also for sensitive

  15. Science Objectives and Design of the European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, H.; Géli, L.; Karstensen, J.; Colaço, A.; Lampitt, R.; Greinert, J.; Phannkuche, O.; Auffret, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The needs for a network of ocean observing systems cross many applied and research areas of earth and marine science. Many of the science areas that can be examined using such systems have direct impacts on societal health and well being and our understanding of ocean function in a shifting climate. The European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET) Network of Excellence has been evaluating ocean observatory design requirements, data management needs, standardization and interoperability concerns, social implications, outreach and education, as well as financial and legal aspects of developing such a system. ESONET has great potential to address a growing set of Earth science questions that require a broad and integrated network of ocean and seafloor observations. ESONET activities are also importantly integrating researchers in the European Community, as well as internationally. There is now wide recognition that research addressing science questions of international priority, such as understanding the potential impacts of climate change or geohazards like earthquakes and tsunamis should be conducted in a framework that can address questions across adequate temporal and spatial scales. We will present the relevant science priorities in the four interconnected fields of geoscience, physical oceanography, biogeochemistry, and marine ecology, and some of the practical ways in which these questions can be addressed using ESONET. Several key questions persist that will require comprehensive interdisciplinary approaches including: How can monitoring of factors such as seismic activity, fluid pore chemistry and pressure, improve seismic, slope failure, and tsunami warning? To what extent do seabed processes influence ocean physics, biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems? How are physical and biogeochemical processes that occur at differing scales related? What aspects of physical oceanography and biogeochemical cycling will be most sensitive to climate change? What will the

  16. Assimilation of ocean colour to improve the simulation and understanding of the North West European shelf-sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavatta, Stefano; Brewin, Robert; Skakala, Jozef; Sursham, David; Ford, David

    2017-04-01

    Shelf-seas and coastal zones provide essential goods and services to humankind, such as fisheries, aquaculture, tourism and climate regulation. The understanding and management of these regions can be enhanced by merging ocean-colour observations and marine ecosystem simulations through data assimilation, which provides (sub)optimal estimates of key biogeochemical variables. Here we present a range of applications of ocean-colour data assimilation in the North West European shelf-sea. A reanalysis application illustrates that assimilation of error-characterized chlorophyll concentrations could provide a map of the shelf sea vulnerability to oxygen deficiency, as well as estimates of the shelf sea uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in the last decade. The interannual variability of CO2 uptake and its uncertainty were related significantly to interannual fluctuations of the simulated primary production. However, the reanalysis also indicates that assimilation of total chlorophyll did not improve significantly the simulation of some other variables, e.g. nutrients. We show that the assimilation of alternative products derived from ocean colour (i.e. spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient and phytoplankton size classes) can overcome this limitation. In fact, these products can constrain a larger number of model variables, which define either the underwater light field or the structure of the lower trophic levels. Therefore, the assimilation of such ocean-colour products into marine ecosystem models is an advantageous novel approach to improve the understanding and simulation of shelf-sea environments.

  17. DNA methylation profiles correlated to striped bass sperm fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spermatozoa are used to fertilize in vitro the eggs of white bass (Morone chrysops) to produce the preferred hybrid for the striped bass aquaculture industry. Currently, only one source of domestic striped bass juveniles are available to growers that are not obtained ...

  18. Dispersion of radionuclides in the European north-western seas: observations and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly du Bois, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In this report for an Accreditation to supervise research (HDR), the author reports the use over 30 years by the Cherbourg-Octeville IRSN Laboratory of artificial radionuclides in solution in sea water as oceanographic markers. Such measurements on radio-markers which are soluble in sea water, enabled a better knowledge of dissolved substance displacements in north-western seas of Europe, notably the Channel, the North Sea, the Celtic Sea, and the Irish Sea. The author reports researches which aimed at studying the dispersion of radionuclides in seawater and their use as water mass markers, at validating hydrodynamic models of dispersion at different time-space scales, at the understanding and simulation of the sedimentary transport, and at studying the transfer to living species. These different topics give the document its structure [fr

  19. Geo-Seas - a pan-European infrastructure for the management of marine geological and geophysical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaves, Helen; Graham, Colin

    2010-05-01

    Geo-Seas - a pan-European infrastructure for the management of marine geological and geophysical data. Helen Glaves1 and Colin Graham2 on behalf of the Geo-Seas consortium The Geo-Seas project will create a network of twenty six European marine geoscience data centres from seventeen coastal countries including six from the Baltic Sea area. This will be achieved through the development of a pan-European infrastructure for the exchange of marine geoscientific data. Researchers will be able to locate and access harmonised and federated marine geological and geophysical datasets and data products held by the data centres through the Geo-Seas data portal, using a common data catalogue. The new infrastructure, an expansion of the exisiting SeaDataNet, will create an infrastructure covering oceanographic and marine geoscientific data. New data products and services will be developed following consultations with users on their current and future research requirements. Common data standards will be implemented across all of the data centres and other geological and geophysical organisations will be encouraged to adopt the protocols, standards and tools which are developed as part of the Geo-Seas project. Oceanographic and marine data include a wide range of variables, an important category of which are the geological and geophysical data sets. This data includes raw observational and analytical data as well as derived data products from seabed sediment samples, boreholes, geophysical surveys (seismic, gravity etc) and sidescan sonar surveys. All of which are essential in order to produce a complete interpretation of seabed geology. Despite there being a large volume of geological and geophysical data available for the marine environment it is currently very difficult to use these datasets in an integrated way between organisations due to different nomenclatures, formats, scales and coordinate systems being used within different organisations and also within different

  20. Productivity, facies and stable-isotope records of OAE2 (Cenomanian - Turonian) in the NW European epicontinental sea: from the English Chalk to North Sea black shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Ian; Olde, Kate; Trabucho-Alexandre, João; Gröcke, Darren

    2013-04-01

    The Late Cretaceous (100.5 - 66.0 Ma) provides perhaps the best example of how the Earth System may function under long-term extreme greenhouse conditions. Rapidly rising global temperatures indicate that we are heading 'back to the Cretaceous' within a few hundred years, so a better understanding of this time interval is essential. The beginning of the Late Cretaceous was characterized by a period of rapidly rising eustatic sea level, the Cenomanian transgression, which flooded continental margins and established large areas of new epicontinental sea that accumulated thick sequences of pelagic and hemipelagic carbonate (chalk). Highest global temperatures were reached during the early part of the Turonian Stage (93.9 - 89.8 Ma). This period of dramatic palaeoenvironmental change was accompanied by one the largest perturbations of the global carbon cycle in the Mesozoic: Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2), which was characterized by a 500 kyr episode of oceanic anoxia, widespread black shale deposition, biotic turnover, and a large global positive carbon stable-isotope excursion (2 - 6 ‰ ∂13C) recorded in marine carbonates and both marine and terrestrial organic matter. The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval exposed at Eastbourne, southern England, has become established as a European reference section for OAE2. Here, and elsewhere in Europe, the base of the ∂13C excursion is coincident with a marked facies change from rhythmically bedded grey chalks and marls, to a >8 m thick package of dark greenish-grey marl - the Plenus Marl. The termination of OAE2 occurs 6 m above, in a package of pale-yellow-weathering nodular chalks with prominent marl seams. Sediments are organic lean (10 wt%. The onshore equivalent in eastern England (the Black Band) is similarly organic-rich, as are comparable sections in northern Germany (e.g. Wunstorf), indicating likely fully anoxic episodes within some NW European basins. The exact stratigraphic equivalence between the onshore

  1. Effects of reservoir hydrology on reproduction by largemouth bass and spotted bass in Normandy Reservoir, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, S.M.; Dorsey, L.G.; Bettoli, P.W.; Fiss, F.C.

    1999-01-01

    Age-O largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and spotted bass M. punctulatus were collected from Normandy Reservoir, Tennessee, 1992-1996, to evaluate effects of reservoir hydrology and hatching of shad Dorosoma spp. on hatching and first-year growth and survival of these two species. Fish were collected in cove rotenone samples in early August and electrofishing samples biweekly throughout the summer; hatch dates and age-specific growth for both species were determined from cove samples with sagittal otoliths. Hatching of both species ranged from early April to early June. Initiation of largemouth bass spawning, but not spotted bass spawning, was positively related to the first day water levels achieved full pool. Mean hatch dates of both species were positively related to the first day of full pool. Timing of spawning for both species was not related to water temperature, Largemouth bass exhibited bimodal length-frequency distributions by midsummer in two wet years and length frequencies were unimodal in dry years; spotted bass always formed unimodal length-frequency distributions. When largemouth bass exhibited bimodal length distributions, earlier hatched fish grew faster than later hatched fish. Spotted bass grew at similar rates, regardless of hatch date, every year except during 1992 when later hatched fish grew faster than earlier hatched fish. Weekly survival of largemouth bass in their first summer was positively related to reservoir water level. First-year growth of both species was not directly affected by the timing of threadfin shad D. petenense or gizzard shad D. cepedianum hatching.

  2. The Future of European Teacher Education in the Heavy Seas of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgaga, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reconsider recent pan-European developments in teacher education and to discuss some aspects of its future. Teacher education across Europe has been largely "universitised"; therefore, both its present and future should be discussed within the context of the general changes in European higher education deeply…

  3. SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management - Project objectives, structure and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudire, G.; Maillard, C.; Fichaut, M.; Manzella, G.; Schaap, D. M. A.

    2009-04-01

    SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management Project objectives, structure and components G. Maudire (1), C. Maillard (1), G. Manzella (2), M. Fichaut (1), D.M.A. Schaap (3), E. Iona (4) and the SeaDataNet consortium. (1) IFREMER, Brest, France (Gilbert.Maudire@ifremer.fr), (2) ENEA, La Spezia, Italy, (3) Mariene Informatie Service 'MARIS', Voorburg, The Netherlands, (4) Hellenic Centre for Marine Research-HCMR, Anavyssos, Greece. Since a large part of the earth population lives near the oceans or carries on activities directly or indirectly linked to the seas (fishery and aquaculture, exploitation of sea bottom resources, international shipping, tourism), knowledge of oceans is of primary importance for security and economy. However, observation and monitoring of the oceans remains difficult and expensive even if real improvements have been achieved using research vessels and submersibles, satellites and automatic observatories like buoys, floats and seafloor observatories transmitting directly to the shore using global transmission systems. More than 600 governmental or private organizations are active in observation of seas bordering Europe, but European oceanographic data are fragmented, not always validated and not always easily accessible. That highlights the need of international collaboration to tend toward a comprehensive view of ocean mechanisms, resources and changes. SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in European Union Framework Program 6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation systems and to the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Its major objectives are to: - encourage long-term archiving at national level to secure ocean data taking into account that all the observations made in the variable oceanic environment can never be remade if they are lost; - promote best practices for data

  4. Stock characteristics of Hudson River striped bass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, T.B.; McLaren, J.B.; Cooper, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Striped bass, because of their tremendous popularity both commercially and recreationally, were a principal focus of the Hudson River power plant case. Between 1976 and 1979, over 23,000 age-II and older striped bass were studied as one facet of an extensive research program on the spring population in the Hudson River. Samples were collected from the overwintering as well as the spawning portion of the striped bass population, and included immature as well as mature fish. At least 12 age-groups contributed to spawning each year. Of these 12, age-groups III, IV, and V usually were most abundant, but the percentage of the population represented by any single age-group varied as the result of fluctuations in year-class strength. Males first became sexually mature at age II and females at age IV. Fast-growing individuals within a year class tended to mature earlier. Fecundity increased with the size of fish, reaching an observed maximum of about 3 million eggs per female. Although significant annual variations in maturity and growth were detected for Hudson River striped bass, there was no evidence of a consistent change in either variable that might be associated with increasing power plant operations and a reduction in striped bass abundance. Age at maturity and age structure are the two life history components that differ the most between the Hudson River population and other striped bass populations. 36 refs., 7 tabs

  5. Population Genetics of European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L. in the Seas of Turkey Based on Microsatellite DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fevzi Bardakci

    2014-06-01

    Results: In this study, 13 microsatellite loci in 541 samples were analysed for determination of genetic structure of anchovy along Turkish coasts. The genetic variability was high among population, the average alleles numbers per locus per population ranged from 11.0 to 22.8. Observed heterozygosity per population was ranged from 0.612 (Mersin to 0.733 (İstanbul while expected heterozygosity was ranged from 0.774 (Mersin to 0.823 (Perşembe. The highest genetic distance was found between Antalya and Trabzon populations (FST=0.06949, the lowest between Antalya and İskenderun populations (0,00010. Analyses of 13 microsatellite loci were showed that there was low population structuring among all anchovy population (Fst: 0,024; SE 0,005. Although high genetic diversities was detected, for most loci with most populations were showed Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium. Genetic distance analyses showed up Mediterranean specimens were highly distinct from Aegean and Black sea populations. Aegean populations were closer to Black sea populations because of higher gene flow between them rather than Mediterranean. A STRUCTURE computer program was indicated the presence of four possible genetic groups in Turkish territorial waters. Conclusions: Data to obtained from this study has found useful for the identification of genetic structuring of European anchovy distributed along the coasts of Turkish Seas. Results are also useful for planning of fishery management of anchovies in Turkey.

  6. Regional cooperation for European seas: Governance models in support of the implementation of the MSFD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Raakjaer, J.; Leeuwen, van J.; Hoof, van L.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    During the implementation process of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), Member States are expected to cooperate and coordinate at the regional sea level as wells as arrange stakeholder involvement. However, the MSFD does not specify any governing structures to do so. The aim of this

  7. Winds observed in the Northern European seas with wind lidars, meteorological masts and satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Stein, D.; Peña, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Ocean winds have been observed in the Baltic, Irish and North Seas from a combination of groundbased lidars, tall offshore meteorological masts and satellites remote sensing in recent years. In the FP7 project NORSEWInD (2008-2012) the project partners joined forces to ensure collection of these ...

  8. SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, D. M. A.; Maudire, G.

    2009-04-01

    SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in EU FP6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Therefore SeaDataNet insures the long term archiving of the large number of multidisciplinary data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea level, chemical, physical and biological properties) collected by many different sensors installed on board of research vessels, satellite and the various platforms of the marine observing system. The SeaDataNet project started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, but its primary objective is the provision of easy data access and generic data products. SeaDataNet is a distributed infrastructure that provides transnational access to marine data, meta-data, products and services through 40 interconnected Trans National Data Access Platforms (TAP) from 35 countries around the Black Sea, Mediterranean, North East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic and Arctic regions. These include: National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODC's) Satellite Data Centres. Furthermore the SeaDataNet consortium comprises a number of expert modelling centres, SME's experts in IT, and 3 international bodies (ICES, IOC and JRC). Planning: The SeaDataNet project is delivering and operating the infrastructure in 3 versions: Version 0: maintenance and further development of the metadata systems developed by the Sea-Search project plus the development of a new metadata system for indexing and accessing to individual data objects managed by the SeaDataNet data centres. This

  9. Delivery and fate of fluvial water and sediment to the sea: a marine geologist's view of European rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Milliman

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite their relatively small drainage areas, European rivers reflect a wide variety of hydrologic regimes, although with very few exceptions they have been strongly affected by human activity. Scandinavian rivers (particularly those draining Iceland and western Norway can have high runoff, and, except for those draining Iceland, all have very low suspended and dissolved sediment loads. Northern and western European rivers have somewhat lower runoff, among the lowest suspended sediment yields in the world, and anthropogenically enhanced dissolved solid loads. Annual discharge of many of these rivers appears to vary inversely with the North Atlantic Oscillation index. Rivers discharging from the southern Alps into the Mediterranean Sea have relatively high runoff, high suspended sediment yields (reflecting younger, more easily erodable rocks as well as generally smaller drainage basins, and high dissolved yields, although presumably with somewhat less human influence. European rivers and their estuaries tend to reflect the terrestrial environments of their drainage basins (i.e. climate, landscape geomorphology, geology, but they also display strong anthropogenic signatures. Sediment erosion increased dramatically in the last several millenia in response to deforestation, farming and mining. In the past 50 years, however, increased soil conservation and local reversion of agricultural land to forest, as well as river diversion and dam construction, have decreased the suspended sediment loads of many European rivers. Improved mining and manufacturing techniques, as well as more effective use of fertilizers and improved waste treatment, almost surely will result in lower dissolved solids and nutrient fluxes to the coastal environments, which presently are the highest in the world. The long-range effects of changed land use on estuarine and coastal environments remain to be seen, although decreased sediment loads in the past 20-40 years have already

  10. Between the Devil and the Deep Sea : The Netherlands and the Struggle for European Nuclear Order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellendoorn, E.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is about the early history of the Netherlands nuclear non-proliferation policy. The book places the development of Dutch policy with regard to NATO nuclear policy, European integration and ultracentrifuge technology in an international perspective. The work moves beyond traditional

  11. Present regulatory situation in South East European and Black Sea countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenow, K.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, after the energy reforms beginning, various regulatory models are either actually used or contemplated in the countries of Southeastern Europe and the Black Sea region. The 'models' are country-specific and five of them are described in this report. Certain common issues emerge specific to these countries can be grouped in three categories. The first category, called 'framework issues', includes the policy issues that determine the context in which the regulator will have to evolve. The second category, called 'regulatory issues proper', includes licensing, setting of prices, tariffs, transmission fees, establishment of codes for markets, grids and metering. The third category, called 'international issues', includes these issues requiring the international cooperation among regulators. The countries in Southeastern Europe and around the Black Sea have a long experience with regulation of grid-based energies and this experience should be adapted to the market-oriented context bearing in mind the benefits of competition and of regional integration and markets

  12. Oceans of opportunity or rough seas? What does the future hold for developments in European marine policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Tavis; O'Higgins, Tim; Hastings, Emily

    2012-12-13

    The management of European seas is undergoing a process of major reform. In the past, oceans and coastal policy has traditionally evolved in a fragmented and uncoordinated manner, developed by different sector-based agencies and arms of government with competing aims and objectives. Recently, the call for integrated and ecosystem-based approaches has driven the conceptualization of a new approach. At the scale of Europe through the Integrated Maritime Policy and Marine Strategy Framework Directive and in national jurisdictions such as the Marine and Coastal Access Act in the United Kingdom, ecosystem-based planning is becoming the norm. There are major challenges to this process and this paper explores, in particular, the opportunities inherent in building truly integrated approaches that cross different sectors of activity, integrate across scales, incorporate public involvement and build a sense of oceans citizenship.

  13. A MSFD complementary approach for the assessment of pressures, knowledge and data gaps in Southern European Seas: The PERSEUS experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crise, A.; Kaberi, H.; Ruiz, José Luis Martinez

    2015-01-01

    PERSEUS project aims to identify the most relevant pressures exerted on the ecosystems of the Southern European Seas (SES), highlighting knowledge and data gaps that endanger the achievement of SES Good Environmental Status (GES) as mandated by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD......). A complementary approach has been adopted, by a meta-analysis of existing literature on pressure/impact/knowledge gaps summarized in tables related to the MSFD descriptors, discriminating open waters from coastal areas. A comparative assessment of the Initial Assessments (IAs) for five SES countries has been also...... independently performed. The comparison between meta-analysis results and IAs shows similarities for coastal areas only. Major knowledge gaps have been detected for the biodiversity, marine food web, marine litter and underwater noise descriptors. The meta-analysis also allowed the identification of additional...

  14. Spatial and temporal variations in concentration factors in NW European seas - secondary use of monitoring data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Mcmahon, C.A.; Rudjord, A.L.; Smedley, C.; Nawakowski, C.; Leonard, K.S. [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Lowestoft (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents new data on concentration factors (CFs: concentration kg-1 biota/concentration l-1 seawater) for several marine species-radionuclide pairs, in three regions: coastal waters of Ireland, eastern Irish Sea, coastal waters of Norway. The CFs were estimated using data from long-term monitoring programmes, obtained for radiological protection purposes. The practical constraints of using such data sources are discussed. CFs were obtained for Mytilus edulis (mussels), Nephrops norvegicus (Norway lobster/Dublin Bay prawn/scampi), Pleuronectes platessa (plaice), Cancer pagurus (edible crab), Littorina littoria (winkles) and Fucus vesiculosus, for one or more of the following radionuclides: {sup 99}Tc, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. In general, there was a relatively high degree of variability in the values obtained, and it was not possible to discern systematic regional or time-dependent differences. However, for two datasets in the eastern Irish Sea ({sup 137}Cs in winkles and crabs) there was a statistically-significant increase in the CF over the 40 year monitoring period. In several cases the range of values obtained exceeded the range recommended by the IAEA. In 2002, the average {sup 99}Tc CF for F. vesiculosus from the eastern Irish Sea coastline was 26, significantly lower than the IAEA recommended valve (1 x 10{sup 3} - 1 x 10{sup 5}).The results are discussed in relation to the influence of contemporaneous discharges and the possible impact of re-mobilised radionuclides. (author)

  15. Assessment of contaminant concentrations in sediments, fish and mussels sampled from the North Atlantic and European regional seas within the ICON project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, Craig D.; Webster, Lynda; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Burgeot, Thierry; Gubbins, Matthew J.; Thain, John E.; Vethaak, A. Dick; McIntosh, Alistair D.; Hylland, Ketil

    Understanding the status of contaminants in the marine environment is a requirement of European Union Directives and the Regional Seas Conventions, so that measures to reduce pollution can be identified and their efficacy assessed. The international ICON workshop (Hylland et al., in this issue) was

  16. Spring diet and feeding strategy of the European sprat Sprattus sprattus (L., 1758 from the Black Sea coast of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayhan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the spring diet composition and feeding strategy of the European sprat, Sprattus sprattus. Diet composition of European sprat was investigated for the first time in the central Black Sea coast of Turkey. Examined of the 115 specimens (6 - 9.1 cm total length of stomach, 12 (10.4% had emty. Diet analysis was described based on gravimetric percentages (W%, frequency of abundance (N%, frequency of occurrence (%F and relative importance index (IRI%. Feeding strategy was analyzed and graphically (Costello represented, considering the frequency of abundance (N% and frequency of occurrence (%F indexes and grouping prey into higher taxonomic categories. Twenty species were identified, belonging to four prey groups: Polychaeta, Crustacea, Mollusca and Chaetognatha. Finally copepods proved to be the most important food item considering the above-cited indexes. All other prey taxa were identified as accidental preys. At least seven copepod species were identified, where Calanus euxinus appeared all round with %IRI≥50. Also results of feeding strategy analyses revealed a trophic specialization toward a single prey.

  17. Estimates of growth and mortality of under-yearling smallmouth bass in Spednic Lake, from 1970 through 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Robert W.; Trial, Joan G.

    2014-01-01

    This report is the product of a 2013 cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey, the International Joint Commission, and the Maine Bureau of Sea Run Fisheries and Habitat to quantify the effects of meteorological conditions (from 1970 through 2008) on the survival of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the first year of life in Spednic Lake. This report documents the data and methods used to estimate historical daily mean lake surface-water temperatures from early spring through late autumn, which were used to estimate the dates of smallmouth bass spawning, young-of-the-year growth, and probable strength of each year class. Mortality of eggs and fry in nests was modeled and estimated to exceed 10 percent in 17 of 39 years; during those years, cold temperatures in the early part of the spawning period resulted in mortality to fish that were estimated to have had the longest growing season and attain the greatest length. Modeled length-dependent overwinter survival combined with early mortality identified 1986, 1994, 1996, and 2004 as the years in which temperature was likely to have presented the greatest challenge to year-class strength in the Spednic Lake fishery. Age distribution of bass in fisheries on lakes in the St. Croix and surrounding watersheds confirmed that conditions in 1986 and 1996 resulted in weak smallmouth bass year classes (age-four or age-five bass representing less than 15 percent of a 100-fish sample).

  18. Identification, Molecular Cloning of IL-1β and Its Expression Profile during Nocardia seriolae Infection in Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Yueh Ho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, IL-1β cDNA was identified and analyzed from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides. Full length IL-1β mRNA was obtained using Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE, which contains 78 bp 3′-UTR, a 455 bp 5′-UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF of 702 bp coding for 233 amino acid residues. The molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of largemouth bass IL-1β protein was predicted to be 26.7 kDa and 6.08 respectively. A largemouth bass IL-1β phylogenetic analysis showed a close relation to the IL-1βs of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata, Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi, and Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus. Peptidoglycan upregulated IL-1β in the spleen and head kidney, while lipopolysaccharide upregulated detectable levels of IL-1β in the spleen only. Largemouth bass, challenged with Nocardia seriolae (1.0 × 106 cfu/mL, showed a significant increase in IL-1β at 3 and 5 days post infection (dpi in the spleen, while in the head kidney significant expression was found at 2 and 3 dpi, peaking at 3 dpi. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α showed significantly higher expression in the spleen at 3 and 5 dpi, and in the head kidney at 1 and 3 dpi, with expression decreasing at 5 dpi in both tissues.

  19. Book review: Black bass diversity: Multidisciplinary science for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelks, Howard L.

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are from the third symposium dedicated to management and conservation of black basses in the genus Micropterus. The first symposium was held in 1975 (R. H. Stroud and H. Clepper. Black Bass Biology and Management. Washington (DC): Sport Fishing Institute) followed 25 years later by Black Bass 2000 (D. P. Philipp and M. S. Ridgway. 2002. Black Bass: Ecology, Conservation, and Management. Bethesda (MD): American Fisheries Society). Although the previous books discussed conservation of genetic variation and distinct strains of basses, the bulk of the papers in those tomes emphasized management of largemouth and smallmouth bass. In contrast, this third symposium is focused on the rarer bass species and challenges for their successful management.

  20. Daily ocean monitoring since the 1860s shows record warming of northern European seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Schiedek, D.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean temperatures in most parts of the world are increasing and are expected to continue to rise during the 21st century. A major challenge to ecologists and marine resource managers is to understand and predict how these global changes will affect species and ecosystems at local scales where...... the ability of local species to adapt and is consequently leading to major changes in the structure, function and services of these ecosystems....... temperature more directly affects biological responses and species interactions. Here, we investigate historical variability in regional sea surface temperature in two large heavily exploited marine ecosystems and compare these variations with expected rates of temperature change for the 21st century. We use...

  1. Influence of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides , on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predatory alien fishes have been widely introduced into streams in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR), South Africa, but little is known about their effect on native fishes. Results from this 2006 study suggest that the presence of alien predatory largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, may have influenced abundance and ...

  2. Beat my bass, pluck my drum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, B.J.; Funk, M.; Doing, V.

    2014-01-01

    Beating a bass, plucking a drum -- new systems of instruments make it possible. In this paper we describe recent research into networked musical instruments for group improvisation; instruments that reciprocally influence each other's behaviour, making, contrary to what we are used to, the

  3. Movement behaviour of alien largemouth bass Micropterus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The movement behaviour of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in the estuarine headwater region of the Kowie River, South Africa, was investigated using passive acoustic telemetry. Ten adult fish were tagged and released in four discrete pools below a weir that precluded possible upriver migration. Their residency ...

  4. Kilometric Scale Modeling of the North West European Shelf Seas: Exploring the Spatial and Temporal Variability of Internal Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihou, K.; Polton, J.; Harle, J.; Wakelin, S.; O'Dea, E.; Holt, J.

    2018-01-01

    The North West European Shelf break acts as a barrier to the transport and exchange between the open ocean and the shelf seas. The strong spatial variability of these exchange processes is hard to fully explore using observations, and simulations generally are too coarse to simulate the fine-scale processes over the whole region. In this context, under the FASTNEt program, a new NEMO configuration of the North West European Shelf and Atlantic Margin at 1/60° (˜1.8 km) has been developed, with the objective to better understand and quantify the seasonal and interannual variability of shelf break processes. The capability of this configuration to reproduce the seasonal cycle in SST, the barotropic tide, and fine-resolution temperature profiles is assessed against a basin-scale (1/12°, ˜9 km) configuration and a standard regional configuration (7 km resolution). The seasonal cycle is well reproduced in all configurations though the fine-resolution allows the simulation of smaller scale processes. Time series of temperature at various locations on the shelf show the presence of internal waves with a strong spatiotemporal variability. Spectral analysis of the internal waves reveals peaks at the diurnal, semidiurnal, inertial, and quarter-diurnal bands, which are only realistically reproduced in the new configuration. Tidally induced pycnocline variability is diagnosed in the model and shown to vary with the spring neap cycle with mean displacement amplitudes in excess of 2 m for 30% of the stratified domain. With sufficiently fine resolution, internal tides are shown to be generated at numerous bathymetric features resulting in a complex pycnocline displacement superposition pattern.

  5. Indicator-based assessment of marine biological diversity – lessons from 10 case studies across the European Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Uusitalo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the environmental status of European marine waters to be assessed using biodiversity as one out of 11 descriptors, but the complexity of marine biodiversity and its large span across latitudinal and salinity gradients have been a challenge to the scientific community aiming to produce approaches for integrating information from a broad range of indicators. The Nested Environmental status Assessment Tool (NEAT, developed for the integrated assessment of the status of marine waters, was applied to ten marine ecosystems to test its applicability and compare biodiversity assessments across the four European regional seas. We evaluate the assessment results as well as the assessment designs of the ten cases, and how the assessment design, particularly the choices made regarding the area and indicator selection, affected the results. The results show that only 2 out of the 10 case study areas show more than 50 % probability of being in good status in respect of biodiversity. No strong pattern among the ecosystem components across the case study areas could be detected, but marine mammals, birds, and benthic vegetation indicators tended to indicate poor status while zooplankton indicators indicated good status when included into the assessment. The analysis shows that the assessment design, including the selection of indicators, their target values, geographical resolution and habitats to be assessed, has potentially a high impact on the result, and the assessment structure needs to be understood in order to make an informed assessment. Moreover, recommendations are provided for the best practice of using NEAT for marine status assessments.

  6. The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX): A European contribution to the investigation of the energy and water cycle over a large drainage basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raschke, E.; Meywerk, J.; Warrach, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) is one of the five continental-scale experiments of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). More than 50 research groups from 14 European countries are participating in this project to measure and model the energy and water cycle over the large...... drainage basin of the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. BALTEX aims to provide a better understanding of the processes of the climate system and to improve and to validate the water cycle in regional numerical models for weather forecasting and climate studies. A major effort is undertaken to couple...

  7. Reproductive potential of silver European eels (Anguilla anguilla migrating from Vistonis Lake (Northern Aegean Sea, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MACNAMARA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European eel (Anguilla anguilla, once abundant throughout much of Europe and North Africa, has recently been classified as critically endangered. Information on its biology from the eastern Mediterranean is lacking, especially in relation to spawner quality. Therefore, silver eels were sampled during their seaward spawning migration from Vistonis Lake in Greece. Characteristics linked to reproductive output and success (i.e. body size and condition, sex ratio, silvering, Anguillicola crassus infection, fecundity and oocyte diameter were examined. The lake produced large (687–1138 mm, exclusively female silver eels, 61.7% of which were infected by A. crassus. Silver eel fecundity, the first estimates from the southern part of the species range, was positively related to body length (R2 = 0.693; P < 0.001 and body weight (R2 = 0.731; P < 0.001. Fecundity did not differ between A. crassus infected and uninfected silver eels, but Greek silver eels were significantly more fecund than those in north-west Europe. The reproductive potential of Vistonis Lake silver eels and their contribution to the A. anguilla spawning stock is discussed.

  8. Marine litter distribution and density in European seas, from the shelves to deep basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Christopher K; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Alt, Claudia H S; Amaro, Teresa; Bergmann, Melanie; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Davies, Jaime; Duineveld, Gerard; Galgani, François; Howell, Kerry L; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Isidro, Eduardo; Jones, Daniel O B; Lastras, Galderic; Morato, Telmo; Gomes-Pereira, José Nuno; Purser, Autun; Stewart, Heather; Tojeira, Inês; Tubau, Xavier; Van Rooij, David; Tyler, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic litter is present in all marine habitats, from beaches to the most remote points in the oceans. On the seafloor, marine litter, particularly plastic, can accumulate in high densities with deleterious consequences for its inhabitants. Yet, because of the high cost involved with sampling the seafloor, no large-scale assessment of distribution patterns was available to date. Here, we present data on litter distribution and density collected during 588 video and trawl surveys across 32 sites in European waters. We found litter to be present in the deepest areas and at locations as remote from land as the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The highest litter density occurs in submarine canyons, whilst the lowest density can be found on continental shelves and on ocean ridges. Plastic was the most prevalent litter item found on the seafloor. Litter from fishing activities (derelict fishing lines and nets) was particularly common on seamounts, banks, mounds and ocean ridges. Our results highlight the extent of the problem and the need for action to prevent increasing accumulation of litter in marine environments.

  9. Marine litter distribution and density in European seas, from the shelves to deep basins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher K Pham

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic litter is present in all marine habitats, from beaches to the most remote points in the oceans. On the seafloor, marine litter, particularly plastic, can accumulate in high densities with deleterious consequences for its inhabitants. Yet, because of the high cost involved with sampling the seafloor, no large-scale assessment of distribution patterns was available to date. Here, we present data on litter distribution and density collected during 588 video and trawl surveys across 32 sites in European waters. We found litter to be present in the deepest areas and at locations as remote from land as the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The highest litter density occurs in submarine canyons, whilst the lowest density can be found on continental shelves and on ocean ridges. Plastic was the most prevalent litter item found on the seafloor. Litter from fishing activities (derelict fishing lines and nets was particularly common on seamounts, banks, mounds and ocean ridges. Our results highlight the extent of the problem and the need for action to prevent increasing accumulation of litter in marine environments.

  10. Phytoplankton Distribution in Relation to Environmental Drivers on the North West European Shelf Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemering, Beatrix; Bresnan, Eileen; Painter, Stuart C; Daniels, Chris J; Inall, Mark; Davidson, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The edge of the North West European Shelf (NWES) is characterised by a steep continental slope and a northward flowing slope current. These topographic/hydrographic features separate oceanic water and shelf water masses hence potentially separate phytoplankton communities. The slope current may facilitate the advective transport of phytoplankton, with mixing at the shelf edge supporting nutrient supply and therefore phytoplankton production. On the west Scottish shelf in particular, little is known about the phytoplankton communities in and around the shelf break and adjacent waters. Hence, to improve our understanding of environmental drivers of phytoplankton communities, biological and environmental data were collected on seven cross-shelf transects across the Malin and Hebridean Shelves during autumn 2014. Density profiles indicated that shelf break and oceanic stations had a 100 m deep mixed surface layer while stations on the shelf were generally well mixed. Analysis of similarity and multidimensional scaling of phytoplankton counts revealed that phytoplankton communities on the shelf were significantly different to those found at the shelf break and at oceanic stations. Shelf stations were dominated by dinoflagellates, with diatoms contributing a maximum of 37% of cells. Shelf break and oceanic stations were also dinoflagellate dominated but displayed a lower species diversity. Significant difference between shelf and shelf break stations suggested that the continental slope limited cross shelf phytoplankton exchange. Northern and southern phytoplankton communities on the shelf were approximately 15% dissimilar while there was no latitudinal gradient for stations along the slope current, suggesting this current provided south to north connectivity. Fitting environmental data to phytoplankton ordination showed a significant relationship between phytoplankton community dissimilarities and nutrient concentrations and light availability on the shelf compared to

  11. Settlement and juvenile habitat of the European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae in the western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Díaz

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Settlement characteristics, like timing, depth, microhabitat and density of European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas are described for the very first time. Regular SCUBA-diving surveys were conducted from July 1998 to January 2000 on rocky bottoms of three different geologic origins to assess substratum-dependent differences in recruitment density. Settlement of pueruli took place in June-July, a few weeks after sea surface temperature started to rise. The highest density of juveniles was found at 10-15 m depth. Most spiny lobsters settled in limestone rocks, into empty holes of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga, which provided daytime refuge. As they grew, individuals were increasingly found in larger holes and crevices of the rock surface. Sizes were estimated from photographs taken at night when the animals were actively foraging. The smallest observed individuals measured 7.5-8 mm carapace length (CL, but they reached 15-18 mm CL at the end of October. The consequences of our results for the management of the spiny lobster populations in the northwestern Mediterranean are summarily discussed.

  12. SeaDataNet II - Second phase of developments for the pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

    2013-04-01

    The second phase of the project SeaDataNet started on October 2011 for another 4 years with the aim to upgrade the SeaDataNet infrastructure built during previous years. The numbers of the project are quite impressive: 59 institutions from 35 different countries are involved. In particular, 45 data centers are sharing human and financial resources in a common efforts to sustain an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products. The main objective of SeaDataNet II is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via the Pan-European oceanographic fleet and the new observation systems, both in real-time and delayed mode. The infrastructure is based on a semi-distributed system that incorporates and enhance the existing NODCs network. SeaDataNet aims at serving users from science, environmental management, policy making, and economical sectors. Better integrated data systems are vital for these users to achieve improved scientific research and results, to support marine environmental and integrated coastal zone management, to establish indicators of Good Environmental Status for sea basins, and to support offshore industry developments, shipping, fisheries, and other economic activities. The recent EU communication "MARINE KNOWLEDGE 2020 - marine data and observation for smart and sustainable growth" states that the creation of marine knowledge begins with observation of the seas and oceans. In addition, directives, policies, science programmes require reporting of the state of the seas and oceans in an integrated pan-European manner: of particular note are INSPIRE, MSFD, WISE-Marine and GMES Marine Core Service. These underpin the importance of a well functioning marine and ocean data management infrastructure. SeaDataNet is now one of

  13. National Seabed Mapping Programmes Collaborate to Advance Marine Geomorphological Mapping in Adjoining European Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteys, X.; Guinan, J.; Green, S.; Gafeira, J.; Dove, D.; Baeten, N. J.; Thorsnes, T.

    2017-12-01

    Marine geomorphological mapping is an effective means of characterising and understanding the seabed and its features with direct relevance to; offshore infrastructure placement, benthic habitat mapping, conservation & policy, marine spatial planning, fisheries management and pure research. Advancements in acoustic survey techniques and data processing methods resulting in the availability of high-resolution marine datasets e.g. multibeam echosounder bathymetry and shallow seismic mean that geological interpretations can be greatly improved by combining with geomorphological maps. Since December 2015, representatives from the national seabed mapping programmes of Norway (MAREANO), Ireland (INFOMAR) and the United Kingdom (MAREMAP) have collaborated and established the MIM geomorphology working group) with the common aim of advancing best practice for geological mapping in their adjoining sea areas in north-west Europe. A recently developed two-part classification system for Seabed Geomorphology (`Morphology' and Geomorphology') has been established as a result of an initiative led by the British Geological Survey (BGS) with contributions from the MIM group (Dove et al. 2016). To support the scheme, existing BGS GIS tools (SIGMA) have been adapted to apply this two-part classification system and here we present on the tools effectiveness in mapping geomorphological features, along with progress in harmonising the classification and feature nomenclature. Recognising that manual mapping of seabed features can be time-consuming and subjective, semi-automated approaches for mapping seabed features and improving mapping efficiency is being developed using Arc-GIS based tools. These methods recognise, spatially delineate and morphologically describe seabed features such as pockmarks (Gafeira et al., 2012) and cold-water coral mounds. Such tools utilise multibeam echosounder data or any other bathymetric dataset (e.g. 3D seismic, Geldof et al., 2014) that can produce a

  14. Murman Coast of the Barents Sea at the Second Half of the 19th and the Begining 20th Century. Russian or European Colonization?

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel V. Fedorov

    2014-01-01

    This article is dedicated to analysing the historical background of the process of colonization Murman coast of the Barents Sea at the second half of the 19th and the begining 20th century. It consider two different interpretations of the history of colonization. One of them is the process of checking the Murman coast as a result of Russia imposed Western European initiatives. Another interpretation associates colonization with traditional process of the Russian presence on Murman.

  15. SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets (www.seadatanet.org)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Maudire, Gilbert

    2010-05-01

    SeaDataNet is a leading infrastructure in Europe for marine & ocean data management. It is actively operating and further developing a Pan-European infrastructure for managing, indexing and providing access to ocean and marine data sets and data products, acquired via research cruises and other observational activities, in situ and remote sensing. The basis of SeaDataNet is interconnecting 40 National Oceanographic Data Centres and Marine Data Centers from 35 countries around European seas into a distributed network of data resources with common standards for metadata, vocabularies, data transport formats, quality control methods and flags, and access. Thereby most of the NODC's operate and/or are developing national networks to other institutes in their countries to ensure national coverage and long-term stewardship of available data sets. The majority of data managed by SeaDataNet partners concerns physical oceanography, marine chemistry, hydrography, and a substantial volume of marine biology and geology and geophysics. These are partly owned by the partner institutes themselves and for a major part also owned by other organizations from their countries. The SeaDataNet infrastructure is implemented with support of the EU via the EU FP6 SeaDataNet project to provide the Pan-European data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. The SeaDataNet project has a duration of 5 years and started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, extending its services with the provision of easy data access and generic data products

  16. Mortality of Palmetto bass following catch-and-release angling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.J.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2013-01-01

    Palmetto bass (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis x White Bass M. chrysops) have been stocked into reservoirs in the southeastern USA since the late 1960s and have gained widespread acceptance as a sport fish. These fisheries are growing in popularity and catch-and-release (CR) fishing is commonplace; however, there is a dearth of information on CR mortality of palmetto bass. We experimentally angled palmetto bass (n = 56; >373-mm TL) in a Tennessee reservoir using traditional angling gear in water temperatures ranging from 13 °C to 32 °C. Ultrasonic transmitters equipped with floats were externally attached to fish, which were released immediately and tracked multiple times within 10 d of release. Mortality was negligible (3.6%) in fall and spring at cool water temperatures but was high (39.3%) in summer when water temperatures exceeded 26 °C. The best logistic regression model based on Akaike's information criterion for small sample sizes scores relied on water temperature alone to predict CR mortality of palmetto bass; there was little support for other models that included all possible combinations of the six other predictor variables we tested. Palmetto bass in our study experienced lower CR mortality than Striped Bass in other systems, but CR mortality rates for palmetto bass that approach or exceed 40% during summer are still problematic if the goal is to maintain fishing quality.

  17. Spatial simulation of smallmouth bass in streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, H.I.; Schmoyer, D.D.; Sale, M.J.; Van Winkle, W.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Sabo, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The hydropower industry and its regulators are hampered by the inability to predict the relationship between alternative flow regimes and fish population response. We have developed a spatially explicit, individual-based model of populations of small-mouth bass in streams as part of the Compensatory Mechanisms in Fish Populations Program (see Sale and Otto 1991). In the model, the profitability of alternative stream locations varies in response to habitat depth and velocity through changes in the frequency of prey encounters and the metabolic costs experienced by fish. We conducted an evaluation of our hydraulic simulation at the scale of individual stream cells. The potential error in predictions for individual cell velocities suggests that larger-scale model predictions for the representative reach are most appropriate. At this scale, the model appears to produce realistic patterns in the growth and dispersal of young-of-year small-mouth bass. This verification step allows us to proceed with greater confidence in evaluating the original question of how small-mouth bass populations respond to alternative flow regimes

  18. Closing the sea level budget on a regional scale: Trends and variability on the Northwestern European continental shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederikse, Thomas; Riva, Riccardo; Kleinherenbrink, Marcel; Wada, Yoshihide; van den Broeke, Michiel; Marzeion, Ben

    2016-10-28

    Long-term trends and decadal variability of sea level in the North Sea and along the Norwegian coast have been studied over the period 1958-2014. We model the spatially nonuniform sea level and solid earth response to large-scale ice melt and terrestrial water storage changes. GPS observations, corrected for the solid earth deformation, are used to estimate vertical land motion. We find a clear correlation between sea level in the North Sea and along the Norwegian coast and open ocean steric variability in the Bay of Biscay and west of Portugal, which is consistent with the presence of wind-driven coastally trapped waves. The observed nodal cycle is consistent with tidal equilibrium. We are able to explain the observed sea level trend over the period 1958-2014 well within the standard error of the sum of all contributing processes, as well as the large majority of the observed decadal sea level variability.

  19. Assessment of contaminant concentrations in sediments, fish and mussels sampled from the North Atlantic and European regional seas within the ICON project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Craig D; Webster, Lynda; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Burgeot, Thierry; Gubbins, Matthew J; Thain, John E; Vethaak, A Dick; McIntosh, Alistair D; Hylland, Ketil

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the status of contaminants in the marine environment is a requirement of European Union Directives and the Regional Seas Conventions, so that measures to reduce pollution can be identified and their efficacy assessed. The international ICON workshop (Hylland et al., in this issue) was developed in order to test an integrated approach to assessing both contaminant concentrations and their effects. This paper describes and assesses the concentrations of trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments, mussels, and fish collected from estuarine, coastal and offshore waters from Iceland to the Mediterranean Sea. For organic contaminants, concentrations progressively increased from Iceland, to the offshore North Sea, to the coastal seas, and were highest in estuaries. Metals had a more complex distribution, reflecting local anthropogenic inputs, natural sources and hydrological conditions. Use of internationally recognised assessment criteria indicated that at no site were concentrations of all contaminants at background and that concentrations of some contaminants were of significant concern in all areas, except the central North Sea. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sea Surface Temperature for Climate Applications: A New Dataset from the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, C. J.; Hulley, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    There are many datasets describing the evolution of global sea surface temperature (SST) over recent decades -- so why make another one? Answer: to provide observations of SST that have particular qualities relevant to climate applications: independence, accuracy and stability. This has been done within the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initative (CCI) project on SST. Independence refers to the fact that the new SST CCI dataset is not derived from or tuned to in situ observations. This matters for climate because the in situ observing network used to assess marine climate change (1) was not designed to monitor small changes over decadal timescales, and (2) has evolved significantly in its technology and mix of types of observation, even during the past 40 years. The potential for significant artefacts in our picture of global ocean surface warming is clear. Only by having an independent record can we confirm (or refute) that the work done to remove biases/trend artefacts in in-situ datasets has been successful. Accuracy is the degree to which SSTs are unbiased. For climate applications, a common accuracy target is 0.1 K for all regions of the ocean. Stability is the degree to which the bias, if any, in a dataset is constant over time. Long-term instability introduces trend artefacts. To observe trends of the magnitude of 'global warming', SST datasets need to be stable to <5 mK/year. The SST CCI project has produced a satellite-based dataset that addresses these characteristics relevant to climate applications. Satellite radiances (brightness temperatures) have been harmonised exploiting periods of overlapping observations between sensors. Less well-characterised sensors have had their calibration tuned to that of better characterised sensors (at radiance level). Non-conventional retrieval methods (optimal estimation) have been employed to reduce regional biases to the 0.1 K level, a target violated in most satellite SST datasets. Models for

  1. Qualitative assessment of the diet of European eel larvae in the Sargasso Sea resolved by DNA barcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemann, L.; Alfredsson, H.; Hansen, Michael Møller

    2010-01-01

    , the Sargasso Sea is oligotrophic, with generally low plankton biomass, and the feeding biology of eel larvae has so far remained a mystery, hampering understanding of this peculiar life history. DNA barcoding of gut contents of 61 genetically identified A. anguilla larvae caught in the Sargasso Sea showed...

  2. Comparison of WIMS/BASS results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-06-18

    An otimization carried out by SOCIA, Paris, using the BASS computer code showed a generating cost optimum around N{sub c}/N{sub u} ratio of 350 for 90 GWd/tu. This is contradictory to other optimizations as in DPR 719 (presented at the 9th DCPM) where the optimum is around N{sub c}/N{sub u} of 300. The difference is explored briefly in the paper from two possible sources. To study the first effect, the calculations were repeated by BBC, Baden, using the WIMS computer code.

  3. 75 FR 6586 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Federal eRulemaking Portal http://www.regulations.gov (978) 281-9135. Send the fax to the attention of the... Regional Office, 55 Great Republic Drive, Gloucester, MA 01930. Mark the outside of the envelope... remaining 3,589,000 lb (1,628 mt) is divided 49 percent for the revised commercial fishery quota and 51...

  4. Consequences of Stinging Plankton Blooms on Finfish Mariculture in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Bosch-Belmar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, caged finfish mariculture across European seas suffered production losses by severe fish mortality, following episodic outbreaks of invertebrate cnidarian stingers. Due to their stinging cells and injectable venoms, medusozoan jellyfish, or drifting propagules of polyp colonies at high density may impair caged fish health through toxic effects on vulnerable tissues of gills and skin, and related secondary bacterial infections. Gill disorders in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax fish farms along the Spanish Mediterranean coast are commonly reported, but regular monitoring of the frequency of cnidarian outbreaks and their potential impacts on caged fish is still poorly enforced. In this study, two sea bass mariculture farms in Southern Spain (Málaga; Almería were monitored biweekly for zooplankton, phytoplankton and fish gills condition, over 13 or 30 months for the Málaga and Almería facilities, respectively, within the period 2012–2014. Significant, direct correlations were found among low water temperature, recorded fish mortalities, and high abundances of planktonic cnidarians, particularly of the hydrozoan siphonophores Muggiaea atlantica and M. kochii, and the larval stage of Ectopleura larynx, a common member of cage biofouling communities. A significant relationship between cnidarian densities and the quantitative scoring of gill pathology was also observed. In addition, high densities of long-bristled planktonic diatoms (Chaetoceros spp. coincided with a major fish mortality event (April 2012, Almería farm. Standardised monitoring of plankton dynamics and composition may help in promoting response capacities of Mediterranean mariculture managers to fish health challenges (such as stinging plankton blooms by (a improving diagnostic tools and preventative countermeasures and (b supporting the development of science-based spatial planning and sustainable growth of coastal mariculture.

  5. Comparison of bio-physical marine products from SeaWiFS, MODIS and a bio-optical model with in situ measurements from Northern European waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeau-Patissier, D.; Tilstone, G. H.; Martinez-Vicente, V.; Moore, G. F.

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we compare bio-physical marine products from SeaWiFS, MODIS and a novel bio-optical absorption model with in situ measurements of chlorophyll-a (Chla) concentrations, total suspended material (TSM) concentrations, normalized water-leaving radiances (nLw) and absorption coefficients of coloured dissolved organic matter (aCDOM), total particulate (atotal) and phytoplankton (aphy) for 26 satellite match-ups in three Northern European seas. Cruises were undertaken in 2002 and 2003 in phytoplankton dominated open ocean waters of the Celtic Sea and optically complex waters of the Western English Channel (WEC) and North Sea. For all environments, Chla concentrations varied from 0.4 to 7.8 mg m-3, TSM from 0.2 to 6.0 mg l-1 and aCDOM at 440 nm from 0.02 to 0.30 m-1. SeaWiFS OC4v4, with the Remote Sensing Data Analysis Service (RSDAS) atmospheric correction for turbid waters, showed the most accurate retrieval of in situ Chla (RMS = 0.24; n = 26), followed by MODIS chlor_a_3 (RMS = 0.40; n = 26). This suggested that improving the atmospheric correction over optically complex waters results in more accurate Chla concentrations compared to those obtained using more complicated Chla algorithms. We found that the SeaWiFS OC4v4 and the MODIS chlor_a_2 switching band ratio algorithms, which mainly use longer wavebands than 443 nm, were less affected by CDOM. They were both more accurate than chlor_MODIS in the higher CDOM waters of the North Sea. Compared to MODIS the absorption model was better at retrieving atotal (RMS = 0.39; n = 78) and aCDOM (RMS = 0.79; n = 12) in all study areas and TSM in the WEC (RMS = 0.04; n = 10) but it underestimated Chla concentrations (RMS = 0.45; n = 26). The results are discussed in terms of atmospheric correction, sensor characteristics and the functioning and performance of Chla algorithms. This paper was presented at the Institute of Physics Meeting on Underwater Optics held during Photonex 03 at Warwick, UK, in October 2003

  6. The impact of the 'Sea Empress' oil spill on seabass recruitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, J.E.; Pawson, M.G.; Pickett, G.D.; Jennings, S.

    1998-01-01

    Young-of-the-year (O-group) sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) were collected during 1996 from 12 inshore sites in the Bristol Channel in order to investigate possible effects of the Sea Empress oil spill on their growth and survival. O-group bass were more abundant on the south side of the Bristol Channel than in South Wales nurseries, and particularly scarce within Milford Haven. Some bass caught in nursery areas on the north Cornish coast had spawned in early March, but only fish spawned after late April appeared in South Wales nurseries, where the first arrival data of bass post-larvae was later than in nursery areas in north Devon and Cornwall. O-group bass grew faster within the latter nurseries than in the north coast of the Bristol Channel, where a much higher proportion of fish failed to reach 60 mm, the critical length for survival through the first winter. There were no significant differences in fish condition or in the weight of their stomach contents between sites. Whilst the Sea Empress oil spill may have contributed to the differences in the survival of early-spawned bass larvae and the abundance of O-group bass in nursery areas on either side of the Bristol Channel, these differences are likely to be less significant than the year to year variation due to natural causes. (author)

  7. A new classification scheme of European cold-water coral habitats: Implications for ecosystem-based management of the deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J. S.; Guillaumont, B.; Tempera, F.; Vertino, A.; Beuck, L.; Ólafsdóttir, S. H.; Smith, C. J.; Fosså, J. H.; van den Beld, I. M. J.; Savini, A.; Rengstorf, A.; Bayle, C.; Bourillet, J.-F.; Arnaud-Haond, S.; Grehan, A.

    2017-11-01

    Cold-water corals (CWC) can form complex structures which provide refuge, nursery grounds and physical support for a diversity of other living organisms. However, irrespectively from such ecological significance, CWCs are still vulnerable to human pressures such as fishing, pollution, ocean acidification and global warming Providing coherent and representative conservation of vulnerable marine ecosystems including CWCs is one of the aims of the Marine Protected Areas networks being implemented across European seas and oceans under the EC Habitats Directive, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the OSPAR Convention. In order to adequately represent ecosystem diversity, these initiatives require a standardised habitat classification that organises the variety of biological assemblages and provides consistent and functional criteria to map them across European Seas. One such classification system, EUNIS, enables a broad level classification of the deep sea based on abiotic and geomorphological features. More detailed lower biotope-related levels are currently under-developed, particularly with regards to deep-water habitats (>200 m depth). This paper proposes a hierarchical CWC biotope classification scheme that could be incorporated by existing classification schemes such as EUNIS. The scheme was developed within the EU FP7 project CoralFISH to capture the variability of CWC habitats identified using a wealth of seafloor imagery datasets from across the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. Depending on the resolution of the imagery being interpreted, this hierarchical scheme allows data to be recorded from broad CWC biotope categories down to detailed taxonomy-based levels, thereby providing a flexible yet valuable information level for management. The CWC biotope classification scheme identifies 81 biotopes and highlights the limitations of the classification framework and guidance provided by EUNIS, the EC Habitats Directive, OSPAR and FAO; which largely

  8. Reproducción natural controlada del black bass Micropterus salmoides - Controlled natural reproduction of black bass Micropterus salmoides

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral Junior, Hilton; Garcia, Silvano; Capozza Tebaldi, Paula

    2009-01-01

    ResumenPara viabilizar la reproducción, larvicutura y alevinaje del Black bass, en la región sur de Brasil, se ha buscado adaptar una tecnología, desarrollada por el Centro Nacional de Acuicultura Piscifactoría las Vegas del Guadiana Badajoz/España. Consiste en controlar el ambiente de desove, utilizando estanques con nidales, para el desove del Black bass. Optimizando esta tecnología, desarrollamos una técnica de adaptación del Black bass al cultivo intensivo durante el período de invierno, ...

  9. The BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael

    2017-08-01

    We present the Swift BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS) and discus the first four papers. The catalog represents an unprecedented census of hard-X-ray selected AGN in the local universe, with ~90% of sources at zpast studies. Consistent with previous surveys, we find an increase in the fraction of un-obscured (type 1) AGN, as measured from broad Hbeta and Halpha, with increasing 14-195 keV and 2-10 keV luminosity. We find the FWHM of the emission lines to show broad agreement with the X-ray obscuration measurements. Compared to narrow line AGN in the SDSS, the X-ray selected AGN in our sample with emission lines have a larger fraction of dustier galaxies suggesting these types of galaxies are missed in optical AGN surveys using emission line diagnostics.

  10. Benthic Acoustic Stress Sensor (BASS): Electronics Check-Out Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Marinna A.; Williams, Albert

    1993-01-01

    Summary The procedures described here are presented so that a technician with limited experience with BASS can perform basic tests which, when executed properly, should be a thorough evaluation of the health of the system. This is not intended as an in depth explanation of how BASS works. Should any significant problems be found, it is suggested that you contact the manufacturer, Oceanographic Instrument Systems, North Falmouth, MA. The Tattletale controller is manufactured by the Onset Computer Corporation, Cataumet, MA.

  11. The influence of logjams on largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) concentrations on the lower Roanoke River, a large sand-bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Edward R.; McCargo, Jeremy W.; Moulin, Bertrand; Hupp, Cliff R.; Richter, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relation between logjams and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) on the alluvial sand-bed lower Roanoke River. Disparate data sets from previous bank erosion, fisheries, and large wood studies were used to compare the distribution of largemouth bass with logjam frequency. Logjams are related to the frequency of bank mass wasting increasing from near an upstream dam to the middle reach of the study segment and then decreasing as the river approaches sea level. The highest concentration of largemouth bass and logjams was in the middle reach (110 fish per hour and 21 jams per km). Another measure of largemouth bass distribution, fish biomass density (g h1 ), had a similar trend with logjams and was a better predictor of fish distribution versus logjams (R2= 0.6 and 0.8 and p = 0.08 and 0.02 for fish per hour and g h1 versus logjam, respectively). We theorize that the preference for adult bass to congregate near logjams indicates the use of the jams as feeding areas. The results of a principal component analysis indicate that fish biomass concentration is much more related to logjam frequency than channel geometry (width, depth, and bank height), bed grain size, bank erosion, or turbidity. The results of this research support recent studies on in-channel wood and fisheries: Logjams appear to be important for maintaining, or increasing, both largemouth bass numbers and total biomass of fish in large eastern North American rivers. Persistent logjams, important as habitat, exist where relatively undisturbed river reaches allow for bank erosion inputs of wood and available anchoring locations. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Rumble in the Jungle: City, Place and Uncanny Bass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Christodoulou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While bass powerfully resonates among the cultural discourses, lexicology and commercial marketing of a range of electronic dance music (EDM styles, little popular music scholarship has paid attention to the subjective, phenomenological and psycho-physiological significance of bass in its modulation of intense feelings of pleasure. This article examines the linking in jungle/drum 'n' bass culture of bass as a sonic space that produces a powerful sense of jouissance where identity can seem to unravel on the dance-floor and an articulation of contemporary urban space as a place of subjective loss and regression. Overlaying Freud's notion of the uncanny and Kristeva's signifying space of the chora, I discuss how this fetishisation of bass can be linked to the music's cultural formation from deindustrialised regions in London and the South-East of England during the early-1990s; its accelerated break-beats and 'dark' bass-lines can be seen to inscribe recent rapid social, cultural and environmental transformations in the urban metropolis.

  13. Potential of largemouth bass as vectors of 137Cs dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Fletcher, D.E.; Jones, T.; Dyer, S.A.; Isely, J.J.; Littrell, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a radio telemetry study on the movements of potentially contaminated largemouth bass between Steel Creek, a restricted access 137 Cs contaminated stream on the Savannah River Site (located in South Carolina, USA), and the publicly accessible Savannah River. Largemouth bass were relatively mobile in lower Steel Creek and the portion of the Savannah River near Steel Creek, and there was considerable movement between these two habitats. Largemouth bass had home ranges of about 500 linear meters of shoreline in the Savannah River but sometimes moved long distances. Such movements occurred primarily during the spawning season, largely upstream, and increased when water levels were changing or elevated. However, approximately 90% of the largemouth bass observations were within 10 km of Steel Creek. The total quantity of 137 Cs transported into the Savannah River by largemouth bass was much less than transported by water and suspended sediments discharged from Steel Creek. We conclude that largemouth bass from the Savannah River Site are unlikely to be responsible for long distance dispersal of substantial radiological contamination in the Savannah River

  14. Gelatinous plankton is central to the diet of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) larvae in the Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayala, Daniel Jiro; Munk, Peter; Lundgreen, Regitze B. C.

    2018-01-01

    endangered species. Next-generation 18S rRNA gene sequencing data of Sargasso Sea eel larvae gut contents and marine snow aggregates was compared with a reference plankton database to assess the trophic relations of eel larvae. Gut contents of A. anguilla larvae were not well explained by the eukaryotic...

  15. Using tetraether lipids archived in North Sea Basin sediments to extract North Western European Pliocene continental air temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dearing Crampton-Flood, E.; Peterse, F; Munsterman, D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2018-01-01

    The Pliocene is often regarded as a suitable analogue for future climate, due to an overall warmer climate (2–3 °C) coupled with atmospheric CO2 concentrations largely similar to present values (∼400 ppmv). Numerous Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) records are available, however, little is

  16. Modeling tools for an Integrated River-Delta-Sea system investigation: the Pan-European Research Infrastructure DANUBIUS-RI philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umgiesser, Georg; Bellafiore, Debora; De Pascalis, Francesca; Icke, Joost; Stanica, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    The DANUBIUS Research Infrastructure (DANUBIUS-RI) is a new initiative to address the challenges and opportunities of research on large river- sea (RS) systems. DANUBIUS-RI is a distributed pan-European RI that will provide a platform for interdisciplinary research. It will deal with RS investigation through facilities and expertise from a large number of European institutions becoming a 'one-stop shop' for knowledge exchange in managing RS systems, ranging from freshwater to marine research. Globally, RS systems are complex and dynamic, with huge environmental, social and economic value. They are poorly understood but under increasing pressure through pollution, hydraulic engineering, water supply, energy, flood control and erosion. RS systems in Europe are among the most impacted globally, after centuries of industrialisation, urbanisation and agricultural intensification. Improved understanding is essential to avoid irreversible degradation and for restoration. DANUBIUS-RI will provide, among a number of other facilities concerning observations, analyses, impacts' evaluation, a modeling node that will provide integrated up-to-date tools, at locations of high scientific importance and opportunity, covering the RS systems - from source (upper parts of rivers - mountain lakes) to the transition with coastal seas. Modeling will be one of the major services provided by DANUBIUS-RI, relying on the inputs from the whole RI. RS systems are challenging from a modelling point of view, because of the complex morphology and the wide temporal and spatial range of processes occurring. Scale interaction plays a central role, considering the different hydro-eco-morphological processes on the large (basin) and small (local, coast, rivers, lagoons) scale. Currently, different model applications are made for the different geographical domains, and also for subsets of the processes. For instance there are separate models for rainfall runoff in the catchment, a sewer model for the

  17. Desk-study on habitat quality for the European Sturgeon in the Dutch Rhine and southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, H.V.; Teal, L.R.; Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Griffioen, A.B.; Houben, B.; Breve, N.W.P.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most endangered fish species worldwide is the European sturgeon Acipenser sturio. The River Rhine was home to an important sturgeon population that went locally extinct in the first half of the 20th century. In recent decades, many improvements of the ecological quality of the Rhine have

  18. Monthly Sea Surface Salinity and Freshwater Flux Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L.; Xie, P.; Wu, S.

    2017-12-01

    Taking advantages of the complementary nature of the Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) measurements from the in-situ (CTDs, shipboard, Argo floats, etc.) and satellite retrievals from Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), the Aquarius of a joint venture between US and Argentina, and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) of national Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), a technique is developed at NOAA/NCEP/CPC to construct an analysis of monthly SSS, called the NOAA Blended Analysis of Sea-Surface Salinity (BASS). The algorithm is a two-steps approach, i.e. to remove the bias in the satellite data through Probability Density Function (PDF) matching against co-located in situ measurements; and then to combine the bias-corrected satellite data with the in situ measurements through the Optimal Interpolation (OI) method. The BASS SSS product is on a 1° by 1° grid over the global ocean for a 7-year period from 2010. Combined with the NOAA/NCEP/CPC CMORPH satellite precipitation (P) estimates and the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) evaporation (E) fields, a suite of monthly package of the SSS and oceanic freshwater flux (E and P) was developed to monitor the global oceanic water cycle and SSS on a monthly basis. The SSS in BASS product is a suite of long-term SSS and fresh water flux data sets with temporal homogeneity and inter-component consistency better suited for the examination of the long-term changes and monitoring. It presents complete spatial coverage and improved resolution and accuracy, which facilitates the diagnostic analysis of the relationship and co-variability among SSS, freshwater flux, mixed layer processes, oceanic circulation, and assimilation of SSS into global models. At the AGU meeting, we will provide more details on the CPC salinity and fresh water flux data package and its applications in the monitoring and analysis of SSS variations in association with the ENSO and other major climate

  19. An otolith microchemistry study of possible relationships between the origins of leptocephali of European eels in the Sargasso Sea and the continental destinations and relative migration success of glass eels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, J.; Daverat, F.; Pécheyran, C.

    2010-01-01

    's core region of Anguilla anguilla leptocephali caught in the Sargasso Sea in 2007 with those of glass eels and elvers sampled in European estuaries during 2006, 2008 and 2009. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, the same annular ablation trajectory along the first feeding...

  20. Hybridization threatens shoal bass populations in the Upper Chattahoochee River Basin: Chapter 37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Elizabeth E; Porter, Brady A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Long, James M.; Tringali, Michael D.; Long, James M.; Birdsong, Timothy W.; Allen, Micheal S.

    2015-01-01

    Shoal bass are native only to the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river system of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, and are vulnerable to extinction as a result of population fragmentation and introduction of non-native species. We assessed the genetic integrity of isolated populations of shoal bass in the upper Chattahoochee River basin (above Lake Lanier, Big Creek, and below Morgan Falls Dam) and sought to identify rates of hybridization with non-native, illegally stocked smallmouth bass and spotted bass.

  1. Gelatinous plankton is central to the diet of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) larvae in the Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayala, Daniel Jiro; Munk, Peter; Lundgreen, Regitze B. C.

    2018-01-01

    endangered species. Next-generation 18S rRNA gene sequencing data of Sargasso Sea eel larvae gut contents and marine snow aggregates was compared with a reference plankton database to assess the trophic relations of eel larvae. Gut contents of A. anguilla larvae were not well explained by the eukaryotic...... composition of marine snow aggregates; gut contents being dominated by gene sequences of Hydrozoa taxa (phylum Cnidaria), while snow aggregates were dominated by Crustacea taxa. Pronounced differences between gut contents and marine snow aggregates were also seen in the prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene composition...

  2. Dealing with largemouth bass virus: benefits of multisector collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terre, David R.; Schramm, Harold; Grizzle , John M.; Fries, Loraine T.

    2015-01-01

    Largemouth bass virus (LMBV), a recently identified pathogen, affected largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the southeastern United States beginning in the 1990s. Concern about the impacts of this little-known pathogen on largemouth bass populations, effects on fisheries management, and the need to provide anglers and the media with consistent and accurate information prompted a private organization (Bass Anglers Sportsman Society) to invite managers and researchers from state and federal agencies and universities to a series of five annual public workshops beginning in 2000. These workshops provided a mechanism to share information, identify and prioritize action items, and develop consensus information and outreach materials that could be provided to bass anglers and the media. Regionalizing the LMBV issue and collaboration among researchers, managers, and a fishing organization may also have allayed angler and media concerns. The process embodied in these workshops is offered as a successful example of multi-agency, multi-sector collaboration to facilitate information acquisition and guide action to address a regional fisheries management issue.

  3. Risk assessment of methylmercury in five European countries considering the national seafood consumption patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; Jacxsens, Liesbeth

    2017-01-01

    confirms the substantial contribution of tuna to MeHg exposure in each of the countries. Also hake, cod, sea bream, sea bass and octopus are identified as important contributors. From this study, it is concluded that a country-specific seafood consumption advice is needed. Policy makers may adopt...

  4. Use of copper sulfate to control Saprolegniasis at a commercial sunshine bass hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  5. Scarcity in a Sea of Plenty? Global Resource Scarcities and Policies in the European Union and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, A.G.; Slingerland, S.; Manders, A.J.G.; Lucas, P.L.; Hilderink, H.B.M.; Kok, M.T.J.

    2011-03-01

    Current high prices of food, oil and many other resources are indications of increasing scarcity. This scarcity, however, has little to do with stock depletion. Badly functioning markets and wrong policy reactions play a particularly important role. For most resources, global stocks will be sufficient to meet increasing demand, over the coming decades. However, these stocks are not equally distributed over the world; they tend to be located in a limited number of countries. This causes an increasing European dependency on imports, which, in turn, feeds the fear of a decrease in security of supply.

  6. The Mediterranean Sea regime shift at the end of the 1980s, and intriguing parallelisms with other European basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversi, Alessandra; Fonda Umani, Serena; Peluso, Tiziana; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Santojanni, Alberto; Edwards, Martin

    2010-05-19

    Regime shifts are abrupt changes encompassing a multitude of physical properties and ecosystem variables, which lead to new regime conditions. Recent investigations focus on the changes in ecosystem diversity and functioning associated to such shifts. Of particular interest, because of the implication on climate drivers, are shifts that occur synchronously in separated basins. In this work we analyze and review long-term records of Mediterranean ecological and hydro-climate variables and find that all point to a synchronous change in the late 1980s. A quantitative synthesis of the literature (including observed oceanic data, models and satellite analyses) shows that these years mark a major change in Mediterranean hydrographic properties, surface circulation, and deep water convection (the Eastern Mediterranean Transient). We provide novel analyses that link local, regional and basin scale hydrological properties with two major indicators of large scale climate, the North Atlantic Oscillation index and the Northern Hemisphere Temperature index, suggesting that the Mediterranean shift is part of a large scale change in the Northern Hemisphere. We provide a simplified scheme of the different effects of climate vs. temperature on pelagic ecosystems. Our results show that the Mediterranean Sea underwent a major change at the end of the 1980s that encompassed atmospheric, hydrological, and ecological systems, for which it can be considered a regime shift. We further provide evidence that the local hydrography is linked to the larger scale, northern hemisphere climate. These results suggest that the shifts that affected the North, Baltic, Black and Mediterranean (this work) Seas at the end of the 1980s, that have been so far only partly associated, are likely linked as part a northern hemisphere change. These findings bear wide implications for the development of climate change scenarios, as synchronous shifts may provide the key for distinguishing local (i.e., basin

  7. The Mediterranean Sea regime shift at the end of the 1980s, and intriguing parallelisms with other European basins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Conversi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regime shifts are abrupt changes encompassing a multitude of physical properties and ecosystem variables, which lead to new regime conditions. Recent investigations focus on the changes in ecosystem diversity and functioning associated to such shifts. Of particular interest, because of the implication on climate drivers, are shifts that occur synchronously in separated basins. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we analyze and review long-term records of Mediterranean ecological and hydro-climate variables and find that all point to a synchronous change in the late 1980s. A quantitative synthesis of the literature (including observed oceanic data, models and satellite analyses shows that these years mark a major change in Mediterranean hydrographic properties, surface circulation, and deep water convection (the Eastern Mediterranean Transient. We provide novel analyses that link local, regional and basin scale hydrological properties with two major indicators of large scale climate, the North Atlantic Oscillation index and the Northern Hemisphere Temperature index, suggesting that the Mediterranean shift is part of a large scale change in the Northern Hemisphere. We provide a simplified scheme of the different effects of climate vs. temperature on pelagic ecosystems. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the Mediterranean Sea underwent a major change at the end of the 1980s that encompassed atmospheric, hydrological, and ecological systems, for which it can be considered a regime shift. We further provide evidence that the local hydrography is linked to the larger scale, northern hemisphere climate. These results suggest that the shifts that affected the North, Baltic, Black and Mediterranean (this work Seas at the end of the 1980s, that have been so far only partly associated, are likely linked as part a northern hemisphere change. These findings bear wide implications for the development of climate change scenarios, as synchronous shifts

  8. History of the Balkan Stomatological Society (BaSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Ljubomir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Some of the main activities of the Balkan Stomatological Society (BaSS over a rich 19-year history are presented. These activities have been aimed at improving oral health care provided by the dentists throughout the Balkans, and to establish ties of friendship and collaboration between researchers and clinicians in this region, creating a foundation for mutual understanding and peace. To accomplish these goals, the BaSS annually organizes congresses and publishes a scientific journal, beside many other activities, such as public oral health promotion, bringing into accordance study programmes and curricula, supporting student exchange programmes, etc.

  9. Interactions between striped bass and other gamefish in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Raborn, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Competitive interactions among reservoir fishes may be pronounced because fish assemblages in these artificial environments have had little time to develop niche-partitioning strategies that alleviate negative interspecific interactions. Such interactions may at times have been intensified by introductions of predators such as striped bass Morone saxatilis, introduced to create additional fisheries and control pelagic clupeids. Possible interactions between existing fish assemblages and striped bass include predation and competition. While there is a perception among angler groups that predation by striped bass on co-existing game fish is significant, most studies have reported little or no predation on game fish my striped bass and have considered predation rare and inconsequential. Moreover, predation that occurs will likely be compensatory and fail to reduce overall game fish survival. Any indirect effect of striped bass predation by restricting prey-sized game fish to limited refuge sites remains unknown. Exploitative competition may be more common. Although infrequently, introduced striped bass have depleted prey resources shared with other piscivores, particularly when stocking rates have been high, when there is a high rate of natural reproduction, or when prey supply has plunged in response to environmental fluxes. Fluctuation in prey supply, associated with ordinary environmental variability, and associated time lages in prey supply and predator demand, preclude adjusting predator densities to exactly balance demand with supply. The frequency of low supply-demand rations varies across systems and exhibits seasonal trends. Nevertheless, chronic supply-demand imbalances are manageable where the predator assemblage is at least partially controlled through stocking, harvest regulations, or both. Because of the poor state of knowledge concerning the parameters defining balance and because uncontrollable annual fluctuations preclude exact management of

  10. Shoal bass hybridization in the Chattahoochee River Basin near Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew T.; Tringali, Michael D.; O'Rourke, Patrick M.; Long, James M.

    2018-01-01

    The shoal bass (Micropterus cataractae) is a sportfish endemic to the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint Basin of the southeastern United States. Introgression with several non-native congeners poses a pertinent threat to shoal bass conservation, particularly in the altered habitats of the Chattahoochee River. Our primary objective was to characterize hybridization in shoal bass populations near Atlanta, Georgia, including a population inhabiting Big Creek and another in the main stem Chattahoochee River below Morgan Falls Dam (MFD). A secondary objective was to examine the accuracy of phenotypic identifications below MFD based on a simplified suite of characters examined in the field. Fish were genotyped with 16 microsatellite DNA markers, and results demonstrated that at least four black bass species were involved in introgressive hybridization. Of 62 fish genotyped from Big Creek, 27% were pure shoal bass and 65% represented either F1 hybrids of shoal bass x smallmouth bass (M. dolomieu) or unidirectional backcrosses towards shoal bass. Of 29 fish genotyped below MFD and downstream at Cochran Shoals, 45% were pure shoal bass. Six hybrid shoal bass included both F1 hybrids and backcrosses with non-natives including Alabama bass (M. henshalli), spotted bass (M. punctulatus), and smallmouth bass. Shoal bass alleles comprised only 21% of the overall genomic composition in Big Creek and 31% below MFD (when combined with Cochran Shoals). Phenotypic identification below MFD resulted in an overall correct classification rate of 86% when discerning pure shoal bass from all other non-natives and hybrids. Results suggest that although these two shoal bass populations feature some of the highest introgression rates documented, only a fleeting opportunity may exist to conserve pure shoal bass in both populations. Continued supplemental stocking of pure shoal bass below MFD appears warranted to thwart increased admixture among multiple black bass taxa, and a similar stocking

  11. The importance of ship log data: reconstructing North Atlantic, European and Mediterranean sea level pressure fields back to 1750

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuettel, M.; Wanner, H. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), and Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); Xoplaki, E. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), and Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); EEWRC, The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus); Gallego, D. [Universidad Pablo de Olavide de Sevilla, Departamento de Sistemas Fisicos, Quimicos y Naturales, Sevilla (Spain); Luterbacher, J. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), and Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Department of Geography, Climatology, Climate Dynamics and Climate Change, Giessen (Germany); Garcia-Herrera, R. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica de la Tierra II, Facultad de CC Fisicas, Madrid (Spain); Allan, R. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom); Barriendos, M. [University of Barcelona, Department of Modern History, Barcelona (Spain); Jones, P.D. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Wheeler, D. [University of Sunderland, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Sunderland (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Local to regional climate anomalies are to a large extent determined by the state of the atmospheric circulation. The knowledge of large-scale sea level pressure (SLP) variations in former times is therefore crucial when addressing past climate changes across Europe and the Mediterranean. However, currently available SLP reconstructions lack data from the ocean, particularly in the pre-1850 period. Here we present a new statistically-derived 5 x 5 resolved gridded seasonal SLP dataset covering the eastern North Atlantic, Europe and the Mediterranean area (40 W-50 E; 20 N-70 N) back to 1750 using terrestrial instrumental pressure series and marine wind information from ship logbooks. For the period 1750-1850, the new SLP reconstruction provides a more accurate representation of the strength of the winter westerlies as well as the location and variability of the Azores High than currently available multiproxy pressure field reconstructions. These findings strongly support the potential of ship logbooks as an important source to determine past circulation variations especially for the pre-1850 period. This new dataset can be further used for dynamical studies relating large-scale atmospheric circulation to temperature and precipitation variability over the Mediterranean and Eurasia, for the comparison with outputs from GCMs as well as for detection and attribution studies. (orig.)

  12. Integration of Bass Enhancement and Active Noise Control System in Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of digital signal processing technologies, consumers are more concerned with the quality of multimedia entertainment in automobiles. In order to meet this demand, an audio enhancement system is needed to improve bass reproduction and cancel engine noise in the cabins. This paper presents an integrated active noise control system that is based on frequency-sampling filters to track and extract the bass information from the audio signal, and a multifrequency active noise equalizer to tune the low-frequency engine harmonics to enhance the bass reproduction. In the noise cancellation mode, a maximum of 3 dB bass enhancement can be achieved with significant noise suppression, while higher bass enhancement can be achieved in the bass enhance mode. The results show that the proposed system is effective for solving both the bass audio reproduction and the noise control problems in automobile cabins.

  13. Using tetraether lipids archived in North Sea Basin sediments to extract North Western European Pliocene continental air temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing Crampton-Flood, Emily; Peterse, Francien; Munsterman, Dirk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2018-05-01

    The Pliocene is often regarded as a suitable analogue for future climate, due to an overall warmer climate (2-3 °C) coupled with atmospheric CO2 concentrations largely similar to present values (∼400 ppmv). Numerous Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) records are available, however, little is known about climate in the terrestrial realm. Here we generated a Pliocene continental temperature record for Northwestern Europe based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (brGDGT) membrane lipids stored in a marine sedimentary record from the western Netherlands. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sediments and its stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13Corg) indicate a strong transition from primarily marine derived organic matter (OM) during the Pliocene, to predominantly terrestrially derived OM after the transition into the Pleistocene. This trend is supported by the ratio of branched and isoprenoid tetraethers (BIT index). The marine-terrestrial transition indicates a likely change in brGDGT sources in the core, which may complicate the applicability of the brGDGT paleotemperature proxy in this setting. Currently, the application of the brGDGT-based paleothermometer on coastal marine sediments has been hampered by a marine overprint. Here, we propose a method to disentangle terrestrial and marine sources based on the degree of cyclization of tetramethylated brGDGTs (#rings) using a linear mixing model based on the global soil calibration set and a newly developed coastal marine temperature transfer function. Application of this method on our brGDGT record resulted in a 'corrected' terrestrial temperature record (MATterr). This latter record indicates that continental temperatures were ∼12-14 °C during the Early Pliocene, and 10.5-12 °C during the Mid Pliocene, confirming other Pliocene pollen based terrestrial temperature estimates from Northern and Central Europe. Furthermore, two colder (Δ 5-7 °C) periods in the Pliocene MATterr

  14. Topological Hochschild homology and the Bass trace conjecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berrick, A. J.; Hesselholt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We use the methods of topological Hochschild homology to shed new light on groups satisfying the Bass trace conjecture. Factorization of the Hattori–Stallings rank map through the Bökstedt–Hsiang–Madsen cyclotomic trace map leads to Linnell's restriction on such groups. As a new consequence...

  15. The importance of bass clarity in pop and rock venues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert

    2008-01-01

    and monitor system goes to these 1.5 octaves. A recent survey [Adelman-Larsen et al., 2007] showed that the most important subjective parameter for a rock and pop music hall to score a high rating was 'bass clarity' which correlated with a coefficient of 0.74 to 'overall impression'. Informal discussions...

  16. Automatic Phrase Continuation from Guitar and Bass guitar Melodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherla, Srikanth; Purwins, Hendrik; Marchini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    A framework is proposed for generating interesting, and musically similar variations of a givenmonophonicmelody. The focus is on rock/pop guitar and bass-guitarmelodies with the aim of eventual extensions to other instruments and musical styles. It is demonstrated here how learning musical style...... evaluated through a questionnaire by a group of experts, and received an overall positive response....

  17. Lifecycle1: Flute (piccolo), oboe, clarinet (bass clarinet), bassoon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lifecycle1: Flute (piccolo), oboe, clarinet (bass clarinet), bassoon, horn, 2 percussionists, 2 violins and cello, Xhosa vocal ensemble and indigenous instruments. J Zaidel-Rudoulph. Abstract. No Abstract Journal for the Musical Arts in Africa Vol. 3 2007: pp. 80-81. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  18. Movement behaviour of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... but as water temperature increased, their utilisation of shallow areas increased significantly. The results from this study demonstrate the importance of environmental factors, particularly water temperature, on the movement of largemouth bass. Keywords: acoustic telemetry, alien invasive, ecology, flow, temperature ...

  19. Sustainability Organic Agriculture and Livestock Production with Respect to European Union in Eastern Anatolia and East Black Sea Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecihi Aksakal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of farm households in Turkey and especially the Eastern Anatolia are still based on low-input semi subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Despite a slow decline in recent years, agriculture and livestock production remains a major employer in Turkey and it is a significant contributor to the country’s gross domestic product, GDP. Whist Turkey is one of the EU candidate countries, is self sufficient in food production and Turkish agriculture is poorly structured inefficient, with farming in the Eastern Anatolia being mainly subsistence farming. Yet, these traditional rural structures combined with poor access to low level of education and low level of off-farm unemployment problem makes the situation more complicated and unsustainable. The best way to promote sustainability, better and higher production of Eastern Anatolian and rural Turkey is to invest in the local people, villages through improved, continuing and effective agricultural and livestock programs in particular. Investment in human capital especially in the rural areas leads to more employment opportunities through entrepreneurship and innovation in organic agriculture and livestock production. A holistic approach to developing and improving supply chains could unlock the potential for sophisticated, state-of-the-art organic agriculture and livestock producers and businesses in the region to become EU and global players. Eastern Anatolian livestock producers and the farmers have the ambitions to take part in future progress because the region is naturally organic not by design but default. It is for sure that present potential of the region has not been fully determined and utilized. EU has greatly benefited from previous enlargements economically, politically and socially. When European Union (EU and Turkish Government relations considered and accession of Turkey to EU would be the logical consequence of the previous accessions. The screening on chapter 11

  20. Projections of change in key ecosystem indicators for planning and management of marine protected areas: An example study for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Susan; Butenschön, Momme

    2018-02-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are widely used as tools to maintain biodiversity, protect habitats and ensure that development is sustainable. If MPAs are to maintain their role into the future it is important for managers to understand how conditions at these sites may change as a result of climate change and other drivers, and this understanding needs to extend beyond temperature to a range of key ecosystem indicators. This case study demonstrates how spatially-aggregated model results for multiple variables can provide useful projections for MPA planners and managers. Conditions in European MPAs have been projected for the 2040s using unmitigated and globally managed scenarios of climate change and river management, and hence high and low emissions of greenhouse gases and riverborne nutrients. The results highlight the vulnerability of potential refuge sites in the north-west Mediterranean and the need for careful monitoring at MPAs to the north and west of the British Isles, which may be affected by changes in Atlantic circulation patterns. The projections also support the need for more MPAs in the eastern Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea, and can inform the selection of sites.

  1. Genetic population structure of Shoal Bass within their native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew T.; Tringali, Michael D.; Sammons, Steven M.; Ingram, Travis R.; O'Rouke, Patrick M.; Peterson, Douglas L.; Long, James M.

    2018-01-01

    Endemic to the Apalachicola River basin of the southeastern USA, the Shoal Bass Micropterus cataractae is a fluvial‐specialist sport fish that is imperiled because of anthropogenic habitat alteration. To counter population declines, restorative stocking efforts are becoming an increasingly relevant management strategy. However, population genetic structure within the species is currently unknown, but it could influence management decisions, such as brood source location. Leveraging a collaborative effort to collect and genotype specimens with 16 microsatellite loci, our objective was to characterize hierarchical population structure and genetic differentiation of the Shoal Bass across its native range, including an examination of structuring mechanisms, such as relatedness and inbreeding levels. Specimens identified as Shoal Bass were collected from 13 distinct sites (N ranged from 17 to 209 per location) and were then taxonomically screened to remove nonnative congeners and hybrids (pure Shoal Bass N ranged from 13 to 183 per location). Our results revealed appreciable population structure, with five distinct Shoal Bass populations identifiable at the uppermost hierarchical level that generally corresponded with natural geographic features and anthropogenic barriers. Substructure was recovered within several of these populations, wherein differences appeared related to spatial isolation and local population dynamics. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that 3.6% of the variation in our data set was accounted for among three larger river drainages, but substructure within each river drainage also explained an additional 8.9% of genetic variation, demonstrating that management at a scale lower than the river drainage level would likely best conserve genetic diversity. Results provide a population genetic framework that can inform future management decisions, such as brood source location, so that genetic diversity within and among populations is

  2. Bioenergetics models to estimate numbers of larval lampreys consumed by smallmouth bass in Elk Creek, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Luke; Heck, Michael; Kowalski, Brandon M; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Coates, Kelly C.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2017-01-01

    Nonnative fishes have been increasingly implicated in the decline of native fishes in the Pacific Northwest. Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu were introduced into the Umpqua River in southwest Oregon in the early 1960s. The spread of Smallmouth Bass throughout the basin coincided with a decline in counts of upstream-migrating Pacific Lampreys Entosphenus tridentatus. This suggested the potential for ecological interactions between Smallmouth Bass and Pacific Lampreys, as well as freshwater-resident Western Brook Lampreys Lampetra richardsoni. To evaluate the potential effects of Smallmouth Bass on lampreys, we sampled diets of Smallmouth Bass and used bioenergetics models to estimate consumption of larval lampreys in a segment of Elk Creek, a tributary to the lower Umpqua River. We captured 303 unique Smallmouth Bass (mean: 197 mm and 136 g) via angling in July and September. We combined information on Smallmouth Bass diet and energy density with other variables (temperature, body size, growth, prey energy density) in a bioenergetics model to estimate consumption of larval lampreys. Larval lampreys were found in 6.2% of diet samples, and model estimates indicated that the Smallmouth Bass we captured consumed 925 larval lampreys in this 2-month study period. When extrapolated to a population estimate of Smallmouth Bass in this segment, we estimated 1,911 larval lampreys were consumed between July and September. Although the precision of these estimates was low, this magnitude of consumption suggests that Smallmouth Bass may negatively affect larval lamprey populations.

  3. Integrated response of antioxidant biomarkers in the liver and white muscle of European hake (Merluccius merluccius L. females from the Adriatic sea with respect to environmental influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Slađan Z.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the integrated response of antioxidant defense enzymes (total superoxide dismutase (TotSOD, manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione reductase (GR and phase II biotransformation enzyme, glutathione- S-transferase (GST in the liver and white muscle of females of European hake (Merluccius merluccius L. from the Adriatic Sea (Montenegro in winter and spring. The activity of GSH-Px in the liver was significantly increased, while GST activity was decreased in spring compared to the winter. In white muscle, the activities of TotSOD and CuZnSOD were increased, while the activities of MnSOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GR and GST were decreased in spring when compared to the matching values in winter. The activities of TotSOD and CuZnSOD in winter were markedly lower in the muscle than in the liver, while the activity of MnSOD in the muscle was higher when compared to the liver. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed clear separation of the investigated antioxidant biomarkers between tissues and seasons, while the integrated biomarker response (IBR showed that the most intensive antioxidant biomarker response was in the liver in spring. Star plots of IBR showed a dominant contribution of glutathione-dependent biomarkers (GSH-Px, GR and GST and CAT in both tissues and seasons with respect to SOD isoenzymes. All enzyme activities (except MnSOD were greater in the liver in comparison to the white muscle. Our results show that the liver possesses a greater capacity to establish and maintain homeostasis under changing environmental conditions in winter and spring. At the same time, seasonal effects are more pronounced in muscle tissue. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173041

  4. Spatiotemporal patterns and habitat associations of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) invading salmon-rearing habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J.; Olden, Julian D.; Torgersen, Christian E.

    2012-01-01

    1. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) have been widely introduced to fresh waters throughout the world to promote recreational fishing opportunities. In the Pacific Northwest (U.S.A.), upstream range expansions of predatory bass, especially into subyearling salmon-rearing grounds, are of increasing conservation concern, yet have received little scientific inquiry. Understanding the habitat characteristics that influence bass distribution and the timing and extent of bass and salmon overlap will facilitate the development of management strategies that mitigate potential ecological impacts of bass.2. We employed a spatially continuous sampling design to determine the extent of bass and subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) sympatry in the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), a free-flowing river system in the Columbia River Basin that contains an upstream expanding population of non-native bass. Extensive (i.e. 53 km) surveys were conducted over 2 years and during an early and late summer period of each year, because these seasons provide a strong contrast in the river’s water temperature and flow condition. Classification and regression trees were applied to determine the primary habitat correlates of bass abundance at reach and channel-unit scales.3. Our study revealed that bass seasonally occupy up to 22% of the length of the mainstem NFJDR where subyearling Chinook salmon occur, and the primary period of sympatry between these species was in the early summer and not during peak water temperatures in late summer. Where these species co-occurred, bass occupied 60–76% of channel units used by subyearling Chinook salmon in the early summer and 28–46% of the channel units they occupied in the late summer. Because these rearing salmon were well below the gape limitation of bass, this overlap could result in either direct predation or sublethal effects of bass on subyearling Chinook salmon. The upstream extent of bass increased 10–23

  5. 2136-IJBCS-Article-Cesar Bassène

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    ... la flore des champs. REFERENCES. Bâ AT, Noba K. 2001. Science et changements planétaires. Sécheresse. 12(3) : 149-155. Bassène C. 2014. La flore adventice dans les cultures de maïs (Zea mays L.) dans le sud du Bassin Arachidier : structure, nuisibilité et mise au point d'un itinéraire de désherbage. Thèse Unique.

  6. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Terry D.; Marking, Leif L.; Howe, George E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. We determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222) , metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degree C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin. We also determined the effects of selected levels of water temperature, hardness, and pH on the toxicity of chloramine-T, formalin, malachite green, and Roccal. There were no differences in toxicity for any of the chemicals at any water quality variable tested except for chloramine-T, which was about 25 times more toxic in soft, acid water than in soft, alkaline water. Our data show that the striped bass is as sensitive to fishery chemicals as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), but is generally less resistant than bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

  7. Competitive bass anglers: a new concern in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Connor R; Watson, Shawna L; Perez, Jorge L; Estes, A Reed

    2017-09-01

    Competitive bass angling involves sport fishing against other anglers while targeting a species of fish known as the black basses. Due to the rapidly growing popularity of high school competitive bass angling in Alabama and the nature of the casting motion similar to that of overhead athletes, we sought to examine the prevalence of sports type injuries in this population. In spring 2016, an anonymous survey was distributed across two large scale competitive high school fishing tournaments, allowing for a broad sampling of anglers throughout the state of Alabama. Survey items included demographic information, relevant past medical history, and various pains associated with the shoulder, elbow and wrist. Results were recorded and analyzed electronically using Microsoft Excel and IBM SPSS statistical software. A total of 257 surveys were recorded. The response rate was 61%. The mean age of participating anglers was 15 ± 1.61 years. The majority (42%) of anglers fished year round. On average, anglers casted nearly 1,000 more times while competing versus fishing recreationally. Approximately 15% of anglers experienced shoulder, elbow, and wrist pain. The most common factors associated with pain included higher tournament cast counts, number of competitive years, number of tournaments/year, number of tournaments, and use of light weight lures. A large portion of high school competitive anglers experience upper extremity pain. Knowledge of angling factors associated with pain allow for the creation of a modifiable routine to help reduce pain in affected anglers and prevent pain in healthy anglers.

  8. Effects of the Blob on settlement of spotted sand bass, Paralabrax maculatofasciatus, to Mission Bay, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilio, Anthony; Searcy, Steven; Thompson, Andrew R

    2017-01-01

    The West Coast of the United States experienced variable and sometimes highly unusual oceanographic conditions between 2012 and 2015. In particular, a warm mass of surface water known as the Pacific Warm Anomaly (popularly as "The Blob") impinged on southern California in 2014, and warm-water conditions remained during the 2015 El Niño. We examine how this oceanographic variability affected delivery and individual characteristics of larval spotted sand bass (Paralabrax maculatofasciatus) to an estuarine nursery habitat in southern California. To quantify P. maculatofasciatus settlement patterns, three larval collectors were installed near the mouth of Mission Bay, San Diego CA, and retrieved weekly from June-October of 2012-2015. During 'Blob' conditions in 2014 and 2015, lower settlement rates of spotted sand bass were associated with higher sea surface temperature and lower wind speed, chlorophyll a (chl a) and upwelling. Overall, the number of settlers per day peaked at intermediate chl a values across weeks. Individual characteristics of larvae that settled in 2014-2015 were consistent with a poor feeding environment. Although settlers were longer in length in 2014-15, fish in these years had slower larval otolith growth, a longer larval duration, and a trend towards lower condition, traits that are often associated with lower survival and recruitment. This study suggests that future settlement and recruitment of P. maculatofasciatus and other fishes with similar life histories may be adversely affected in southern California if ocean temperatures continue to rise in the face of climate change.

  9. Effects of the Blob on settlement of spotted sand bass, Paralabrax maculatofasciatus, to Mission Bay, San Diego, CA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Basilio

    Full Text Available The West Coast of the United States experienced variable and sometimes highly unusual oceanographic conditions between 2012 and 2015. In particular, a warm mass of surface water known as the Pacific Warm Anomaly (popularly as "The Blob" impinged on southern California in 2014, and warm-water conditions remained during the 2015 El Niño. We examine how this oceanographic variability affected delivery and individual characteristics of larval spotted sand bass (Paralabrax maculatofasciatus to an estuarine nursery habitat in southern California. To quantify P. maculatofasciatus settlement patterns, three larval collectors were installed near the mouth of Mission Bay, San Diego CA, and retrieved weekly from June-October of 2012-2015. During 'Blob' conditions in 2014 and 2015, lower settlement rates of spotted sand bass were associated with higher sea surface temperature and lower wind speed, chlorophyll a (chl a and upwelling. Overall, the number of settlers per day peaked at intermediate chl a values across weeks. Individual characteristics of larvae that settled in 2014-2015 were consistent with a poor feeding environment. Although settlers were longer in length in 2014-15, fish in these years had slower larval otolith growth, a longer larval duration, and a trend towards lower condition, traits that are often associated with lower survival and recruitment. This study suggests that future settlement and recruitment of P. maculatofasciatus and other fishes with similar life histories may be adversely affected in southern California if ocean temperatures continue to rise in the face of climate change.

  10. Artificial radionuclides in the Northern European Marine Environment. Distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in sea water and sediments in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groettheim, Siri

    2000-01-01

    This study considers the distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in the northern marine environment. The highest radiocaesium activity in sea water was observed in Skagerrak, 26 Bq/m 3 , and in surface sediments in the Norwegian Sea, 60 Bq/kg. These enhanced levels were related to Chernobyl. The highest 239,240Pu activity in surface water was measured in the western North Sea, 66 mBq/m 3 . In sea water, sub-surface maxima were observed at several locations with an 239,240Pu activity up to 160 mBq/m 3 , and were related to Sellafield. With the exception to the North Sea, surface sediments reflected Pu from global fallout from weapons tests only. (author)

  11. Diet Overlap and Predation between Smallmouth Bass and Walleye in a North Temperate Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron P. Frey; Michael A. Bozek; Clayton J. Edwards; Steve P. Newman

    2003-01-01

    Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) diets from Big Crooked Lake, Wisconsin were examined to assess the degree of diet overlap and predation occurring between these species in an attempt to deternine whether walleye influence smallmouth bass recruitment, which is consistently low...

  12. Contract Req Detailed Design Report Version 1: A C-BASS Component Contract Req Detailed Design Report Version 1: A C-BASS Component

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGurin, Denis

    1999-01-01

    .... As part of the Corporate Business Application Software System (C-BASS) suite of work flow applications, Contract Req automates preparation of a requestor's procurement package as part of the contracting process for the U.S...

  13. Reproductive cycles of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in a cooling reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.H.; Gibbons, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Annual reproductive cycles of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) collected in the heated area of a 1120-hectare reservoir receiving thermal effluent from the Savannah River Plant were similar to cycles from bass collected in unheated waters during 1969 and 1970. Average maximum monthly temperatures at the heated area exceeded those in unheated waters by greater than 10 0 C for the 2 years. Few monthly differences in gonosomatic indices were found between heated and unheated areas. Earlier attainment of maximum gonadal size and the presence of significantly larger juvenile bass at the heated area suggested that reproduction might be accelerated by thermal discharge. However, gonadal condition indicated that the reproductive period started in March and continued through April in both areas. Reproduction may have been advanced in some heated-area bass, although this was not obvious from overall changes in the reproductive cycles of bass from unheated areas. (auth)

  14. Productivity and river flux variability in response to the PETM on Atlantic margin at Bass River, NJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, H.; Shimizu, N.; Savain, R.; Zachos, J.; Ziveri, P.

    2009-04-01

    While the dramatic climate warming of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum has been well characterized, changes in the hydrological cycle and the broader biogeochemical feedbacks (weathering, nutrients, productivity) are less well constrained. Here we describe new geochemical results from a coastal section on the midlatitude Atlantic margin of the U.S. at Bass River, NJ. We measured the elemental geochemistry of coccoliths to probe the productivity of these algae in response to the changing nutrient dynamics on the shelf in the time interval preceding and during the PETM. Coccoliths extracted from the siliclastic coastal section at Bass River NJ exhibit exceptionally good preservation and negligible overgrowth compared to typical ocean carbonate-rich sediments. Analysis of individual coccoliths using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) facilitates reliable trace element measurements in this low-carbonate section. Published sequence stratigraphy and microfossil analysis have revealed several third order sea level cycles in the late Paleocene including a highstand during the PETM. Consequently we extend our paleoproductivity records far below the PETM to characterize this background variability. We recognize a pattern of generally maximum productivity during lowstands and minimal productivity during highstands. Because nutrient concentrations decrease significantly with distance from the coast, highstands reduce productivity by shifting the highest nutrient levels landward, away from the site. This is likely due to greater distance from river sources as well as reduced wave turbulence which mixes nutrients into the photic zone. This general pattern is broken during the PETM, which features high productivity despite a sea level highstand. This anomalous high productivity may reflect enhanced riverine nutrient delivery, and potentially changes in wind strength and mixing intensity. Riverine nutrient delivery could increase with higher precipitation or precipitation

  15. Fitness Consequences of Boldness in Juvenile and Adult Largemouth Bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballew, Nicholas G; Mittelbach, Gary G; Scribner, Kim T

    2017-04-01

    To date, most studies investigating the relationship between personality traits and fitness have focused on a single measure of fitness (such as survival) at a specific life stage. However, many personality traits likely have multiple effects on fitness, potentially operating across different functional contexts and stages of development. Here, we address the fitness consequences of boldness, under seminatural conditions, across life stages and functional contexts in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Specifically, we report the effect of boldness on (1) juvenile survivorship in an outdoor pond containing natural prey and predators and (2) adult reproductive success in three outdoor ponds across three reproductive seasons (years). Juvenile survival was negatively affected by boldness, with bolder juveniles having a lower probability of survival than shyer juveniles. In contrast, bolder adult male bass had greater reproductive success than their shyer male counterparts. Female reproductive success was not affected by boldness. These findings demonstrate that boldness can affect fitness differently across life stages. Further, boldness was highly consistent across years and significantly heritable, which suggests that boldness has a genetic component. Thus, our results support theory suggesting that fitness trade-offs across life stages may contribute to the maintenance of personality variation within populations.

  16. Striped Bass Spawning in Non-Estuarine Portions of the Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.; Paller, M.

    2007-04-17

    Historically, the estuarine portions of the Savannah River have been considered to be the only portion of the river in which significant amounts of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spawning normally occur. A reexamination of data from 1983 through 1985 shows a region between River Kilometers 144 and 253 where significant numbers of striped bass eggs and larvae occur with estimated total egg production near that currently produced in the estuarine reaches. It appears possible that there are two separate spawning populations of striped bass in the Savannah River.

  17. Erosive effects of the storms HELENA (1963) and HUGO (1989) on Basse-Terre island (Guadeloupe - Lesser Antilles Arc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bivic, Rejanne; Allemand, Pascal; Delacourt, Christophe; Quiquerez, Amélie

    2014-05-01

    Basse-Terre is a volcanic island which belongs to the archipelago of Guadeloupe located in the Lesser Antilles Arc (Caribbean Sea). As a mountainous region in the tropical belt, Basse-Terre is affected by intense sediment transport due to extreme meteorological events. During the last fifty years, eight major tropical storms and hurricanes with intense rainfalls induced landslides and scars in the weathered layers. The purpose of this study is to compare two major meteorological events within a period of 26 years (HELENA in 10/1963 and HUGO in 09/1989) in order to qualify the parameters responsible of the spatial distribution of landslides and scars. The storm HELENA affected Basse-Terre between the 23rd and the 25th of October, 1963. The maximal daily rainfall reached 300 mm in Baillif which is located on the leeward coast at the altitude of 650 m while the maximum wind velocity reached 50 km/h. A similar exceptional event happened when the hurricane HUGO slammed the island in September 17, 1989. The maximum daily rainfall recorded in Sainte-Rose (on the northern coast) was 250 mm while it reached 208 mm in Petit-Bourg and the maximum wind speed was 60 km/h. Aerial images were acquired by the IGN (French Geographical Institute) before and a few weeks after the extreme events: less than three months after the event HELENA and less than a month after the event HUGO. Those images have been orthorectified at a metric resolution and combined in a GIS with a 10 m resolution DEM. Scars and landslides were digitalized and their surface area and mean slope were measured for both HELENA and HUGO. This work confirms several results proposed by a previous study related to the HELENA event: (1) the landslides occurred mainly in the center of the island and (2) the slope is the main parameter for the initiation of landslides, since all of them occurred with a slope superior to 30°. Furthermore, the resiliency of the surface affected by the landslides induced by HELENA was

  18. Siim Nestor soovitab : Back2Bass Helsinki. Teenage Kicks / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    Soome trummi-ja-bassi klubi Back2Bass 28. septembril KuKu klubis Tallinnas. 28. sept. Von Krahlis toimuvast live-üritusest Teenage Kicks, kus ansambel Claire's Birthaday esitleb ka oma uut singlit "Do You Remember"

  19. Calibration of the BASS acoustic current meter with carrageenan agar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, A.T.; Williams, A.J.; Martini, M.

    1993-01-01

    The BASS current meter can measure currents down to the millimeter per second range. Due to the dependence of zero offset on pressure, determining a sensor referenced velocity requires accurate in situ zeroing of the meter. Previously, flow was restricted during calibration by placing plastic bags around the acoustic volume. In this paper, bacterial grade and carrageenan agars are used in the laboratory to create a zero flow condition during calibration and are shown to be acoustically transparent. Additionally, the results of open ocean and dockside carrageenan and plastic bag comparisons are presented. Carrageenan is shown to reliably provide a low noise, zero mean flow environment that is largely independent of ambient conditions. The improved zeros make millimeter per second accuracy possible under field conditions.

  20. European innovation and technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The promotion of technological innovation by European national governments and the EC in pursuit of both increased recovery and the anchoring of technology in supply, manufacturing and service sector companies has been a feature of the strategic involvement by European states in exploration and production research and development. This paper summaries past trends in this activity and reviews the targets for future industry innovation which will enable European (primarily the North Sea) production to be sustained for a further generation

  1. Estradiol-induced gene expression in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, C.J.; Kroll, K.J.; Gross, T.G.; Denslow, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) and estrogen receptor (ER) gene expression levels were measured in largemouth bass to evaluate the activation of the ER-mediated pathway by estradiol (E2). Single injections of E2 ranging from 0.0005 to 5 mg/kg up-regulated plasma Vtg in a dose-dependent manner. Vtg and ER mRNAs were measured using partial cDNA sequences corresponding to the C-terminal domain for Vtg and the ligand-binding domain of ER?? sequences. After acute E2-exposures (2 mg/kg), Vtg and ER mRNAs and plasma Vtg levels peaked after 2 days. The rate of ER mRNA accumulation peaked 36-42 h earlier than Vtg mRNA. The expression window for ER defines the primary response to E2 in largemouth bass and that for Vtg a delayed primary response. The specific effect of E2 on other estrogen-regulated genes was tested during these same time windows using differential display RT-PCR. Specific up-regulated genes that are expressed in the same time window as Vtg were ERp72 (a membrane-bound disulfide isomerase) and a gene with homology to an expressed gene identified in zebrafish. Genes that were expressed in a pattern that mimics the ER include the gene for zona radiata protein ZP2, and a gene with homology to an expressed gene found in winter flounder. One gene for fibrinogen ?? was down-regulated and an unidentified gene was transiently up-regulated after 12 h of exposure and returned to basal levels by 48 h. Taken together these studies indicate that the acute molecular response to E2 involves a complex network of responses over time. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in female common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from western European seas: Geographical trends, causal factors and effects on reproduction and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, G.J.; Santos, M.B.; Murphy, S.; Learmonth, J.A.; Zuur, A.F.; Rogan, E.; Bustamante, P.; Caurant, F.; Lahaye, V.; Ridoux, V.; Zegers, B.N.; Mets, A.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blubber of female common dolphins and harbour porpoises from the Atlantic coast of Europe were frequently above the threshold at which effects on reproduction could be expected, in 40% and 47% of cases respectively. This rose to 74% for porpoises from the southern North Sea. PCB concentrations were also high in southern North Sea fish. The average pregnancy rate recorded in porpoises (42%) in the study area was lower than in the western Atlantic but that in common dolphins (25%) was similar to that of the western Atlantic population. Porpoises that died from disease or parasitic infection had higher concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) than animals dying from other causes. Few of the common dolphins sampled had died from disease or parasitic infection. POP profiles in common dolphin blubber were related to individual feeding history while those in porpoises were more strongly related to condition. - High PCB levels were recorded in porpoises and common dolphins from European coasts

  3. Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in female common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from western European seas: Geographical trends, causal factors and effects on reproduction and mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, G.J. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, P.O. Box 1552, 36200, Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: g.j.pierce@abdn.ac.uk; Santos, M.B. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, P.O. Box 1552, 36200, Vigo (Spain); Murphy, S. [AFDC, Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College, National University of Ireland, Enterprise Centre, North Mall, Cork (Ireland); Sea Mammal Research Unit, Gatty Marine Laboratory, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 8LB (United Kingdom); Learmonth, J.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Zuur, A.F. [Highland Statistics, 6 Laverock Road, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire AB41 6FN (United Kingdom); Rogan, E. [AFDC, Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College, National University of Ireland, Enterprise Centre, North Mall, Cork (Ireland); Bustamante, P.; Caurant, F. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Lahaye, V. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Ridoux, V. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Zegers, B.N.; Mets, A. [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel (Netherlands)] (and others)

    2008-05-15

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blubber of female common dolphins and harbour porpoises from the Atlantic coast of Europe were frequently above the threshold at which effects on reproduction could be expected, in 40% and 47% of cases respectively. This rose to 74% for porpoises from the southern North Sea. PCB concentrations were also high in southern North Sea fish. The average pregnancy rate recorded in porpoises (42%) in the study area was lower than in the western Atlantic but that in common dolphins (25%) was similar to that of the western Atlantic population. Porpoises that died from disease or parasitic infection had higher concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) than animals dying from other causes. Few of the common dolphins sampled had died from disease or parasitic infection. POP profiles in common dolphin blubber were related to individual feeding history while those in porpoises were more strongly related to condition. - High PCB levels were recorded in porpoises and common dolphins from European coasts.

  4. Sea Wind Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    The first and defining step towards European leadership in renewable energy must be the successful setting of an ambitious EU renewable energy target for 2020. This will set out the vision and create the framework within which our clean energy future can be delivered. Sea Wind Europe offers a clear blueprint of how to achieve its vision and outlines concrete policy measures that will give European renewables the foundation they need for success on a giant scale

  5. Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in northern boreal lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupir, Craig A.; Brown, Michael L.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.

    2000-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) are top predators in the food chain in most aquatic environments that they occupy; however, limited information exists on species interactions in the northern reaches of largemouth bass distribution. We investigated the seasonal food habits of allopatric and sympatric assemblages of largemouth bass and northern pike in six interior lakes within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Percentages of empty stomachs were variable for largemouth bass (38-54%) and northern pike (34.7-66.7%). Fishes (mainly yellow perch, Perca flavescens) comprised greater than 60% (mean percent mass, MPM) of the northern pike diet during all seasons in both allopatric and sympatric assemblages. Aquatic insects (primarily Odonata and Hemiptera) were important in the diets of largemouth bass in all communities (0.0-79.7 MPM). Although largemouth bass were observed in the diet of northern pike, largemouth bass apparently did not prey on northern pike. Seasonal differences were observed in the proportion of aquatic insects (P = 0.010) and fishes (P = 0.023) in the diets of northern pike and largemouth bass. Based on three food categories, jackknifed classifications correctly classified 77 and 92% of northern pike and largemouth bass values, respectively. Percent resource overlap values were biologically significant (greater than 60%) during at least one season in each sympatric assemblage, suggesting some diet overlap.

  6. The legacy of a vanished sea: a high level of diversification within a European freshwater amphipod species complex driven by 15 My of Paratethys regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamos, Tomasz; Wattier, Remi; Burzyński, Artur; Grabowski, Michał

    2016-02-01

    The formation of continental Europe in the Neogene was due to the regression of the Tethys Ocean and of the Paratethys Sea. The dynamic geology of the area and repetitious transitions between marine and freshwater conditions presented opportunities for the colonization of newly emerging hydrological networks and diversification of aquatic biota. Implementing mitochondrial and nuclear markers in conjunction with a large-scale sampling strategy, we investigated the impact of this spatiotemporal framework on the evolutionary history of a freshwater crustacean morphospecies. The Gammarus balcanicus species complex is widely distributed in the area previously occupied by the Paratethys Sea. Our results revealed its high diversification and polyphyly in relation to a number of other morphospecies. The distribution of the studied amphipod is generally characterized by very high local endemism and divergence. The Bayesian time-calibrated reconstruction of phylogeny and geographical distribution of ancestral nodes indicates that this species complex started to diversify in the Early Miocene in the central Balkans, partially in the shallow epicontinental sea. It is possible that there were several episodes of inland water colonization by local brackish water lineages. Subsequent diversification within clades and spread to new areas could have been induced by Alpine orogeny in the Miocene/Pliocene and, finally, by Pleistocene glaciations. The present distribution of clades, in many cases, still reflects Miocene palaeogeography of the area. Our results point out that investigations of the historical aspect of cryptic diversity in other taxa may help in a general understanding of the origins of freshwater invertebrate fauna of Europe. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Description of two new gill myxozoans from smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Heather L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Glenney, Gavin W.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Blazer, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Two previously undescribed species of myxozoan parasites were observed in the gills of bass inhabiting the Potomac and James River basins. They are described using morphological characteristics and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences. Both were taxonomically identified as new species of Myxobolus; Myxobolus branchiarum n. sp. was found exclusively in smallmouth bass, and Myxobolus micropterii n. sp. was found in largemouth and smallmouth bass. Small, spherical, white plasmodia of M. branchiarum from smallmouth bass were observed grossly in the gills; these plasmodia had an average length of 320.3 µm and width of 246.1 µm. The development of the plasmodia is intralamellar in the secondary lamellae of the gills. Mature spores were pyriform in shape with a length of 12.8 ± 1.4 (8.1–15.1) µm and width of 6.9 ± 1.1 (4.0–9.0) µm. Analysis of SSU rDNA identified M. branchiarum in a sister-group to 3 species of Henneguya, although morphologically caudal appendages were absent. Myxobolus micropterii observed in the gills of largemouth and smallmouth bass had larger, ovoid, cream-colored plasmodia with an average length of 568.1 µm and width of 148.1 µm. The cysts developed at the distal end of the gill filament within the primary lamellae. The mature spores were ovoid in shape with a length of 10.8 ± 0.7 (9.2–12.2) µm and width of 10.6 ± 0.6 (9.0–11.8) µm. SSU rDNA analysis placed M. micropterii in a sister group with Henneguya lobosa and Myxobolus oliveirai. The highest prevalence of M. branchiarum was observed in the gills of bass collected from the Cowpasture River (50.9%). Prevalence was 44.6% in bass from the Potomac River and only 4.3% in bass collected from the Shenandoah River. A seasonal study of M. branchiarum, which included both infected and uninfected smallmouth bass, determined that a significantly higher intensity was observed in the spring than in the summer (P < 0.001) or fall (P  =  0.004). In an analysis excluding uninfected

  8. Description of two new gill myxozoans from smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth (Micropterus salmoides) bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Heather L; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Glenney, Gavin W; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Blazer, Vicki S

    2012-04-01

    Two previously undescribed species of myxozoan parasites were observed in the gills of bass inhabiting the Potomac and James River basins. They are described using morphological characteristics and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences. Both were taxonomically identified as new species of Myxobolus; Myxobolus branchiarum n. sp. was found exclusively in smallmouth bass, and Myxobolus micropterii n. sp. was found in largemouth and smallmouth bass. Small, spherical, white plasmodia of M. branchiarum from smallmouth bass were observed grossly in the gills; these plasmodia had an average length of 320.3 µm and width of 246.1 µm. The development of the plasmodia is intralamellar in the secondary lamellae of the gills. Mature spores were pyriform in shape with a length of 12.8 ± 1.4 (8.1-15.1) µm and width of 6.9 ± 1.1 (4.0-9.0) µm. Analysis of SSU rDNA identified M. branchiarum in a sister-group to 3 species of Henneguya , although morphologically caudal appendages were absent. Myxobolus micropterii observed in the gills of largemouth and smallmouth bass had larger, ovoid, cream-colored plasmodia with an average length of 568.1 µm and width of 148.1 µm. The cysts developed at the distal end of the gill filament within the primary lamellae. The mature spores were ovoid in shape with a length of 10.8 ± 0.7 (9.2-12.2) µm and width of 10.6 ± 0.6 (9.0-11.8) µm. SSU rDNA analysis placed M. micropterii in a sister group with Henneguya lobosa and Myxobolus oliveirai . The highest prevalence of M. branchiarum was observed in the gills of bass collected from the Cowpasture River (50.9%). Prevalence was 44.6% in bass from the Potomac River and only 4.3% in bass collected from the Shenandoah River. A seasonal study of M. branchiarum , which included both infected and uninfected smallmouth bass, determined that a significantly higher intensity was observed in the spring than in the summer (P < 0.001) or fall (P  =  0.004). In an analysis excluding uninfected bass, a

  9. Juvenile Chinook Salmon mortality in a Snake River Reservoir: Smallmouth Bass predation revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, John M.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2018-01-01

    Predation by nonnative fishes has been identified as a contributing factor in the decline of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River basin. We examined the diet composition of Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu and estimated the consumption and predation loss of juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Lower Granite Reservoir on the Snake River. We examined 4,852 Smallmouth Bass stomachs collected from shoreline habitats during April–September 2013–2015. Chinook Salmon were the second most commonly consumed fish by all size‐classes of Smallmouth Bass (≥150 mm TL) throughout the study. Over the 3 years studied, we estimated that a total of 300,373 Chinook Salmon were consumed by Smallmouth Bass in our 22‐km study area, of which 97% (291,884) were subyearlings (age 0) based on length frequency data. A majority of the loss (61%) occurred during June, which coincided with the timing of hatchery releases of subyearling fall Chinook Salmon. Compared to an earlier study, mean annual predation loss increased more than 15‐fold from 2,670 Chinook Salmon during 1996–1997 to 41,145 Chinook Salmon during 2013–2015 (in reaches that could be compared), despite lower contemporary Smallmouth Bass abundances. This increase can be explained in part by increases in Smallmouth Bass consumption rates, which paralleled increases in subyearling Chinook Salmon densities—an expected functional response by an opportunistic consumer. Smallmouth Bass are currently significant predators of subyearling Chinook Salmon in Lower Granite Reservoir and could potentially be a large source of unexplained mortality.

  10. Habitat selection and overlap of Atlantic salmon and smallmouth bass juveniles in nursery streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathen, G.; Coghlan, S.M.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Trial, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduced smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu have invaded much of the historic freshwater habitat of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in North America, yet little is known about the ecological interactions between the two species. We investigated the possibility of competition for habitat between age-0 Atlantic salmon and age-0 and age-1 smallmouth bass by means of in situ observations and a mesocosm experiment. We used snorkel observation to identify the degree and timing of overlap in habitat use in our in situ observations and to describe habitat shifts by Atlantic salmon in the presence of smallmouth bass in our mesocosm experiments. In late July 2008, we observed substantial overlap in the depths and mean water column velocities used by both species in sympatric in situ conditions and an apparent shift by age-0 Atlantic salmon to shallower water that coincided with the period of high overlap. In the mesocosm experiments, we detected no overlap or habitat shifts by age-0 Atlantic salmon in the presence age-1 smallmouth bass and low overlap and no habitat shifts of Atlantic salmon and age-0 smallmouth bass in fall 2009. In 2009, summer floods with sustained high flows and low temperatures resulted in the nearly complete reproductive failure of the smallmouth bass in our study streams, and we did not observe a midsummer habitat shift by Atlantic salmon similar to that seen in 2008. Although this prevented us from replicating our 2008 experiments under similar conditions, the virtual year-class failure of smallmouth bass itself is enlightening. We suggest that future studies incorporate the effects of varying temperature and discharge to determine how abiotic factors affect the interactions between these species and thus mediate the outcomes of potential competition.

  11. From Gibraltar through Levant and from Maghreb through the Southern Latin European Countries or about culture and management in the Mediterranean Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo ISTOCESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bordering the southern coast of Europe, the eastern part of the Middle East and northern Africa, representing the most appropriate environment for the development of cultural, social and economic of the maritime regions, influencing decisively the culture and the entire life of the inhabitants in a lot of bordering countries, ensuring the achievement of a natural maritime transportation way between eastern Levantine character and western pragmatism of our ancient continent, or between Maghreb, and the Latin world, especially in southern Europe, the Mediterranean Sea has an another treasure, yet poorly known and only partially recovered, with a history of over six thousands of years, with people proud of their history, culture, customs and traditions with unique cities, impressive by the mixture of cultures and races, its islands

  12. European countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Celia; Pescia, Dimitri; Ferreira, Francisco; Antunes, Rita; Claustre, Raphael; Priesner, Goerg C.; Pidous, Blandine; Dufour, Manon; Zuloaga, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Baltic Sea, from Portugal to Poland through UK, Germany or Austria, energy transition is in progress everywhere in Europe, but at different rhythms and in various conditions from one country to the other. How does the European framework promote the energy transition at the local and regional scales? What advantages the most advanced countries are relying on? How do citizens and local projects take over slow or retrograde governmental policies? This dossier gives some elements of answer through an overview of some energy policy scenarios under implementation in some European countries (Germany, Portugal, Denmark, Austria, UK, Spain)

  13. Electrofishing capture probability of smallmouth bass in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    Abundance estimation is an integral part of understanding the ecology and advancing the management of fish populations and communities. Mark-recapture and removal methods are commonly used to estimate the abundance of stream fishes. Alternatively, abundance can be estimated by dividing the number of individuals sampled by the probability of capture. We conducted a mark-recapture study and used multiple repeated-measures logistic regression to determine the influence of fish size, sampling procedures, and stream habitat variables on the cumulative capture probability for smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in two eastern Oklahoma streams. The predicted capture probability was used to adjust the number of individuals sampled to obtain abundance estimates. The observed capture probabilities were higher for larger fish and decreased with successive electrofishing passes for larger fish only. Model selection suggested that the number of electrofishing passes, fish length, and mean thalweg depth affected capture probabilities the most; there was little evidence for any effect of electrofishing power density and woody debris density on capture probability. Leave-one-out cross validation showed that the cumulative capture probability model predicts smallmouth abundance accurately. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  14. Historical development of entrainment models for Hudson River striped bass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, S.W.; Englert, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the mid-1960s, concerns surfaced regarding entrainment and impingement of young-of-the-year (age-0) striped bass by electric power generating facilities on the Hudson River. These concerns stimulated the development of increasingly complex models to evaluate the impacts of these facilities. The earliest simplistic formulas, based on empirical data, proved inadequate because of conceptual shortcomings, incomplete development, and lack of data. By 1972, complex transport models based on biological and hydrodynamic principles had been developed and applied by scientists representing both the utilities and the government. Disagreements about the acceptability of these models spurred the development of even more complex models. The entrainment models stimulated the collection of substantial amounts of field data to define the spatial distributions and entrainment survival of early life stages. As the difficulties of accounting for the movement of early life stages from hydrodynamic principles became more evident and as more field data became available, simpler empirical modeling approaches became both practical and defensible. Both empirical and hydrodynamic modeling approaches were applied during the US Environmental Protection Agency's hearings on the Hudson River power case (1977-1980). The main lessons learned from the experience with entrainment-impingement modeling are that complex mechanistic models are not necessarily better than simpler empirical models for young fish, and that care must be taken to construct even the simple models correctly. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Maternally transferred mercury in wild largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Dana K; Aday, D Derek; Rice, James A; Cope, W Gregory

    2013-07-01

    Maternal transfer of mercury in fish represents a potential route of elimination for adult females and a risk to developing embryos. To better quantify maternal transfer, we measured Hg in female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) muscle and eggs from six waterbodies. Mercury in eggs from two waterbodies exceeded a US federal screening level (0.3 μg g(-1)) and was likely high enough to cause adverse reproductive effects. We found a curvilinear relationship between female and egg Hg. Fish with 0.37 μg g(-1) showed a direct relationship between egg and muscle Hg (Log10 egg Hg = -1.03 + 1.18 * log10 muscle tissue Hg + 2.15 * (log10 muscle tissue Hg + 0.35)(2)). We also report higher maternal transfer (0.2-13.2%) and higher ratios of egg to muscle tissue Hg (4-52%) and egg to whole body Hg concentrations (7-116%) than previously observed for teleost fish. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Power output from Tage Basse's Wave Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossen, E.A.; Mikkelsen, R.

    2000-10-01

    Tage Basse's Wave Turbine is a floating, slack moored device, placed in deep water. Via a long vertical shaft a Wells turbine is connected to a circular horizontal plate, below the turbine. The plate is in still water, preventing the device from moving up and down in the waves. At the top end of the shaft there is a float containing the power take off. The efficiency was measured to 5.1 % as an average over the year. This is measured with a rigid suspension of the turbine. If the bottom plate, in the floating version, is designed properly the result is still applicable. One reason for the large increase in efficiency shown could be that when the vertical kinetic energy in the wave is tapped by the turbine, part of the potential energy in the wave is transformed into vertical kinetic energy and is then accessible to the turbine. Turbine efficiency might increase in a full-scale device due to more favorable Reynolds number. Reynolds number in the model tests is approx. 80,000. (EHS)

  17. Population trends of smallmouth bass in the upper Colorado River basin with an evaluation of removal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, André R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Hawkins, John A.; Bestgen, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu were rare in the upper Colorado River basin until the early 1990’s when their abundance dramatically increased in the Yampa River sub-basin. Increased abundance was due primarily to colonization from Elkhead Reservoir, which was rapidly drawn down twice, first to make improvements to the dam (1992) and a second time for reservoir expansion (2005), and allowed escapement of resident bass to the river through an unscreened outlet. Elkhead Reservoir is located on Elkhead Creek, a tributary of the Yampa River. The rapid Elkhead Reservoir drawdown in 1992 was followed by a period of drought years with low, early runoff in the Yampa River sub-basin that benefitted smallmouth bass reproduction. This combination of factors allowed smallmouth bass to establish a self-sustaining population in the Yampa River. Subsequently, successful recruitment allowed smallmouth bass to disperse upstream and downstream in the Yampa River and eventually move into the downstream Green River. Smallmouth bass were also likely introduced, by unknown means, into the upper Colorado River and have since dispersed in this sub-basin. The rapid increase of smallmouth bass in the upper Colorado River basin overlapped with significant reductions in native fish populations in some locations. The threat to these native fishes initiated intensive mechanical removal of smallmouth bass by the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program.In general, three factors explain fluctuating patterns in smallmouth bass density in the upper Colorado River basin in the last decade: reductions due to electrofishing removal, bass recovery after exploitation due to recruitment and immigration, and changes due to environmental factors not related to electrofishing and other management actions. Our analyses indicated that smallmouth bass densities were substantially reduced in most years by 7 electrofishing removal efforts. Less often, but dramatically in some cases

  18. Diel habitat selection of largemouth bass following woody structure installation in Table Rock Lake, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J.M.; Paukert, Craig P.; Bush, S.C.; Allen, M.J.; Siepker, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède) use of installed habitat structure was evaluated in a large Midwestern USA reservoir to determine whether or not these structures were used in similar proportion to natural habitats. Seventy largemouth bass (>380 mm total length) were surgically implanted with radio transmitters and a subset was relocated monthly during day and night for one year. The top habitat selection models (based on Akaike's information criterion) suggest largemouth bass select 2–4 m depths during night and 4–7 m during day, whereas littoral structure selection was similar across diel periods. Largemouth bass selected boat docks at twice the rate of other structures. Installed woody structure was selected at similar rates to naturally occurring complex woody structure, whereas both were selected at a higher rate than simple woody structure. The results suggest the addition of woody structure may concentrate largemouth bass and mitigate the loss of woody habitat in a large reservoir.

  19. Effect of Intestinal Tapeworm Clestobothrium crassiceps on Concentrations of Toxic Elements and Selenium in European Hake Merluccius merluccius from the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Miquel, Jordi; Ferrer-Maza, Dolors; Delgado, Eulàlia; Casadevall, Margarida

    2015-10-28

    The capacity for heavy metal bioaccumulation by some fish parasites has been demonstrated, and their contribution to decreasing metal concentrations in tissues of parasitized fish has been hypothesized. The present study evaluated the effect of the cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps on the accumulation of trace elements in 30 European hake, Merluccius merluccius, in Spain (half of them infested by C. crassiceps). Tissue samples from all M. merluccius and specimens of C. crassiceps from the infected hakes were collected and stored until element analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic, mercury, and selenium were generally present in lower levels in the cestode than in all hake tissues. The mean value of the muscular Se:Hg molar ratio in the infested subsample was higher than that in hakes without cestodes. Values indicate that the edible part of infested hakes presents a lower amount of Cd and Pb in relation to noninfested hakes.

  20. Seasonal use of a New England estuary by foraging contingents of migratory striped bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Martha E.; Pautzke, Sarah M.; Finn, John T.; Deegan, Linda A.; Muth, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Using acoustic telemetry on migratory striped bass Morone saxatilis in Plum Island Estuary (PIE), Massachusetts, we found that striped bass (335–634 mm total length) tagged in the spring and summer of 2005 (n = 14) and 2006 (n = 46) stayed in the estuary for an average of 66.0 d in 2005 and 72.2 d in 2006. Striped bass spent the most time in two specific reaches: middle Plum Island Sound and lower Rowley River. In both years, three different use-groups of striped bass were observed in PIE. Short-term visitors (n = 24) stayed in the estuary only briefly (range = 5–20 d). Two groups of seasonal residents stayed for more than 30 d, either in the Rowley River (n = 14) or in Plum Island Sound (n = 22). Within PIE, the two seasonal-resident use-groups may be foraging contingents that learn how to feed efficiently in specific parts of the estuary. These distinct within-estuary use patterns could have different implications for striped bass condition and prey impact.

  1. The architecture of the European natural gas supply - quantum increase for North Sea gas. Die Architektur der europaeischen Erdgasversorgung - Quantensprung fuer Nordseegas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, B [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-12-01

    There will be a marked increase in natural gas consumption to 370 million t.c.e. up to 410 million t.c.e until the year 2005. The development of self-supply in the various countries as well as fixed import contracts form a solid basis for supply. From a long-term point of view, however, Western Europe is facing large-scale acquisition tasks. It is likely that additional West European requirements will be met to a large extent through an increase of Norwegian supplies to some 60 to 70 billion m{sup 3} in 2005. The obvious tendency of increased demand, however, can only be statisfied if import projects from sources outside Europe can be realized. (orig./BWI).

  2. Vortex sound in bass-reflex ports of loudspeakers : part II. a method to estimate the point of separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, N.B.; Bockholts, M.; van Eck, P.; Hirschberg, A.

    1998-01-01

    In part I of this paper, the vortex shedding that may occur in a bass-reflex port of a loudspeaker system was discussed. At the Helmholtz frequency of the bass-reflex port, air is pumped in and out at rather high velocities, vortex shedding occurs at the end of the port, and blowing sounds are

  3. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). STRIPED BASS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Adult striped bass were reported to survival. Time to death for unfed lar- tolerate temperatures from 0°-30°C(32 ° - vae was longer at lower...Allison, L. 0. J. A. Hutcheson, R. H. Ray. Horseman , W. H. Keirsey, and and T. L. Wellborn, Jr. 1969. C. A. Shirley. 1975. Fishes. Striped bass, 1968

  4. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) reveals conserved synteny with the hree-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its relatives (genus Morone) are of great importance to fisheries and aquaculture in North America. As part of a collaborative effort to employ molecular genetic technologies in striped bass breeding programs, nearly 500 microsatellite markers were...

  5. A new species of dwarf sea bass, genus Serranus (Serranidae: Actinopterygii, from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Carvalho Filho

    Full Text Available Serranus aliceae n. sp. is described from Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo States, southeastern Brazilian coast. The species is readily distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: scales around the caudal peduncle 20 or 21; total gill rakers on first branchial arch 23-29; cheek-scales rows 5 or 6; and by the coloration of live specimens, which are reddish with a broad, conspicuous, white stripe from post-orbital region to the caudal-fin base and a white abdomen. The new species apparently inhabits the deeper (30 or more meters portions of reef environments along the subtropical Brazilian coast, and is possibly associated with upwelling cold-water masses. The species was observed hovering above rocky bottoms, feeding on micro-crustaceans, squid larvae, and zooplankton. This new species increases to eight the number of valid Serranus species recorded in the southwestern Atlantic.

  6. Vibrio damsela as a pathogenic agent causing mortalities in cultured sea bass (Lates calcarifer)

    OpenAIRE

    Renault, Tristan; Haffner, Philippe; Malfondet, C.; Weppe, Maurice

    1994-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio ordali are species frequently described as fish pathogens. Seven species of Vibrio can also be implicated in disease problems in mariculture (Toranzo 1990). sorne of Vibrios and Barja, In addition, these marine such as V. vulnificus (Tison et al.. 1982) and V. damsela (Love et al., 1981) can also cause illness homoiothermic animals

  7. Northeast Summer Flounder, Scup, Black Sea Bass Recreational Fishing Demand Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stated preference choice experiment data were collected in conjunction with NMFS’ Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey (MRFSS) along the coastal states of...

  8. Lordotic vertebrae in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) are adapted to increased loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.; Waarsing, J.H.; Muller, M.; Weinans, H.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Lordosis in fish is an abnormal ventral curvature of the vertebral column, accompanied by abnormal calcification of the afflicted vertebrae. Incidences of lordosis are a major problem in aquaculture and often correlate with increased swimming activity. To understand the biomechanical causes and

  9. Adaptive bone formation in acellular vertebrae of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.; Cleynenbreugel, van T.; Schipper, H.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian bone is an active tissue in which osteoblasts and osteoclasts balance bone mass. This process of adaptive modelling and remodelling is probably regulated by strain-sensing osteocytes. Bone of advanced teleosts is acellular yet, despite the lack of osteocytes, it is capable of an adaptive

  10. Osmoregulatory effects of hypophysectomy and homologous prolactin replacement in hybrid striped bass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Leslie F; McCormick, Stephen D; Madsen, Steffen S

    2005-01-01

    The effects of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and striped bass prolactin (sbPRL; Morone saxatilis) on plasma osmolality, electrolyte balance, and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity were investigated in hypophysectomized (Hx), freshwater (FW)-acclimated, hybrid striped bass (M. saxatilis x Morone chrysops...... or 100 ng/g), or hormone vehicle (0.9% NaCl) at 48-h intervals (days 0, 2, 4, and 6) in FW and then sampled for blood plasma 24 h after the fourth injection (day 7). In Hx fish, oPRL (5 and 20 microg/g) and sbPRL (10 and 100 ng/g) were effective in maintaining plasma osmolality and levels of Na+, Cl...... balance in FW-adapted hybrid striped bass, and that this may involve downregulation of branchial Na+,K+-ATPase activity....

  11. Toxicity of bromate to striped bass ichthyoplankton (Morone saxatilis) and juvenile spot (Leiostomus xanthurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, L B; Burton, D T; Rhoderick, J C

    1981-10-01

    Striped bass (Morone saxatillis) eggs (12 h after fertilization) and larvae (4 d after hatching) and juvenile spot (Leiostomus xanthurus) were exposed to a series of bromate concentrations for 4, 10, and 10 d, respectively, using static replacement bioassay techniques. Three-dimensional mortality response surfaces were constructed by computerized probit regression techniques. Newly hatched striped bass prolarvae were most sensitive to bromate and had a 96-h LC50 of 30.8 mg/l (as BrO3-). Four-day-old striped bass larvae were less sensitive, with 2- to 10-d LC50s ranging from 605.0 to 92.6 mg/l BrO3-, respectively. Juvenile spot were least sensitive, with 1- to 10-d LC50s ranging from 698.0 to 278.6 mg/l BrO3-, respectively.

  12. DIET AND REPRODUCTION OF LARGEMOUTH BASS IN A RECENTLY INTRODUCED POPULATION, LAKE BRACCIANO (CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINELLI A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns a study of some aspects of largemouth bass ecology in an Italian lake (Lake Bracciano. We assessed the success and possible impact of its recent introduction (1998 upon the fish community. From October 2001 to September 2002, 162 individuals were caught, measured, aged and submitted to biopsy (stomach and gonads were removed. Four age classes, from 0 + to 3 +, were observed in the population. Largemouth bass feeding activity was high in June, mostly eating fish (55.7%, crustaceans (in particular Palaemonetes antennarius, 37.5%, insects (4.5% and molluscs (2.3%. The G.S.I. values showed an autumnal breeding period (from December to February rather than the spring-summer one frequently described in North America. Moreover, bass attained sexual maturity during the second year of life (1 +. These differences could be related to its recent introduction and the apparent success could represent a problem for other species in the Lake.

  13. Liver melanomacrophage centres and CYP1A expression as response biomarkers to environmental pollution in European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) from the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilone, Gualtiero; Gargano, Antonella; Corriero, Aldo; Zupa, Rosa; Santamaria, Nicoletta; Mangano, Salvatore; Ferreri, Rosalia; Pulizzi, Maurizio; Mazzola, Salvatore; Bonanno, Angelo; Passantino, Letizia

    2018-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to verify the suitability of using melanomacrophage centres (MMCs) as response biomarkers of marine pollution in European anchovy, which are short-lived, migratory, small pelagic fish. This suitability was verified by analysing the MMC density and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 1A (CYP1A) expression in livers of anchovies from four areas of southern Italy. Age 2 anchovies sampled from three areas exposed to pollutants of industrial/agricultural origin (Gulf of Gela, Mazara del Vallo and Gulf of Naples) showed liver areas occupied by MMCs and numbers of MMCs that were significantly higher than those in the anchovies from Pozzallo, which is a marine area not subjected to any source of pollution. Anti-CYP1A immunoreactivity was observed in the hepatocytes of all specimens sampled from the Gulf of Gela. These findings suggest the utility of liver MMCs as biomarkers of exposure to pollutants in this small pelagic fish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Indigenous development and performance evaluation of BARC aerodynamic size separator (BASS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sanjay; Purwar, R.C.; Das, Tanmoy; Narayanan, K.P.; Sapra, B.K.; Sunny, Faby; Khan, Arshad; Mayya, Y.S.

    2002-06-01

    Commercially available cascade impactors, commonly used for aerodynamic size separation of aerosol particles, are based on the principle of inertial impaction. As of now, these instruments are imported at a cost of several lakhs of rupees; hence an effort has been made to develop an aerodynamic particle sizer indigenously in BARC. This unit, referred to as BARC Aerodynamic Size Separator (BASS), separates aerosols into seven size classes ranging from 0.53 μm to 10 μm and operates at a flow rate of 45 Ipm. Intercomparison studies between the standard Andersen Mark-II (Grasbey Andersen Inc.) impactor and BASS using nebulizer generated aerosols have consistently shown excellent performance by BASS in all respects. In particular, BASS yielded the parameters of polydisperse aerosols quite accurately. Experiments to evaluate the individual stage cut-off diameters show that these are within 8% of their designed value for all stages except the higher two stages which indicate about 30% lower values than the designed ones. The replotting of all the mass distribution data using the experimental cut-off diameters showed perfect lognormal fits, thereby indicating that these diameters are closer to the true stage cut-off diameters for BASS. The studies show that BASS will be suitable for determining the particle size distributions in the context of the radiological safety programmes of DAE. Being indigenous in design, it may be fabricated on a commercial scale at a cost far less than that of the imported units. Such a venture will greatly help several national programmes on atmospheric pollution being carried out by many laboratories and institutions across the country. (author)

  15. Physiological changes in largemouth bass exposed to paper mill effluents under laboratory and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Gallagher, E.P.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    We report here on studies designed to asses the effects of paper mill effluents on non-reproductive functions of free-ranging and captive Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) This was accomplished by conducting an outdoor tank study, in which fish were exposed to well water or to 10%, 20%, 40%, and 80% full strength effluent for 28 or 56 days, and by sampling largemouth bass from sites within the St. Johns River, Florida, upstream and downstream from a paper mill plant. Blood and plasma samples from fish from the tank study and from fish sampled from the ambient sites were analyzed for over 20 variables. We also determined liver and spleen weights and examined them histologically. The most significant finding from the tank study was an increase in the concentration of albumin and hepatosomatic index for bass exposed to ???20% effluents for 56 days. Spleenosomatic index and number of melanomacrophage centers were decreased in bass from effluent-dominated sites (Palatka and Rice Creek), whereas concentrations of calcium, phosphorous, glucose, and creatinine were elevated in fish from these sites, compared to fish from reference streams. Fish from Rice Creek also had fewer red blood cells, and male bass from Palatka had lower concentrations of cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of albumin and hepatic concentrations of glutathione were elevated in males from Palatka, and both females and males from Rice Creek had higher concentrations of globulin. These results indicate a complex pattern of effects of paper mill effluents on several physiological functions. However, despite the myriad of treatment and site-related effects, most physiological parameters fell within normal ranges when compared to reports on largemouth bass and other freshwater species.

  16. Maternally transferred mercury in wild largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, Dana K.; Aday, D. Derek; Rice, James A.; Cope, W. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Maternal transfer of mercury in fish represents a potential route of elimination for adult females and a risk to developing embryos. To better quantify maternal transfer, we measured Hg in female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) muscle and eggs from six waterbodies. Mercury in eggs from two waterbodies exceeded a US federal screening level (0.3 μg g −1 ) and was likely high enough to cause adverse reproductive effects. We found a curvilinear relationship between female and egg Hg. Fish with −1 Hg had low levels of Hg in eggs; those with Hg >0.37 μg g −1 showed a direct relationship between egg and muscle Hg (Log 10 egg Hg = −1.03 + 1.18 * log 10 muscle tissue Hg + 2.15 * (log 10 muscle tissue Hg + 0.35) 2 ). We also report higher maternal transfer (0.2–13.2%) and higher ratios of egg to muscle tissue Hg (4–52%) and egg to whole body Hg concentrations (7–116%) than previously observed for teleost fish. Highlights: •Previous work suggests maternal Hg transfer in teleosts is consistently low. •We provide evidence that teleosts can have high maternal Hg transfer. •Females with low Hg had similar and low concentrations of Hg in their eggs. •Females with high Hg had Hg in eggs that increased with somatic tissue Hg. •Egg Hg from high Hg females exceeded adverse effect levels. -- Capsule: Here we report higher maternal transfer and higher ratios of egg to muscle tissue Hg than previously observed for teleost fish

  17. Effects of cold-water corals on fish diversity and density (European continental margin: Arctic, NE Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea): Data from three baited lander systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, T. D.; Lavaleye, M.; Maiorano, P.; Bergman, M.; Capezzuto, F.; Cousins, N. J.; D'Onghia, G.; Duineveld, G.; Shields, M. A.; Sion, L.; Tursi, A.; Priede, I. G.

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous photographic landers are a low-impact survey method for the assessment of mobile fauna in situations where methods such as trawling are not feasible or ethical. Three institutions collaborated through the CoralFISH project, each using differing lander systems, to assess the effects of cold-water corals on fish diversity and density. The Biogenic Reef Ichthyofauna Lander (BRIL, Oceanlab), Autonomous Lander for Biological Experiments (ALBEX, NIOZ) and the Marine Environment MOnitoring system (MEMO, CoNISMa) were deployed in four CoralFISH European study regions covering the Arctic, NE Atlantic and Mediterranean, namely Northern Norway (275-310 m depth), Belgica Mound Province (686-1025 m depth), the Bay of Biscay (623-936 m depth), and Santa Maria di Leuca (547-670 m depth). A total of 33 deployments were carried out in the different regions. Both the time of first arrival (Tarr) and the maximum observed number of fish (MaxN) were standardised between the different lander systems and compared between coral and reference stations as indicators of local fish density. Fish reached significantly higher MaxN at the coral stations than at the reference stations. Fish were also found to have significantly lower Tarr in the coral areas in data obtained from the BRIL and MEMO landers. All data indicated that fish abundance is higher within the coral areas. Fish species diversity was higher within the coral areas of Atlantic Ocean while in Northern Norway and Santa Maria di Leuca coral areas, diversity was similar at coral and reference stations but a single dominant species (Brosme brosme and Conger conger respectively) showed much higher density within the coral areas. Indicating that, while cold-water coral reefs have a positive effect on fish diversity and/or abundance, this effect varies across Europe's reefs.

  18. Safety first. Insight into the European proposal for safe oil and gas exploitation at sea; Safety first. Een inkijkje in het Europese voorstel rond een veilige(r) olie- en gaswinning op zee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemstra, K. [Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij NAM, Assen (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    In response to the incident in the Gulf of Mexico (20 April 2010) the European Commission published a draft regulation 'concerning the safety of offshore oil and gas prospecting, exploration and production activities'. This article offers insight in the proposed legislation and interesting information on this topic. This sketch offers a predominantly industrial perspective. The substantive review is preceded by a brief introduction of the existing regulations, at least for the countries surrounding the North Sea and particularly the Netherlands. [Dutch] In antwoord op het incident in de Golf van Mexico (20 april 2010) heeft de Europese Commissie op 27 oktober 2011 een Ontwerp-verordening gepubliceerd 'betreffende de veiligheid van offshore olie- en -gasprospectie-, -exploratie- en -productieactiviteiten'. In dit artikel wordt inzicht gegeven in de voorgestelde wetgeving en wetenswaardigheden daaromtrent. Deze schets biedt bovenal een industrieel perspectief. De inhoudelijke beschouwing wordt voorafgegaan door een korte introductie van de bestaande regulering, in ieder geval voor de landen rond de Noordzee en met name Nederland.

  19. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  20. Influence of ocean acidification on the organic complexation of iron and copper in Northwest European shelf seas; a combined observational and model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth eAvendaño

    2016-04-01

    -Donnan model in order to approximate the trends observed in measured [MeAL]. We calculated iron and copper speciation in Northwest European shelf water samples at ambient alkalinity and projected increased pCO2 concentrations as a demonstration of the potential of the approach.

  1. Black Sea challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    In this month's European column, Jean-Francois Drevet examines the issues that arise for Europe from the Black Sea region. The Black Sea is increasingly becoming a crucial place of transit for hydrocarbon imports from the Caspian and Russia into the European Union. The considerable increase in this traffic raises both environmental problems (the risk of oil slicks) and issues of security of supply, on account of the economic and political fragility of some of the bordering or neighbouring states (Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia/Chechnya etc.). This is why, as Jean-Francois Drevet stresses, the European Union has been trying since the mid-1990's to claim a role in the management of the affairs of the region. With two bordering states (Rumania and Bulgaria) joining the EU in 2007, cooperation in the Black Sea has become a priority within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, and this column delineates a number of the obstacles that still have to be surmounted. (author)

  2. Pepsinogens and pepsins from largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides: purification and characterization with special reference to high proteolytic activities of bass enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yoko; Kageyama, Takashi; Moriyama, Akihiko

    2015-05-01

    Six pepsinogens were purified from the gastric mucosa of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography, Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, and Mono Q FPLC. The potential specific activities of two major pepsinogens, PG1-1 and PG2-2, against hemoglobin were 51 and 118 units/mg protein, respectively. The activity of pepsin 2-2 was the highest among the pepsins reported to date; this might be linked to the strongly carnivorous diet of the largemouth bass. The molecular masses of PG1-1 and PG2-2 were 39.0 and 41.0 kDa, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of PG1-1 and PG2-2 were LVQVPLEVGQTAREYLE- and LVRLPLIVGKTARQALLE-, respectively, showing similarities with those of fish type-A pepsinogens. The optimal pHs for hemoglobin-digestive activity of pepsins 1-1 and 2-2 were around 1.5 and 2.0, respectively, though both pepsins retained considerable activity at pHs over 3.5. They showed maximal activity around 50 and 40 °C, respectively. They were inhibited by pepstatin similarly to porcine pepsin A. The cleavage specificities clarified with oxidized insulin B chain were shown to be restricted to a few bonds consisting of hydrophobic/aromatic residues, such as the Leu(15)-Tyr(16), Phe(24)-Phe(25) and Phe(25)-Tyr(26) bonds. When hemoglobin was used as a substrate, the kcat/Km value of bass pepsin 2-2 was 4.6- to 36.8-fold larger than those of other fish pepsins. In the case of substance P, an ideal pepsin substrate mimic, the kcat/Km values were about 200-fold larger than those of porcine pepsin A, supporting the high activity of the bass pepsin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of nutritional history on stress response in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danli; Wu, Yubo; Huang, Di; Ren, Xing; Wang, Yan

    2017-08-01

    The stress response of omnivorous gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) with different nutritional history were evaluated. A 2×2 layout, including two fish species (gibel carp or largemouth bass) and two nutritional history (fasted or fed to satiation for four weeks), was used. After feeding or fasting, the fishes were subjected to an acute handling. Fasting resulted in decrease of plasma glucose level and liver glycogen content of gibel carp and largemouth bass. After handling stress, plasma levels of cortisol, glucose and lactate of gibel carp and largemouth bass increased, regardless the fasted fish or fed fish. During the period from 0h to 24h post-stress, the fasted gibel carp exhibited lower plasma cortisol and glucose levels, brain and liver glycogen contents, and liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity compared with the fed counterpart. The plasma glucose level, brain glucose level, brain and liver glycogen contents were lower, while the liver PEPCK and hexokinase (HK) activities were higher, in the faster largemouth bass than the fed counterpart. This study indicates that nutritional history can influence stress response of gibel carp and largemouth bass, and the stress response is less severe in the fasted fish relative to the fed counterpart. This study also reveals that gibel carp and largemouth bass may have different strategies in response to fasting and acute handling stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of salinity on expression of branchial ion transporters in striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek; Madsen, Steffen Søndergaard; Borski, Russell John

    2004-01-01

    The time course of osmoregulatory adjustments and expressional changes of three key ion transporters in the gill were investigated in the striped bass during salinity acclimations. In three experiments, fish were transferred from fresh water (FW) to seawater (SW), from SW to FW, and from 15-ppt b...

  5. Indigenous development and performance evaluation of BARC aerodynamic size separator (BASS)

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S; Khan, A; Mayya, Y S; Narayanan, K P; Purwar, R C; Sapra, B K; Sunny, F

    2002-01-01

    Commercially available cascade impactors, commonly used for aerodynamic size separation of aerosol particles, are based on the principle of inertial impaction. As of now, these instruments are imported at a cost of several lakhs of rupees; hence an effort has been made to develop an aerodynamic particle sizer indigenously in BARC. This unit, referred to as BARC Aerodynamic Size Separator (BASS), separates aerosols into seven size classes ranging from 0.53 mu m to 10 mu m and operates at a flow rate of 45 Ipm. Intercomparison studies between the standard Andersen Mark-II (Grasbey Andersen Inc.) impactor and BASS using nebulizer generated aerosols have consistently shown excellent performance by BASS in all respects. In particular, BASS yielded the parameters of polydisperse aerosols quite accurately. Experiments to evaluate the individual stage cut-off diameters show that these are within 8% of their designed value for all stages except the higher two stages which indicate about 30% lower values than the desig...

  6. Climate-growth relationships for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) across three southeastern USA states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew L. Rypel

    2009-01-01

    The role of climate variability in the ecology of freshwater fishes is of increasing interest. However, there are relatively few tools available for examining how freshwater fish populations respond to climate variations. Here, I apply tree-ring techniques to incremental growth patterns in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides Lacepe`de) otoliths to explore...

  7. Copper sulfate controls fungus on mat-spawned largemouth bass eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is widely used by the catfish and hybrid striped bass industries as an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on eggs; these industries use hatching troughs and McDonald jars, respectively, in moderate alkalinity waters. This study determined the effectivene...

  8. Use of non-natal estuaries by migratory striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, M. E.; Finn, John T.; Ferry, K.H.; Deegan, Linda A.; Nelson, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    For most migratory fish, little is known about the location and size of foraging areas or how long individuals remain in foraging areas, even though these attributes may affect their growth, survival, and impact on local prey. We tested whether striped bass (Morone saxatilis Walbaum), found in Massachusetts in summer, were migratory, how long they stayed in non-natal estuaries, whether observed spatial patterns differed from random model predictions, whether fish returned to the same area across multiple years, and whether fishing effort could explain recapture patterns. Anchor tags were attached to striped bass that were caught and released in Massachusetts in 1999 and 2000, and recaptured between 1999 and 2007. In fall, tagged striped bass were caught south of where they were released in summer, confirming that fish were coastal migrants. In the first summer, 77% and 100% of the recaptured fish in the Great Marsh and along the Massachusetts coast, respectively, were caught in the same place where they were released. About two thirds of all fish recaptured near where they were released were caught 2-7 years after tagging. Our study shows that smaller (400-500 mm total length) striped bass migrate hundreds of kilometers along the Atlantic Ocean coast, cease their mobile lifestyle in summer when they use a relatively localized area for foraging (<20 km2), and return to these same foraging areas in subsequent years.

  9. BIOACCUMULATION AND AQUATIC SYSTEM SIMULATOR (BASS) USER'S MANUAL BETA TEST VERSION 2.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASS (Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator) is a Fortran 95 simulation program that predicts the population and bioaccumulation dynamics of age-structured fish assemblages that are exposed to hydrophobic organic pollutants and class B and borderline metals that complex wi...

  10. Methods to assess impacts on Hudson River striped bass: report for the period October 1, 1977 to September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Christensen, S.W.; Kirk, B.L.; Kumar, K.D.; Van Winkle, W.

    1980-06-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop and apply quantitative methods for assessing the effects of power plant entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River striped bass population. During the two years covered in this reporting period, our work dealt with five interrelated aspects of this assessment problem: (1) young-of-the year models, (2) mortality of entrained eggs, larvae, and juveniles, (3) projection of long-term impacts using stock recruitment models, (4) relative contribution of the Hudson River stock to the Atlantic coastal striped bass population, and (5) distribution of entrainable striped bass life stages in the immediate vicinity of power plant intakes

  11. Measurement Error Affects Risk Estimates for Recruitment to the Hudson River Stock of Striped Bass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Dunning

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the consequences of ignoring the distinction between measurement error and natural variability in an assessment of risk to the Hudson River stock of striped bass posed by entrainment at the Bowline Point, Indian Point, and Roseton power plants. Risk was defined as the probability that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more, relative to the equilibrium value, at least once during the time periods examined (1, 5, 10, and 15 years. Measurement error, estimated using two abundance indices from independent beach seine surveys conducted on the Hudson River, accounted for 50% of the variability in one index and 56% of the variability in the other. If a measurement error of 50% was ignored and all of the variability in abundance was attributed to natural causes, the risk that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more after 15 years was 0.308 at the current level of entrainment mortality (11%. However, the risk decreased almost tenfold (0.032 if a measurement error of 50% was considered. The change in risk attributable to decreasing the entrainment mortality rate from 11 to 0% was very small (0.009 and similar in magnitude to the change in risk associated with an action proposed in Amendment #5 to the Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic striped bass (0.006— an increase in the instantaneous fishing mortality rate from 0.33 to 0.4. The proposed increase in fishing mortality was not considered an adverse environmental impact, which suggests that potentially costly efforts to reduce entrainment mortality on the Hudson River stock of striped bass are not warranted.

  12. Climate-induced seasonal changes in smallmouth bass growth rate potential at the southern range extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middaugh, Christopher R.; Kessinger, Brin; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2018-01-01

    Temperature increases due to climate change over the coming century will likely affect smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) growth in lotic systems at the southern extent of their native range. However, the thermal response of a stream to warming climate conditions could be affected by the flow regime of each stream, mitigating the effects on smallmouth bass populations. We developed bioenergetics models to compare change in smallmouth bass growth rate potential (GRP) from present to future projected monthly stream temperatures across two flow regimes: runoff and groundwater-dominated. Seasonal differences in GRP between stream types were then compared. The models were developed for fourteen streams within the Ozark–Ouachita Interior Highlands in Arkansas, Oklahoma and Missouri, USA, which contain smallmouth bass. In our simulations, smallmouth bass mean GRP during summer months decreased by 0.005 g g−1 day−1 in runoff streams and 0.002 g g−1 day−1 in groundwater streams by the end of century. Mean GRP during winter, fall and early spring increased under future climate conditions within both stream types (e.g., 0.00019 g g−1 day−1 in runoff and 0.0014 g g−1 day−1 in groundwater streams in spring months). We found significant differences in change in GRP between runoff and groundwater streams in three seasons in end-of-century simulations (spring, summer and fall). Potential differences in stream temperature across flow regimes could be an important habitat component to consider when investigating effects of climate change as fishes from various flow regimes that are relatively close geographically could be affected differently by warming climate conditions.

  13. Estimating abundance of adult striped bass in reservoirs using mobile hydroacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Taylor, J. Christopher; Degan, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroacoustic surveys have proven valuable for estimating reservoir forage fish abundance but are more challenging for adult predators such as striped bass Morone saxatilis. Difficulties in assessing striped bass in reservoirs include their low density and the inability to distinguish species with hydroacoustic data alone. Despite these difficulties, mobile hydroacoustic surveys have potential to provide useful data for management because of the large sample volume compared to traditional methods such as gill netting and the ability to target specific areas where striped bass are aggregated. Hydroacoustic estimates of reservoir striped bass have been made using mobile surveys, with data analysis using a threshold for target strength in order to focus on striped bass-sized targets, and auxiliary sampling with nets to obtain species composition. We provide recommendations regarding survey design, based in part on simulations that provide insight on the level of effort that would be required to achieve reasonable estimates of abundance. Future surveys may be able to incorporate telemetry or other sonar techniques such as side-scan or multibeam in order to focus survey efforts on productive habitats (within lake and vertically). However, species apportionment will likely remain the main source of error, and we see no hydroacoustic system on the horizon that will identify fish by species at the spatial and temporal scale required for most reservoir surveys. In situations where species composition can be reliably assessed using traditional gears, abundance estimates from hydroacoustic methods should be useful to fishery managers interested in developing harvest regulations, assessing survival of stocked juveniles, identifying seasonal aggregations, and examining predator–prey balance.

  14. Channel unit use by Smallmouth Bass: Do land-use constraints or quantity of habitat matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Shannon K.

    2013-01-01

    I examined how land use influenced the distribution of Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu in channel units (discrete morphological features—e.g., pools) of streams in the Midwestern USA. Stream segments (n = 36), from four clusters of different soil and runoff conditions, were identified that had the highest percent of forest (n = 12), pasture (n = 12), and urban land use (n = 12) within each cluster. Channel units within each stream were delineated and independently sampled once using multiple gears in summer 2006. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model procedure with a binomial distribution and odds ratio statistics. Land use and channel unit were strong predictors of age-0, age-1, and age->1 Smallmouth Bass presence. Each age-class was more likely to be present in streams within watersheds dominated by forest land use than in those with pasture or urban land uses. The interaction between land use and channel unit was not significant in any of the models, indicating channel unit use by Smallmouth Bass did not depend on watershed land use. Each of the three age-classes was more likely to use pools than other channel units. However, streams with high densities of Smallmouth Bass age >1 had lower proportions of pools suggesting a variety of channel units is important even though habitat needs exist at the channel-unit scale. Management may benefit from future research addressing the significance of channel-unit quality as a possible mechanism for how land use impacts Smallmouth Bass populations. Further, management efforts aimed at improving stream habitat would likely be more beneficial if focused at the stream segment or landscape scale, where a variety of quality habitats might be supported.

  15. Identification of Neosho Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu velox) stocks for possible introduction into Grand Lake, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew T.; Long, James M.; Schwemm, Michael R.; Tringali, Michael D.; Brewer, Shannon K.

    2016-01-01

    Stocking black basses (Micropterus spp.) is a common practice used to increase angling opportunities in impoundments; however, when non-native black basses are introduced they often invade riverine habitats where they threaten the persistence of other fishes, including native black basses. Neosho Smallmouth Bass (M. dolomieu velox) is endemic to portions of the Ozark Highlands and Boston Mountains ecoregions and is threatened by introductions of non-native Smallmouth Bass (“SMB”) forms. Because of recent interest in stocking SMB into Grand Lake o’ the Cherokees, we assessed the suitability of local Neosho SMB populations as potential broodstock sources by assessing introgression with non-native SMB forms, as well as characterizing population structure and genetic diversity. The majority of Neosho SMB populations contained low, but non-negligible, genomic proportions of two genetically distinct non-native SMB forms. Introgression was highest in the Illinois River upstream of Lake Tenkiller, where Tennessee ‘lake strain’ SMB were stocked in the early 1990’s. We recovered three genetically distinct clusters of Neosho SMB at the uppermost hierarchical level of population structure: a distinct Illinois River cluster and two Grand River clusters that appear to naturally mix at some sites. Genetic diversity measures generally increased with stream size, and smaller populations with low diversity measures may benefit from immigration of novel genetic material. Overall, introgression with non-native SMB forms appears to pose a prominent threat to Neosho SMB; however, relatively intact populations of Neosho SMB exist in some Grand Lake o’ the Cherokees tributaries. Results could be used in developing a stocking program that promotes and sustains existing genetic diversity within and among Neosho SMB populations.

  16. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  17. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and tetrachlorodibenzofurans in Atlantic coast striped bass and in selected Hudson River fish, waterfowl and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, P; Hilker, D; Meyer, C; Aldous, K; Shane, L; Donnelly, R; Smith, R; Sloan, R; Skinner, L; Horn, E

    1884-01-01

    In striped bass samples from the lower Hudson River and its estuary 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) was found at concentrations from 16 to 120 pg/g (ppt). Striped bass from two other locations (Rhode Island coastal waters and Chesapeake Bay, Maryland) had <5 ppt, 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF), was found in striped bass from all three locations with concentrations varying from 6 ppt in Chesapeake Bay to 78 ppt in the Hudson River. Results from a limited number of non-migratory fish (carp and goldfish) and sediments suggest that the upper Hudson River is not a source for 2,3,7,8-TCDD/2,3,7,8-TCDF contamination of striped bass. 26 references, 3 tables.

  18. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  19. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  20. European Life-Modes at Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højrup, Thomas; Schriewer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Analyse og syntese af de biologiske livsformers betydning som mulighedsbetingelse for de anvendte teknologier og fangstmåders betydning som mulighedsbetingelse for de to produktionsmåders sameksistens i euroæisk fiskeri i 500 år og deres betydning som mulighedsbetingelser for de sameksisterende k...

  1. Marine Ecosystem Restoration in Changing European Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ounanian, Kristen; Delaney, Alyne; Carballo Cárdenas, Eira

    2017-01-01

    and using different narratives of marine restoration, and being confronted with different forms of uncertainties. The paper’s overall contribution is the synthesis of these seemingly disparate components (narratives of restoration, uncertainty in decision making, and governance arrangements) to evaluate...... the impact of existing (maritime and environmental) policies, the governance setting, definitions of restoration and uncertainties on the effectiveness of marine restoration projects. Such a synthesis is a necessary move toward a systematic evaluation of ways to govern and formally institutionalize marine...

  2. Spatial and temporal variation in recruitment and growth of Channel Catfish Alabama bass and Tallapoosa Bass in the Tallapoosa River and associated tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Elise R.; Goar, Taconya

    2015-01-01

    Effects of hydrology on growth and hatching success of age-0 black basses and Channel Catfish were examined in regulated and unregulated reaches of the Tallapoosa River, Alabama. Species of the family Centrarchidae, Ictalurus punctatus Channel Catfish and Pylodictis olivaris Flathead Catfish were also collected from multiple tributaries in the basin. Fish were collected from 2010-2014 and were assigned daily ages using otoliths. Hatch dates of individuals of three species (Micropterus henshalli Alabama Bass, M. tallapoosae Tallapoosa Bass and Channel Catfish) were back calculated, and growth histories were estimated every 5 d post hatch from otolith sections using incremental growth analysis. Hatch dates and incremental growth were related to hydrologic and temperature metrics from environmental data collected during the same time periods. Hatch dates at the regulated sites were related to and typically occurred during periods with low and stable flow conditions; however no clear relations between hatch and thermal or flow metrics were evident for the unregulated sites. Some fish hatched during unsuitable thermal conditions at the regulated site suggesting that some fish may recruit from unregulated tributaries. Ages and growth rates of age-0 black basses ranged from 105 to 131 d and 0.53 to 1.33 mm/day at the regulated sites and 44 to 128 d and 0.44 to 0.96 mm/d at the unregulated sites. In general, growth was highest among age-0 fish from the regulated sites, consistent with findings of other studies. Mortality of age-0 to age-1 fish was also variable among years and between sites and with the exception of one year, was lower at regulated sites. Multiple and single regression models of incremental growth versus age, discharge, and temperature metrics were evaluated with Akaike’s Information Criterion (AICc) to assess models that best described growth parameters. Of the models evaluated, the best overall models predicted that daily incremental growth was

  3. The carbon budget of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, H.; Bozec, Y.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Elkalay, K.; Frankignoulle, M.; Schiettecatte, L.-S.; Kattner, G.; Borges, A.V.; Gattuso, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    A carbon budget has been established for the North Sea, a shelf sea on the NW European continental shelf. The carbon exchange fluxes with the North Atlantic Ocean dominate the gross carbon budget. The net carbon budget – more relevant to the issue of the contribution of the coastal ocean to the

  4. Age, growth, mortality, and reproduction of Roughtongue bass, Pronotogrammus martinicensis 9Serranidae), in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Richard S.; Sulak, Kenneth J.; Thurman, Paul E.; Richardson, Adam K.

    2009-01-01

    The inaccessibility of outer continental shelf reefs has made it difficult to investigate the biology of Pronotogrammus martinicensis, a small sea bass known to be numerous and widely distributed in such habitat. This study takes advantage of a series of cruises in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico that collected 1,485 individuals. Fish were collected over or in the vicinity of reef habitats with hook and line, otter trawl, and rotenone. We present a preliminary validation of an otolith ageing method and report that P. martinicensis reached a maximum size of 143 mm standard length (SL), grew to about 50% of this size within their first year, and lived to a maximum age of 15 yr. Size at age data (n = 490) fitted to the von Bertalanffy growth model yielded the predictive equation: SLt = 106.3(1 2 e [20.641{t20.646}]), where t = age in years. Gonad histology (n = 333) was examined to confirm that P. martinicensis is a protogynous, monandric hermaphrodite. We found no evidence of simultaneous hermaphroditism, which had been tentatively proposed in a previous study. Most P. martinicensis matured as females in their second year (age 1), primary oocytes developed asynchronously into secondary oocytes, and females were batch spawners. Males were postmaturational. Seminiferous tissue formed as early as age 1, but, although the rate of sex change is unknown, most fish did not function as a male until age 3 or age 4. These data provide age-based benchmarks of a common reef fish species living on the outer continental shelf of the tropical western North Atlantic Ocean.

  5. Accurate Estimation of Target amounts Using Expanded BASS Model for Demand-Side Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Woong; Park, Jong-Jin; Kim, Jin-O.

    2008-10-01

    The electricity demand in Korea has rapidly increased along with a steady economic growth since 1970s. Therefore Korea has positively propelled not only SSM (Supply-Side Management) but also DSM (Demand-Side Management) activities to reduce investment cost of generating units and to save supply costs of electricity through the enhancement of whole national energy utilization efficiency. However study for rebate, which have influence on success or failure on DSM program, is not sufficient. This paper executed to modeling mathematically expanded Bass model considering rebates, which have influence on penetration amounts for DSM program. To reflect rebate effect more preciously, the pricing function using in expanded Bass model directly reflects response of potential participants for rebate level.

  6. BASS 4: a software system for ergonomic design and evaluation of working hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Schomann

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To extend an existing computer programme for the evaluation and design of shift schedules (BASS 3 by integrating workload as well as economic aspects. METHODS: The redesigned prototype BASS 4 includes a new module with a suitable and easily applicable screening method (EBA for the assessment of the intensity of physical, emotional and cognitive workload components and their temporal patterns. Specified criterion functions based on these ratings allow for an adjustment of shift and rest duration according to the intensity of physical and mental workload. Furthermore, with regard to interactive effects both workload and temporal conditions, e.g. time of day, are taken into account. In a second new module, important economic aspects and criteria have been implemented. Different ergonomic solutions for scheduling problems can now also be evaluated with regard to their economic costs. RESULTS: The new version of the computer programme (BASS 4 can now simultaneously take into account numerous ergonomic, legal, agreed and economic criteria for the design and evaluation of working hours. CONCLUSIONS: BASS 4 can now be used as an instrument for the design and the evaluation of working hours with regard to legal, ergonomic and economic aspects at the shop floor as well as in administrative (e.g. health and safety inspection and research problems.OBJETIVOS: Expandir um programa computacional existente para planejamento e avaliação dos horários de turnos (BASS 3 por meio da incorporação da carga de trabalho e características econômicas. MÉTODOS: O protótipo BASS 4 contém um novo módulo com um método de triagem (EBA conveniente e de fácil aplicação para a avaliação da intensidade dos componentes físico, emocional e cognitivo da carga de trabalho e seus padrões temporais. O uso de critérios específicos com base nestas avaliações possibilita ajustar a duração do turno e do descanso de acordo com a intensidade da carga de

  7. Actualisation de l'entomofaune des cultures maraîchères en Basse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avec l'essor de nouveaux bassins de production maraîchère et la mise en place de fermes agricoles, le maraîchage en Basse Casamance est devenu une activité génératrice de revenus. Les insectes ravageurs et les acariens limitent la production des spéculations par leurs dégâts. Les études effectuées sur ...

  8. Length limits fail to restructure a Largemouth Bass population: A 28‐year case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Colvin, M.E.; Shamaskin, A. C.; Bull, L. A.; Holman, T.; Jones, R.

    2017-01-01

    Length limits have been implemented by fisheries management agencies to achieve population density, size structure, and angler satisfaction objectives. By redirecting harvest towards or away from particular length‐ or age‐groups, length limits rely on harvest by anglers to maintain a population at or near a desired state. The fish population changes that follow the implementation of harvest regulations may take several years to manifest, so long‐term monitoring may be needed to adequately evaluate length limits. We used an innovative application of cluster analysis to facilitate evaluation of the effects of three consecutive length limits on a population of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides over a 28‐year period in Ross Barnett Reservoir, Mississippi. A 13–16‐in protected slot length limit (10 years), followed by a 15‐in minimum length limit (MLL; 11 years), followed by a 12‐in MLL (7 years) failed to restructure the Largemouth Bass population due to what we suggest was the expansion of a voluntary catch‐and‐release attitude that started in the first decade of the study period. Various population metrics shifted towards values expected in an unharvested population, and the observed shifts can be attributed to a harvest deficit created by the prevailing catch‐and‐release attitude. Largemouth Bass harvest regulations may no longer be relevant in many waters. The utility of regulations for restructuring Largemouth Bass populations is largely dependent on harvesting attitudes that vary geographically, depending on cultural characteristics and demographics.

  9. Dietary exposure of largemouth bass to OCPs changes expression of genes important for reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Barber, David S.; Gross, Timothy S.; Johnson, Kevin G.; Sepúlveda, María S.; Szabo, Nancy J.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2006-01-01

    Dieldrin and p,p′-DDE are ubiquitous contaminants known to act as endocrine disruptors, causing impaired development and reproduction in fish and wildlife. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which dieldrin and p,p′-DDE cause endocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), fish were exposed subchronically through the diet to both contaminants. Following 120 days of exposure, p,p′-DDE decreased estradiol in females, but increased 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Dieldrin...

  10. Effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on reproductive success of largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maria S; Quinn, Brian P; Denslow, Nancy D; Holm, Stewart E; Gross, Timothy S

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of bleached and unbleached kraft mill effluent on reproductive success of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Bass were exposed to effluent concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40, or 80%) for 28 and 56 d. Parameters measured included hepatosomatic index (HSI) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) and plasma concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and vitellogenin (VTG). At the end of the 56-d period, bass were moved to hatchery ponds to evaluate spawning success. Spawning mats with eggs either were brought indoors for evaluation of fecundities, hatchabilities, and egg and fry size (measured at age 3 d), or were left in ponds and fry number and size recorded (average age of 14 d). Effluent exposure was verified by measuring resin acids (isopimaric, abietic. and dehydroabietic acids) in bile. Compared to controls, exposed bass had greater concentrations of resin acids in bile. In general, exposed females had lower concentrations of E2 and VTG (> or = 20% effluent), whereas males had lower concentrations of 11-KT (> or = 20% effluent) and increased E2 (> or = 20% effluent). The HSI values increased in females (> or = 10% effluent), and GSI values decreased in both sexes (> or = 40% effluent). Fecundity, egg size, and hatchability did not differ across treatments, but an increase in the frequency of fry abnormalities and a decrease in fry weights was observed at effluent exposures of 40% and higher. However, results from the pond study, revealed a significant reduction in fry growth and survival (> or = 10%). This decline may have been caused by an increased frequency of deformities, in conjunction with alterations of growth. These changes could have resulted from alterations in egg quality because of failure of parental reproductive systems, from acute embryo toxicity after translocation of contaminants from the mother to the developing embryo, or from both.

  11. Wind energy in ''Basse Normandie'': the energies of the sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This paper brings together the main topics discussed during the 4. colloquium on the wind energy: the french lateness concerning the wind energy development, the regulatory framework concerning the wind turbines implementation sites, the wind energy situation in ''Basse Normandie'', the offshore wind energy, the site of Sortosville-en-Beaumont, the public relations, the employment and an analysis of some rumors and prejudices. (A.L.B.)

  12. Intersex (testicular oocytes) in smallmouth bass from the Potomac River and selected nearby drainages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, V S; Iwanowicz, L R; Iwanowicz, D D; Smith, D R; Young, J A; Hedrick, J D; Foster, S W; Reeser, S J

    2007-12-01

    Intersex, or the presence of characteristics of both sexes, in fishes that are normally gonochoristic has been used as an indicator of exposure to estrogenic compounds. In 2003, during health assessments conducted in response to kills and a high prevalence of skin lesions observed in smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in the South Branch of the Potomac River, the presence of immature oocytes within testes was noted. To evaluate this condition, a severity index (0-4) was developed based on the distribution of oocytes within the testes. Using gonad samples collected from 2003 to 2005, the number of histologic sections needed to accurately detect the condition in mature smallmouth bass was statistically evaluated. The reliability of detection depended on the severity index and the number of sections examined. Examining five transverse sections taken along the length of the gonad resulted in a greater than 90% probability of detecting testicular oocytes when the severity index exceeded 0.5. Using the severity index we compared smallmouth bass collected at selected sites within the South Branch during three seasons in 2004. Seasonal differences in severity and prevalence were observed. The highest prevalence and severity were consistently noted during the prespawn-spawning season, when compared with the postspawn season. In 2005, smallmouth bass were collected at selected out-of-basin sites in West Virginia where fish kills and external skin lesions have not been reported, as well as at sites in the Shenandoah River, Virginia (part of the Potomac drainage), where kills and lesions occurred in 2004-2005. The prevalence of testicular oocytes is discussed in terms of human population and agricultural intensity.

  13. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  14. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) monitoring techniques in the Sacramento--San Joaquin Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    Various methods have been used to monitor the striped bass population in the Sacramento--San Joaquin Estuary. Sampling in the spring with towed plankton nets has provided an adequate description of spawning time and area, but this sampling has not adequately measured egg standing crops and larva and post-larva mortality rates. Tow-net sampling effectively measures the abundance of young in midsummer. A midwater-trawl survey is satisfactory for measuring the abundance of young in the fall but not in the winter. Techniques have not been fully evaluated for monitoring one-year-old bass. Catch-per-unit-effort data from sportfishing party boats were useful for monitoring two-year-olds, until a change in angling regulations increased recruitment age. The Petersen method and indices developed from party-boat catches are the best methods for monitoring bass that are three years old and older. Long-term trends in catch can be monitored through postcard surveys and party-boat catches

  15. Morphological correlates of swimming activity in wild largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in their natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, K C; Hasler, C T; Suski, C D; Cooke, S J

    2007-12-01

    Individual variation in morphology has been linked to organismal performance in numerous taxa. Recently, the relationship between functional morphology and swimming performance in teleost fishes has been studied in laboratory experiments. In this study, we evaluate the relationship between morphology and swimming activity of wild largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) during the reproductive period, providing the first data derived on free-swimming fish not exposed to forced swim trials in the laboratory. Sixteen male largemouth bass were angled from their nests, telemetered, and subsequently monitored by a whole-lake acoustic hydrophone array with sub-meter accuracy. Additionally, eleven morphological measurements were taken from digital images of each fish. A principal components analysis of the morphological measurements described 79.8% of the variance. PC1 was characterized by measures of overall body stoutness, PC2 was characterized by measures of the length and depth of the caudal region, and PC3 characterized individuals with relatively large anterior portions of the body and relatively small caudal areas. Of these variables, only PC3 showed significant relationships to swimming activity throughout the parental care period. PC3 was negatively correlated with multiple measures of swimming activity across the parental care period. Furthermore, swimming performance of individual male bass was noted to be repeatable across the parental care period indicating that this phenomenon extends beyond the laboratory.

  16. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  17. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  18. North European Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korja, Annakaisa; Heikkinen, Pekka J.; Roslov, Yuri; Ivanova, Nina; Verba, Marc; Sakoulina, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    A nearly continuous, 3600 km long, NE-running North European Transect (NET) is combined from the existing deep seismic reflection data sets in the Baltic Sea (BABEL, 1600 km), Northern Finland (FIRE 4-4A, 580 km) and Barents Sea (1-AR, 1440 km;). The reflective image of the deep crust is highly dependent on the thickness of the sedimentary cover. The cover is few hundred meters in the Baltic sea, few tens of meters in the land areas and few kilometers in the Barents Sea area. In the Barents Sea area, the seismic image is dominated by the layered structure of the sedimentary basins and the middle and lower crust are poorly imaged. Therefore the Moho boundary in the Barents Sea has been determined from wide-angle reflections. Geologically the transect covers the transition from Phanerozoic Europe to Precambrian Europe and back to the Phanerozoic Barents Sea Shelf. It displays how Northern Europe grew around Baltica in several tectonic episodes involving the formation and destruction of Columbia/Hudsonland, Rodinia and Pangea supercontinents. The paleo plateboundaries are traversed by subvertical transparent zones suggesting transpressional and trantensional environments. The BABEL lines image how the core of Baltica was formed by sequential accretion of microcontinents and arc terranes at the old continental margin during the Svecofennian Orogeny ~1.9-1.8 Ga .When Baltica joined the Columbia supercontinent, new terranes were added to its southern edge in the Sveocbaltic Orogeny (~1.8 Ga). During the dispersal of the Columbia, the Baltic Sea failed rift was formed, rapakivi granitoids were intruded and sedimentary basins were developed. An extended plate margin structure has been imposed on the Rodinian (Sveconorwegian) and Pangean additions (Variscan-Caledonian). Major crustal thinning takes place along a series of subvertical faults across the Trans-European Suture Zone marking the transition from Phanerozoic to Proterozoic Europe. The FIRE lines in Northen Finland

  19. The Behavioural Assessment of Self-Structuring (BASS): psychometric properties in a post-acute brain injury rehabilitation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Howard F; Tunstall, Victoria; Hague, Gemma; Daniels, Leanne; Crompton, Stacey; Taplin, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Jackson et al. (this edition) argue that structure is an important component in reducing the handicaps caused by cognitive impairments following acquired brain injury and that post-acute neuropsychological brain injury rehabilitation programmes should not only endeavour to provide structure but also aim to develop self-structuring. However, at present there is no standardized device for assessing self-structuring. To provide preliminary analysis of the psychometric properties of the Behavioural Assessment of Self-Structuring (BASS) staff rating scale (a 26 item informant five point rating scale based on the degree of support client requires to achieve self-structuring item). BASS data was utilised for clients attending residential rehabilitation. Reliability (inter-rarer and intra-rater), validity (construct, concurrent and discriminate) and sensitivity to change were investigated. Initial results indicate that the BASS has reasonably good reliability, good construct validity (via principal components analysis), good discriminant validity, and good concurrent validity correlating well with a number of other outcome measures (HoNOS; NPDS, Supervision Rating Scale, MPAI, FIM and FAM). The BASS did not correlate well with the NPCNA. Finally, the BASS was shown to demonstrate sensitivity to change. Although some caution is required in drawing firm conclusions at the present time and further exploration of the psychometric properties of the BASS is required, initial results are encouraging for the use of the BASS in assessing rehabilitation progress. These findings are discussed in terms of the value of the concept of self-structuring to the rehabilitation process for individuals with neuropsychological impairments consequent on acquired brain injury.

  20. Die faktorstruktuur van Bass se veelfaktor- leierskapsvraelys in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C .P. Ackermann

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The factor structure of Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire in the South African context. The aim of the study was to determine whether the factor structure of Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ, as a measure of transformational leadership, could be replicated within the South African context. The MLQ was chosen not only because it promised to be a valid and reliable measuring instrument of the construct in question, but also due to the fact that there was an urgent need for such an instrument in the management of human resources within organisations undergoing transformation. The MLQ was administered to 406 subjects within the military context and was subjected to factor analysis and item analysis. The factor analysis yielded three factors, namely transformational leadership, transactional leadership and avoidance of leadership ("laissez faire" leadership. The reliabilities of the scales were determined by means of Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and yielded coefficients of 0,944, 0,736 and 0,803 respectively. The factor structure as conceptualised by Bass (1985 was largely confirmed in the present study. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om vas te stel of die faktorstruktuur van die Veelfaktorleierskapsvraelys (MLQ van Bass, as maatstafvan transformasionele leierskap, in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks gerepliseer kon word. Die MLQ is gekies omdat dit belofte inhou as n geldige en betroubare meetinstrument van die onderhawige konstruk, en ook weens die feit dat daar 'n dringende behoefte bestaan aan so n instrument vir gebruik in die bestuur van menslike hulpbronne in organisasies tydens verandering. Die MLQ is op 406 proefpersone binne militêre konteks toegepas, en aan n faktorontleding en n itemontleding onderwerp. Die faktorontleding het drie faktore opgelewer, te wete transformasionele leierskap, transaksionele leierskap en vermyding van leierskap ("laissez faire"-leierskap. Die betroubaarheid van die skale is bepaal

  1. Interactions between walleyes and smallmouth bass in a Missouri River reservoir with consideration of the influence of temperature and prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuellner, Melissa R.; Chipps, Steven R.; Willis, David W.; Adams, Wells E.

    2010-01-01

    Walleyes Sander vitreus are the most popular fish among South Dakota anglers, but smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu were introduced to provide new angling opportunities. Some walleye anglers have reported reductions in the quality of walleye fisheries since the introduction of smallmouth bass and attribute this to the consumption of young walleyes by smallmouth bass and competition for shared prey resources. We quantified the diets of walleyes and smallmouth bass in the lower reaches of Lake Sharpe (a Missouri River reservoir), calculated the diet overlap between the two predators, and determined whether they partitioned shared prey based on size. We also quantified walleye diets in the upper reach of the reservoir, which has a different prey base and allowed us to compare the growth rates of walleyes within Lake Sharpe. Age-0 gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum composed a substantial proportion of the diets of both predators, regardless of location, for most of the growing season; the patterns in shad vulnerability appeared to drive the observed patterns in diet overlap. Smallmouth bass appeared to consume a smaller size range of gizzard shad than did walleyes, which consumed a wide range. Smallmouth bass consumed Sander spp. in some months, but in very low quantities. Given that global climate change is expected to alter the population and community dynamics in Great Plains reservoirs, we also used a bioenergetics approach to predict the potential effects of limiting prey availability (specifically, the absence of gizzard shad and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax) and increased water temperatures (as projected from global climate change models) on walleye and smallmouth bass growth. The models indicated that the absence of rainbow smelt from the diets of walleyes in upper Lake Sharpe would reduce growth but that the absence of gizzard shad would have a more marked negative effect on both predators at both locations. The models also indicated that higher

  2. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  3. Sea Dragon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... In preparation for these changes, the Navy is exploring new command and control relationships, and the Marine Corps established Sea Dragon to experiment with emerging technologies, operational...

  4. European hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The European Hadron Facility (EHF) is a project for particle and nuclear physics in the 1990s which would consist of a fast cycling high intensity proton synchrotron of about 30 GeV primary energy and providing a varied spectrum of intense high quality secondary beams (polarized protons, pions, muons, kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos). The physics case of this project has been studied over the last two years by a European group of particle and nuclear physicists (EHF Study Group), whilst the conceptual design for the accelerator complex was worked out (and is still being worked on) by an international group of machine experts (EHF Design Study Group). Both aspects have been discussed in recent years in a series of working parties, topical seminars, and workshops held in Freiburg, Trieste, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Les Rasses and Villigen. This long series of meetings culminated in the International Conference on a European Hadron Facility held in Mainz from 10-14 March

  5. Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA in providing scientific advice on the welfare of food producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Serratosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The survey describes the work of the Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA in the provision of scientific advice on the welfare of food producing animals including animal health and food safety aspects, where relevant, and on the impact of these scientific assessments on the EU regulatory framework. EFSA was created in 2002 with the mission to provide advice and scientific and technical support for the Community legislation and policies in all fields which have a direct or indirect impact on food and feed safety, plant health, environment and animal health and animal welfare. When providing objective and independent science-based advice, the risk assessment approach should be followed, whenever possible. The AHAW Panel of EFSA provides specific advices on risk factors related to animal diseases and welfare, mainly of food producing animals, including fish. According to EFSA’s remit, ethical, socio-economic, cultural and religious aspects are outside the scope of the EFSA’s assessments. Since 2004, the Animal Health and Welfare Panel of EFSA adopted a total of 21 scientific opinions on animal welfare. Animal diseases and food safety aspects have also been taken into account, where relevant. Animal welfare aspects have been considered in some scientific opinions on animal diseases (e.g. AI, FMD. The AHAW Panel is currently working on five scientific opinions on the welfare of dairy cows and on the welfare aspects of the stunning and killing of farmed fish for eight fish species (salmon, trout, carp, eel, tuna, sea bass, sea bream and turbot. The possible interactions and implications for food safety and animal disease have been considered, when relevant, in most of the AW scientific opinions, involving other areas of expertise in EFSA, like Biohazards, Contaminants and Plant Health. The final aim of EFSA’s scientific assessments on animal welfare is to support animal welfare EU legislation on the

  6. Reducing dietary protein in pond production of hybrid striped bass - study shows a significant reduction is possible in digestible protein level in commercial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous work, we demonstrated that diets containing 40% digestible protein (DP) (45% crude protein) and 18 %lipid supplemented with Met and Lys resulted in superior performance and nutrient retentions in hybrid striped bass compared to less energy-dense diets when rearing hybrid striped bass at ...

  7. Variation and plasticity and their interaction with urbanization in Guadalupe Bass populations on and off the Edwards Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Jessica E.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Pease, Allison A.

    2017-01-01

    The Colorado River Basin in Texas has experienced major alterations to its hydrologic regime due to changing land and water use patterns. These anthropogenic influences on hydrologic variability have had major implications for riparian and aquatic ecosystems and the species dependent upon them. However, impacts are often assessed at a limited temporal and spatial scale, tending to focus on relatively short and discrete periods or portions of a river basin. It is not clear how basin-wide alterations occurring over decades affect species. Guadalupe Bass Micropterus treculii are endemic to central Texas and are typically associated with shallow runs and riffles in small streams. However, Guadalupe Bass are found throughout the Colorado River Basin, including the mainstem portion of the lower river downstream of the city of Austin where they support a popular fishery. Because Guadalupe Bass exist across a wide range of stream orders within the basin, it is unclear whether populations respond similarly to anthropogenic disturbances or to conservation and restoration activities. Therefore, our objectives were to:Assess the effects of urbanization and hydrology on the population structure and dynamics of Guadalupe Bass.Evaluate the effects of environmental gradients on ecomorphological variation in Guadalupe Bass populations across multiple spatial scales.Describe the life history, habitat use, and behavior of the Guadalupe Bass population in the lower Colorado River and compare it to populations in more “typical” habitats.Results contribute to an understanding of the response of Guadalupe Bass to anthropogenic disturbances, including increased urbanization in central Texas and further assist in the conservation of the species. The ability of the population to not only persist, but flourish downstream of a heavily populated urban area presented a unique opportunity to investigate a native species response to anthropogenic disturbance. This research revealed

  8. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  9. Beside the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Olmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are delighted to publish an extract from "Beside the Sea" by Véronique Olmi. Bord de Mer was first published in 2001 by Peirene Press which is an award-winning, independent publishing house. It specializes in contemporary European literature in English translation. Peirene's books are all under 200 pages and can be read in the same time it takes to watch a DVD. Peirene's authors are award-winners and bestsellers in their own countries. 'Two-hour-books to be devoured in a single sitting: literary cinema for those fatigued by film.' Times Literary Supplement. www.peirenepress.com

  10. From sea water to marine organisms; transfer to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1979-01-01

    As a study on transfer of radioiodine to marine organisms, accumulation and excretion of radioiodine by five species of marine fishes were observed by the aquarium experiments using Na 131 I as the tracer. Transfer of radioiodine to the fishes was examined on three different pathways, via seawater, sediment, and food. Concentration of radioiodine in organs of tissues of sea bass, Lateolabrax japonics, yellow tail, Seriola quinqueradiata, and rock fish, Sebastes nivosus, reared in labeled seawater reached maximum within five to ten days and decreased thereafter. Concentration factors calculated at the fifth day of breeding showed the highest value in gall-bladder followed by gut-content suggesting the secretion of bile into the intestine. Loss of radioactivity from the fishes showed two components elimination patterns and biological half-lives were calculated as 2.8 days and 53.5 days, respectively, in muscle of sea bass, for example. Sediment-bound radioiodine administered to benthic fish, right-eye flounder, Kareius bicoloratus, was lost rapidly after the administration but about ten per cent of the whole-body radioactivity were retained by the fishes after the excretion of sediment and eliminated with longer half-lives comparable to those taken up from seawater. Distribution of radioiodine among organs or tissues of the flounder was different between the fishes before and after the elimination experiment showing rapid loss from gill and slower elimination from liver or muscle. Radioiodine administered to sea bream, Pagrus major, as labeled anchovy was climinated also with two components loss processes and elimination rates were little higher than the fishes administered radioiodine as solution in gelatine capsules. Higher distribution of radioiodine in gill of the sea bream suggested the dominant excretion of radioiodine through gill of the fishes. (author)

  11. EMSO: European multidisciplinary seafloor observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, Paolo; Beranzoli, Laura

    2009-04-01

    EMSO has been identified by the ESFRI Report 2006 as one of the Research Infrastructures that European members and associated states are asked to develop in the next decades. It will be based on a European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the aim of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes, providing long time series data for the different phenomenon scales which constitute the new frontier for study of Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry, and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on past EU projects and is supported by several EU initiatives, such as the on-going ESONET-NoE, aimed at strengthening the ocean observatories' scientific and technological community. The EMSO development relies on the synergy between the scientific community and industry to improve European competitiveness with respect to countries such as USA, Canada and Japan. Within the FP7 Programme launched in 2006, a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) was issued in order to support the foundation of the legal and organisational entity in charge of building up and managing the infrastructure, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. The EMSO-PP project, coordinated by the Italian INGV with participation by 11 institutions from as many European countries, started in April 2008 and will last four years.

  12. There's More to Groove than Bass in Electronic Dance Music: Why Some People Won't Dance to Techno.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Wesolowski

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between audio descriptors for groove-based electronic dance music (EDM and raters' perceived cognitive, affective, and psychomotor responses. From 198 musical excerpts (length: 15 sec. representing 11 subgenres of EDM, 19 low-level audio feature descriptors were extracted. A principal component analysis of the feature vectors indicated that the musical excerpts could effectively be classified using five complex measures, describing the rhythmical properties of: (a the high-frequency band, (b the mid-frequency band, and (c the low-frequency band, as well as overall fluctuations in (d dynamics, and (e timbres. Using these five complex audio measures, four meaningful clusters of the EDM excerpts emerged with distinct musical attributes comprising music with: (a isochronous bass and static timbres, (b isochronous bass with fluctuating dynamics and rhythmical variations in the mid-frequency range, (c non-isochronous bass and fluctuating timbres, and (d non-isochronous bass with rhythmical variations in the high frequencies. Raters (N = 99 were each asked to respond to four musical excerpts using a four point Likert-Type scale consisting of items representing cognitive (n = 9, affective (n = 9, and psychomotor (n = 3 domains. Musical excerpts falling under the cluster of "non-isochronous bass with rhythmical variations in the high frequencies" demonstrated the overall highest composite scores as evaluated by the raters. Musical samples falling under the cluster of "isochronous bass with static timbres" demonstrated the overall lowest composite scores as evaluated by the raters. Moreover, music preference was shown to significantly affect the systematic patterning of raters' responses for those with a musical preference for "contemporary" music, "sophisticated" music, and "intense" music.

  13. Toxicity of agricultural subsurface drainwater from the San Joaquin Valley, California to juvenile chinook salmon and striped bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Jennings, Mark R.; Wiedmeyer, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (40-50 mm total length, TL) and striped bass Morone saxatilis (30-40 mm TL) were exposed to serial dilutions (100, 50, 25, and 12.5%) of agricultural subsurface drainwater (WWD), reconstituted drainwater (RWWD), and reconstituted seawater (IO). Agricultural subsurface drainwater contained naturally elevated concentrations of major ions (such as sodium and sulfate) and trace elements (especially boron and selenium), RWWD contained concentrations of major ions that mimicked those in WWD but trace elements were not elevated, and IO contained concentrations of total dissolved salt that were similar to those in WWD and RWWD but chloride replaced sulfate as the dominant anion. After 28 d of static exposure, over 75% of the chinook salmon in 100% WWD had died, whereas none had died in other dilutions and water types. Growth of chinook salmon in WWD and RWWD, but not in IO, exhibited dilution responses. All striped bass died in 100% WWD within 23 d, whereas 19 of 20 striped bass had died in 100% RWWD after 28 d. In contrast, none died in 100% IO. Growth of striped bass was impaired only in WWD. Fish in WWD accumulated as much as 200 μg/g (dry-weight basis) of boron, whereas fish in control water accumulated less than 3.1 μg/g. Although potentially toxic concentrations of selenium occurred in WWD (geometric means, 158-218 μg/L), chinook salmon and striped bass exposed to this water type accumulated 5.7 μg Se/g or less. These findings indicate that WWD was toxic to chinook salmon and striped bass. Judging from available data, the toxicity of WWD was due primarily to high concentrations of major ions present in atypical ratios, to high concentrations of sulfate, or to both. High concentrations of boron and selenium also may have contributed to the toxicity of WWD, but their effects were not clearly delineated.

  14. Testicular oocytes in smallmouth bass in northeastern Minnesota in relation to varying levels of human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, Sarah M; Johnson, Rodney D; Mount, David R; Olker, Jennifer H; Borkholder, Brian D; Schoff, Patrick K

    2017-12-01

    Testicular oocytes (TOs) have been found in black bass (Micropterus spp.) from many locations in North America. The presence of TOs is often assumed to imply exposure to estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs); however, a definitive causal relationship has yet to be established, and TO prevalence is not consistently low in fish from areas lacking evident EDC sources. This might indicate any of a number of situations: 1) unknown or unidentified EDCs or EDC sources, 2) induction of TOs by other stressors, or 3) testicular oocytes occurring spontaneously during normal development. In the present study, we analyzed TO occurrence in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) from 8 populations in northeastern Minnesota watersheds with differing degrees of human development and, hence, presumed likelihood of exposure to anthropogenic chemicals. Three watersheds were categorized as moderately developed, based on the presence of municipal wastewater discharges and higher human population density (4-81 per km 2 ), and 5 watersheds were minimally developed, with very low human population density (0-1 per km 2 ) and minimal built environment. Testicular tissues from mature fish were evaluated using a semiquantitative method that estimated TO density, normalized by cross-sectional area. Testicular oocyte prevalence and density among populations from moderately developed watersheds was higher than in populations from minimally developed watersheds. However, TO prevalence was unexpectedly high and variable (7-43%) in some populations from minimally developed watersheds, and only weak evidence was found for a relationship between TO density and watershed development, suggesting alternative or more complex explanations for TO presence in smallmouth bass from this region. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3424-3435. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  15. The ΓX-L/LEdd relation in BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Ricci, Claudio; Koss, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin; Mushotzky, Richard; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Veilleux, Sylvain; Lamperti, Isabella; Oh, Kyuseok; Treister, Ezequiel; Stern, Daniel; Harrison, Fiona; Balokovic, Mislav

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of the relation between accretion rate (in terms of L/LEdd) and shape of the hard X-ray spectral energy distribution (namely the photon index Γx) for a large sample of over 200 hard X-ray-selected, low-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs), drawn from the Swift/BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS). This includes 30 AGNs for which black hole mass (and therefore L/LEdd) is measured directly through masers, spatially resolved gas or stellar dynamics, or reverberation mapping. The high-quality and broad energy coverage of the data provided through BASS allow us to examine several alternative determinations of both Γx and L/LEdd. We find very weak correlation between Γx and L/LEdd for the BASS sample as a whole, with best-fitting relations that are considerably shallower than those reported in previous studies. Moreover, we find no corresponding correlations among the subsets of AGN with different MBH determination methodology, and in particular those AGN with direct or single-epoch MBH estimates. This latter finding is in contrast to several previous studies which focused on z > 0.5 broad-line AGN. We conclude that this tension can be partially accounted for if one adopts a simplified, power-law X-ray spectral model, combined with L/LEdd estimates that are based on the continuum emission and on single-epoch broad-line spectroscopy in the optical regime. Given these findings, we highlight the limitations of using Γx as a probe of supermassive black hole evolution in deep extragalactic X-ray surveys.

  16. A redescription of Myxobolus inornatus from young-of-the-year smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, H L; Blazer, V S; Iwanowicz, L R; Smith, G

    2012-12-01

    During investigations of young-of-the year smallmouth bass ( Micropterus dolomieu ) mortalities in the Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. and affected tributaries, raised areas were noted in the muscle in the vicinity of the caudal peduncle. The raised areas were caused by plasmodia of a myxozoan parasite. Spores found within plasmodia were similar to those of Myxobolus inornatus previously described from the caudal peduncle of fingerling largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides ) in Montana. Here, M. inornatus is redescribed based on histologic comparisons and spore measurements. The addition of spore photographs, line drawings, a voucher specimen, and partial small-subunit ribosomal (rSSU) DNA gene sequence are new in this study. This is also the first description of M. inornatus from smallmouth bass. The plasmodia of M. inornatus were grossly observed at the base of the caudal and dorsal fins and were 280.3 ± 33.5 (range 77.1-920.3) μm long and 320.6 ± 41.0 (range 74.85-898.4) μm wide. In some instances, plasmodia of M. inornatus were large enough to rupture the epidermis or were associated with misaligned vertebrae. The slightly pyriform spores were 11.3 ± 0.2 (range 8.6-17.4) μm in length and 8.6 ± 0.2 (range 7.1-13.7) μm wide with an iodinophilous vacuole and a sutural ridge with 8 to 10 sutural folds. The SSU rDNA gene sequence places M. inornatus in a sister group with Myxobolus osburni .

  17. A large volume striped bass egg incubation chamber: design and comparison with a traditional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    I conducted a comparative study of a new jar design (experimental chamber) with a standard egg incubation vessel (McDonald jar). Experimental chambers measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. McDonald hatching jars measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96 and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg density of 21.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 21.6 – 22.1) for McDonald jars and 10.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 7.0 – 16.8) for experimental chambers. I was unable to detect an effect of container type on survival to 48, 96 or 144 h. At 144 h striped bass fry survival averaged 37.3% for McDonald jars and 34.2% for experimental chambers. Survival among replicates was significantly different. Survival of striped bass significantly decreased between 96 and 144 h. Mean survival among replicates ranged from 12.4 to 57.3%. I was unable to detect an effect of initial stocking density on survival. Experimental jars allow for incubation of a larger number of eggs in a much smaller space. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental chambers offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing manpower and cost. However, the increase in the number of eggs per rearing container does increase the risk associated with catastrophic loss of a production unit. I conclude the experimental chamber is suitable for striped bass egg incubation.

  18. The Camera-Based Assessment Survey System (C-BASS): A towed camera platform for reef fish abundance surveys and benthic habitat characterization in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke, Chad; Grasty, Sarah; Silverman, Alex; Broadbent, Heather; Butcher, Steven; Murawski, Steven

    2017-12-01

    An ongoing challenge for fisheries management is to provide cost-effective and timely estimates of habitat stratified fish densities. Traditional approaches use modified commercial fishing gear (such as trawls and baited hooks) that have biases in species selectivity and may also be inappropriate for deployment in some habitat types. Underwater visual and optical approaches offer the promise of more precise and less biased assessments of relative fish abundance, as well as direct estimates of absolute fish abundance. A number of video-based approaches have been developed and the technology for data acquisition, calibration, and synthesis has been developing rapidly. Beginning in 2012, our group of engineers and researchers at the University of South Florida has been working towards the goal of completing large scale, video-based surveys in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. This paper discusses design considerations and development of a towed camera system for collection of video-based data on commercially and recreationally important reef fishes and benthic habitat on the West Florida Shelf. Factors considered during development included potential habitat types to be assessed, sea-floor bathymetry, vessel support requirements, personnel requirements, and cost-effectiveness of system components. This regional-specific effort has resulted in a towed platform called the Camera-Based Assessment Survey System, or C-BASS, which has proven capable of surveying tens of kilometers of video transects per day and has the ability to cost-effective population estimates of reef fishes and coincident benthic habitat classification.

  19. Striped bass ichthyoplankton abundance, mortality, and production estimation for the Potomac River population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polgar, T.T.

    1977-01-01

    Methods are developed for estimating, from field survey data, the mortality rate and production for each successive ichthyoplanktonic stage. The abundance estimators used in the computation of these quantities are also derived. An age-dependent, ichthyoplankton population model is developed assuming either a uniform age distribution or an exponential age distribution within each stage. Striped bass egg and larval data from a 1974 ichthyoplankton survey in the Potomac River are used in model computations. The various model estimates are evaluated qualitatively, and the usefulness and limitations of the models are discussed

  20. Modeling of gene expression pattern alteration by p,p′-DDE and dieldrin in largemouth bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Barber, David; Gross, Timothy; Denslow, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    In this study, largemouth bass (LMB) were subchronically exposed to p,p′-DDE or dieldrin in their diet to evaluate the effect of exposure on expression of genes involved in reproduction and steroid homeostasis. Using real-time PCR, we detected a different gene expression pattern for each OCP, suggesting that they each affect LMB in a different way. We also detected a different expression pattern among sexes, suggesting that sexes are affected differently by OCPs perhaps reflecting the different adaptive responses of each sex to dysregulation caused by OCP exposure.

  1. Four new bass strait platforms -a project manager's view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, J.W.

    1982-05-01

    The offshore development by Esso/BHP of the West Kingfish, Cobia, Fortescue and Flounder oil fields in the Gippsland Basin is one of the significant undertakings by the petroleum industry during the 1980s. Production from the fields will help sustain the current level of production from Bass Strait into the latter part of this decade. This paper examines some of the principal project management issues and actions involved in the planning and execution of the design and construction phases of the platforms and pipelines associated with each of these fields.

  2. IGF-I and branchial IGF receptor expression and localization during salinity acclimation in striped bass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek; Luckenbach, John Adam; Madsen, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    The initial response of the IGF-I system and the expression and cellular localization of IGF type-I receptor (IGF-IR) were studied in the gill of a euryhaline teleost during salinity acclimation. Exposure of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) to hyperosmotic and hypoosmotic challenges induced small...... in either plasma IGF-I, liver, or gill IGF-I mRNA, or gill IGF-IR mRNA levels. In a separate experiment, FW-acclimated fish were injected with saline or IGF-I prior to a 24-h SW challenge. Rapid regain of osmotic balance following SW transfer was hindered by IGF-I. Immunohistochemistry revealed...

  3. Barents Sea Monitoring with a SEA EXPLORER Glider

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Michael; Béguery, Laurent; Oziel, Laurent; Gascard, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The use of gliders in the Polar Regions offers clever and inexpensive methods for large scale monitoring and exploration. In August and September of 2014, a SEA EXPLORER glider successfully completed a 388 km mission in the central Barents Sea to monitor the physical and biological features over a transect between 72° 30' N and 74° 30' N latitude and between 32° E and 33° E longitude, as part of the European FP7 ACCESS project and in cooperation with the Institute of M...

  4. 16 MW under the seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the Nemo project (Nemo stands for New Energy for Martinique and Overseas) and its precursor project, Ner 300, developed in cooperation between Akuo Energy and DCNS, and which is financed by the European Bank for Investment. These projects aim at exploiting sea thermal energy. Ner 300 will exploit the 20 degree difference between surface waters (25 C) and deep waters (5 C at 1.000 m under sea level). The article evokes works performed by DCNS to develop a prototype near the Reunion Island. The principle and operation are briefly described, and technological challenges are outlined

  5. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  6. Sea Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Kenneth C.

    Forty-foot, storm-swept seas, Spitzbergen polar bears roaming vast expanses of Arctic ice, furtive exchanges of forbidden manuscripts in Cold War Moscow, the New York city fashion scene, diving in mini-subs to the sea floor hot srings, life with the astronauts, romance and heartbreak, and invading the last bastions of male exclusivity: all are present in this fast-moving, non-fiction account of one woman' fascinating adventures in the world of marine geology and oceanography.

  7. Effect of fishing effort on catch rate and catchability of largemouth bass in small impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, M. G.; Schramm, Harold; Neal, J. W.; Gerard, P.D.

    2018-01-01

    Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède) catch rates decline with sustained fishing effort, even without harvest. It is unclear why declines in catch rate occur, and little research has been directed at how to improve catch rate. Learning has been proposed as a reason for declining catch rate, but has never been tested on largemouth bass. If catch rate declines because fish learn to avoid lures, periods of no fishing could be a management tool for increasing catch rate. In this study, six small impoundments with established fish populations were fished for two May to October fishing seasons to evaluate the effect of fishing effort on catch rate. Closed seasons were implemented to test whether a 2‐month period of no fishing improved catch rates and to determine whether conditioning from factors other than being captured reduced catch rate. Mixed‐model analysis indicated catch rate and catchability declined throughout the fishing season. Catch rate and catchability increased after a 2‐month closure but soon declined to the lowest levels of the fishing season. These changes in catch rate and catchability support the conclusion of learned angler avoidance, but sustained catchability of fish not previously caught does not support that associative or social learning affected catchability.

  8. A stochastic formulation of the Bass model of new-product diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Shun-Chen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For a large variety of new products, the Bass Model (BM describes the empirical cumulative-adoptions curve extremely well. The BM postulates that the trajectory of cumulative adoptions of a new product follows a deterministic function whose instantaneous growth rate depends on two parameters, one of which captures an individual's intrinsic tendency to purchase, independent of the number of previous adopters, and the other captures a positive force of influence on an individual by previous adopters. In this paper, we formulate a stochastic version of the BM, which we call the Stochastic Bass Model (SBM, where the trajectory of cumulative number of adoptions is governed by a pure birth process. We show that with an appropriately-chosen set of birth rates, the fractions of individuals who have adopted the product by time t in a family of SBMs indexed by the size of the target population converge in probability to the deterministic fraction in a corresponding BM, when the population size approaches infinity. The formulation therefore supports and expands the BM by allowing stochastic trajectories.

  9. Estimates of entrainment mortality for striped bass and other fish species inhabiting the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boreman, J.; Goodyear, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    An empirically derived age-, time-, and space-variant equation was used to estimate entrainment mortality at power plants for seven fish species inhabiting the Hudson River estuary. Entrainment mortality is expressed as a conditional rate, which is the fractional reduction in year-class strength due to entrainment if other sources of mortality are density-independent. Estimates of the conditional entrainment mortality, based on historical and projected once-through cooling operation of five power plants, were 11-22% for striped bass, 11-17% for white perch, 5-7% for Atlantic tomcod, 14-21% for American shad, 4-11% for river herring (alewife and blueback herring combined), and 35-79% for bay anchovy. Closed-cycle cooling (natural-draft cooling towers) at three of the power plants (Indian Point, Bowline Point, and Roseton) would reduce entrainment mortality of striped bass by 50-80%, of white perch by 75-80%, of Atlantic tocod by 65-70%, of American shad by 80%, of river herring by 30-90%, and of bay anchovy by 45-80%. The life stages most vulnerable to entrainment mortality were post-yolk-sac larva and entrainable size juvenile. 18 refs., 7 tabs

  10. Implications of power plant mortality for management of the Hudson River striped bass fishery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodyear, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    The Atlantic coastal stock of striped bass apparently declined from colonial times to the early 1930s and subsequently recovered. The reasons for the decline and recovery are not known, but fishing remains a possible explanation, which would suggest population sensitivity to increased mortality. Evidence suggests that fishing mortality has been increasing in recent years and will continue to increase in the absence of management intervention. The consequence of increased fishing mortality is an increase in the marginal effect of the power plant mortality which based on the utilities' models and parameter fits, could result in important reductions in the Hudson River striped bass population. Any management actions imposed to arrest population decline or to increase yield per effort in the fishery would be required to mitigate the impact of the power plants by reducing fishing mortality. It is estimated that a 20% conditional power plant mortality is equivalent to a 14% increase in the number of average fishermen using the stock. Consequently, should any management intervention be required on behalf of the population, managers would be required to reduce fishing mortality by about 14% just to account for the power plant mortality. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Influence of chlorine on the susceptibility of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) to Vibrio anguillarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetrick, F M; Hall, Jr, L W; Wolski, S; Graves, W C; Roberson, B S

    1984-09-01

    The subtle effects that low levels of pollutants have on fish populations are probably more important than the effects of large spills, since the effects are less likely to be obvious and the source more difficult to detect in time to save the environment. An experiment was carried out to determine if exposure of striped bass to sublethal concentrations of chlorine affected their susceptibility to bacterial infection. Exposure of striped bass for 96 h to sublethal concentrations of total residual chlorine (TRC) (0.05-0.23 mg/L) did not increase their susceptibility to infection with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. Variables examined were TRC concentrations, length of exposure to chlorine, and the order of exposure to chlorine and the pathogen. Mortalities in the groups exposed to both chlorine and pathogen were not significantly different from those seen in groups receiving the bacteria only. Smaller fish are more susceptible than larger fish, and the LD50 is markedly affected by the ambient temperature in that fewer bacteria are needed to kill fish at lower temperatures. One contributing factor to this increased resistance of fish at higher water temperatures appears to be related to their immune status. 29 references, 5 tables.

  12. Cloning and characterization of largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides) myostatin encoding gene and its promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengjie; Bai, Junjie; Wang, Lin

    2008-08-01

    Myostatin or GDF-8, a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, has been demonstrated to be a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass in mammals. In the present study, we obtained a 5.64 kb sequence of myostatin encoding gene and its promoter from largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides). The myostatin encoding gene consisted of three exons (488 bp, 371 bp and 1779 bp, respectively) and two introns (390 bp and 855 bp, respectively). The intron-exon boundaries were conservative in comparison with those of mammalian myostatin encoding genes, whereas the size of introns was smaller than that of mammals. Sequence analysis of 1.569 kb of the largemouth bass myostatin gene promoter region revealed that it contained two TATA boxes, one CAAT box and nine putative E-boxes. Putative muscle growth response elements for myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), serum response factor (SRF), activator protein 1 (AP1), etc., and muscle-specific Mt binding site (MTBF) were also detected. Some of the transcription factor binding sites were conserved among five teleost species. This information will be useful for studying the transcriptional regulation of myostatin in fish.

  13. The Bass diffusion model on networks with correlations and inhomogeneous advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, M. L.; Brunner, J.; Modanese, G.

    2016-09-01

    The Bass model, which is an effective forecasting tool for innovation diffusion based on large collections of empirical data, assumes an homogeneous diffusion process. We introduce a network structure into this model and we investigate numerically the dynamics in the case of networks with link density $P(k)=c/k^\\gamma$, where $k=1, \\ldots , N$. The resulting curve of the total adoptions in time is qualitatively similar to the homogeneous Bass curve corresponding to a case with the same average number of connections. The peak of the adoptions, however, tends to occur earlier, particularly when $\\gamma$ and $N$ are large (i.e., when there are few hubs with a large maximum number of connections). Most interestingly, the adoption curve of the hubs anticipates the total adoption curve in a predictable way, with peak times which can be, for instance when $N=100$, between 10% and 60% of the total adoptions peak. This may allow to monitor the hubs for forecasting purposes. We also consider the case of networks with assortative and disassortative correlations and a case of inhomogeneous advertising where the publicity terms are "targeted" on the hubs while maintaining their total cost constant.

  14. Methoxychlor affects multiple hormone signaling pathways in the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Spade, Daniel J.; Blum, Jason L.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that has been shown to have estrogenic activity by activating estrogen receptors and inducing vitellogenin production in male fish. Previous studies report that exposure to MXC induces changes in mRNA abundance of reproductive genes in the liver and testes of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The objective of the present study was to better characterize the mode of action of MXC by measuring the global transcriptomic response in the male largemouth liver using an oligonucleotide microarray. Microarray analysis identified highly significant changes in the expression of 37 transcripts (p<0.001) (20 induced and 17 decreased) in the liver after MXC injection and a total of 900 expression changes (p<0.05) in transcripts with high homology to known genes. Largemouth bass estrogen receptor alpha (esr1) and androgen receptor (ar) were among the transcripts that were increased in the liver after MXC treatment. Functional enrichment analysis identified the molecular functions of steroid binding and androgen receptor activity as well as steroid hormone receptor activity as being significantly over-represented gene ontology terms. Pathway analysis identified c-fos signaling as being putatively affected through both estrogen and androgen signaling. This study provides evidence that MXC elicits transcriptional effects through the estrogen receptor as well as androgen receptor-mediated pathways in the liver. PMID:21276474

  15. Combustion of Solids in Microgravity: Results from the BASS-II Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkul, Paul V.; Bhattacharjee, Subrata; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Miller, Fletcher; Olson, Sandra L.; Takahashi, Fumiaki; T’ien, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The Burning and Suppression of Solids-II (BASS-II) experiment was performed on the International Space Station. Microgravity combustion tests burned thin and thick flat samples, acrylic slabs, spheres, and cylinders. The samples were mounted inside a small wind tunnel which could impose air flow speeds up to 53 cms. The wind tunnel was installed in the Microgravity Science Glovebox which supplied power, imaging, and a level of containment. The effects of air flow speed, fuel thickness, fuel preheating, and oxygen concentration on flame appearance, growth, spread rate, and extinction were examined in both the opposed and concurrent flow configuration. The flames are quite sensitive to air flow speed in the range 0 to 5 cms. They can be sustained at very low flow speeds of less than 1 cms, when they become dim blue and stable. In this state they are not particularly dangerous from a fire safety perspective, but they can flare up quickly with a sudden increase in air flow speed. Including earlier BASS-I results, well over one hundred tests have been conducted of the various samples in the different geometries, flow speeds, and oxygen concentrations. There are several important implications related to fundamental combustion research as well as spacecraft fire safety. This work was supported by the NASA Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications Division (SLPSRA).

  16. Numerical study of the aerodynamics of sound sources in a bass-reflex port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Garcia-Alcaide

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the aerodynamics phenomena of a bass-reflex port that causes noise in the audible frequency range. After discarding structural and mechanical vibration issues, the hypothesis considered is that vortex shedding is the source of the noise. Experimental and numerical evidences of the vortex, an analysis of its noise and the similarities between real and simulated performance are presented. The numerically simulated cases with the original geometry are excited at different frequencies and with modifications of the port geometry. Likewise, the internal performance of an enclosure with a closed port was simulated. The simulations have been performed with axisymmetrical geometries using the open-source OpenFOAM® toolbox. Moreover, experimental measurements were carried out. First, acoustic signal experiments were done to analyse the response of the bass-reflex ports. Secondly, a structure vibration measurement was conducted in order to exclude the cabinet structure vibration as a source of the noise in question. A good agreement was found between numerical and experimental results, especially in the frequency band of the detected noise, i.e. the 1000–1500 Hz range. Despite no remarkable improvement being made with the geometry changes explored, the presented CFD approach has proved a useful and cost-effective tool to address this kind of phenomenon.

  17. Abundance and distribution of northern squawfish, walleyes, and smallmouth bass in John Day Reservoir, Columbia river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamesderfer, R.C.; Rieman, B.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors used mark-recapture and catch-per-unit effort data to estimate abundances and distributions of three potential predators on juvenile salmonids migrating through John Day Reservoir in 1984-1986. The northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis was the most abundant predator (estimated population: 85, 316), followed by smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu (34,954) and walleye Stizostedion vitreum (15,168). Because of uncertainty in sampling and assumption of the mark-recapture estimator, the combined abundance of these three predators could lie between 50,000 and 500,000. They believe, however, that bias is probably negative, and that any errors should result in conservative estimates. Northern squawfish were common reservoir-wide, but large concentrations occurred immediately below McNary Dam near the head of John Day Reservoir. Walleyes were largely restricted to the upper third of the reservoir, whereas the number of smallmouth bass increased progressively downriver. As judged by abundance and distribution, northern squawfish have by far the greatest potential for predation on juvenile salmonids. They also expect predation to be unevenly distributed in time and space as a result of variations in the number and distribution of predators

  18. The issue of energy security in relations between the European Union and Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Shabelnikova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on cooperation between the European Union and the Republic of Azerbaijan on energy issues. The author analyzes the EU initiatives and projects for the Black Sea and Caspian Sea region as well as the questions of delivery diversification of the Azerbaijani gas to the European markets.

  19. Evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption in smallmouth and largemouth bass inhabiting Northeast U.S. National Wildlife Refuge waters: A reconnaissance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Pinkney, A.E.; Guy, C.P.; Major, A.M.; Munney, K.; Mierzykowski, S.; Lingenfelser, S.; Secord, A.; Patnode, K.; Kubiak, T.J.; Stern, C.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Walsh, Heather L.; Sperry, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Intersex as the manifestation of testicular oocytes (TO) in male gonochoristic fishes has been used as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Here we evaluated largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) form 19 National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the Northeast U.S. inhabiting waters on or near NWR lands for evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption. Waterbodies sampled included rivers, lakes, impoundments, ponds, and reservoirs. Here we focus on evidence of endocrine disruption in male bass evidenced by gonad histopathology including intersex or abnormal plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations. During the fall seasons of 2008–2010, we collected male smallmouth bass (n=118) from 12 sites and largemouth bass (n=173) from 27 sites. Intersex in male smallmouth bass was observed at all sites and ranged from 60% to 100%; in male largemouth bass the range was 0–100%. Estrogenicity, as measured using a bioluminescent yeast reporter, was detected above the probable no effects concentration (0.73 ng/L) in ambient water samples from 79% of the NWR sites. Additionally, the presence of androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor ligands were noted as measured via novel nuclear receptor translocation assays. Mean plasma Vtg was elevated (>0.2 mg/ml) in male smallmouth bass at four sites and in male largemouth bass at one site. This is the first reconnaissance survey of this scope conducted on US National Wildlife Refuges. The baseline data collected here provide a necessary benchmark for future monitoring and justify more comprehensive NWR-specific studies.

  20. Evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption in smallmouth and largemouth bass inhabiting Northeast U.S. national wildlife refuge waters: A reconnaissance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L R; Blazer, V S; Pinkney, A E; Guy, C P; Major, A M; Munney, K; Mierzykowski, S; Lingenfelser, S; Secord, A; Patnode, K; Kubiak, T J; Stern, C; Hahn, C M; Iwanowicz, D D; Walsh, H L; Sperry, A

    2016-02-01

    Intersex as the manifestation of testicular oocytes (TO) in male gonochoristic fishes has been used as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Here we evaluated largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) form 19 National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the Northeast U.S. inhabiting waters on or near NWR lands for evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption. Waterbodies sampled included rivers, lakes, impoundments, ponds, and reservoirs. Here we focus on evidence of endocrine disruption in male bass evidenced by gonad histopathology including intersex or abnormal plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations. During the fall seasons of 2008-2010, we collected male smallmouth bass (n=118) from 12 sites and largemouth bass (n=173) from 27 sites. Intersex in male smallmouth bass was observed at all sites and ranged from 60% to 100%; in male largemouth bass the range was 0-100%. Estrogenicity, as measured using a bioluminescent yeast reporter, was detected above the probable no effects concentration (0.73ng/L) in ambient water samples from 79% of the NWR sites. Additionally, the presence of androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor ligands were noted as measured via novel nuclear receptor translocation assays. Mean plasma Vtg was elevated (>0.2mg/ml) in male smallmouth bass at four sites and in male largemouth bass at one site. This is the first reconnaissance survey of this scope conducted on US National Wildlife Refuges. The baseline data collected here provide a necessary benchmark for future monitoring and justify more comprehensive NWR-specific studies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Walleye recruitment success is less resilient to warming water temperatures in lakes with abundant largemouth bass populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Midway, Stephen R.; Wagner, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    Lakes respond heterogeneously to climate, with implications for fisheries management. We analyzed walleye (Sander vitreus) recruitment to age-0 in 359 lakes in Wisconsin, USA, to (i) quantify the relationship between annual water temperature degree days (DD) and walleye recruitment success and (ii) identify the influence of lake characteristics — area, conductivity, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) catch rates, and mean DD — on this relationship. The relationship between walleye recruitment and annual DD varied among lakes and was not distinguishable from zero overall (posterior mean = −0.11, 90% CI = −0.34, 0.15). DD effects on recruitment were negative in 198 lakes (55%) and positive in 161 (45%). The effect of annual DD was most negative in lakes with high largemouth bass densities, and, on average, the probability of recruitment was highest in large lakes with low largemouth bass densities. Conductivity and mean DD influenced neither recruitment nor the effect of annual DD. Walleye recruitment was most resilient to warming in lakes with few largemouth bass, suggesting that the effects of climate change depend on lake-specific food-web and habitat contexts.

  2. MEASUREMENT OF MECURY IN FISH SCALES AS AN ASSESSMENT METHOD FOR PREDICTING MUSCLE TISSUE MERCURY CNOCENTRATIONS IN LARGEMOUTH BASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between total mercury (Hg) concentration in fish scales and in tissues of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 20 freshwater sites was developed and evaluated to determine whether scale analysis would allow a non lethal and convenient method for predicti...

  3. Amino acid availability from selected animal and plant derived feedstuffs for market size sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate diet formulations are essential for the commercial production of hybrid striped bass. However, limited information is available regarding nutrient digestibility and amino acid availability of readily-used practical ingredients for different size classes of this taxon. Therefore, two trial...

  4. Heritability of growth traits and correlation with hepatic gene expression among hybrid striped bass exhibiting extremes in performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    We set out to better understand the genetic basis behind growth variation in hybrid striped bass (HSB) by determining whether gene expression changes could be detected between the largest and smallest HSB in a population using a global gene expression approach by RNA sequencing of liver. Fingerling...

  5. Computer simulation model for the striped bass young-of-the-year population in the Hudson River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eraslan, A.H.; Van Winkle, W.; Sharp, R.D.; Christensen, S.W.; Goodyear, C.P.; Rush, R.M.; Fulkerson, W.

    1975-09-01

    This report presents a daily transient (tidal-averaged), longitudinally one-dimensional (cross-section-averaged) computer simulation model for the assessment of the entrainment and impingement impacts of power plant operations on young-of-the-year populations of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis, in the Hudson River

  6. Genetic structuring of European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) populations through mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Emre; Atar, Hasan Huseyin

    2012-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in 655 bpfragments of the cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene, known as the DNA barcode, of European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) was evaluated by analyzing 1529 individuals representing 16 populations from the Black Sea, through the Marmara Sea and the Aegean Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. A total of 19 (2.9%) variable sites were found among individuals, and these defined 10 genetically diverged populations with an overall mean distance of 1.2%. The highest nucleotide divergence was found between samples of eastern Mediterranean and northern Aegean (2.2%). Evolutionary history analysis among 16 populations clustered the Mediterranean Sea clades in one main branch and the other clades in another branch. Diverging pattern of the European anchovy populations correlated with geographic dispersion supports the genetic structuring through the Black Sea-Marmara Sea-Aegean Sea-Mediterranean Sea quad.

  7. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  8. Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2014-10-01

    Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS) span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  9. Towards the implementation of an integrated ecosystem fleet-based management of European fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gascuel, D.; Merino, G.; Döring, R.D.; Druon, D.N.; Goti, L.; Guénette, S.; Macher, C.; Soma, K.; Travers-Trolet, M.; Mackinson, S.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Celtic Sea and the North Sea as case studies, the fleet-based approach is shown to be the pathway to implement an effective ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM) in European seas. First, a diagnostic on the health of each ecosystem is proposed based on the reconstruction of

  10. Diversity, molecular characterization and expression of T cell receptor γ in a teleost fish, the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Buonocore

    Full Text Available Two lineages of T cells, expressing either the αβ T cell receptor (TR or the γδ TR, exist in Gnathostomes. The latter type of T cells account for 1-10 % of T cells in blood and up to 30 % in the small intestine. They may recognize unconventional antigens (phosphorylated microbial metabolites, lipid antigens without the need of major histocompatibility class I (MH1 or class II (MH2 presentation. In this work we have described cloning and structural characterization of TR -chain (TRG from the teleost Dicentrarchus labrax. Further, by means of quantitative PCR analysis, we analyzed TRG expression levels both in poly I:C stimulated leukocytes in vitro, and following infection with betanodavirus in vivo. Two full length cDNAs relative to TRG, with the highest peptide and nucleotide identity with Japanese flounder, were identified. A multiple alignment analysis showed the conservation of peptides fundamental for TRG biological functions, and of the FGXG motif in the FR4 region, typical of most TR and immunoglobulin light chains. A 3D structure consisting of two domains mainly folded as beta strands with a sandwich architecture for each domain was also reported. TRG CDR3 of 8-18 AA in length and diversity in the TRG rearrangements expressed in thymus and intestine for a given V/C combination were evidenced by junction length spectratyping. TRG mRNA expression levels were high in basal conditions both in thymus and intestine, while in kidney and gut leukocytes they were up-regulated after in vitro stimulation by poly I:C. Finally, in juveniles the TRG expression levels were up-regulated in the head kidney and down-regulated in intestine after in vivo infection with betanodavirus. Overall, in this study the involvement of TRG-bearing T cells during viral stimulation was described for the first time, leading to new insights for the identification of T cell subsets in fish.

  11. 77 FR 24151 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... necessary to ensure the three species are not overfished or subject to overfishing in 2012. This final rule... as follows: Summer Flounder The updated stock assessment overfishing limit (OFL) is 31,588,000 lb (14... ratio is 1.01. Applying the Council's risk policy results in an overfishing risk tolerance (P*) of 0.40...

  12. 75 FR 81498 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ..., Gloucester, MA 01930-2298. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Ruccio, Fishery Policy Analyst, (978) 281... stock was declared rebuilt in 2009; however, the SSC provided a clear rationale for its 2011 ABC... recommending ABC if the stock status remains robust, thereby moving landing levels to near or at MSY. [[Page...

  13. Analyses of otoliths from juvenile black sea bass collected from estuaries in SC, FL, NJ, and NY: 2008-2009.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — Snappers/Groupers have traditionally been some of the most desired demersal fishes in the South Atlantic Bight and are the most abundant and diverse group of large...

  14. Phenanthrene and nitrite effects on juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, using hepatic biotransformation enzymes, biliary fluorescence, and micronuclei as biomarkers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reis-Henriques, M.A.; Ferreira, M.; Coimbra, A.M.; DeSilva, C.; Shailaja, M.S.

    Introducción Los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (PAHs, por sus siglas en inglés) son contaminantes muy tóxicos ampliamente distribuidos en el medio ambiente. Los organismos acuáticos, como los peces, pueden absorber estos compuestos del agua a través de... las branquias y mediante la ingestión de sedimentos o alimentos contaminados. El fenantreno (PHE), un PAH con tres anillos, considerado uno de los PAHs prioritarios para la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de los Estados Unidos, se Phenanthrene...

  15. Multivariate Regression Approach To Integrate Multiple Satellite And Tide Gauge Data For Real Time Sea Level Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2010-01-01

    The Sea Level Thematic Assembly Center in the EUFP7 MyOcean project aims at build a sea level service for multiple satellite sea level observations at a European level for GMES marine applications. It aims to improve the sea level related products to guarantee the sustainability and the quality...

  16. The relative importance of oceanic nutrient inputs for Bass Harbor Marsh Estuary at Acadia National Park, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Thomas G.; Culbertson, Charles W.; Fuller, Christopher; Glibert, Patricia; Sturtevant, Luke

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Acadia National Park (ANP) collaborated on a study of nutrient inputs into Bass Harbor Marsh Estuary on Mount Desert Island, Maine, to better understand ongoing eutrophication, oceanic nutrient inputs, and potential management solutions. This report includes the estimation of loads of nitrate, ammonia, total dissolved nitrogen, and total dissolved phosphorus to the estuary derived from runoff within the watershed and oceanic inputs during summers 2011 and 2012. Nutrient outputs from the estuary were also monitored, and nutrient inputs in direct precipitation to the estuary were calculated. Specific conductance, water temperature, and turbidity were monitored at the estuary outlet. This report presents a first-order analysis of the potential effects of projected sea-level rise on the inundated area and estuary volume. Historical aerial photographs were used to investigate the possibility of widening of the estuary channel over time. The scope of this report also includes analysis of sediment cores collected from the estuary and fringing marsh surfaces to assess the sediment mass accumulation rate. Median concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, and total dissolved phosphorus on the flood tide were approximately 25 percent higher than on the ebb tide during the 2011 and 2012 summer seasons. Higher concentrations on the flood tide suggest net assimilation of these nutrients in biota within the estuary. The dissolved organic nitrogen fraction dominated the dissolved nitrogen fraction in all tributaries. The median concentration of dissolved organic nitrogen was about twice as high on the on the ebb tide than the flood tide, indicating net export of dissolved organic nitrogen from the estuary. The weekly total oceanic inputs of nitrate, ammonium, and total dissolved phosphorus to the estuary were usually much larger than inputs from runoff or direct precipitation. The estuary was a net sink for nitrate and ammonium in most weeks during both

  17. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  18. Sea level change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    This chapter considers changes in global mean sea level, regional sea level, sea level extremes, and waves. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) because of the improved...

  19. Modelling the atmospheric transport of trace metals from Europe to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G; Weber, H; Grassl, H [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht G.m.b.H., Geesthacht-Tesperhude (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physik

    1989-01-01

    Within the framework of a research contract with the German Federal Environmental Agency the long range transport of trace metals over Europe and the deposition of trace metals into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea are estimated using the EMEP- (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) trajectory model. The methodology for the model calculations is explained. Preliminary results for the total deposition of lead into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea show, that the calculated values are lower than previous estimates based on extrapolations from measurements at coastal sites and ship measurements in the southern Baltic Sea, respectively. (orig.).

  20. C-SCAMP Cruise Report #3 - C-BASS Cruise Report - 2016-04-CS04-C02 - RV Weatherbird II - April 07-12, 2016 (EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Camera-Based Assessment Survey System (C-BASS) was used to image new areas around Madison-Swanson Marine Protected Area (MPA) located in the northeastern Gulf of...

  1. Low frequency sound field control for loudspeakers in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Rectangular rooms are the most common shape for sound reproduction, but at low frequencies the reflections from the boundaries of the room cause large spatial variations in the sound pressure level.  Variations up to 30 dB are normal, not only at the room modes, but basically at all frequencies....... As sound propagates in time, it seems natural that the problems can best be analyzed and solved in the time domain. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System) has been developed for sound reproduction in rectangular listening rooms. It can control the sound...... sound field in the whole room, and short impulse response.  In a standard listening room (180 m3) only 4 loudspeakers are needed, 2 more than a traditional stereo setup. CABS is controlled by a developed DSP system. The time based approached might help with the understanding of sound field control...

  2. Nature de la phase basse temperature des verres de spin Heisenberg en dimension 3

    OpenAIRE

    PETIT , Dorothée

    2002-01-01

    I. A Campbell (Directeur) D.R. Grempel F. Hippert (rapporteur) O. Martin P. Norblad (rapporteur) E. Vincent; La question de l'existence d'une réelle transition de phase entre l'état paramagnétique et l'état verre de spin est une question qui a été débattue pendant de nombreuses années. Il semble dorénavant admis que le gel des spins à basse température ne se fasse pas de façon progressive, et l'existence d'une véritable transition à T9. finie est communément acceptée, mais de nombreuses quest...

  3. Identification of largemouth bass virus in the introduced Northern Snakehead inhabiting the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L; Densmore, C; Hahn, C; McAllister, P; Odenkirk, J

    2013-09-01

    The Northern Snakehead Channa argus is an introduced species that now inhabits the Chesapeake Bay. During a preliminary survey for introduced pathogens possibly harbored by these fish in Virginia waters, a filterable agent was isolated from five specimens that produced cytopathic effects in BF-2 cells. Based on PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the major capsid protein (MCP), DNA polymerase (DNApol), and DNA methyltransferase (Mtase) genes, the isolates were identified as Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV). Nucleotide sequences of the MCP (492 bp) and DNApol (419 pb) genes were 100% identical to those of LMBV. The nucleotide sequence of the Mtase (206 bp) gene was 99.5% identical to that of LMBV, and the single nucleotide substitution did not lead to a predicted amino acid coding change. This is the first report of LMBV from the Northern Snakehead, and provides evidence that noncentrarchid fishes may be susceptible to this virus.

  4. Identification of largemouth bass virus in the introduced Northern snakehead inhabiting the Cheasapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Densmore, Christine L.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; McAllister, Phillip; Odenkirk, John

    2013-01-01

    The Northern Snakehead Channa argus is an introduced species that now inhabits the Chesapeake Bay. During a preliminary survey for introduced pathogens possibly harbored by these fish in Virginia waters, a filterable agent was isolated from five specimens that produced cytopathic effects in BF-2 cells. Based on PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the major capsid protein (MCP), DNA polymerase (DNApol), and DNA methyltransferase (Mtase) genes, the isolates were identified as Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV). Nucleotide sequences of the MCP (492 bp) and DNApol (419 pb) genes were 100% identical to those of LMBV. The nucleotide sequence of the Mtase (206 bp) gene was 99.5% identical to that of LMBV, and the single nucleotide substitution did not lead to a predicted amino acid coding change. This is the first report of LMBV from the Northern Snakehead, and provides evidence that noncentrarchid fishes may be susceptible to this virus.

  5. Double Bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenfelt, Anders

    The study of the acoustics of bowed instruments has for several reasons focused on the violin. A substantial amount of knowledge has been accumulated over the last century (see Hutchins 1975, 1976; Hutchins and Benade 1997). The violin is discussed in Chap. 13, while the cello is discussed in Chap. 14. The bow is discussed in Chap. 16.

  6. A strain of Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus causes high mortality among cultured Largemouth Bass in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongmei; Deng, Guocheng; Bai, Junjie; Li, Shengjie; Yu, Lingyun; Quan, Yingchun; Yang, Xiaojing; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zemin; Ye, Xing

    2013-09-01

    In April 2011, 40% mortality of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides juveniles occurred at a farm of Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, China. Infected fish became lethargic, exhibited corkscrew and irregular swimming, and developed a distended abdomen and crooked body. Fish began to die within 2 d after the appearance of clinical signs. In order to analyze the pathogeny and diagnose the disease earlier, observation of clinical signs, cell infection, titer calculation, electron microscopy, immersion infection assay for fish, and nucleotide sequence analysis were carried out. Fathead minnow (FHM) cell cultures, inoculated with filtrate of liver and spleen homogenates from the diseased fish, developed the obvious cytopathic effect 46 h after inoculation in the primary culture and 24 h at the first passage. Typical rhabdovirus particles, 115-143 nm in length and 62-78 nm in diameter, were observed in infected FHM cells by direct transmission electron microscopy. The isolated virus produced a titer of 10(7.15) TCID50/mL. Immersion-Fish infected with the virus had similar clinical signs and 80% mortality with 10(2.5) LD50/mL. The data indicated that the rhabdovirus was the lethal pathogeny of the current disease. Based on nucleoprotein-gene nucleotide sequence multiple alignment analysis, the newly isolated virus is a strain of Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV) under family Rhabdoviridae, which was initially isolated from Mandarin Fish Siniperca chuatsi. Up to the present, at least four virus strains have been isolated from diseased Largemouth Bass, which have had different clinical signs. Comparison of the clinical signs can help in an early diagnosis of the disease.

  7. Attractants in plant protein-based diets for the carnivorous largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Ana Maria Barretto de Menezes Sampaio de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding attractants can improve acceptability of artificial diets by carnivorous fish fry and fingerlings, increasing intake of unpalatable feeds and improving growth rate, while reducing feeding time and feeding wastes. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of levels of inclusion of different attractants in plant protein-based diets on the performance of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Nine hundred juvenile largemouth bass (26.54 ± 1.53 g conditioned to accept dry, artificial feed were stocked in 60, 90-L polyethylene tanks (15 fish per group in a completely randomized design trial (n=3. Fish were fed two daily meals ad libitum at 7h00 and 17h00, for 13 days, with a diet (100% plant protein source containing either soluble fish protein - SFP (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0%; FisharonTM - FA (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12%; fish silage - FS (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0%; a positive control diet - pCD (10% fish meal and a negative control diet - nCD (basal diet without attractants. DL-methionine (98% and L-lysine (80% were added automatically by the formulation software to adjust available amino-acid profile of diets. Recorded performance data were: final weight, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Fish fed diet FA0.02 presented the best growth rate, best weight gain and best feed conversion ratio. Fish fed diets containing FS as attractant presented the poorest performance.

  8. Spawning chronology, nest site selection and nest success of smallmouth bass during benign streamflow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    We documented the nesting chronology, nest site selection and nest success of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in an upstream (4th order) and downstream (5th order) reach of Baron Fork Creek, Oklahoma. Males started nesting in mid-Apr. when water temperatures increased to 16.9 C upstream, and in late-Apr. when temperatures increased to 16.2 C downstream. Streamflows were low (77% upstream to 82% downstream of mean Apr. streamflow, and 12 and 18% of meanjun. streamflow; 47 and 55 y of record), and decreased throughout the spawning period. Larger males nested first upstream, as has been observed in other populations, but not downstream. Upstream, progeny in 62 of 153 nests developed to swim-up stage. Downstream, progeny in 31 of 73 nests developed to swim-up. Nesting densities upstream (147/km) and downstream (100/km) were both higher than any densities previously reported. Males selected nest sites with intermediate water depths, low water velocity and near cover, behavior that is typical of smallmouth bass. Documented nest failures resulted from human disturbance, angling, and longear sunfish predation. Logistic exposure models showed that water velocity at the nest was negatively related and length of the guarding male was positively related to nest success upstream. Male length and number of degree days were both positively related to nest success downstream. Our results, and those of other studies, suggest that biological factors account for most nest failures during benign (stable, low flow) streamflow conditions, whereas nest failures attributed to substrate mobility or nest abandonment dominate when harsh streamflow conditions (spring floods) coincide with the spawning season.

  9. Methylmercury-induced changes in gene transcription associated with neuroendocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Catherine A; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Annis, Mandy L; Brumbaugh, William G; Chasar, Lia C; Denslow, Nancy D; Tillitt, Donald E

    2014-07-01

    Methyl-mercury (MeHg) is a potent neuroendocrine disruptor that impairs reproductive processes in fish. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize transcriptomic changes induced by MeHg exposure in the female largemouth bass (LMB) hypothalamus under controlled laboratory conditions, (2) investigate the health and reproductive impacts of MeHg exposure on male and female largemouth bass (LMB) in the natural environment, and (3) identify MeHg-associated gene expression patterns in whole brain of female LMB from MeHg-contaminated habitats. The laboratory experiment was a single injection of 2.5 μg MeHg/g body weight for 96 h exposure. The field survey compared river systems in Florida, USA with comparably lower concentrations of MeHg (Wekiva, Santa Fe, and St. Johns Rivers) in fish and one river system with LMB that contained elevated concentrations of MeHg (St. Marys River). Microarray analysis was used to quantify transcriptomic responses to MeHg exposure. Although fish at the high-MeHg site did not show overt health or reproductive impairment, there were MeHg-responsive genes and pathways identified in the laboratory study that were also altered in fish from the high-MeHg site relative to fish at the low-MeHg sites. Gene network analysis suggested that MeHg regulated the expression targets of neuropeptide receptor and steroid signaling, as well as structural components of the cell. Disease-associated gene networks related to MeHg exposure, based upon expression data, included cerebellum ataxia, movement disorders, and hypercalcemia. Gene responses in the CNS are consistent with the documented neurotoxicological and neuroendocrine disrupting effects of MeHg in vertebrates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Gene expression fingerprints of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denslow, Nancy D; Kocerha, Jannet; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Gross, Timothy; Holm, Stewart E

    2004-08-18

    Effluents from pulp and paper mills that historically have used elemental chlorine in the bleaching process have been implicated in inhibiting reproduction in fish. Compounds with estrogenic and androgenic binding affinities have been found in these effluents, suggesting that the impairment of reproduction is through an endocrine-related mode of action. To date, a great deal of attention has been paid to phytoestrogens and resin acids that are present in mill process streams as a result of pulping trees. Estrogen and estrogen mimics interact directly with the estrogen receptor and have near immediate effects on gene transcription by turning on the expression of a unique set of genes. Using differential display (DD) RT-PCR, we examined changes in gene expression induced by exposure to paper mill effluents. Largemouth bass were exposed to 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80% paper mill effluent concentrations in large flow-through tanks for varied periods of time including 7, 28 or 56 days. Plasma hormone levels in males and females and plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) in females decreased with dose and time. Measurements of changes in gene expression using DD RT-PCR suggest that the gene expression patterns of male fish do not change much with exposure, except for the induction of a few genes including CYP 1A, a protein that is induced through the action of the Ah receptor in response to dioxin and similar polyaromatic hydrocarbons. However, in the case of females, exposure to these effluents resulted in an up-regulation of CYP 1A that was accompanied by a generalized down-regulation of genes normally expressed during the reproductive season. These antiestrogenic changes are in agreement with previous studies in bass exposed to these effluents, and could result in decreased reproductive success in affected populations.

  11. Methylmercury-induced changes in gene transcription associated with neuroendocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Catherine A.; Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Chasar, Lia C.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    Methyl-mercury (MeHg) is a potent neuroendocrine disruptor that impairs reproductive processes in fish. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize transcriptomic changes induced by MeHg exposure in the female largemouth bass (LMB) hypothalamus under controlled laboratory conditions, (2) investigate the health and reproductive impacts of MeHg exposure on male and female largemouth bass (LMB) in the natural environment, and (3) identify MeHg-associated gene expression patterns in whole brain of female LMB from MeHg-contaminated habitats. The laboratory experiment was a single injection of 2.5 μg MeHg/g body weight for 96 h exposure. The field survey compared river systems in Florida, USA with comparably lower concentrations of MeHg (Wekiva, Santa Fe, and St. Johns Rivers) in fish and one river system with LMB that contained elevated concentrations of MeHg (St. Marys River). Microarray analysis was used to quantify transcriptomic responses to MeHg exposure. Although fish at the high-MeHg site did not show overt health or reproductive impairment, there were MeHg-responsive genes and pathways identified in the laboratory study that were also altered in fish from the high-MeHg site relative to fish at the low-MeHg sites. Gene network analysis suggested that MeHg regulated the expression targets of neuropeptide receptor and steroid signaling, as well as structural components of the cell. Disease-associated gene networks related to MeHg exposure, based upon expression data, included cerebellum ataxia, movement disorders, and hypercalcemia. Gene responses in the CNS are consistent with the documented neurotoxicological and neuroendocrine disrupting effects of MeHg in vertebrates.

  12. Export of microplastics from land to sea. A modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegfried, Max; Koelmans, A.A.; Besseling, E.; Kroeze, C.

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying the transport of plastic debris from river to sea is crucial for assessing the risks of plastic debris to human health and the environment. We present a global modelling approach to analyse the composition and quantity of point-source microplastic fluxes from European rivers to the sea.

  13. Microbial biogeography of the North Sea during summer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, J.; Martínez Martínez, J.; Slagter, H.A.; Evans, C.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2013-01-01

    Micro-organisms are vital for the functioning of all food webs and are the major drivers of the global biogeochemical cycles. The microbial community compositions and physicochemical conditions of the different water masses in the North Sea, a biologically productive sea on the northwestern European

  14. Surface-water hydrology and quality, and macroinvertebrate and smallmouth bass populations in four stream basins in southwestern Wisconsin, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Lillie, Richard A.; Schlesser, Roger A.; Mason, John W.; Lyons, John D.; Kerr, Roger A.; Graczyk, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Data on streamflow, water quality, and macroinvertebrate and smallmouth bass (microptercus dolomieni) populations were collected from July 1987 through September 1990, in four streams in southwestern Wisconsin to determine the effect of surface-water hydrology and quality on populations of macroinvertebrates and smallmouth bass. The study was a joint project of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  15. Transcriptional networks associated with the immune system are disrupted by organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Feswick, April; Prucha, Melinda S; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-08-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida are exposed to high levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and dietary uptake is a significant route of exposure for these apex predators. The objectives of this study were to determine the dietary effects of two organochlorine pesticides (p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; p, p' DDE and methoxychlor; MXC) on the reproductive axis of largemouth bass. Reproductive bass (late vitellogenesis) were fed one of the following diets: control pellets, 125ppm p, p'-DDE, or 10ppm MXC (mg/kg) for 84days. Due to the fact that both p,p' DDE and MXC have anti-androgenic properties, the anti-androgenic pharmaceutical flutamide was fed to a fourth group of largemouth bass (750ppm). Following a 3 month exposure, fish incorporated p,p' DDE and MXC into both muscle and ovary tissue, with the ovary incorporating 3 times more organochlorine pesticides compared to muscle. Endpoints assessed were those related to reproduction due to previous studies demonstrating that these pesticides impact the reproductive axis and we hypothesized that a dietary exposure would result in impaired reproduction. However, oocyte distribution, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin, and plasma sex steroids (17β-estradiol, E2 and testosterone, T) were not different between control animals and contaminant-fed largemouth bass. Moreover, neither p, p' DDE nor MXC affected E2 or T production in ex vivo oocyte cultures from chemical-fed largemouth bass. However, both pesticides did interfere with the normal upregulation of androgen receptor that is observed in response to human chorionic gonadotropin in ex vivo cultures, an observation that may be related to their anti-androgenic properties. Transcriptomics profiling in the ovary revealed that gene networks related to cell processes such as leukocyte cell adhesion, ossification, platelet function and inhibition, xenobiotic metabolism, fibrinolysis, and thermoregulation

  16. Assessment of potential impact of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant thermal effluent on the Watts Bar Reservoir striped bass population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuer, J.H.; McIntosh, D.; Ostrowski, P.; Tomljanovich, D.A.

    1983-11-01

    This report is an assessment of potential adverse impact to striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Watts Bar Reservoir caused by thermal effluent from operation of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). The Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir is occupied by adult striped bass during the warmest months of the year. Concern was raised that operation of the CRBRP, specifically thermal discharges, could conflict with management of striped bass. In all cases examined the thermal plume becomes nearly imperceptible within a short distance from the discharge pipe (about 30 ft [10 m]) compared to river width (about 630 ft [190 m]). Under worst case conditions any presence of the plume in the main channel (opposite side of the river from the discharge) will be confined to the surface layer of the water. An ample portion of river cross sections containing ambient temperature water for passage or residence of adult striped bass will always be available in the vicinity of this thermal effluent. Although a small portion of river cross section would exceed the thermal tolerance of striped bass, the fish would naturally avoid this area and seek out adjacent cooler water. Therefore, it is concluded the CRBRP thermal effluent will not significantly affect the integrity of the striped bass thermal refuge in the Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir. At this time there is no need to consider alternative diffuser designs and thermal modeling. 8 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  17. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and related fluctuations of trade winds in the region. The Southeast Asian sea region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer timescales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past 20 years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the Southeast Asian sea region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends during the 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the Southeast Asian seas will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  18. SEAS-ERA: An overarching effort to coordinate marine research policies across Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Nin, Beatriz; Albaigés Riera, Joan

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. The aim of the SEAS-ERA initiative (2010-2014), developed within the European Union Framework Programme (EU FPVII) (contract 249552), was to coordinate the structure of national and regional marine and maritime research programs to empower and strengthen marine research all across Europe. A major goal was the development and implementation of common research strategies and programs related to European seas basins. To achieve this goal, SEAS-ERA was applied at two differen...

  19. Enhanced Open Ocean Storage of CO2 from Shelf Sea Pumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, H.; Bozec, Y.; Elkalay, K.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal field observations show that the North Sea, a Northern European shelf sea, is highly efficient in pumping carbon dioxide fromthe atmosphere to the North Atlantic Ocean. The bottom topography–controlled stratification separates production and respiration processes in the North Sea, causing a

  20. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  1. Notes on Myxobolus inoratus, n sp, a Myxosporidian, parasitic in the black bass (Huro floridana, Le Sueur)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, F.F.

    1939-01-01

    A largemouth black bass fingerling preserved in formalin was sent to the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Pathology Laboratory at Seattle, Washington, during the autumn of 1937, by a hatchery employee at Miles City, Montana. The fish exhibited several wart-like protuberances on the caudal peduncle, which aroused the curiosity of Mr. H. C. Topel, in charge of fish distribution at Miles City. He had observed the gradually increasing numbers of these lesions on the fish at this station for several years previous to 1937. Mr. Topel estimated that in 1937, 20 per cent of the adult bass were infected at the time of distribution, and lesions were noted on the fingerling and yearling stock as well.

  2. Controlled Acoustic Bass System (CABS) A Method to Achieve Uniform Sound Field Distribution at Low Frequencies in Rectangular Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    The sound field produced by loudspeakers at low frequencies in small- and medium-size rectangular listening rooms is highly nonuniform due to the multiple reflections and diffractions of sound on the walls and different objects in the room. A new method, called controlled acoustic bass system (CA......-frequency range. CABS has been simulated and measured in two different standard listening rooms with satisfactory results....

  3. Reproductive biology of the peacock bass Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae), an exotic species in a Neotropical reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Augusto B. C.; Salvador-Jr., Luiz F.; Melo, Rafael M. C.; Santos, Gilmar B.; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the reproductive biology of the peacock bass Cichla piquiti, 361 specimens were collected bimonthly in the Itumbiara Reservoir, southeast Brazil, from December 2004 to November 2005. Males and females in reproductive activity occurred during almost the entire year, with reproductive peak occurring before the beginning of the rains when the water temperature remained low, indicating that these environmental variables do not directly influence in the reproduction of C. piquiti. The l...

  4. San Francisco Estuary Striped Bass Migration History Determined by Electron-microprobe Analysis of Otolith Sr/Ca Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrach, D J; Phillis, C C; Weber, P K; Ingram, B L; Zinkl, J G

    2004-09-17

    Habitat use has been shown to be an important factor in the bioaccumulation of contaminants in striped bass. This study examines migration in striped bass as part of a larger study investigating bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of xenobiotics to progeny in the San Francisco Estuary system. Habitat use, residence time and spawning migration over the life of females (n = 23) was studied. Female striped bass were collected between Knights Landing and Colusa on the Sacramento River during the spawning runs of 1999 and 2001. Otoliths were removed, processed and aged via otolith microstructure. Subsequently, otoliths were analyzed for strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) ratio using an electron-microprobe to measure salinity exposure and to distinguish freshwater, estuary, and marine habitat use. Salinity exposure during the last year before capture was examined more closely for comparison of habitat use by the maternal parent to contaminant burden transferred to progeny. Results were selectively confirmed by ion microprobe analyses for habitat use. The Sr/Ca data demonstrate a wide range of migratory patterns. Age of initial ocean entry differs among individuals before returning to freshwater, presumably to spawn. Some fish reside in freshwater year-round, while others return to more saline habitats and make periodic migrations to freshwater. Frequency of habitat shifts and residence times differs among fish, as well as over the lifetime of individual fish. While at least one fish spent its final year in freshwater, the majority of spawning fish spent their final year in elevated salinity. However, not all fish migrated to freshwater to spawn in the previous year. Results from this investigation concerning migration history in striped bass can be combined with contaminant and histological developmental analyses to better understand the bioaccumulation of contaminants and the subsequent effects they and habitat use have on fish populations in the San Francisco Estuary system.

  5. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) as vectors of contaminants to human consumers in northwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Snyder, Richard A.; Lange, Ted; Gibson, Suzanne; Allison, Jeffrey G.; Wagner, Matthew E.; Rao, K. Ranga

    2011-01-01

    The health benefits of regular consumption of fish and seafood have been espoused for many years. However, fish are also a potential source of environmental contaminants that have well known adverse effects on human health. We investigated the consumption risks for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides; n = 104) and striped mullet (Mugil cephalus; n = 170), two commonly harvested and consumed fish species inhabiting fresh and estuarine waters in northwest Florida. Skinless fillets were analyzed for total mercury, inorganic arsenic, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides. Contaminant levels were compared to screening values (SV) calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations for establishing consumption advisories. Largemouth bass were found to contain high levels of total mercury at all sampling locations (0.37-0.89 ug/g) and one location exhibited elevated total PCBs (39.4 ng/g). All of the samples exceeded Florida fish consumption advisory trigger levels for total mercury and one location exceeded the U.S. EPA SV for total PCBs. As a result of the high mercury levels, the non-cancer health risks (hazard index-HI) for bass were above 1 for all locations. Striped mullet from several locations with known point sources contained elevated levels of PCBs (overall range 3.4-59.3 ng/g). However, total mercury levels in mullet were low. Eight of the 16 mullet sampling locations exceeded the U.S. EPA SV for total PCBs and two locations exceeded an HI of 1 due to elevated PCBs. Despite the elevated levels of total PCBs in some samples, only two locations exceeded the acceptable cancer risk range and therefore cancer health risks from consumption of bass and mullet were determined to be low at most sampling locations.

  6. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides Lacépède): reproduction management and larval rearing in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    A. Dees; P. Melotti; R. Vicenzi; A. Roncarati

    2010-01-01

    Micropterus salmoides (Lacépède) was originally present into the waters of the eastern United States of America, northern Mexico and southern Canada. This species can be distinguished from the other black basses by the fact that its mouth extends to and beyond the edge of the eye and the first and the second dorsal fins are almost separated by a deep dip and there are no scales on the soft rayed of the second dorsal fin.

  7. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides Lacépède: reproduction management and larval rearing in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dees

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Micropterus salmoides (Lacépède was originally present into the waters of the eastern United States of America, northern Mexico and southern Canada. This species can be distinguished from the other black basses by the fact that its mouth extends to and beyond the edge of the eye and the first and the second dorsal fins are almost separated by a deep dip and there are no scales on the soft rayed of the second dorsal fin.

  8. Seasonal Relationship between Gonadotropin, Growth Hormone, and Estrogen Receptor mRNA Expression in the Pituitary Gland of Largemouth Bass

    OpenAIRE

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J.; Porak, Wesley F.; Steward, Cheree; Grier, Harry J.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal changes in pituitary gonadotropins, growth hormone (GH), and estrogen receptor (ER) isoform mRNA in wild female and male largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides) from an unpolluted habitat to better understand reproductive physiology in this ecologically important species. Female pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) β subunit and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β subunit mRNA showed significant seasonal variation with levels ...

  9. Multinomial N-mixture models improve the applicability of electrofishing for developing population estimates of stream-dwelling Smallmouth Bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Robert; Brewer, Shannon K.

    2017-01-01

    Failure to account for variable detection across survey conditions constrains progressive stream ecology and can lead to erroneous stream fish management and conservation decisions. In addition to variable detection’s confounding long-term stream fish population trends, reliable abundance estimates across a wide range of survey conditions are fundamental to establishing species–environment relationships. Despite major advancements in accounting for variable detection when surveying animal populations, these approaches remain largely ignored by stream fish scientists, and CPUE remains the most common metric used by researchers and managers. One notable advancement for addressing the challenges of variable detection is the multinomial N-mixture model. Multinomial N-mixture models use a flexible hierarchical framework to model the detection process across sites as a function of covariates; they also accommodate common fisheries survey methods, such as removal and capture–recapture. Effective monitoring of stream-dwelling Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu populations has long been challenging; therefore, our objective was to examine the use of multinomial N-mixture models to improve the applicability of electrofishing for estimating absolute abundance. We sampled Smallmouth Bass populations by using tow-barge electrofishing across a range of environmental conditions in streams of the Ozark Highlands ecoregion. Using an information-theoretic approach, we identified effort, water clarity, wetted channel width, and water depth as covariates that were related to variable Smallmouth Bass electrofishing detection. Smallmouth Bass abundance estimates derived from our top model consistently agreed with baseline estimates obtained via snorkel surveys. Additionally, confidence intervals from the multinomial N-mixture models were consistently more precise than those of unbiased Petersen capture–recapture estimates due to the dependency among data sets in the

  10. Victims Themselves of a Close Encounter: On the Sensory Language and Bass Fiction of Space Ape (In Memoriam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tobias c. van Veen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This text is written in memoriam to dubstep emcee and poet Space Ape (Stephen Samuel Gordon, b. June 17th, 1970; d. October 2nd, 2014. By his own words, Space Ape arose from the depths of the black Atlantic, on a mission to relieve the “pressure” through bass fiction. My aim is to explicate Space Ape’s bass fiction as the intersection of material and imaginal forces, connecting it to a broader Afrofuturist constellation of mythopoetic becomings. Memory and matter converge in the affect and sounding of Space Ape the “hostile alien” (“Space Ape”, Burial, 2006, a figure shaped at the intersection of the dread body, riddim warfare, and speculative lyricism. Space Ape set out to “xorcise” that which consumed him from within by embracing the “spirit of change”. Turning to process philosophy, I demonstrate how Space Ape’s bass fiction—his virtual body—activates the abstract concepts of becoming in the “close encounter” with the hostile alien.

  11. Effect of mercury on general and reproductive health of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from three lakes in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Andrew S; Costain, E Kimble; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Stansley, William; Washuta, Edmund J

    2002-06-01

    The influence of mercury on the general and reproductive health of wild fish populations has not been well studied. Therefore, a variety of health and reproductive indicators were measured in male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) collected from three bodies of water in New Jersey: Assunpink Lake, Manasquan Reservoir, and Atlantic City Reservoir. The mean mercury content in fish muscle from Assunpink Lake was 0.30 microg/g; from Manasquan Reservoir, 1.23 microg/g; and from Atlantic City Reservoir, 5.42 microg/g. Body weight, length, condition factor, and gonadosomatic index were similar for all three lakes. Furthermore, there was no significant relationship between muscle mercury content and adrenocortical function, indicated by interrenal nuclear diameter and serum cortisol levels following stress. Bass from the Atlantic City Reservoir had a slightly lower, although significant, liver somatic index than bass from the two other lakes. A significant, positive correlation between 11-ketotestosterone serum concentrations and mercury muscle content was detected, although no significant relationship between testosterone serum concentrations and mercury muscle content was found. The findings of this study suggest that, while elevated levels of mercury in fish potentially alter androgen profiles, they do not substantially decrease other indicators of general and reproductive health. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  12. Interactive effects of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and methoxychlor on hormone synthesis in largemouth bass ovarian cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgert, Christopher J; Gross, Timothy S; Guiney, Patrick D; Osimitz, Tomas G; Price, Bertram; Wells, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and methoxychlor were tested alone and in combination to assess the similarity of their actions on hormone synthesis in gonadal tissue from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus), a species whose reproductive fitness has relevance to ecosystem health in Florida (USA). Gonads were harvested from adult female bass (age, two to three years) during the peak reproductive season (January-May), minced, and incubated in culture medium with or without test agents for 48 h. Duplicates of each treatment were performed in each of three experiments using tissue from a different female. Both 17beta-estradiol and testosterone were measured in aliquots of culture medium by validated radioimmunoassay procedures. Dose-response relationships of individual agents were characterized over a 6-log concentration range (1 X 10(-2) to 1 X 10(4) ppb). Both DDE and methoxychlor, tested individually, produced a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. 17beta-Estradiol levels were unaffected. Mixtures of the agents were tested at all concentration combinations of 0.01, 1, 100, and 10,000 ppb in culture medium. Statistical tests indicated that of 16 dose combinations tested, 15 were antagonistic, and only 1 was additive based on the Loewe additivity model of no interaction. These results imply that methoxychlor and DDE inhibit testosterone production by different mechanisms in bass ovaries.

  13. Sea Level Changes: Determination and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, P. L.; Pugh, D. T.; DeRonde, J. G.; Warrick, R. G.; Hannah, J.

    The measurement of sea level is of fundamental importance to a wide range of research in climatology, oceanography, geology and geodesy. This volume attempts to cover many aspects of the field. The volume opens with a description by Bolduc and Murty of one of the products stemming from the development of tide gauge networks in the northern and tropical Atlantic. This work is relevant to the growth of the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS), the main goal of which is to provide the world with an efficient, coherent sea level monitoring system for océanographie and climatological research. The subsequent four papers present results from the analysis of existing tide gauge data, including those datasets available from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level and the TOGA Sea Level Center. Two of the four, by Wroblewski and by Pasaric and Orlic, are concerned with European sea level changes, while Yu Jiye et al. discuss inter-annual changes in the Pacific, and Wang Baocan et al. describe variability in the Changjiang estuary in China. The papers by El- Abd and A wad, on Red Sea levels, are the only contributions to the volume from the large research community of geologists concerned with sea level changes.

  14. Neutron moderation at very low temperatures (1691); Moderation des neutrons aux tres basses temperatures (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacaze, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-04-15

    Starting from Harwell experiment carried out inside a low-power reactor, we intended to maintain a liquid hydrogen cell in a channel of the EL3 reactor (at Saclay) whose thermal neutrons flux is 10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2}/s. We tried to work out a device giving off an important beam of cold neutrons and able to operate in a way as automatic as possible during many consecutive day without a stop. Several circuits have already been achieved at very low temperatures but they brought out volumes and fluxes much lower than those we used this time. The difficulties we have met in carrying out such a device arose on the one hand from the very high energy release to which any kind of experiment is inevitably submitted when placed near the core of the reactor, on the other, hand from the very little room which is available in experimental channels of reactors. In such condition, it is necessary to use a moderator as effective as possible. This study is divided into three parts ; in the first part, we try to determine: a) conditions in which moderation takes place, hence the volume of the cell; b) materials likely to be used at low temperature and in pile; c) cooling system; hence we had to study fluid flow conditions at very low temperatures in very long ducts. The second part is devoted to the description of the device. The third part ventilates the results we have obtained. (author) [French] Partant de l'experience de Harwell faite dans une pile de faible puissance, nous nous sommes propose de maintenir une cellule d'hydrogene liquide dans un canal de la pile EL3 de Saclay dont le flux de neutrons thermiques est de 10{sup 14} neutrons par seconde et par cm{sup 2}. Nous avons cherche a realiser une installation donnant un faisceau de neutrons froids important, et pouvant fonctionner d'une maniere aussi automatique que possible, pendant des periodes de plusieurs jours sans arret. Plusieurs circuits aux tres basses temperatures ont deja ete realises, mais ils ne mettaient

  15. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sanchez, Brian C. [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources and School of Civil Engineering, 195 Marsteller St., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Szabo, Nancy J.; Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sepulveda, Maria S., E-mail: mssepulv@purdue.edu [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources and School of Civil Engineering, 195 Marsteller St., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2009-10-19

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens ({mu}g/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl{sub 2}) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 {mu}g/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 {mu}g/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 {mu}g/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 {mu}g/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants.

  16. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Sanchez, Brian C.; Szabo, Nancy J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2009-01-01

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens (μg/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl 2 ) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 μg/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 μg/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 μg/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 μg/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants.

  17. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Sanchez, Brian C; Szabo, Nancy J; Denslow, Nancy D; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2009-10-19

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens (microg/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl(2)) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 microg/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 microg/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 microg/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 microg/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants.

  18. Safety of oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F) administered in feed to hybrid striped bass, walleyes, and yellow perch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Wolf, J.C.; Schleis, S.M.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F, a medicated premix containing oxytetracycline at 220 g/kg) is approved in the United States to control certain systemic bacterial diseases of salmon and catfish when fed at a rate of 55-82.5 mg per kilogram of bodyweight per day for 10 d. Although oxytetracycline may also control certain systemic bacterial infections in coolwater or scaled warmwater fish, no safety data for such species are available. Our objective was to determine the safety of oxytetracycline administered in feed at nominal doses of 0, 82.5, 248, or 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 to yellow perch Perca flavescens and hybrid striped bass (striped bass Morone saxatilis x white bass M. chrysops) for 10 d and to walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) for 20 d. Yellow perch and hybrid striped bass consumed 50% to 100% of the diet, whereas walleye feed consumption was occasionally less than 50% of the diet. Feed or fecal material was present in the gastrointestinal tract of all necropsied walleyes except for one control fish. The single growth effect was that hybrid striped bass offered a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 were significantly smaller than untreated controls. Oxytetracycline-related histopathological findings were limited to walleyes and were of low severity. The histopathological findings included decreased hematopoietic-lymphopoietic (H&L) tissue in the anterior kidneys, diffuse hyperplasia of the gill filament epithelium, and a decreased prevalence of fish with eosinophilic droplets in their renal tubular epithelial cells. Although the incidence of decreased H&L tissue tended to increase in proportion to oxytetracycline dose, this finding was statistically significant only for fish that received a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1. Given the pathogenicity of the types of bacteria that are controlled by oxytetracycline treatment and the long history of its use in major aquaculture species, the relative risk of the minor oxytetracycline

  19. Magnetic Compass Orientation in the European Eel

    OpenAIRE

    Durif, Caroline M. F.; Browman, Howard I.; Phillips, John B.; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit; V?llestad, L. Asbj?rn; Stockhausen, Hans H.

    2013-01-01

    European eel migrate from freshwater or coastal habitats throughout Europe to their spawning grounds in the Sargasso Sea. However, their route (~ 6000 km) and orientation mechanisms are unknown. Several attempts have been made to prove the existence of magnetoreception in Anguilla sp., but none of these studies have demonstrated magnetic compass orientation in earth-strength magnetic field intensities. We tested eels in four altered magnetic field conditions where magnetic North was set at ge...

  20. An evaluation of biomarkers of reproductive function and potential contaminant effects in Florida largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoidesfloridanus) sampled from the St. Johns River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, María S; Johnson, William E; Higman, John C; Denslow, Nancy D; Schoeb, Trenton R; Gross, Timothy S

    2002-04-22

    The objective of this study was to describe and compare several reproductive parameters for Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) inhabiting the St. Johns River and exposed to different types and/or degrees of contamination. Welaka was selected as the reference site in this study because of its low urban and agricultural development, Palatka is in close proximity to a paper mill plant, the Green Cove site is influenced by marine shipping activities and Julington Creek site receives discharges of domestic wastewater and storm water runoff from recreational boating marinas. For this study, bass were sampled both prior to (September 1996) and during the spawning season (February 1997). In order to characterize chemical exposure, bass livers were analyzed for up to 90 trace organics and 11 trace metal contaminants. Reproductive parameters measured included gonadosomatic index (GSI), histological evaluation of gonads and plasma concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG), 17beta-estradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). In general, the sum of organic chemicals was highest in livers from Palatka bass and bass from Green Cove and Julington Creek had higher hepatic concentrations of low molecular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls when compared to fish from Welaka. Metals were more variable across sites, with highest mean concentrations found in bass from either Julington Creek (Ag, As, Cr, Cu, Zn) or Welaka (Cd, Hg, Pb, Se, Tn). Female bass from Palatka and Green Cove had lower concentrations of E2, VTG and lower GSI in relation to Welaka. Males from Palatka and Green Cove showed comparable declines in 11-KT in relation to males from Julington Creek and GSI were decreased only in Palatka males. These results indicate a geographical trend in reproductive effects, with changes being most pronounced at the site closest to the paper mill (Palatka) and decreasing as the St. Johns River flows downstream. Since reproductive

  1. Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2012. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. Part 2. Introduction trends and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Α. ZENETOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 60 marine non-indigenous species (NIS have been removed from previous lists and 84 species have been added, bringing the total to 986 alien species in the Mediterranean [775 in the eastern Mediterranean (EMED, 249 in the central Mediterranean (CMED, 190 in the Adriatic Sea (ADRIA and 308 in the western Mediterranean (WMED]. There were 48 new entries since 2011 which can be interpreted as approximately one new entry every two weeks. The number of alien species continues to increase, by 2-3 species per year for macrophytes, molluscs and polychaetes, 3-4 species per year for crustaceans, and 6 species per year for fish. The dominant group among alien species is molluscs (with 215 species, followed by crustaceans (159 and polychaetes (132. Macrophytes are the leading group of NIS in the ADRIA and the WMED, reaching 26-30% of all aliens, whereas in the EMED they barely constitute 10% of the introductions. In the EMED, molluscs are the most species-rich group, followed by crustaceans, fish and polychaetes. More than half (54% of the marine alien species in the Mediterranean were probably introduced by corridors (mainly Suez. Shipping is blamed directly for the introduction of only 12 species, whereas it is assumed to be the most likely pathway of introduction (via ballasts or fouling of another 300 species. For approximately 100 species shipping is a probable pathway along with the Suez Canal and/or aquaculture. Approximately 20 species have been introduced with certainty via aquaculture, while >50 species (mostly macroalgae, occurring in the vicinity of oyster farms, are assumed to be introduced accidentally as contaminants of imported species. A total of 18 species are assumed to have been introduced by the aquarium trade. Lessepsian species decline westwards, while the reverse pattern is evident for ship-mediated species and for those introduced with aquaculture. There is an increasing trend in new introductions via the Suez Canal and via

  2. European Marine Information System. Eumaris; European Marine Information System. Eumaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiaffa, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The present paper summarises the activities developed by ETC/MCE, under European Environment Agency (EEA) contract, on the Geographic Information System. The aim of present paper is to introduce some general concepts about the Geographic Information Systems and to investigate the potential of G.I.S. as tool for the assessment of the European seas. Care has also been taken to explain the main technical and educational reasons that led to EUMARIS GIS birth, its evolution in the last year, till to its presentation at the Inter-Regional Forum of the European Conventions held in Venice. GIS is a technological tool phenomenon involving various aspects and different issues; many examples of thematic maps involving that different subjects are shown in the paper. [Italian] Il presente articolo riassume le attivita' svolte, nell'ambito del Geographic Information System, dall'ETC/MCE sotto contratto con l'Agenzia Europea per l'Ambiente (EEA) che ha sede a Copenhagen. Scopo del presente articolo e' quello di introdurre alcuni concetti generali sui Geographic Information System (GIS) e di dimostrare la possibilita' di utilizzare il GIS stesso come strumento per la valutazione dello stato dei mari dell'Europa. Si e' cercato di spiegare le principali ragioni tecniche che hanno portato alla nascita del progeto del GIS EUMARIS, alla sua realizzazione fino alla sua presentazione all'Inter-Regional Forum of European Conventions tenutosi a Venezia. Si e' cercato anche di mostrare come un GIS per sua natura e' uno strumento che coinvolge vari aspetti tecnologici e differenti tipi di dati; nell'articolo vengono mostrati diversi esempi di mappe tematiche che contengono tali differenti argomenti.

  3. Skeletal deformities in smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieui, from southern Appalachian reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Avyle, M J; Garvick, S J; Blazer, V S; Hamilton, S J; Brumbaugh, W G

    1989-09-01

    Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) populations in two of five reservoirs sampled in the southern Appalachian Mountains contained high percentages of individuals with lordosis, kyphosis, or scoliosis. Deformities of the vertebral column occurred in several year classes and varied with fish size; they were absent in small fish, present in 25-30% of the fish 241-300 mm long, and then decreased in occurrence with increased length. Because environmental contamination is often responsible for high occurrences of deformed fish, whole-body concentrations of contaminants, bone development characteristics, and blood plasma concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in normal and deformed fish were measured and compared the results with those for fish from reservoirs where no deformities were found. Vertebrae were significantly weaker and more elastic in deformed than in normal fish, but biochemical properties of vertebrae were similar among the groups tested. Concentrations of pesticides and metals were not elevated in deformed fish, and concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in blood plasma were similar in normal and deformed groups. Most environmental contaminants that have been shown to cause fish deformities could be discounted as causative agents on the basis of these results; however, the exact cause was not determined. Further attempts to diagnose the cause of the deformities were limited by the lack of background information on relationships among bone development processes, types of stresses that cause deformities, and types of bone tissue in fish.

  4. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting reservoirs contaminated with mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brundage, S.; Jagoe, C.H.; Shaw-Allen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Active transport of Na + and K + for osmoregulation in fish involves gill Na + , K + -ATPase, a membrane-bound enzyme powered by hydrolysis of ATP. Na + , K + -ATPase is inhibited by many dissolved metals including Al, Cd, Cu and Hg, resulting in ionoregulatory dysfunction. However, dissolved Hg concentrations are quite low in most aquatic systems, and dietary sources are the most important contributors to Hg burdens in fish. One recent study demonstrated relationships between muscle Hg concentration and gill Na + , K + -ATPase in a marine fish, suggesting that Hg accumulated via diet can affect osmoregulation. The authors tested for such a relationship in several age-classes of a freshwater fish (Micropterus salmoides) collected from three reservoirs. Fish from Par Pond and L Lake, on the USDOE Savannah River Site in South Carolina had relatively high Hg content: for Par Pond, muscle and liver ranged from 1.58--12.01 and 1.46--23.22 microg Hg/g dry mass, respectively, and for L Lake muscle and liver ranged from 3.11--5.16 and 1.28--12.59 microg Hg/g dry mass, respectively. Bass from an offsite location, Thurmond Lake, had significantly (P + , K + -ATPase activity was not evident

  5. Sex-specific consequences of experimental cortisol elevation in pre-reproductive wild largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Constance M; Nannini, Michael; Wahl, David H; Wilson, Samantha M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Cooke, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Experimental implants were used to investigate the effect of elevated cortisol (the primary stress hormone in teleost fish) on energetic and physiological condition prior to reproduction in male and female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Fish were wild-caught from lakes in Illinois, and held in experimental ponds for the duration of the study. Between 9 and 13 days after cortisol treatment, and immediately prior to the start of the reproductive period, treated and control animals were sampled. Females exhibited lower muscle lipid content, lower liver glycogen content, and higher hepatosomatic indices than males, regardless of treatment. Also, cortisol-treated females had higher hepatosomatic indices and lower final mass than control females, whereas males showed no differences between treatment groups. Finally, cortisol-treated females had higher gonadal cortisol concentrations than control females. In general, we found evidence of reduced energetic stores in female fish relative to male fish, likely due to timing differences in the allocation of resources during reproduction between males and females. Perhaps driven by the difference in energetic reserves, our data further suggest that females are more sensitive than males to elevated cortisol during the period immediately prior to reproduction. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dietary exposure of largemouth bass to OCPs changes expression of genes important for reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Barber, David S; Gross, Timothy S; Johnson, Kevin G; Sepúlveda, María S; Szabo, Nancy J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2006-07-20

    Dieldrin and p,p'-DDE are ubiquitous contaminants known to act as endocrine disruptors, causing impaired development and reproduction in fish and wildlife. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which dieldrin and p,p'-DDE cause endocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), fish were exposed subchronically through the diet to both contaminants. Following 120 days of exposure, p,p'-DDE decreased estradiol in females, but increased 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Dieldrin on the other hand, decreased estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Both pesticides also altered steady state mRNA expression levels of a set of genes chosen to represent three possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption: (1) direct interaction with soluble sex steroid receptors, (2) biosynthesis of endogenous sex hormones, and (3) metabolism of endogenous hormones. p,p'-DDE acted as a weak estrogen, increasing the expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor alpha in the liver. p,p'-DDE also altered the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of endogenous hormones as well as their metabolism. Dieldrin, on the other hand, only altered expression of vitellogenin and not estrogen receptor alpha. Dieldrin also altered the expression of genes involved in hormone synthesis and metabolism, and it dramatically lowered plasma hormone levels. Both pesticides targeted expression of genes involved in all three modes of action, suggesting that they each have multiple modes of action.

  7. Differential expression of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) estrogen receptor isotypes alpha, beta, and gamma by estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Kroll, Kevin J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2004-04-15

    The expression levels of three estrogen receptor (ER) isotypes alpha, beta, and gamma were quantified in female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) (LMB) liver, ovary, brain, and pituitary tissues. ER alpha and beta expression predominated in the liver, while ERs beta and gamma predominated in the other tissues. Temporally in females, ER alpha was highly up-regulated, ER gamma was slightly up-regulated, and ER beta levels remained unchanged in the liver when plasma 17-beta estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (Vtg) levels were elevated in the spring. In ovarian tissue from these same fish, all three ERs were maximally expressed in the fall, during early oocyte development and prior to peak plasma E2 levels. When males were injected with E2, ER alpha was highly inducible, ER gamma was moderately up-regulated, and ER beta levels were not affected. None of the ER isotypes were induced by E2 in gonadal tissues. These results combined suggest that the ERs themselves are not regulated in the same manner by E2, and furthermore, do not contribute equally to the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in fish reproduction such as Vtg.

  8. The BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS) DR1-Spectral Measurements, Derived Quantities, and AGN Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael; BASS Team

    2018-01-01

    We present the first catalog and data release of the Swift-BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS). We analyze optical spectra of the majority of AGN (77%, 641/836) detected based on their 14-195 keV emission in the 70-month Swift BAT all-sky catalog. This includes redshift determination, absorption and emission line measurements, and black hole mass and accretion rate estimates for the majority of obscured and un-obscured AGN (74%, 473/641) with 340 measured for the first time. With ~90% of sources at z10^21.9 cm^-2. Seyfert 1.9 show a range of column densities. Compared to narrow line AGN in the SDSS, the X-ray selected AGN have a larger fraction of dusty host galaxies suggesting these types of AGN are missed in optical surveys. Using the most sensitive [OIII]/Hbeta and [NII]/Halpha emission line diagnostic, about half of the sources are classified as Seyferts, ~15% reside in dusty galaxies that lack an Hbeta detection, but for which the line upper limits imply either a Seyfert or LINER, ~15% are in galaxies with weak or no emission lines despite high quality spectra, and a few percent each are LINERS, composite galaxies, HII regions, or in known beamed AGN.

  9. A radioisotope study of the dispersion of ferric hydroxide floc in Bass Strait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, A.

    1983-01-01

    The dispersion of ferric hydroxide floc in Bass Strait waters adjacent to Burnie, Tasmania, has been investigated using radioisotope tracer techniques. Gold-198 labelled floc was employed to follow the movement of floc produced by dilution of the iron-rich effluent from a titanium dioxide plant. Dispersion was determined under calm and storm conditions. Tidal and wind-driven currents were measured, oscillating wave generated currents were calculated, and lateral and vertical dispersion coefficients were determined. It is concluded that floc disperses episodically during storms. The agglomerated floc remains trapped in a stable seabed layer which spreads slowly at seabed level when wind velocities are less than 15 m s -1 . When wind velocities exceed this level, the wave generated oscillating currents at seabed level, 30 m below the surface, are strong enough to raise the floc into suspension where advective dispersion occurs. Since tidal currents in the area are negligible, the direction of floc movement depends on the direction of the wind-driven current during each storm

  10. Dietary exposure of largemouth bass to OCPs changes expression of genes important for reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Barber, D.S.; Gross, T.S.; Johnson, K.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Szabo, N.J.; Denslow, N.D.

    2006-01-01

    Dieldrin and p,p???-DDE are ubiquitous contaminants known to act as endocrine disruptors, causing impaired development and reproduction in fish and wildlife. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which dieldrin and p,p???-DDE cause endocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), fish were exposed subchronically through the diet to both contaminants. Following 120 days of exposure, p,p???-DDE decreased estradiol in females, but increased 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Dieldrin on the other hand, decreased estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Both pesticides also altered steady state mRNA expression levels of a set of genes chosen to represent three possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption: (1) direct interaction with soluble sex steroid receptors, (2) biosynthesis of endogenous sex hormones, and (3) metabolism of endogenous hormones. p,p???-DDE acted as a weak estrogen, increasing the expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor ?? in the liver. p,p???-DDE also altered the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of endogenous hormones as well as their metabolism. Dieldrin, on the other hand, only altered expression of vitellogenin and not estrogen receptor ??. Dieldrin also altered the expression of genes involved in hormone synthesis and metabolism, and it dramatically lowered plasma hormone levels. Both pesticides targeted expression of genes involved in all three modes of action, suggesting that they each have multiple modes of action. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In situ reproduction, abundance, and growth of young-of-year and adult largemouth bass in a population exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Dudley W; Greenberg, Emily S; Helser, Thomas E; Branton, Margaret; Jenkins, Kenneth D

    2004-07-01

    We conducted a two-year field study (2000-2001) in the Housatonic River, Massachusetts (USA) to determine if we could detect in situ population-level effects on largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Calculated whole-body PCB concentrations in adult bass in 2002 averaged 121 mg/kg (range = 34-556 mg/kg). Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in young-of-year (YOY) composites in 2000 and 2002 averaged 28 mg/kg (range = 21-41 mg/kg) and 19 mg/kg (range = 16-24 mg/kg), respectively. Laboratory studies of fish have reported PCB toxicity at exposure levels below and within the range of those found in the Housatonic River. We evaluated five field-derived metrics: reproductive activity, relative abundance of YOY, YOY growth rates, adult growth, and adult condition to determine whether we could detect effects of PCBs in the largemouth bass population. These computed metrics, when compared with data sets assembled for numerous largemouth bass populations in North America, provided no evidence of population-level impairment. Results of this study suggest that PCB tissue concentrations associated with effects in laboratory studies do not necessarily translate to detectable effects on largemouth bass populations in their natural environment.

  12. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, P.; Partnership, Emso

    2009-04-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO development relays upon the synergy between the scientific community and the industry to improve the European competitiveness with respect to countries like USA/Canada, NEPTUNE, VENUS and MARS projects, Taiwan, MACHO project, and Japan, DONET project. In Europe the development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90, and presently supported by EU initiatives. The EMSO infrastructure will constitute the extension to the sea of the land-based networks. Examples of data recorded by seafloor observatories will be presented. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase (PP), funded in the EC FP7 Capacities Programme. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years with the participation of 12 Institutions representing 12 countries. EMSO potential will be significantly increased also with the interaction with other Research Infrastructures addressed to Earth Science. 2. IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph Waldmann); IMI-Irish Marine Institute (Ireland, ref. Michael Gillooly); UTM-CSIC-Unidad de

  13. RENEWABLE ENERGY STRATEGIES: WHERE EUROPEAN UNION HEADED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The states from European Union must take advantage from renewable energy sources in order to revive the economy. Climate change creates new jobs and could reduce energy imports which would stimulate the economy of those states. The European Union should support research in the field, apply more efficient policies in energy, and create economies of scale to get an integrated European energy market in which the main actors can reduce the cost of production of renewable energy. In addition, it is possible to use the comparative advantages of the Member States and not only, like Greece, through solar energy, Southern Mediterranean, through distribution networks interconnections with EU, Russia and Ukraine, through biomass and the North Sea, through wind energy. This paper refers to the evolution and trends of the renewable energy sources and presents some scenarios of it.

  14. The consideration of health in strategic environmental assessment (SEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Thomas B; Matuzzi, Marco; Nowacki, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Following the requirements of the European Directive 2001/42/EC on strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and the Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment (Kiev, 2003) to the Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo, 1991), health is one of the aspects to be considered in SEA. In this paper, results of an evaluation of eight SEAs from Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (England and Wales) regarding the consideration of health are presented. This includes SEAs for five spatial plans, as well as one SEA for each, a transport, a waste management and an economic development plan. It is found that while all SEAs cover important physical and natural aspects that are related to health, social and behavioural aspects are considered to a much smaller extent. Based on the results, facilitating factors and barriers for health inclusive SEA are identified. Overall, good baseline data can be seen as an important starting point for effective health inclusive SEA, while an effective monitoring system is crucial for effective implementation of the measures and recommendations brought forward in health inclusive SEA. Crucially, health authorities/health experts need to engage more with SEA, as this provides a key platform for cross sectoral dialogue on a range of issues. SEA presents the health sector with an opportunity to influence the policy and decision-making process to improve people's health and well-being.

  15. Improving oral hygiene skills by computer-based training: a randomized controlled comparison of the modified Bass and the Fones techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Harnacke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gingivitis and other plaque-associated diseases have a high prevalence in western communities even though the majority of adults report daily oral hygiene. This indicates a lack of oral hygiene skills. Currently, there is no clear evidence as to which brushing technique would bring about the best oral hygiene skills. While the modified Bass technique is often recommended by dentists and in textbooks, the Fones technique is often recommended in patient brochures. Still, standardized comparisons of the effectiveness of teaching these techniques are lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a final sample of n = 56 students, this multidisciplinary, randomized, examiner-blinded, controlled study compared the effects of parallel and standardized interactive computer presentations teaching either the Fones or the modified Bass technique. A control group was taught the basics of tooth brushing alone. Oral hygiene skills (remaining plaque after thorough oral hygiene and gingivitis were assessed at baseline and 6, 12, and 28 weeks after the intervention. We found a significant group×time interaction for gingivitis (F(4/102 = 3.267; p = 0.016; ε = 0.957; η(2 = 0.114 and a significant main effect of group for oral hygiene skills (F(2/51 = 7.088; p = 0.002; η(2 = 0.218. Fones was superior to Bass; Bass did not differ from the control group. Group differences were most prominent after 6 and 12 weeks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present trial indicates an advantage of teaching the Fones as compared to the modified Bass technique with respect to oral hygiene skills and gingivitis. Future studies are needed to analyze whether the disadvantage of teaching the Bass technique observed here is restricted to the teaching method employed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003488.

  16. There’s More to Groove than Bass in Electronic Dance Music: Why Some People Won’t Dance to Techno

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between audio descriptors for groove-based electronic dance music (EDM) and raters’ perceived cognitive, affective, and psychomotor responses. From 198 musical excerpts (length: 15 sec.) representing 11 subgenres of EDM, 19 low-level audio feature descriptors were extracted. A principal component analysis of the feature vectors indicated that the musical excerpts could effectively be classified using five complex measures, describing the rhythmical properties of: (a) the high-frequency band, (b) the mid-frequency band, and (c) the low-frequency band, as well as overall fluctuations in (d) dynamics, and (e) timbres. Using these five complex audio measures, four meaningful clusters of the EDM excerpts emerged with distinct musical attributes comprising music with: (a) isochronous bass and static timbres, (b) isochronous bass with fluctuating dynamics and rhythmical variations in the mid-frequency range, (c) non-isochronous bass and fluctuating timbres, and (d) non-isochronous bass with rhythmical variations in the high frequencies. Raters (N = 99) were each asked to respond to four musical excerpts using a four point Likert-Type scale consisting of items representing cognitive (n = 9), affective (n = 9), and psychomotor (n = 3) domains. Musical excerpts falling under the cluster of “non-isochronous bass with rhythmical variations in the high frequencies” demonstrated the overall highest composite scores as evaluated by the raters. Musical samples falling under the cluster of “isochronous bass with static timbres” demonstrated the overall lowest composite scores as evaluated by the raters. Moreover, music preference was shown to significantly affect the systematic patterning of raters’ responses for those with a musical preference for “contemporary” music, “sophisticated” music, and “intense” music. PMID:27798645

  17. Utilization of protein expression profiles as indicators of environmental impairment of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) from the Shenandoah River, Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Jennifer; Iwanowicz, Luke; Blazer, Vicki; Foran, Christy

    2008-08-01

    The Shenandoah River (VA, USA), the largest tributary of the Potomac River (MD, USA) and an important source of drinking water, has been the site of extensive fish kills since 2004. Previous investigations indicate environmental stressors may be adversely modulating the immune system of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and other species. Anterior kidney (AK) tissue, the major site of blood cell production in fish, was collected from smallmouth bass at three sites along the Shenandoah River. The tissue was divided for immune function and proteomics analyses. Bactericidal activity and respiratory burst were significantly different between North Fork and mainstem Shenandoah River smallmouth bass, whereas South Fork AK tissue did not significantly differ in either of these measures compared with the other sites. Cytotoxic cell activity was highest among South Fork and lowest among North Fork AK leukocytes. The composite two-dimension gels of the North Fork and mainstem smallmouth bass AK tissues contained 584 and 591 spots, respectively. South Fork smallmouth bass AK expressed only 335 proteins. Nineteen of 50 proteins analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight were successfully identified. Three of the four identified proteins with increased expression in South Fork AK tissue were involved in metabolism. Seven proteins exclusive to mainstem and North Fork smallmouth bass AK and expressed at comparable abundances serve immune and stress response functions. The proteomics data indicate these fish differ in metabolic capacity of AK tissue and in the ability to produce functional leukocytes. The variable responses of the immune function assays further indicate disruption to the immune system. Our results allow us to hypothesize underlying physiological changes that may relate to fish kills and suggest relevant contaminants known to produce similar physiological disruption.

  18. Assessment of reproductive effects in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, M S; Ruessler, D S; Denslow, N D; Holm, S E; Schoeb, T R; Gross, T S

    2001-11-01

    This study evaluated the potential effects of different concentrations of bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluent (B/UKME) on several reproductive endpoints in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The kraft mill studied produces a 50/50 mix of bleached/unbleached market pulp with an estimated release of 36 million gal of effluent/day. Bleaching sequences were C90d10EopHDp and CEHD for softwood (pines) and hardwoods (mainly tupelo, gums, magnolia, and water oaks), respectively. Bass were exposed to different effluent concentrations (0 [controls, exposed to well water], 10, 20, 40, or 80%) for either 28 or 56 days. At the end of each exposure period, fish were euthanized, gonads collected for histological evaluation and determination of gonadosomatic index (GSI), and plasma was analyzed for 17beta-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, and vitellogenin (VTG). Largemouth bass exposed to B/UKME responded with changes at the biochemical level (decline in sex steroids in both sexes and VTG in females) that were usually translated into tissue/organ-level responses (declines in GSI in both sexes and in ovarian development in females). Although most of these responses occurred after exposing fish to 40% B/UKME concentrations or greater, some were observed after exposures to 20% B/UKME. These threshold concentrations fall within the 60% average yearly concentration of effluent that exists in the stream near the point of discharge (Rice Creek), but are above the <10% effluent concentration present in the St. Johns River. The chemical(s) responsible for such changes as well as their mode(s) of action remain unknown at this time.

  19. Molecular impacts of perfluorinated chemicals (PFASs) in the liver and testis of male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in Minnesota Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collí-Dulá, Reyna Cristina; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Streets, Summer; Denslow, Nancy D; Lehr, Randy

    2016-09-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFASs) stem from a wide range of sources and have been detected in aquatic ecosystems worldwide, including the upper Midwest and the state of Minnesota in the USA. This study investigated whether fish with high body burden levels of PFASs in the Twin Cities Metro Areas showed any evidence of adverse effects at the level of the transcriptome. We hypothesized that fish with higher body burden levels of PFASs would exhibit molecular responses in the liver and testis that were suggestive of oxidative and general stress, as well as impaired reproduction. Concentrations of PFASs in largemouth bass varied significantly across the sampled lakes, with the lowest concentrations of PFASs found in fish from Steiger and Upper Prior Lakes and the highest concentrations found in fish from Calhoun and Twin Lakes. Largemouth bass with high PFAS concentrations exhibited changes in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, energy production, RNA processing, protein production/degradation and contaminant detoxification, all of which are consistent with biomarker responses observed in other studies with PFASs. However, given the wide range of genes that were differentially expressed across the lakes and the variability observed in the mechanisms through which biological processes were affected, it is unlikely that PFASs are the only stressors affecting largemouth bass in the Twin Cities Metro Areas lakes. Indeed, Twin Lake is affected by the Joslyn superfund site which contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pentachlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dioxins. These compounds are also expected to drive the transcriptomics responses observed, but to what degree is difficult to ascertain at this time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reproductive endocrine disruption in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the Potomac River basin: spatial and temporal comparisons of biological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Henderson, Holly; Mazik, Patricia M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Alvarez, David A.; Young, John A.

    2012-01-01

    A high prevalence of intersex or testicular oocytes (TO) in male smallmouth bass within the Potomac River drainage has raised concerns as to the health of the river. Studies were conducted to document biomarker responses both temporally and spatially to better understand the influence of normal physiological cycles, as well as water quality and land-use influences. Smallmouth bass were collected over a 2-year period from three tributaries of the Potomac River: the Shenandoah River, the South Branch Potomac and Conococheague Creek, and an out-of-basin reference site on the Gauley River. The prevalence of TO varied seasonally with the lowest prevalence observed in July, post-spawn. Reproductive maturity and/or lack of spawning the previous spring, as well as land-use practices such as application of manure and pesticides, may influence the seasonal observations. Annual, seasonal, and site differences were also observed in the percentage of males with measurable concentrations of plasma vitellogenin, mean concentration of plasma vitellogenin in females, and plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol and testosterone in both sexes. Bass collected in the South Branch Potomac (moderate to high prevalence of TO) had less sperm per testes mass with a lower percentage of those sperm being motile when compared to those from the Gauley River (low prevalence of TO). An inverse relationship was noted between TO severity and sperm motility. An association between TO severity and wastewater treatment plant flow, percent of agriculture, total number of animal feeding operations, the number of poultry houses, and animal density within the catchment was observed.

  1. Reproductive endocrine disruption in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the Potomac River basin: spatial and temporal comparisons of biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Vicki S; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Henderson, Holly; Mazik, Patricia M; Jenkins, Jill A; Alvarez, David A; Young, John A

    2012-07-01

    A high prevalence of intersex or testicular oocytes (TO) in male smallmouth bass within the Potomac River drainage has raised concerns as to the health of the river. Studies were conducted to document biomarker responses both temporally and spatially to better understand the influence of normal physiological cycles, as well as water quality and land-use influences. Smallmouth bass were collected over a 2-year period from three tributaries of the Potomac River: the Shenandoah River, the South Branch Potomac and Conococheague Creek, and an out-of-basin reference site on the Gauley River. The prevalence of TO varied seasonally with the lowest prevalence observed in July, post-spawn. Reproductive maturity and/or lack of spawning the previous spring, as well as land-use practices such as application of manure and pesticides, may influence the seasonal observations. Annual, seasonal, and site differences were also observed in the percentage of males with measurable concentrations of plasma vitellogenin, mean concentration of plasma vitellogenin in females, and plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol and testosterone in both sexes. Bass collected in the South Branch Potomac (moderate to high prevalence of TO) had less sperm per testes mass with a lower percentage of those sperm being motile when compared to those from the Gauley River (low prevalence of TO). An inverse relationship was noted between TO severity and sperm motility. An association between TO severity and wastewater treatment plant flow, percent of agriculture, total number of animal feeding operations, the number of poultry houses, and animal density within the catchment was observed.

  2. Magnetic structure of Basse-Terre volcanic island (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles) inferred from 3D inversion of aeromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoud, Anne; Bouligand, Claire; Coutant, Olivier; Carlut, Julie

    2017-12-01

    We interpret aeromagnetic data to constrain the magnetic structure of the island of Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. Aeromagnetic data are inverted in the spatial domain with a Bayesian formulation to retrieve the 3D distribution of rock magnetization intensity and polarity. The inversion is regularized using a correlation length and standard deviation for magnetization chosen to be consistent with results from paleomagnetic measurements on lava flow samples from Basse-Terre. The resulting 3D model of magnetization is consistent at the surface with observed polarities and at depth with a 2D model obtained from a Parker and Huestis (1974) inversion in the Fourier domain. The inferred magnetic structure is compared with the available geological information deduced from published geological, geomorphological and geochronological studies. In the southern part of the island, very low magnetization is observed around the Soufrière lava dome, last activity of the Grande-Découverte-Carmichaël-Soufrière composite volcano, in relation with a high level of hydrothermal alteration. High-magnetizations in the South-East might reflect the presence of massive lava flows and lava domes from the Madeleine vents and Monts Caraïbes. Medium magnetizations in the South-West coincide with the location of debris avalanche deposits associated with the collapse of the former Carmichaël volcano and might reflect less massive lava structure at depth. Using the volume of normal polarity in the South part of Basse-Terre recovered in our 3D model of rock magnetization, we estimate an average construction rate of ∼ 9.4 ×10-4 km3/yr during the Brunhes chron which provides new insights on the volcanic activity of La Soufrière volcano.

  3. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  4. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization of the varnish and glue of an ancient 18th century double bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Francesco; Orecchio, Santino; Cicero, Maria Grazia; Di Stefano, Cosimo

    2007-04-20

    A GC-MS investigation is conducted on the double bass "Panormus", property of Conservatorio di Musica "Vincenzo Bellini" in Palermo. The most important components of the varnish (fatty acids) and of the glue (proteinaceous amino acids), with which the musical instrument was treated in the past, are determined. The analyses are carried out by prior derivatization of fatty acids by acidic methanol and of amino acids by acidic methanol and trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). Analytes identification is achieved by direct comparison with several reference materials and the use of a digitized library.

  5. A study on the efficiency of EFQM versus Bass method: Evidence from national land and housing organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Danaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Leadership style plays essential role on the success of organizations. The proposed study of this paper compares the efficiency of leadership study based on EFQM and Bass models in national land and housing organization of Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among all managers on this organization. The study covers all different levels of management including middle and top-level management. The results of the survey indicate that the average efficiency of EFQM model is located in 2.7276

  6. Estudi de la viabilitat tecno-econòmica de la tecnologia de les basses solars. Estudi de cas: Bassa solar d'Escúzar, Granada

    OpenAIRE

    Mañé Gómez, Núria

    2014-01-01

    En aquest projecte es realitza un estudi sobre la viabilitat tecno-econòmica de la tecnologia de les basses solars. Aquesta tecnologia consisteix en la captació d’energia solar per al posterior emmagatzematge i aprofitament d’energia tèrmica a través d’una solució aquosa de sal. Per tant, és una tecnologia completament renovable i adequada per a aquelles industries que requereixin energia tèrmica a baixa temperatura. Prèviament es realitza una recerca sobre les basses solars, tant a nivell te...

  7. Mechanical properties of striped bass fish skin: Evidence of an exotendon function of the stratum compactum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewciw, Lawrence; Barthelat, Francois

    2017-09-01

    Teleost fish skin is a multifunctional natural material with high penetration resistance owing to specialized puncture mechanisms of both the individual scale and the intact scaled integument. In this paper, we explore the possible additional role of the skin in fish undulatory locomotion by examining the structural and mechanical properties of the dermal stratum (s.) compactum layer of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) skin. The structure, mechanical response and function of s. compactum was investigated by combining several methods: optical microscopy and histology, tensile tests on descaled skin specimens in different anatomical locations and orientations, puncture tests, and flexural tests on whole fish with disruption of the s. compactum. Local histological features of the s. compactum, such as collagen fiber angle and degree of crimping, were shown to explain corresponding patterns determined for the tensile properties of the skin along the long axis of the fish, including changes in stiffness, strength and locking strain at stiffening. The fish bending tests demonstrated a tendon-like response of the whole fish and a significant contribution of the s. compactum to the flexural stiffness of the fish. Collectively, the findings show that the s. compactum is a strong tissue with a tendon-like nonlinear response, and which provides an appreciable mechanical protection against sharp puncture and lacerations. Our results also support the theory of an exotendon function of the s. compactum in teleost fish skin. These findings may inspire the design of new multifunctional protective and locomotory systems for a variety of engineering applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fatty Acid Profile of Sunshine Bass: II. Profile Change Differs Among Fillet Lipid Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushenski, Jesse T; Lewis, Heidi A; Kohler, Christopher C

    2008-07-01

    Fatty acid (FA) profile of fish tissue mirrors dietary FA profile and changes in a time-dependent manner following a change in dietary FA composition. To determine whether FA profile change varies among lipid classes, we evaluated the FA composition of fillet cholesteryl esters (CE), phospholipids (PL), and triacylglycerols (TAG) of sunshine bass (SB, Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) raised on feeds containing fish oil or 50:50 blend of fish oil and coconut, grapeseed, linseed, or poultry oil, with or without implementation of a finishing period (100% FO feed) prior to harvest. Each lipid class was associated with a generalized FA signature, irrespective of nutritional history: fillet PL was comprised largely of saturated FA (SFA), long-chain polyunsaturated FA (LC-PUFA), and total n-3 FA; fillet TAG was higher in MC-PUFA and total n-6 FA; and fillet CE was highest in monounsaturated FA (MUFA). Neutral lipids reflected dietary composition in a near-direct fashion; conversely, PL showed evidence of selectivity for MC- and LC-PUFA. Shorter-chain SFA were not strongly reflected within any lipid fraction, even when dietary availability was high, suggesting catabolism of these FA. FA metabolism in SB is apparently characterized by a division between saturated and unsaturated FA, whereby LC-PUFA are preferentially incorporated into tissues and SFA are preferentially oxidized for energy production. We demonstrated provision of SFA in grow-out feeds for SB, instead MC-PUFA which compete for tissue deposition, meets energy demands and allows for maximum inclusion of LC-PUFA within fillet lipids.

  9. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehinto, Alvine C; Prucha, Melinda S; Colli-Dula, Reyna C; Kroll, Kevin J; Lavelle, Candice M; Barber, David S; Vulpe, Christopher D; Denslow, Nancy D

    2014-07-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level - 2.6μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly increased in the liver including genes encoding for the rate limiting steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the catalytic enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase. Integration of the transcriptomic data using functional enrichment analyses revealed a number of enriched gene networks associated with previously reported adverse outcomes of cadmium exposure such as liver toxicity and impaired reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. SEA of river basin management plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone

    2009-01-01

    In, 2000 the European Parliament and the European Council passed the Water Framework Directive (WFD) to be implemented in all Member States. The consequence of the directive is that river basin management plans (RBMPs) shall be prepared which are legally subject to a strategic environmental...... assessment (SEA). An important environmental factor for the water sector is climate change, especially the changes it causes to the water environment. However, based on an argument of an inadequate knowledge base regarding climate change impacts, the prospect of Danish authorities including climate change...

  11. Radioactivity in the northern seas of europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Madruga, Maria Jose; Oliveira, Joao M.; Gouveia, Jorge M.; Silva, Lidia

    2004-01-01

    The recent accidents with nuclear powered Russian submarines, such as the Kursk and the K-159, that took place in the Arctic Seas, give rise to high concerns of the public and the media about the radioactive contamination of marine ecosystems and radiological safety of the European population. Those accidents were preceded by decades of discharges of radioactive liquid effluents into coastal seas of Europe and the dumping of packed radioactive waste into the North Atlantic. Being Portugal one country with high consumption rate of seafood caught in its own coastal waters as well as in far seas including the Ar tic seas, the investigation of the radioactive contamination of fish was investigated. Analysis of fish from the Sea of Labrador, Sea of Iceland and Barents Sea, has shown that gamma-emitting radionuclides of artificial origin are in general not detected. The only gamma emitting radionuclide present is Cs-137, in concentrations not higher than 0.3 Bq/kg. This radionuclide originates in the deposition of radioactive fallout following nuclear weapon tests performed in the fifties and sixties. Radionuclides in fish from northern regions and in fish from the Portuguese coast generally are present in concentrations lower than those currently reported for fish from the Irish Sea and the Baltic Sea, impacted with the discharges of radioactive waste from Sellafield and the deposition of fallout from Chernobyl, respectively. Nevertheless, the potential for future accidents and the radioactive waste dumped into the North Atlantic may in the future modify this scenario and potentially increase the currently very low radionuclide concentration in fish included in the Portuguese diet. Therefore, the research and radiological surveillance must be maintained in order to monitor the radiological risk and to ensure the quality of food available to consumers. (author)

  12. A European Research Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a summary of the presentation of the European Commissioner, Philippe Busquen, to the European Parliament (beginning of year 2000) with the proposal and method for a revival of the Research and Development in this wider sense in the European Union. The starting point of his thesis is that Europe performs less, and more disorderly, activities in this field that her main competitors. USA and Japan. His basic proposal is a larger coordination among the european research projects, with a previous phase of informatics intoxicator among the european research centres and the cross-linked participation, real of virtual in the experiments and projects. (Author)

  13. Course of sea-level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    This summer, the Environment and Climate Program of the European Union will offer an advanced study course on “sea-level changes on micro to macro timescales: measurements, modeling, interpretation, and application.” The short course will be taught from July 1-12 at the Aesclepon Conference Center on the island of Kos, Greece.The interdisciplinary course is designed to bring together at least 40 students from different disciplines in an attempt to share and disseminate fundamental ideas about sea level change, focusing particularly on changes influenced by anthropogenic factors. Participants will be selected by a scientific panel; the European Union will conduct the course free of charge and will provide free lodging. Students must pay for their own travel expenses and food.

  14. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species and nitrogen deposition to variations in sea salt emissions in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Neumann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the ocean surface by wave-breaking and bubble-bursting processes. These particles impact the atmospheric chemistry by affecting the condensation of gas-phase species and, thus, indirectly the nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with significant air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions in northwestern Europe using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system and are compared to European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP measurement data. The sea salt emission module is extended by a salinity-dependent scaling of the sea salt emissions because the salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea is very low, which leads to considerably lower sea salt mass emissions compared to other oceanic regions. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is considered separately. Additionally, the impacts of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate and ammonium concentrations and on nitrogen deposition are evaluated. The comparisons with observational data show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated farther inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves the predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. The dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to minor increases in NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− and a decrease in NO3− concentrations. However, the overall effect on NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− concentrations is smaller than the deviation from the measurements. Nitrogen wet deposition is

  15. Simulated migration of European eel (Anguilla anguilla, Linnaeus 1758)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, van V.J.T.

    2006-01-01

    The European eel ( Anguillaanguilla L.) is a catadromic fish species with its spawning grounds thousands of kilometers away in the ocean, possibly theSargasso Sea. The objective of this study was to elucidate this oceanic phase of migration

  16. Volcanic evolution of central Basse-Terre Island revisited on the basis of new geochronology and geomorphology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, J.; Quidelleur, X.; Lahitte, P.

    2015-10-01

    Twenty-six new and seven previous K-Ar ages obtained on groundmass separates for samples from the Axial Chain massif (Guadeloupe, F.W.I.), associated with geomorphological investigations, allow us to propose a new model of the volcanic evolution of the central part of Basse-Terre Island. The Axial Chain is composed of four edifices, Moustique, Matéliane, Capesterre, and Icaque mounts, showing coeval activity from 681 ± 12 to 509 ± 10 ka, which contradicts a previous hypothesis that flank collapse affected them successively. Our geomorphological reconstruction shows that the Axial Chain can be considered as a single large volcano, named the Southern Axial Chain volcano (SCA), rather than a succession of several smaller volcanoes. It raises questions regarding the formation of a large depression within the SCA volcano, prior to the construction of the Sans-Toucher volcano between 451 ± 13 and 412 ± 8 ka. Given presently available evidence, a slump affecting the western part of the SCA volcano is the most probable scenario to reconcile the complete age dataset and the present-day morphology of central Basse-Terre. Finally, our study shows that the SCA volcano had a post-activity volume of 90 km3, implying a construction rate of 0.5 km3/kyr. This value strongly constrains interpretations of magma generation processes throughout the Lesser Antilles arc.

  17. Spatial and temporal variation in proportional stock density and relative weight of smallmouth bass in a reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Duke, S.D.; Ward, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Population data for smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui in 20,235 ha John Day Reservoir on the Columbia River were used to (1) determine whether Proportional Stock Density (PSD) and Relative Weight (Wr) varied spatially and temporally in two areas of the reservoir with established smallmouth bass fisheries; (2) explore possible causes of any observed variation; and (3) discuss some management implications and recommendations. Both PSD and Wr varied spatially and monthly in all years examined. On an annual basis, PSD varied at one area but not at the other, whereas Wr showed little variation. Possible explanations for the variation in PSD and Wr are differences in growth, mortality, recruitment, and exploitation. Our data suggested that regulations established or changed on a reservoir-wide basis may have different effects on the fishery, depending on location in the reservoir. Also, pooling data from various areas within a reservoir to yield point estimates of structural indices may not represent the variation present in the population as a whole. The significant temporal variability reflects the importance of determining the proper time to sample fish to yield representative estimates of the variable of interest. In areas with valuable fisheries or markedly different population structures, we suggest that an area-specific approach be made to reservoir fishery management, and that efforts be made toward effecting consistent harvest regulations in interstate waters.

  18. Liver proteome response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to several environmental contaminants: Potential insights into biomarker development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Brian C.; Ralston-Hooper, Kimberly J.; Kowalski, Kevin A.; Dorota Inerowicz, H.; Adamec, Jiri; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2009-01-01

    Liver proteome response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to environmental contaminants was analyzed to identify novel biomarkers of exposure. Adult male bass were exposed to cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ), atrazine, PCB 126, phenanthrene, or toxaphene via intraperitoneal injection with target body burdens of 0.00067, 3.0, 2.5, 50, and 100 μg/g, respectively. After a 96 h exposure, hepatic proteins were separated with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins (vs. controls) recognized and identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. We identified, 30, 18, eight, 19, and five proteins as differentially expressed within the CdCl 2 , atrazine, PCB 126, phenanthrene, and toxaphene treatments, respectively. Alterations were observed in the expression of proteins associated with cellular ion homeostasis (toxaphene), oxidative stress (phenanthrene, PCB 126), and energy production including glycolysis (CdCl 2 , atrazine) and ATP synthesis (atrazine). This work supports the further evaluation of several of these proteins as biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fish.

  19. Causes and consequences of voluntary anorexia during the parental care period of wild male smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kyle C; Abizaid, Alfonso; Cooke, Steven J

    2009-11-01

    By definition, parental care behaviors increase offspring survival, and individual fitness, at some cost to the parent. In smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), parental males provide sole care for the developing brood that includes an increase in activity during brood defense and decreased foraging resulting in a decline in endogenous energy reserves. No mechanisms have been proposed for cessation of voluntary foraging, though regulation of appetite hormones such as ghrelin have been documented to affect feeding behavior in other fishes. We documented baseline fluctuations in plasma ghrelin concentrations across parental care. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were lowest during the early stages of parental care before increasing as the brood developed to independence. Additionally, we performed an intervention experiment whereby plasma ghrelin levels were artificially increased through an injection of rodent ghrelin at the onset of parental care. Despite measuring a significant increase in plasma ghrelin approximately 1 week after injection, we noted no differences in plasma-borne indicators of recent foraging activity indicating that voluntary anorexia is possibly reinforced by receptor insensitivity to appetite hormones. Finally, we assessed the ultimate consequences of foraging during parental care by feeding fish to satiation and measuring post-prandial changes in swimming performance and aggression. Fish fed to satiation showed significant decreases in burst swimming ability and aggressiveness towards potential brood predators. Voluntary anorexia during smallmouth bass parental care is an adaptive behavior that avoids potentially deleterious declines in swimming performance and aggression apparently through a modulation of production and reception of appetite hormones including ghrelin.

  20. Estimated loss of juvenile salmonids to predation by northern squawfish, walleyes, and smallmouth bass in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieman, B.E.; Beamesderfer, R.C.; Vigg, S.; Poe, T.P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors estimated the loss of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. to predation by northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in John Day Reservoir during 1983-1986. Their estimates were based on measures of daily prey consumption, predator numbers, and numbers of juvenile salmonids entering the reservoir during the April-August period of migration. They estimated the mean annual loss was 2.7 million juvenile salmonids. Northern squawfish were responsible for 78% of the total loss; walleyes accounted for 13% and smallmouth bass for 9%. Twenty-one percent of the loss occurred in a small area immediately below McNary Dam at the head of John Day Reservoir. The authors estimated that the three predator species consumed 14% of all juvenile salmonids that entered the reservoir. Mortality changed by month and increased late in the migration season. Monthly mortality estimates ranged from 7% in June and 61% in August. Mortality from predation was highest for chinook salmon O. tshawytscha, which migrated in July and August. Despite uncertainties in the estimates, it is clear that predation by resident fish predators can easily account for previously explained mortality of out-migrating juvenile salmonids. Alteration of the Columbia River by dams and a decline in the number of salmonids could have increased the fraction of mortality caused by predation over what is was in the past