Sample records for european river sediment

  1. Delivery and fate of fluvial water and sediment to the sea: a marine geologist's view of European rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Milliman


    Full Text Available Despite their relatively small drainage areas, European rivers reflect a wide variety of hydrologic regimes, although with very few exceptions they have been strongly affected by human activity. Scandinavian rivers (particularly those draining Iceland and western Norway can have high runoff, and, except for those draining Iceland, all have very low suspended and dissolved sediment loads. Northern and western European rivers have somewhat lower runoff, among the lowest suspended sediment yields in the world, and anthropogenically enhanced dissolved solid loads. Annual discharge of many of these rivers appears to vary inversely with the North Atlantic Oscillation index. Rivers discharging from the southern Alps into the Mediterranean Sea have relatively high runoff, high suspended sediment yields (reflecting younger, more easily erodable rocks as well as generally smaller drainage basins, and high dissolved yields, although presumably with somewhat less human influence. European rivers and their estuaries tend to reflect the terrestrial environments of their drainage basins (i.e. climate, landscape geomorphology, geology, but they also display strong anthropogenic signatures. Sediment erosion increased dramatically in the last several millenia in response to deforestation, farming and mining. In the past 50 years, however, increased soil conservation and local reversion of agricultural land to forest, as well as river diversion and dam construction, have decreased the suspended sediment loads of many European rivers. Improved mining and manufacturing techniques, as well as more effective use of fertilizers and improved waste treatment, almost surely will result in lower dissolved solids and nutrient fluxes to the coastal environments, which presently are the highest in the world. The long-range effects of changed land use on estuarine and coastal environments remain to be seen, although decreased sediment loads in the past 20-40 years have already

  2. Paleo-Erosion Rates From in Situ 10Be in Middle European River Terrace Sediments (United States)

    Schaller, M.; von Blanckenburg, F.; von Blanckenburg, F.; Hovius, N.; Kubik, P. W.


    Exploiting cosmogenic nuclides in sand of dated river terrace can be used to quantify catchment-wide rates of paleo-erosion. The measured cosmogenic 10Be concentration in quartz is corrected for post-depositional irradiation using the known terrace age. The remaining nuclide inventory is attributed to irradiation in the source area of the sediment. This inventory reflects the catchment-wide erosion rate at the time of terrace deposition. This approach has been used to assess the influence of climate change on erosion in the waning stages of the last cold period. Late Pleistocene to Holocene terraces of the Allier and Dore Rivers, France, yield paleo-erosion rates that range from 30 to 55 mm/kyr. These rates are very similar to recent ones measured with 10Be in sands from the active Allier channel (31 to 59 mm/kyr, Schaller et al., 2001). Rates derived independently from the sedimentary fill of a lake in the upstream area of the Allier catchment show strong fluctuations with an erosion maximum of 120 mm/kyr during the Younger Dryas (Macaire et al., 1997). However, these real variations in erosion rates are strongly dampened in the cosmogenic nuclide record due to the method's slow response time. As a result, the Late Pleistocene erosion signal in the terrace sequence is virtually invariant and is propagated into the Holocene terrace and modern bedload erosion rates. The resulting memory of elevated past erosion rates might explain the difference between modern cosmogenic nuclide-derived and much lower river load gauging-derived erosion rates that was observed in Middle European rivers (Schaller et al., 2001). The analysis of Late Pleistocene to Holocene terrace sediments of the Meuse River, the Netherlands, suggest that cosmogenic nuclide-derived paleo-erosion rates have decreased from 60 mm/kyr in the Late Pleistocene to 23 mm/kyr in Holocene times. The results from these 30 kyr of erosion rate records suggest that individual samples from a given terrace interval

  3. Screening of Pesticide and Biocide Patterns As Risk Drivers in Sediments of Major European River Mouths: Ubiquitous or River Basin-Specific Contamination? (United States)

    Massei, Riccardo; Busch, Wibke; Wolschke, Hendrik; Schinkel, Lena; Bitsch, Maike; Schulze, Tobias; Krauss, Martin; Brack, Werner


    Pesticides and biocides (PaB) are ubiquitously present in aquatic ecosystems due to their widespread application and have been detected in rivers at concentrations that may cause distress to aquatic life. Many of these compounds accumulate in sediments acting as long-term source for aquatic ecosystems. However, data on sediment contamination with current-use PaB in Europe are scarce. Thus, in this study, we elucidated PaB patterns and associated risks in sediments of seven major European rivers focusing on their last stretch as an integrative sink of particles transported by these rivers. Sediments were extracted with pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using a broad-spectrum method recovering many compound classes with a wide range of physicochemical properties. Altogether 126 compounds were analyzed and 81 of them were detected with LC-HRMS and GC-NCI-MS/MS at least in one of the sediments. The highest number of compounds was detected (59) in River Elbe sediments close to Cuxhaven with outstanding concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 1691 mg/g organic carbon. Multivariate analysis identified a cluster with 3 ubiquitous compounds (cyhalothrin, carbendazim, fenpropimorph) and three clusters of chemicals with higher variability within and between rivers. Risk assessment indicates an acute toxic risk to benthic crustaceans at all investigated sites with the pyrethroids tefluthrin and cyfluthrin together with the fungicide carbendazim as the main drivers. Risks to algae were driven at most sites almost exclusively by photosynthesis inhibitors with estuary-specific herbicide mixtures, while in the rivers Po and Gironde cell division inhibitors played an important role at some sites. Mixtures of specific concern have been defined and suggested for integration in future monitoring programs.

  4. Haw River sediment quality assessment (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents an evaluation of chemical contaminants in, and toxicity of, sediments collected from impoundments created by dams on the Haw River in Alamance...

  5. Masking effect of anti-androgens on androgenic activity in European river sediment unveiled by effect-directed analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, J.M.; Hamers, T.; Thomas, K.; van der Linden, S.C.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Lamoree, M.H.


    This study shows that the androgen receptor agonistic potency is clearly concealed by the effects of androgen receptor antagonists in a total sediment extract, demonstrating that toxicity screening of total extracts is not enough to evaluate the full in vitro endocrine disrupting potential of a

  6. Old River Control Complex Sedimentation Investigation (United States)


    In an alluvial river, the transport of sediment is tied very closely to the reservoir of sediment available in the sediment bed. Therefore, the...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 5- 8 Old River Control Complex Sedimentation Investigation Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ERDC/CHL TR-15-8 June 2015 Old River Control Complex Sedimentation Investigation Ronald E. Heath, Gary L. Brown

  7. Experiments on sediment pulses in mountain rivers (United States)

    Y. Cui; T. E. Lisle; J. E. Pizzuto; G. Parker


    Pulses of sediment can be introduced into mountain rivers from such mechanisms as debris flows, landslides and fans at tributary confluences. These processes can be natural or associated with the activities of humans, as in the case of a pulse created by sediment derived from timber harvest or the removal of a dam. How does the river digest these pulses?

  8. Sediment fluxes in transboundary Selenga river basin (United States)

    Belozerova, Ekaterina


    Gathering reliable information on transboundary river systems remains a crucial task for international water management and environmental pollution control. Countries located in the lower parts of the river basins depend on water use and management strategies in adjacent upstream countries. One important issue in this context is sediment transport and associated contaminant fluxes across the state borders. The mass flows of dissolved ions, biogens, heavy metal concentrations, as far as suspended sediment concentration (SSC, mg/l) along upper Selenga river and its tributaries based on the literature review and results of field campaigns 2011-2012 were estimated. Based on the water discharges measurements Q, suspended load WR (t/day) and dissolved loads WL were calculated. In the Selenga basin the minimal WR (1,34-3,74 t/day) were found at small rivers. Maximal sediment loads (WR = 15 000 t/day) were found at the upper Orkhon river during flood event. The downstream point (Mongolia-Russia border) was characterized 2 220 t/day in 2011. Generally the prevalence of the accumulation is found through calculating sediment budget for all rivers (ΔW = WR (downstream) - WR (upstream) mining and pastures) increases the portion of clay particles in total sediment load (e.g. at the downstream point of most polluted Orkhon river it reached 207,8 t/day). The existed estimates are compared with distribution of the main matter sources within basin: mining and industry, river-bank erosion and slope wash. The heaviest increase of suspended and dissolved matter transport is indicated along Tuul-Orkhon river system (right tributary of the Selenga river where Mongolia capital Ulaanbaator, gold mine Zaamar and few other mines). The results provide evidence on a connection between increased heavy metal concentrations in water-sediment systems of transboundary rivers and pollutant source zones at industrial and mining centers, both as in-channel erosion and land use.

  9. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  10. Clinch River project: Sediment contaminants in the Lower Clinch River (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment samples from three mainstem and seven tributary sites in the Clinch River Basin were analyzed for 21 organochlorine compounds, 19 metals, total volatile...

  11. Elements patterns of soil and river sediments as a tracer of sediment migration (United States)

    Dordevic, Dragana; Pétursdóttir, Þórunn; Halldórsson, Guðmundur; Sakan, Sanja; Škrivalj, Sandra; Finger, David Christian


    Iceland is the small island on the mid Atlantic ridge, with strong natural catastrophes, such as floods, droughts, landslides, storms and volcanic eruptions that can have devastating impacts on natural and build environment. Rangárvellir area next to Mt Hekla and the glacier Tindfjallajökul has impacted by severe erosion processes but also rich of surface water that play a crucial role in sediment transport processes in the watersheds of the two rivers Eystri-Rangá and Ytri-Rangá. Their sediments consist of various materials originating from volcanoes ash and lava. Difference of contents of various chemical components in sediments and surrounding soil could be bases for identification of erosion processes and watersheds connectivity. River sediment is accumulator of chemical constituents from water in water-sediment interaction, making it as an important material for investigation their migration routes. In order to develop of methods for investigating of sediment migration using their chemical patterns the STSM of Connecteur COST Action ES1306-34336 have been approved. Samples of river sediments and surrounding soils of the Eystri-Rangá and Ytri-Rangá rivers in watersheds of Rangárvellir area as well as primarily volcanic ash from Eyafjallajökull were taken. Sequential extraction of heavy metals and trace elements from collected samples has been applied using the optimized procedure proposed by European Community Bureau of reference (BCR) in the next fractions: 1) soluble in acid - metals that are exchangeable or associated with carbonates; 2) reducible fraction - metals associated with oxides of Fe and Mn; 3) oxidizable fraction - metals associated with organic matter and sulfides and 4) residual fraction - metals strongly associated with the crystalline structure of minerals. Extracted solutions have analyzed by ICP/OES on next elements: Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Si, Sr, V, Zn. Distributions

  12. Development of river sediment monitoring in Croatia (United States)

    Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Mlakar, Marina; Maldini, Krešimir


    Establishment of regular river sediment monitoring, in addition to water monitoring, is very important. Unlike water, which represents the current state of a particular watercourse, sediment represents a sort of record of the state of pollution in the long run. Sediment monitoring is crucial to gain a real insight into the status of pollution of particular watercourses and to determine trends over a longer period of time. First scientific investigations of river sediment geochemistry in Croatia started 1989 in the Krka River estuary [1], while first systematic research of a river basin in Croatia was performed 2005 in Kupa River drainage basin [2]. Up to now, several detailed studies of both toxic metals and organic pollutants have been conducted in this drainage basin and some other rivers, also Croatian scientists participated in river sediment research in other countries. In 2008 Croatian water authorities (Hrvatske Vode) started preliminary sediment monitoring program, what was successfully conducted. In the first year of preliminary program only 14 stations existed, while in 2014 number of stations increased to 21. Number of monitored watercourses and of analysed parameters also increased. Current plan is to establish permanent monitoring network of river sediments throughout the state. The goal is to set up about 80 stations, which will cover all most important and most contaminated watercourses in all parts of the country [3]. Until the end of the year 2016, regular monitoring was conducted at 31 stations throughout the country. Currently the second phase of sediment monitoring program is in progress. At the moment parameters being determined on particular stations are not uniform. From inorganic compounds it is aimed to determine Cd, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cu, Cr, Zn and As on all stations. The ratio of natural concentrations of those elements vs. anthropogenic influence is being evaluated on all stations. It was found that worse situation is with Ni, Hg and Cr, who

  13. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorus in European rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaas, Harry; Kroeze, Carolien


    Rivers export nutrients to coastal waters. Excess nutrient export may result in harmful algal blooms and hypoxia, affecting biodiversity, fisheries, and recreation. The purpose of this study is to quantify for European rivers (1) the extent to which N and P loads exceed levels that minimize the

  14. Kanawha River Basin Sediment Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains sediment size data collected at research sites using a Wolman Pebble Count method. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  15. Chlorinated organic compounds in urban river sediments

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    Soma, Y.; Shiraishi, H.; Inaba, K. [National Inst. of Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Among anthropogenic chemicals, many chlorinated organic compounds have been used as insecticides and detected frequently as contaminants in urban river sediments so far. However, the number and total amount of chemicals produced commercially and used are increasing year by year, though each amount of chemicals is not so high. New types of contaminants in the environment may be detected by the use of newly developed chemicals. Chlorinated organic compounds in the urban river sediments around Tokyo and Kyoto, large cities in Japan, were surveyed and recent trends of contaminants were studied. Contaminants of the river sediments in industrial areas had a variety, but PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) was detected in common in industrial areas. Concentration of PCB related well to the number of factories on both sides of rivers, although the use of PCB was stopped 20 years ago. In domestic areas, Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol) and Triclocarban (3,4,4{prime}-trichlorocarbanilide)(both are contained in soap or shampoo for fungicides), p-dichlorobenzene (insecticides for wears) and TCEP(tris-chloroethyl phosphate) were detected. EOX(extracted organic halogen) in the sediments was 5 to 10 times of chlorinated organic compounds detected by GC/MS. Major part of organic halogen was suggested to be included in chlorinated organics formed by bleaching or sterilization.

  16. Dewatering of contaminated river sediments (United States)

    Church, Ronald H.; Smith, Carl W.; Scheiner, Bernard J.


    Dewatering of slurries has been successfully accomplished by the proper use of polymers in flocculating the fine particulate matter suspended in mineral processing streams. The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) entered into a cooperative research effort with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) for the purpose of testing and demonstrating the applicability of mining flocculation technology to dredging activities associated with the removal of sediments from navigable waterways. The Corps has the responsibility for maintaining the navigable waterways in the United States. Current technology relies primarily on dredging operations which excavate the material from the bottom of waterways. The Corps is testing new dredging technology which may reduce resuspension of sediments by the dredging operation. Pilot plant dredging equipment was tested by the Corps which generated larger quantities of water when compared to conventional equipment, such as the clam shell. The transportation of this 'excess' water adds to the cost of sediment removal. The process developed by the USBM consists of feed material from the barge being pumped through a 4-in line by a centrifugal pump and exiting through a 4-in PVC delivery system. A 1,000-gal fiberglass tank was used to mix the polymer concentrate. The polymer was pumped through a 1-in line using a variable speed progressive cavity pump and introduced to the 4-in feed line prior to passing through a 6-in by 2-ft static mixer. The polymer/feed slurry travels to the clarifying tank where the flocculated material settled to the bottom and allowed 'clean' water to exit the overflow. A pilot scale flocculation unit was operated on-site at the Corps' 'Confined Disposal Facility' in Buffalo, NY.

  17. Factors governing sediment quality (PAH) in rivers (United States)

    Schwientek, Marc; Rügner, Hermann; Scherer, Ulrike; Rode, Michael; Grathwohl, Peter


    The contamination of riverine sediments and suspended matter with hydrophobic pollutants is typically associated with urban land use. It is, however, rarely related to the sediment supply of the watershed. We show for a suite of catchments in two regions of Germany with contrasting land use and geology, that the contamination of suspended particles with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) may be predicted based on the ratio of inhabitants residing within the catchment and the catchment's sediment yield. The applicability of this concept is demonstrated for catchments ranging in size from 100 to >3000 km2. This implies that the loading of particles with PAH is more or less time invariant which is also indicated by long term measurements from sub catchments of the upper Neckar River in Southwest Germany. Data on sediment yields are rare and the installation of appropriate measurement stations is expensive, the establishment of data series time-consuming. Therefore, modeling of sediment yields based on the universal soil loss equation is proposed. Although this method lacks a physical basis, it is feasible at larger scales and is shown to lead to reasonable results at low costs. The importance of catchment properties in terms of sediment supply and the implications of the presented concept for water resources management are discussed. For instance, it may easily be used to estimate the vulnerability of river systems to particle-associated urban pollutants with similar input pathways as the PAH or to indicate if contaminant point sources such as sites of legacy pollution exist in a river catchment.

  18. Nitric oxide turnover in permeable river sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Frank; Stief, Peter; Kuypers, Marcel M M


    We measured nitric oxide (NO) microprofiles in relation to oxygen (O2) and all major dissolved N-species (ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide [N2O]) in a permeable, freshwater sediment (River Weser, Germany). NO reaches peak concentrations of 0.13 μmol L-1 in the oxic zone and is consumed...... in the oxic-anoxic transition zone. Apparently, NO is produced by ammonia oxidizers under oxic conditions and consumed by denitrification under microoxic conditions. Experimental percolation of sediment cores with aerated surface water resulted in an initial rate of NO production that was 12 times higher than...

  19. Environmental qualitative assessment of rivers sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Karbassi


    Full Text Available In this study, the concentrations of heavy metals (Ca, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni in thesediment of Shavoor River in Khuzestan Province in Iran has been investigated. After the library studies and field studies, six samples of water and sediment were taken from the river in order to evaluate heavy metal pollution in sediments. To determine the geochemical phases of metals in sediment samples the 5-step method was used for chemical separation. For quantitative assessment of the severity of contamination in the sediments, the geochemical indicators such as enriched factor (EF and the accumulation index (Igeo were used. Also, the statistical analyses including methods such as correlation analysis cluster analysis the (CA, were conducted.The results of the experiments showed that the organic matter deposited varies with the average of 2.49 and ranges between 1.95% and 3.43%. Samples showed concentrations of metals such as calcium, iron, manganese, copper and nickel at all the sampling points were below the global average, whereas the concentration of copper was slightly higher than the global scale. Enriched factor (EF was calculated for the elements revealed that heavy metals are classified as non-infected. The Geo-accumulation Index showed that the studied elements were uninfected peers. Based on the results of multivariate statistical analysis it was concluded that metals such as manganese, copper, iron, nickel and zinc are mainly natural and calcium metal is likely to have an organic origin.

  20. A suspended sediment yield predictive equation for river basins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An empirical equation that can be used for estimating the suspended sediment yields of river drainage basins without sediment data has been established for basins in the sub-tropical forest Southwestern river basin system of Ghana. The power law equation relates mean annual specific suspended sediment yield (t km-2 ...

  1. Spatial distribution of trace element of Ala river's sediments, Akure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial distribution of trace element of Ala river's sediments, Akure, Southwestern Nigeria. ... Ife Journal of Science ... Abstract. Thirty six river sediment samples were collected from Ala River, Akure, and were analysed by ICP-MS for 14 chemical elements including Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Mn, As, U, Th, Sr, Cd, V, La, and Cr. The ...

  2. A preliminary contaminant and toxicological survey of Illinois River sediments (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediments from 6 sites on the Illinois River adn its tributaries were analyzed for organic and inorganic contaminants. Relative toxicity of sediments was determined...

  3. Chemical analysis of sediments from the St. Lawrence River (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides the results of a preliminary study of sediment contaminant levels in the St. Lawrence River. Sediment was sampled at 1 6 different locations...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Safari


    Full Text Available Sediment-related disaster especially debris flow occurs frequently in various places in Indonesia. It has been well known in general that debris flow contents big size of materials which huge power to destroy the river and surrounding area. Comprehensive measures and rising awareness to prevent the toll of human lives against sediment disaster is considered necessary. Diversion system to proximate river aimed to lessen sediment load by considering its capacities and sediment prevention facilities becomes an alternative counter measure of sediment flood disaster. Information of river diversion capability and associated phenomena due to sediment gravity flow is a fundamental desire for establishing reasonable sediment control plans. Physical model compared to simple mathematical model are conducted to know river diversion capacity to convey sediment. The experiment used a channel made of masonry with 80 cm wide in average and 400 cm length, and 10 % gradient. The proposed sediment control facilities comprises two types, there are open type dam with 33 cm wide, 16cm high (at +1.245m elevation of crest and four slits in main stream river and close type dam 41 cm wide, 15 cm high (at +1.255m elevation of spillway for river diversion. The distance of these facilities is 110 cm. The result of this study is expected to be able to explain the sediment gravity flow behavior in the field. It shows that the performance of river diversion and open type dam control volume depend on quantity and mechanism of sediment flow from upstream, and also elevation of crest of the open type dam. The largest amount of sediment gravity flow entering diversion channel is about 7 % of sediment inflow for +1245 m open dam crest elevation and +1255 m river diversion spillway elevation. Keywords: Natural disaster, sediment, river diversion system.

  5. Dispersal of river sediment in the Southern California Bight (United States)

    Warrick, J.A.; Farnsworth, K.L.


    The rivers of Southern California deliver episodic pulses of water, sediment, nutrients, and pollutants to the region's coastal waters. Although river-sediment dispersal is observed in positively buoyant (hypopycnal) turbid plumes extending tens of kilometers from river mouths, very little of the river sediment is found in these plumes. Rather, river sediment settles quickly from hypopycnal plumes to the seabed, where transport is controlled by bottom-boundary layer processes, presumably including fluid-mud (hyperpycnal) gravity currents. Here we investigate the geographical patterns of river-sediment dispersal processes by examining suspended-sediment concentrations and loads and the continental shelf morphology offshore river mouths. Throughout Southern California, river sediment is discharged at concentrations adequately high to induce enhanced sediment settling, including negative buoyancy. The rivers draining the Western Transverse Range produce suspended-sediment concentrations that are orders of magnitude greater than those in the urbanized region and Peninsular Range to the south, largely due to differences in sediment yield. The majority of sediment discharge from the Santa Clara River and Calleguas Creek occurs above the theoretical negative buoyancy concentration (>40 g/l). These rivers also produce event sediment loading as great as the Eel River, where fluid-mud gravity currents are observed. The continental shelf of Southern California has variable morphology, which influences the ability to transport via gravity currents. Over half of the rivers examined are adjacent to shelf slopes greater than 0.01, which are adequately steep to sustain auto-suspending gravity currents across the shelf, and have little (fluid-mud gravity currents could transport across these shelves, albeit slowly (??10 cm/s) and only with adequate wave-generated shear stress and sediment loading. Calleguas Creek is unique in that it discharges directly into a steepsloped canyon

  6. SMART - Sediment Mitigation Actions for the River Rother, UK (United States)

    Evans, Jennine L.; Foster, Ian; Boardman, John; Holmes, Naomi


    The River Rother, West Sussex, is suffering from excess sediment which is smothering the river bed gravels. This is thought to be exacerbating issues of pollution and degradation of ecosystems. This project aims to identify the severity, extent, possible causes and potential mitigation options available to reduce these pressures on the river. Data have been collected from ten sites to investigate the amount of sediment stored in the river bed gravels and cores obtained from four small reservoirs to establish rates of sedimentation and contribute to the construction of a temporal sediment budget over the last 50-100 years. Evidence suggests that tributary streams have more stored sediment per m2 upstream of their confluence with the River Rother compared to the Rother itself. Reservoir core data indicate that sediment has accumulated more rapidly in the small reservoirs surrounded by mixed agricultural land compared to one surrounded by ancient woodland. These are preliminary results and work is continuing.

  7. Investigation of Cikapundung River's sedimentation using 2D resistivity method (United States)

    Arzaldi, M. Dika; M. Izzudin, P.; Emirza Faisal, D.; Wahida, Arzalia; Widodo


    High rainfall rate in Indonesia makes the outcrop located in the upstream areas easily eroded and some rocks carried by the water flow towards the downstream areas. This research is done in order to identify the silting of Cikapundung's River in Bandung. The method used is 2D resistivity method for mapping sedimentation of Cikapundung's River. The data was taken in KampungPadi Residence, Cisitu, Bandung, West Java. Geological observation's results show that top layer consists of alluvial's sedimentation, basalt tuff, and volcanic conglomerate. Basement of river's flow is volcanic conglomerate which has eroded and sedimentation. Discussion's results show that Cikapundung's river has sedimentation's thickness until 16,4m. This sedimentation consists of top soil and conglomerate rocks. Furthermore, from data processing's result there is an indication that ancient Cikapundung's river, in meander section which have low energy value and then eroded resulting in a shift of the river's flow to the south.

  8. Fractionation and ecological risk of metals in urban river sediments in Zhongshan City, Pearl River Delta. (United States)

    Cai, Jiannan; Cao, Yingzi; Tan, Haijian; Wang, Yanman; Luo, Jiaqi


    Surface sediments collected from nine urban rivers located in Zhongshan City, Pearl River Delta, were analyzed for total concentration of metals with digestion and chemical fractionation adopting the modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction procedure. The results showed that concentration and fractionation of metals varied significantly among the rivers. The total concentration of eight metals in most rivers did not exceed the China Environmental Quality Standard for Soil, Grade III. The potential ecological risk of metals to rivers were related to the land use patterns, in the order of manufacturing areas > residential areas > agriculture areas. The concentration of Pb in the reducible fraction was relatively high (60.0-84.3%). The dominant proportions of Cd, Zn and Cu were primary in the non-residual fraction (67.0%, 71.8% and 81.4% on average respectively), while the percentages of the residual fractions of Cr and Ni varied over a wide range (43-85% and 24-71% respectively). The approaches of the Håkanson ecological risk index and Secondary Phase Enrichment Factor were applied for ecological risk assessment and metal enrichment calculation. The results indicated Hg and Cd had posed high potential ecological risk to urban rivers in this region. Meanwhile, there was widespread pollution and high enrichment of Cu in river sediments in this region. Multiple regression analysis showed that five water quality parameters (pH, DO, COD(Mn), NH(4)(+)-N, TP) had little influence on the distribution of metal fractionation. This result revealed that the ecological risk of metals was not eliminated along with the improvement in water quality. Correlation studies showed that among the metals, Group A (Cd, As, Pb, Zn Hg, r = 0.730-0.924) and Group B (Cr, Cu, Ni, r = 0.815-0.948) were obtained, and the metal contaminations were from industrial activities rather than residential.

  9. Analysis of Sedimentation Rates in the Densu River Channel: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediment is important in determining the morphology of river systems. The Densu basin has come under intense anthropogenic activities such as farming, sand winning, bushfires, among others, which are impacting on the fluvial processes, forms and channel morphology of the river. The study investigated sedimentation of ...

  10. Sediment Discharges from Ghanaian Rivers into the Sea | Akrasi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on sediment yield of a river basin is an important requirement for water resources development and management. In Ghana, data on suspended sediment yield are limited owing to lack of logistic support for systematic sediment sampling activities. The paper presents the results of a study, using measurements of ...

  11. Ephemeral seafloor sedimentation during dam removal: Elwha River, Washington (United States)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Warrick, Jonathan


    The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams from the Elwha River in Washington, USA, resulted in the erosion and transport of over 10 million m3 of sediment from the former reservoirs and into the river during the first two years of the dam removal process. Approximately 90% of this sediment was transported through the Elwha River and to the coast at the Strait of Juan de Fuca. To evaluate the benthic dynamics of increased sediment loading to the nearshore, we deployed a tripod system in ten meters of water to the east of the Elwha River mouth that included a profiling current meter and a camera system. With these data, we were able to document the frequency and duration of sedimentation and turbidity events, and correlate these events to physical oceanographic and river conditions. We found that seafloor sedimentation occurred regularly during the heaviest sediment loading from the river, but that this sedimentation was ephemeral and exhibited regular cycles of deposition and erosion caused by the strong tidal currents in the region. Understanding the frequency and duration of short-term sediment disturbance events is instrumental to interpreting the ecosystem-wide changes that are occurring in the nearshore habitats around the Elwha River delta.

  12. Ephemeral seafloor sedimentation during dam removal: Elwha River, Washington (United States)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Warrick, Jonathan A.


    The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams from the Elwha River in Washington, USA, resulted in the erosion and transport of over 10 million m3 of sediment from the former reservoirs and into the river during the first two years of the dam removal process. Approximately 90% of this sediment was transported through the Elwha River and to the coast at the Strait of Juan de Fuca. To evaluate the benthic dynamics of increased sediment loading to the nearshore, we deployed a tripod system in ten meters of water to the east of the Elwha River mouth that included a profiling current meter and a camera system. With these data, we were able to document the frequency and duration of sedimentation and turbidity events, and correlate these events to physical oceanographic and river conditions. We found that seafloor sedimentation occurred regularly during the heaviest sediment loading from the river, but that this sedimentation was ephemeral and exhibited regular cycles of deposition and erosion caused by the strong tidal currents in the region. Understanding the frequency and duration of short-term sediment disturbance events is instrumental to interpreting the ecosystem-wide changes that are occurring in the nearshore habitats around the Elwha River delta.

  13. The Forgotten Legacy: Sediment From Historical Gold Mining Greatly Exceeds all Other Anthropogenic Sources in SE Australian Rivers (United States)

    Rutherfurd, I.; Davies, P.; Macklin, M. G.; Grove, J. R.


    Coarse and fine sediment has been a major pollutant of Australian rivers and receiving waters since European settlement in 1788. Anthropogenic sediment budget models demonstrate that catchment and channel erosion has increased background sediment delivery by 10 to 20 times across SE Australia, but these estimates ignore the contribution of historical gold mining. Detailed historical records allow us to reconstruct the delivery of coarse and fine sediment (including contaminated sediment) to the fluvial system. Between 1851 and 1900 alluvial gold mining in the state of Victoria liberated between 1.2 billion and 1.4 billion m3 of coarse and fine sediment into streams. Catchment scale modelling demonstrates that this volume is at least twice the volume of all anthropogenic (post-European) erosion from hillslopes, river banks, and gullies. We map the deposition and remobilization of these contaminated legacy mining sediments down selected valleys, and find that many contemporary floodplains are blanketed with mining sediments (although mercury contamination is present but low), and discrete sediment-slugs can be recognized migrating down river beds. Overall, the impact of gold mining is one of the strongest indicators of the Anthropocene in the Australian landscape, and the level of impact on rivers is substantially greater than recognized in the past. Perhaps of most interest is the rapid recovery of many river systems from the substantial impacts of gold mining. The result is that these major changes to the landscape are largely forgotten.

  14. Contribution of River Mouth Reach to Sediment Load of the Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang


    Full Text Available This paper examined the sediment gain and loss in the river mouth reach of the Yangtze River by considering sediment load from the local tributaries, erosion/accretion of the river course, impacts of sand mining, and water extraction. A quantitative estimation of the contribution of the river mouth reach to the sediment load of the Yangtze River was conducted before and after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD in 2003. The results showed that a net sediment load loss of 1.78 million ton/yr (Mt/yr occurred from 1965 to 2002 in the study area. The contribution of this reach to the sediment discharge into the sea is not as high as what was expected before the TGD. With impoundment of the TGD, channel deposition (29.90 Mt/yr and a net sediment loss of 30.89 Mt/yr occurred in the river mouth reach from 2003 to 2012. The river mouth reach has acted as a sink but not a source of sediment since impoundment of the TGD, which has exacerbated the decrease in sediment load. Technologies should be advanced to measure changes in river channel morphology, as well as in water and sediment discharges at the river mouth reach.

  15. Magnetic properties of Surabaya river sediments, East Java, Indonesia (United States)

    Mariyanto, Bijaksana, Satria


    Surabaya river is one of urban rivers in East Java Province, Indonesia that is a part of Brantas river that flows in four urban and industrial cities of Mojokerto, Gresik, Sidoarjo, and Surabaya. The urban populations and industries along the river pose serious threat to the river mainly for their anthropogenic pollutants. This study aims to characterize the magnetic properties of sediments in various locations along Surabaya river and correlate these magnetic properties to the level of pollution along the river. Samples are taken and measured through a series of magnetic measurements. The mass-specific magnetic susceptibility of sediments ranges from 259.4 to 1134.8 × 10-8 m3kg-1. The magnetic minerals are predominantly PSD to MD magnetite with the grain size range from 6 to 14 μm. The mass-specific magnetic susceptibility tends to decreases downstream as accumulation of magnetic minerals in sediments is affected not only by the amount of household and industrial wastes but also by sediment dredging, construction of embankments, and extensive erosion arround the river. Sediments located in the industrial zone on the upstream area tend to have higher mass-specific magnetic susceptibility than in the non-industrial zones on the downstream area.

  16. Streamflow response to glacier melt and related fluvial sediment transport in a proglacial Alpine river system (United States)

    Morche, D.; Schuchardt, A.; Baewert, H.; Weber, M.; Faust, M.


    Glaciers in the European Alps are retreating since the end of the Little Ice Age around 1850. Where the glaciers shrink, they leave unconsolidated sediment stores (moraines, till, glacifluvial deposits). These sediment stores are highly vulnerable for being subsequently eroded and are thus a key variable (source) in the fluvial sediment budget of proglacial areas. The fluvial system in proglacial areas is more or less continuously fed with (fine) sediment by glacial melt water (glacial milk) during the ablation period and infrequently (e.g. during rainstorm events) supplied with sediment by landslides, debris flows, rock fall or fluvial transport from the slopes. A part of the sediment input is temporary stored in intermitted sinks, such as the river bed, bars or braid plains. These storages can be reworked and then become sources for fluvial sediment transport mainly during floods. These sediment transporting processes are highly variable in both, the temporal and spatial scale. A research project has been set up in the Kaunertal valley, Austrian Alps. The presented part of this joint project is focussed on the quantification of recent fluvial sediment dynamics in the proglacial Fagge River below the glacier Gepatschferner. The glacier is located in the Eastern European Alps at the south end of the Kaunertal valley covering an area of 15.7 km² (2012) and is drained by the Fagge River. During the years 2012 to 2015 the Gepatschferner has shown an accelerated glacial retreat leading to the exposure of unconsolidated sediments as well as bedrock areas. The main aim of the presented part of the joint project is the investigation of the fluvial sediment transport rates in the proglacial Fagge River in the Kaunertal valley. Sediment output of the glacial meltwater stream was measured during the ablation periods at a gauging station installed in front of the glacier outlet. Water level was recorded every 15 minutes and discharge measurements were made at different

  17. [Characteristic of ammonia nitrogen adsorption on karst underground river sediments]. (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Chen, Kun-Kun; Jiang, Guang-Hui


    Karst aquifers are one of the most important aquifers in Southwestern China. One of the characteristics of karst aquifers is the enhanced permeability permits high flow velocities are capable of transporting suspended and bedload sediments. Mobile sediment in karst may act as a vector for the transport of contaminates. 14 sediment samples were collected from two underground rivers in two typical karst areas in Liuzhou city, Guangxi Autonomous Region, China. According to simulated experiment methods, characteristic of adsorption of ammonia nitrogen on sediment was studied. The results of ammonia nitrogen adsorption dynamics on sediments showed that the maximum adsorption velocity was less than 2 h. The adsorption balance quantity in 5 h accounted for 71% - 98% of the maximum adsorption quantity. The maximum adsorption quantity of ammonia nitrogen was 385.5 mg/kg, which was sediment from a cave in the middle areas of Guancun underground river system. The study of isotherm adsorption indicated adsorption quantity of NH4+ increase followed by incremental balance concentration of NH4+ in the aquatic phase. Adsorption quantity of ammonia nitrogen in sediments has a relative linear relationship with adsorption balance concentrations. Adsorption-desorption balance concentrations were all low, indicating sediments from underground rivers have great adsorption potential. Under the condition of low and high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen in overlying water, Langmuir and Tempkin couldn't simulate or simulate results couldn't reach remarkable level, whilst Linear and Freundlich models could simulate well. Research on different type sediments, sampling times and depths from two underground rivers shows characteristic of ammonia nitrogen adsorption on karst underground river sediments doesn't have good correspondence with the type of sediments. One of the reasons is there is no big difference between sediments in the development of climate, geology, hydrological conditions

  18. [Summary of 2014 sediment studies on the Niobrara River (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This brief report summarizes the methods and results of sediment sampling that took place on the Niobrara River below the Cornell Bridge, near Fort Niobrara National...

  19. Napa River Sediment TMDL Implementation and Habitat Enhancement Project (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Napa River Sediment TMDL Implementation and Habitat Enhancement Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  20. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in Mamut river sediments using sediment quality guidelines and geochemical indices. (United States)

    Mohammad Ali, Bibi Noorarlijannah; Lin, Chin Yik; Cleophas, Fera; Abdullah, Mohd Harun; Musta, Baba


    This paper describes the concentration of selected heavy metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the Mamut river sediments and evaluate the degree of contamination of the river polluted by a disused copper mine. Based on the analytical results, copper showed the highest concentration in most of the river samples. A comparison with Interim Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (ICSQG) and Germany Sediment Quality Guidelines (GSQG) indicated that the sediment samples in all the sampling stations, except Mamut river control site (M1), exceeded the limit established for Cu, Ni, and Pb. On the contrary, Zn concentrations were reported well below the guidelines limit (ICSQG and GSQG). Mineralogical analysis indicated that the Mamut river sediments were primarily composed of quartz and accessory minerals such as chalcopyrite, pyrite, edenite, kaolinite, mica, and muscovite, reflected by the geological character of the study area. Enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) were calculated to evaluate the heavy metal pollution in river sediments. Igeo values indicated that all the sites were strongly polluted with the studied metals in most sampling stations, specifically those located along the Mamut main stream. The enrichment factor with value greater than 1.5 suggested that the source of heavy metals was mainly derived from anthropogenic activity such as mining. The degree of metal changes (δfold) revealed that Cu concentration in the river sediments has increased as much as 20 to 38 folds since the preliminary investigation conducted in year 2004.

  1. Management responses to pulses of bedload sediment in rivers (United States)

    Sims, Alexander J.; Rutherfurd, Ian D.


    Rivers can experience sudden pulses of sediment, from human and natural erosion processes, that can accumulate in the bed. Abundant studies have examined the sources and dynamics of sediment pulses, and problems caused by these pulses, particularly flooding, avulsions, and habitat simplification. Much less has been written about what managers can do about sediment pulses, and that is the purpose of this review. The first option for managers is to do nothing, and this decision can be informed by many case studies and by theory on the propagation and character of sediment pulses (their diffusion, translation, and celerity). Doing nothing should be informed by the secondary effects of sediment pulses on channels including; widening, avulsions, and tributary interactions. If managers decide that something needs to be done about the sediment, they have four options: (1) reducing the sediment supply at source, (2) trapping sediment in the channel (3) accelerating sediment transport through a reach, and, (4) directly extracting sediment. The most common of these actions is undoubtedly to reduce the supply at source, but there are few examples of the consequences of this for sediment pulses. There are even fewer examples of trapping, accelerating and extracting sediment. All of these options have great potential for managing sediment pulses, however, they also have the potential to trigger incision of tributaries and of the channel behind the passing sediment wave. Overall, the literature equips managers to understand the dynamics of sediment pulses, but it does not yet equip them to confidently manage these geomorphic events.

  2. Investigation of trace element mobility in river sediments using ICP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the column method was used to determine the leachable trace metals present in selected river sediments. In addition the sediments were investigated using a shaker method and these two methods were compared for reliability. For both these methods extract solutions associated with a sequential extraction ...

  3. Petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediments of Areba River, Olomoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediments of River Areba, Olomoro, Isoko Local Government Area, Niger Delta, Nigeria were investigated from January to December, 2000. Sediment samples were collected monthly from two stations. Station 1, is inundated with oil fields, waste pits, borrow pits, a gas ...

  4. Environmentally-suspended sediment production of the Nasia River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the level of suspended sediment produced in the Nasia River Basin. Hydrological and meteorological data and water samples were used for the study. Average suspended sediment yield (33 years) in the basin was 19.90 t/km2/yr. With mean annual runoff of 439.13m3/s, 322.43 t/yr suspended sediment ...

  5. Water-sediment flow models for river reaches sediment related pollution control. (United States)

    Sil, Briti Sundar; Choudhury, Parthasarathi


    Hybrid water-sediment flow models for river reaches have been for predicting sediment and sediment related pollutions in water courses. The models are developed by combining sediment rating model and the Muskingum model applicable for a reach. The models incorporate sediment concentration and water discharge variables for a river reach; allow defining downstream sediment rating curve in terms of upstream water discharges. The model is useful in generating sediment concentration graph for a station having no water discharge records. The hybrid models provide forecasting forms that can be used to forecast downstream sediment concentration/water discharges 2kx time unit ahead. The forecasting models are useful for applications in real time namely, in the real time management of sediment related pollution in water courses and in issuing flood warning. Integration of sediment rating model and the Muskingum model increases model parameters and nonlinearity requiring efficient estimation technique for parameter identification. To identify parameters in the hybrid models genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique can be used. The new model relies on the Muskingum model, obey continuity requirement and the parameters can be used in the Muskingum model with water discharges to estimate/predict downstream water discharge values. The proposed model formulations are demonstrated for simulating and forecasting sediment concentration and water discharges in the Mississippi River Basin, USA. Model parameters are estimated using non-dominated sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). Model results show satisfactory model performances.

  6. Sedimentation in a river dominated estuary

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, JAG


    Full Text Available is restricted to a small flood tidal delta. Sequential aerial photography, sediment sampling and topographical surveys reveal a cyclial pattern of sedimentation that is mediated by severe fluvial floods which exceed normal energy thresholds. During severe floods...

  7. Ascribing soil erosion of hillslope components to river sediment yield. (United States)

    Nosrati, Kazem


    In recent decades, soil erosion has increased in catchments of Iran. It is, therefore, necessary to understand soil erosion processes and sources in order to mitigate this problem. Geomorphic landforms play an important role in influencing water erosion. Therefore, ascribing hillslope components soil erosion to river sediment yield could be useful for soil and sediment management in order to decrease the off-site effects related to downstream sedimentation areas. The main objectives of this study were to apply radionuclide tracers and soil organic carbon to determine relative contributions of hillslope component sediment sources in two land use types (forest and crop field) by using a Bayesian-mixing model, as well as to estimate the uncertainty in sediment fingerprinting in a mountainous catchment of western Iran. In this analysis, 137 Cs, 40 K, 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and soil organic carbon tracers were measured in 32 different sampling sites from four hillslope component sediment sources (summit, shoulder, backslope, and toeslope) in forested and crop fields along with six bed sediment samples at the downstream reach of the catchment. To quantify the sediment source proportions, the Bayesian mixing model was based on (1) primary sediment sources and (2) combined primary and secondary sediment sources. The results of both approaches indicated that erosion from crop field shoulder dominated the sources of river sediments. The estimated contribution of crop field shoulder for all river samples was 63.7% (32.4-79.8%) for primary sediment sources approach, and 67% (15.3%-81.7%) for the combined primary and secondary sources approach. The Bayesian mixing model, based on an optimum set of tracers, estimated that the highest contribution of soil erosion in crop field land use and shoulder-component landforms constituted the most important land-use factor. This technique could, therefore, be a useful tool for soil and sediment control management strategies. Copyright

  8. Progress towards Acoustic Suspended Sediment Transport Monitoring: Fraser River, BC (United States)

    Attard, M. E.; Venditti, J. G.; Church, M. A.; Kostaschuk, R. A.


    Our ability to predict the timing and quantity of suspended sediment transport is limited because fine sand, silt and clay delivery are supply limited, requiring empirical modeling approaches of limited temporal stability. A solution is the development of continuous monitoring techniques capable of tracking sediment concentrations and grain-size. Here we examine sediment delivery from upstream sources to the lower Fraser River. The sediment budget of the lower Fraser River provides a long-term perspective of the net changes in the channels and in sediment delivery to Fraser Delta. The budget is based on historical sediment rating curves developed from data collected from 1965-1986 by the Water Survey of Canada. We explore the possibility of re-establishing the sediment-monitoring program using hydro-acoustics by evaluating the use of a 300 kHz side-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp), mounted just downstream of the sand-gravel transition at Mission, for continuous measurement of suspended sediment transport. Complementary field observations include conventional bottle sampling with a P-63 sampler, vertical profiles with a downward-looking 600 kHz aDcp, and 1200 kHz aDcp discharge measurements. We have successfully completed calibration of the downward-looking aDcp with the P-63 samples; the side-looking aDcp signals remain under investigation. A comparison of several methods for obtaining total sediment flux indicates that suspended sediment concentration (SSC) closely follows discharge through the freshet and peaks in total SSC and sand SSC coincide with peak measurements of discharge. Low flows are dominated by fine sediment and grain size increases with higher flows. This research assesses several techniques for obtaining sediment flux and contributes to the understanding of sediment delivery to sand-bedded portions of the river.

  9. Sediment regime constraints on river restoration - An example from the lower Missouri river (United States)

    Jacobson, R.B.; Blevins, D.W.; Bitner, C.J.


    Dammed rivers are subject to changes in their flow, water-quality, and sediment regimes. Each of these changes may contribute to diminished aquatic habitat quality and quantity. Of the three factors, an altered sediment regime is a particularly unyielding challenge on many dammed rivers. The magnitude of the challenge is illustrated on the Lower Missouri River, where the largest water storage system in North America has decreased the downriver suspended-sediment load to 0.2%–17% of pre-dam loads. In response to the altered sediment regime, the Lower Missouri River channel has incised as much as 3.5 m just downstream of Gavins Point Dam, although the bed has been stable to slightly aggrading at other locations farther downstream. Effects of channel engineering and commercial dredging are superimposed on the broad-scale adjustments to the altered sediment regime.The altered sediment regime and geomorphic adjustments constrain restoration and management opportunities. Incision and aggradation limit some objectives of flow-regime management: In incising river segments, ecologically desirable reconnection of the floodplain requires discharges that are beyond operational limits, whereas in aggrading river segments, small spring pulses may inundate or saturate low-lying farmlands. Lack of sediment in the incising river segment downstream of Gavins Point Dam also limits sustainable restoration of sand-bar habitat for bird species listed under the Endangered Species Act. Creation of new shallow-water habitat for native fishes involves taking sediment out of floodplain storage and reintroducing most or all of it to the river, raising concerns about increased sediment, nutrient, and contaminant loads. Calculations indicate that effects of individual restoration projects are small relative to background loads, but cumulative effects may depend on sequence and locations of projects. An understanding of current and historical sediment fluxes, and how they vary along the river

  10. Fluvial bar dynamics in large meandering rivers with different sediment supply in the Amazon River basin (United States)

    Monegaglia, Federico; Zolezzi, Guido; Tubino, Marco; Henshaw, Alex


    Sediments in the large meandering rivers of the Amazon basin are known to be supplied by sources providing highly different magnitudes of sediment input and storage, ranging from the sediment-rich Andean region to the sediment-poor Central Trough. Recent observations have highlighted how such differences in sediment supply have an important, net effect on the rates of planform activity of meandering rivers in the basin, in terms of meander migration and frequency of cutoffs. In this work we quantify and discuss the effect of sediment supply on the organization of macroscale sediment bedforms on several large meandering rivers in the Amazon basin, and we link our findings with those regarding the rates of planform activity. Our analysis is conducted through the newly developed software PyRIS, which enables us to perform extensive multitemporal analysis of river morphodynamics from multispectral remotely sensed Landsat imagery in a fully automated fashion. We show that large rivers with low sediment supply tend to develop alternate bars that consistently migrate through long reaches, characterized at the same time by limited planform development. On the contrary, high sediment supply is associated with the development of point bars that are well-attached to the evolving meander bends and that follow temporal oscillations around the bend apexes, which in turn show rapid evlution towards complex meander shapes. Finally, rivers with intermediate rates of sediment supply develop rather steady point bars associated with slowly migrating, regular meanders. We finally discuss the results of the image analysis in the light of the properties of river planform metrics (like channel curvature and width) for the examined classes of river reaches with different sediment supply rates.

  11. SMART – Sediment Mitigation Actions for the River Rother, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Evans


    Full Text Available The River Rother, West Sussex, is suffering from excess sediment which is smothering the river bed gravels. This is thought to be exacerbating issues of pollution and degradation of ecosystems. This project aims to identify the severity, extent, possible causes and potential mitigation options available to reduce these pressures on the river. Data have been collected from ten sites to investigate the amount of sediment stored in the river bed gravels and cores obtained from four small reservoirs to establish rates of sedimentation and contribute to the construction of a temporal sediment budget over the last 50–100 years. Evidence suggests that tributary streams have more stored sediment per m2 upstream of their confluence with the River Rother compared to the Rother itself. Reservoir core data indicate that sediment has accumulated more rapidly in the small reservoirs surrounded by mixed agricultural land compared to one surrounded by ancient woodland. These are preliminary results and work is continuing.

  12. Determining the Sediment Budget of the Lower Hudson River (United States)

    Prugue, R.; Nitsche, F. O.; Kenna, T. C.


    Sediment is a major component of the Hudson River Estuary, constantly being resuspended and deposited. The Lower Hudson River is heavily dredged due to its use as a shipping lane for large vessels traversing through the harbor. A detailed sediment budget is key for management of the estuary including development, optimizing dredging, restoration, and mitigating future sea-level changes. However, it has been difficult to produce a detailed sediment budget due to the large amounts of data required to obtain a reputable value and account for spatial variability. Thus, previous budget estimates were based on approximations of input and output of material The Hudson River Benthic Mapping Project, which was funded by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, resulted in a comprehensive data set that includes a dense network of subbottom profiles and over 400 sediment cores from the Hudson River Estuary. Using industrial seismic interpretation software and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, we identified the thickness and distribution of 20th century sediment deposition by mapping the sediment layer with elevated levels of anthropogenic lead, which is a characteristic for sediment deposition since 1920/1930. This 20th century sediment are of special concern because of the high amounts of contaminants that were being introduced into the estuary during this time. By combining analysis of different sections of the estuary, we are able to quantify the amount of 20th century deposition between Poughkeepsie and the New York Harbor and demonstrate that a detailed sediment budget can be obtained. This analysis reveals that ~35,000,000 cubic meters of sediment has been deposited in the study area during the last 70-80 years, which corresponds to an annual deposition of 450,000 - 500,000 cubic meters. Following this analysis, we aim to obtain a sediment mass and compare our results with other estimates that were taken in the past.

  13. On extracting sediment transport information from measurements of luminescence in river sediment

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Harrison J; Mahan, Shannon A; McGuire, Chris; Rhodes, Edward J


    Accurately quantifying sediment transport rates in rivers remains an important goal for geomorphologists, hydraulic engineers, and environmental scientists. However, current techniques for measuring transport rates are laborious, and formulae to predict transport are notoriously inaccurate. Here, we attempt to estimate sediment transport rates using luminescence, a property of common sedimentary minerals that is used by the geoscience community for geochronology. This method is advantageous because of the ease of measurement on ubiquitous quartz and feldspar sand. We develop a model based on conservation of energy and sediment mass to explain the patterns of luminescence in river channel sediment from a first-principles perspective. We show that the model can accurately reproduce the luminescence observed in previously published field measurements from two rivers with very different sediment transport styles. The parameters from the model can then be used to estimate the time-averaged virtual velocity, charac...

  14. 2010 Hudson River Shallow Water Sediment Cores (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hudson River Shallow Water Mapping project characterizes the bottom of the Hudson River Estuary in shallow water (<3 m). The characterization includes...

  15. 2010 Hudson River Shallow Water Sediment Grabs (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hudson River Shallow Water Mapping project characterizes the bottom of the Hudson River Estuary in shallow water (<3 m). The characterization includes...

  16. Dredged Illinois River Sediments: Plant Growth and Metal Uptake (United States)

    Darmody, R.G.; Marlin, J.C.; Talbott, J.; Green, R.A.; Brewer, E.F.; Stohr, C.


    Sedimentation of the Illinois River in central Illinois has greatly diminished the utility and ecological value of the Peoria Lakes reach of the river. Consequently, a large dredging project has been proposed to improve its wildlife habitat and recreation potential, but disposal of the dredged sediment presents a challenge. Land placement is an attractive option. Previous work in Illinois has demonstrated that sediments are potentially capable of supporting agronomic crops due to their high natural fertility and water holding capacity. However, Illinois River sediments have elevated levels of heavy metals, which may be important if they are used as garden or agricultural soil. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine if these sediments could serve as a plant growth medium. A secondary objective was to determine if plants grown on sediments accumulated significant heavy metal concentrations. Our results indicated that lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum L.), and snap bean (Phaseolus vulagaris L. var. humillis) grown in sediment and a reference topsoil did not show significant or consistent differences in germination or yields. In addition, there was not a consistent statistically significant difference in metal content among tomatoes grown in sediments, topsoil, or grown locally in gardens. In the other plants grown on sediments, while Cd and Cu in all cases and As in lettuce and snap bean were elevated, levels were below those considered excessive. Results indicate that properly managed, these relatively uncontaminated calcareous sediments can make productive soils and that metal uptake of plants grown in these sediments is generally not a concern.

  17. Anthropogenic Impact on Sediment Transport in the Mississippi River (United States)

    Gregory, Brittney; Herrmann, Achim; Clift, Peter


    Many of the most prominent deltas in the world are suffering from sediment starvation and subsidence due to human alteration of the upper catchments. The Mississippi River Delta is not immune to these problems which are accentuated by the addition of dams and artificial levees diverting sediment from the delta and coast throughout the last century. The Missouri, Ohio, and Arkansas Rivers have historically supplied most of the suspended sediment load to the Lower Mississippi over the last 60 years, with the Missouri being the largest single contributor. While suspended sediment load plays an important role in floodplain and delta construction, the transport of coarser sediment is also important to a healthy coastline. Very little data exists to constrain how coarser sediment is mixed and transported down the Mississippi despite its invaluable importance to the coastal beaches and barrier islands. Using traditional provenance tools it is possible to study both the coarse and fine load of the modern Mississippi River to quantify transportation and mixing models. This, in turn, will demonstrate human impact on both the suspended and bedload of the Mississippi and its tributaries. This study uses apatite rare earth element geochemistry and zircon U-Pb dating in conjunction with Sr-Nd isotope ratios and clay mineralogy to interpret the transportation of both fine and coarse sediment within the modern Mississippi and its tributaries. These data are preliminary and are part of a larger study that will determine anthropogenic impact on the aggradation of the modern delta floodplain over the last 1000 years.

  18. Sediment export from the Sepik River, Papua New Guinea: evidence for a divergent sediment plume (United States)

    Kineke, G. C.; Woolfe, K. J.; Kuehl, S. A.; Milliman, J. D.; Dellapenna, T. M.; Purdon, R. G.


    The Sepik River, with an estimated annual sediment load of ˜85×10 6 t yr -1, empties directly into a submarine canyon that transverses a narrow continental shelf (coast of Papua New Guinea. As such, it serves as a possible analogue for rivers discharging onto margins during low stands of sea level. A substantial portion of the riverine sediment appears to be transported seaward in the canyon, most of the remainder being stored at least temporarily on the proximal shelf and slope. Salinity and suspended-sediment distributions along the axis from the river mouth to the coastal ocean suggest that sediment is dispersed via a plume with both surface and near-bottom components. Rapid settling may occur just seaward of a shallow bar at the head of the canyon, ˜1 km upstream of the river mouth. The rapid settling probably results from a combination of factors, including reduction of turbulent mixing in the presence of strong salinity stratification, convergent bottom flows, and changing particle characteristics. Sediments initially trapped at the bar may continue down the steep slope as a hyperpycnal (negatively buoyant) flow or be deposited temporarily near the bar and then flow down the canyon in episodic turbidity currents. Shallow seismic observations, along with textural and radioisotope measurements of seabed sediments, are not inconsistent with two distinct dispersal pathways. An acoustically transparent, possibly muddy drape extends across the outer shelf and slope west of the river mouth, suggesting deposition from a surface plume. Silt-rich bottom sediments with lower 210Pb activities along the axis of the canyon are consistent with rapid deposition and minimal scavenging of dissolved 210Pb. Intermediate water-depth turbid layers observed along isopycnal surfaces in deeper water suggest a possible terrestrial source for elevated levels of particulate aluminum and iron at depth in the equatorial Pacific. The formation of a divergent sediment plume may be common

  19. Cyclone Driven Sediment Loads in a Tropical Mega-River. (United States)

    Darby, Stephen; Leyland, Julian; Hackney, Christopher; Heasley, Eleanore; Kummu, Matti; Lauri, Hannu; Parsons, Daniel; Nicholas, Andrew; Aalto, Rolf; Best, Jim


    Understanding the links between environmental change and sediment transport in the mega-rivers that dominate the flux of terrestrial sediment to their deltas and oceans remains a major challenge. Many large river systems display significant seasonality in flow regime, which is affected to a greater or lesser degree by the influence of large tropical storms, which act to increase their variability and thus drive uncertainty in predicting the impacts associated with changes in future flow regimes. Here we demonstrate the significance of tropical storms in driving sediment flux from one of the world's largest rivers, the Mekong, to its delta. Data was collected at Kratie, Cambodia; this being the site of the Mekong's final reliable flow gauging station before the Mekong delta. Suspended sediment fluxes were estimated by calibrating acoustic backscatter returns from an acoustic Doppler current profiler to observed suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) across a monsoon cycle. The retrieved SSCs were combined with flow velocity estimates to recover the sediment flux. These estimates of flux were then used to build sediment rating curves to predict suspended flux as a function of flow discharge. A hydrological model, VMod, was then used to estimate daily discharge values for the same historical period, but for a scenario in which the effects of tropical storms on the flow regime are isolated. This was achieved by forcing the hydrological model with daily precipitation values that account for precipitation anomalies associated with observed tropical storms. The difference in cumulative sediment transport estimated by combining the two flow discharge scenarios with the constructed sediment rating curves allowed the contribution of tropical storms to the Lower Mekong's suspended sediment transport regime to be isolated. It was found that sediment loads in the Mekong River attenuate downstream from approximately 120 MT in Laos and Thailand to ~80-90 MT in the alluvial

  20. Geochemical characteristics of Heavy metals of river sediment from the main rivers at Texas, USA. (United States)

    Matsumoto, I.; Hoffman, D.; MacAlister, J.; Ishiga, H.


    Trinity River is one of the biggest rivers which flows through Dallas and Fort Worth two big cities of USA and are highly populated. Trinity river drains into the Gulf of Mexico. Sediment samples collected from various points along the upper and lower streams were subjected to content analysis and elution analysis (using liquate (flow) out test) on the heavy metals like Cd, CN, Pb, Cr, As, Hg, Ni, Zn and Cu from the river sediment for the purpose of environment assessment. A total of 22 sample points were identified from upper stream to lower stream and samples were collected such that almost the whole stream length of Trinity River is covered. Results show that heavy metal content through out the river stream is below the recommended limits posing no immediate environmental threat. However, the experimental results show clear impact of human population in bigger cities on heavy metal concentrations in the river sediments as compared to smaller cities with low human population. It could be seen from the analysis that all the heavy metals show relatively high content and high elution value in Dallas and Fort Worth. As we move away from the big cities, the value of content and elution of sediment decreased by natural dilution effect by the river. And we also present the data of the Colorado and San Antonio rivers.

  1. Uranium and thorium series nuclides in river sediments and river water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M. R.; Salter, P. F


    Large volume suspended sediment samples were taken from Rio Grande, Mississippi and Suwannee Rivers. These rivers drain arid, moderate and subtropical regions, respectively. The samples were taken to provide enough material to use for chemical fractionation leaching studies of the relationship between Pu and other nuclides with various components of the sediment. This work is still in progress and is described in detail in a separate section of the progress report.

  2. Early reactivation of European rivers during the last deglaciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ménot, G.; Bard, E.; Rostek, F.; Weijers, J.W.H.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.


    During the Last Glacial Maximum, the sea-level lowstand combined with the large extent of the Fennoscandian and British ice sheets led to the funneling of European continental runoff, resulting in the largest river system that ever drained the European continent. Here, we show an abrupt and early

  3. Modeling transport and deposition of the Mekong River sediment (United States)

    Xue, Zuo; He, Ruoying; Liu, J. Paul; Warner, John C.


    A Coupled Wave–Ocean–SedimentTransport Model was used to hindcast coastal circulation and fine sedimenttransport on the Mekong shelf in southeastern Asian in 2005. Comparisons with limited observations showed that the model simulation captured the regional patterns and temporal variability of surface wave, sea level, and suspended sediment concentration reasonably well. Significant seasonality in sedimenttransport was revealed. In summer, a large amount of fluvial sediments was delivered and deposited near the MekongRiver mouth. In the following winter, strong ocean mixing, and coastal current lead to resuspension and southwestward dispersal of a small fraction of previously deposited sediments. Model sensitivity experiments (with reduced physics) were performed to investigate the impact of tides, waves, and remotely forced ambient currents on the transport and dispersal of the fluvial sediment. Strong wave mixing and downwelling-favorable coastal current associated with the more energetic northeast monsoon in the winter season are the main factors controlling the southwestward along-shelf transport.

  4. On extracting sediment transport information from measurements of luminescence in river sediment (United States)

    Gray, Harrison J.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Mahan, Shannon; McGuire, Chris; Rhodes, Edward J.


    Accurately quantifying sediment transport rates in rivers remains an important goal for geomorphologists, hydraulic engineers, and environmental scientists. However, current techniques for measuring long-time scale (102–106 years) transport rates are laborious, and formulae to predict transport are notoriously inaccurate. Here we attempt to estimate sediment transport rates by using luminescence, a property of common sedimentary minerals that is used by the geoscience community for geochronology. This method is advantageous because of the ease of measurement on ubiquitous quartz and feldspar sand. We develop a model from first principles by using conservation of energy and sediment mass to explain the downstream pattern of luminescence in river channel sediment. We show that the model can accurately reproduce the luminescence observed in previously published field measurements from two rivers with very different sediment transport styles. The model demonstrates that the downstream pattern of river sand luminescence should show exponential-like decay in the headwaters which asymptotes to a constant value with further downstream distance. The parameters from the model can then be used to estimate the time-averaged virtual velocity, characteristic transport lengthscale, storage time scale, and floodplain exchange rate of fine sand-sized sediment in a fluvial system. The sediment transport values predicted from the luminescence method show a broader range than those reported in the literature, but the results are nonetheless encouraging and suggest that luminescence demonstrates potential as a sediment transport indicator. However, caution is warranted when applying the model as the complex nature of sediment transport can sometimes invalidate underlying simplifications.

  5. On extracting sediment transport information from measurements of luminescence in river sediment (United States)

    Gray, Harrison J.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Mahan, Shannon A.; McGuire, Chris; Rhodes, Edward J.


    Accurately quantifying sediment transport rates in rivers remains an important goal for geomorphologists, hydraulic engineers, and environmental scientists. However, current techniques for measuring long-time scale (102-106 years) transport rates are laborious, and formulae to predict transport are notoriously inaccurate. Here we attempt to estimate sediment transport rates by using luminescence, a property of common sedimentary minerals that is used by the geoscience community for geochronology. This method is advantageous because of the ease of measurement on ubiquitous quartz and feldspar sand. We develop a model from first principles by using conservation of energy and sediment mass to explain the downstream pattern of luminescence in river channel sediment. We show that the model can accurately reproduce the luminescence observed in previously published field measurements from two rivers with very different sediment transport styles. The model demonstrates that the downstream pattern of river sand luminescence should show exponential-like decay in the headwaters which asymptotes to a constant value with further downstream distance. The parameters from the model can then be used to estimate the time-averaged virtual velocity, characteristic transport lengthscale, storage time scale, and floodplain exchange rate of fine sand-sized sediment in a fluvial system. The sediment transport values predicted from the luminescence method show a broader range than those reported in the literature, but the results are nonetheless encouraging and suggest that luminescence demonstrates potential as a sediment transport indicator. However, caution is warranted when applying the model as the complex nature of sediment transport can sometimes invalidate underlying simplifications.

  6. Assessment of intermediate fine sediment storage in a braided river reach (southern French Prealps)


    Navratil, Oldrich; Legout, C.; Gateuille, D.; Esteves, Michel; Liebault, F.


    This paper presents a field investigation on river channel storage of fine sediments in an unglaciated braided river, the Bes River, located in a mountainous region in the southern French Prealps. Braided rivers transport a very large quantity of bedload and suspended sediment load because they are generally located in the vicinity of highly erosive hillslopes. Consequently, these rivers play an important role because they supply and control the sediment load of the entire downstream fluvial ...

  7. Determination of heavy elements in Nigerian river sediments using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluoresecence (EDXRF) Technique was used to determine eleven heavy elements (K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb) from sediments of the Kubanni river in Nigeria. Six of them (K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Co, Sr) were found to be depleted, while lthe others were enriched with respect to their Clarke values.

  8. Speciation Studies On Sediments From Asa River, Ilorin, Kwara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediments from a stretch Asa River, in Ilorin, Kwara State of Nigeria were sequentially extracted to determine the variations in heavy metal binding fractions of Mn, Fe, Pb, Zn and Cu (exchangeable, bound to carbonate, bound to Mn and Fe oxides, bound to organic matter and the residual). The choice of sample locations ...

  9. Toxic Effects of Pollutants on Methane Production of River Sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlaardingen PLA; van Beelen P


    The effects of five compounds on the endogenous methane production of sediment samples of the river Rhine were examined. The concentrations of a toxicant that inhibited the methane production for 10% and 50% are called EC10 and EC50. Benzene, 1,2- dichloroethane, pentachlorophenol and chloroform

  10. Risk assessment of sediment of Aforemu River, Oye Ekiti, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pollution properties of Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni in river sediments were studied. The results indicate varying degree of contamination with respect to their location in this order of 5>4>1>2>3 . The concentrations of Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Ni in the soil were low, so their potential ecological risks were far lower than other ...

  11. Sediment discharge division at two tidally influenced river bifurcations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Vermeulen, B.; Hidayat, H.


    [1] We characterize and quantify the sediment discharge division at two tidally influenced river bifurcations in response to mean flow and secondary circulation by employing a boat-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), to survey transects at bifurcating branches during a semidiurnal

  12. Jokulhlaups and sediment transport in Watson River, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A. B.; Hasholt, Bent; Knudsen, N. T.


    For 3 years, during a 4-year observation period (2007-2010), jokulhlaups were observed from a lake at the northern margin of Russells Gletscher. At a gauging station located on a bedrock sill near the outlet of Watson River into Sdr Stromfjord, discharge and sediment transport was monitored during...

  13. Trends in the occurrence of human and veterinary antibiotics in the sediments of the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River in northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Lijun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ying Guangguo, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhao Jianliang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang Jifeng [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Department, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde 415000 (China); Wang Li; Yang Bin; Liu Shan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)


    The occurrence of four classes of 17 commonly used antibiotics (including fluoroquinolones, tetracycline, sulfonamides, and macrolides) was investigated in the sediments of the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River in northern China by using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Higher concentrations were detected for most antibiotics in the sediments of the Hai River than in the sediments of the other rivers. Norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline in the three rivers were most frequently detected with concentrations up to 5770, 1290, 653 and 652 ng/g, respectively. High frequencies and concentrations of the detected antibiotics were often found in the downstream of large cities and areas influenced by feedlot and fish ponds. Good fitted linear regression equations between antibiotic concentration and sediment physicochemical properties (TOC, texture and pH) were also found, indicating that sediment properties are important factors influencing the distribution of antibiotics in the sediment of rivers. - Highlights: > Presence of four classes of commonly used antibiotics in the river sediments. > Higher concentrations in the Hai River than in the Liao River and Yellow River. > Norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline most frequently detected. > High antibiotic concentrations often found in the downstream of large cities. > River sediments are an important reservoir of antibiotics. - Higher concentrations of selected antibiotics were determined in the sediments of the Hai River than in the Liao River and Yellow River.

  14. Climate Change on Discharge and Sedimentation of River Awara, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipa O. Idogho


    Full Text Available The dynamics of variation in effect of climate change on discharges and sedimentation mechanism of River Awara is investigated using 14-year data of rainfall (mm, discharges (m 3 /s, temperature ( 0 c and sediment load (t. Surface runoff (mm was computed using Water Balance Equation and some other empirical iteration based on the observed rainfall and temperature over a period of time. Analysis of Paired Sample reveals the relationship between tested hydrological variables: Rainfall-Runoff; Runoff-Sediment load; and DischargeSediment load are significant at 0.95 level of confidence interval. Logarithm calibration curve further illustrates that Rainfall-Runoff and Runoff-Sediment have coefficient values (R 2 of 0.996 and 0.822 respectively. Analytical iteration shows that the intensity and duration of precipitation determine the magnitude of river, generation of surface runoff and sedimentation rate. Increase in rainfall depth by 100 mm within the 14-year has resulted to serious erodobility and erositivity around River Awara. Cumulative average sediment load ratio of 0.46 has significantly reduced the reservoir capacity of the river by 10%. 78% of total annual surface runoff is lost to ocean; since reservoir capacity has been silted up which in turns reduces the volume of water that could be held for storage, treatment and distribution for its intended purposes. Comparative physics-based output indicates that temperature increase of 0.7 0 c between 1997 and 2004, due to internal processes of the Earth and some human activities. It is however projected that temperature will rise by 0.9 0 c by the end of 2015. Projected rise in temperature will adversely affect hydrological cycle and complicate already scarce-water resources due to intensive evapotranspiration, infiltration and reduction in stream flow. Holistic integration using bottom-up mechanism needs to be applied to address this constraint. Dredging of river Awara is very important to enhance

  15. Arctic River Discharge and Sediment Loads --- an Overview (United States)

    Syvitski, J. P.; Overeem, I.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Hudson, B.; Cohen, S.


    Evidence suggests that river discharge has been increasing (+10%) over the last 30 years (1977-2007) for most arctic rivers. The peak melt month occurs earlier in the season in 66% of the studied rivers. Cold season flow is also increasing. Satellite discharge estimates, daily, based on microwave radiometry, are now possible from 1998 onwards. Daily river discharge hindcasts over the last 60 years using the water balance model WBMsed at a 10km spatial resolution are now available. The WBMsed model can be used in forecast mode assuming valid input climatology. The challenge here has been the accuracy of sub-polar precipitation grids. While each of these three methods (gauging, orbital sensing, modeling) has temporal and spatial coverage limitations, the combination of all three methods provides for a realistic way forward for estimating local discharge across the pan arctic. Flood inundation products are routinely produced for the pan-arctic using automated mapping algorithms developed by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory. The determination of artic river sediment loads is less than ideal. Some rivers have only been monitored for a short number of years, and many have not been monitored at all. The WBMsed model is perhaps the best method of estimating the daily sediment flux to the Arctic Ocean, at least for rivers where the mean discharge is greater than 30 m3/s. Additionally there is limited-duration field monitoring by national surveys. New methods are being explored, including back calculating the delivery of sediment to the coastal ocean by plume dimensions observed from space (MODIS, LandSat). These methods have had moderate success when applied to plumes extending in the Greenland fjords. Canada maintains an active circa 7-y satellite program (ArcticNet) to track the Mackenzie discharge during the spring-summer runoff period when turbid river water is apt to flow under and over marginal sea ice in the Beaufort Sea.

  16. Fluvial sediment transport in a glacier-fed high-mountain river (Riffler Bach, Austrian Alps) (United States)

    Morche, David; Weber, Martin; Faust, Matthias; Schuchardt, Anne; Baewert, Henning


    High-alpine environments are strongly affected by glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age (LIA). Due to ongoing climate change the hydrology of proglacial rivers is also influenced. It is expected that the growing proportions of snow melt and rainfall events will change runoff characteristics of proglacial rivers. Additionally, the importance of paraglacial sediment sources in recently deglaciating glacier forefields is increasing, while the role of glacial erosion is declining. Thus complex environmental conditions leading to a complex pattern of fluvial sediment transport in partly glaciated catchments of the European Alps. Under the umbrella of the joint PROSA-project the fluvial sediment transport of the river Riffler Bach (Kaunertal, Tyrol, Austria) was studied in 3 consecutive ablation seasons in order to quantify sediment yields. In June 2012 a probe for water level and an automatic water sampler (AWS) were installed at the outlet of the catchment (20km2). In order to calculate annual stage-discharge-relations by the rating-curve approach, discharge (Q) was repeatedly measured with current meters and by salt dilution. Concurrent to the discharge measurements bed load was collected using a portable Helley-Smith sampler. Bed load samples were weighted and sieved in the laboratory to gain annual bed load rating curves and grain size distributions. In total 564 (2012: 154, 2013: 209, 2014: 201) water samples were collected and subsequently filtered to quantify suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). Q-SSC-relations were calculated for single flood events due to the high variability of suspended sediment transport. The results show a high inter- and intra-annual variability of solid fluvial sediment transport, which can be explained by the characteristics of suspended sediment transport. Only 13 of 22 event-based Q-SSC-relations show causal dependency. In 2012, during a period with multiple pluvial-induced peak discharges most sediment was transported. On the

  17. Seasonal variation of surface sediments composition in Mondego River estuary. (United States)

    Pereira, Patrícia; Vale, Carlos; Ferreira, Ana Maria; Pereira, Eduarda; Pardal, Miguel Angelo; Marques, João Carlos


    Concentrations of major (Al, Si, Ca, Mg, Fe), minor (Mn), and trace elements (Zn, Pb, Cr, Cu, Ag, Cd, Hg) and organochlorine compounds (PCB congeners, pp'DDT, and metabolites) were determined in 24 samples of surface sediments (0-5 cm) collected along the Mondego River estuary in two periods: February and August 2003. All sediment samples showed low levels of contamination reflecting the weak industrialization of the region. Higher incorporation of elements (Mg, Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd, Hg) and DDT was registered in muds deposited in the inner part of the south channel. Sediments of the rest of the estuary are coarser (mean Si/Al ratio around 11) and showed much lower Me/Al ratios. Concentrations of Mn, Pb, Ag, and PCB showed no geographical distribution tendency. However, Pb, Cu, Ag, Zn, Cd ratios to Al and PCB concentrations were higher in coarser sediments collected in February than in August. In addition, the lower chlorinated CBs (tri + tetra-CB) showed a higher proportion in sediments collected in February, due to its higher mobility and low contamination in the area. The results obtained in this river-dominated estuarine system, with weak local contamination sources, indicate that chemical composition of surface sediments reflects the diffuse source of contaminants associated with the rainy season.

  18. Ecological risk assessment for river sediments contaminated by creosote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastorok, R.A.; Sampson, J.R.; Jacobson, M.A. (PTI Environmental Services, Bellevue, WA (United States)); Peek, D.C. (PTI Environmental Services, Lake Oswego, OR (United States))


    An ecological risk assessment was conducted for sediments of the lower Willamette River near a wood-treatment (creosote) facility. Both surface ad subsurface sediments near the facility are contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Limited contamination of sediments by dioxins/furans, chlorinated phenols, and arsenic was also observed. Sediment bioassays based on amphipod (Hyalella azteca) mortality and Microtox[reg sign] (Photobacterium phosphoreum) bioluminescence showed toxicity within approximately 300 ft of the shoreline, with a highly toxic area (i.e., possible acute lethal effects in sedentary benthic species) near a dock used for creosote off-loading. The relatively low concentrations of contaminants measured in crayfish muscle tissue and the absence of serious lesions in livers of large-scale sucker collected near the site suggest that excess risk to mobile species from chronic contamination is low. Cursory observations indicate that acute toxic effects on crayfish may be associated with creosote seeps. There is no evidence of adverse biological effects throughout most of the main channel of the river. Evaluation of sediment chemistry data for PAHs relative to available sediment-quality criteria proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency supports this conclusion.

  19. Thallium distribution in sediments from the Pearl river basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Juan [Guangzhou University, Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China); Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Institute of Radiochemistry, Research Site Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Wang, Jin; Chen, Yongheng [Guangzhou University, Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China); Qi, Jianying [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Lippold, Holger [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Institute of Radiochemistry, Research Site Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Wang, Chunlin [Guangdong Provincial Academy of Environmental Science, Guangzhou (China)


    Thallium (Tl) is a rare element of high toxicity. Sediments sampled in three representative locations near industries utilizing Tl-containing raw materials from the Pearl River Basin, China were analyzed for their total Tl contents and the Tl contents in four sequentially extracted fractions (i.e., weak acid exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fraction). The results reveal that the total Tl contents (1.25-19.1 {mu}g/g) in the studied sediments were slightly high to quite high compared with those in the Chinese background sediments. This indicates the apparent Tl contamination of the investigated sediments. However, with respect to the chemical fractions, Tl is mainly associated with the residual fraction (>60%) of the sediments, especially of those from the mining area of Tl-bearing pyrite minerals, indicating the relatively low mobility, and low bioavailability of Tl in these sediments. This obviously contrasts with the previous findings that Tl is mainly entrapped in the first three labile fractions of the contaminated samples. Possible reasons were given for the dominating association of Tl with the residual fraction (>95%) of the mining area sediments. The significant role of certain K-containing silicates or minerals of these sediments on retaining Tl in the residual fraction, discovered by this study, provides a special field of research opportunity for the Tl-containing wastewater treatment. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. River Bed Sediment Classification Using ADCP (United States)

    Description of physical aquatic habitat in rivers often includes data describing distributions of water depth, velocity and bed material type. Water depth and velocity in streams deeper than about 1 m may be continuously mapped using an acoustic Doppler current profiler from a moving boat. Herein ...

  1. Reactive transport modeling of nitrogen in Seine River sediments (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Z.; Laverman, A.; Raimonet, M.; Rezanezhad, F.; Van Cappellen, P.


    Biogeochemical processes in sediments have a major impact on the fate and transport of nitrogen (N) in river systems. Organic matter decomposition in bottom sediments releases inorganic N species back to the stream water, while denitrification, anammox and burial of organic matter remove bioavailable N from the aquatic environment. To simulate N cycling in river sediments, a multi-component reactive transport model has been developed in MATLAB®. The model includes 3 pools of particulate organic N, plus pore water nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide and ammonium. Special attention is given to the production and consumption of nitrite, a N species often neglected in early diagenetic models. Although nitrite is usually considered to be short-lived, elevated nitrite concentrations have been observed in freshwater streams, raising concerns about possible toxic effects. We applied the model to sediment data sets collected at two locations in the Seine River, one upstream, the other downstream, of the largest wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of the Paris conurbation. The model is able to reproduce the key features of the observed pore water depth profiles of the different nitrogen species. The modeling results show that the presence of oxygen in the overlying water plays a major role in controlling the exchanges of nitrite between the sediments and the stream water. In August 2012, sediments upstream of the WWTP switch from being a sink to a source of nitrite as the overlying water becomes anoxic. Downstream sediments remain a nitrite sink in oxic and anoxic conditions. Anoxic bottom waters at the upstream location promote denitrification, which produces nitrite, while at the downstream site, anammox and DNRA are important removal processes of nitrite.

  2. Lateral convection and diffusion of sediment in straight rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bo; Fredsøe, Jørgen


    secondary flow cells in the Reynolds stress model. The flow cells make zones with alternately high and low sediment concentration, and thereby much higher local gradients in the lateral direction. Both models found a net inward lateral transport. The transport by convection was found more dominant than......The lateral transport of suspended sediment in a straight river cross section with a parabolic shaped bed is studied be use of a k-e and a full Reynolds stress turbulence model. Due to depth variations a lateral transport of suspended sediment is generated. This is mainly caused by the slopping bed...... and a higher level of turbulence at the channel centre, than in the near bank zones, which means that the ability to support suspended sediment will decrease from the channel centre. The two turbulence models give different estimates for the lateral transport, which mainly are caused by turbulence generated...

  3. Human and environmental impacts on river sediment microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M Gibbons

    Full Text Available Sediment microbial communities are responsible for a majority of the metabolic activity in river and stream ecosystems. Understanding the dynamics in community structure and function across freshwater environments will help us to predict how these ecosystems will change in response to human land-use practices. Here we present a spatiotemporal study of sediments in the Tongue River (Montana, USA, comprising six sites along 134 km of river sampled in both spring and fall for two years. Sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons and shotgun metagenomes revealed that these sediments are the richest (∼ 65,000 microbial 'species' identified and most novel (93% of OTUs do not match known microbial diversity ecosystems analyzed by the Earth Microbiome Project to date, and display more functional diversity than was detected in a recent review of global soil metagenomes. Community structure and functional potential have been significantly altered by anthropogenic drivers, including increased pathogenicity and antibiotic metabolism markers near towns and metabolic signatures of coal and coalbed methane extraction byproducts. The core (OTUs shared across all samples and the overall microbial community exhibited highly similar structure, and phylogeny was weakly coupled with functional potential. Together, these results suggest that microbial community structure is shaped by environmental drivers and niche filtering, though stochastic assembly processes likely play a role as well. These results indicate that sediment microbial communities are highly complex and sensitive to changes in land use practices.

  4. Sediment supply controls equilibrium channel geometry in gravel rivers. (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Allison M; Finnegan, Noah J; Willenbring, Jane K


    In many gravel-bedded rivers, floods that fill the channel banks create just enough shear stress to move the median-sized gravel particles on the bed surface (D50). Because this observation is common and is supported by theory, the coincidence of bankfull flow and the incipient motion of D50 has become a commonly used assumption. However, not all natural gravel channels actually conform to this simple relationship; some channels maintain bankfull stresses far in excess of the critical stress required to initiate sediment transport. We use a database of >300 gravel-bedded rivers and >600 10Be-derived erosion rates from across North America to explore the hypothesis that sediment supply drives the magnitude of bankfull shear stress relative to the critical stress required to mobilize the median bed surface grain size ([Formula: see text]). We find that [Formula: see text] is significantly higher in West Coast river reaches (2.35, n = 96) than in river reaches elsewhere on the continent (1.03, n = 245). This pattern parallels patterns in erosion rates (and hence sediment supplies). Supporting our hypothesis, we find a significant correlation between upstream erosion rate and local [Formula: see text] at sites where this comparison is possible. Our analysis reveals a decrease in bed surface armoring with increasing [Formula: see text], suggesting channels accommodate changes in sediment supply through adjustments in bed surface grain size, as also shown through numerical modeling. Our findings demonstrate that sediment supply is encoded in the bankfull hydraulic geometry of gravel bedded channels through its control on bed surface grain size.

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Mississippi River suspended sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raff, J.; Hites, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)


    The Mississippi River Basin drains water from 41% of the conterminous U.S. and is a valuable resource that supplies food, transportation, and irrigation to more than 95 million people of the region. Discharge and runoff from industry, agriculture, and population centers have increased the loads of anthropogenic organic compounds in the river. There has been growing concern over the rising levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in air, sediment, biota, and humans, but there have been no studies to measure the concentrations of these chemicals in North America's largest river system. The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of PBDEs (15 congeners including BDE-209) and to identify possible sources within the Mississippi River Basin. We found PBDEs to be widespread throughout the region, rivaling PCBs in their extent and magnitude of contamination. We have also calculated the total amount of PBDEs released to the Gulf of Mexico in 2002.

  6. Assessment of river Po sediment quality by micropollutant analysis. (United States)

    Camusso, Marina; Galassi, Silvana; Vignati, Davide


    Trace metals, PCB congeners and DDT homologues were determined in composite sediment samples collected from 10 representative sites along the river Po in two separate seasons. The aim was to identify the most anthropogenically impacted areas for future monitoring programmes and to aid development of Italian sediment quality criteria. The surface samples were collected during low flow conditions. Trace metal concentrations were assayed by electrothermal (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb), flame (Fe, Mn, Zn) or hydride generation (As) atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave assisted acid digestion. Hg was determined on solid samples by automated analyser. Organic microcontaminants were determined by gas-chromatography with 63Ni electron capture detector after Soxhlet extraction. Concentrations of trace metals, total PCB and DDT homologues showed two distinct peaks at the sites immediately downstream of Turin and Milan, respectively, and in each case decreased progressively further downstream. Principal component analysis identified three major factors (from a multi-dimensional space of 35 variables) which explained 85-90% of the total observed variance. The first and second factors corresponded to anthropogenic inputs and geological factors on sediment quality; the third included seasonal processes of minor importance. Sediment quality assessment identified Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn and organic microcontaminants as posing the most serious threats to river sediment quality. A reference site within the Po basin provided useful background values. Moderate pollution by organochlorine compounds was ascribed both to local sources and to atmospheric deposition.

  7. Signal crayfish as zoogeomorphic agents: diel patterns of fine sediment suspension in a crayfish-affected river and the implications for fine sediment fluxes and dynamics (United States)

    Rice, Stephen; Johnson, Matthew; Reeds, Jake; Longstaff, Holly; Extence, Chris


    agents that accelerate fine sediment recruitment and promote the mobility and turnover of fine sediments once they are in the channel network, with potential implications for the management of fine sediment pressures in European rivers. Moreover, crayfish are probably one of thousands of species that may, cumulatively, have a substantial impact on river sediment dynamics. The tantalizing possibility that these animals are significant actors in catchment-scale sediment dynamics challenges the conventional view that sediment systems are abiotic and warrants greater scientific attention.

  8. Natural radioactivity in stream sediments of Oltet River, Romania (United States)

    Ion, Adriana


    The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides (U-238, Th-232 and K-40) in stream sediments of the Oltet River was measured in order to establish the primary sources of radionuclides, the transport pathways and the geochemical factors favouring their mobilisation and concentration in the existing geological context. The Oltet River has a length of 185 Km and crosses the southern central part of the country, being the right tributary of the Olt River. The range in elevation of the watercourse varies between 1963 m in the springs area (Parîng Mountains) and 200 m at the confluence with the Olt River, whereas the relief of the Oltet Basin has a varied character, manifested by the presence of diverse forms of relief, starting with major mountainous heights and ending with low-lying plains regions. In cross section from North to South, the Olteț River cuts metamorphic rocks (schist, gneisses, quartzite, marble, mica-schist's), magmatic rocks (granite and granitoid massifs - intruded by veins of microgranite, aplite, pegmatite and lamprophyre) and limestone, followed by deposits composed of clays, marls, sands and gravels, that are characterized by the presence of lignite seams. 44 stream sediment samples were collected in summer of 2016 from sampling points distributed along the river with an equidistance of about 4 - 5 km. The activity concentrations of the U-238, Th-232 and K-40 were measured by gamma ray spectrometry using HPGe detector (ORTEC) with 26% relative efficiency in multilayer shielding. The reference materials used were IAEA - RGK-1 and IAEA - 314. Analysis was performed on the geochemical process the amounts of thorium and potassium released are modest, leaching of uranium being the dominant feature (uranyl ion). The downstream lignite seams are the secondary geochemical barriers in accumulation of uranium; the radiometric data obtained for stream sediments emphasize this enrichment.

  9. Toxicity profile of organic extracts from Magdalena River sediments. (United States)

    Tejeda-Benítez, Lesly; Noguera-Oviedo, Katia; Aga, Diana S; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus


    The Magdalena River, the main river of Colombia, receives contaminated effluents from different anthropogenic activities along its path. However, the Magdalena River is used as drinking water source for approximately 30 million inhabitants, as well as a major source of fish for human consumption. Only a few studies have been conducted to evaluate the environmental and toxicological quality of the Magdalena River. To evaluate sediment toxicity, wild-type and GFP transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans were exposed to methanolic extracts, and effects on lethality, locomotion, growth, and gene expression were determined based on fluorescence spectroscopy. These biological and biochemical parameters were correlated with measured pollutant concentrations (PAHs and trace elements), identifying patterns of toxicity along the course of the river. Effects on lethality, growth, and locomotion were observed in areas influenced by industrial, gold mining, and petrochemical activities. Changes in gene expression were evident for cyp-34A9, especially in the sampling site located near an oil refinery, and at the seaport, in Barranquilla City. Body bend movements were moderately correlated with Cr and As concentrations. The expression of mtl-1, mtl-2, hsp-6, and hsp-70 were significantly associated with Pb/U, Pb, Sr, and As/Sr/Pb/U, respectively. Interestingly, toxicity of methanolic as well as aqueous extracts were more prone to be dependent on Cd, Zn, and Th. In general, ecological risk assessment showed sediments display low environmental impact in terms of evaluated metals and PAHs. Different types of waste disposal on the Magdalena River, as a result of mining, domestic, agricultural, and industrial activities, incorporate toxic pollutants in sediments, which are capable of generating a toxic response in C. elegans.

  10. Phosphorus speciation in the surface sediment and river water from the Orontes (Asi) River, Turkey. (United States)

    Aydin, Isil; Aydin, Firat; Hamamci, Candan


    The paper presents the results of the distribution of phosphorus bioavailability (total, organic, and inorganic phosphorus) in surface sediment and river water from the Orontes (Asi) River (Samandag, Antakya, Turkey) in March 2008. Speciation of inorganic phosphorus was carried out using a method on sequential extractions, with each releasing four forms of inorganic phosphorus-loosely sorbed phosphorus, phosphorus bound to aluminum (P-AL), phosphorus bound to iron (P-Fe), and phosphorus bound to calcium (P-Ca). Total phosphorus concentrations are, on average, 3.724 mg/L and 312.30 mg/kg dry weight in the river water and surface sediment, respectively. The interstitial water of the surface sediment contains less than 1% of the surface sediment's total phosphorus pool. The most abundant form of inorganic phosphorus is P-Ca. Relative abundances of the remaining phosphorus forms both in surface sediment and river water follow the order P-Al > loosely bound-P > P-Fe.

  11. Distribution of heavy metals in riverine soils and sediments of the Turia River basin. (United States)

    Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno-García, Eugenia; Pascual, Juan Antonio


    /extractable fraction of the metals, Cd, Co and Cr were under the detection limitswith maximum values in zone 22 too, reching in the case of Pb 59.60 mg/kg. The percentage of available metal in the sediments of the studied zones vary between 15 and 40% for Cu, Pb and Zn, being the higher than 60% for Pb and Zn in zone 8 near the city of Teruel. Regarding soils, the higest levels of total and extractable Cd, Co, Cr and Ni were determined in the zones 11 and 12, near the Benageber reservoir where an important forest fires occurred a year ago. In the same way that was observed for sediments high lvels of metals, mainly Cr and Zn, appeared in the reference zone of the Alfambra River. The organic matter content of soils and sediments is the parameter most strongly related with all the forms of metals, mainly for Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, and is a key factor in the availability of them. It has to be noted that the textural distribution of the sediments, particularly the clay content, also influences this last factor in the case of Ni. A strong tendency towards enrichment of the sediments in heavy metals is observed in the Turia River from North to South, from the headwater to the stuary, with the exception of the possible existence of a contamination source in zone 2. Acknowledgements This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF) through the coordinating project MEFTURIA (CGL2011-29703-C02-00), and its subprojects EFAMED and EMEFOR (CGL2011-29703-C02-02), and the project CONSOLIDER-INGENIO 2010 (CSD2009), and for the Generalitat Valenciana (ACOMP/2013/037).

  12. Suspended sediment in a high-Arctic river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard-Pedersen, Pernille; Sigsgaard, Charlotte; Kroon, Aart


    Quantifying fluxes of water, sediment and dissolved compounds through Arctic rivers is important for linking the glacial, terrestrial and marine ecosystems and to quantify the impact of a warming climate. The quantification of fluxes is not trivial. This study uses a 8-years data set (2005......-2012) of daily measurements from the high-Artic Zackenberg River in Northeast Greenland to estimate annual suspended sediment fluxes based on four commonly used methods: M1) is the discharge weighted mean and uses direct measurements, while M2-M4) are one uncorrected and two bias corrected rating curves......-daily sampling together with a sampling frequency of 2h during extreme events. The most consistent estimation method was an uncorrected rating curve of bi-daily measurements (M2), combined with a linear interpolation of extreme event fluxes. Sampling can be reduced to every fourth day, with both method...

  13. Hydro-morphological processes through permeable sediment traps at mountain rivers


    Schwindt, Sebastian


    Sediment traps are used for the protection of urban settlements at rivers in mountainous regions. These structures aim at the retention of sediment in the case of hazardous floods, but existing sediment traps tend to retain sediment also when the discharge is not hazardous to the downstream urban regions. This excessive retention of sediment causes an interruption of the river continuum that may lead to channel incision and the morphological depletion of downstream reaches. Another problem is...

  14. Occurrence and distribution of hexabromocyclododecane in sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China. (United States)

    Li, Honghua; Shang, Hongtao; Wang, Pu; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Haidong; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin


    The concentrations and geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were investigated in 37 composite surface sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China, including Yangtze River, Yellow River, Pearl River, Liaohe River, Haihe River, Tarim River and Ertix River. The detection frequency of HBCD was 54%, with the concentrations ranged from below limit of detection (LOD) to 206 ng/g dry weight. In general, the geographical distribution showed increasing trends from the upper reaches to the lower reaches of the rivers and from North China to Southeast China. Compared to other regions in the world, the average concentration of HBCD in sediments from Yangtze River drainage basin was at relatively high level, whereas those from other six river drainage basins were at lower or similar level. The highest HBCD concentration in sediment from Yangtze River Delta and the highest detection frequency of HBCD in Pearl River drainage basins suggested that the industrial and urban activities could evidently affect the HBCD distribution. HBCD diastereoisomer profiles showed that gamma-HBCD dominated in most of the sediment samples, followed by alpha- and beta-HBCD, which was consistent with those in the commercial HBCD mixtures. Further risk assessment reflected that the average inventories of HBCD were 18.3, 5.87, 3.92, 2.50, 1.77 ng/cm2 in sediments from Pearl River, Haihe River, Tarim River, Yellow River and Yangtze River, respectively.

  15. Kankakee River Basin: Evaluation of Sediment Management Strategies (United States)


    basin, and development of a SIAM model from an existing US Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center, River Analysis System ( HEC - RAS ...4 SIAM Model A SIAM model was developed from an existing calibrated HEC - RAS model provided by the Rock Island District. The limits of the HEC - RAS ...model are shown in Figure 4.1. No further effort was made to verify the calibration of the HEC - RAS model. The estimated sediment loads were used to

  16. Current and Historical Sediment Loads in the Lower Mississippi River (United States)


    address this, it is recommended that further investigations be undertaken using the sediment records from Natchez and Arkansas City. Variability and...material quantities required to begin restoration are shown 139 Table 4.2 Listing of existing Mississippi River diversions below Natchez (from Andrus...Thebes, IL 43.8* Memphis, TN 735 Arkansas City, AK 554 Lake Providence 487 Vicksburg, MS 436 Natchez , MS 363 Coochie, LA 317 Tarbert Landing, LA

  17. Identification of Sediment Sources to Calumet River through Geochemical Fingerprinting (United States)


    historic geochemical fingerprint for sediments within this reach of the river. Geochemical measurements and advanced multivariate statistics were...depositional fluxes of stable Pb, 210Pb, and 7Be into Chesapeake Bay. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 36(1):65–79. Kirchner, G. 2011. 210Pb as a tool for...Jackson, M. Roy-Barman, S. Schmidt, and M. Elskens. 2006. 234Th sorption and export models in the water column: A review. Marine Chemistry 100(3– 4

  18. Adsorption of zinc on natural sediment of Tafna River (Algeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dali-youcef, N. [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Marine, UMR CNRS 8110 PBDS and FR 1818, Bat. C8 2eme etage, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)]. E-mail:; Ouddane, B. [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Marine, UMR CNRS 8110 PBDS and FR 1818, Bat. C8 2eme etage, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Derriche, Z. [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de d' Oran, Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Materiaux, El M' Naouar, BP 1505, 31000 Oran (Algeria)


    The environmental impact of metal additions to sediment depends on its sorption ability. The paper presents a study of zinc adsorption using the experiment data on natural sediment of Tafna River in northwest of Algeria. The effect of various operating variables, namely initial concentration, mass of sediment, and contact time, have been studied. The optimum contact time needed to reach equilibrium is of the order of 30 min and is independent of initial concentration and mass of zinc ions. The extent of adsorption increases with increase of concentration, and with decrease of adsorbent mass. The content of carbonate in sediment increases the adsorption indicating the active support material towards zinc ions. A batch sorption model, which assumes the pseudo-second-order mechanism, is developed to predict the rate constant of the sorption, the equilibrium sorption capacity and the initial sorption rate with the effect of initial zinc ion concentration and sediment dose. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as {delta}G{sup o}, {delta}H{sup o} and {delta}S{sup o}, have been calculated. The thermodynamics of zinc ion/sediment system indicates spontaneous, endothermic and randomness nature of the process.

  19. Suspended sediment dynamics in the Amazon River of Peru (United States)

    Armijos, Elisa; Crave, Alain; Vauchel, Philippe; Fraizy, Pascal; Santini, William; Moquet, Jean-Sèbastien; Arevalo, Nore; Carranza, Jorge; Guyot, Jean-Loup


    The erosion and transport of sediments allow us to understand many activities of significance, such as crust evolution, climate change, uplift rates, continental processes, the biogeochemical cycling of pollutants and nutrients. The Amazon basin of Peru has contrasting physiographic and climatic characteristics between the Andean piedmont and the plains and between the north and south of the basin which is why there are 8 gauging stations located along the principal rivers of the Andean piedmont (Marañón, Huallaga, Ucayali) and the plain (Marañón, Tigre, Napo, Ucayali and Amazon rivers). Since 2003, the ORE-Hybam (IRD-SENAMHI-UNALM) observatory has performed out regular measurements at strategic points of the Amazon basin to understand and model the systems, behavior and long-term dynamics. On the Andean piedmont, the suspended yields are governed by a simple model with a relationship between the river discharge and the sediment concentration. In the plain, the dilution effect of the concentrations can create hysteresis in this relationship on a monthly basis. The Amazon basin of Peru has a sediment yield of 541 *106 t year-1, 70% comes from the southern basin.

  20. Reservoir Sedimentation and Flood Control: Using a Geographical Information System to Estimate Sediment Yield of the Songwe River Watershed in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Murayama


    Full Text Available Severe watershed degradation continues to occur in the tropical regions of southern Africa. This has raised interest to harness and manipulate the potential of the watershed resources for human benefit as the populations grow. Songwe River is one such degrading watershed causing biennial flooding among other problems. In this study, climatic, land use, topographic and physiographic properties were assembled for this watershed and used in a process-based Geographical Information System (GIS with the aim of determining the hydrological sediment potential of Songwe River watershed and quantifying possibilities of reservoir sedimentation. The study further aimed at determining the critical sediment generating areas for prioritized conservation management and the relationship between the increasing flood events in the floodplains and the rainfall trends. Based on hydrological runoff processes using the Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA model, the estimated amount of sediment transported downstream is potentially huge. Most of the sediment generation was established to be occurring in the upper sub-basin and specifically from built up village and degraded natural land. These trends have not only caused the increased flooding events in the lower sub-basin, but also pose a great sustainability risk of sedimentation to the proposed reservoir.

  1. Sediment studies in the Assabet River, central Massachusetts, 2003 (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Sorenson, Jason R.


    From its headwaters in Westborough, Massachusetts, to its confluence with the Sudbury River, the 53-kilometer-long Assabet River passes through a series of small towns and mixed land-use areas. Along the way, wastewater-treatment plants release nutrient-rich effluents that contribute to the eutrophic state of this waterway. This condition is most obvious where the river is impounded by a series of dams that have sequestered large amounts of sediment and support rooted and floating macrophytes and epiphytic algae. The water in parts of these impoundments may also have low concentrations of dissolved oxygen, another symptom of eutrophication. All of the impoundments had relatively shallow maximum water depths, which ranged from approximately 2.4 to 3.4 meters, and all had extensive shallow areas. Sediment volumes estimated for the six impoundments ranged from approximately 380 cubic meters in the Aluminum City impoundment to 580,000 cubic meters in the Ben Smith impoundment. The other impoundments had sediment volumes of 120,000 cubic meters (Powdermill), 67,000 cubic meters (Gleasondale), 55,000 cubic meters (Hudson), and 42,000 cubic meters (Allen Street). The principal objective of this study was the determination of sediment volume, extent, and chemistry, in particular, the characterization of toxic inorganic and organic chemicals in the sediments. To determine the bulk-sediment chemical-constituent concentrations, more than one hundred sediment cores were collected in pairs from the six impoundments. One core from each pair was sampled for inorganic constituents and the other for organic constituents. Most of the cores analyzed for inorganics were sectioned to provide information on the vertical distribution of analytes; a subset of the cores analyzed for organics was also sectioned. Approximately 200 samples were analyzed for inorganic constituents and 100 for organics; more than 10 percent were quality-control replicate or blank samples. Maximum bulk-sediment

  2. Heavy metal distribution in sediment profiles of Tuul River, Mongolia (United States)

    Soyol-Erdene, T. O.; Lin, S.; Tuuguu, E.; Daichaa, D.; Ulziibat, B.; Enkh-Amgalan, T.; Hsieh, I. C.


    The distribution, enrichment, and accumulation of heavy metals in the sediments of Tuul River, Mongolia were investigated. Sediment core samples with depths of 4.0-49 cm from thirteen locations along the Tuul River were collected in the period from Sept. 2013 to Aug. 2014 and characterized for metal contents (e.g., Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, Hg and Cr), water content, and grain size. Results showed that metal average concentrations in the sample cores varied from 0.02 mg kg-1 for Hg (0.01 - 0.03 mg kg-1) to 481 mg kg-1 for Mn (277 - 623 mg kg-1). Metal concentrations at the downstream of the capital city were higher than those at other locations. All heavy metals studied, had average enrichment factors less than 3.0, but some sites had relatively higher values of enrichment factors up to 18 for Cu, 4.1 for Hg, 5.9 for Zn, and 25 for Cr, especially at middle depth ( 8-12 cm) of the cores. Importantly, severe pollution of mercury (Hg) was found at the downstream of the capital city which requires immediate remediation before this metal propagates into the food chain. Metal concentrations correlated to the physical-chemical properties of the sediments, which suggested the influence of industrial and municipal wastewaters discharged from the nearby cities. Results of this work would help to develop strategy to remediate of Tuul river sediment and to reduce the exposure of inhabitants to toxic substances.

  3. Pollutants’ Release, Redistribution and Remediation of Black Smelly River Sediment Based on Re-Suspension and Deep Aeration of Sediment (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Li, Xun; Zhang, Chen; Duan, Zengqiang


    Heavily polluted sediment is becoming an important part of water pollution, and this situation is particularly acute in developing countries. Sediment has gradually changed from being the pollution adsorbent to the release source and has influenced the water environment and public health. In this study, we evaluated the pollutant distribution in sediment in a heavily polluted river and agitated the sediment in a heavily polluted river to re-suspend it and re-release pollutants. We found that the levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4+-N, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in overlying water were significantly increased 60 min after agitation. The distribution of the pollutants in the sediment present high concentrations of pollutants congregated on top of the sediment after re-settling, and their distribution decreased with depth. Before agitation, the pollutants were randomly distributed throughout the sediment. Secondly, deep sediment aeration equipment (a micro-porous air diffuser) was installed during the process of sedimentation to study the remediation of the sediment by continuous aeration. The results revealed that deep sediment aeration after re-suspension significantly promoted the degradation of the pollutants both in overlying water and sediment, which also reduced the thickness of the sediment from 0.9 m to 0.6 m. Therefore, sediment aeration after suspension was efficient, and is a promising method for sediment remediation applications. PMID:28368316

  4. Variability of suspended sediment yields within the Loire river basin (France) (United States)

    Gay, A.; Cerdan, O.; Delmas, M.; Desmet, M.


    Suspended sediment fluxes and their variability in time and space have received much attention over the past decades. Large databases compiling suspended sediment load (SL) data are often used to serve these purposes. Analyses of these databases have highlighted the following two major limitations: (i) the role of lowland areas in sediment production and transfer has been minimised, and studies on small-scale catchments (with a drainage area of ⩽ 102 km2) are practically non-existent in the literature; and (ii) inhomogeneous data and calculation methods are used to estimate and compare the SL values. In this context, the present study aims to complete the existing studies by providing a reliable comparison of SL values for various catchments within lowland river basins. Therefore, we focused on the Loire and Brittany river basins (France). 111 small to large catchments covering 78% of this area and representative of the basins landscape diversity were chosen. We first present a large database of area-specific suspended sediment yields (SY) calculated from the suspended sediment concentration and flow discharge data over 7-40 yr of measurements at gauging stations. Two calculation methods are used, and the calculated loads are confined within a factor of 0.60-1.65 of the real values. Second, we analyse the temporal and spatial variability of the calculated SY values. Finally, using a nested catchment approach, we provide insight into sediment transport from upstream to downstream gauging stations and into the role of small- and medium- scale catchments in sediment production and transfers. The SL values at the outlet of the catchments range from 2.5 * 102 to 8.6 * 105 t yr-1, and the SY values range from 2.9 to 32.4 t km-2 yr-1. A comparison with the limited values available in the literature for this region corroborates our estimations. Sediment exports from the Loire and Brittany river basins are very low compared with mountainous regions and European exports

  5. Depth-integrated suspended sediment and geochemical fluxes in large rivers: the Amazon River system (United States)

    Bouchez, J.; Lupker, M.; Gaillardet, J.; Metivier, F.; France-Lanord, C.; Maurice, L.


    Erosion and weathering produce a wide range of residual solid products, in terms of size, density, mineralogy and chemical composition. These solid products are then transported by rivers from the continents to the oceans as suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bedload. Large rivers account for an important part of this transfer of sediments at the global scale. In those rivers, deep channels allow for vertical differentiation, or sorting, of suspended sediment, following their size and density. This hydrodynamic sorting results in vertically heterogeneous depth-profiles in terms of SPM concentration and size distribution (e.g. Garcia, 2008), which in turn likely result in an heterogeneous chemical composition of SPM throughout channel depth (e.g. Galy, 2007), which has to be evaluated. We sampled river water of the main tributaries of the Amazon River system (in the lowland basin), at two distinct water-stages, at various depths following depth-profiles, using a point depth-sampler. After filtration, and SPM recovery, SPM concentration, grain size distribution and chemical composition were determined. River discharge and water velocity throughout the sampled cross-sections were recorded using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). The large increase in SPM concentration with depth observed at most of the sampled depth-profiles is well accounted for by the Rouse model (e.g. Rouse, 1950). This analysis allows us to reliably infer the SPM concentration and grain size distribution throughout the sampled river cross-section, and thus to estimate the spatially-integrated instantaneous SPM flux using ADCP data (Bouchez et al., 2010). The study also emphasizes the potential role of particle aggregation, within the river system, as a complicating factor regarding the prediction of these depth-integrated SPM fluxes from easily measurable hydrodynamic parameters (surface SPM concentration and grain size, and water velocity). Then, using the previous analysis, combined

  6. Streamflow and fluvial sediment transport in Pool C, restored section of the Kissimmee River: Chapter 2 (United States)

    Mossa, Joann; Gellis, Allen C.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Pearman, J. Leroy; Garfield, Ursula; Schenk, Edward R.; Rasmussen, Jim; Habermehl, Philip J.; Mossa, Joann; Valdes, Jose


    The Kissimmee River Restoration Project was authorized by Congress in 1992 to restore more than 64 km2 (square kilometers) of river/floodplain ecosystem including 69 km of meandering river channel and 10,900 hectares (ha) of wetlands. Although biologic monitoring is an integral and active part of the Kissimmee River restoration, by 2007 geomorphic monitoring that included sediment transport was lacking. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative agreement with the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) to determine sediment transport characteristics of the restored section of the Kissimmee River in Pool C. Sediment transport characteristics that are monitored include suspended-sediment concentrations and loads, bedload, and bed material. In addition, the organic content of suspended sediment and bedload was determined. This chapter describes methods and results of the sediment transport monitoring from July 2007 through September 2008 in the Kissimmee River in Pool C.

  7. Assessment of sediments in the riverine impoundments of national wildlife refuges in the Souris River Basin, North Dakota (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Gleason, Robert A.


    Accelerated sedimentation of reservoirs and riverine impoundments is a major concern throughout the United States. Sediments not only fill impoundments and reduce their effective life span, but they can reduce water quality by increasing turbidity and introducing harmful chemical constituents such as heavy metals, toxic elements, and nutrients. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service national wildlife refuges in the north-central part of the United States have documented high amounts of sediment accretion in some wetlands that could negatively affect important aquatic habitats for migratory birds and other wetland-dependent wildlife. Therefore, information pertaining to sediment accumulation in refuge impoundments potentially is important to guide conservation planning, including future management actions of individual impoundments. Lands comprising Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuges, collectively known as the Souris River Basin refuges, encompass reaches of the Des Lacs and Souris Rivers of northwestern North Dakota. The riverine impoundments of the Souris River Basin refuges are vulnerable to sedimentation because of the construction of in-stream dams that interrupt and slow river flows and because of post-European settlement land-use changes that have increased the potential for soil erosion and transport to rivers. Information regarding sediments does not exist for these refuges, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel have expressed interest in assessing refuge impoundments to support refuge management decisions. Sediment cores and surface sediment samples were collected from impoundments within Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuges during 2004–05. Cores were used to estimate sediment accretion rates using radioisotope (cesium-137 [137Cs], lead-210 [210Pb]) dating techniques. Sediment cores and surface samples were analyzed for a suite of elements and agrichemicals, respectively. Examination of

  8. Biota-sediment accumulation factors for radionuclides and sediment associated biota of the Ottawa River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowan, D.; Silke, R.; Carr, J., E-mail: [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)


    As Ottawa River contamination is historical and resides in sediment, ecological risk and trophic transfer depend on linkages between sediment and biota. One of the ways in which this linkage is quantified is through the use of the biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF). In this study, we present the first field estimates of BSAF for a number of radionuclides. The strongest and most consistent BSAFs were those for {sup 137}Cs in deposit feeding taxa, suggesting that sediment concentrations rather than dissolved concentrations drive uptake. For crayfish and unionid bivalves that do not feed on sediment, biota radionuclide concentrations were not related to sediment concentrations, but rather reflected concentrations in water. BSAFs would not be appropriate for these non-deposit feeding biota. BSAFs for {sup 137}Cs were not significantly different among deposit feeding taxa, suggesting similar processes for ingestion, assimilation and elimination. These data also show that the concentration factor approach used for guidance would have led to spurious results in this study for deposit feeding benthic invertebrates. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in Hexagenia downstream of the CRL process outfall range by about 2-orders of magnitude, in comparison to relatively uniform water concentrations. The concentration factor approach would have predicted a single value downstream of CRL, underestimating exposure to Hexagenia by almost 2-orders of magnitude at sites close to the CRL process outfall. (author)

  9. Sediment transport due to extreme events: The Hudson River estuary after tropical storms Irene and Lee (United States)

    Ralston, David K.; Warner, John C.; Geyer, W. Rockwell; Wall, Gary R.


    Tropical Storms Irene and Lee in 2011 produced intense precipitation and flooding in the U.S. Northeast, including the Hudson River watershed. Sediment input to the Hudson River was approximately 2.7 megaton, about 5 times the long-term annual average. Rather than the common assumption that sediment is predominantly trapped in the estuary, observations and model results indicate that approximately two thirds of the new sediment remained trapped in the tidal freshwater river more than 1 month after the storms and only about one fifth of the new sediment reached the saline estuary. High sediment concentrations were observed in the estuary, but the model results suggest that this was predominantly due to remobilization of bed sediment. Spatially localized deposits of new and remobilized sediment were consistent with longer term depositional records. The results indicate that tidal rivers can intercept (at least temporarily) delivery of terrigenous sediment to the marine environment during major flow events.

  10. Surface-sediment grain-size distributions of the Elwha River delta, Washington, February 2016 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release presents sediment grain-size data from samples collected on the Elwha River delta, Washington, in February 2016. Surface sediment...

  11. ISLSCP II Global River Fluxes of Carbon and Sediments to the Oceans (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The River Carbon Flux data set represents estimates for the riverine export of carbon and of sediments. This data set includes the amounts of carbon and of sediments...

  12. Influence of land use configurations on river sediment pollution. (United States)

    Liu, An; Duodu, Godfred O; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A


    Land use is an influential factor in river sediment pollution. However, land use type alone is found to be inadequate to explain pollutant contributions to the aquatic environment since configurations within the same land use type such as land cover and development layout could also exert an important influence. Consequently, this paper discusses a research study, which consisted of an in-depth investigation into the relationship between land use type and river sediment pollution by introducing robust parameters that represent configurations within the primary land use types. Urban water pollutants, namely, nutrients, total carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals were investigated in the study. The outcomes show that higher patch density and more diverse land use development forms contribute relatively greater pollutant loads to receiving waters and consequently leading to higher sediment pollution. The study outcomes are expected to contribute essential knowledge for creating robust management strategies to minimise waterway pollution and thereby protect the health of aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bed Degradation and Sediment Export from the Missouri River after Dam Construction and River Training: Significance to Lower Mississippi River Sediment Loads (United States)

    Blum, M. D.; Viparelli, E.; Sulaiman, Z. A.; Pettit, B. S.


    More than 40,000 dams have been constructed in the Mississippi River drainage basin, which has had a dramatic impact on suspended sediment load for the Mississippi delta. The most significant dams were constructed in the 1950s on the Missouri River in South Dakota, after which total suspended loads for the lower Mississippi River, some 2500 km downstream, were cut in half: gauging station data from the Missouri-Mississippi system show significant load reductions immediately after dam closure, followed by a continued downward trend since that time. The delta region is experiencing tremendous land loss in response to acceleration of global sea-level rise, and load reductions of this magnitude may place severe limits on mitigation efforts. Here we examine sediment export from the Missouri system due to bed scour. The US Army Corps of Engineers has compiled changes in river stage at constant discharge for 8 stations between the lowermost dam at Yankton, South Dakota and the Missouri-Mississippi confluence at St. Louis (a distance of 1250 river km), for the period 1930-2010, which we have updated to 2015. These data show two general reaches of significant bed degradation. The first extends from the last major dam at Yankton, South Dakota downstream 300 km to Omaha, Nebraska, where degradation in response to the dam exceeds 3 m. The second reach, with >2.5 m of degradation, occurs in and around Kansas City, Missouri, and has been attributed to river training activities. The reach between Omaha and Kansas City, as well as the lower Missouri below Kansas City, show training. This number equates to 20-25 million tons per year, which is sufficient to account for 30% of the total Missouri River load, and 15% of the total post-dam annual sediment load for the lower Mississippi River. For perspective, the quantity of sediment exported from the Missouri River due to bed scour is greater than the total load for all rivers in the US lower 48 states, except the Mississippi and

  14. Channel-floodplain sediment interactions along large rivers: hydrological connectivity and sediment budgets (United States)

    Latrubesse, E. M.; Park, E.


    Understanding the patterns of sediment delivery processes and their budgets between channel and floodplains of large rivers is important because both hydrogeomorphic and biogeochemical alterations in floodplains take place through these interactions. The Amazon River has continuous exchange of sediment with floodplains, which may exceed over 3500 Mt/yr in both directions. However, characterizing the sediment transport and deposition patterns in floodplains and quantifying their budgets still remains a challenge. In this study, geomorphic units in floodplains are digitized and their hydrological connectivity are assessed by identifying recharge thresholds from the main channel. Historical floodplain recharge records are examined from daily water level data measured at nearby gauge stations by calculating number of days falling in between the connection and disconnection thresholds within a hydrological cycle. Historical recharge patterns of each unit is assessed using Mann-Kendall test. Intensity of hydrological connectivity is further investigated for by building power spectrum of over 15 years water extent time series data through fast Fourier transform, which the power spectral density indicates the intensity of flooding pulses from the main channel. To quantify the sediment budget stored in floodplains, PALSAR DEM acquired during the lowest water level season is used with the MODIS 8-day composite data. First, shoreline grids derived from MODIS-MNDWI is overlaid on PALSAR image to identify the water level at each floodplain lake unit (h). Total imported Sediment Fluxes (TiSF) entering each floodplain lake during a given period will be calculated as sum of (ht1-ht2) x (SSC(x,y)x1000) x 2502, where htn is the water level in floodplain lake at time tn; SSC(x, y) denotes sediment concentration at x, y coordinate; 1000 is a scale factor; and 2502 is the area of MODIS pixel (m2). Successively summing up TiSF derived from each period will retrieve the amount of total

  15. Determinants of the microbial community structure of eutrophic, hyporheic river sediments polluted with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamonts, K.; Ryngaert, A.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.


    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) often discharge into rivers as contaminated groundwater baseflow. As biotransformation of CAHs in the impacted river sediments might be an effective remediation strategy, we investigated the determinants of the microbial community structure of eutrophic,

  16. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals in coastal lagoons of the Po River delta: sediment contamination, bioaccumulation and effects on Manila clams. (United States)

    Casatta, Nadia; Stefani, Fabrizio; Pozzoni, Fiorenzo; Guzzella, Licia; Marziali, Laura; Mascolo, Giuseppe; Viganò, Luigi


    The large estuary that the River Po forms at its confluence into the Adriatic Sea comprises a multitude of transitional environments, including coastal lagoons. This complex system receives the nutrients transported by the River Po but also its load of chemical contaminants, which may pose a substantial (eco)toxicological risk. Despite the high ecological and economic importance of these vulnerable environments, there is a substantial lack of information on this risk. In light of the recent amendments of the European Water Framework Directive (2013/39/EU), the present study investigated the sediment contamination of six coastal lagoons of the Po delta and its effects on Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum), exposed in situ for 3 months. Sediment contamination and clam bioaccumulation of a wide range of chemicals, i.e. trace metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Hg, Pb, As), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), alkylphenols (APs), organochlorine compounds (PCBs, DDTs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organotins (TPhT, TBT), suggested a southward increase related to the riverine transports. Where the River Po influence was more direct, the concentrations of contaminants were higher, with nonylphenol and BDE-209 exceeding sediment quality guidelines. Biometric indicators suggested the influence of contamination on organism health; an inverse relationship between PBDEs in sediments and clam condition index has been found, as well as different biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) in the lagoons.

  17. Impacts of the Indian Rivers Inter-link Project on Sediment Transport to River Deltas (United States)

    Higgins, S.; Overeem, I.; Syvitski, J. P.


    The Indian Rivers Inter-link project is a proposal by the Indian government to link several of India's major rivers via a network of reservoirs and canals. Variations of the IRI have been discussed since 1980, but the current plan has recently received increased support from the Indian government. Construction on three canals has controversially begun. If the Inter-link project moves forward, fourteen canals will divert water from tributaries of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers to areas in the west, where fresh water is needed for irrigation. Additional canals would transport Himalayan sediments 500 km south to the Mahanadi delta and more than 1000 km south to the Godavari and Krishna deltas. We investigate the impacts of the proposed diversions on sediment transport to the Mahanadi/Brahmani, Godavari, and Krishna deltas in India and the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta in Bangladesh. We map the entire river network and the proposed new nodes and connections. Changing watersheds are delineated using the Terrain Analysis Using Digital Elevation Models (TauDEM) Suite. Climate data comes from interpolation between observed precipitation stations located in China, Nepal, India, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Changes in water discharge due to the proposed canals are simulated using HydroTrend, a climate-driven hydrological water balance and transport model that incorporates drainage area, discharge, relief, temperature, basin-average lithology, and anthropogenic influences. Simulated river discharge is validated against observations from gauging stations archived by the Global Runoff Data Center (GRDC). HydroTrend is then used to investigate sediment transport changes that may result from the proposed canals. We also quantify changes in contributing areas for the outlets of nine major Indian rivers, showing that more than 50% of the land in India will contribute a portion of its runoff to a new outlet should the entire canal system be constructed.

  18. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins (United States)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.


    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  19. Development of a blind reference sediment for use in upper Mississippi River and other sediment quality studies (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Upper Mississippi River has a history of abuse and neglect by Man, resulting in the past contamination of its sediments by heavy metals and organic compounds...

  20. The impact of river-lake flow and sediment exchange on sediment scouring and siltation in middle and lower Yangtze River (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, Z. L.; Zuo, L. Q.


    The operation of TGR (Three Gorges Reservoir) caused river erosion and water level decline at downstream, which affects the water and sediment exchange of river-lake (Yangtze River – Dongting lake & Poyang lake). However, the change of river-lake relationship plays a significant role in the flow and sediment process of Yangtze River. In this study, flow diversion ratios of the three outlets, Chenglingji station, Hukou station are used as indexes of river-lake exchange to study the response of river erosion to flow diversion ratios. The results show that:(1) the sediment erosion in each reach from Yichang to Datong has linear correlation with the flow diversion ratio of the three outlets; (2) the sediment erosion above Chenglingji has negative linear correlation with the flow diversion ratio of Chenglingji station. While the sediment erosion below Chenglingji station has non-linear correlation with the flow diversion ratio variation of Chenglingji station; (3) the reach above Hankou station will not be affected by the flow diversion ratio of Hukou station. On one hand, if the flow diversion ratio is less than 10%, the correlation between sediment erosion and flow diversion ratio of Hukou station will be positive in Hankou to Hukou reach, but will be negative in Hukou to Datong reach. On the other hand, if the flow diversion ratio is more than 10%, the correlation will reverse.

  1. Sinks and sources: Assessing microplastic abundance in river sediment and deposit feeders in an Austral temperate urban river system. (United States)

    Nel, Holly A; Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J


    Microplastics are important novel pollutants in freshwaters but their behaviour in river sediments is poorly understood due to the large amounts of coloured dissolved organic matter that impede sample processing. The present study aimed to 1.) estimate the microplastic pollution dynamics in an urban river system experiencing temporal differences in river flow, and 2.) investigate the potential use of chironomids as indicators of microplastic pollution levels in degraded freshwater environments. Microplastic levels were estimated from sediment and Chironomus spp. larvae collected from various sites along the Bloukrans River system, in the Eastern Cape South Africa during the summer and winter season. River flow, water depth, channel width, substrate embeddedness and sediment organic matter were simultaneously collected from each site. The winter season was characterised by elevated microplastic abundances, likely as a result of lower energy and increased sediment deposition associated with reduced river flow. In addition, results showed that particle distribution may be governed by various other external factors, such as substrate type and sediment organic matter. The study further highlighted that deposit feeders associated with the benthic river habitats, namely Chironomus spp. ingest microplastics and that the seasonal differences in sediment microplastic dynamics were reflected in chironomid microplastic abundance. There was a positive, though weakly significant relationship between deposit feeders and sediment suggesting that deposit feeders such as Chironomus spp. larvae could serve as an important indicator of microplastic loads within freshwater ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Linkages between the spatial toxicity of sediments and sediment dynamics in the Yangtze River Estuary and neighboring East China Sea. (United States)

    Gao, Jinjuan; Shi, Huahong; Dai, Zhijun; Mei, Xuefei; Zong, Haibo; Yang, Hongwei; Hu, Lingling; Li, Shushi


    Anthropogenic activities are driving an increase in sediment contamination in coastal areas. This poses significant challenges for the management of estuarine ecosystems and their adjacent seas worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted on how dynamic mechanisms affect the sediment toxicity in the estuarine environment. This study was designed to investigate the linkages between sediment toxicity and hydrodynamics in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) area. High sediment toxicity was found in the Yangtze River mouth (Region I), the depocenter of the Yangtze River Delta (Region II), and the southeastern area of the adjacent sea (Region III), while low sediment toxicity was found in the northeastern offshore region (Region IV). A spatial comparison analysis and regression model indicated that the distributed pattern of sediment toxicity was likely related to hydrodynamics and circumfluence in the East China Sea (ECS) shelf. Specifically, high sediment toxicity in Region I may be affected by the Yangtze River Pump (YRP) and the low hydrodynamics there, and high toxicity in Region II can be influenced by the low sediment dynamics and fine sediment in the depocenter. The high sediment toxicity in Region III might be related to the combination of the YRP and Taiwan Warm Current, while the low toxicity in Region IV may be influenced by the local coarse-grained relict sand with strong sediment dynamics there. The present research results further suggest that it is necessary to link hydrodynamics and the spatial behavior of sediment and sediment-derived pollutants when assessing the pollution status of estuarine environments, especially for those mega-estuaries and their neighboring ocean environments with complex waves, tides and ocean currents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tidal straining effect on the suspended sediment transport in the Huanghe (Yellow River) Estuary, China (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Hua; Wang, Houjie


    Tidal straining effect on sediment transport dynamics in the Huanghe (Yellow River) estuary was studied by field observations and numerical simulations. The measurement of salinity, suspended sediment concentration, and current velocity was conducted during a flood season in 1995 at the Huanghe river mouth with six fishing boats moored at six stations for 25-h hourly time series observations. Based on the measurements, the intra-tidal variations of sediment transport in the highly turbid river mouth was observed and the tidal straining effect occurred. Our study showed that tidal straining of longitudinal sediment concentration gradients can contribute to intra-tidal variability in sediment stratification and to asymmetries in sediment distribution within a tidal cycle. In particular, the tidal straining effect in the Huanghe River estuary strengthened the sediment-induced stratification at the flood tide, thus producing a higher bottom sediment concentration than that during the ebb. A sediment transport model that is capable of simulating sediment-induced stratification effect on the hydrodynamics in the bottom boundary layers and associated density currents was applied to an idealized estuary to demonstrate the processes and to discuss the mechanism. The model-predicted sediment processes resembled the observed characteristics in the Huanghe River estuary. We concluded that tidal straining effect is an important but poorly understood mechanism in the transport dynamics of cohesive sediments in turbid estuaries and coastal seas.

  4. Establishing the environmental risk of metal contaminated river bank sediments (United States)

    Lynch, Sarah; Batty, Lesley; Byrne, Patrick


    Climate change predictions indicate an increase in the frequency and duration of flood events along with longer dry antecedent conditions, which could alter patterns of trace metal release from contaminated river bank sediments. This study took a laboratory mesocosm approach. Chemical analysis of water and sediment samples allowed the patterns of Pb and Zn release and key mechanisms controlling Pb and Zn mobility to be determined. Trace metal contaminants Pb and Zn were released throughout flooded periods. The highest concentrations of dissolved Pb were observed at the end of the longest flood period and high concentrations of dissolved Zn were released at the start of a flood. These concentrations were found to exceed environmental quality standards. Key mechanisms controlling mobility were (i) evaporation, precipitation and dissolution of Zn sulphate salts, (ii) anglesite solubility control of dissolved Pb, (iii) oxidation of galena and sphalerite, (iv) reductive dissolution of Mn/Fe hydroxides and co-precipitation/adsorption with Zn. In light of climate change predictions these results indicate future scenarios may include larger or more frequent transient 'pulses' of dissolved Pb and Zn released to river systems. These short lived pollution episodes could act as a significant barrier to achieving the EU Water Framework Directive objectives.

  5. Linking the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to coastal wetland sedimentation (United States)

    Falcini, Federico; Khan, Nicole S.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Horton, Benjamin P.; Lutken, Carol B.; McKee, Karen L.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Li, Chunyan; Volpe, Gianluca; D’Emidio, Marco; Salusti, Alessandro; Jerolmack, Douglas J.


    Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In Spring of 2011 a record-breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert up to 3500 m3/s-1 of water to the Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we quantify differences between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River inundation and sediment-plume patterns using field-calibrated satellite data, and assess the impact these outflows had on wetland sedimentation. We characterize hydrodynamics and suspended sediment patterns of the Mississippi River plume using in-situ data collected during the historic flood. We show that the focused, high-momentum jet from the leveed Mississippi delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area; and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. Maximum sedimentation (up to several centimetres) occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Minimum accumulation occurred along the shoreline between these river sources. Our findings provide a mechanistic link between river-mouth dynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns that is relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands using artificial diversions.

  6. Sedimentation patterns off the Zambezi River over the last 20.000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lubbe, Jeroen; Tjallingii, R.; Prins, M.A.; Brummer, G.J.A.; Jung, S.J.A.; Kroon, D.; Schneider, R.R.


    Marine sediments from continental margins provide high-resolution archives of marine and continental climate, in particular near large river mouths. The Zambezi is one of the largest rivers in East Africa, discharging large amounts of fine-grained sediments onto the western margin of the Mozambique

  7. Sedimentation patterns off the Zambezi River over the last 20,000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lubbe, J.L.; Tjallingii, R.; Prins, M.A.; Brummer, G.-J.A.; Jung, S.J.H.; Kroon, D.; Schneider, R.R.


    Marine sediments from continental margins provide high-resolution archives of marine and continental climate, in particular near large river mouths. The Zambezi is one of the largest rivers in East Africa, discharging large amounts of fine-grained sediments onto the western margin of the Mozambique

  8. Surficial sediments of the wave-dominated Orange River Delta and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The textural and compositional characteristics of the surficial shelf sediments north and south of the Orange River Delta are reviewed and compared. Sediments are fractionated and dispersed both north- and southwards of the Orange River mouth by wave action, longshore drift and subsurface currents. The mean grain ...

  9. Process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics in a river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kabir


    Full Text Available Modeling of sediment dynamics for developing best management practices of reducing soil erosion and of sediment control has become essential for sustainable management of watersheds. Precise estimation of sediment dynamics is very important since soils are a major component of enormous environmental processes and sediment transport controls lake and river pollution extensively. Different hydrological processes govern sediment dynamics in a river basin, which are highly variable in spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics at river basin scale by integrating sediment processes (soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition with an existing process-based distributed hydrological model. In this modeling approach, the watershed is divided into an array of homogeneous grids to capture the catchment spatial heterogeneity. Hillslope and river sediment dynamic processes have been modeled separately and linked to each other consistently. Water flow and sediment transport at different land grids and river nodes are modeled using one dimensional kinematic wave approximation of Saint-Venant equations. The mechanics of sediment dynamics are integrated into the model using representative physical equations after a comprehensive review. The model has been tested on river basins in two different hydro climatic areas, the Abukuma River Basin, Japan and Latrobe River Basin, Australia. Sediment transport and deposition are modeled using Govers transport capacity equation. All spatial datasets, such as, Digital Elevation Model (DEM, land use and soil classification data, etc., have been prepared using raster "Geographic Information System (GIS" tools. The results of relevant statistical checks (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and R–squared value indicate that the model simulates basin hydrology and its associated sediment dynamics reasonably well. This paper presents the

  10. Partitioning of metals in sediments from the Odiel River (Spain). (United States)

    Morillo, José; Usero, José; Gracia, Ignacio


    The Odiel River runs through an area known as the Iberian pyrite belt in the province of Huelva in the southwestern corner of the Iberian Peninsula. Its waters are acidic and contain large amounts of heavy metals from erosion and mining activity. In addition, the Odiel River estuary is one of the most industrialized areas in southern Spain and, consequently, receives the discharge of industrial and urban waste. Seventeen sediment samples from the Odiel and its main tributaries were analyzed for this study. The chemical partitioning of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Fe, Ni, Cr and Co) in each sample was determined in four fractions (acid-soluble, reducible, oxidizable and residual). The total content of each of the metals was also determined. The results showed high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, undoubtedly as a result of contamination from the mining and industrial activity mentioned above. However, the concentrations of the other metals analyzed were low since there are no sources of pollution by them in the Odiel River. Based on the chemical distribution of metals, we found that Cd, Zn and Cu are the most mobile metals (i.e., metals that can pass easily into the water under changing environmental conditions). Cd is the metal that showed the highest percentages in the acid-soluble fraction (the most labile) and the lowest in the residual fraction. However, Pb, Fe, Cr and Ni are present in the greatest percentages in the residual fraction, which implies that these metals are strongly linked to the sediments.

  11. Role of hydrological events in sediment and sediment-associated heavy metals transport within a continental transboundary river system - Tuul River case study (Mongolia) (United States)

    Pietroń, Jan; Jarsjö, Jerker


    The concentration of heavy metals in rivers is often greater in the sediment load than in the water solution. Overall, heavy metal conveyance with sediment transport is a significant contributor to the global transport of heavy metals. Heavy metals once released to a river system may remain in the deposits of the river from short to very long times, for instance depending on to which extent erosion and deposition can influence the sediment mass stored in the river bed. In general, the mobility of contaminated sediments to downstream water recipients may to large extent be governed by natural sediment transport dynamics during hydrological events, such as flow peaks following heavy rainfalls. The Tuul River (Northern Mongolia) belongs to a Tuul River-Orkhon River-Selenga River- transboundary river system that discharges into Lake Baikal. The river system is largely characterized by its natural hydrological regime with numerous rapid peak flow events of the spring-summer periods. However, recent studies indicate contamination of fine sediment with heavy metals coming from placer gold mining area (Zaamar Goldfield) located along the downstream Tuul River. In this work, the general idea is to create a one-dimensional sediment transport model of the downstream Tuul River, and use field-data supported modeling to investigate natural erosion-deposition rates and the role of peak flows in natural sediment transport at 14 km reach just downstream the gold mining area. The model results show that the sediment load of the finest investigated grain size has a great potential to be eroded from the bed of the studied reach, especially during the main peak flow events. However, the same events are associated with a significant deposition of the finest material. The model results also show different hysteresis behavior of the sediment load rating curves (clockwise and counter-clockwise) during the main peak flow events. These are interpreted as effects of changing in

  12. Tracing suspended sediment sources in the Upper Sangamon River Basin using fingerprinting techniques (United States)

    Yu, M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Neal, C.; Anders, A. M.


    As the awareness of water pollution, eutrophication and other water related environmental concerns grows, the significance of sediment in the transport of nutrients and contaminants from agricultural areas to streams has received increasing attention. Both the physical and geochemical properties of suspended sediment are strongly controlled by sediment sources. Thus, tracing sources of suspended sediment in watersheds is important for the design of management practices to reduce sediment loads and contributions of sediment-adsorbed nutrients from agricultural areas to streams. However, the contributions of different sediment sources to suspended sediment loads within intensively managed watersheds in the Midwest still remain insufficiently explored. This study aims to assess the provenance of suspended sediment and the relation between channel morphology and production of suspended sediment in the Upper Sangamon River Basin, Illinois. The 3,690-km2 Upper Sangamon River Basin is characterized by low-relief, agricultural lands dominated by row-crop agriculture. Sediment source samples were collected in the Saybrook and Wildcat Slough sub-watersheds from six potential sources: row-crop agriculture, forest, floodplains, river banks, pastures, and grasslands. Event-based suspended sediment samples were collected by in situ suspended sediment samplers and ISCO automatic pump samplers from the streams. A quantitative geochemical fingerprinting technique, combining statistically verified multicomponent signatures and an unmixing model, was employed to estimate the relative contributions of sediment from six potential sources to the suspended sediment loads. Our preliminary results indicate that the majority of suspended sediment is derived from channel banks and forest adjacent to meandering reaches in the downstream portions of the watersheds, while only minor amounts of suspended sediment are derived from upland areas adjacent to channelized rivers in the low

  13. Assessing Anthracene and Arsenic Contamination within Buffalo River Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gawedzki


    Full Text Available Anthracene and arsenic contamination concentrations at various depths in the Buffalo River were analyzed in this study. Anthracene is known to cause damage to human skin and arsenic has been linked to lung and liver cancer. The Buffalo River is labelled as an Area of Concern defined by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between Canada and the United States. It has a long history of industrial activity located in its near vicinity that has contributed to its pollution. An ordinary kriging spatial interpolation technique was used to calculate estimates between sample locations for anthracene and arsenic at various depths. The results show that both anthracene and arsenic surface sediment (0–30 cm is less contaminated than all subsurface depths. There is variability of pollution within the different subsurface levels (30–60 cm, 60–90 cm, 90–120 cm, 120–150 cm and along the river course, but major clusters are identified throughout all depths for both anthracene and arsenic.

  14. Sedimentation from suspension and sediment accumulation rate in the River Vistula prodelta, Gulf of Gdańsk (Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Damrat


    Full Text Available The River Vistula is one of the largest suppliers of fresh water and terrigenous matter to the Baltic Sea. The impact of this river on the Baltic coastal system and the fate of the sediment delivered to the Gulf of Gdańsk are not well understood. Spatial transport patterns, as well as the settling, deposition and accumulation of the sediments were studied at the Vistula prodelta in different seasons from January 2012 to January 2013. The concentration of suspended matter in the water column was measured with optical methods, the sedimentation rate was determined with sediment traps, and the sediment accumulation rate was estimated using 210Pb dating. Our data shows that the annual supply of sediment to the sediment-water interface exceeds the annual rate of sediment accumulation in the outer Vistula prodelta by a factor of three. Sediment trapping during rough weather showed that significant sediment redeposition was taking place, even at depths of 55 m. The dynamic sedimentary processes occurring in the Vistula prodelta mean that that more than two-thirds of the sediment mass can be remobilized and then redeposited in deeper parts of the Gdańsk Basin.

  15. Solidification/stabilization of metal polluted sediment of Krivaja river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalmacija Milena B.


    Full Text Available The Krivaja River is the longest natural water body (109 km that flows completely within the borders of Serbian province of Vojvodina. In the absence of national legislation, the sediment quality was assessed in accordance with the Dutch classification methodology. It was found that the river sediment is highly contaminated with copper and zinc (192 mg kg-1 and 1218 mg kg-1 respectively, and as such is an extreme risk to the environment and human health. The solidification/stabilization (S/S treatment with local clay, that has high capacity of cation exchange 70.2 meq/100 g and specific surface area of 630 m2 g-1, was employed for remediation of the contaminated sediment. The sequential extraction procedure showed that the copper and zinc have medium risk for the environment, with the percentage in the carbonate fraction of 18 and 22% respectively. The results of sequential extraction are not in full agreement with the results of pseudo-total metal concentration in the sediment, which only confirms that the total metal concentration is not sufficient to define the real danger to the environment. Based on the pseudo-total metals concentration, the sediment is of Class 4 (Dutch standards. However, judging from the results of sequential extraction, the metals show medium risk. Obviously, these results have to be taken into account in the assessment of the sediment quality, remediation procedures and sediment disposal in general. After the treatment, the proportion of these two metals in the first fraction is significantly reduced (Cu less than 2%, Zn 10% in most of samples. In order to determine the long-term behavior of S/S mixtures, leaching tests were conducted in accordance with semi-dynamic ANS diffusion test for 90 days. The results indicated that clay can effectively immobilize Cu and Zn: the cumulative leached fraction of copper in mixtures with clay was in the range from 0.001% (mixture with 80% clay to 0.15% (mixture with 10% clay, and

  16. The meandering Dijle River in the western European loess region: an anthropogenic landscape (United States)

    Broothaerts, Nils; Verstraeten, Gert; Notebaert, Bastiaan; Kasse, Cornelis; Bohncke, Sjoerd; Vandenberghe, Jef


    Floodplain deposition rates have increased markedly under influence of human impact throughout the Late Holocene in many Western and Central European catchments. These variations in sedimentation rates have changed the geomorphology and ecology of many floodplains. In this study we discuss the human impact and its influence on floodplain geoecology during the Middle and Late Holocene for the Dijle catchment (760 km²), located in the Belgian part of the western European loess belt. Based on sedimentological and palynological data, the geoecology of the floodplain and the regional vegetation was reconstructed at 6 locations. Age-depth models for each of the studied sequences were obtained through 60 radiocarbon dates. Human impact in the catchment was quantified based on statistical analysis of the pollen data (cluster analysis and correspondence analysis). Our data shows that until ca. 2500 cal BP, human impact was either absent or limited to local disturbances yielding no clear influence on the floodplain geoecology. The river environment was in a stable phase and consisted of a marshy environment were organic material could accumulate, which is interpreted as the natural state of the floodplain. From ca. 2500 cal BP onwards, human impact gradually increased. However, only when human impact in the catchment crossed a threshold, the floodplain geoecology changed with clearing of the Alder carr forest, the dominance of minerogenic overbank sedimentation and the emergence of a single channel meandering river. Spatial and temporal variability in the coupling between increasing human impact and changes in floodplain geoecology can be attributed to differences in hillslope-fluvial system connectivity and local differences in human impact. Overall, this study shed new lights on the indirect effect of anthropogenic forces on floodplain geoecology. It also shows that the contemporary morphology of the Dijle River floodplain contrasts widely with that of the Middle Holocene

  17. Sediment transport following water transfer from Yangtze River to Taihu Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong


    Full Text Available To meet the increasing need of fresh water and to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, water transfer from the Yangtze River was initiated in 2002. This study was performed to investigate the sediment distribution along the river course following water transfer. A rainfall-runoff model was first built to calculate the runoff of the Taihu Basin in 2003. Then, the flow patterns of river networks were simulated using a one-dimensional river network hydrodynamic model. Based on the boundary conditions of the flow in tributaries of the Wangyu River and the water level in Taihu Lake, a one-dimensional hydrodynamic and sediment transport numerical model of the Wangyu River was built to analyze the influences of the inflow rate of the water transfer and the suspended sediment concentration (SSC of inflow on the sediment transport. The results show that the water transfer inflow rate and SSC of inflow have significant effects on the sediment distribution. The higher the inflow rate or SSC of inflow is, the higher the SSC value is at certain cross-sections along the river course of water transfer. Higher inflow rate and SSC of inflow contribute to higher sediment deposition per kilometer and sediment thickness. It is also concluded that a sharp decrease of the inflow velocity at the entrance of the Wangyu River on the river course of water transfer induces intense sedimentation at the cross-section near the Changshu hydro-junction. With an increasing distance from the Changshu hydro-junction, the sediment deposition and sedimentation thickness decrease gradually along the river course.

  18. Sorption of alkylphenols on Ebro River sediments: Comparing isotherms with field observations in river water and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Alicia [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail:; Endo, Satoshi; Gocht, Tilman [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Barth, Johannes A.C. [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Lacorte, Silvia [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, Damia [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Institut Catala de Recerca de l' Aigua (ICRA), Parc Cientific i Tecnologic de la Universitat de Girona, Pic de Peguera, 15, 17003 Girona (Spain); Grathwohl, Peter [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)


    This study reports sorption isotherms of the endocrine disruptors nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) in three sediment samples from the Ebro River basin (NE Spain), with organic carbon fractions (f{sub OC}) ranging from 0.0035 to 0.082 g{sub OC} g{sup -1}. All isotherms were fitted to the Freundlich model with slightly nonlinear exponents ranging from 0.80 to 0.94. The solubility of the compounds as well as the organic carbon (OC) content had the strongest influences on the sorption behavior of these compounds. Comparison of the laboratory-spiked samples with the native contamination of NP of 45 water and concurrent sediment samples resulted in reasonable matches between both data sets, even though the lowest concentrations in the field were not completely reached in laboratory tests. This good agreement indicates that sorption laboratory data can be extrapolated to environmental levels and therefore the distribution of nonylphenol between sediments and water can be predicted with a precision of one order of magnitude. Furthermore, laboratory experiments with simultaneous loading of NP and OP revealed negligible competition for sorption sites at low concentrations. - Laboratory sorption of nonylphenol compared to field concentrations showed good agreements.

  19. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: Their relations to environmental factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Zhao, Changpo [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo, Yupeng [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Liu, Chunsheng, E-mail: [College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Kyzas, George Z. [Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Luo, Yin [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhao, Dongye [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); An, Shuqing [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhu, Hailiang, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    Highlights: • Zhengzhou City had major effect on the pollution of the Jialu River. • TN, OP, TP and COD{sub Mn} in water drove heavy metals to deposit in sediments. • B-IBI was sensitive to the adverse effect of heavy metals in sediments. - Abstract: This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community.

  20. Environmental Risk of Metal Mining Contaminated River Bank Sediment at Redox-Transitional Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F. L. Lynch


    Full Text Available Diffuse metal pollution from mining impacted sediment is widely recognised as a potential source of contamination to river systems and may significantly hinder the achievement of European Union Water Framework Directive objectives. Redox-transitional zones that form along metal contaminated river banks as a result of flood and drought cycles could cause biogeochemical changes that alter the behaviour of polyvalent metals iron and manganese and anions such as sulphur. Trace metals are often partitioned with iron, manganese and sulphur minerals in mining-contaminated sediment, therefore the dissolution and precipitation of these minerals may influence the mobility of potentially toxic trace metals. Research indicates that freshly precipitated metal oxides and sulphides may be more “reactive” (more adsorbent and prone to dissolution when conditions change than older crystalline forms. Fluctuations at the oxic-anoxic interface brought about through changes in the frequency and duration of flood and drought episodes may therefore influence the reactivity of secondary minerals that form in the sediment and the flux of dissolved trace metal release. UK climate change models predict longer dry periods for some regions, interspersed with higher magnitude flood events. If we are to fully comprehend the future environmental risk these climate change events pose to mining impacted river systems it is recommended that research efforts focus on identifying the primary controls on trace metal release at the oxic-anoxic interface for flood and drought cycles of different duration and frequency. This paper critically reviews the literature regarding biogeochemical processes that occur at different temporal scales during oxic, reducing and dry periods and focuses on how iron and sulphur based minerals may alter in form and reactivity and influence the mobility of trace metal contaminants. It is clear that changes in redox potential can alter the composition

  1. Contaminant variability in a sedimentation area of the river Rhine = Variabiliteit van verontreinigingen in een sedimentatiegebied van de Rijn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, H.J.


    Aquatic sediments in sedimentation zones of major rivers are in general sinks for pollutants. The sedimentation zone Ketelmeer/IJsselmeer is an important sink for contaminants of the river Rhine (i.e. river IJssel). Recent and historical pollution interact here. Redistribution of suspended

  2. Preliminary Investigations on the Fate of Terrestrial Sediments in the Coastal Ocean Discharged From Taiwanese Small Mountainous Rivers (United States)


    Quantitative links between fluvial sediment discharge, trapped terrigenous flux and sediment accumulation, and implications for temporal and spatial... Sediments in the Coastal Ocean Discharged From Taiwanese Small Mountainous Rivers Kon-Kee Liu Institute of Hydrological & Oceanic Sciences, National...Investigations on the Fate of Terrestrial Sediments in the Coastal Ocean Discharged From Taiwanese Small Mountainous Rivers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  3. Effect of water flux and sediment discharge of the Yangtze River on PAHs sedimentation in the estuary. (United States)

    Li, Rufeng; Feng, Chenghong; Wang, Dongxin; He, Maozhi; Hu, Lijuan; Shen, Zhenyao


    Historical distribution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their carriers (i.e., organic matter and mineral particles) in the sediment cores of the Yangtze Estuary were investigated, with emphasis laid on the role of the Yangtze River. Grain size component of sediments (clay, silt, and sand) and organic carbon (black carbon and total organic carbon) in the sediment cores were markedly affected by water flux and sediment discharge of the Yangtze River. Qualitative and quantitative analysis results showed that sands and black carbon acted as the main carriers of PAHs. The sedimentation of two-ring to three-ring PAHs in the estuary had significant correlations with water flux and sediment discharge of the Yangtze River. The relative lower level of the four-ring and five-ring to six-ring PAHs concentrations appeared around the year 2003 and remained for the following several years. This time period accorded well with the water impoundment time of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The decreased level of two-ring to three-ring PAHs occurred in the year 1994, and the peak points around the year 2009 indicated that PAHs sedimentation in the estuary also had close relationship to severe drought and flood in the catchments. The findings presented in this paper could provide references for assessing the impacts of water flux and sediment discharge on the historical deposition of PAHs and their carriers in the Yangtze Estuary.

  4. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in water and sediments of Trepça and Sitnica rivers, Kosovo, using pollution indicators and multivariate cluster analysis. (United States)

    Ferati, Flora; Kerolli-Mustafa, Mihone; Kraja-Ylli, Arjana


    The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in water and sediment samples from Trepça and Sitnica rivers were determined to assess the level of contamination. Six water and sediment samples were collected during the period from April to July 2014. Most of the water samples was found within the European and Kosovo permissible limits. The highest concentration of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn originates primarily from anthropogenic sources such discharge of industrial water from mining flotation and from the mine waste eroded from the river banks. Sediment contamination assessment was carried out using the pollution indicators such as contamination factor (CF), degree of contamination (Cd), modified degree of contamination (mCd), pollution load index (PLI), and geo-accumulation index (Igeo). The CF values for the investigated metals indicated a high contaminated nature of sediments, while the Cd values indicated a very high contamination degree of sediments. The mCd values indicate a high degree of contamination of Sitnica river sediment to ultrahigh degree of contamination of Trepça river sediment. The PLI values ranged from 1.89 to 14.1 which indicate that the heavy metal concentration levels in all investigated sites exceeded the background values and sediment quality guidelines. The average values of Igeo revealed the following ranking of intensity of heavy metal contamination of the Trepça and Sitnica river sediments: Cd > As > Pb > Zn > Cu > Co > Cr > Ni. Cluster analysis suggests that As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn are derived from anthropogenic sources, particularly discharges from mining flotation and erosion form waste from a zinc mine plant. In order to protect the sediments from further contamination, the designing of a monitoring network and reducing the anthropogenic discharges are suggested.

  5. Sediment heterogeneity and mobility in the morphodynamic modelling of gravel-bed braided rivers (United States)

    Singh, Umesh; Crosato, Alessandra; Giri, Sanjay; Hicks, Murray


    The effects of sediment heterogeneity and sediment mobility on the morphology of braided rivers are still poorly studied, especially when the partial sediment mobility occurs. Nevertheless, increasing the bed sediment heterogeneity by coarse sediment supply is becoming a common practice in river restoration projects and habitat improvement all over the world. This research provides a step forward in the identification of the effects of sediment sorting on the evolution of sediment bars and braiding geometry of gravel-bed rivers. A two-dimensional morphodynamic model was used to simulate the long-term developments of a hypothetical braided system with discharge regime and morphodynamic parameters derived from the Waimakariri River, New Zealand. Several scenarios, differing in bed sediment heterogeneity and sediment mobility, were considered. The results agree with the tendencies already identified in linear analyses and experimental studies, showing that a larger sediment heterogeneity increases the braiding indes and reduces the bars length and height. The analyses allowed identifying the applicability limits of uniform sediment and variable discharge modelling approaches.

  6. Heavy Metal Pollution, Fractionation, and Potential Ecological Risks in Sediments from Lake Chaohu (Eastern China) and the Surrounding Rivers. (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liao, Qianjiahua; Shao, Shiguang; Zhang, Nan; Shen, Qiushi; Liu, Cheng


    Heavy metal (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) pollution, fractionation, and ecological risks in the sediments of Lake Chaohu (Eastern China), its eleven inflowing rivers and its only outflowing river were studied. An improved BCR (proposed by the European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure was applied to fractionate heavy metals within sediments, a geoaccumulation index was used to assess the extent of heavy metal pollution, and a risk assessment code was applied to evaluate potential ecological risks. Heavy metals in the Shuangqiao and Nanfei Rivers were generally higher than the other studied sites. Of the three Lake Chaohu sites, the highest concentrations were identified in western Chaohu. Heavy metal pollution and ecological risks in the lake's only outflowing river were similar to those in the eastern region of the lake, to which the river is connected. Heavy metal concentrations occurred in the following order: Cd > Zn > Cu > Pb ≈ Ni ≈ Cr. Cr, Ni, and Cu made up the largest proportion of the residual fraction, while Cd was the most prominent metal in the exchangeable and carbonate-included fraction. Cd posed the greatest potential ecological risk; the heavy metals generally posed risks in the following order: Cd > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr.

  7. Calculation of the mercury accumulation in the Idrijca River alluvial plain sediments. (United States)

    Zibret, Gorazd; Gosar, Mateja


    From the historic literature on the Idrija mercury mine, it is evident that part of the smelting and mining waste was dumped into the Idrijca River. This waste was transported downstream during floods. The amount of mercury which has accumulated in the alluvial sediments of the Idrijca River until the present was studied. Mapping of Holocene river terraces of the Idrijca River was performed in order to estimate the volume of the alluvial sediment. For the purpose of the assessment of the mercury concentration, we sampled the alluvial sediments on different levels and performed an analysis of variance. The greatest variability is between the floodplain and terraces inside the same alluvial plain. Considering this fact, which determined the methodology employed for calculation, we estimated that about 2029 tons of mercury is stored in the Idrijca River alluvial sediments.

  8. Sediment quality and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Lower Neponset River, Massachusetts, and implications for urban river restoration (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Cooke, Matthew G.; Merrill, Michael


    Efforts to restore fish passage, habitat, and recreational use of the Neponset River, a tributary to Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, have raised concerns about the sediment, water, and biota quality of the river. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs Department of Fish and Game Riverways Program and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, studied sediment and water quality, with a specific focus on polychlorinated biphenyls, in the Neponset River. Sediment samples were collected throughout the Neponset River and tested for elements and organic compounds including polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Although enriched compared to background concentrations, sediment quality in the Neponset River was generally better than that of other urban rivers in the United States, except with respect to one constituent, polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations of lead, some polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in the sediment may be toxic to aquatic organisms and may pose a risk to human health. The sediment quality also fails to meet the minimum requirements set by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for lined landfill disposal. The locations of the source(s) of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River were determined by means of congener analysis from PISCES passive water-column samplers. The PISCES data indicate a sharp increase in polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and a substantial shift in congener pattern downstream of one PISCES sampling location near Fairmont Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts. This result indicates that the area upstream of this sampling location may be the location of a historical source of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River. The present (2003) source to the water column may likely be PCB contaminated sediment.

  9. River-sea transitions of sediment dynamics: A case study of the tide-impacted Yangtze River estuary (United States)

    Yang, H. F.; Yang, S. L.; Xu, K. H.


    Hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics vary greatly in tide-dominated estuaries worldwide, but there is a paucity of data of large tide-dominated estuary systems due to difficulties of observation in a large spatial scale. In this study, we investigate sediment dynamic transitions in a 660-km long section between the tidal limit and mouth of the Yangtze River. We found that tidal effects are almost undetectable in the uppermost 100-km section, but the mean tidal range gradually increases downstream to nearly 3 m at the river mouth. Flow is generally unidirectional in the uppermost 400-km section, although its velocity changes in response to flood/ebb tidal dynamics; in the lowest 250-km section, flow is bidirectional, and ebb flow durations decrease towards the sea. In the lowermost 100 km, the ebb flow durations decreases to below 60%, and the flow is dominated by tidal currents. Salinity is only detectable in the lowest 100-km section due to the dominance of Yangtze River water discharge. Bed sediments mainly include sand in the uppermost 500-km section, whereas mud dominates in the remaining areas. In contrast, the median grain size of the suspended sediments was found to be greater in the lowest 100-km section (8-13 μm) than in the upper sections (5-6 μm) due to strong exchanges between suspended and near bed sediments. The suspended sediment concentration (SSC) was found to be low (1 g/L and both surface-bottom and intratidal variabilities occurred. The rates of sediment parameter changes were rapid in the river-sea transitional zone, and this zone may shift upstream and downstream in response to the relative contributions of the river, tides and waves. A conceptual model of the river-sea transition of sediment dynamics for the Yangtze estuary was established, and this model shed light on quantitative studies of sediment dynamics in other large tide-impacted estuaries worldwide.

  10. Quantitative mineralogy of the Yukon River system: Changes with reach and season, and determining sediment provenance (United States)

    Eberl, D.D.


    The mineralogy of Yukon River basin sediment has been studied by quantitative X-ray diffraction. Bed, beach, bar, and suspended sediments were analyzed using the RockJock computer program. The bed sediments were collected from the main stem and from selected tributaries during a single trip down river, from Whitehorse to the Yukon River delta, during the summer of 2001. Beach and bar sediments were collected from the confluence region of the Tanana and Yukon Rivers during the summer of 2003. Suspended sediments were collected at three stations on the Yukon River and from a single station on the Tanana River at various times during the summers of 2001 through 2003, with the most complete set of samples collected during the summer of 2002. Changes in mineralogy of Yukon River bed sediments are related to sediment dilution or concentration effects from tributary sediment and to chemical weathering during transport. Carbonate minerals compose about 2 wt% of the bed sediments near Whitehorse, but increase to 14 wt% with the entry of the White River tributary above Dawson. Thereafter, the proportion of carbonate minerals decreases downstream to values of about 1 to 7 wt% near the mouth of the Yukon River. Quartz and feldspar contents of bed sediments vary greatly with the introduction of Pelly River and White River sediments, but thereafter either increase irregularly (quartz from 20 to about 50 wt%) or remain relatively constant (feldspar at about 35 wt%) with distance downstream. Clay mineral content increases irregularly downstream from about 15 to about 30 wt%. The chief clay mineral is chlorite, followed by illite + smectite; there is little to no kaolinite. The total organic carbon content of the bed sediments remains relatively constant with distance for the main stem (generally 1 to 2 wt%, with one exception), but fluctuates for the tributaries (1 to 6 wt%). The mineralogies of the suspended sediments and sediment flow data were used to calculate the amount of

  11. The exceptional sediment load of fine-grained dispersal systems: Example of the Yellow River, China. (United States)

    Ma, Hongbo; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A; Naito, Kensuke; Fu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanfeng; Moodie, Andrew J; Wang, Yuanjian; Wu, Baosheng; Parker, Gary


    Sedimentary dispersal systems with fine-grained beds are common, yet the physics of sediment movement within them remains poorly constrained. We analyze sediment transport data for the best-documented, fine-grained river worldwide, the Huanghe (Yellow River) of China, where sediment flux is underpredicted by an order of magnitude according to well-accepted sediment transport relations. Our theoretical framework, bolstered by field observations, demonstrates that the Huanghe tends toward upper-stage plane bed, yielding minimal form drag, thus markedly enhancing sediment transport efficiency. We present a sediment transport formulation applicable to all river systems with silt to coarse-sand beds. This formulation demonstrates a remarkably sensitive dependence on grain size within a certain narrow range and therefore has special relevance to silt-sand fluvial systems, particularly those affected by dams.

  12. Humin to Human: Organic carbon, sediment, and water fluxes along river corridors in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutfin, Nicholas Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This is a presentation with slides on What does it mean to be human? ...humin?; River flow and Hydrographs; Snake River altered hydrograph (Marston et al., 2005); Carbon dynamics are important in rivers; Rivers and streams as carbon sink; Reservoirs for organic carbon; Study sites in Colorado; River morphology; Soil sample collection; Surveys at RMNP; Soil organic carbon content at RMNP; Abandoned channels and Cutoffs; East River channel migration and erosion; Linking hydrology to floodplain sediment flux; Impact of Extreme Floods on Floodplain Sediment; Channel Geometry: RMNP; Beavers dams and multithread channels; Geomorphology and carbon in N. St. Vrain Creek; Geomorphology and carbon along the East River; Geomorphology and carbon in N. St. Vrain Creek; San Marcos River, etc.

  13. Risk analysis on heavy metal contamination in sediments of rivers flowing into Nansi Lake. (United States)

    Cao, Qingqing; Song, Ying; Zhang, Yiran; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian


    In order to understand the risk of heavy metals in sediments of the rivers flowing into Nansi Lake, 36 surface sediments were sampled from six rivers and seven heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, As, Pb, and Cd) were determined. Potential ecological risk index (RI) of the six rivers showed significant differences: Xinxue River, Jiehe River, and Guangfu River were at medium potential risk, whereas the risk of Chengguo River was the lowest. Jiehe River, Xuesha River, and Jiangji River were meeting the medium potential risk at river mouths. Geo-accumulation index (I geo) of the seven heavy metals revealed that the contamination of Cu and Cd was more serious than most other metals in the studied areas, whereas Cr in most sites of our study was not polluted. Moreover, correlation cluster analysis demonstrated that the contamination of Cu, Ni, and Zn in six rivers was mainly caused by local emissions, whereas that of As, Pb, and Cd might come from the external inputs in different forms. Consequently, the contamination of Cu and Cd and the potential risk in Xinxue River, Jiehe River, and Guangfu River as well as the local emissions should be given more attention to safeguard the water quality of Nansi Lake and the East Route Project of South to North Water Transfer.

  14. Stochastic structure of annual discharges of large European rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Milan


    Full Text Available Water resource has become a guarantee for sustainable development on both local and global scales. Exploiting water resources involves development of hydrological models for water management planning. In this paper we present a new stochastic model for generation of mean annul flows. The model is based on historical characteristics of time series of annual flows and consists of the trend component, long-term periodic component and stochastic component. The rest of specified components are model errors which are represented as a random time series. The random time series is generated by the single bootstrap model (SBM. Stochastic ensemble of error terms at the single hydrological station is formed using the SBM method. The ultimate stochastic model gives solutions of annual flows and presents a useful tool for integrated river basin planning and water management studies. The model is applied for ten large European rivers with long observed period. Validation of model results suggests that the stochastic flows simulated by the model can be used for hydrological simulations in river basins.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Passaic River is located in the New Jersey-New York metropolitan area. This river has been heavily polluted by dioxins, PAHs, PCBs and heavy metals due to agricultural, industrial activities, and urbanization. Contaminated sediments in the Passaic River have received considerable attention because contaminants (metals, PCBs. PAHs, dioxins) in the sediments have potential to release into the aquatic system and air through diffusion and/or volatilization, causing human health hazards. Identification of high concentration areas of these Contaminants in the river-estuarine system is critical to the Passaic River environmental restoration and watershed protection. In this study, we analyzed portion of 10 years (1991-2000) data using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a tool to study the distributions of contaminants in the sediments. The results from this study provide important information for developing environmental management strategies for the lower Passaic River system.

  16. Nutrient Dynamics at Sediment-Water Interface in a Spring-fed Karst River (United States)

    Khadka, M. B.; Martin, J. B.


    Anthropogenic doubling of reactive nitrogen at the earth's surface over the past hundred years has been linked to the degradation of many ecosystems including Florida springs and spring runs. When springs discharge N-enriched water, the fate of N could depend on how river water interacts and exchanges with benthic sediments. However, the control of these interactions on nutrient cycling and fluxes in karst river systems is not well understood due to heterogeneity in hydrogeologic and geochemical properties of the bottom sediments. We assess biogeochemical transformation of N, its relationship with P concentrations, N and P fluxes across sediment-water interface and their potential impacts on river ecosystem by measuring chemical composition of sediment cores, pore water and surface water along the 8-km long spring-fed Silver River in central Florida. NO3-N pore water profiles reflect variable redox conditions with depth in the sediment and spatially along the river. The depth to complete NO3 reduction increases from around 5 to 10 cm downstream. Upstream sites have more sediment organic carbon and higher C:N ratios than downstream sites, suggesting the organic carbon may be less altered and more reactive, leading to lower redox conditions. Positive correlation between sulfide, NH4-N and soluble reactive phosphorous (SRP) indicate that increased NH4-N and SRP concentrations with sediment depth result from microbial-mediated sulfate reduction. Increasing Ca and Mg pore water concentrations with depth suggest dissolution of carbonate minerals which could release co-precipitated and adsorbed P. Diffusive loss of NO3-N from the river to the sediment accounts for 0.04% of the daily NO3-N load from the spring. Fluxes of NH4-N to the river water from bottom sediments exceed loss of NO3-N to the sediments by about 30%, indicating benthic sediments are a net source of N to the river. In addition to N, benthic sediments also provide 0.7%, 10% and 2.5% of the daily spring load

  17. Human impacts on sediment in the Yangtze River: A review and new perspectives (United States)

    Yang, H. F.; Yang, S. L.; Xu, K. H.; Milliman, J. D.; Wang, H.; Yang, Z.; Chen, Z.; Zhang, C. Y.


    Changes in riverine suspended and riverbed sediments have environmental, ecological and social implications. Here, we provide a holistic review of water and sediment transport and examine the human impacts on the flux, concentration and size of sediment in the Yangtze River in recent decades. We find that most of the fluvial sediment has been trapped in reservoirs, except for the finest portion. Furthermore, soil-conservation since the 1990s has reduced sediment yield. From 1956-1968 (pre-dam period) to 2013-2015 (post-dams and soil-conservation), the sediment discharge from the sub-basins decreased by 91%; in the main river, the sediment flux decreased by 99% at Xiangjiaba (upper reach), 97% at Yichang (transition between upper and middle reaches), 83% at Hankou (middle reach), and 77% at Datong (tidal limit). Because the water discharge was minimally impacted, the suspended sediment concentration decreased to the same extent as the sediment flux. Active erosion of the riverbed and coarsening of surficial sediments were observed in the middle and lower reaches. Fining of suspended sediments was identified along the river, which was counteracted by downstream erosion. Along the 700-km-long Three Gorges Reservoir, which retained 80% of the sediment from upstream, the riverbed gravel or rock was buried by mud because of sedimentation after impoundment. Along with these temporal variations, the striking spatial patterns of riverine suspended and riverbed sediments that were previously exhibited in this large basin were destroyed or reversed. Therefore, we conclude that the human impacts on sediment in the Yangtze River are strong and systematic.

  18. The sediment-starved Yellow River Delta as remotely controlled by human activities in the river basin (United States)

    Wang, H.; Saito, Y.; Bi, N.; Syvitski, J. P.; Yang, Z.


    Human presented significant disturbances on the natural processes of land-ocean interactions in context of global change. Here we illustrate how the signals of human activities in the river basin have been transferred to the coastal ocean along the hydrological pathway and remotely controlled the Yellow River Delta. Dam-orientated water and sediment regulation scheme (WSRS) has resulted in effective erosion of the lower channel and mitigation of siltation within the reservoirs. However, significant impacts have been identified on the delta morphology and coastal ecosystem ten years after the WSRS, which was unexpected at the beginning of engineering efforts. The coarser sediment derived from the channel erosion during the first phase of WSRS was directly contributed to the rapid accretion of present river mouth, whereas the delta was starved and declined due to insufficient sediment supply and regime shift of sediment transport. The fine-grained sediment exported from the Xiaolangdi Reservoir during the second phase of WSRS seemed to be a critical carrier for the nutrients and pollutants. The human-altered hydrological cycle, enhanced delivery of nutrient and pollutants and the changing estuarine environment present unpredictable impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem in the delta region. These confirm that humans are modifying the river-coast system in ways that go well beyond climate change, and an integrated management of the river-coast continuum is crucially important for the sustainability of the river-delta system.

  19. Detrital Zircon Record of a Dammed River in Texas - Implications for Modern River Provenance Stories and Sediment Budgets (United States)

    Dafov, L. N.; Stockli, D. F.; Mohrig, D. C.; Olariu, C.


    The Colorado River in Texas is a meandering river that is bisected by a chain of highland lakes and dams that were completed by 1951. Intuitively, dams trap sediment, but how does that disruption of sediment flow affect overall sediment flux and river morphology downstream of the dams? Observations from aerial photographs were combined with detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb geochronology to quantify the anthropogenic effect of dams on sand generation. DZ U-Pb were collected from modern river channel sands, modern point bar sands, and modern delta sand sample. The U-Pb age data were evaluated in the context of bedrock U-Pb age data from the Llano Uplift Grenville basement above the dams and DZ U-Pb age data from the 30-40 km wide outcrop belt of Paleocene Wilcox Fm., dominated by Mesozoic Western US zircons, below the dams to evaluate possible entrenchment and sediment generation below the dams. While the modern river sediment collected upstream of the dams are dominated by Grenville DZ U-Pb ages, point bars below the dams show an abrupt increase of Wilcox derived zircons with only 1/3 of zircons derived from above the dams. This appears to be at least in part due to significant re-incision and erosion downstream of the dams out of the Paleocene Wilcox Formation. The lack of significant sand bars for 33 river kilometers below the dams and the progressive increase in sand bar size further downstream, combined with new DZ U-Pb data suggest that the modern river is incising into the Paleocene Wilcox below the dams and generating new sand. This is corroborated by the presence of 35 Ma DZ farther downstream, incorporated from Oligocene units. This progressive entrenchment of the river below the dams and incorporation of DZ from stratigraphic units encountered downstream illustrates the short-term response of the river geomorphology and sediment generation in light of anthropogenic perturbations of the river. These data also have interesting implications for sediment budget of

  20. Quantifying and identifying the sources of fine sediment input in a typical Mongolian river basin, the Kharaa River case study (United States)

    Theuring, Phillip


    Mongolia is facing a tremendous change of land-use intensification due to expansions in the agricultural sector, an increase of cattle and livestock and a growth of urban settlements by migration of the rural population to the cities. With most of its area located in a semiarid to arid environment, Mongolia is vulnerable to climatic changes that are expected to lead to higher temperatures and increased evapotranspiration. It is expected that this may lead to unfavorable changes in surface water quality caused by increased nutrients and sediment bound pollutants emissions. Increased fine sediment load is associated with nutrient, heavy metal and pollutant input and therefore affects water quality. Previous studies using radionuclide fallout isotope sediment source fingerprinting investigations identified riverbank erosion as the main source of suspended sediment in the Kharaa River. Erosion susceptibility calculations in combination with suspended sediment observations showed strong seasonal and annual variabilities of sediment input and in-stream transport, and a strong connection of erosional behaviour with land-use.The objective of this study is to quantify the current water quality threats by fine sediment inputs in the 15,000 km2 Kharaa River basin in Northern Mongolia by delineating the sources of the fine sediments and estimating the sediment budget.To identify the spatial distribution of sediment sources within the catchment, more than 1000 samples from the river confluences at the outlet of each sub basin into the main tributary were collected during 5 intensive grab sediment sampling campaigns in 2009-11. The fine sediment fraction (<10μm) has been analysed using geochemical tracer techniques for spatial source identification, based on major elements (e.g. Si, Al, Mg, Fe, Na, K, P) and trace elements (e.g. Ba, Pb, Sr, Zn). The contribution of suspended sediment of each sub basin in the main tributary has been evaluated with help of a mixing model. To

  1. Identification and interaction of multiple stressors in central European lowland rivers. (United States)

    Lemm, Jan U; Feld, Christian K


    Interactions of multiple stressors in lotic systems have received growing interest and have been analysed in a growing number of studies using experiment and survey data. In this study, we present a protocol to identify, display and analyse stressors of rivers and their interactions (additive, synergistic or antagonistic). We used a dataset of 125 samples of central European lowland rivers comprising hydromorphological, physico-chemical and land use stressor and pressure variables as well as benthic macroinvertebrate traits as biological response variables. To identify and visualise multiple stressor combinations jointly operating in the data set, we applied social network analysis. The main co-occurring stressor combination was fine sediment accumulation (hydromorphological stress) and enhanced phosphorus concentration (nutrient stress). Agricultural (cropland) and urban land use were identified as the main large scale environmental pressures. Stressor interactions were analysed using generalised linear regression modelling (GLM) including pairwise interaction terms. Altogether, 14 macroinvertebrate response variables were tested on six stressor combinations and revealed predominantly additive effects (80% of all significant models with absolute standardised effect sizes >0.1). Significant antagonistic and synergistic interactions occurred in almost 20% of the models. Fine sediment stress was more influential and frequent than nutrient stress. The methodology presented here is standardisable and thus could help inform practitioners in aquatic ecosystem monitoring about prominent combinations of multiple stressors and their interactions. Yet, further understanding of the mechanisms behind the biological responses is required to be able to derive appropriate guidance for management. This applies to rather complex stressors and pressures, such as land use, for which more detailed data (e.g. nutrient concentrations, fine sediment entry, pesticide pollution) is often

  2. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica


    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  3. Numerical Sedimentation Study of Shoaling on the Ohio River near Mound City, Illinois (United States)


    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 5- 12 Numerical Sedimentation Study of Shoaling on the Ohio River near Mound City, Illinois Co as ta l a nd H yd...Numerical Sedimentation Study of Shoaling on the Ohio River near Mound City, Illinois David Abraham, PhD., P.E., and Nate Clifton Coastal and Hydraulics...was conducted on the Ohio River in the vicinity of Mound City, IL. The purpose of the study was to evaluate shoaling tendencies between River Miles

  4. Rethinking the Mississippi River diversion for effective capture of riverine sediments (United States)

    Xu, Y. Jun


    Many river deltas in the world are vibrant economic regions, serving as transportation hubs, population centres, and commercial hotspots. However, today, many of these deltaic areas face a tremendous challenge with land loss due to a number of factors, such as reduced riverine sediment supply, coastal land erosion, subsidence, and sea level rise. The development of the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain (MRDP) in southeast Louisiana, USA, over the past century is a good example. Since 1932, approximately 4877 km2 of the coastal land of MRDP has become submerged. The lower Mississippi River main channel entering the Gulf of Mexico has become an isolated waterway with both sides losing land. In contrast, large open water areas in the Mississippi River's distributary basin, the Atchafalaya River basin, have been silted up over the past century, and the river mouth has developed a prograding delta feature at its two outlets to the Gulf of Mexico. The retrospective analysis of this paper makes it clear that the main cause of the land loss in the MRDP is not the decline of riverine sediment, but the disconnection of the sediment sources from the natural flood plains. Future sediment management efforts in the MRDP should focus on restoring the natural connection of riverine sediment supplies with flood plains, rather than solely using channelized river diversion. This could be achieved through controlled overbank flooding (COF) and artificial floods in conjunction with the use of a hydrograph-based sediment availability assessment.

  5. Longshore suspended sediment transport and its implications for submarine erosion off the Yangtze River Estuary (United States)

    Deng, Bing; Wu, Hui; Yang, Shilun; Zhang, Jing


    Coastal currents that originate from large rivers play a key role in delivering sediment to shelf regions. Quantifying their transport capability is therefore essential to understanding the sediment budgets and the consequent deposition or erosion of coastal areas. In February 2012, we observed the sediment transport carried by the Min-Zhe Coastal Current that originates from the Yangtze River mouth and calculated a flux of 18.7 tons per second on a cross-shore section. In this period the coastal current was at a typical status, which allowed us to estimate a total annual sediment transport of 0.27billion tons southward. This result was more than three times the present annual Yangtze River sediment discharge, suggesting that considerable net sediment removal occurs in the coastal regions. The sediment transport 0.27 billion tons/year is probably the deposition/erosion threshold for the East China Sea coast north of our study site. Analysis of historical Yangtze River sediment influx records showed, that the onset and acceleration of coastal erosion was closely linked with the operation of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) upstream of the Yangtze River.

  6. The fluvial sediment budget of a dammed river (upper Muga, southern Pyrenees) (United States)

    Piqué, G.; Batalla, R. J.; López, R.; Sabater, S.


    Many rivers in the Mediterranean region are regulated for urban and agricultural purposes. Reservoir presence and operation results in flow alteration and sediment discontinuity, altering the longitudinal structure of the fluvial system. This study presents a 3-year sediment budget of a highly dammed Mediterranean river (the Muga, southern Pyrenees), which has experienced flow regulation since the 1969 owing to a 61-hm3 reservoir. Flow discharge and suspended sediment concentration were monitored immediately upstream and downstream from the reservoir, whereas bedload transport was estimated by means of bedload formulae and estimated from regional data. Results show how the dam modifies river flow, reducing the magnitude of floods and shortening its duration. At the same time, duration of low flows increases. The downstream flow regime follows reservoir releases that are mostly driven by the irrigation needs in the lowlands. Likewise, suspended sediment and bedload transport are shown to be notably affected by the dam. Sediment transport upstream was mainly associated with floods and was therefore concentrated in short periods of time (i.e., > 90% of the sediment load occurred in sediments were transported more constantly (i.e., 90% of the load was carried during 50% of the time). Total sediment load upstream from the dam equalled 23,074 t, while downstream it was sediment load was equally distributed between suspension and bedload (i.e., 10,278 and 12,796 t respectively), whereas suspension dominated sediment transport downstream. More than 95% of the sediments transported from the upstream basins were trapped in the reservoir, a fact that explains the sediment deficit and the river bed armouring observed downstream. Overall, the dam disrupted the natural water and sediment fluxes, generating a highly modified environment downstream. Below the dam, the whole ecosystem shifted to stable conditions owing to the reduction of water and sediment loads.

  7. Distribution and diversity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the sediments of the Qiantang River. (United States)

    Hu, Bao-Lan; Shen, Li-Dong; Zheng, Ping; Hu, An-Hui; Chen, Ting-Ting; Cai, Chen; Liu, Shuai; Lou, Li-Ping


    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an important process in the marine nitrogen cycle. However, little is known about the distribution, diversity and abundance of anammox bacteria in inland river ecosystems. Here, we found the presence of diverse anammox bacteria in a freshwater river - the Qiantang River, Zhejiang Province (China). The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that Brocadia genus, Kuenenia genus, Scalindua genus and three new anammox bacterial clusters could be detected together in Qiantang River sediments, suggesting a higher anammox bacterial diversity in the Qiantang River ecosystem than in open ocean environments where only Scalindua genus was detected. Brocadia and Kuenenia appeared to be the most common anammox bacterial genera in the Qiantang River. Redundancy analysis showed that the sediment organic carbon (OrgC) content had significant influence on the distribution of anammox bacteria in Qiantang River sediments. Pearson correlation analyses showed that OrgC content significantly influenced the anammox bacterial diversity. The results of real-time quantitative PCR showed spatial variations of anammox bacterial abundances which were highly correlated with the sediment total inorganic nitrogen content. These results demonstrated the distribution of diverse anammox bacteria and the influences of environmental factors on anammox bacterial communities in Qiantang River sediments. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. What role do hurricanes play in sediment delivery to subsiding river deltas? (United States)

    Smith, James E.; Bentley, Samuel J.; Snedden, Gregg; White, Crawford


    The Mississippi River Delta (MRD) has undergone tremendous land loss over the past century due to natural and anthropogenic influences, a fate shared by many river deltas globally. A globally unprecedented effort to restore and sustain the remaining subaerial portions of the delta is now underway, an endeavor that is expected to cost $50–100B over the next 50 yr. Success of this effort requires a thorough understanding of natural and anthropogenic controls on sediment supply and delta geomorphology. In the MRD, hurricanes have been paradoxically identified as both substantial agents of widespread land loss, and vertical marsh sediment accretion. We present the first multi-decadal chronostratigraphic assessment of sediment supply for a major coastal basin of the MRD that assesses both fluvial and hurricane-induced contributions to sediment accumulation in deltaic wetlands. Our findings indicate that over multidecadal timescales, hurricane-induced sediment delivery may be an important contributor for deltaic wetland vertical accretion, but the contribution from hurricanes to long-term sediment accumulation is substantially less than sediment delivery supplied by existing and planned river-sediment diversions at present-day river-sediment loads.

  9. Large shift in source of fine sediment in the upper Mississippi River (United States)

    Belmont, P.; Gran, K.B.; Schottler, S.P.; Wilcock, P.R.; Day, S.S.; Jennings, C.; Lauer, J.W.; Viparelli, E.; Willenbring, J.K.; Engstrom, D.R.; Parker, G.


    Although sediment is a natural constituent of rivers, excess loading to rivers and streams is a leading cause of impairment and biodiversity loss. Remedial actions require identification of the sources and mechanisms of sediment supply. This task is complicated by the scale and complexity of large watersheds as well as changes in climate and land use that alter the drivers of sediment supply. Previous studies in Lake Pepin, a natural lake on the Mississippi River, indicate that sediment supply to the lake has increased 10-fold over the past 150 years. Herein we combine geochemical fingerprinting and a suite of geomorphic change detection techniques with a sediment mass balance for a tributary watershed to demonstrate that, although the sediment loading remains very large, the dominant source of sediment has shifted from agricultural soil erosion to accelerated erosion of stream banks and bluffs, driven by increased river discharge. Such hydrologic amplification of natural erosion processes calls for a new approach to watershed sediment modeling that explicitly accounts for channel and floodplain dynamics that amplify or dampen landscape processes. Further, this finding illustrates a new challenge in remediating nonpoint sediment pollution and indicates that management efforts must expand from soil erosion to factors contributing to increased water runoff. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Landform-Sediment Assemblages Units of the Upper Mississippi River Valley (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Wisconsinan and Holocene Landform-Sediment Assemblages of the Upper Mississippi River Valley. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of natural and cultural resources...

  11. Surface-sediment grain-size distributions from the Elwha River delta, Washington, September 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release presents sediment grain-size data from samples collected on the Elwha River delta, Washington, in September 2014 (USGS Field...

  12. Surface-sediment grain-size distributions of the Elwha River delta, Washington, July 2016 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release presents sediment grain-size data from samples collected on the Elwha River delta, Washington, in July 2016 (USGS Field Activity...

  13. Surface-sediment grain-size distributions from the Elwha River delta, Washington, August 2012 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release presents sediment grain-size data from samples collected on the Elwha River delta, Washington, in August 2012 (USGS Field Activity...

  14. Surface-sediment grain-size distributions of the Elwha River delta, Washington, January 2015 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release presents sediment grain-size data from samples collected on the Elwha River delta, Washington, in January 2015 (USGS Field Activity...

  15. ISLSCP II Global River Fluxes of Carbon and Sediments to the Oceans (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The River Carbon Flux data set represents estimates for the riverine export of carbon and of sediments. This data set includes the amounts of carbon and of...

  16. Organochlorine pesticides in fishes and sediments from the Tensas River Basin, Lousiana (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aquatic habitats of the Tensas River Basin in northeastern Louisiana have been heavily impacted by sediment and agrichemical runoff due to intensive drainage,...

  17. Determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment samples from Bombay harbour, Dharamtar creek and Amba river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, S.A.; Dhaktode, S.S.; Kadam, A.N.

    The surface sediment samples were collected by van Veen grab sampler during premonsoon, monsoon and postmonsoon seasons from Bombay harbour, Dharamtar creek and Amba river estuary Moisture content of the samples ranges from 36 to 67.5...

  18. Surface-sediment grain-size distributions from the Elwha River delta, Washington, May 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release presents sediment grain-size data from samples collected on the Elwha River delta, Washington, in May 2014 (USGS Field Activity...

  19. Surface-sediment grain-size distributions from the Elwha River delta, Washington, July 2015 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release presents sediment grain-size data from samples collected on the Elwha River delta, Washington, between July and August 2015 (USGS...

  20. Surface-sediment grain-size distributions from the Elwha River delta, Washington, September 2013 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release presents sediment grain-size data from samples collected on the Elwha River delta, Washington, in September 2013 (USGS Field...

  1. Surface-sediment grain-size distributions from the Elwha River delta, Washington, March 2013 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release presents sediment grain-size data from samples collected on the Elwha River delta, Washington, in March 2013 (USGS Field Activity...

  2. Survey of heavy metals in the sediments of the Swartkops River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced pollution. Concentrations of chrome, lead, zinc, titanium, manganese, strontium, copper and tin were measured in the sediments taken along a section of the Swartkops River and its estuary. These results showed that the highest ...

  3. Estimated Thickness of Quaternary Sediment in the Wood River Valley aquifer system, South-Central Idaho (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is the estimated thickness of Quaternary sediment of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. This isopach map was constructed by subtracting the estimated...

  4. Environmental contaminant investigation of water quality, sediment and biota of the upper Gila River Basin, Arizona (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water, sediment, lizard, and avian samples and fish (whole body and fillet) were collected in 1990 form several locations along the Gila and San Francisco Rivers in...

  5. Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in the sediment of the Roter Main river, Bayreuth, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Anna M.; Gerstmann, Silke [Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, University of Bayreuth, Universitaetsstr. 30, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Frank, Hartmut [Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, University of Bayreuth, Universitaetsstr. 30, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)], E-mail:


    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems. Their sources are known but few studies about their accumulation potential in river sediments exist. The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in sediments in relation to their levels in river water receiving effluent from a waste water treatment plant (WWTP). PFOS accumulates by a factor of about 40 relative to river water, PFOA only up to threefold. In contrast to previous suggestions, in this case the enrichment on sediment is not correlated to the total organic carbon contents. - River sediments constitute a sink of perfluorinated surfactants released from the waste water treatment plant.

  6. River capture and sediment redistribution in northern Tunisia: The doom of Utica (United States)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Camafort, Miquel; Pérez-Peña, J. Vicente; Melki, Fetheddine; Ranero, César; Azañón, José Miguel; Gracia, Eulalia; Ouadday, Mohamed


    Utica was a flourishing port city in northern Tunisia since the Phoenician times, 12-9th century B.C., until the 4th century A.D.. However, at present it is located 10 km from the coastline after very fast late Holocene progradation of the Mejerda River delta into the bay of Utica. This fast delta progradation occurred after Mejerda River captured Tine River increasing 140 % the river catchment area. Charcoal fragments present in the youngest Tine river terrace at the wind gap give a conventional radiocarbon age of 3240 +/- 30yr BP, indicating that the capture occurred after this date. Quaternary fluvial terraces located in the Tine River paleovalley have been folded and uplifted above a fold related to the active El Alia Tebousouk reverse fault (ETF). Continued uplift of the Tine River valley above the ETF favoured headward erosion of the Medjerda river tributaries creating a transverse drainage that captured Tine River. This capture produced an important change in sediment discharge along the northern Tunisia coast driving sediments to the Gulf of Tunis instead of feeding the Tyrrhenian Sea through the Ichkeul and Bizerte lakes. Although anthropogenic derived degradation of northern Tunisia land for agricultural purposes probably influenced the increase in sediment into the Utica bay, the main cause of rapid progradation of the Medjerda River delta during the late Holocene is related to its increase in drainage area after capturing the Tine River. This process was mostly driven by local contractive tectonics linked to the seismogenic Alia Tebousouk reverse fault.

  7. Biological and chemical characterization of metal bioavailability in sediments from Lake Roosevelt, Columbia River, Washington, USA (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Moran, P.W.


    We studied the bioavailability and toxicity of copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, and lead in sediments from Lake Roosevelt (LR), a reservoir on the Columbia River in Washington, USA that receives inputs of metals from an upstream smelter facility. We characterized chronic sediment toxicity, metal bioaccumulation, and metal concentrations in sediment and pore water from eight study sites: one site upstream in the Columbia River, six sites in the reservoir, and a reference site in an uncontaminated tributary. Total recoverable metal concentrations in LR sediments generally decreased from upstream to downstream in the study area, but sediments from two sites in the reservoir had metal concentrations much lower than adjacent reservoir sites and similar to the reference site, apparently due to erosion of uncontaminated bank soils. Concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide in LR sediments were too low to provide strong controls on metal bioavailability, and selective sediment extractions indicated that metals in most LR sediments were primarily associated with iron and manganese oxides. Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) accumulated greatest concentrations of copper from the river sediment, and greatest concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and lead from reservoir sediments. Chronic toxic effects on amphipods (Hyalella azteca; reduced survival) and midge larvae (Chironomus dilutus; reduced growth) in whole-sediment exposures were generally consistent with predictions of metal toxicity based on empirical and equilibrium partitioning-based sediment quality guidelines. Elevated metal concentrations in pore waters of some LR sediments suggested that metals released from iron and manganese oxides under anoxic conditions contributed to metal bioaccumulation and toxicity. Results of both chemical and biological assays indicate that metals in sediments from both riverine and reservoir habitats of Lake Roosevelt are available to benthic invertebrates. These findings will be used as

  8. Rare earth elements and neodymium isotopes in world river sediments revisited


    Bayon, Germain; Toucanne, Samuel; Skonieczny, Charlotte; Andre, L.; Bermell, Sylvain; Cheron, Sandrine; Dennielou, Bernard; Etoubleau, Joel; Freslon, Nicolas; Gauchery, T.; Germain, Yoan; Jorry, Stephan; Menot, G; Monin, L.; Ponzevera, Emmanuel


    Over the past decades, rare earth elements (REE) and their radioactive isotopes have received tremendous attention in sedimentary geochemistry, as tracers for the geological history of the continental crust and provenance studies. In this study, we report on elemental concentrations and neodymium (Nd) isotopic compositions for a large number of sediments collected near the mouth of rivers worldwide, including some of the world’s major rivers. Sediments were leached for removal of non-detrital...

  9. Regional Sediment Budget of the Columbia River Littoral Cell, USA (United States)

    Buijsman, Maarten C.; Sherwood, C.R.; Gibbs, A.E.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Kaminsky, G.M.; Ruggiero, P.; Franklin, J.


    1913 at the Columbia River entrance. The inlets and inner deltas eroded and the outer deltas moved offshore and accreted. The adjacent coasts experienced accretion over alongshore distances of tens of kilometers. North of the Grays Harbor entrance along North Beach and north of the Columbia River entrance along Long Beach the shoreface and the beach-dune complex mainly prograded, whereas south of the Grays Harbor entrance along Grayland Plains and south of the Columbia River entrance along Clatsop Plains the beach-dune complex above -10 m NAVD88 prograded and the shoreface between approximately -30 m and -10 m NAVD88 eroded. In the decades following jetty construction, the rates of erosion and accretion at the entrances decreased and the centers of deposition along the adjacent coasts moved away from the entrances. The rates of change have decreased, suggesting the systems are approaching dynamic equilibrium. Exceptions to this behaviour are the accretion of the beach-dune complex of Long Beach, the erosion of Cape Shoalwater, and the northward migration of the Willapa Bay ebb-tidal delta during all intervals. The net shoreline advance of Long Beach increases from 0.28 m/yr in pre-jetty conditions to 3.78 m/yr during Interval 4. The erosion of Cape Shoalwater and the northward migration of the Willapa Bay ebb-tidal delta are related to the northern migration of the Willapa Bay North Channel. Volume changes at the Grays Harbor, Willapa Bay, and Columbia River entrances and the Columbia River estuary are balanced against losses and gains due to littoral transport and sand supply from the Columbia River. Based on these sediment balances, we infer the following pathways: sand that eroded from the inlets and inner deltas at the Grays Harbor and Columbia River entrances moved offshore and northward to accrete the outer deltas and the beaches to the north; sand from the south flank of the Grays Harbor delta and shelf along Grayland Plains moved onshore to accrete th

  10. Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Greene, M. Jonas; Purser, Michael D. (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)


    Fine sediment in spawning substrate has a major effect on salmon survival from egg to smolt. Basin-wide restoration plans have established targets for fine sediment levels in spawning habitat. The project was initiated to monitor surface fine sediment levels and overwinter intrusion of fine sediment in spring chinook salmon spawning habitat in the North Fork John Day (NFJDR) and Grande Ronde Rivers, for five years. The project is also investigating the potential relationship between surface fine levels and overwinter sedimentation. It will provide data to assess trends in substrate conditions in monitored reaches and whether trends are consistent with efforts to improve salmon habitat conditions. The data on the magnitude of overwinter sedimentation will also be used to estimate salmon survival from egg to emergence. In Sept. 1998, 1999, and Aug. 2000, sites for monitoring overwinter sedimentation were established in salmon spawning habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek (a Grande Ronde tributary), the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), and Granite Creek (a NFJDR tributary). Surface fine sediment levels were measured in these reaches via the grid method and visually estimated to test the relative accuracy of these two methods. In 1999 and 2000, surface fine sediment was also estimated via pebble counts at selected reaches to allow comparison of results among the methods. Overwintering substrate samples were collected in April 1999 and April-May 2000 to estimate the amount of overwinter sedimentation in clean gravels in spawning habitat. Monitoring methods and locations are described.

  11. Concentration of heavy and toxic metals in fish and sediments from the Morava river basin, Czech Republic. (United States)

    Dvořák, Petr; Andreji, Jaroslav; Mráz, Jan; Líšková, Zuzana Dvořáková


    The monitoring survey to assess the environmental pollution status of the river Morava--was carried out in 2014. This study presents the concentrations of heavy metals (Hg, Cr, Zn, Pb and Cd) in the water, sediment and muscle tissue of fish from the middle and lower reaches of the Morava river basin (Bečva, Dřevnice, Haná, Kyjovka and Morava rivers), in the Czech Republic. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used for the analysis of toxic metals. European chub (Squalius cephalus) was chosen as a reference fish species for the comparison of monitored localities. Results showed a positive significant correlation between concentration of Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn in muscles and age of fishes (pmetals in European chub muscles were low Hg 0.049-0.402, Pb 0.005-0.035, Cd 0.006-0.026, Cr 0.016-0.042 and Zn 5.59-64.31 wet weight basis and did not exceed the values of limits admissible in the Czech Republic. The contents of the analyzed metals in European chub muscles were low at monitoring sites and did not exceed the values of limits admissible in the Czech Republic.

  12. Changing trends of rainfall and sediment fluxes in the Kinta River catchment, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Ismail


    Full Text Available The Kinta River, draining an area of 2566 km2, originates in the Korbu Mountain in Perak, Malaysia, and flows through heterogeneous, mixed land uses ranging from extensive forests to mining, rubber and oil palm plantations, and urban development. A land use change analysis of the Kinta River catchment was carried out together with assessment of the long-term trend in rainfall and sediment fluxes. The Mann-Kendall test was used to examine and assess the long-term trends in rainfall and its relationship with the sediment discharge trend. The land use analysis shows that forests, water bodies and mining land declined whilst built and agricultural land use increased significantly. This has influenced the sediment flux of the catchment. However, most of the rainfall stations and river gauging stations are experiencing an increasing trends, except at Kinta river at Tg. Rambutan. Sediment flux shows a net erosion for the period from 1961 to 1969. The total annual sediment discharge in the Kinta River catchment was low with an average rate of 1,757 t/km2/year. From 1970 to 1985, the annual sediment yield rose to an average rate of 4062 t/km2/year. Afterwards, from 1986 to 1993, the total annual sediment discharge decreased to an average rate of 1,306 t/km2/year and increased back during the period 1994 to 2000 to 2109 t/km2/year. From 2001 to 2006 the average sediment flux rate declined to 865 t/km2/year. The decline was almost 80% from the 1970s. High sediment flux in the early 1970s is partly associated with reduced tin mining activities in the area. This decreasing trend in sediment delivery leaving the Kinta River catchment is expected to continue dropping in the future.

  13. Sedimentation in the Three Gorges Dam and the future trend of Changjiang (Yangtze River sediment flux to the sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guogang Li


    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Dam (TGD on the upper Changjiang (Yangtze River, China, disrupts the continuity of Changjiang sediment delivery to downstream and coastal areas. In this study, which was based on 54 years of annual water and sediment data from the mainstream and major tributaries of Changjiang, sediment deposition induced by the TGD in 2003–2008 was quantified. Furthermore, we determined the theoretical trapping efficiency of the cascade reservoir upstream of the TGD. Its impact on Changjiang sediment flux in the coming decades is discussed. Results show that about 172 million tons (Mt of sediment was trapped annually by the TGD in 2003–2008, with an averaged trapping efficiency of 75%. Most of the total sediment deposition, as induced by the TGD (88%, accumulated within the region between the TGD site and Cuntan. However, significant siltation (12% of the total sediment deposition also occurred upstream of Cuntan as a consequence of the upstream extended backwater region of the TGD. Additionally, the Changjiang sediment flux entered a third downward step in 2001, prior to operation of the TGD. This mainly resulted from sediment reduction in the Jinshajiang tributary since the late 1990s. As the cascade reservoir is put into full operation, it could potentially trap 91% of the Jinshajiang sediment discharge and, therefore, the Jinshajiang sediment discharge would most likely further decrease to 14 Mt/yr in the coming decades. Consequently, the Changjiang sediment flux to the sea is expected to continuously decrease to below 90 Mt/yr in the near future, or only 18% of the amount observed in the 1950s. In the presence of low sediment discharge, profound impacts on the morphology of estuary, delta and coastal waters are expected.

  14. Laboratory Experiments Modelling Sediment Transport by River Plumes (United States)

    Sutherland, Bruce; Gingras, Murray; Knudson, Calla; Steverango, Luke; Surma, Chris


    Through lock-release laboratory experiments, the transport of particles by hypopycnal (surface) currents is examined as they flow into a uniform-density and a two-layer ambient fluid. In most cases the tank is tilted so that the current flows over a slope representing an idealization of a sediment-bearing river flowing into the ocean and passing over the continental shelf. When passing into a uniform-density ambient, the hypopycnal current slows and stops as particles rain out, carrying some of the light interstitial fluid with them. Rather than settling on the bottom, in many cases the descending particles accumulate to form a hyperpycnal (turbidity) current that flows downslope. This current then slows and stops as particles both rain out to the bottom and also rise again to the surface, carried upward by the light interstitial fluid. For a hypopycnal current flowing into a two-layer fluid, the current slows as particles rain out and accumulate at the interface of the two-layer ambient. Eventually these particles penetrate through the interface and settle to the bottom with no apparent formation of a hyperpycnal current. Analyses are performed to characterize the speed of the currents and stopping distances as they depend upon experiment parameters. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council.

  15. Longitudinal changes on grain size and sediments composition in the Baghi River (Northwest of Neyshabur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حسام کاویان


    Full Text Available Marusk Catchment with an area of 131.87 square kilometers is located in the Northwest of Neyshabur. Baghi River as one of the main tributary of this catchment has been studied with a length of about20.1km.For sedimentological studies a total of 32 sediment samples taken from the active mid-channel of the river that after drying, the granulometry has been analyzed by dry sieving method. After the sample sieving, statistical parameters (median, mean, sorting, skewness and kurtosis were calculated.3 sedimentary discontinuities have been detected in the sediments of the river. First and second discontinuity is due to input of sediments from the alluvial fan and tributary into the main channel, respectively, and third discontinuity is due to changes in lithology. To determine the percentage of erosion in the formations in this region and determine the amount of sediment yield in each of formations, Abrasion Los Angeles Test is done. Based on this method, Dalichai Formation with according to its lithology and also a great expansion in the region is main formation for sediment yield in this area. In the study area, coarse-grained sedimentary facies (Gmg, Gci, medium-grained sedimentary facies (Sm and fine-grained sedimentary facies (Fl were identified. According to sedimentary facies, the architectural elements of SG and FF have been identified. Sedimentary models proposed for this river are including braided gravelly river with sediment gravity flow and shallow braided river with gravel-bed load.

  16. Rethinking the Mississippi River diversion for effective capture of riverine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jun Xu


    Full Text Available Many river deltas in the world are vibrant economic regions, serving as transportation hubs, population centres, and commercial hotspots. However, today, many of these deltaic areas face a tremendous challenge with land loss due to a number of factors, such as reduced riverine sediment supply, coastal land erosion, subsidence, and sea level rise. The development of the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain (MRDP in southeast Louisiana, USA, over the past century is a good example. Since 1932, approximately 4877 km2 of the coastal land of MRDP has become submerged. The lower Mississippi River main channel entering the Gulf of Mexico has become an isolated waterway with both sides losing land. In contrast, large open water areas in the Mississippi River’s distributary basin, the Atchafalaya River basin, have been silted up over the past century, and the river mouth has developed a prograding delta feature at its two outlets to the Gulf of Mexico. The retrospective analysis of this paper makes it clear that the main cause of the land loss in the MRDP is not the decline of riverine sediment, but the disconnection of the sediment sources from the natural flood plains. Future sediment management efforts in the MRDP should focus on restoring the natural connection of riverine sediment supplies with flood plains, rather than solely using channelized river diversion. This could be achieved through controlled overbank flooding (COF and artificial floods in conjunction with the use of a hydrograph-based sediment availability assessment.

  17. Geomorphic analysis of the river response to sedimentation downstream of Mount Rainier, Washington (United States)

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Curran, Christopher A.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Kimball, Halley K.; Gish, Casey C.


    A study of the geomorphology of rivers draining Mount Rainier, Washington, was completed to identify sources of sediment to the river network; to identify important processes in the sediment delivery system; to assess current sediment loads in rivers draining Mount Rainier; to evaluate if there were trends in streamflow or sediment load since the early 20th century; and to assess how rates of sedimentation might continue into the future using published climate-change scenarios. Rivers draining Mount Rainier carry heavy sediment loads sourced primarily from the volcano that cause acute aggradation in deposition reaches as far away as the Puget Lowland. Calculated yields ranged from 2,000 tonnes per square kilometer per year [(tonnes/km2)/yr] on the upper Nisqually River to 350 (tonnes/km2)/yr on the lower Puyallup River, notably larger than sediment yields of 50–200 (tonnes/km2)/yr typical for other Cascade Range rivers. These rivers can be assumed to be in a general state of sediment surplus. As a result, future aggradation rates will be largely influenced by the underlying hydrology carrying sediment downstream. The active-channel width of rivers directly draining Mount Rainier in 2009, used as a proxy for sediment released from Mount Rainier, changed little between 1965 and 1994 reflecting a climatic period that was relatively quiet hydrogeomorphically. From 1994 to 2009, a marked increase in geomorphic disturbance caused the active channels in many river reaches to widen. Comparing active-channel widths of glacier-draining rivers in 2009 to the distance of glacier retreat between 1913 and 1994 showed no correlation, suggesting that geomorphic disturbance in river reaches directly downstream of glaciers is not strongly governed by the degree of glacial retreat. In contrast, there was a correlation between active-channel width and the percentage of superglacier debris mantling the glacier, as measured in 1971. A conceptual model of sediment delivery processes

  18. A survey of benthic sediment contaminants in reaches of the Columbia River Estuary based on channel sedimentation characteristics (United States)

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Waite, Ian R.; Nilsen, Elena B.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Elias, Edwin; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Zaugg, Steven D.


    While previous studies have documented contaminants in fish, sediments, water, and wildlife, few specifics are known about the spatial distribution of contaminants in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). Our study goal was to characterize sediment contaminant detections and concentrations in reaches of the CRE that were concurrently being sampled to assess contaminants in water, invertebrates, fish, and osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs. Our objectives were to develop a survey design based on sedimentation characteristics and then assess whether sediment grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), and contaminant concentrations and detections varied between areas with different sedimentation characteristics. We used a sediment transport model to predict sedimentation characteristics of three 16 km river reaches in the CRE. We then compartmentalized the modeled change in bed mass after a two week simulation to define sampling strata with depositional, stable, or erosional conditions. We collected and analyzed bottom sediments to assess whether substrate composition, organic matter composition, and contaminant concentrations and detections varied among strata within and between the reaches. We observed differences in grain size fractions between strata within and between reaches. We found that the fine sediment fraction was positively correlated with TOC. Contaminant concentrations were statistically different between depositional vs. erosional strata for the industrial compounds, personal care products and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons class (Indus–PCP–PAH). We also observed significant differences between strata in the number of detections of Indus–PCP–PAH (depositional vs. erosional; stable vs. erosional) and for the flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides class (depositional vs. erosional, depositional vs. stable). When we estimated mean contaminant concentrations by reach, we observed higher contaminant concentrations in the furthest

  19. Suitability of river delta sediment as proppant, Missouri and Niobrara Rivers, Nebraska and South Dakota, 2015 (United States)

    Zelt, Ronald B.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Burton, Bethany L.; Schaepe, Nathaniel J.; Piatak, Nadine


    Sediment management is a challenge faced by reservoir managers who have several potential options, including dredging, for mitigation of storage capacity lost to sedimentation. As sediment is removed from reservoir storage, potential use of the sediment for socioeconomic or ecological benefit could potentially defray some costs of its removal. Rivers that transport a sandy sediment load will deposit the sand load along a reservoir-headwaters reach where the current of the river slackens progressively as its bed approaches and then descends below the reservoir water level. Given a rare combination of factors, a reservoir deposit of alluvial sand has potential to be suitable for use as proppant for hydraulic fracturing in unconventional oil and gas development. In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey began a program of researching potential sources of proppant sand from reservoirs, with an initial focus on the Missouri River subbasins that receive sand loads from the Nebraska Sand Hills. This report documents the methods and results of assessments of the suitability of river delta sediment as proppant for a pilot study area in the delta headwaters of Lewis and Clark Lake, Nebraska and South Dakota. Results from surface-geophysical surveys of electrical resistivity guided borings to collect 3.7-meter long cores at 25 sites on delta sandbars using the direct-push method to recover duplicate, 3.8-centimeter-diameter cores in April 2015. In addition, the U.S. Geological Survey collected samples of upstream sand sources in the lower Niobrara River valley.At the laboratory, samples were dried, weighed, washed, dried, and weighed again. Exploratory analysis of natural sand for determining its suitability as a proppant involved application of a modified subset of the standard protocols known as American Petroleum Institute (API) Recommended Practice (RP) 19C. The RP19C methods were not intended for exploration-stage evaluation of raw materials. Results for the washed samples are

  20. Pharmaceuticals and organochlorine pesticides in sediments of an urban river in Florida, United States (United States)

    Purpose Sediments from a rural to urban gradient along the Alafia River in Florida, United States were investigated to determine the risk of environmental contamination with legacy (organochlorine pesticides, OCPs) and new contaminants (pharmaceuticals). Materials and methods Bed sediments (0-10 cm)...

  1. Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield Modelling in the Pra River Basin of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Keywords: Geographic information system; Pra River; revised universal soil loss equation; ..... chart of GIS applications to soil erosion mapping and the derivation of. Sediment Delivery Ratio - SDR (Modified from Mongkolsawat et al. 1994). Sediment yield. SDR. Soil erosion. Satellite. Image .... Row Path Resolution Level of.

  2. From agricultural intensification to conservation: Sediment transport in the Raccoon River, Iowa, 1916-2009 (United States)

    Jones, C.S.; Schilling, K.E.


    Fluvial sediment is a ubiquitous pollutant that negatively aff ects surface water quality and municipal water supply treatment. As part of its routine water supply monitoring, the Des Moines Water Works (DMWW) has been measuring turbidity daily in the Raccoon River since 1916. For this study, we calibrated daily turbidity readings to modern total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations to develop an estimation of daily sediment concentrations in the river from 1916 to 2009. Our objectives were to evaluate longterm TSS patterns and trends, and relate these to changes in climate, land use, and agricultural practices that occurred during the 93-yr monitoring period. Results showed that while TSS concentrations and estimated sediment loads varied greatly from year to year, TSS concentrations were much greater in the early 20th century despite drier conditions and less discharge, and declined throughout the century. Against a backdrop of increasing discharge in the Raccoon River and widespread agricultural adaptations by farmers, sediment loads increased and peaked in the early 1970s, and then have slowly declined or remained steady throughout the 1980s to present. With annual sediment load concentrated during extreme events in the spring and early summer, continued sediment reductions in the Raccoon River watershed should be focused on conservation practices to reduce rainfall impacts and sediment mobilization. Overall, results from this study suggest that eff orts to reduce sediment load from the watershed appear to be working. ?? 2011 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  3. What are the contemporary sources of sediment in the Mississippi River? (United States)

    Hassan, M. A.; Roberge, L.; Church, M.; More, M.; Donner, S. D.; Leach, J.; Ali, K. F.


    Within the last two centuries, the Mississippi River basin has been transformed by changes in land use practices, dam construction, and training of the rivers for navigation. Here we analyze the contemporary patterns of fluvial sediment yield in the Mississippi River basin using all available data in order to assess the influence of regional land condition on the variation of sediment yield within the basin. We develop regional-scale relations between specific sediment yield (yield per unit area) and drainage area to reveal contemporary regional sediment yield patterns and source areas of riverine sediments. Extensive upland erosion before the development of soil conservation practices exported large amounts of sediment to the valleys and floodplains. We show that sediment today is sourced primarily along the river valleys from arable land, and from stream bank and channel erosion, with sediment yields from areas dominated by arable land 2 orders of magnitude greater than that of grassland dominated areas. Comparison with the "T factor," a commonly quoted measure of agricultural soil resilience suggests that the latter may not reflect contemporary soil loss from the landscape.

  4. Trace metal distributions in the sediments of the Little Akaki River, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akele, M.L.; Kelderman, P.; Koning, C.W.; Irvine, K.


    The levels and distribution of trace metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) at eleven water and sediment stations on the Little Akaki River (LAR) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, were determined. The binding forms of the metals in various geochemical fractions of the sediments were also quantified.

  5. Speciation of heavy metals in inter—tidal sediments of Okrika river

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The species and total metal concentrations of some environmentally toxic metals in inter-tidal sediments of the Okrika river system was examined. The determination of the heavy metal loadings, speciation patterns and other chemical parameters has revealed some. significant correlation in inter-tidal sediments ...

  6. PAHs in sediments of the Black River and the Ashtabula River, Ohio: source apportionment by factor analysis. (United States)

    Christensen, Erik R; Bzdusek, Philip A


    Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Black River and Ashtabula River sediments were apportioned using a factor analysis (FA) model with nonnegative constraints. Source profiles, contributions (microg/g) and percent contributions are determined with no prior knowledge of sources. The FA model includes scaling and backscaling of data with average PAH concentrations, without sample normalization. The present work is a follow-up to studies that used a chemical mass balance model to apportion sources to the same data sets. Literature source profiles, modified based on gas/particle partitioning of individual PAHs, from nine PAH sources were considered for comparison. FA results for a three-source solution indicate traffic (58%), coke oven (26%), and wood burning/coal tar (16%) are the primary PAH sources to Black River sediments. The primary PAH sources to the Ashtabula River sediments are traffic (51%), coke oven (44%), and wood burning (5%). This work supports the previous studies of Black River and Ashtabula River PAHs by CMB model. In addition, FA provides a more realistic fit to Ashtabula River model data by eliminating 100% contributions from one source.

  7. Monitoring suspended sediment transport in an ice-affected river using acoustic Doppler current profilers (United States)

    Moore, S. A.; Ghareh Aghaji Zare, S.; Rennie, C. D.; Ahmari, H.; Seidou, O.


    Quantifying sediment budgets and understanding the processes which control fluvial sediment transport is paramount to monitoring river geomorphology and ecological habitat. In regions that are subject to freezing there is the added complexity of ice. River ice processes impact flow distribution, water stage and sediment transport. Ice processes typically have the largest impact on sediment transport and channel morphodynamics when ice jams occur during ice cover formation and breakup. Ice jams may restrict flow and cause local acceleration when released. Additionally, ice can mechanically scour river bed and banks. Under-ice sediment transport measurements are lacking due to obvious safety and logistical reasons, in addition to a lack of adequate measurement techniques. Since some rivers can be covered in ice during six months of the year, the lack of data in winter months leads to large uncertainty in annual sediment load calculations. To address this problem, acoustic profilers are being used to monitor flow velocity, suspended sediment and ice processes in the Lower Nelson River, Manitoba, Canada. Acoustic profilers are ideal for under-ice sediment flux measurements since they can be operated autonomously and continuously, they do not disturb the flow in the zone of measurement and acoustic backscatter can be related to sediment size and concentration. In March 2012 two upward-facing profilers (1200 kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler, 546 KHz acoustic backscatter profiler) were installed through a hole in the ice on the Nelson River, 50 km downstream of the Limestone Generating Station. Data were recorded for four months, including both stable cover and breakup periods. This paper presents suspended sediment fluxes calculated from the acoustic measurements. Velocity data were used to infer the vertical distribution of sediment sizes and concentrations; this information was then used in the interpretation of the backscattered intensity data. It was found that

  8. Social Learning in European River-Basin Management: Barriers and Fostering Mechanisms from 10 River Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Mostert


    Full Text Available We present and analyze 10 case studies of participatory river-basin management that were conducted as part of the European HarmoniCOP project. The main theme was social learning, which emphasizes the importance of collaboration, organization, and learning. The case studies show that social learning in river-basin management is not an unrealistic ideal. Resistance to social learning was encountered, but many instances of social learning were found, and several positive results were identified. Moreover, 71 factors fostering or hindering social learning were identified; these could be grouped into eight themes: the role of stakeholder involvement, politics and institutions, opportunities for interaction, motivation and skills of leaders and facilitators, openness and transparency, representativeness, framing and reframing, and adequate resources. Promising topics for further research include the facilitation of the social learning processes, the role of power, and interactions in political and institutional contexts.

  9. Geomorphology-based interpretation of sedimentation rates from radiodating, lower Passaic River, New Jersey, USA. (United States)

    Erickson, Michael J; Barnes, Charles R; Henderson, Matthew R; Romagnoli, Robert; Firstenberg, Clifford E


    Analysis of site geomorphology and sedimentation rates as an indicator of long-term bed stability is central to the evaluation of remedial alternatives for depositional aquatic environments. In conjunction with various investigations of contaminant distribution, sediment dynamics, and bed stability in the Passaic River Estuary, 121 sediment cores were collected in the early 1990s from the lower 9.7 km of the Passaic River and analyzed for lead-210 (210Pb), cesium-137 (137Cs), and other analytes. This paper opportunistically uses the extensive radiochemical dataset to examine the spatial patterns of long-term sedimentation rates in, and associated geomorphic aspects of, this area of the river. For the purposes of computing sedimentation rates, the utility of the 210Pb and 137Cs depositional profiles was assessed to inform appropriate interpretation. Sedimentation rates were computed for 90 datable cores by 3 different methods, depending on profile utility. A sedimentation rate of 0 was assigned to 17 additional cores that were not datable and for which evidence of no deposition exists. Sedimentation patterns were assessed by grouping results within similar geomorphic areas, delineated through inspection of bathymetric data. On the basis of channel morphology, results reflect expected patterns, with the highest sedimentation rates observed along point bars and channel margins. The lowest rates of sedimentation (and the largest percentage of undatable cores) were observed in the areas along the outer banks of channel bends. Increasing sedimentation rates from upstream to downstream were noted. Average and median sedimentation rates were estimated to be 3.8 and 3.7 cm/y, respectively, reflecting the highly depositional nature of the Passaic River estuary. This finding is consistent with published descriptions of long-term geomorphology for Atlantic Coastal Plain estuaries.

  10. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Water and Sediment Pollution of the Iskar River bellow Samokov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Diadovski


    Full Text Available A system of integral ecological indices has been worked out to assess the level of pollution of water and sediments with hazardous substances. A model for the dynamics of the integral index for water and sediments pollution is proposed. This index was applied for ecotoxicological assessment of water and sediments pollution of the Iskar river bellow Samokov. A modification method on time series analysis is applied.

  11. Mercury concentrations in Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) and sediments in the Columbia River basin. (United States)

    Linley, Timothy; Krogstad, Eirik; Mueller, Robert; Gill, Gary; Lasorsa, Brenda


    The accumulation of mercury was investigated in Pacific lamprey and stream sediments in the Columbia River basin. Mercury concentrations in larval lamprey differed significantly among sample locations (p Pacific lamprey in the Columbia River basin may be exposed to mercury levels that have adverse ecological effects. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2571-2576. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. Development and implications of a sediment budget for the upper Elk River watershed, Humboldt County (United States)

    Lee H. MacDonald; Michael W. Miles; Shane Beach; Nicolas M. Harrison; Matthew R. House; Patrick Belmont; Ken L. Ferrier


    A number of watersheds on the North Coast of California have been designated as sediment impaired under the Clean Water Act, including the 112 km2 upper Elk River watershed that flows into Humboldt Bay just south of Eureka. The objectives of this paper are to: 1) briefly explain the geomorphic context and anthropogenic uses of the Elk River...

  13. Determination of the water and sediment quality of the Ellah river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal levels in water samples and sediments from the Ellah River in Esan South East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria were investigated to assess the quality status of the river. Four sampling stations were chosen from upstream (station 1), the bridge (station 2) ...

  14. From gravel to sand. Downstream fining of bed sediments in the lower river Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frings, R.M.


    A common characteristic of many rivers is the tendency for bed sediments to become finer in downstream direction. This phenomenon, which is generally known as downstream fining, has a strong effect on the morphologic and hydrodynamic behaviour of a river. The fundamental causes of downstream

  15. Understanding Sediment Processes of Los Laureles Canyon in the Binational Tijuana River watershed (United States)

    Tijuana River Basin originates in Mexico and drains 4465 km2 into the Tijuana River Estuary National Research Reserve, a protected coastal wetland in California that supports 400 species of birds. During storms, excessive erosion in Tijuana produces sediment loads that bury nativ...

  16. Generation of a Sediment Rating and Load Curve Demonstrated at the Mackinaw River Confluence (United States)


    CHETN) contains a description of the process to formulate sediment rating and load curves for the bed material load in the Mackinaw River. The...River watershed (Adjusted). NORMAL DEPTH COMPUTATION: Normal depth computations were computed with the Stable Analytical Method (SAM) Hydraulic Design

  17. Partitioning behaviour of perfluorinated alkyl contaminants between water, sediment and fish in the Orge River (nearby Paris, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labadie, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.labadie@upmc.f [UMR 7619 Sisyphe, CNRS/UPMC, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, BP 105, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Chevreuil, Marc [Laboratoire Hydrologie et Environnement EPHE, UMR 7619 Sisyphe, CNRS/UPMC, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, BP 105, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)


    This paper reports on the partitioning behaviour of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including C{sub 4}-C{sub 10} sulfonates and C{sub 5}-C{sub 14} carboxylic acids, between water, sediment and fish (European chub, Leuciscus cephalus) in the Orge River (nearby Paris). Total PFC levels were 73.0 {+-} 3.0 ng L{sup -1} in water and 8.4 {+-} 0.5 ng g{sup -1} in sediment. They were in the range 43.1-4997.2 ng g{sup -1} in fish, in which PFC tissue distribution followed the order plasma > liver > gills > gonads > muscle. Sediment-water distribution coefficients (log K{sub d}) and bioaccumulation factors (log BAF) were in the range 0.8-4.3 and 0.9-6.7, respectively. Both distribution coefficients positively correlated with perfluoroalkyl chain length. Field-based biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) are also reported, for the first time for PFCs other than perfluorooctane sulfonate. log BSAF ranged between -1.3 and 1.5 and was negatively correlated with the perfluoroalkyl chain length in the case of carboxylic acids. - Research highlights: PFC tissue distribution in European chub followed the order plasma > liver > gills > gonads > muscle. K{sub d} and BAF correlated with PFC alkyl chain length. BSAF negatively correlated with the perfluoroalkyl chain length in the case of carboxylic acids. BSAF did not correlate with alkyl chain length of sulfonates. - Sediment-water, biota-water and biota-sediment partitioning coefficients were determined for perfluorinated acids and sulfonates and were generally correlated with alkyl chain length.

  18. [Water-Sediment Partition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Karst Underground River]. (United States)

    Lan, Jia-cheng; Sun, Yu-chuan; Xiao, Shi-zhen


    Based on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) field data of dissolved phase and sediment phase, partition coefficient K(p) in sediment-water interface from Laolongdong underground river was obtained. The concentration of PAHs in water and sediment and partition coefficient K(p) in sediment-water interface were studied. The results showed PAHs concentrations were 81.5-8 089 ng x L(-1) with a mean value (1 439 ± 2 248) ng x L(-1) in water and 58.2-1 051 ng x g(-1) with an average (367.9 ± 342.6) ng x g(-1) in sediment. The dominant PAHs were 2-3 rings PAHs in water and sediment. However, high rings PAHs obviously enriched in the sediment. Partition coefficients varied from 55.74 to 46 067 L x kg(-1) in sediment-water interface, increasing with the rise of PAH compounds. All the organic carbon partition in sediment-water interface were higher than predicate values based on typical model of equilibrium distribution indicated that PAHs were strongly adsorbed in sediment. The linear free-energy relationship coefficient between K(oc) value and octanol-water partition coefficient K(ow) was 0.75, but the slope was lower than 1, indicating that sediment in Laolongdong underground river had weakly lipophilic characteristics and adsorption ability for PAHs.

  19. Regional Sediment Analysis of Mississippi River Sediment Transport and Hydrographic Survey Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thorne, Colin


    ...s. Sediments generated through channel instability are carried downstream to cause sedimentation problems in flood control channels, destroy wetlands and lakes, adversely impact fish and wildlife...

  20. Teratogenic effects of organic extracts from the Pearl River sediments on Xenopus laevis embryos. (United States)

    Zhang, Cong; Liu, Xinhui; Wu, Dan; Liu, Guannan; Tao, Li; Fu, Wenjun; Hou, Jing


    Toxicity of organic extracts from the Pearl River sediments was investigated with Xenopus laevis embryos. The effects of sediment organic extracts on the mortality, body length and malformation of X. laevis embryos were tested by the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX). The 96-h LC₅₀ values for X. laevis embryos ranged from 62 to 137 g/L (g extracted sediment per L), and the toxicity effect on body length of larvae was not significant under 20 g/L. However, the teratogenic effects produced by sediment organic extracts were diverse, including edema, hypopigmentation, cardiac and ocular malformations, abdomen recurved and curved spine. The percentage of malformations increased with increasing sediment organic extracts, and even reached almost 100% at 10 and 20 g/L in Guangzhou district. A gradient of pollution in the Pearl River sediments was discerned from the teratogenic toxicity. Guangzhou district showed higher teratogenic toxicity compared with Panyu and Nansha districts as a possible consequence of high levels of PAHs, PCBs, OCPs and NP in the sediments. The teratogenic effects of organic extracts from the Pearl River sediments were successfully assessed which indicated the feasibility of teratogenic potential studies of sediments using X. laevis embryos. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Suspended-sediment concentrations, bedload, particle sizes, surrogate measurements, and annual sediment loads for selected sites in the lower Minnesota River Basin, water years 2011 through 2016 (United States)

    Groten, Joel T.; Ellison, Christopher A.; Hendrickson, Jon S.


    Accurate measurements of fluvial sediment are important for assessing stream ecological health, calculating flood levels, computing sediment budgets, and managing and protecting water resources. Sediment-enriched rivers in Minnesota are a concern among Federal, State, and local governments because turbidity and sediment-laden waters are the leading impairments and affect more than 6,000 miles of rivers in Minnesota. The suspended sediment in the lower Minnesota River is deleterious, contributing about 75 to 90 percent of the suspended sediment being deposited into Lake Pepin. The Saint Paul District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Lower Minnesota River Watershed District collaborate to maintain a navigation channel on the lower 14.7 miles of the Minnesota River through scheduled dredging operations. The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency has adopted a sediment-reduction strategy to reduce sediment in the Minnesota River by 90 percent by 2040.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, and the Lower Minnesota River Watershed District, collected suspended-sediment, bedload, and particle-size samples at five sites in the lower Minnesota River Basin during water years 2011 through 2014 and surrogate measurements of acoustic backscatter at one of these sites on the lower Minnesota River during water years 2012 through 2016 to quantify sediment loads and improve understanding of sediment-transport relations. Annual sediment loads were computed for calendar years 2011 through 2014.Data collected from water years 2011 through 2014 indicated that two tributaries, Le Sueur River and High Island Creek, had the highest sediment yield and concentrations of suspended sediment. These tributaries also had greater stream gradients than the sites on the Minnesota River. Suspended fines were greater than suspended sand at all sites in the study area. The range of median particle sizes matched

  2. Particulate flux calculation based on metal contents and suspended sediment concentrations relationship: case study of turbid alpine river (Isere, France) (United States)

    Dutordoir, Solene; Nemery, Julien; Guedron, Stéphane; Arnaud, Jérémy; Minaudo, Camille; Belleudy, Philippe; Landas-Maneval, Jacqueline; Rivière, Carlos


    In the context of increasing stress on aquatic environment, the improvement of pollutant flux quantification in large rivers presents a strong stake. Isere at Grenoble city (5570 km2) is an alpine river in the Northern French Alps with high suspended sediment transport reaching 10 to 20 g L-1 during floods. It is known that for elements like P, Ni, Mn, Cr, Pb, Fe et Al, most of river transport is done under particulate forms. Isere River is susceptible to transport particulate pollutants such as metals, given mining history and industrial activities at the upstream watershed. Moreover, this river receives Grenoble city's effluents (500 000 inhabitants) and stormwaters during rain events. Three metals (Hg, Ni, Pb) identified as priority substances regarding European Water Framework Directive and As known to be one of the most metal of concern were chosen in this study. High frequency samplings of suspended sediments were realized between 2011 and 2012 in order to evaluate the temporal variation of metals contents and to determine geochemical background during high flow periods. In the same sampling site (situated upstream urban effluents of Grenoble city), discharge and suspended sediment concentration by turbidity were measured at 30 min frequency by a monitoring station. The use of historical and new databases ranging between low and high discharge (10 years return flood) allowed determining relationships between metal contents and suspended sediment concentrations and discharges. Results show a good correlation for the studied metals and permit to defined the geochemical backgrounds for each metals measured above 0.5 g L-1, (Hg = 68 +/- 48 ng g-1, Ni = 30 +/- 10 mg g-1, Pb = 43 +/-13 mg g-1, As = 15 +/- 4 mg g-1). These models were validated on a separated period than the one used for the calibration and applied to calculate particulate metals concentrations and associated incertitude at 30 min frequency using SSC and discharge database. Cumulative 30 minutes

  3. Using Elemental Abundances and Petrophysical Properties to Trace Sediment Transport in the Hudson River (United States)

    Chang, C.; Kenna, T. C.; Nitsche, F. O.


    The IPCC predicts that the frequency and severity of storms worldwide will increase due to climate change, a growing concern for the highly populated coastal areas near the Hudson River estuary. Storms have the potential to change the river's sediment budget, and it is necessary to update the current understanding of the effect of storms on sediment dynamics. In 2011, Tropical Storm Lee and Hurricane Irene delivered over 2.7 million tons of sediment to the Hudson River including over 1.5 million tons from the Mohawk River, a freshwater tributary, in addition to record amounts contributed from other major tributaries. The goals of this project are to use sediment elemental compositions to trace the major tributaries contributing to this storm-deposited sediment and to determine where sediment is accumulating as a result of storm activity. Chemical analysis of over 800 archived sediment samples are compiled to provide a pre-storm background level. These samples are compared to newly deposited sediment and material from specific tributaries. Elemental abundances (K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Pb, and U) are measured using a field portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) unit and core scanning XRF unit. Bulk matrix density is measured using a pycnometer. The measurements are used to identify elemental signatures from tributary sediment and to trace the influence of specific tributaries on deposition through the river. Our results suggests measureable signatures in sediment from individual tributaries. The Mohawk River contributes high concentrations of Ca due to the calcite deposits in its watershed. XRF measurements also show the effect of human activity on sediment deposition; variations in Rb and Zr indicate changes in deposition due to dredging in Haverstraw Bay. The salt wedge front, where ocean and fresh water meets is evident in areas of below average matrix density. This project shows significant geochemical variability between sediment from different

  4. Fluvial sediments characterization of Hornád river in its chosen parts (preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Hanigovská


    Full Text Available Knowledge of main river sedimentary characteristics is very important source of information for next study or potentialcommercial usage of fluvial sediments. In paper is shown characterization of sediment distribution in chosen part of the river Hornád.Three main facial types were studied and described – gravel, sand and clay. Model created in this study shows that Hornád is a riverwith predominant gravel transport. This model also shows a sufficient amount of gravel for commercial use in some parts of the river.

  5. Sediment and total phosphorous contributors in Rock River watershed. (United States)

    Mbonimpa, Eric G; Yuan, Yongping; Nash, Maliha S; Mehaffey, Megan H


    Total phosphorous (TP) and total suspended sediment (TSS) pollution is a problem in the US Midwest and is of particular concern in the Great Lakes region where many water bodies are already eutrophic. Increases in monoculture corn planting to feed ethanol based biofuel production could exacerbate these already stressed water bodies. In this study we expand on the previous studies relating landscape variables such as land cover, soil type and slope with changes in pollutant concentrations and loading in the Great Lakes region. The Rock River watershed in Wisconsin, USA was chosen due to its diverse land use, numerous lakes and reservoirs susceptible to TSS and TP pollution, and the availability of long-term streamflow, TSS and TP data. Eight independent subwatersheds in the Rock River watershed were identified using United States Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring sites that monitor flow, TSS and TP. For each subwatershed, we calculated land use, soil type, and terrain slope metrics or variables. TSS and TP from the different subwatersheds were compared using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and associations and relationships between landscape metrics and water quality (TSS and TP) were evaluated using the partial least square (PLS) regression. Results show that urban land use and agricultural land growing corn rotated with non-leguminous crops are associated with TSS and TP in streams. This indicates that increasing the amount of corn rotated with non-leguminous crops within a subwatershed could increase degradation of water quality. Results showed that increase in corn-soybean rotation acreage within the watershed is associated with reduction in stream's TSS and TP. Results also show that forest and water bodies were associated with reduction in TSS and TP. Based on our results we recommend adoption of the Low Impact Development (LID) approach in urban dominated subwatersheds. This approach attempts to replicate the pre-development hydrological regime by reducing

  6. A method to calculate sediment fluxes from infrequent data: application to 65 rivers of the French river quality database (United States)

    Delmas, Magalie; Cerdan, Olivier; Coynel, Alexandra; Mouchel, Jean Marie; Cheviron, Bruno


    Improving knowledge of sediment exports represents one major challenge for environmental sciences considering their role in geochemical cycles and their link with Earth's surface processes. Because suspended sediment (SS) fluxes in rivers reflect the integration of combined erosion, transport and deposition processes that occur within the drained area, their calculation is thus essential in surface processes studies. Suspended sediment fluxes are estimated from discharge measurements and SS concentrations, either by averaging methods or by predicting sediment concentration values from continuous discharge data. In the latter case, a power function (or power law relation) is often defined between the observed SS concentrations and the corresponding discharge data. However it seems unrealistic to consider a single relation between SS concentrations and river discharges. The reason is that sediment production processes are not homogeneous in time, showing local and seasonal effects for example in agricultural areas where land cover varies inside a year or in mountainous regions where snow melting has a strong influence. Moreover, these processes are also spatially heterogeneous, due to spatial patterns in landscape characteristics, meteorological phenomena and geomorphology. In addition, important gaps persist when calculating SS fluxes, mainly due to SS measurements are not always carried out with high frequency. Based on 65 river basins in France, with various sizes, geomorphologies and land uses, this study aims at testing methods for an estimation of annual sediment loads, based on infrequent SPM concentration data spanning over several decades.

  7. Assessment of heavy metal pollutants accumulation in the Tisza river sediments. (United States)

    Sakan, Sanja M; Dordević, Dragana S; Manojlović, Dragan D; Predrag, Polić S


    In this study we have worked on the evaluation of heavy metal contamination in the sediments taken from the Tisza River and its tributaries, and thereby used the sequential extraction method, geochemical normalization, the calculation of the enrichment factor (EF), and the methods of statistical analysis. The chemical fractionation of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Fe, and Mn, carried out by using the modified Tessier method, points to different substrates and binding mechanisms of Cu, Zn and Pb in sediments of the tributaries and sediments of the Tisza River. The similarities in the distributions of Fe and Ni in all types of sediments are the result of geochemical similarity as well as of the fact that natural sources mainly affect the concentration levels of these elements. The calculated enrichment factors (EF, measured metal vs. background concentrations) indicated that metal contamination (Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr) was recorded in the sediments of the Tisza River, while no indications of pollution were detected in the tributaries of the Tisza River and the surrounding pools. The maximum values of the EF were close to 6 for Cu and Pb (moderately severe enrichment) and close to 4.5 for Zn (indicating moderate enrichment). It can be said that the Tisza River is slightly to moderately severely polluted with Cu, Zn, and Pb, and minorly polluted with Cr. It is concluded that sediments of the Tisza serve as a repository for heavy metal accumulation from adjacent urban and industrial areas.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Belyaev


    Full Text Available It is now widely recognized that significant proportion of pollutants in rivers is transported with suspended sediments. This paper presents a combination of reconstruction of recent floodplain sedimentation rates based on detailed description of sediment sections and 137Cs stratigraphy with geochemical analysis of overbank deposits at selected sites on rivers of the Severnaya Dvina River basin. Overbank sedimentation rates for sections sampled on floodplains of the Severnaya Dvina and Vychegda Rivers are characterized by noticeable decrease from ≈1.5–4.0 cm/year between 1954 and 1963 to <1.0 cm/year at present. It can be explained by the natural evolution of the floodplain segments sampled. In contrast, highest modern floodplain aggradation rates (≈1.8 cm/year observed for the relatively small Toshnya River are definitely associated with human impact—locally intensive agriculture. Evaluation of geochemical properties of overbank sediments has shown that general levels of the sediment contamination by heavy metals are low.

  9. Assessment of nutrients and metals in sediments of Ogba river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed statistically significant differences in sediment particle size distribution, nutrient and metal concentrations across the sites. The sediment particle size distribution was dominated by sand (92%), with mean pH range of between 5.1 and 6.0. Concentrations of metals and nutrients were highest in sediments ...

  10. Assessing modern rates of river sediment discharge to the ocean using satellite gravimetry (United States)

    Mouyen, Maxime; Longuevergne, Laurent; Steer, Philippe; Crave, Alain; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Save, Himanshu; Robin, Cécile


    Worldwide rivers annually export about 19 Gigatons of sediments to the ocean that mostly accumulate in the coastal zones and on the continental shelves. This sediment discharge testifies of the intensity of continental erosion and records changes in climate, tectonics and human activity. However, natural and instrumental uncertainties inherent to the in-situ measurements of sediment discharge prevent from conclusive estimates to better understand these linkages. Here we develop a new method, using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data, to infer mass-integrative estimates of sediment discharge of large rivers to the ocean. GRACE satellite provides global gravity time series that have proven useful for quantifying mass transport, including continental water redistribution at the Earth surface (ice sheets and glaciers melting, groundwater storage variations) but has been seldom used for monitoring sediment mass transfers so far. Here we pair the analysis of regularized GRACE solutions at high spatial resolution corrected from all known contributions (hydrology, ocean, atmosphere) to a particle tracking model that predicts the location of the sediment sinks for 13 rivers with the highest sediments loads in the world. We find that the resulting GRACE-derived sediment discharges off the mouth of the Amazon, Ganges-Brahmaputra, Changjiang (Yangtze), Indus, Magdalena, Godavari and Mekong rivers are consistent with in-situ measurements. Our results suggest that the lack of time continuity and of global coverage in terrestrial sediment discharge measurements could be reduced by using GRACE, which provides global and continuous data since 2002. GRACE solutions are regularly improved and new satellite gravity missions are being prepared hence making our approach even more relevant in a near future. The accumulation of sediments over time will keep increasing the signal to noise ratio of the gravity time series, which will improve the precision of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorbiłowicz


    Full Text Available The development of industry, agriculture, and transport contributes to an increased environmental pollution by heavy metals. The aim of the study was preliminary assessment of the contents of selected metals (lead, cobalt, copper, chromium, cadmium and nickel in the sediments of Bug river. The study comprised part of the river flowing through Poland. It was found that the Bug river sediments are not contaminated in respect to the content of tested metals. Based on the analysis of the study results, these metals can be lined up in the following order: Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Co > Cd. Statistical analysis showed that copper and chromium occur in Bug river sediments in forms bindings with organic matter in majority of cases. The granulometric analysis of sediments from Bug river revealed the largest percentage of two fractions: 1.0–0.2 mm with average of 47.7 ± 19.77% and 0.2–0.1 mm with average of 20.6 ± 7.7%. These are the dominant fractions with the accumulation of metals in river sediments, which has been confirmed by statistical analysis.

  12. Suspended sediment load below open-cast mines for ungauged river basin (United States)

    Kuksina, L.


    Placer mines are located in river valleys along river benches or river ancient channels. Frequently the existing mining sites are characterized by low contribution of the environmental technologies. Therefore open-pit mining alters stream hydrology and sediment processes and enhances sediment transport. The most serious environmental consequences of the sediment yield increase occur in the rivers populated by salmon fish community because salmon species prefer clean water with low turbidity. For instance, placer mining located in Kamchatka peninsula (Far East of Russia) which is regarded to be the last global gene pool of wild salmon Oncorhynchus threatens rivers ecosystems significantly. Impact assessment is limited by the hydrological observations scarcity. Gauging network is rare and in many cases whole basins up to 200 km length miss any hydrological data. The main purpose of the work is elaboration of methods for sediment yield estimation in rivers under mining impact and implementation of corresponding calculations. Subjects of the study are rivers of the Vivenka river basin where open-cast platinum mine is situated. It's one of the largest platinum mines in Russian Federation and in the world. This mine is the most well-studied in Kamchatka (research covers a period from 2003 to 2011). Empirical - analytical model of suspended sediment yield estimation was elaborated for rivers draining mine's territories. Sediment delivery at the open-cast mine happens due to the following sediment processes: - erosion in the channel diversions; - soil erosion on the exposed hillsides; - effluent from settling ponds; - mine waste water inflow; - accident mine waste water escape into rivers. Sediment washout caused by erosion was estimated by repeated measurements of the channel profiles in 2003, 2006 and 2008. Estimation of horizontal deformation rates was carried out on the basis of erosion dependence on water discharge rates, slopes and composition of sediments. Soil

  13. Impact of rapid urbanisation and industrialisation on river sediment metal contamination. (United States)

    Hayzoun, H; Garnier, C; Durrieu, G; Lenoble, V; Bancon-Montigny, C; Ouammou, A; Mounier, S


    This study aimed at evidencing contaminant inputs from a rapidly growing population and the accompanying anthropogenic activities to river sediments. The Fez metropolitan area and its impacts on the Sebou's sediments (the main Moroccan river) were chosen as a case study. The Fez agglomeration is surrounded by the river Fez, receiving the wastewaters of this developing city and then flowing into the Sebou. The sediment cores from the Fez and Sebou Rivers were extracted and analysed for major elements, butyltins and toxic metals. Normalised enrichment factors and geoaccumulation index were calculated. Toxicity risk was assessed by two sets of sediment quality guideline (SQG) indices. A moderate level of contamination by butyltins was observed, with monobutyltin being the dominant species across all sites and depths. The lowest level of metal pollution was identified in the Sebou's sediments in upstream of Fez city, whilst the Fez' sediments were heavily polluted and exhibited bottom-up accumulation trends, which is a clear signature of recent inputs from the untreated wastewaters of Fez city. Consequently, the sediments of Fez and Sebou at the downstream of the confluence were found to be potentially toxic, according to the SQG levels. This finding is concerned with aquatic organisms, as well as to the riverside population, which is certainly exposed to these pollutants through the daily use of water. This study suggests that although Morocco has adopted environmental regulations aiming at restricting pollutant discharges into the natural ecosystems, such regulations are neither well respected by the main polluters nor efficiently enforced by the authorities.

  14. Channel Planform Dynamics Monitoring and Channel Stability Assessment in Two Sediment-Rich Rivers in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Kuo


    Full Text Available Recurrent flood events induced by typhoons are powerful agents to modify channel morphology in Taiwan’s rivers. Frequent channel migrations reflect highly sensitive valley floors and increase the risk to infrastructure and residents along rivers. Therefore, monitoring channel planforms is essential for analyzing channel stability as well as improving river management. This study analyzed annual channel changes along two sediment-rich rivers, the Zhuoshui River and the Gaoping River, from 2008 to 2015 based on satellite images of FORMOSAT-2. Channel areas were digitized from mid-catchment to river mouth (~90 km. Channel stability for reaches was assessed through analyzing the changes of river indices including braid index, active channel width, and channel activity. In general, the valley width plays a key role in braided degree, active channel width, and channel activity. These indices increase as the valley width expands whereas the braid index decreases slightly close to the river mouth due to the change of river types. This downstream pattern in the Zhuoshui River was interrupted by hydraulic construction which resulted in limited changes downstream from the weir, due to the lack of water and sediment supply. A 200-year flood, Typhoon Morakot in 2009, induced significant changes in the two rivers. The highly active landscape in Taiwan results in very sensitive channels compared to other regions. An integrated Sensitivity Index was proposed for identifying unstable reaches, which could be a useful reference for river authorities when making priorities in river regulation strategy. This study shows that satellite image monitoring coupled with river indices analysis could be an effective tool to evaluate spatial and temporal changes in channel stability in highly dynamic river systems.

  15. Factors influencing bank geomorphology and erosion of the Haw River, a high order river in North Carolina, since European settlement. (United States)

    Macfall, Janet; Robinette, Paul; Welch, David


    The Haw River, a high order river in the southeastern United States, is characterized by severe bank erosion and geomorphic change from historical conditions of clear waters and connected floodplains. In 2014 it was named one of the 10 most threatened rivers in the United States by American Rivers. Like many developed areas, the region has a history of disturbance including extensive upland soil loss from agriculture, dams, and upstream urbanization. The primary objective of this study was to identify the mechanisms controlling channel form and erosion of the Haw River. Field measurements including bank height, bankfull height, bank angle, root depth and density, riparian land cover and slope, surface protection, river width, and bank retreat were collected at 87 sites along 43.5 km of river. A Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI) was calculated for each study site. Mean bank height was 11.8 m, mean width was 84.3 m, and bank retreat for 2005/2007-2011/2013 was 2.3 m. The greatest bank heights, BEHI values, and bank retreat were adjacent to riparian areas with low slope (<2). This is in contrast to previous studies which identify high slope as a risk factor for erosion. Most of the soils in low slope riparian areas were alluvial, suggesting sediment deposition from upland row crop agriculture and/or flooding. Bank retreat was not correlated to bank heights or BEHI values. Historical dams (1.2-3 m height) were not a significant factor. Erosion of the Haw River in the study section of the river (25% of the river length) contributed 205,320 m3 of sediment and 3759 kg of P annually. Concentration of suspended solids in the river increased with discharge. In conclusion, the Haw River is an unstable system, with river bank erosion and geomodification potential influenced by riparian slope and varied flows.

  16. Factors Influencing Bank Geomorphology and Erosion of the Haw River, a High Order River in North Carolina, since European Settlement (United States)

    Macfall, Janet; Robinette, Paul; Welch, David


    The Haw River, a high order river in the southeastern United States, is characterized by severe bank erosion and geomorphic change from historical conditions of clear waters and connected floodplains. In 2014 it was named one of the 10 most threatened rivers in the United States by American Rivers. Like many developed areas, the region has a history of disturbance including extensive upland soil loss from agriculture, dams, and upstream urbanization. The primary objective of this study was to identify the mechanisms controlling channel form and erosion of the Haw River. Field measurements including bank height, bankfull height, bank angle, root depth and density, riparian land cover and slope, surface protection, river width, and bank retreat were collected at 87 sites along 43.5 km of river. A Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI) was calculated for each study site. Mean bank height was 11.8 m, mean width was 84.3 m, and bank retreat for 2005/2007-2011/2013 was 2.3 m. The greatest bank heights, BEHI values, and bank retreat were adjacent to riparian areas with low slope (sediment deposition from upland row crop agriculture and/or flooding. Bank retreat was not correlated to bank heights or BEHI values. Historical dams (1.2–3 m height) were not a significant factor. Erosion of the Haw River in the study section of the river (25% of the river length) contributed 205,320 m3 of sediment and 3759 kg of P annually. Concentration of suspended solids in the river increased with discharge. In conclusion, the Haw River is an unstable system, with river bank erosion and geomodification potential influenced by riparian slope and varied flows. PMID:25302956

  17. Residual fluxes and suspended sediment transport in the lower reaches of Muvattupuzha River, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Revichandran, C.; Balachandran, K.K.; Xavier, J.K.; Rejendran, N.C.

    Spatial and seasonal variation of different physical processes governing the transport of salt and sediment of the Muvattupuzha River, in Kerala, India are discussed. Salt and suspended sediment due to tidal pumping was directed upstream, salt...

  18. Iron and nutrient content of wind-erodible sediment in the ephemeral river valleys of Namibia (United States)

    Dansie, A. P.; Wiggs, G. F. S.; Thomas, D. S. G.


    Research concerning the global distribution of aeolian dust sources has principally focussed on salt/clay pan and desiccated lacustrine emission areas. In southern Africa such sources are identified as Etosha Pan in northern Namibia and Makgadikgadi Pans in northern Botswana. Dust emitting from ephemeral river valleys, however, has been largely overlooked. Rivers are known nutrient transport pathways and the flooding regimes of ephemeral river valleys frequently replenish stores of fine sediment which, on drying, can become susceptible to aeolian erosion. Such airborne sediment may be nutrient rich and thus be significant for the fertilisation of marine waters once deposited. This study investigates the dust source sediments from three ephemeral river valleys in Namibia in terms of their particle size distribution and their concentrations of bioavailable N, P and Fe. We compare the nutrient content of these sediments from the ephemeral river valleys to those collected from Etosha and Makgadikgadi Pans and consider their relative ocean fertilising potential. Our results show that the ephemeral river valleys contain fine grained sediment similar in physical character to Etosha and Makgadikgadi Pans yet they have up to 43 times greater concentrations of bioavailable iron and enriched N and P macronutrients that are each important for ocean fertilisation. The known dust-emitting river valleys of Namibia may therefore be contributing a greater fertilisation role in the adjacent marine system than previously considered, and not-yet investigated. Given this finding a re-assessment of the potential role of ephemeral river valleys in providing nutrient-rich sediment into the aeolian and marine systems in other dryland areas is necessary.

  19. (210)Pb and compositional data of sediments from Rondonian lakes, Madeira River basin, Brazil. (United States)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Vergotti, Marcelo


    Gold exploration has been intensive in Brazilian Amazon over the last 40 years, where the use of mercury as an amalgam has caused abnormal Hg concentrations in water bodies. Special attention has been directed to Madeira River due to fact it is a major tributary of Amazon River and that since 1986, gold exploration has been officially permitted along a 350km sector of the river. The (21)(0)Pb method has been used to date sediments taken from nine lakes situated in Madeira River basin, Rondônia State, and to verify where anthropogenic Hg might exist due to gold exploitation in Madeira River. Activity profiles of excess (21)(0)Pb determined in the sediment cores provided a means to evaluate the sedimentation rates using a Constant Flux: Constant Sedimentation (CF:CS) and Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) of unsupported/excess (21)(0)Pb models. A significant relationship was found between the CF:CS sedimentation rates and the mean values of the CRS sedimentation rates (Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.59). Chemical data were also determined in the sediments for identifying possible relationships with Hg occurring in the area. Significant values were found in statistical correlation tests realized among the Hg, major oxides and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content in the sediments. The TOC increased in the sediment cores accompanied by a loss on ignition (LOI) increment, whereas silica decreased following a specific surface area raising associated to the TOC increase. The CRS model always provided ages within the permitted range of the (21)(0)Pb-method in the studied lakes, whereas the CF:CS model predicted two values above 140 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An analytical model for stream sediment transport: application to Murray and Murrumbidgee river reaches, Australia (United States)

    Dietrich, Claude R.; Green, Timothy R.; Jakeman, Anthony J.


    The mechanisms controlling the flow of sediment in streams can be very complex and difficult to model with accuracy. Furthermore, data associated with the dominant sediment transport processes are often scarce. In this paper, we propose a model for the transport of suspended sediment in single stream reaches that permits a characterization of the dynamics of sediment sources and sinks, and routes concentrations through a stream network. We present a closed form, physically based, one-dimensional model that incorporates sediment advection, deposition, resuspension and lateral sources along a river reach. Data requirements for the model are modest, with parsimonious model structure involving only a few parameters. Thus, the model is relatively easy to calibrate and implement. An application of the model is illustrated using turbidity and flow data from two single reaches of the Murray and Murrumbidgee rivers in south-eastern Australia.

  1. Spatial and temporal variability in sedimentation rates associated with cutoff channel infill deposits: Ain River, France (United States)

    Piegay, H.; Hupp, C.R.; Citterio, A.; Dufour, S.; Moulin, B.; Walling, D.E.


    Floodplain development is associated with lateral accretion along stable channel geometry. Along shifting rivers, the floodplain sedimentation is more complex because of changes in channel position but also cutoff channel presence, which exhibit specific overflow patterns. In this contribution, the spatial and temporal variability of sedimentation rates in cutoff channel infill deposits is related to channel changes of a shifting gravel bed river (Ain River, France). The sedimentation rates estimated from dendrogeomorphic analysis are compared between and within 14 cutoff channel infills. Detailed analyses along a single channel infill are performed to assess changes in the sedimentation rates through time by analyzing activity profiles of the fallout radionuclides 137Cs and unsupported 210Pb. Sedimentation rates are also compared within the channel infills with rates in other plots located in the adjacent floodplain. Sedimentation rates range between 0.65 and 2.4 cm a -1 over a period of 10 to 40 years. The data provide additional information on the role of distance from the bank, overbank flow frequency, and channel geometry in controlling the sedimentation rate. Channel infills, lower than adjacent floodplains, exhibit higher sedimentation rates and convey overbank sediment farther away within the floodplain. Additionally, channel degradation, aggradation, and bank erosion, which reduce or increase the distance between the main channel and the cutoff channel aquatic zone, affect local overbank flow magnitude and frequency and therefore sedimentation rates, thereby creating a complex mosaic of sedimentation zones within the floodplain and along the cutoff channel infills. Last, the dendrogeomorphic and 137Cs approaches are cross validated for estimating the sedimentation rate within a channel infill. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Investigation of Sediment Pathways and Concealed Sedimentological Features in Hidden River Cave, Kentucky (United States)

    Feist, S.; Maclachlan, J. C.; Reinhardt, E. G.; McNeill-Jewer, C.; Eyles, C.


    Hidden River Cave is part of a cave system hydrogeologically related to Mammoth Cave in Kentucky and is a multi-level active cave system with 25km of mapped passages. Upper levels experience flow during flood events and lower levels have continuously flowing water. Improper industrial and domestic waste disposal and poor understanding of local hydrogeology lead to contamination of Hidden River Cave in the early 1940s. Previously used for hydroelectric power generation and as a source of potable water the cave was closed to the public for almost 50 years. A new sewage treatment plant and remediation efforts since 1989 have improved the cave system's health. This project focuses on sedimentological studies in the Hidden River Cave system. Water and sediment transport in the cave are being investigated using sediment cores, surface sediment samples and water level data. An Itrax core scanner is used to analyze sediment cores for elemental concentrations, magnetic susceptibility, radiography, and high resolution photography. Horizons of metal concentrations in the core allow correlation of sedimentation events in the cave system. Thecamoebian (testate amoebae) microfossils identified in surface samples allow for further constraint of sediment sources, sedimentation rates, and paleoclimatic analysis. Dive recorders monitor water levels, providing data to further understand the movement of sediment through the cave system. A general time constraint on the sediment's age is based on the presence of microplastic in the surface samples and sediment cores, and data from radiocarbon and lead-210 dating. The integration of various sedimentological data allows for better understanding of sedimentation processes and their record of paleoenvironmental change in the cave system. Sediment studies and methodologies from this project can be applied to other karst systems, and have important applications for communities living on karst landscapes and their water management policies.

  3. An appraisal of the sediment yield in western Mediterranean river basins. (United States)

    Buendia, C; Herrero, A; Sabater, S; Batalla, R J


    The number of studies assessing soil erosion and sediment transport has increased with the aim of achieving sustainable land and water management. Mediterranean rivers have been the object of many of these studies due to their naturally high values of sediment fluxes and a higher vulnerability under future climate scenarios. In this context, we attempt to use empirical relationships to (i) further assess the relation between sediment yield and basin scale and (ii) provide an update on the main drivers controlling sediment yield in these particular river systems. For this purpose, sediment yield data (from reservoir sedimentation surveys and sediment transport records) was collected from >100 locations distributed across the western Mediterranean area, with basin areas ranging from 1 to 100,000km(2). Quantile Regression analysis was used to assess the correlation between basin area and sediment yield, while additional basin-scale descriptors were related to sediment yield by means of multiple regression analysis. Results showed the complexity in the relationship between basin scale and sediment yield, with changes in supply conditions with increasing area introducing uncertainties in the correlation. Despite the large scatter, analysis pointed towards the same direction and area appeared to be the main constrain for the maximum value of sediment yield that can be found at a specific basin scale. Results from the multiple regression indicated that variables representing basin's physiography, climate and land use were highly correlated with the basins' sediment yield. Also, a better model performance was obtained when using total sediment yield instead of specific values (per unit area). Validation showed model instability, potentially due to data limitations and the use of catchments with varying characteristics. Overall, despite providing some insights on the correlation between sediment yield and basin-scale characteristics, validation prevented direct

  4. Thrust belt advance versus sediment-flux steering - Late Pleistocene river migrations in the southern Caucasus (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, Hans; Gärtner, Andreas; Hoth, Silvan; Umlauft, Josefine; Sukhishvili, Lasha; Faust, Dominik


    One response of rivers toward allogenic controls is large-scale river channel migration in the form of avulsions or progressive lateral migrations (combing) that are widespread phenomena around the world during the late Quaternary. Sediment-flux steering, i.e. a lateral shift of rivers against a tectonically driven subsidence trend promoted by transverse sediment discharge exerts such control. Evidence for this mechanism to operate stems from numerous field and experimental studies in extensional settings, characterized by commonly small-sized transverse catchments compared with that of the main river and/or volcaniclastic sedimentation. For the first time, this study investigates sediment-flux steering in a contractional tectonic setting with relatively large-sized transverse catchments compared with that of the main river. Geomorphologic, geochronologic, and heavy mineral provenance analyses were complemented with tectonomorphometric data to investigate late Quaternary channel migrations of the Kura River in the southern foreland basin of the Greater Caucasus. Large-scale migrations of the course of the Kura River during the late Quaternary reflect the interplay between a continuing southwestward advance of the Kura Fold-and-Thrust-Belt, leading to uplift in the NE and by climatically-triggered sediment-flux steering caused by aggradation phases of transverse rivers with comparatively large catchment areas in the Lesser Caucasus. During generally warmer periods such as the Holocene with fluvial incision and low sediment supply from the transverse rivers, the main Kura River could follow its tectonically driven trend toward the southwest. In contrast, during generally colder periods such as the upper late Pleistocene, sediment-flux steering caused by aggradation of the transverse rivers forced the main Kura River to migrate >10 km against that tectonically induced trend toward the northeast. Generally, besides improving our understanding of the coupling between

  5. Characterization of a Flood Event through a Sediment Analysis: The Tescio River Case Study

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    Silvia Di Francesco


    Full Text Available This paper presents the hydrological analysis and grain size characteristics of fluvial sediments in a river basin and their combination to characterize a flood event. The overall objective of the research is the development of a practical methodology based on experimental surveys to reconstruct the hydraulic history of ungauged river reaches on the basis of the modifications detected on the riverbed during the dry season. The grain size analysis of fluvial deposits usually requires great technical and economical efforts and traditional sieving based on physical sampling is not appropriate to adequately represent the spatial distribution of sediments in a wide area of a riverbed with a reasonable number of samples. The use of photographic sampling techniques, on the other hand, allows for the quick and effective determination of the grain size distribution, through the use of a digital camera and specific graphical algorithms in large river stretches. A photographic sampling is employed to characterize the riverbed in a 3 km ungauged reach of the Tescio River, a tributary of the Chiascio River, located in central Italy, representative of many rivers in the same geographical area. To this end, the particle size distribution is reconstructed through the analysis of digital pictures of the sediments taken on the riverbed in dry conditions. The sampling has been performed after a flood event of known duration, which allows for the identification of the removal of the armor in one section along the river reach under investigation. The volume and composition of the eroded sediments made it possible to calculate the average flow rate associated with the flood event which caused the erosion, by means of the sediment transport laws and the hydrological analysis of the river basin. A hydraulic analysis of the river stretch under investigation was employed to verify the validity of the proposed procedure.

  6. The future of the reservoirs in the Siret River Basin considering the sediment transport of rivers (ROMANIA

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    Petru OLARIU


    Full Text Available The Siret River Basin is characterized by an important use of hydro potential, resulted in the number of reservoirs constructed and operational. The cascade power stage of the reservoirs on Bistrita and Siret rivers indicate the anthropic interventions with different purposes (hydro energy, water supply, irrigation etc. in the Siret River Basin. In terms of the capacity in the Siret River Basin there is a dominance of the small capacity reservoirs, which is given by the less than 20 mil m³ volumes. Only two lakes have capacities over 200 mil m³: Izvoru Muntelui on Bistrita River and Siriu on Buzau River. Based on the monitoring of the alluvial flow at the hydrometric stations, from the Siret River Basin, there have been analysed the sediment yield formation and the solid transit dimensions in order to obtain typical values for the geographical areas of this territory. The silting of these reservoirs was monitored by successive topobatimetric measurements performed by the Bureau of Prognosis, Hydrology and Hydrogeology and a compartment within Hidroelectrica S.A. Piatra Neamt Subsidiary. The quantities of the deposited sediments are very impressive. The annual rates range betwee3 000 – 2 000 000 t/year, depending on the size of the hydrographical basin, the capacity of the reservoirs, the liquid flow and many other factors which may influence the upstream transport of sediments. These rates of sedimentation lead to a high degree of silting in the reservoirs. Many of them are silted over 50% of the initial capacity and the others even more. The effects of the silting have an important impact when analysing the effective exploitation of the reservoirs. 

  7. Status of riverine soils, waters and sediments of a Mediterranean river catchment (the Turia river, Spain) regarding heavy metals potential contamination (United States)

    Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno-García, Eugenia; Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio


    an important forest fires occurred a year ago. In the same way that was observed for sediments high lvels of metals, mainly Cr and Zn, appeared in the reference zone of the Alfambra River. The organic matter content of soils and sediments is the parameter most strongly related with all the forms of metals, mainly for Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, and is a key factor in the availability of them. The textural distribution of the sediments, particularly the clay content, also influences this last factor in the case of Ni. For soils and sediments, clear trend towards enrichment in heavy metals is observed in the Turia River from the headwater to the stuary, with the exception of the possible existence of a contamination source in zone 2. Acknowledgements This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF) through the coordinating project MEFTURIA (CGL2011-29703-C02-00), and its subprojects EFAMED (CGL2011-29703-C02-01) and EMEFOR (CGL2011-29703-C02-02).

  8. Mutual relationships of suspended sediment, turbidity and visual clarity in New Zealand rivers

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    D. J. Ballantine


    Full Text Available Many river water quality monitoring programmes do not measure suspended particulate matter (SPM mass concentrations despite significant interest in its multiple effects on aquatic ecosystems. Regular monthly sampling usually intercepts rivers in baseflow when suspended sediment mass concentrations and fluxes are relatively low and not of particular interest. New Zealand’s National Rivers Water Quality Network (NRWQN is probably typical in not measuring SPM mass, although visual clarity and nephelometric turbidity are routinely measured. In order to better characterize SPM in NZ rivers, total suspended sediment (TSS was temporarily added to the NRWQN. Turbidity, visual clarity and TSS are mutually inter-related over all 77 sites, although with considerable data scatter. However, within individual rivers turbidity and visual clarity are typically fairly closely related to TSS and provide fair to excellent surrogates. Therefore, TSS need not be measured routinely because it can be estimated with sufficient precision for many purposes from visibility or turbidity.

  9. Shallow stratigraphy of the Skagit River Delta, Washington, derived from sediment cores (United States)

    Grossman, Eric E.; George, Douglas A.; Lam, Angela


    Sedimentologic analyses of 21 sediment cores, ranging from 0.4 to 9.6 m in length, reveal that the shallow geologic framework of the Skagit River Delta, western Washington, United States, has changed significantly since 1850. The cores collected from elevations of 3.94 to -2.41 m (relative to mean lower low water) along four cross-shore transects between the emergent marsh and delta front show relatively similar environmental changes across an area spanning ~75 km2. Offshore of the present North Fork Skagit River and South Fork Skagit River mouths where river discharge is focused by diked channels through the delta, the entire 5–7-km-wide tidal flats are covered with 1–2 m of cross-bedded medium-to-coarse sands. The bottoms of cores, collected in these areas are composed of mud. A sharp transition from mud to a cross-bedded sand unit indicates that the tidal flats changed abruptly from a calm environment to an energetic one. This is in stark contrast to the Martha's Bay tidal flats north of the Skagit Bay jetty that was completed in the 1940s to protect the newly constructed Swinomish Channel from flooding and sedimentation. North of the jetty, mud ranging from 1 to 2 m thick drapes a previously silt- and sand-rich tidal flat. The silty sand is a sediment facies that would be expected there where North Fork Skagit River sedimentation occurred prior to jetty emplacement. This report describes the compositional and textural properties of the sediment cores by using geophysical, photographic, x-radiography, and standard sediment grain-size and carbon-analytical methods. The findings help to characterize benthic habitat structure and sediment transport processes and the environmental changes that have occurred across the nearshore of the Skagit River Delta. The findings will be useful for quantifying changes to nearshore marine resources, including impacts resulting from diking, river-delta channelization, shoreline development, and natural variations in fluvial-sediment

  10. Modelling Suspended Sediment Transport in Monsoon Season: A Case Study of Pahang River Estuary, Pahang, Malaysia (United States)

    Zakariya, Razak; Ahmad, Zuhairi; Saad, Shahbudin; Yaakop, Rosnan


    Sediment transport based on 2-dimensional real time model was applied to Pahang River estuary, Pahang, Malaysia and has been evaluated and verified with time series of tidal elevation, flow and suspended sediment load. Period of modelling was during highest high tide and lowest low tide in Northeast Monsoon (NE) which happened in December 2010 and Southwest Monsoon (SW) in July 2011. Simulated model outputs has been verify using Pearson's coefficient and has showed high accuracy. The validated model was used to simulate hydrodynamic and sediment transport of extreme conditions during both monsoon seasons. Based on field measurement and model simulation, tidal elevation and flow velocity, freshwater discharge of Pahang River were found to be higher during NE Monsoon. Based on the fluxes, the estuary also showed 'ebb-dominant' characteristic during highest high tide and lowest low tide in NE monsoon and normal ebbing-flooding characteristics during SW monsoon. In the Pahang River estuary, inflow and outflow patterns were perpendicular to the open boundary with circular flow formed at the shallow area in the middle of estuary during both monsoons. Referring to sea water intrusion from the river mouth, both seasons show penetration of more than 9 km (upstream input boundary) during higher high water tide. During higher lower water tide, the water intrusion stated varies which 5.6km during NE monsoon and 7.8km during SW monsoon. Regarding to the times lap during high tide, the sea water takes 2.8 hours to reach 9km upstream during NE monsoon compared to 1.9 hour during SW monsoon. The averages of suspended sediment concentration and suspended sediment load were higher during Northeast monsoon which increased the sedimentation potentials.Total of suspended sediment load discharged to the South China Sea yearly from Pahang River is approximately 96727.5 tonnes/day or 3.33 tonnes/km2/day which 442.6 tonnes/day during Northeast Monsoon and 25.3 tonnes/day during Southwest

  11. [Heavy metals pollution and its stability assessment of sediments in flowing rivers around lake Taihu]. (United States)

    Lu, Shao-Yong; Jiao, Wei; Jin, Xiang-Can; Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Ye; Li, Guang-De


    16 main inflow and outflow rivers around Lake Taihu were chosen as the research object, and the concentrations and distribution of four heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) in the surface sediments of these river estuaries were detected. The pollution extent and stability were analyzed by using three-step sequential extraction method (BCR method). Aim of this study is to control heavy metal pollution of Lake Taihu and provide the basic information. Based on the results, the monitored river estuaries all had been contaminated by different degrees, and four heavy metals' concentrations all exceeded the threshold effect level (TEL) at most sampling sites. A distinct spatial heterogeneity was found in extracted fractions of these heavy metals distribution: northern rivers > southern rivers, inflow rivers > outflow rivers. The Stability Assessment Code (SAC) for different metals varied in the descending order of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. Compared with Pb and Cu, Cd and Zn had a higher second release potential and ecological risk.

  12. The significance of sediment contamination in the Elbe River floodplain (Czech Republic) (United States)

    Chalupová, Dagmar; Janský, Bohumír; Langhammer, Jakub; Šobr, Miroslav; Jiři, Medek; Král, Stanislav; Jiřinec, Petr; Kaiglova, Jana; Černý, Michal; Žáček, Miroslav; Leontovyčova, Drahomíra; Halířová, Jarmila


    The abstract brings the information about the research that was focused on anthropogenic pollution of river and lake sediments in the middle course of the Elbe River (Czech Republic). The main aim was to identify and to evaluate the significance of old polluted sediments in the river and its side structures (old meanders, cut lakes, oxbow lakes) between Hradec Králové and Mělník (confluence with the Moldau River) and to assess the risk coming from the remobilization of the contaminated matter. The Elbe River floodplain has been highly inhabited since the Middle Ages, and, especially in the 20th century, major industrial plants were founded here. Since that time, the anthropogenic load of the river and it`s floodplain has grown. Although the contaminants bound to the sediment particles are usually stable, the main risk is coming from the fact that under changes in hydrological regime and water quality (floods, changes in pH, redox-potential, presence of complex substances etc.), the pollution can be released and remobilized again. The most endangered areas are: the surroundings of Pardubice (chemical factory Synthesia, Inc.; refinery PARAMO), and Neratovice (chemical factory Spolana, Inc.). The chemical factories situated close to these towns represented the most problematic polluters of the Elbe River especially during 2nd half of 20th century. In the research, the main attention was aimed at subaquatic sediments of selected cut lakes situated in the vicinity of the above mentioned sources of pollution. To describe the outreach of contamination, several further fluvial lakes were taken into account too. Sediment sampling was carried out from boats on lakes and with the help of drilling rig in the floodplain. Gained sediment cores were divided into several parts which were analysed separately. Chemical analyses included substances identified by ICPER (International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe River) as well as chemicals considered as significant in

  13. Hydrodynamic and suspended sediment transport controls on river mouth morphology (United States)

    Falcini, F.; Piliouras, A.; Garra, R.; Guerin, A.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Rowland, J.; Paola, C.


    mouths building into standing bodies of water have strikingly varied growth habits. This presents a compelling pattern formation problem that is also of great practical relevance for subsurface prediction and managing coastal wetlands. Here we present a generalized 2.5-dimensional potential vorticity (PV) theory that explains sedimentation patterns of a sediment-laden stationary jet by coupling an understanding of vorticity with suspended sediment concentration fields. We explore the physical meaning of this new sediment-PV definition, and its impact on outflow depositional patterns, by analyzing data from a shallow wall-bounded plane jet experiment and by discussing new theoretical insights. A key result is that lateral advection and diffusion of suspended sediment are directly proportional to jet vorticity, a feature that reveals the mechanistic process that forms elongated channels by focused levee deposition. The new PV theory constitutes a more generalized mathematical framework that expands the Rouse theory for the equilibrium of suspended sediment.

  14. Temporal variability in the suspended sediment load and streamflow of the Doce River (United States)

    Oliveira, Kyssyanne Samihra Santos; Quaresma, Valéria da Silva


    Long-term records of streamflow and suspended sediment load provide a better understanding of the evolution of a river mouth, and its adjacent waters and a support for mitigation programs associated with extreme events and engineering projects. The aim of this study is to investigate the temporal variability in the suspended sediment load and streamflow of the Doce River to the Atlantic Ocean, between 1990 and 2013. Streamflow and suspended sediment load were analyzed at the daily, seasonal, and interannual scales. The results showed that at the daily scale, Doce River flood events are due to high intensity and short duration rainfalls, which means that there is a flashy response to rainfall. At the monthly and season scales, approximately 94% of the suspended sediment supply occurs during the wet season. Extreme hydrological events are important for the interannual scale for Doce River sediment supply to the Atlantic Ocean. The results suggest that a summation of anthropogenic interferences (deforestation, urbanization and soil degradation) led to an increase of extreme hydrological events. The findings of this study shows the importance of understanding the typical behavior of the Doce River, allowing the detection of extreme hydrological conditions, its causes and possible environmental and social consequences.

  15. Trends in the sediment yield of the Sacramento River, California, 1957 - 2001

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    David H. Schoellhamer


    Full Text Available Human activities within a watershed, such as agriculture, urbanization, and dam building, may affect the sediment yield from the watershed. Because the equilibrium geomorphic form of an estuary is dependent in part on the sediment supply from the watershed, anthropogenic activities within the watershed have the potential to affect estuary geomorphology. The Sacramento River drains the northern half of California’s Central Valley and is the primary source of sediment to San Francisco Bay. In this paper, it is shown that the delivery of suspended-sediment from the Sacramento River to San Francisco Bay has decreased by about one-half during the period 1957 to 2001. Many factors may be contributing to the trend in sediment yield, including the depletion of erodible sediment from hydraulic mining in the late 1800s, trapping of sediment in reservoirs, riverbank protection, altered land-uses (such as agriculture, grazing, urbanization, and logging, and levees. This finding has implications for planned tidal wetland restoration activities around San Francisco Bay, where an adequate sediment supply will be needed to build subsided areas to elevations typical of tidal wetlands as well as to keep pace with projected sea-level rise. In a broader context, the study underscores the need to address anthropogenic impacts on watershed sediment yield when considering actions such as restoration within downstream depositional areas.

  16. Trends in the Sediment Yield of the Sacramento River, California, 1957–2001

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    Scott A. Wright


    Full Text Available Human activities within a watershed, such as agriculture, urbanization, and dam building, may affect the sediment yield from the watershed. Because the equilibrium geomorphic form of an estuary is dependent in part on the sediment supply from the watershed, anthropogenic activities within the watershed have the potential to affect estuary geomorphology. The Sacramento River drains the northern half of California’s Central Valley and is the primary source of sediment to San Francisco Bay. In this paper, it is shown that the delivery of suspended-sediment from the Sacramento River to San Francisco Bay has decreased by about one-half during the period 1957 to 2001. Many factors may be contributing to the trend in sediment yield, including the depletion of erodible sediment from hydraulic mining in the late 1800s, trapping of sediment in reservoirs, riverbank protection, altered land-uses (such as agriculture, grazing, urbanization, and logging, and levees. This finding has implications for planned tidal wetland restoration activities around San Francisco Bay, where an adequate sediment supply will be needed to build subsided areas to elevations typical of tidal wetlands as well as to keep pace with projected sea-level rise. In a broader context, the study underscores the need to address anthropogenic impacts on watershed sediment yield when considering actions such as restoration within downstream depositional areas.

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish and sediment from river polluted by electronic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Qian [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Cai Zongwei [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail:; Wong Minghung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail:


    The present study investigated contamination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment and fish samples collected from rivers in Guiyu, China where electronic waste (e-waste) is recycled and disposed. PBDE congeners with mono-to hepta-brominated and deca-brominated substitutions were detected using {sup 13}C{sub 12} isotope dilution GC/MS/MS and GC/MS methods, respectively. The total PBDE concentrations ranged from 4434 to 16088 ng/g (dry weight) in Nanyang River bank sediment, from 55 to 445 ng/g in Nanyang River bottom sediment and 51.3 to 365 ng/g in Lianjiang River bottom sediment in Guiyu compared with those from 16.1 to 21.4 ng/g in wastewater discharged from a vehicle repairing workshop in Lo Uk Tsuen in Hong Kong. No PBDE congeners were detected in bottom sediment and fish from Mai Po Marshes in Hong Kong. The mean concentrations of total PBDEs in mixed muscles of tilapia (Oreochromis spp) from Lianjiang River were 115 ng/g wet weight (ww) and from wastewater in Hong Kong were 4.1 ng/g ww. Highest mean PBDE concentration was obtained in liver (2687 ng/g ww), followed by abdomen muscle (1088 ng/g ww) of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) collected from Nanyang River. A significant correlation of concentration of each PBDE congener between sediment and muscle from Guiyu was observed. The present results of total PBDEs in sediment and fish were 10 and 1000 times higher than other studies. Open burning and dumping of e-waste are the major causes of PBDE contamination.

  18. Genotoxicity of leachates from highly polluted lowland river sediments destined for disposal in landfill. (United States)

    Magdaleno, Anahi; Mendelson, Alicia; de Iorio, Alicia Fabrizio; Rendina, Alicia; Moretton, Juan


    The Matanza-Riachuelo is one of the most polluted rivers of Latin America. The complex chemical mixture of pollutants discharged into the river is accumulated in the river sediments. In this paper, Matanza-Riachuelo river sediment composition and genotoxicity were tested in order to develop a cost-effective, environmentally sound option for disposal and management of contaminated dredged materials. Sampling was performed in a rural area, in a solid waste dumpsite and also in an urban and industrial area. The concentrations of total heavy metals increased from the upper basin to the lower basin. The Ames Salmonella typhimurium test and the Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 test were performed using toxicity characteristic leachate procedure (TCLP) leachates. The concentrations of copper, lead, and chromium in the leachates exceeded the guide levels for the protection of aquatic life. Low concentrations of organic chlorinated compounds were detected in the leachates. Genotoxic profiles were obtained by testing TCLP leachates from polluted sediment samples with Salmonella typhimurium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7, and water sediment suspension with Allium cepa test. No mutagenicity effects on Ames test were observed. Gene conversion and mitotic reversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 and chromosome aberration in Allium cepa were induced by the sediment samples. Results obtained suggest that dredged sediments could be classified as genotoxic hazardous waste.

  19. Sediment transport following water transfer from Yangtze River to Taihu Basin


    Gong, Zheng; Chang-kuan ZHANG; Cheng-biao ZUO; Wei-deng WU


    To meet the increasing need of fresh water and to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, water transfer from the Yangtze River was initiated in 2002. This study was performed to investigate the sediment distribution along the river course following water transfer. A rainfall-runoff model was first built to calculate the runoff of the Taihu Basin in 2003. Then, the flow patterns of river networks were simulated using a one-dimensional river network hydrodynamic model. Based on the boundary c...

  20. Geochemical Dataset of the Rhone River Delta (Lake Geneva) Sediments - Disentangling Human Impacts from Climate Change (United States)

    Silva, T. A.; Girardclos, S.; Loizeau, J. L.


    Lake sediment records are often the most complete continental archives. In the last 200 years, in addition to climatic variability, humans have strongly impacted lake watersheds around the world. During the 20th century the Rhone River and its watershed upstream Lake Geneva (Switzerland/France) have been subject to river channelization, dam construction, water flow regulation, water and sediment abstraction as well as various land use changes. Under the scope of the SEDFATE project (Swiss National Science Foundation nº147689) we address human and climatic impact on the sediment transfer from the Rhone River watershed to Lake Geneva. Nineteen short sediment cores were collected in the Rhone River delta area in May 2014. Cores have been scanned with MSCL and XRF, sub-sampled every 1cm and 8 cores were dated by radiometric methods (137Cs and 210Pb). Photographs taken right after core opening were used for lithological description and in addition to MSCL data were used to correlate cores. Core dating shows that mass accumulation rates decreased in the 1964-1986 interval and then increased again in the interval between 1986-2014. XRF elements and ratios, known to indicate detrital sources (Al, Al/Si, Fe, K, Mn, Rb, Si, Ti, Ti/Ca), show that clastic input diminished from 1964 to 1986 and re-increased to the present. Other elemental (Zr/Rb, Zr/K, Si/Ti) and geophysical data (magnetic susceptibility) combined with lithology identify density flow deposits vs hemipelagic sedimentation. Changes in frequency of these event deposits indicate changes in the sedimentation patterns in the Rhone River sublacustrine delta during the last century. From these results we hypothesize that a significant sediment amount was abstracted from the system after the major dam constructions in the 1950's and that, since the 1990's, a contrary signal is due to increased sediment loads that follows glacial melting due to global warming.

  1. Source identification of fine-grained suspended sediment in the Kharaa River basin, northern Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theuring, Philipp [Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management — ASAM, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Brückstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg (Germany); Collins, Adrian L. [Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Rode, Michael [Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management — ASAM, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Brückstrasse 3a, D-39114 Magdeburg (Germany)


    Fine sediment inputs into river systems can be a major source of nutrients and heavy metals and have a strong impact on water quality and ecosystem functions of rivers and lakes, including those in semiarid regions. However, little is known to date about the spatial distribution of sediment sources in most large scale river basins in Central Asia. Accordingly, a sediment source fingerprinting technique was used to assess the spatial sources of fine-grained (< 10 μm) sediment in the 15 000 km{sup 2} Kharaa River basin in northern Mongolia. Variation in geochemical composition (e.g. in Ti, Sn, Mo, Mn, As, Sr, B, U, Ca and Sb) was used for sediment source discrimination with geochemical composite fingerprints based on Genetic Algorithm (GA)-driven Discriminant Function Analysis, the Kruskal–Wallis H-test and Principal Component Analysis. All composite fingerprints yielded a satisfactory GOF (> 0.97) and were subsequently used for numerical mass balance modelling with uncertainty analysis. The contributions of the individual sub-catchment spatial sediment sources varied from 6.4% (the headwater sub-catchment of Sugnugur Gol) to 36.2% (the Kharaa II sub-catchment in the middle reaches of the study basin), generally showing higher contributions from the sub-catchments in the middle, rather than the upstream, portions of the study area. The importance of river bank erosion is shown to increase from upstream to midstream tributaries. The source tracing procedure provides results in reasonable accordance with previous findings in the study region and demonstrates the applicability and associated uncertainties of the approach for fine-grained sediment source investigation in large scale semi-arid catchments. - Highlights: • Applied statistical approach for selecting composite fingerprints in Mongolia. • Geochemical fingerprinting for the definition of source areas in semiarid catchment. • Test of applicability of sediment sourcing in large scale semi-arid catchments

  2. Quantitative trace analysis of fullerenes in river sediment from Spain and soils from Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Sanchís, Josep; Božović, Dalibor; Al-Harbi, Naif A; Silva, Luis F; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià


    A quantitative method based on ultrasound-assisted toluene extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of C60 and C70 fullerenes, N-methylfulleropyrrolidine, [6, 6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester and [6, 6]-thienyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester has been developed. The method was validated using fortified blank river sediments according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The method limits of detection ranged from 14 to 290 pg/g, making it suitable for its application in environmental analysis. The method has been applied to investigate fullerene content in 58 soil samples collected from different urban and industrial areas in Saudi Arabia and in river sediment from six different sites in the Llobregat River Basin. In addition, in the case of the Llobregat River, superficial water samples from the same sites of the sediments were collected and analysed using a previous method. In soils from Saudi Arabia, C60-fullerene was the only compound that was detected and quantified in 19% of samples. In the sediments of the Llobregat River, C60-fullerene was also the only one detected (33% of the samples), while in river water, C70-fullerene was the most frequent compound, and it was quantified in 67% of the samples. However, C60-fullerene was present in two of the six samples, but at higher concentrations than C70-fullerene, ranging from 0.9 to 7.8 ng/L.

  3. River-plume sedimentation and 210Pb/7Be seabed delivery on the Mississippi River delta front (United States)

    Keller, Gregory; Bentley, Samuel J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Maloney, Jillian; Miner, Michael D.; Xu, Kehui


    To constrain the timing and processes of sediment delivery and submarine mass-wasting events spanning the last few decades on the Mississippi River delta front, multi-cores and gravity cores (0.5 and deposition (from 7Be) and accumulation (from 210Pb) indicate that proximity to the river mouth has stronger influence than local facies (mudflow gully, depositional lobe, prodelta) over the timeframe and seabed depth represented by the cores (deposition from river plumes coupled with infrequent tropical cyclone activity near the delta in the last 7 years (2006-2013), and by the location of most sediment failure surfaces (from mass flows indicated by parallel geophysical studies) deeper than the core-sampling depths of the present study.

  4. Remote Sensing Analysis of Temperature and Suspended Sediment Concentration in Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar (United States)

    Thanda Ko, Nyein; Rutten, Martine


    Detailed spatial coverage of water quality parameters are crucial to better manage rivers. However, collection of water quality parameters is both time consuming and costly for large rivers. This study demonstrates that Operational Land Image (OLI) Sensor on board of Landsat 8 can be successfully applied for the detection of spatial patterns of water temperature as well as suspended sediment concentration (SSC) using the Ayeyarwady river, Myanmar as a case study. Water temperature estimation was obtained from the brightness thermal Band 10 by using the Split-Window algorithm. The study finds that there is a close agreement between the remote sensing temperature and in-situ temperature with relative error in the range from 4.5% to 8.2%. The sediment load of Ayeyarwady river is ranked as the third-largest sediment load among the world's rivers but there is very little known about this important parameter, due to a lack of adequate gauge data. The single band reflectance of Landsat image (Band 5) seems a good indicator for the estimation of SSC with relative error in the range of less than 10% but the developed empirical formula by the power relation with the only seven ground reference points is uncertain to apply for the entire river basin. It is to note that an important constraint for the sediment analysis is the availability of spatial and temporal ground reference data. Future studies should also focus on the improvement of ground reference data points to become more reliable, because most of the river in Asia, especially in Myanmar, don't have readily available continuous ground sediment data points due to lack of measurement gauge stations through the river.

  5. Understanding the sediment routing system along the Gulf of Kachchh coast, western India: Significance of small ephemeral rivers (United States)

    Prizomwala, S. P.; Bhatt, Nilesh; Basavaiah, N.


    The present study is an attempt towards understanding the sediment routing system in the semi-arid margin of the Gulf of Kachchh, which is one of the largest macrotidal regimes in the northern Arabian Sea. Investigations based on heavy minerals, clay minerals, mineral magnetic properties and sediment geochemistry indicated that there are three major sources of sediments contributing to the Gulf of Kachchh basin: (1) Indus River, (2) Kachchh mainland coastal rivers and (3) the Saurashtra peninsular coastal rivers. The flanks of northern and southern coast of western Gulf of Kachchh show dominant signatures of Kachchh mainland/Saurashtra peninsular provenance. In contrast, the eastern Gulf of Kachchh coast bearing fine grained sediments shows dominant Indus River Provenance. Although ephemeral in nature, the small coastal rivers of Saurashtra and Kachchh contribute significant amount of sediments to the Gulf of Kachchh coastline because of their `dryland' nature and thus they control the coarse grained sedimentation processes.

  6. Floodplain sediment from a 100-year-recurrence flood in 2005 of the Ping River in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Wood


    Full Text Available The tropical storm, floodwater, and the floodplain-sediment layer of a 100-year recurrence flood are examined to better understand characteristics of large monsoon floods on medium-sized rivers in northern Thailand. Storms producing large floods in northern Thailand occur early or late in the summer rainy season (May–October. These storms are associated with tropical depressions evolving from typhoons in the South China Sea that travel westward across the Indochina Peninsula. In late September, 2005, the tropical depression from Typhoon Damrey swept across northern Thailand delivering 100–200 mm/day at stations in mountainous areas. Peak flow from the 6355-km2 drainage area of the Ping River upstream of the city of Chiang Mai was 867 m3s−1 (river-gage of height 4.93 m and flow greater than 600 m3s−1 lasted for 2.5 days. Parts of the city of Chiang Mai and some parts of the floodplain in the intermontane Chiang Mai basin were flooded up to 1-km distant from the main channel. Suspended-sediment concentrations in the floodwater were measured and estimated to be 1000–1300 mg l−1.

    The mass of dry sediment (32.4 kg m-2, measured over a 0.32-km2 area of the floodplain is relatively high compared to reports from European and North American river floods. Average wet sediment thickness over the area was 3.3 cm. Sediment thicker than 8 cm covered 16 per cent of the area, and sediment thicker than 4 cm covered 44 per cent of the area. High suspended-sediment concentration in the floodwater, flow to the floodplain through a gap in the levee afforded by the mouth of a tributary stream as well as flow over levees, and floodwater depths of 1.2 m explain the relatively large amount of sediment in the measured area.

    Grain-size analyses and examination of the flood layer showed about 15-cm thickness of massive fine-sandy silt on the levee within 15

  7. Hurricane Katrina sediment slowed elevation loss in subsiding brackish marshes of the Mississippi River delta (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Cherry, J.A.


    Although hurricanes can damage or destroy coastal wetlands, they may play a beneficial role in reinvigorating marshes by delivering sediments that raise soil elevations and stimulate organic matter production. Hurricane Katrina altered elevation dynamics of two subsiding brackish marshes in the Mississippi River deltaic plain by adding 3 to 8 cm of sediment to the soil surface in August 2005. Soil elevations at both sites subsequently declined due to continued subsidence, but net elevation gain was still positive at both Pearl River (+1.7 cm) and Big Branch (+0.7 cm) marshes two years after the hurricane. At Big Branch where storm sediments had higher organic matter and water contents, post-storm elevation loss was more rapid due to initial compaction of the storm layer in combination with root-zone collapse. In contrast, elevation loss was slower at Pearl River where the storm deposit (high sand content) did not compact and the root zone did not collapse. Vegetation at both sites fully recovered within one year, and accumulation of root matter at Big Branch increased 10-fold from 2005 to 2006, suggesting that the hurricane stimulated belowground productivity. Results of this study imply that hurricane sediment may benefit subsiding marshes by slowing elevation loss. However, long-term effects of hurricane sediment on elevation dynamics will depend not only on the amount of sediment deposited, but on sediment texture and resistance to compaction as well as on changes in organic matter accumulation in the years following the hurricane.

  8. Recent changes in sediment redistribution in the upper parts of the fluvial system of European Russia: regional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Yermolaev


    Full Text Available Quantitative assessments of soil loss from cultivated land and sediment redistribution along pathways from cultivated fields to river channels have been undertaken using a range of different methods and techniques, including erosion models, detailed studies of sediment redistribution in representative catchments, monitoring of gully head retreat and evaluation of sediment deposition in ponds and small reservoirs. Most of the sediment eroded from arable land is deposited between the lower portions of the cultivated slopes and the river channels. Less than 15% of the eroded sediment is delivered to the river channels. Sediment redistribution rates in the upper parts of the fluvial system have declined during the last 25 years in both the western and eastern parts of the Russian Plain, because of a major reduction of surface runoff during snowmelt and a reduction of the area of arable land in some parts of the study area.

  9. Distribution and pollution, toxicity and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments from urban and rural rivers of the Pearl River delta in southern China. (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Zhang, Honggang; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui


    Sediments were collected from the upper, middle and lower reaches of both urban and rural rivers in a typical urbanization zone of the Pearl River delta. Six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analyzed in all sediment samples, and their spatial distribution, pollution levels, toxicity and ecological risk levels were evaluated to compare the characteristics of heavy metal pollution between the two rivers. Our results indicated that the total contents of the six metals in all samples exceeded the soil background value in Guangdong province. Based on the soil quality thresholds of the China SEPA, Cd levels at all sites exceeded class III criteria, and other metals exhibited pollution levels exceeding class II or III criteria at both river sites. According to the sediment quality guidelines of the US EPA, all samples were moderately to heavily polluted by Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Compared to rural river sites, urban river sites exhibited heavier pollution. Almost all sediment samples from both rivers exhibited moderate to serious toxicity to the environment, with higher contributions from Cr and Ni. A "hot area" of heavy metal pollution being observed in the upper and middle reaches of the urban river area, whereas a "hot spot" was identified at a specific site in the middle reach of the rural river. Contrary metal distribution patterns were also observed along typical sediment profiles from urban and rural rivers. However, the potential ecological risk indices of rural river sediments in this study were equal to those of urban river sediments, implying that the ecological health issues of the rivers in the undeveloped rural area should also be addressed. Sediment organic matter and grain size might be important factors influencing the distribution profiles of these heavy metals.

  10. River-Borne Sediment Exports, Sedimentation Rates, and Influence on Benthos and Leaflitter Breakdown in Southern Caribbean Mangroves (uraba, Colombia) (United States)

    Blanco, J. F.; Taborda, A.; Arroyave, A.


    Deposition of river-borne sediments is a major issue in coastal ecosystems worldwide, but no study has been conducted in Neotropical mangroves. Mangroves in the Urabá Gulf (Southern Caribbean coast of Colombia) receive one of the highest sediment loads (crop district. Annual sedimentation rates were computed based in monthly samplings (2009-2010) in mangrove fringes across the Turbo River Delta using bottom-fixed 1L-cylinders (n=15). A significant spatial variation (0.04-0.9 ton m-2 yr-1) was observed among sampling stations within the delta, but the highest trapping occurred on river's main channel (2.54 ton m-2 yr-1). Temporal variation was smaller than spatial variation. Monitoring (twenty 1-m2 quadrats x 3 sites x 12 months) of a dominant mangrove-floor gastropod (Neritina virginea) observed a positive increase of density (4-125 ind. m-2: One-way ANOVA: p<0.001) along a sedimentation gradient (monthly means for low and high sedimentation sites: 3-69 kg m-2 yr-1). The role of N. virginea on leaflitter breakdown relative to sedimentation level was experimentally tested in a black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) stand by using 180 wire-mesh cages (15 x 15 x 25 cm) placed on the forest floor as experimental units, to prevent snail and crab access. After clearing existing snails and litter from the muddy bottom, each cage was placed and 1 senescent leaf of A. germinans and 7 snails were introduced (previously weighed) (snail abundance was similar to background densities). Three levels of area-weighed sedimentation rates (1, 3 and 18 g per cage) were daily added to test the impacts of the field-observed sedimentation gradient. The experiment was carried out during one month. Fresh leaf mass was different among treatments during the first week, increasing in proportion to the sedimentation rate probably due to leaf soaking. However, there was no difference in fresh leaf weight loss (average: 67%) among sediment levels after one month. Fresh weight loss (range: 81

  11. Changing sediment budget of the Mekong: Cumulative threats and management strategies for a large river basin. (United States)

    Kondolf, G Mathias; Schmitt, Rafael J P; Carling, Paul; Darby, Steve; Arias, Mauricio; Bizzi, Simone; Castelletti, Andrea; Cochrane, Thomas A; Gibson, Stanford; Kummu, Matti; Oeurng, Chantha; Rubin, Zan; Wild, Thomas


    Two decades after the construction of the first major dam, the Mekong basin and its six riparian countries have seen rapid economic growth and development of the river system. Hydropower dams, aggregate mines, flood-control dykes, and groundwater-irrigated agriculture have all provided short-term economic benefits throughout the basin. However, it is becoming evident that anthropic changes are significantly affecting the natural functioning of the river and its floodplains. We now ask if these changes are risking major adverse impacts for the 70 million people living in the Mekong Basin. Many livelihoods in the basin depend on ecosystem services that will be strongly impacted by alterations of the sediment transport processes that drive river and delta morpho-dynamics, which underpin a sustainable future for the Mekong basin and Delta. Drawing upon ongoing and recently published research, we provide an overview of key drivers of change (hydropower development, sand mining, dyking and water infrastructures, climate change, and accelerated subsidence from pumping) for the Mekong's sediment budget, and their likely individual and cumulative impacts on the river system. Our results quantify the degree to which the Mekong delta, which receives the impacts from the entire connected river basin, is increasingly vulnerable in the face of declining sediment loads, rising seas and subsiding land. Without concerted action, it is likely that nearly half of the Delta's land surface will be below sea level by 2100, with the remaining areas impacted by salinization and frequent flooding. The threat to the Delta can be understood only in the context of processes in the entire river basin. The Mekong River case can serve to raise awareness of how the connected functions of river systems in general depend on undisturbed sediment transport, thereby informing planning for other large river basins currently embarking on rapid economic development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Summary of Radiological Monitoring of Columbia and Snake River Sediment, 1988 Through 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Gregory W.; Dirkes, Roger L.


    From 1988 through 2004, samples of upper-layer sediments from the Columbia River and Snake River were collected under the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project to document concentrations and trends of radionuclides. Low concentrations of potassium-40, cesium-137, uranium isotopes, and plutonium isotopes were detected consistently in sediment samples over the entire sampling period. The concentrations of most radionuclides were similar to values measured upstream of the Hanford Site behind Priest Rapids Dam. For all locations, the concentrations of radionuclides in sediment samples from the Columbia and Snake rivers were below concentrations that would result in a 1-mrem effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical exposed individual using a shoreline exposure scenario (i.e., 500 hr/yr of external dose). The DOE limit for public exposure is 100 mrem/yr.

  13. Aeolian sedimentation in the middle buntsandstein in the eifel north-south depression zone: Summary of the variability of sedimentary processes in a buntsandstein erg as a base for evaluation of the mutual relationships between aeolian sand seas and fluvial river systems in the mid-european buntsandstein (United States)

    Mader, Detlef

    The spectrum of aeolian depositional subenvironments in the upper Middle Buntsandstein Karlstal-Schichten sequence in the Eifel North-South-zone at the western margin of the Mid-European Triassic Basin comprises trains of larger and higher narrowly-spaced dunes in sand seas, isolated smaller and lower widely-spaced dunes in floodplains and interdune playas, dry interdune sheet sands, damp interdune adhesive sandflats, wet interdune playa lakes, rainfall runoff watercourses and ephemeral channels cutting through the dune belt, and deflation gravel lag veneers. Distinction of aeolian and fluvial sediments within the succession of closely intertonguing wind- and water-laid deposits is possible by independent analysis of the conventional criteria and the more modern stratification styles. Thick cross-bedded aeolian sand sequences originate as barchanoid-type dunes which accumulate and migrate in the regime of narrow to wide unimodal southeasterly to southwesterly trade winds in low northern palaeolatitude in summer when the intertropical convergence zone is shifted to the north. The predominantly transverse-ridge dunes accrete mainly by grainfall and subcritical climbing of wind ripples, subordinately also by grainflow interfingering with grainfall. Horizontal-laminated aeolian sands form as sand sheets in dry interdune playas by subcritical migration of wind ripple trains, rarely also by plane bed accretion. Thin cross-bedded dune sands or horizontal-laminated aeolian sands capping fluvial cyclothems originate by deflation of emerged alluvial bar sands during low-water stages and subsequent accumulation of the winnowed sand as widely-spaced dunelets or chains of wind ripples in desiccated parts of the adjoining floodplain. The aeolian sand layers at the base of lacustrine cyclothems record migration of isolated little dunes across the dry playa floor at the beginning of a wetting-upwards cyclothem, with the sand deriving from deflation of fluvial incursions or

  14. Suspended sediment, turbidity, and stream water temperature in the Sauk River Basin, western Washington, water years 2012-16 (United States)

    Jaeger, Kristin L.; Curran, Christopher A.; Anderson, Scott W.; Morris, Scott T.; Moran, Patrick W.; Reams, Katherine A.


    The Sauk River is a federally designated Wild and Scenic River that drains a relatively undisturbed landscape along the western slope of the North Cascade Mountain Range, Washington, which includes the glaciated volcano, Glacier Peak. Naturally high sediment loads characteristic of basins draining volcanoes like Glacier Peak make the Sauk River a dominant contributor of sediment to the downstream main stem river, the Skagit River. Additionally, the Sauk River serves as important spawning and rearing habitat for several salmonid species in the greater Skagit River system. Because of the importance of sediment to morphology, flow-conveyance, and ecosystem condition, there is interest in understanding the magnitude and timing of suspended sediment and turbidity from the Sauk River system and its principal tributaries, the White Chuck and Suiattle Rivers, to the Skagit River.Suspended-sediment measurements, turbidity data, and water temperature data were collected at two U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the upper and middle reaches of the Sauk River over a 4-year period extending from October 2011 to September 2015, and at a downstream location in the lower river for a 5-year period extending from October 2011 to September 2016. Over the collective 5-year study period, mean annual suspended-sediment loads at the three streamgages on the upper, middle, and lower Sauk River streamgages were 94,200 metric tons (t), 203,000 t, and 940,000 t streamgages, respectively. Fine (smaller than 0.0625 millimeter) total suspended-sediment load averaged 49 percent at the upper Sauk River streamgage, 42 percent at the middle Sauk River streamgage, and 34 percent at the lower Sauk River streamgage.

  15. Predicting the spatial patterns of hillslope sediment delivery to river channels in the Murrumbidgee catchment, Australia (United States)

    Verstraeten, Gert; Prosser, Ian P.; Fogarty, Peter


    SummarySediment yield data derived from long-term sedimentation rates in 26 small farm dams in SE Australia were used to calibrate a spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) that takes into account contribution from gully erosion in areas of concentrated flow. For three different land use categories (poor, moderate and good vegetative cover), a sediment transport capacity coefficient was calibrated. All other parameters being equal, it was found that sediment transport capacity for cropland is 2 times higher than for degraded pasture and 20 times higher than for native forest and good pasture. Model efficiencies for the prediction of specific and total sediment yield are 0.56 and 0.89, respectively. These model efficiencies are much higher compared to those obtained when intense erosion in concentrated flow areas is not considered explicitly. Several of the catchments that were used for the calibration have very high sediment yield rates, which are attributed to the presence of gullies. The good performance of WATEM/SEDEM to all catchments suggests that the model accounts well for gully erosion. Next, the calibrated WATEM/SEDEM was applied to the Murrumbidgee River basin (30,000 km 2). A mean annual sediment input into the river channels from the hillslopes of 478,000 t was predicted. The spatial pattern of hillslope-derived suspended sediment delivery in the Murrumbidgee indicates that most of the sediment originates from a few tributaries downstream of Burrinjuck Reservoir. Given the fact that high-resolution datasets (including digital elevation models) are becoming available at reasonable cost, WATEM/SEDEM provides a powerful tool to predict hillslope sediment delivery under different environments including the spatial patterns of hillslope generated sediment fluxes.

  16. Conceptual model of sediment processes in the upper Yuba River watershed, Sierra Nevada, CA (United States)

    Curtis, J.A.; Flint, L.E.; Alpers, C.N.; Yarnell, S.M.


    This study examines the development of a conceptual model of sediment processes in the upper Yuba River watershed; and we hypothesize how components of the conceptual model may be spatially distributed using a geographical information system (GIS). The conceptual model illustrates key processes controlling sediment dynamics in the upper Yuba River watershed and was tested and revised using field measurements, aerial photography, and low elevation videography. Field reconnaissance included mass wasting and channel storage inventories, assessment of annual channel change in upland tributaries, and evaluation of the relative importance of sediment sources and transport processes. Hillslope erosion rates throughout the study area are relatively low when compared to more rapidly eroding landscapes such as the Pacific Northwest and notable hillslope sediment sources include highly erodible andesitic mudflows, serpentinized ultramafics, and unvegetated hydraulic mine pits. Mass wasting dominates surface erosion on the hillslopes; however, erosion of stored channel sediment is the primary contributor to annual sediment yield. We used GIS to spatially distribute the components of the conceptual model and created hillslope erosion potential and channel storage models. The GIS models exemplify the conceptual model in that landscapes with low potential evapotranspiration, sparse vegetation, steep slopes, erodible geology and soils, and high road densities display the greatest hillslope erosion potential and channel storage increases with increasing stream order. In-channel storage in upland tributaries impacted by hydraulic mining is an exception. Reworking of stored hydraulic mining sediment in low-order tributaries continues to elevate upper Yuba River sediment yields. Finally, we propose that spatially distributing the components of a conceptual model in a GIS framework provides a guide for developing more detailed sediment budgets or numerical models making it an

  17. Conceptual model of sediment processes in the upper Yuba River watershed, Sierra Nevada, CA (United States)

    Curtis, Jennifer A.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Alpers, Charles N.; Yarnell, Sarah M.


    This study examines the development of a conceptual model of sediment processes in the upper Yuba River watershed; and we hypothesize how components of the conceptual model may be spatially distributed using a geographical information system (GIS). The conceptual model illustrates key processes controlling sediment dynamics in the upper Yuba River watershed and was tested and revised using field measurements, aerial photography, and low elevation videography. Field reconnaissance included mass wasting and channel storage inventories, assessment of annual channel change in upland tributaries, and evaluation of the relative importance of sediment sources and transport processes. Hillslope erosion rates throughout the study area are relatively low when compared to more rapidly eroding landscapes such as the Pacific Northwest and notable hillslope sediment sources include highly erodible andesitic mudflows, serpentinized ultramafics, and unvegetated hydraulic mine pits. Mass wasting dominates surface erosion on the hillslopes; however, erosion of stored channel sediment is the primary contributor to annual sediment yield. We used GIS to spatially distribute the components of the conceptual model and created hillslope erosion potential and channel storage models. The GIS models exemplify the conceptual model in that landscapes with low potential evapotranspiration, sparse vegetation, steep slopes, erodible geology and soils, and high road densities display the greatest hillslope erosion potential and channel storage increases with increasing stream order. In-channel storage in upland tributaries impacted by hydraulic mining is an exception. Reworking of stored hydraulic mining sediment in low-order tributaries continues to elevate upper Yuba River sediment yields. Finally, we propose that spatially distributing the components of a conceptual model in a GIS framework provides a guide for developing more detailed sediment budgets or numerical models making it an

  18. Particle size distribution of main-channel-bed sediments along the upper Mississippi River, USA (United States)

    Remo, Jonathan; Heine, Ruben A.; Ickes, Brian


    In this study, we compared pre-lock-and-dam (ca. 1925) with a modern longitudinal survey of main-channel-bed sediments along a 740-km segment of the upper Mississippi River (UMR) between Davenport, IA, and Cairo, IL. This comparison was undertaken to gain a better understanding of how bed sediments are distributed longitudinally and to assess change since the completion of the UMR lock and dam navigation system and Missouri River dams (i.e., mid-twentieth century). The comparison of the historic and modern longitudinal bed sediment surveys showed similar bed sediment sizes and distributions along the study segment with the majority (> 90%) of bed sediment samples having a median diameter (D50) of fine to coarse sand. The fine tail (≤ D10) of the sediment size distributions was very fine to medium sand, and the coarse tail (≥ D90) of sediment-size distribution was coarse sand to gravel. Coarsest sediments in both surveys were found within or immediately downstream of bedrock-floored reaches. Statistical analysis revealed that the particle-size distributions between the survey samples were statistically identical, suggesting no overall difference in main-channel-bed sediment-size distribution between 1925 and present. This was a surprising result given the magnitude of river engineering undertaken along the study segment over the past ~ 90 years. The absence of substantial differences in main-channel-bed-sediment size suggests that flow competencies within the highly engineered navigation channel today are similar to conditions within the less-engineered historic channel.

  19. Do predator-prey relationships on the river bed affect fine sediment ingress? (United States)

    Mathers, Kate; Rice, Stephen; Wood, Paul


    Ecosystem engineers are organisms that alter their physical environment and thereby influence the flow of resources through ecosystems. In rivers, several ecosystem engineers are also important geomorphological agents that modify fluvial sediment dynamics. By altering channel morphology and bed material characteristics, such modifications can affect the availability of habitats for other organisms, with implications for ecosystem health and wider community composition. In this way geomorphological and ecological systems are intimately interconnected. This paper focuses on one element of this intricate abiotic-biotic coupling: the interaction between fine sediment ingress into the river bed and the predator-prey relationships of aquatic organisms living on and in the river bed. Signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) have been shown to modify fine sediment fluxes in rivers, but their effect on fine sediment ingress into riverbeds remains unclear. Many macroinvertebrate taxa have adapted avoidance strategies to avoid predation by crayfish, with one example being the freshwater shrimp (Gammarus pulex) which relies on open interstitial spaces within subsurface sediments as a refuge from crayfish predation. Fine sedimentation that fills gravelly frameworks may preclude access to those spaces, therefore leaving freshwater shrimp susceptible to predation. Ex-situ experiments were conducted which sought to examine: i) if freshwater shrimps and signal crayfish, alone and in combination, influenced fine sediment infiltration rates; and ii) whether modifications to substratum composition, specifically the introduction of fine sediment, modified predator-prey interactions. The results demonstrate that crayfish are significant geomorphic agents and that fine sediment ingress rates were significantly enhanced in their presence compared to control conditions or the presence of only freshwater shrimps. The combination of both organisms (i.e. allowing the interaction between

  20. Modelling suspended sediment distribution in the Selenga River Delta using LandSat data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Chalov


    Full Text Available The Selenga River is the largest tributary of Baikal Lake and it's delta covers around 600 km2. Suspended sediment concentrations (SSC in the Selenga river delta were modelled based on LandSat images data. The seasonal variability in suspended sediment retention during the period 1989 to 2015 was calculated. The results suggest that sediment storage in the Selenga delta is observed during high discharges (> 1500 m3 s−1, whereas sediment export increases under lower flow conditions (< 1500 m3 s−1. The changes in seasonal SSC patterns are explained by wetland inundation during floods and channel erosion or Baikal wind surge during low flow periods.

  1. Loess Plateau storage of Northeastern Tibetan Plateau-derived Yellow River sediment. (United States)

    Nie, Junsheng; Stevens, Thomas; Rittner, Martin; Stockli, Daniel; Garzanti, Eduardo; Limonta, Mara; Bird, Anna; Andò, Sergio; Vermeesch, Pieter; Saylor, Joel; Lu, Huayu; Breecker, Daniel; Hu, Xiaofei; Liu, Shanpin; Resentini, Alberto; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Peng, Wenbin; Carter, Andrew; Ji, Shunchuan; Pan, Baotian


    Marine accumulations of terrigenous sediment are widely assumed to accurately record climatic- and tectonic-controlled mountain denudation and play an important role in understanding late Cenozoic mountain uplift and global cooling. Underpinning this is the assumption that the majority of sediment eroded from hinterland orogenic belts is transported to and ultimately stored in marine basins with little lag between erosion and deposition. Here we use a detailed and multi-technique sedimentary provenance dataset from the Yellow River to show that substantial amounts of sediment eroded from Northeast Tibet and carried by the river's upper reach are stored in the Chinese Loess Plateau and the western Mu Us desert. This finding revises our understanding of the origin of the Chinese Loess Plateau and provides a potential solution for mismatches between late Cenozoic terrestrial sedimentation and marine geochemistry records, as well as between global CO2 and erosion records.

  2. Conceptual model of sedimentation in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.; Wright, Scott A.; Drexler, Judith Z.


    Sedimentation in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta builds the Delta landscape, creates benthic and pelagic habitat, and transports sediment-associated contaminants. Here we present a conceptual model of sedimentation that includes submodels for river supply from the watershed to the Delta, regional transport within the Delta and seaward exchange, and local sedimentation in open water and marsh habitats. The model demonstrates feedback loops that affect the Delta ecosystem. Submerged and emergent marsh vegetation act as ecosystem engineers that can create a positive feedback loop by decreasing suspended sediment, increasing water column light, which in turn enables more vegetation. Sea-level rise in open water is partially countered by a negative feedback loop that increases deposition if there is a net decrease in hydrodynamic energy. Manipulation of regional sediment transport is probably the most feasible method to control suspended sediment and thus turbidity. The conceptual model is used to identify information gaps that need to be filled to develop an accurate sediment transport model.

  3. Influence of Wastewater Discharge on the Metabolic Potential of the Microbial Community in River Sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong


    To reveal the variation of microbial community functions during water filtration process in river sediments, which has been utilized widely in natural water treatment systems, this study investigates the influence of municipal wastewater discharge to streams on the phylotype and metabolic potential of the microbiome in upstream and particularly various depths of downstream river sediments. Cluster analyses based on both microbial phylogenetic and functional data collectively revealed that shallow upstream sediments grouped with those from deeper subsurface downstream regions. These sediment samples were distinct from those found in shallow downstream sediments. Functional genes associated with carbohydrate, xenobiotic, and certain amino acid metabolisms were overrepresented in upstream and deep downstream samples. In contrast, the more immediate contact with wastewater discharge in shallow downstream samples resulted in an increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen, sulfur, purine and pyrimidine metabolisms, as well as restriction–modification systems. More diverse bacterial phyla were associated with upstream and deep downstream sediments, mainly including Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Firmicutes. In contrast, in shallow downstream sediments, genera affiliated with Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were enriched with putative functions that included ammonia and sulfur oxidation, polyphosphate accumulation, and methylotrophic bacteria. Collectively, these results highlight the enhanced capabilities of microbial communities residing in deeper stream sediments for the transformation of water contaminants and thus provide a foundation for better design of natural water treatment systems to further improve the removal of contaminants. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  4. The influence of macrophytes on sedimentation and nutrient retention in the lower River Spree (Germany). (United States)

    Schulz, Marcus; Kozerski, Hans-Peter; Pluntke, Thomas; Rinke, Karina


    Nutrient retention due to sedimentation in running waters has been little studied. The knowledge about the processes of self-purification is important for the management of rivers. The principal aim of our investigations was to quantify nutrient retention by sedimentation within and adjacent to stands of submerged macrophytes. In addition, we examined the relationship between deposition and sedimentation patterns and the flow regime. In the summer of 2001, investigations were performed in the lower River Spree with sediment traps and sediment cores and measurement of flow velocities. The spatial distribution of macrophytes was described and related to sedimentation and flow patterns. Water and sediment samples were analysed for total phosphorus and total organic nitrogen concentrations. Macrophytes significantly enhanced water residence time by factors between 2 and 18. Trapping rates were high within and downstream of macrophyte stands due to the prevailing quiescent conditions. Trapping rates were low in regions not covered by macrophytes, where flow velocities were high. Calculated deposition of organic matter due to trapping rates accounted for 15-49% of observed deposition between May and September, the vegetation period. The difference between calculated and observed deposition can partly be attributed to an incomplete erosion of the organic sediments between October and April. Between May and September, nitrogen and phosphorus were retained by deposition by as much as 2.5% and 12.2%, respectively (% of total load). Therefore, macrophytes considerably contributed to total monthly phosphorus retention (up to 25%) by increasing deposition of particulate organic matter.

  5. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor) (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Sileo, L.


    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for six weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, to estimate the sediment?s toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses were detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies, but these elements did not accumulate in the livers of the treated swans and probably were not readily available in the sediment. Although ingestion of the Anacostia River sediment caused subtle toxicological effects in swans, we concluded from pathological examinations and weight data that the treated swans remained basically healthy.

  6. Suspended-sediment rating curve response to urbanization and wildfire, Santa Ana River, California (United States)

    Warrick, J.A.; Rubin, D.M.


    River suspended-sediment concentrations provide insights to the erosion and transport of materials from a landscape, and changes in concentrations with time may result from landscape processes or human disturbance. Here we show that suspended-sediment concentrations in the Santa Ana River, California, decreased 20-fold with respect to discharge during a 34-year period (1968−2001). These decreases cannot be attributed to changes in sampling technique or timing, nor to event or seasonal hysteresis. Annual peak and total discharge, however, reveal sixfold increases over the 34-year record, which largely explain the decreases in sediment concentration by a nonlinear dilution process. The hydrological changes were related to the widespread urbanization of the watershed, which resulted in increases in storm water discharge without detectable alteration of sediment discharge, thus reducing suspended-sediment concentrations. Periodic upland wildfire significantly increased water discharge, sediment discharge, and suspended-sediment concentrations and thus further altered the rating curve with time. Our results suggest that previous inventories of southern California sediment flux, which assume time-constant rating curves and extend these curves beyond the sampling history, may have substantially overestimated loads during the most recent decades.

  7. Ecotoxicological assessment of water and sediment of the Corumbataí River, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM. Jardim

    Full Text Available The Corumbataí River drains an economically important area which is mainly represented by the municipalities of Piracicaba and Rio Claro. In view of the impacts caused by the discharge of industrial waste and domestic sewage into the Piracicaba River, the Corumbataí has become increasingly significant as a source of water for the municipality of Piracicaba. However, chemical, physical, and microbiological analyses carried out prior to the present study had already indicated a decline in the quality of the Corumbataí waters. This study aimed to assess, through water and sediment samples, both acute and chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna and Daphnia similis, and to analyze acid-volatile sulfide (AVS and simultaneously extracted metal (SEM in the sediment. Resulting data were intended to be a contribution to future projects for the management and recuperation of this system. To that aim, water and sediment were collected at seven Corumbataí sampling stations in November 2003 and March 2004. Acute toxicity to D. similis was detected in water and sediment samples from the Piracicaba station, located at the mouth of the Corumbataí River. Chronic toxicity was identified in the water or sediment samples of all stations, with the exception of Analândia Montante (upstream, at the head of the river. This was found to affect survival, growth, and fecundity of the test-organisms. The AVS and SEM analyses showed the bioavailability of the metals, thus explaining toxicity found in bioassaying samples of water and sediment. The use of two test-organism species made it possible to obtain a better assessment of the condition of both water and sediment samples of the Corumbataí River.

  8. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China (United States)

    Wu, Yping; Chen, Ji


    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide.

  9. Characteristics of sediment data and annual suspended-sediment loads and yields for selected lower Missouri River mainstem and tributary stations, 1976-2008 (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Cline, Teri L.; Pigue, Lori M.; Wagner, Holly R.


    Suspended-sediment data from 18 selected surface-water monitoring stations in the lower Missouri River Basin downstream from Gavins Point Dam were used in the computation of annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads for 1976 through 2008. Three methods of suspended-sediment load determination were utilized and these included the subdivision method, regression of instantaneous turbidity with suspended-sediment concentrations at selected stations, and regression techniques using the Load Estimator (LOADEST) software. Characteristics of the suspended-sediment and streamflow data collected at the 18 monitoring stations and the tabulated annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads and yields are presented.

  10. Heavy metal concentrations in Bottom Sediments of Ikpoba River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 23, 2014 ... Much of the land is also exposed to agricultural activities and municipal waste. Industrial wastes and water from drainage channel are discharged into the river at several points. Sampling Stations : Samples were collected from five different stations along the course of the river with a grab. Station 1 was ...

  11. Analysis of Sedimentation in the Guayas River at Guayaquil, Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrera Crespo, P.; Becker, A; Ottevanger, W.; Nabi, M.; Giardino, A; de Keizer, O; Arias, M; Sanchez, D.; Pazmiño Nelson, N.; Mosselman, E.


    The Equatorian Daule and Babahoyo rivers combine into the tidal Guayas River with the largest estuary on the Pacific coast of South America. The city of Guayaquil, located along the Guayas, is the main port of Ecuador but at the same time the planet’s fourth most vulnerable city for future flooding

  12. Analysis of Sedimentation in the Guayas River at Guayaquil, Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrera Crespo, P.; Becker, A; Ottevanger, W.; Nabi, M.; Giardino, A; de Keizer, O; Arias Hidalgo, M.E.; Sanchez, D.; Mosselman, E.; Pazmiño Nelson, N.


    The Equatorian Daule and Babahoyo rivers combine into the tidal Guayas River with the largest estuary on the Pacific coast of South America. The city of Guayaquil, located along the Guayas, is the main port of Ecuador but at the same time the planet’s fourth most vulnerable city for future flooding

  13. Holocene Erosion Patterns in European Alps Viewed from Lake Sediment (United States)

    Arnaud, F.; Poulenard, J.; Giguet-Covex, C.; Wilhelm, B.; Revillon, S.; Jenny, J. P.; Revel, M.; Enters, D.; Bajard, M.; Fouinat, L.; Doyen, E.; Simonneau, A.; Chapron, E.; Vannière, B.; Sabatier, P.


    In this paper we review the scientific efforts that were led over the last decades to reconstruct erosion from continuous alpine lake sediment records. Whereas most available geological records of Holocene terrigenous input focused in climate we propose a regional approach without any a priori regarding erosion forcing factors. In that aim, we integrated a set of sediment sequences from various environment along an altitudinal gradient from 200 up to 2400m asl in Northern French Alps. Altogether our data point climate change as one of the main factor of erosion variability. In particular, the last two cold spells that occurred during the early middle age (Dark Age) and between the 14th and the 20th century AD (Little Ice Age) appear to be outstanding compared to any other periods of enhanced erosion along the Holocene. The climatic forcing of those erosion phases is supported by an increase in the contribution of glacier-eroded material at a regional scale. However, at local scales, our data point the growing importance, since at least the mid Bronze Age (ca. 3500 cal. BP) of human activities as a major erosion factor. This influence peaked during the late Iron Age and Antiquity periods (200 BC - 400 AD) when we record a regional generalised period of enhanced erosion in response to the development of pasturing activities. Thanks to provenance and weathering markers, we evidenced a strong relationship between the changes in ecosystems, soil development and erosion patterns. We hence showed the vegetal colonisation of bared soil led to a period of intense weathering while new soils were under formation between 11,000 and 8,000 cal. BP. Soils then knew an optimum until the onset of the Neoglacial at ca. 4,500 cal. BP prior to decline under both climate and human pressures. Altogether our data point the complexity of processes that affected the Earth critical zone along the Holocene and especially since humans became a major geologic agent. However, we highlight the

  14. Global Overview On Delivery Of Sediment To The Coast From Tropical River Basins (United States)

    Syvitski, J. P.; Kettner, A. J.; Brakenridge, G. R.


    Depending on definition, the tropics occupy between 16% and 19% of the earth's land surface, and discharge ~18.5% of the earth's fluvial water runoff. These flow regimes are driven by three types of sub-regional climate: rainforest, monsoon, and savannah. Even though the tropics include extreme precipitation events, particularly for the SE Asian islands, the general rainfall pattern alternates between wet and dry seasons as the ITCZ follows the sun and where annual monsoonal rain occurs. ITCZ convective rainfall is the dominant style of precipitation but this can be influenced by rare intra-tropical cyclone events, and by atmospheric river events set up by strong monsoonal conditions. Though a rainy season is normal (for example, portions of India discharge in summer may reach 50 times that of winter), the actual rainfall events are in the form of short bursts of precipitation (hours to days) separated by periods of dry (hours to weeks). Some areas of the tropics receive more than 100 thunderstorms per year. Rivers respond to this punctuated weather by seasonal flooding. For the smaller island nations and locales (e.g. Indonesia, Philippines, Borneo, Hainan, PNG, Madagascar, Hawaii, Taiwan) flash floods are common. Larger tropical river systems (Niger, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Congo, Amazon, Orinoco, Magdalena) show typical seasonally modulated discharges. The sediment flux from tropical rivers is approximately 17% to 19% of the global total - however individual river basins offer a wide range in sediment yields reflecting highly variable differences in their hinterland lithology, tectonic activity and volcanism, land-sliding, and relief. Human influences also greatly influence the range for tropical river sediment yield. Some SE Asian Rivers continue to be greatly affected by deforestation, road construction, and monoculture plantations. Sediment flux is more than twice the pre-Anthropocene flux in many of these SE Asian countries, especially where dams and reservoir

  15. The impact of oil seepages and municipal wastewaters on Tembi River sediments, Masjedsoleyman (SW Iran) (United States)

    Bavarsad, Zeynab; Moore, Farid; Modaberi, Soroush; Hessam, Alireza


    Oil seepage in Masjedsoleyman oil-producing region and urban and industrial effluents discharge into the main stream of Masjedsoleyman and eventually into Tembi River has polluted this river. The water of Masjedsoleyman main stream is used for livestock drinking and Tembi River is famous as a tourist site and camping. In this study, ten sampling stations were chosen along the main stream of Masjed¬soleyman and Tembi River. Heavy metal concentrations (Zn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Fe), carbonate content, texture, pH, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), total organic carbon (TOC) and free hydrocarbon(S1) in sediments samples were analyzed using ICP-MS, GC-MS and Rockeval 6. In order to determine the most important transporting phase in the sediment, Tessier sequential extraction is used. Correlation between metals and petroleum hydrocarbon and physical properties of sediment, probable source and spread of pollution are discussed. The concentration of contaminants is compared with threshold effect concentration (TEC) and probable effect concentration (PEC). Contamination factor (CF) has been calculated to assess the degree of pollution in sediments. Enrichment factors illustrate maximum enrichment of metals in sediments of Dare Khersan of Masjedsoleyman stream. Sequential extraction analysis shows iron, chrome, copper and zinc accumulate mainly in residual phase. In the majority of sediment Pb occurs in the organic fraction. Cd in sediments appears mainly in the exchangeable fraction, followed by the Fe-Mn oxides and residual fractions. The bioavailability of heavy metals decrease as Cd> Ni> Co> Pb> Cr> Zn> Cu> Fe. This study shows that the major source of heavy metals is the discharge of municipal sewage but the source of Ni is the oil seepages. Comparing the heavy metal concentrations with the consensus-based TEC and PEC values revealed that some metals such as Cd, Cr, Ni and Zn in some sediment samples are higher than both TEC and PEC, values

  16. Toward a Holistic and Risk-Based Management of European River Basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brack, W.; Apitz, S.E.; Borchardt, D.; Brils, J.; Cardos, A.C.; Foekema, E.M.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.


    EDITOR'S NOTE: This is 1 of 12 papers prepared by participants attending the workshop ¿Risk Assessment in European River Basins¿State of the Art and Future Challenges¿ held in Liepzig, Germany on 12¿14 November 2007. The meeting was organized within the framework of the European Commission's

  17. Metal concentrations of river water and sediments in West Java, Indonesia. (United States)

    Yasuda, Masaomi; Yustiawati; Syawal, M Suhaemi; Sikder, Md Tajuddin; Hosokawa, Toshiyuki; Saito, Takeshi; Tanaka, Shunitz; Kurasaki, Masaaki


    To determine the water environment and pollutants in West Java, the contents of metals and general water quality of the Ciliwung River in the Jakarta area were measured. High Escherichia coli number (116-149/mL) was detected downstream in the Ciliwung River. In addition to evaluate mercury pollution caused by gold mining, mercury contents of water and sediment samples from the Cikaniki River, and from paddy samples were determined. The water was not badly polluted. However, toxic metals such as mercury were detected at levels close to the baseline environmental standard of Indonesia (0.83-1.07 μg/g of sediments in the Cikaniki River). From analyses of the paddy samples (0.08 μg/g), it is considered that there is a health risk caused by mercury.

  18. Recent changes of suspended sediment yields in the Upper Yangtze River and its headwater tributaries (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Tang, Q.; Long, Y.; He, X.; Wen, A.


    Suspended sediment yields in the Upper Yangtze River and its four headwater tributaries (i.e. Jinsha, Min, Jialing and Wu) have declined significantly during recent decades. Compared with 1956-1970, mean annual suspended sediment yield during 2001-2011 was reduced by 84% in the Upper Yangtze River at Yichang, by 34% in the Jinsha at Pingshan, by 84% in the Jialing at Beibei, by 75% in the Wu at Wulong, and by 48% in the Min at Gaochang. Linking these observed decadal changes of runoff discharge and suspended sediment load to dam construction and multiple environmental rehabilitation projects (e.g. soil-water conservation, reforestation) during the past decades, it can be concluded that the construction of large dams on the main stem and major tributaries of the Upper Yangtze River has played a principal role in the reduction of fluvial suspended sediment yields, while the environment rehabilitation projects may make limited contributions to the changes in suspended sediment yields, except for the Jialing River.

  19. Recent changes of suspended sediment yields in the Upper Yangtze River and its headwater tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang


    Full Text Available Suspended sediment yields in the Upper Yangtze River and its four headwater tributaries (i.e. Jinsha, Min, Jialing and Wu have declined significantly during recent decades. Compared with 1956–1970, mean annual suspended sediment yield during 2001–2011 was reduced by 84% in the Upper Yangtze River at Yichang, by 34% in the Jinsha at Pingshan, by 84% in the Jialing at Beibei, by 75% in the Wu at Wulong, and by 48% in the Min at Gaochang. Linking these observed decadal changes of runoff discharge and suspended sediment load to dam construction and multiple environmental rehabilitation projects (e.g. soil-water conservation, reforestation during the past decades, it can be concluded that the construction of large dams on the main stem and major tributaries of the Upper Yangtze River has played a principal role in the reduction of fluvial suspended sediment yields, while the environment rehabilitation projects may make limited contributions to the changes in suspended sediment yields, except for the Jialing River.

  20. What is the amount of mercury accumulated in the Idrijca River overbank sediments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorazd Žibret


    Full Text Available Part of mine tailings and roasted ore remains of the Idrija mercury mine was deposited in the bed of the Idrijca River that transported the load downstream at high waters. It was deposited in alluvial sediments of the Idrijca and Soča Rivers, and in the Trieste Bay,essentially contributing to mercury pollution of environment. The goal of the reported research was to estimate the mercury amount accumulated in the Idrijca alluvial deposits.This was attained by multiplying the mercury contents in sediments by their weight. For calculation of this amount the Idrijca Holocene sediments in the terrace systems from Idrija to confluence of Bača river into it were mapped. For assessing the spatial distributionof mercury contents in sediments the alluvial floodplains were sampled according to an analysis-of-variance sampling design. This was important for establishing the amounts of mercury also in alluvial deposits that were not sampled. The analysis of varianceindicated the mercury contents in alluvium to be the most dependent upon the position of the material within the alluvial plain, i.e. either on the most polluted floodplain, on the first or on some higher terrace. By considering this indication and the mapping resultswe estimated the amount of mercury accumulated in the Idrijca river alluvial sediments from Idrija to the confluence of Bača at 2029 tons.

  1. Surface and near surface sediments from the continental shelf off the Russian River northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirpolat, S.


    The results of sediment texture, probability plots, seismic reflection profiles and selected heavy mineral analysis suggest that there are two basic kinds of detrital sediment deposits over the study area: modern and relict. Modern sediment deposits consists mostly of sand on the inner shelf and silt and clay on the mid-shelf. The silt and clay deposits pinch out toward the outer shelf, where there is relict detrital sand with some authigenic glauconite. The important heavy minerals of the sand fraction for detecting sediment dispersal patterns are biotite, glaucophane and glauconite. Biotite is abundant in the southern portion of the study area and decreases in abundance northward and offshore. Glaucophane is abundant close to Russian River mouth, decreasing in abundance southward. Glauconite is abundant on the outer shelf, decreasing in abundance southward and landward. There are two sources for the modern sediment in the inner and mid-shelves: the Russian River discharge, and the erosion of coastal material, particularly from beaches, headlands and cliffs in the southern portion of the area. The Russian River sand is being deposited in the inner shelf between Salt Point to the north and Bodega Head to the south. The Russian River silt and clay are confined to the mid-shelf. Some of this silt and clay is being transported into Bodega Submarine Canyon. The coastal material is eroded in the southern part of the area and is transported northward and seaward into the canyon.

  2. Iron mineralogy as a fingerprint of former steelmaking activities in river sediments. (United States)

    Kanbar, Hussein Jaafar; Montargès-Pelletier, Emmanuelle; Losson, Benoit; Bihannic, Isabelle; Gley, Renaud; Bauer, Allan; Villieras, Frederic; Manceau, Luc; El Samrani, Antoine G; Kazpard, Veronique; Mansuy-Huault, Laurence


    Submerged sediment cores were collected upstream of a dam in the Orne River, northeastern France. This dam was built in the context of steelmaking to constitute a water reservoir for blast furnace cooling and wet cleaning of furnace smokes. The dam also enhanced sediment deposition in the upstream zone. This study was performed to unravel the contamination status of sediments and to evidence possible contribution sources. The sediment layers were analyzed for water content, grain size, chemical composition, crystalline phases at a bulk scale and poorly crystalline and amorphous phases at a sub-micrometer scale. Visual aspect, texture, color, and chemical and mineralogical analyses showed that the settled sediments were mainly composed of fine black matter, certainly comprising steelmaking by-products. Those materials were highly enriched with Fe, Zn, Pb and other trace metals, except for a relatively thin layer of surficial sediments that had settled more recently. Bulk mineralogy revealed crystalline iron minerals, such as magnetite, goethite, wuestite and pyrite, in the deep layers of the sediment cores. Furthermore, microscopic investigations evidenced the presence of ferrospheres, goethite nanoparticles and newly formed Fe-aluminosilicates; all originating from the former steelmaking facilities. The variation of iron mineralogy, combined with specific chemical profiles and other sediment features, demonstrate the different contributions that constitute the sediment deposit. Furthermore, chemical and mineralogical features of goethite and Fe-aluminosilicates could be used as a fingerprint for such contaminated sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sedimentation rates in Atibaia River basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using {sup 210}Pb as geochronometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaris, T.P.P. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bonotto, D.M., E-mail: [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    The constant initial concentration (CIC) of unsupported/excess {sup 210}Pb model was successfully used to assess {sup 210}Pb data of nine sediment cores from Atibaia River basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The {sup 210}Pb-based apparent sediment mass accumulation rates ranged from 47.7 to 782.4 mg/cm{sup 2} yr, whereas the average linear sedimentation rates between 0.16 and 1.32 cm/yr, which are compatible with the calculated sediment mass fluxes, i.e. a higher sediment mass accumulation rate yielded a higher linear sedimentation rate. The higher long-term based accumulation rate tended to be found in topographically softer regions. This occurs because the sediments are preferentially transported in topographically steeper regions instead of being deposited. Anthropic activities like deforestation possibly interfered with the natural/normal sedimentation processes, which increased in accordance with modifications on the channel drainage. The radionuclide geochronology as described in this paper allows determination of sedimentation rates that are compatible with values estimated elsewhere. The adoption of an appropriate factor generated from previous laboratory experiments resulted in a successful correction for the {sup 222}Rn-loss from the sediments, bringing the estimate of the parent-supported (in-situ produced) {sup 210}Pb to reliable values required by the CIC model.

  4. Actinides and other radionuclides in sediments and submerged plants of the Yenisei River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolsunovsky, A. [Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)], E-mail:; Bondareva, L. [Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)


    The source of radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River floodplain, including contamination with actinides, is the Mining-and-Chemical combine (MCC), which has for many years been producing weapons-grade plutonium. Actinides have been detected not only in the soil and sediment of the river but also in the biomass of aquatic plants. The aim of our investigation was to assess the levels of actinides and other radionuclides in sediments and aquatic plants both near the MCC and at a considerable distance from it, down the Yenisei River. Investigations of the Yenisei River sediment samples revealed high activity concentrations of actinides (Pu isotopes and {sup 241}Am), which were 100 times higher than their global fallout levels. Sequential extraction of radionuclides from samples of sediments collected near the MCC showed that the amounts of extracted {sup 241}Am were the largest (up to 98% of initial activity). It was found that aquatic plants of the Yenisei River collected both near the MCC discharge site and at a distance up to 200 km downstream contained several actinide isotopes. The aquatic moss, Fontinalis antipyretica, was found to contain higher levels of radionuclides than Potamogeton lucens. Leaves of P. lucens contained higher levels of radionuclides, including {sup 239}Np, than stems. Sequential extraction of radionuclides from samples of aquatic plants showed that {sup 239}Np levels in exchangeable and adsorption fractions of P. lucens biomass were higher than in the respective fractions of F. antipyretica biomass.

  5. The role of Lake Dongting in regulating the sediment budget of the Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-bao Dai


    Full Text Available Lake Dongting, the second largest freshwater lake in China and located in the middle reaches of the River Yangtze catchment, was formed at the beginning of the Holocene period by sea level rise and has varied in size with changes in local weather patterns. The sedimentation rate in Lake Dongting during the Holocene is about 50×106 m3 yr-1, or 80×106 t yr-1 (a sand bulk density of 1.6×103 kg m-3, given the sediment deposition rate as 10 mm yr-1 and the average lake size as 5000 km2. By comparing the sediment import and export, it is estimated that the sediment deposition rate of Lake Dongting was 110.6×106 t yr-1 from 1956 to 2003. Siltation and raised embankments reduced the size of the lake and its capacity to accommodate floods. The sediment delivery ratio (SDR of the middle and lower Yangtze is about 0.92 (total sediment output divided by total sediment input given that the total sediment supply into the middle and lower Yangtze is 455.1×106 t yr-1 and the total sediment discharge into the sea is 419×106 t yr-1. Therefore, if it were not for Lake Dongting, the sediment flux at Datong would be 73.6×106 t yr-1 (80×106 t yr-1×0.92 more, an increase of 27% during the Holocene and an increase of 26% to 101.75×106 t yr-1 from 1956 to 2003. Historically, Lake Dongting had a considerable influence in regulating the sediment budget of the Yangtze. However, afforestation and the construction of large dams, such as the Three Gorges Dam, reduced significantly the sediment deposition in Lake Dongting. In 2003, the completion of the Three Gorges Dam and the subsequent impoundment of water reduced the sediment input from the Yangtze and net deposition in Lake Dongting dropped to 25% and 18% of the mean values of the historic records (1956-2003. During the same period, the amount of sediment deposited in Lake Dongting was only 10% of the sediment discharge at Datong. The influence of the sediment deposited in Lake Dongting on the sediment flux to

  6. Runoff and Sediment Response to Cascade Hydropower Exploitation in the Middle and Lower Han River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Zhang


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of hydropower exploitation in China, changes in runoff and sediment transport have become a significant issue that cannot be neglected. In this study, the Han River was selected as a study case, where the runoff variation and changes in sediment load at the Baihe, Huangjiagang, Huangzhuang, and Xiantao stations were analyzed in different time periods. The results indicate that impact of cascade hydropower exploitation on runoff and sediment transport is significantly different even during the same time periods. After reservoir regulation, the decreasing of sediment load is faster than that of runoff. Strong positive correlation between runoff and sediment load exists during different time periods, while reservoir operation leads to different turning points at the Baihe, Huangjiagang, Huangzhuang, and Xiantao stations in the middle and lower Han River. As a key driving factor, runoff variation contributed to sediment transport with different impact index CR. The impact index CR before and after the first change point at the Baihe, Huangjiagang, Huangzhuang, and Xiantao stations is 43.35%, −3.68%, 11.17%, and 30.12%, respectively. This study helps us understand and evaluate the hydrological changes under cascade hydropower exploitation in the middle and lower Han River.

  7. Sediment trapping analysis of flood control reservoirs in Upstream Ciliwung River using SWAT Model (United States)

    Rofiq Ginanjar, Mirwan; Putra, Santosa Sandy


    The plans of Sukamahi dam and Ciawi dam construction for Jakarta flood risk reduction purpose had been proposed as feasible solutions to be implemented. However, the risk of the dam outlets clogging, caused by the sediment, is important to be anticipated. The prediction of the max sediment concentration in the reservoir is crucial for the dam operation planning. It is important to avoid the flood outlet tunnel clogging. This paper present a hydrologic sediment budget model of The Upstream Ciliwung River Basin, with flood control dam existence scenarios. The model was constructed within SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tools) plugin and run inside the QGIS framework. The free hydrological data from CFSR, soil data from FAO, and topographical data from CGIAR-CSI were implemented as the model input. The model resulted the sediment concentration dynamics of the Sukamahi and Ciawi reservoirs, on some suspended sediment parameter ranges. The sediment trapping efficiency was also computed by different possible dam capacity alternatives. The research findings will give a scientific decision making base for the river authority, in term of flood control dam planning, especially in The Upstream Ciliwung River Basin.

  8. Water and sediment temperatures at mussel beds in the upper Mississippi River basin (United States)

    Newton, Teresa J.; Sauer, Jennifer; Karns, Byron


    Native freshwater mussels are in global decline and urgently need protection and conservation. Declines in the abundance and diversity of North American mussels have been attributed to human activities that cause pollution, waterquality degradation, and habitat destruction. Recent studies suggest that effects of climate change may also endanger native mussel assemblages, as many mussel species are living close to their upper thermal tolerances. Adult and juvenile mussels spend a large fraction of their lives burrowed into sediments of rivers and lakes. Our objective was to measure surface water and sediment temperatures at known mussel beds in the Upper Mississippi (UMR) and St. Croix (SCR) rivers to estimate the potential for sediments to serve as thermal refugia. Across four mussel beds in the UMR and SCR, surface waters were generally warmer than sediments in summer, and were cooler than sediments in winter. This suggests that sediments may act as a thermal buffer for mussels in these large rivers. Although the magnitude of this effect was usually global warming, thermal discharges, water extraction, and/or droughts have the potential to adversely affect native mussel assemblages.

  9. Levels of trace metals in water and sediment from Tyume River and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of trace metals (Cd, Pb, Co, Zn Cu and Ni) were determined in water and sediment from the Tyume River. Occurrence of these metals in vegetables and soil from a nearby farmland as a result of irrigation with the river water was also investigated. Higher levels of Cd (0.038 ± 0.004 to 0.044 ± 0.003 mg/l) and Pb ...

  10. Sediment Trapping Pathways and Mechanisms through the Mekong Tidal River and Subaqueous Delta (United States)


    This research is designed to investigate sources and sinks of sediment in the tidal river and intertidal areas of the overall source-to-sink...Mangrove/Vegetated Intertidal Areas . Along the main stem tidal river and coastal banks may be shorelines lined with vegetation (mangroves at the... Intertidal Areas In the initial preliminary August 2012 experiment focused on the distributaries surrounding Cu Lao Dung Island, we scoured the

  11. Computational modeling of 137Cs contaminant transfer associated with sediment transport in Abukuma River. (United States)

    Iwasaki, T; Nabi, M; Shimizu, Y; Kimura, I


    A numerical model capable of simulating the transfer of (137)Cs in rivers associated with transport of fine sediment is presented. The accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) released radionuclides into the atmosphere, and after fallout several radionuclides in them, such as radiocesium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs) and radioiodine ((131)I) were adsorbed on surface soil particles around FDNPP and transported by surface water. To understand the transport and deposition of the radioactive contaminant along with surface soil particles and its flux to the ocean, we modeled the transport of the (137)Cs contaminant by computing the water flow and the associated washload and suspended load transport. We have developed a two-dimensional model to simulate the plane flow structure, sediment transport and associated (137)Cs contaminant transport in rivers by combining a shallow water flow model and an advection-diffusion equation for the transport of sediment. The proposed model has been applied to the lower reach of Abukuma River, which is the main river in the highly contaminated area around FDNPP. The numerical results indicate that most (137)Cs supplied from the upstream river reach with washload would directly reach to Pacific Ocean. In contrast, washload-oriented (137)Cs supplied from the upstream river basin has a limited role in the radioactive contamination in the river. The results also suggest that the proposed framework of computational model can be a potential tool for understanding the sediment-oriented (137)Cs behavior in rivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Shift in the microbial community composition of surface water and sediment along an urban river. (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Zhang, Jing; Li, Huilin; Yang, Hong; Peng, Chao; Peng, Zhengsong; Lu, Lu


    Urban rivers represent a unique ecosystem in which pollution occurs regularly, leading to significantly altered of chemical and biological characteristics of the surface water and sediments. However, the impact of urbanization on the diversity and structure of the river microbial community has not been well documented. As a major tributary of the Yangtze River, the Jialing River flows through many cities. Here, a comprehensive analysis of the spatial microbial distribution in the surface water and sediments in the Nanchong section of Jialing River and its two urban branches was conducted using 16S rRNA gene-based Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results revealed distinct differences in surface water bacterial composition along the river with a differential distribution of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria (P urban water. PICRUSt metabolic inference analysis revealed a growing number of genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and nitrogen metabolism in the urban water, indicating that urban discharges might act as the dominant selective force to alter the microbial communities. Redundancy analysis suggested that the microbial community structure was influenced by several environmental factors. TP (P urban river. These results highlight that river microbial communities exhibit spatial variation in urban areas due to the joint influence of chemical variables associated with sewage discharging and construction of hydropower stations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sediment Size Distribution at Three Rivers with Different Types of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE 4Centre for Language Studies and ... logging, agriculture, roads) and this will increase sediment supply to streams, potentially degrading .... Master Thesis, University of Tennessee. Iola Goncalves Boechat; Aparecida ...

  14. Sediment storage time in a simulated meandering river's floodplain, comparisons of point bar and overbank deposits (United States)

    Ackerman, T. R.; Pizzuto, J. E.


    Sediment may be stored briefly or for long periods in alluvial deposits adjacent to rivers. The duration of sediment storage may affect diagenesis, and controls the timing of sediment delivery, affecting the propagation of upland sediment signals caused by tectonics, climate change, and land use, and the efficacy of watershed management strategies designed to reduce sediment loading to estuaries and reservoirs. Understanding the functional form of storage time distributions can help to extrapolate from limited field observations and improve forecasts of sediment loading. We simulate stratigraphy adjacent to a modeled river where meander migration is driven by channel curvature. The basal unit is built immediately as the channel migrates away, analogous to a point bar; rules for overbank (flood) deposition create thicker deposits at low elevations and near the channel, forming topographic features analogous to natural levees, scroll bars, and terraces. Deposit age is tracked everywhere throughout the simulation, and the storage time is recorded when the channel returns and erodes the sediment at each pixel. 210 ky of simulated run time is sufficient for the channel to migrate 10,500 channel widths, but only the final 90 ky are analyzed. Storage time survivor functions are well fit by exponential functions until 500 years (point bar) or 600 years (overbank) representing the youngest 50% of eroded sediment. Then (until an age of 12 ky, representing the next 48% (point bar) or 45% (overbank) of eroding sediment), the distributions are well fit by heavy tailed power functions with slopes of -1 (point bar) and -0.75 (overbank). After 12 ky (6% of model run time) the remainder of the storage time distributions become exponential (light tailed). Point bar sediment has the greatest chance (6%) of eroding at 120 years, as the river reworks recently deposited point bars. Overbank sediment has an 8% chance of eroding after 1 time step, a chance that declines by half after 3

  15. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington, Collection of Surface Water, River Sediments, and Island Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Hulstrom


    This report has been prepared in support of the remedial investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River and describes the 2008/2009 data collection efforts. This report documents field activities associated with collection of sediment, river water, and soil in and adjacent to the Columbia River near the Hanford Site and in nearby tributaries.

  16. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from rivers of Pearl River Delta and its nearby South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.J.; Chen, S.J.; Mai, B.X.; Zeng, Y.P.; Sheng, G.Y.; Fu, J.M. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are measured in surface sediments from rivers and estuary of Pearl River Delta and its nearby South China Sea. Total PAH concentration varied from 255.9 - 16 670.3 ng/g and a moderate to low level compare to relevant areas worldwide. The PAH concentration in sediments was: highest in the rivers of the Pearl River Delta, next highest in the estuary and lowest in theSouth China Sea. The most significant PAH contamination was at Guangzhou channel of Zhujiang river. A decrease trend for PAHs concentration with distance from estuary to open sea can be sees in South China Sea. Coal and biomass combustion is the major source of PAHs in nearshore of South China Sea, and petroleum combustion is the main source of pyrolytic PAHs in rivers and estuary of Pearl River Delta according to PAHs diagnostic ratios. Petroleum PAHs are revealed have a high contribution to PAHs in Xijiang River, estuary and some stations in Zhujiang River. A comparison of data from study in 1997 with data from present study indicates that there is no clear change in the PAH concentration over time but the source of PAHs in Pearl River Delta have been change from a main coal combustion to petroleum combustion and being reflect in the sediments in rivers and estuary of Pearl River Delta where there have high sedimentation rate.

  17. Sediment deposition and sources into a Mississippi River floodplain lake; Catahoula Lake, Louisiana (United States)

    Latuso, Karen D.; Keim, Richard F.; King, Sammy L.; Weindorf, David C.; DeLaune, Ronald D.


    Floodplain lakes are important wetlands on many lowland floodplains of the world but depressional floodplain lakes are rare in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley. One of the largest is Catahoula Lake, which has existed with seasonally fluctuating water levels for several thousand years but is now in an increasingly hydrologically altered floodplain. Woody vegetation has been encroaching into the lake bed and the rate of this expansion has increased since major human hydrologic modifications, such as channelization, levee construction, and dredging for improvement of navigation, but it remains unknown what role those modifications may have played in altering lake sedimentation processes. Profiles of thirteen 137Cs sediment cores indicate sedimentation has been about 0.26 cm y− 1 over the past 60 years and has been near this rate since land use changes began about 200 years ago (210Pb, and 14C in Tedford, 2009). Carbon sequestration was low (10.4 g m− 2 y− 1), likely because annual drying promotes mineralization and export. Elemental composition (high Zr and Ti and low Ca and K) and low pH of recent (<~60 y) or surface sediments suggest Gulf Coastal Plain origin, but below the recent sediment deposits, 51% of sediment profiles showed influence of Mississippi River alluvium, rich in base cations such as K+, Ca2 +, and Mg2 +. The recent shift to dominance of Coastal Plain sediments on the lake-bed surface suggests hydrologic modification has disconnected the lake from sediment-bearing flows from the Mississippi River. Compared to its condition prior to hydrologic alterations that intensified in the 1930s, Catahoula Lake is about 15 cm shallower and surficial sediments are more acidic. Although these results are not sufficient to attribute ecological changes directly to sedimentological changes, it is likely the altered sedimentary and hydrologic environment is contributing to the increased dominance of woody vegetation.

  18. Application of dimensionless sediment rating curves to predict suspended-sediment concentrations, bedload, and annual sediment loads for rivers in Minnesota (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Groten, Joel T.; Lorenz, David L.; Koller, Karl S.


    Consistent and reliable sediment data are needed by Federal, State, and local government agencies responsible for monitoring water quality, planning river restoration, quantifying sediment budgets, and evaluating the effectiveness of sediment reduction strategies. Heightened concerns about excessive sediment in rivers and the challenge to reduce costs and eliminate data gaps has guided Federal and State interests in pursuing alternative methods for measuring suspended and bedload sediment. Simple and dependable data collection and estimation techniques are needed to generate hydraulic and water-quality information for areas where data are unavailable or difficult to collect.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, completed a study to evaluate the use of dimensionless sediment rating curves (DSRCs) to accurately predict suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs), bedload, and annual sediment loads for selected rivers and streams in Minnesota based on data collected during 2007 through 2013. This study included the application of DSRC models developed for a small group of streams located in the San Juan River Basin near Pagosa Springs in southwestern Colorado to rivers in Minnesota. Regionally based DSRC models for Minnesota also were developed and compared to DSRC models from Pagosa Springs, Colorado, to evaluate which model provided more accurate predictions of SSCs and bedload in Minnesota.Multiple measures of goodness-of-fit were developed to assess the effectiveness of DSRC models in predicting SSC and bedload for rivers in Minnesota. More than 600 dimensionless ratio values of SSC, bedload, and streamflow were evaluated and delineated according to Pfankuch stream stability categories of “good/fair” and “poor” to develop four Minnesota-based DSRC models. The basis for Pagosa Springs and Minnesota DSRC model effectiveness was founded on measures of goodness

  19. Ecological effects and chemical composition of fine sediments in Upper Austrian streams and resulting implications for river management (United States)

    Höfler, Sarah; Pichler-Scheder, Christian; Gumpinger, Clemens


    In the current scientific discussion high loads of fine sediments are considered one of the most important causes of river ecosystem degradation worldwide. Especially in intensively used catchment areas changes in the sediment household must be regarded as a reason, which prevents the achievement of the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Therefore, the Upper Austrian Water Authorities have launched two comprehensive studies on the topic. The first one was a survey on the current siltation status of river courses in Upper Austria. The second study deals with two selected catchments in detail, in order to get a clear picture of the impacts of the fines on the aquatic fauna (trout eggs, benthic invertebrates), the chemical composition of these fractions, the crucial hydrogeological processes and to develop possible role models for measures both in the catchments and in the streams. At eight sites within the two catchments sediment and water samples were collected at two dates for detailed chemical analysis. On one date additionally the benthic invertebrate fauna was investigated on the microhabitat level. Thereby it was possible to enhance the understanding of the range of ecological impacts caused by silting-up in different hydro-morphological circumstances and with different fine sediment loads. The water samples as well as the sediment fraction samples elements were analysed. Furthermore, a GIS-based analysis was carried out for the two examined catchments. The model included data gained from a digital elevation model, land use data and digital soil classification maps. This led to findings concerning the main sources and processes, which are responsible for anthropogenically induced high fine sediment loads in the streams. According to these results a GIS-based risk assessment tool for all Upper Austrian watercourses is developed, which will be used as instrument for the planning and measure implementation of the water management

  20. Sediment Transport and Channel Morphology of the Kosi River, North Bihar Plain (India) (United States)

    Gaurav, Kumar; Chauvet, Hugo; Metivier, Francois; Devauchelle, Olivier; Sinha, Rajiv


    The Kosi River of the northern Bihar plain, India and Nepal, is well-known for the frequent lateral shift of its course. In the last two centuries, it migrated more than 150 km westward (Gole and Chitale, 1966; Wells and Dorr, 1987; Sinha.R, 2008). This westward shift produced a megafan of an area about 16,000 Km2. Today the river shows a braided networks of streams of various magnitude. The large dimension of the Kosi river, its sandy bed, and its avulsive nature makes it an ideal field site to understand sediment transport in large braided rivers. We report measurements of discharge, velocity, width and depth across channels of the Kosi river within its embankment. ADCP measurements were performed during the high flow period in late July to early August 2012. First-hand analysis of the ADCP data shows order-of-magnitude variations of channel aspect ratio, discharge and velocity. We use these measurements to evaluate wether individual threads are close to the threshold for the sediment movement, and to evaluate the relationship between channel shape and discharge. This represents a first step towards the establishment of sediment budgets in a large sandy braided river.

  1. Legacy Sediments and Channel Morphology in the Feather and Yuba Rivers, California (United States)

    James, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Megison, M. E.; Singer, M. B.; Aalto, R.


    Channel aggradation and morphologic change following 19th century hydraulic gold-mining in the Sierra Nevada, California, differed substantially between the lower Feather and Yuba Rivers. These differences can be explained in part by topographic position in the Sacramento Valley but also by differences in early 20th century engineering structures and management policies. Both rivers experienced extreme aggradation by mining sediment and substantial avulsions but the timing and mechanics of channel adjustments were dissimilar, in part due to varying strategies in river-training and flood control. River engineering and management in the late 19th century identified the lower Yuba River as a repository zone where mining sediment could be sequestered to reduce deliveries to navigable rivers downstream. Levees were set back up to 4 km allowing formation of a multi-thread channel system across a broad floodplain that is now deeply buried by mining sediment. In contrast, levees along the lower Feather were given narrow spacings to encourage self-scouring of channels and promote navigability of channels. The lower Feather River drains a larger basin and has a lower gradient than the Yuba River. Construction of Fremont Weir across the mouth of the Yolo Basin raised flood levels in the lower Feather River and may have reduced transport of bed sediment. This could explain the persistence of large sand sheets at and below the Bear River confluence. Data from historical maps, topographic surveys, aerial photographs, and 1999 LiDAR swath mapping are used to document and contrast channel changes and floodplain evolution between these two rivers. Topographic changes derived by differencing detailed 1906-1909 topographic maps and 1999 LiDAR data indicate substantial channel morphologic changes including channel filling, lateral migration, and evolution towards single-thread channel systems. Modern streambank stratigraphy reflects the differences in channel responses. Sites where

  2. Mercury contamination of riverine sediments in the vicinity of a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant in Sagua River, Cuba. (United States)

    Bolaños-Álvarez, Yoelvis; Alonso-Hernández, Carlos Manuel; Morabito, Roberto; Díaz-Asencio, Misael; Pinto, Valentina; Gómez-Batista, Miguel


    Sediment is a great indicator for assessing coastal mercury contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of mercury pollution in the sediments of the Sagua River, Cuba, where a mercury-cell chlor-alkali plant has operated since the beginning of the 1980s. Surface sediments and a sediment core were collected in the Sagua River and analyzed for mercury using an Advanced Mercury Analyser (LECO AMA-254). Total mercury concentrations ranged from 0.165 to 97 μg g(-1) dry weight surface sediments. Enrichment Factor (EF), Index of Geoaccumulation (Igeo) and Sediment Quality Guidelines were applied to calculate the degrees of sediment contamination. The EF showed the significant role of anthropogenic mercury inputs in sediments of the Sagua River. The result also determined that in all stations downstream from the chlor-alkali plant effluents, the mercury concentrations in the sediments were higher than the Probable Effect Levels value, indicating a high potential for adverse biological effects. The Igeo index indicated that the sediments in the Sagua River are evaluated as heavily polluted to extremely contaminated and should be remediated as a hazardous material. This study could provide the latest benchmark of mercury pollution and prove beneficial to future pollution studies in relation to monitoring works in sediments from tropical rivers and estuaries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Using ²¹⁰Pb measurements to estimate sedimentation rates on river floodplains. (United States)

    Du, P; Walling, D E


    Growing interest in the dynamics of floodplain evolution and the important role of overbank sedimentation on river floodplains as a sediment sink has focused attention on the need to document contemporary and recent rates of overbank sedimentation. The potential for using the fallout radionuclides ¹³⁷Cs and excess ²¹⁰Pb to estimate medium-term (10-10² years) sedimentation rates on river floodplains has attracted increasing attention. Most studies that have successfully used fallout radionuclides for this purpose have focused on the use of ¹³⁷Cs. However, the use of excess ²¹⁰Pb potentially offers a number of advantages over ¹³⁷Cs measurements. Most existing investigations that have used excess ²¹⁰Pb measurements to document sedimentation rates have, however, focused on lakes rather than floodplains and the transfer of the approach, and particularly the models used to estimate the sedimentation rate, to river floodplains involves a number of uncertainties, which require further attention. This contribution reports the results of an investigation of overbank sedimentation rates on the floodplains of several UK rivers. Sediment cores were collected from seven floodplain sites representative of different environmental conditions and located in different areas of England and Wales. Measurements of excess ²¹⁰Pb and ¹³⁷Cs were made on these cores. The ²¹⁰Pb measurements have been used to estimate sedimentation rates and the results obtained by using different models have been compared. The ¹³⁷Cs measurements have also been used to provide an essentially independent time marker for validation purposes. In using the ²¹⁰Pb measurements, particular attention was directed to the problem of obtaining reliable estimates of the supported and excess or unsupported components of the total ²¹⁰Pb activity of sediment samples. Although there was a reasonable degree of consistency between the estimates of sedimentation rate provided by

  4. Sediment supply versus local hydraulic controls on sediment transport and storage in a river with large sediment loads (United States)

    Dean, David J.; Topping, David J.; Schmidt, John C.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Sabol, Thomas A.


    The Rio Grande in the Big Bend region of Texas, USA, and Chihuahua and Coahuila, Mexico, undergoes rapid geomorphic changes as a result of its large sediment supply and variable hydrology; thus, it is a useful natural laboratory to investigate the relative importance of flow strength and sediment supply in controlling alluvial channel change. We analyzed a suite of sediment transport and geomorphic data to determine the cumulative influence of different flood types on changing channel form. In this study, physically based analyses suggest that channel change in the Rio Grande is controlled by both changes in flow strength and sediment supply over different spatial and temporal scales. Channel narrowing is primarily caused by substantial deposition of sediment supplied to the Rio Grande during tributary-sourced flash floods. Tributary floods have large suspended-sediment concentrations, occur for short durations, and attenuate rapidly downstream in the Rio Grande, depositing much of their sediment in downstream reaches. Long-duration floods on the mainstem have the capacity to enlarge the Rio Grande, and these floods, released from upstream dams, can either erode or deposit sediment in the Rio Grande depending upon the antecedent in-channel sediment supply and the magnitude and duration of the flood. Geomorphic and sediment transport analyses show that the locations and rates of sand erosion and deposition during long-duration floods are most strongly controlled by spatial changes in flow strength, largely through changes in channel slope. However, spatial differences in the in-channel sediment supply regulate sediment evacuation or accumulation over time in long reaches (greater than a kilometer).

  5. Interplay between spatially explicit sediment sourcing, hierarchical river-network structure, and in-channel bed material sediment transport and storage dynamics (United States)

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Gran, Karen B.; Belmont, Patrick; Wilcock, Peter R.


    Understanding how sediment moves along source to sink pathways through watersheds—from hillslopes to channels and in and out of floodplains—is a fundamental problem in geomorphology. We contribute to advancing this understanding by modeling the transport and in-channel storage dynamics of bed material sediment on a river network over a 600 year time period. Specifically, we present spatiotemporal changes in bed sediment thickness along an entire river network to elucidate how river networks organize and process sediment supply. We apply our model to sand transport in the agricultural Greater Blue Earth River Basin in Minnesota. By casting the arrival of sediment to links of the network as a Poisson process, we derive analytically (under supply-limited conditions) the time-averaged probability distribution function of bed sediment thickness for each link of the river network for any spatial distribution of inputs. Under transport-limited conditions, the analytical assumptions of the Poisson arrival process are violated (due to in-channel storage dynamics) where we find large fluctuations and periodicity in the time series of bed sediment thickness. The time series of bed sediment thickness is the result of dynamics on a network in propagating, altering, and amalgamating sediment inputs in sometimes unexpected ways. One key insight gleaned from the model is that there can be a small fraction of reaches with relatively low-transport capacity within a nonequilibrium river network acting as "bottlenecks" that control sediment to downstream reaches, whereby fluctuations in bed elevation can dissociate from signals in sediment supply.

  6. Factors influencing organochlorine pesticides distribution in the Brisbane River Estuarine sediment, Australia. (United States)

    Duodu, Godfred Odame; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A


    Sediment samples collected from Brisbane River were analysed for organochlorine pesticide residues (OCPs). The factors influencing OCPs distribution in the sediment were investigated using multivariate analytical tools. Thirteen OCPs were detected in the sediment with concentrations ranging between below detection to 83.9ng/g, and detection frequency >90%. With the exception of dieldrin, the OCP inputs appear to be historical and may cause adverse ecological impacts. Multi-criteria ranking of the factors influencing the OCPs (except dieldrin) distribution in the sediment revealed that TOC>silt>intensive urban land use>population>seasons. Dieldrin distribution is significantly influenced by season>TOC>silt>intensive urban land use>population. The study helps to prioritise factors required for managing OCPs contamination in sediments and identification of appropriate mitigation measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An approach for modeling sediment budgets in supply-limited rivers (United States)

    Wright, Scott A.; Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Melis, Theodore S.


    Reliable predictions of sediment transport and river morphology in response to variations in natural and human-induced drivers are necessary for river engineering and management. Because engineering and management applications may span a wide range of space and time scales, a broad spectrum of modeling approaches has been developed, ranging from suspended-sediment "rating curves" to complex three-dimensional morphodynamic models. Suspended sediment rating curves are an attractive approach for evaluating changes in multi-year sediment budgets resulting from changes in flow regimes because they are simple to implement, computationally efficient, and the empirical parameters can be estimated from quantities that are commonly measured in the field (i.e., suspended sediment concentration and water discharge). However, the standard rating curve approach assumes a unique suspended sediment concentration for a given water discharge. This assumption is not valid in rivers where sediment supply varies enough to cause changes in particle size or changes in areal coverage of sediment on the bed; both of these changes cause variations in suspended sediment concentration for a given water discharge. More complex numerical models of hydraulics and morphodynamics have been developed to address such physical changes of the bed. This additional complexity comes at a cost in terms of computations as well as the type and amount of data required for model setup, calibration, and testing. Moreover, application of the resulting sediment-transport models may require observations of bed-sediment boundary conditions that require extensive (and expensive) observations or, alternatively, require the use of an additional model (subject to its own errors) merely to predict the bed-sediment boundary conditions for use by the transport model. In this paper we present a hybrid approach that combines aspects of the rating curve method and the more complex morphodynamic models. Our primary objective

  8. Modelling suspended sediment dynamics on the subaqueous delta of the Mekong River (United States)

    Thanh, Vo Quoc; Reyns, Johan; Wackerman, Chris; Eidam, Emily F.; Roelvink, Dano


    Fluvial sediment is the major source for the formation and development of the Mekong Delta. This paper aims to analyse the dynamics of suspended sediment and to investigate the roles of different processes in order to explore flux pattern changes. We applied modelling on two scales, comprising a large-scale model (the whole delta) to consider the upstream characteristics, particularly the Tonle Sap Lake's flood regulation, and a smaller-scale model (tidal rivers and shelf) to understand the sediment processes on the subaqueous delta. A comprehensive comparison to in-situ measurements and remote sensing data demonstrated that the model is capable of qualitatively simulating sediment dynamics on the subaqueous delta. It estimates that the Mekong River supplied an amount of 41.5 mil tons from April 2014 to April 2015. A substantial amount of sediment delivered by the Mekong River is deposited in front of the river mouths in the high flow season and resuspended in the low flow season. A sensitivity analysis shows that waves, baroclinic effects and bed composition strongly influence suspended sediment distribution and transport on the shelf. Waves in particular play an essential role in sediment resuspension. The development of this model is an important step towards an operational model for scientific and engineering applications, since the model is capable of predicting tidal propagation and discharge distribution through the main branches, and in predicting the seasonal SSC and erosion/deposition patterns on the shelf, while it is forced by readily available inputs: discharge at Kratie (Cambodia), GFS winds, ERA40 reanalysis waves, and TPXO 8v1 HR tidal forcing.

  9. Mobilization of Floodplain Sediments by Chute Cutoffs on a Large River: Lower Wabash River, Illinois-Indiana (United States)

    Zinger, J. A.; Rhoads, B. L.; Best, J.; Engel, F.; Konsoer, K. M.


    Bend cutoffs are a common mechanism of morphologic change in all scales of meandering rivers worldwide. Cutoffs can develop either by progressive migration of an elongated bend onto itself, forming a neck cutoff, or by erosion of a new channel across the neck of a bend, producing a chute cutoff. In contrast to the slow processes of “shaving” of the floodplain by outer bank erosion or formation of neck cutoffs by lateral channel migration, the sudden development of a chute cutoff channel can rapidly introduce a large volume of floodplain sediment into the downstream river channel. Formation of a chute cutoff channel also occurs on much shorter timescales than infilling of the subsequent oxbow lake. The asynchronous nature of such floodplain sediment release and storage resulting from cutoffs has important implications for longer-term floodplain sediment balance and the accurate modeling of floodplain evolution and architecture. In this study, using aerial photography and ground survey, we quantified the quantity of floodplain sediment mobilized by two chute cutoff events on Mackey Bend, a large, elongated meander of the lower Wabash River, IL-IN, located just upstream of the Ohio River confluence. A chute cutoff channel on this bend developed during flooding in June 2008 and was followed by formation of a second cutoff channel in July 2009. Here, we compare the volume of sediment released by these cutoff events to the background flux of sediment generated by lateral migration of the bend in the previous 78 years. Our study also explores the influence of these cutoff events on the morphology of the Wabash-Ohio confluence immediately downstream of the evolving chute cutoff channels. We found that, in just over two years, these cutoffs released c. 3. 6 million cubic meters of floodplain sediment, which is comparable to 4.6% of the annual sediment load of the Mississippi River. According to our calculations, it would take over 60 years of lateral migration of Mackey

  10. Sedimentation and contamination patterns of dike systems along the Rhône River (France) (United States)

    Seignemartin, Gabrielle; Tena, Alvaro; Piégay, Hervé; Roux, Gwenaelle; Winiarski, Thierry


    Humans have historically modified the Rhône River, especially in the last centuries. In the 19th century, the river was systematically embanked for flood protection purposes, and works continued along the 20th century with dike system engineering work for navigation. The Rhône was canalised and its historical course by-passed by a series of hydroelectric dams. Besides, industrial activity polluted the river. For example, high levels of PCB's were attributed to the inputs of the heavily industrialized zone downstream from Lyon. During floods, these contaminants, associated with the suspended sediment, were trapped by the engineering works and the floodplain. Currently, a master plan to reactivate the river dynamics in the alluvial margins by removing the groyne-fields and dikes in the by-passed sections is being implemented. Within this context, this work aims to assess historical dynamics of sediment and associated contaminants in the floodplain (e.g. trace metal elements), notably in the dike system, in order to evaluate the contamination risk related to bank protection removal. With this objective, a transversal methodology has been applied coupling GIS diachronic analysis (old maps, bathymetric data, Orthophotos, LIDAR, etc.) to understand the historical floodplain evolution, sediment survey to obtain sediment thickness (metal rod and Ground Penetrating Radar), and sediment sampling (manual auger and core sampling) to obtain the metal element concentrations (X-Ray Fluorescence and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). By this way, metal element patterns were defined and used as contamination tracing indicators to apprehend the contamination history but also as geochemical background indicators to define the sediment source influence. We found that sediment temporal patterns are directly related with the by-pass construction year. Spatially, fine sediment deposition predominates in the dike systems, being lower in the floodplain already disconnected in

  11. Common barbel (Barbus barbus) as a bioindicator of surface river sediment pollution with Cu and Zn in three rivers of the Danube River Basin in Serbia. (United States)

    Morina, Arian; Morina, Filis; Djikanović, Vesna; Spasić, Sladjana; Krpo-Ćetković, Jasmina; Kostić, Bojan; Lenhardt, Mirjana


    River sediments are a major source of metal contamination in aquatic food webs. Due to the ability of metals to move up the food chain, fishes, occupying higher trophic levels, are considered to be good environmental indicators of metal pollution. The aim of this study was to analyze the metal content in tissues of the common barbel (Barbus barbus), a rheophilous cyprinid fish widely distributed in the Danube Basin, in order to find out if it can be used as a bioindicator of the metal content in the river sediment. We analyzed bioavailable concentrations of 15 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn) in sediments of the Danube (D), the Zapadna Morava (ZM), and the Južna Morava (JM) using the inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The barbel specimens were collected in the proximity of sediment sampling sites for the analysis of metals in four tissues, gills, muscle, intestine, and liver. The sediment analysis indicated that the ZM is the most polluted with Cu, Ni, and Zn compared to other two rivers. The JM had the lowest concentrations of almost all observed elements, while the Danube sediments were mainly characterized by higher concentrations of Pb. The fish from the ZM had the highest concentration of Cu and Ni in the liver and intestine, and of Zn in the muscle tissue, which was in accordance with the concentrations of these metals in the sediment. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was used for further analyses of metal interactions with fish tissues. The results suggest that the barbel can potentially be used as a bioindicator of sediment quality with respect to metal contamination.

  12. Retention and chemical speciation of uranium in an oxidized wetland sediment from the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dien; Seaman, John C.; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Jaffe, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul; Jiang, De-Tong; Chen, Ning; Lin, Jinru; Arthur, Zachary; Pan, Yuanming; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Kaplan, Daniel I.


    Uranium speciation and retention mechanism onto Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments was studied using batch (ad)sorption experiments, sequential extraction desorption tests and U L{sub 3}-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy of contaminated wetland sediments. U was highly retained by the SRS wetland sediments. In contrast to other similar but much lower natural organic matter (NOM) sediments, significant sorption of U onto the SRS sediments was observed at pH <4 and pH >8. Sequential extraction tests indicated that the U(VI) species were primarily associated with the acid soluble fraction (weak acetic acid extractable) and NOM fraction (Na-pyrophosphate extractable). Uranium L3- edge XANES spectra of the U-retained sediments were nearly identical to that of uranyl acetate. The primary oxidation state of U in these sediments was as U(VI), and there was little evidence that the high sorptive capacity of the sediments could be ascribed to abiotic or biotic reduction to the less soluble U(IV) species. The molecular mechanism responsible for the high U retention in the SRS wetland sediments is likely related to the chemical bonding of U to organic carbon.

  13. Factors Controlling Sediment Load in The Central Anatolia Region of Turkey: Ankara River Basin (United States)

    Duru, Umit; Wohl, Ellen; Ahmadi, Mehdi


    Better understanding of the factors controlling sediment load at a catchment scale can facilitate estimation of soil erosion and sediment transport rates. The research summarized here enhances understanding of correlations between potential control variables on suspended sediment loads. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to simulate flow and sediment at the Ankara River basin. Multivariable regression analysis and principal component analysis were then performed between sediment load and controlling variables. The physical variables were either directly derived from a Digital Elevation Model or from field maps or computed using established equations. Mean observed sediment rate is 6697 ton/year and mean sediment yield is 21 ton/y/km² from the gage. Soil and Water Assessment Tool satisfactorily simulated observed sediment load with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, relative error, and coefficient of determination ( R²) values of 0.81, -1.55, and 0.93, respectively in the catchment. Therefore, parameter values from the physically based model were applied to the multivariable regression analysis as well as principal component analysis. The results indicate that stream flow, drainage area, and channel width explain most of the variability in sediment load among the catchments. The implications of the results, efficient siltation management practices in the catchment should be performed to stream flow, drainage area, and channel width.

  14. Relation of waterfowl poisoning to sediment lead concentrations in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Audet, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Day, D.


    For many years, waterfowl have been poisoned by lead after ingesting contaminated sediment in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, in Idaho. Results of studies on waterfowl experimentally fed this sediment were combined with results from field studies conducted in the Basin to relate sediment lead concentration to injury to waterfowl. The first step in the model estimated exposure as the relation of sediment lead concentration to blood lead concentration in mute swans (Cygnus olor), ingesting 22% sediment in a rice diet. That rate corresponded to the 90th percentile of sediment ingestion estimated from analyses of feces of tundra swans (Olor columbianus) in the Basin. Then, with additional laboratory studies on Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) fed the sediment, we developed the general relation of blood lead to injury in waterfowl. Injury was quantified by blood lead concentrations, ALAD (-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase) activity, protoporphyrin concentrations, hemoglobin concentrations, hepatic lead concentrations, and the prevalence of renal nuclear inclusion bodies. Putting the exposure and injury relations together provided a powerful tool for assessing hazards to wildlife in the Basin. The no effect concentration of sediment lead was estimated as 24 mg/kg and the lowest effect level as 530 mg/kg. By combining our exposure equation with data on blood lead concentrations measured in moribund tundra swans in the Basin, we estimated that some mortality would occur at a sediment lead concentration as low as 1800 mg/kg.

  15. Seasonal sediment dynamics on the Barcelona inner shelf (NW Mediterranean): A small Mediterranean river- and wave-dominated system (United States)

    López, L.; Guillén, J.; Palanques, A.; Grifoll, M.


    The seasonal pattern of sediment dynamics on an inner shelf characterized by the presence of sediment delivered by a small, mountainous river (with a ;flash-flood; regime) was investigated. Near-bottom suspended sediment fluxes across the shelf (i.e. 20, 30 and 40 m water depth) were estimated using observations from three benthic tripods deployed from September 2007 to June 2008. Near-bottom sediment resuspension was controlled by wave-induced currents and river-born sediment availability, whereas the shelf currents played a secondary role. Fourteen sediment transport events were identified (eight in autumn, two in winter and four in spring), with transport rates according to storm intensity and sediment availability. These few energetic events induced a large percentage of the cumulative sediment transport near the bottom. However, the lack of proportionality between suspended sediment transport rates and the combined wave-current bottom shear stress in some events highlights the importance of the sequence of events in sediment dynamics. Since wave activity, hydrography and river discharges display a strong seasonal pattern in the NW Mediterranean, the resulting sediment dynamics across the shelf also correspond to a seasonal cycle. This seasonal variability leads to a temporal evolution of the bottom grain size (coarser in winter) and the near-bottom sediment transport rates (higher in spring and autumn) which is consistent with the seasonal pattern of the hydrodynamic events and the river discharge load.

  16. The impact of feeding Cyprinids on river bed sediment structures and grain entrainment (United States)

    Pledger, A.; Rice, S. P.; Millett, J.


    In gravel-bed rivers, between bed-mobilising flood events, surface sediment particles are rearranged by moderate flows, generally into more stable "water-worked" positions characterised by structures of various types, including imbrication and pebble clusters. This surface layer of structured, relatively coarse particles moderates the availability of finer sub-surface sediment and the transfer of mobile material from upstream. The work reported here is focused on understanding how benthic feeding fish (Cyprinids and Salmonids) dismantle surface structures, making particles less stable and potentially rendering vulnerable sub-surface material more mobile. An increase in available, transportable sediment has implications for sediment transport fluxes, reach-scale sediment loads, channel morphology and aquatic habitat. However, almost nothing is known about the impacts of feeding fish on bed sediment structures, entrainment and sediment fluxes. A series of flume experiments will quantify the effects of six different species of fish on sediment structure and grain entrainment. The experiments will consider 1) topographic variations between pre- and post-feeding substrates using DEMs interpolated from laser scans and 2) differences in sediment entrainment from water-worked substrates exposed to feeding fish and control substrates, without fish. Using interpolated DEMs, a variety of structural parameters will be extracted (e.g. imbrication indices) to quantify the impact of each species whilst feeding. Underwater videography techniques will be used to establish entrainment thresholds and transport rates under low critical shear stresses. A second set of flume experiments are planned using a large outdoor flume to investigate the effects of feeding Barbel Barbus barbus on surface structure, to assess how disturbance and sediment mobility vary as a function of species size and shoal density. A final set of field experiments will consider the large-scale, geomorphological

  17. An 80-year record of sediment quality in the lower Mississippi River (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Horowitz, Arthur J.


    In 1937, the US Army Corps of Engineers cut through the "neck" of a large meander on the lower Mississippi River (below the confluence with the Ohio River) forming the Caulk Neck cutoff and creating Lake Whittington, a 26-km long oxbow lake, in northern Mississippi. Since 1938, seasonal flooding and a boat channel connecting the lake with the Mississippi River have led to sediment accumulation in the lake, resulting in an 80-year record of sediment quality in the river. On the basis of an age-dated sediment core from the lake, trends in trace metals and hydrophobic organic compounds (except polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) follow well-known patterns with upward trends from the 1930s to the ca 1970s, followed by downward trends to the present. Two factors contribute to these patterns: reservoir construction and changes in emissions. The construction of seven large reservoirs on the Missouri River, in particular the closure of the Fort Randall (1953) and Gavins Point (1955) Dams, greatly reduced the load of relatively clean sediment to the Mississippi River, likely contributing to downstream increases in contaminant concentrations in the Mississippi River. Increasing anthropogenic emissions also contributed to upward trends until ca 1970 when major environmental policy actions began resulting in broad decreases in emissions and downward trends in the concentrations of most of the contaminants monitored. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phosphorus are partial exceptions to this pattern, with increases to the 1960s and variable concentrations showing no clear trend since. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Equilibrium sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls in River Elbe sediments--Linking bioaccumulation in fish to sediment contamination. (United States)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Antoni, Catherine; Möhlenkamp, Christel; Claus, Evelyn; Reifferscheid, Georg; Heininger, Peter; Mayer, Philipp


    Equilibrium sampling can be applied to measure freely dissolved concentrations (cfree) of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that are considered effective concentrations for diffusive uptake and partitioning. It can also yield concentrations in lipids at thermodynamic equilibrium with the sediment (clip⇌sed) by multiplying concentrations in the equilibrium sampling polymer with lipid to polymer partition coefficients. We have applied silicone coated glass jars for equilibrium sampling of seven 'indicator' polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment samples from ten locations along the River Elbe to measure cfree of PCBs and their clip⇌sed. For three sites, we then related clip⇌sed to lipid-normalized PCB concentrations (cbio,lip) that were determined independently by the German Environmental Specimen Bank in common bream, a fish species living in close contact with the sediment: (1) In all cases, cbio,lip were below clip⇌sed, (2) there was proportionality between the two parameters with high R(2) values (0.92-1.00) and (3) the slopes of the linear regressions were very similar between the three stations (0.297; 0.327; 0.390). These results confirm the close link between PCB bioaccumulation and the thermodynamic potential of sediment-associated HOCs for partitioning into lipids. This novel approach gives clearer and more consistent results compared to conventional approaches that are based on total concentrations in sediment and biota-sediment accumulation factors. We propose to apply equilibrium sampling for determining bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential of HOCs, since this technique can provide a thermodynamic basis for the risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Heavy metals pollution status in surface sediments (rivers and artifical lakes, Serbia) (United States)

    Sakan, Sanja; Đorđević, Dragana


    Potentially hazardous trace elements, often in literature referred as "heavy metals", are deemed serious pollutants due to their toxicity, persistence and non-degradability in the environment. These elements play an important role in extent of water pollution and threaten the health of populations and ecosystems. As the sink of heavy metals, sediment beds adsorb metals in quantities that are many times higher than those found in the water column in the long-term polluted water environment. It is believed that most of the metal content, as much as 90% in aquatic sediments is bound to sediments. Metal contamination in these sediments could be directly affect the river water quality, resulting in potential consequences to the sensitive lowest levels of the food chain and ultimately to human health. The objective of this research was the evaluation of heavy metal contamination level in sediments of the most important rivers and artificial lakes in Serbia. The heavy metal enrichment in studied sediments was conducted by using: determination of total metal content, sequential extraction procedure for the fractionation of studied elements, quantification of the metal enrichment degree in the sediments by calculating geo-accumulation indices, determination of actual and potential element availability and application of BRAI index for the assessment of heavy metal bioavailability. The sediments were found to be contaminated by heavy metals to various extents, mostly with Cd, Cu, and Zn. The significant variation in heavy metal distribution among samples collected in this large region, encompassing all Serbian watersheds, suggests the selective contamination of sediments by heavy metals. Elevated concentrations of elements in most cases were detected in samples of river sediments, since artificial lake reservoirs are usually built in rural areas, where the less anthropogenic pollution. Rivers often flow through the towns and these water basins less or more loaded

  20. Sediment management of run-of-river hydroelectric power project in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neena Isaac

    management. This paper presents the drawdown flushing studies of the reservoir of a Himalayan River. Hydroelectric Project called Kotlibhel in Uttarakhand, India. For the ... The model studies show that the sedimentation problem of the reservoir can be ..... [6] Yoon Y N 1992 The state and the perspective of the direct.

  1. Anomalous behaviour of uranium isotopes in backwater sediments of Zuari river

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joshi, L.U.; Zingde, M.D.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    The surface leaching of the labile component of uranium has been carried out in estuarine sediments of Zuari River in Goa, India The measurements of alpha activities of sup(238) U, sup(235) U and sup(234) U in the leachates indicated a remarkable...

  2. Current trends of some organochlorinated pesticides in Yamuna River sediments around Delhi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sethi, P.K.; Bhattacharyya, A.K.; Sarkar, A.

    selected for the purpose of study. Among the organochlorine pesticides detected, t-DDT was the most predominant in the sediments of Yamuna River. The concentration of t-DDT was in the range of 63.0-236.0 ng/g during the pre-monsoon and decreased...

  3. Sediment consolidation settlement of Chengbei Sea area in the northern Huanghe River subaqueous delta, China (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Feng, Xiuli; Liu, Xiao


    One of the most important factors controlling the morphology of the modern Huanghe (Yellow) River delta is consolidation settlement, which is impacted by fast deposition, high water content, and low density of seafloor sediment. Consolidation settlement of the Huanghe River subaqueous delta was studied based on field data, laboratory experiments on 12 drill holes, and the one-dimensional consolidation theory. Results show that vertical sediment characteristics varied greatly in the rapidly forming sedimentary bodies of the modern Huanghe River subaqueous delta. Sediments in the upper parts of drill holes were coarser than those in the deeper parts, and other physical and mechanical properties changed accordingly. On the basis of the one-dimensional consolidation theory and drilling depth, the final consolidation settlement of drill holes was between 0.6 m and 2.8 m, and the mean settlement of unit depth was at 1.5-3.5 cm/m. It takes about 15-20 years for the consolidation degree to reach 90% and the average sedimentation rate within the overlying 50 m strata was at 5 cm/a to 12 cm/a. This study helps to forecast the final consolidation settlement and settlement rate of the modern Huanghe River subaqueous delta, which provides key geotechnical information for marine engineers.

  4. Enrichment and isolation of acidophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria from Tinto River sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Andrea, I.; Stams, A.J.M.; Amils, R.; Sanz, J.L.


    Although some acidophilic and alkaliphilic species have been described recently, most of the known sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) grow optimally at neutral pH. In this study, sulfate reduction was studied with sediment samples from the extremely acidic Tinto River basin. Stable enrichments of SRB

  5. Sediment transport primer: estimating bed-material transport in gravel-bed rivers (United States)

    Peter Wilcock; John Pitlick; Yantao Cui


    This primer accompanies the release of BAGS, software developed to calculate sediment transport rate in gravel-bed rivers. BAGS and other programs facilitate calculation and can reduce some errors, but cannot ensure that calculations are accurate or relevant. This primer was written to help the software user define relevant and tractable problems, select appropriate...

  6. Development of the sediment and water quality management strategies for the Salt-water River, Taiwan. (United States)

    Lin, C E; Chen, C T; Kao, C M; Hong, A; Wu, C Y


    The Salt-water River watershed is one of the major river watersheds in the Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Water quality and sediment investigation results show that the river water contained high concentrations of organics and ammonia-nitrogen, and sediments contained high concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants. The main pollution sources were municipal and industrial wastewaters. Results from the enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) analyses imply that the sediments can be characterized as heavily polluted in regard to Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cu. The water quality analysis simulation program (WASP) model was applied for water quality evaluation and carrying capacity calculation. Modeling results show that the daily pollutant inputs were much higher than the calculated carrying capacity (1050 kg day(-1) for biochemical oxygen demand and 420 kg day(-1) for ammonia-nitrogen). The proposed watershed management strategies included river water dilution, intercepting sewer system construction and sediment dredging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heavy metals in sediments of Ganga River: up- and downstream urban influences (United States)

    Pandey, Jitendra; Singh, Rachna


    Bottom sediment in a river often acts as a sink and indicator of changes in water column and magnitude of anthropogenic influences through air and watersheds. Heavy metal concentration in sediments of Ganga River was studied along a 37-km stretch to assess whether there is a significant difference between sites situated upstream and downstream of Varanasi urban core. Metal concentration increased consistently along the study gradient, indicating the influence of urban sources. Concentration in the river sediment was found highest for Fe followed by Mn, Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd. Mann-Kendall trend analysis showed marked seasonality in the concentration with values being highest in summer and lowest in rainy season. Enrichment factor revealed severe enrichment of Cd and Pb at downstream sites, and principal component analysis segregated sites into four distinct groups indicating source relationships. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cr did exceed WHO standards. The study has relevance designing control measures and action plans for reducing sediment contamination in anthropogenic impacted rivers.

  8. Dichloromethane Fermentation by a Dehalobacter sp. in an Enrichment Culture Derived from Pristine River Sediment (United States)

    Justicia-Leon, Shandra D.; Ritalahti, Kirsti M.; Mack, E. Erin


    Dichloromethane (DCM) as the sole substrate supported growth of a Dehalobacter sp. in an enrichment culture derived from noncontaminated river sediment. DCM was not reductively dechlorinated, and acetate was produced, indicating DCM fermentation and further suggesting Dehalobacter growth is not limited to organohalide respiration. PMID:22179245

  9. Branched GDGT signals in fluvial sediments of the Danube River basin : Method comparison and longitudinal evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freymond, Chantal V.; Peterse, Francien; Fischer, Lorena V.; Filip, Florin; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    Abundances and distributional changes of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in fluvially influenced sediments are used in various paleoclimate studies to reconstruct variations in soil export, continental air temperature and soil pH in corresponding river basins. For accurate

  10. Application of synthetic iron-oxide coated zeolite for the pollution control of river sediments. (United States)

    Liu, Tongzhou; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Da


    Contaminants released from river sediments are catching more attentions for river environmental management, especially when external sources of river pollution have been well controlled. To reduce the contaminant release from sediments, in-situ capping is often applied because of its effective reduction of contaminant flux and minimal disturbance to the surroundings. As an innovative sediment capping material, iron-oxide coated zeolite (IOCZ) was synthesized, characterized, and evaluated in this study. Its performance for the NH4+-N, PO43--P, and S2--S fixation in aqueous solutions was evaluated using batch and fixed-bed column experiments. IOCZ was found effective as a sorbent for NH4+-N, PO43--P, and S2--S with the maximum Langmuir sorption capacities of 6.23 mg N g-1, 0.966 mg P g-1, and 1.70 mg S g-1, respectively. Under the studied conditions, the whole breakthrough process in the fixed-bed column could be well described by Thomas model, indicating IOCZ can effectively retard NH4+-N, PO43--P, and S2--S under flowing conditions. In addition, desorption simulative experiments suggested that the retarded pollutants were stable even under some extreme environments such as flooding or tiding. Therefore, IOCZ seems a promising capping material to control the release of NH4+-N, H2PO4--P, and S2--S from river sediments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Sediment quality and ecorisk assessment factors for a major river system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, V.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, J.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cutshall, N.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Sediment-related water quality and risk assessment parameters for the Columbia River were developed using heavy metal loading and concentration data from Lake Roosevelt (river km 1120) to the mouth and adjacent coastal zone. Correlation of Pb, Zn, Hg, and Cd concentrations in downstream sediments with refinery operations in British Columbia suggest that solutes with K{sub d}`s > 10{sup 5} reach about 1 to 5 {mu}g/g per metric ton/year of input. A low-suspended load (upriver avg. <10 mg/L) and high particle-surface reactivity account for the high clay-fraction contaminant concentrations. In addition, a sediment exposure path was demonstrated based on analysis of post-shutdown biodynamics of a heavy metal radiotracer. The slow decline in sediment was attributed to resuspension, bioturbation, and anthropogenic disturbances. The above findings suggest that conservative sediment quality criteria should be used to restrict additional contaminant loading in the upper drainage basin. The issuance of an advisory for Lake Roosevelt, due in part to Hg accumulation in large sport fish, suggests more restrictive controls are needed. A monitoring strategy for assessing human exposure potential and the ecological health of the river is proposed.

  12. Characterization of organic matter in surface sediments of the Mackenzie River Basin, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrie, Jesse; Stern, Gary [Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)]|[Freshwater Institute, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Sanei, Hamed; Goodarzi, Fariborz [Geological Survey of Canada-Calgary, 3303 33rd St. NW, Calgary, AB (Canada); Wang, Feiyue [Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)]|[Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)


    The particulate organic matter in < 63 {mu}m surface sediments from the Mackenzie River and its main tributaries was studied using Rock-Eval pyrolysis and organic petrology. The organic matter in the sediments is dominated by refractory residual organic carbon (RC) of mainly terrigenous nature, as indicated by abundant inertinite, vitrinite, and type III kerogen. Sediments from the tributaries contained significantly more algal-derived organic matter than from the main channel of the river, highlighting the importance of low-energy system dynamics in the tributaries, which allows modest algal production, more accumulation, and better preservation of autochthonous organic matter. This is particularly true for tributaries fed by lacustrine systems, which showed the highest S1 and S2 fractions, and consequently higher total particulate organic carbon (POC) in the basin. Organic petrology of the sediment samples confirms abundant liptinitic materials (i.e., fat-rich structured algae, spores and pollen, cuticles, and resins). Forest fire and coal deposits are also confirmed to contribute to the basin. Assuming that suspended and fine surfacial sediments have a similar OC composition, the Mackenzie River is estimated to deliver a total POC flux of 1.1 Mt C/yr to its delta, of which 85% is residual carbon with liptinitic OC (S1 + S2) and S3 accounting for another 9% and 6%, respectively. (author)

  13. [Effects of Perfluoroalkyl Substances on the Microbial Community Structure in Surface Sediments of Typical River, China]. (United States)

    Sun, Ya-jun; Wang, Tie-yu; Peng, Xia-wei; Wang, Pei


    In order to reveal the relationship between Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) contamination and the bacterial community composition, surface sediment samples were collected along the Xiaoqing River in Shandong Province in April and July 2014 (XQ1-XQ10), where many PFASs manufacturers were located. PFASs were quantified by HPLC/MS-MS, related environmental factors affecting the microbial community structure were measured, and the microbial community structure in surface sediments was measured by the second-generation sequencing technology Illumina MiSeq. The results not only revealed the degree of PFASs pollution in the sediments of Xiaoqing River, but also illustrated the relationship between PFASs pollution and the microbial community structure. Among the twelve kinds of PFASs detected in this study, PFOA was the predominant compound, and the highest PFOA concentrations were detected in the sample of XQ5 (April: 456. 2 ng. g-1; July: 748.7 ng . g-1) located at the downstream of Xiaoqing River with many fluoropolymer producing facilities. PFOA contamination was the main factor affecting the microbial community structure in April, accordingly community richness and evenness were significantly negatively correlated with PFOA levels. The abundance of Thiobacillus increased with the increasing PFOA concentration in the sediment PFOA. This suggested that Thiobacillus was sensitive to PFOA pollution and might be the potential indicator to reveal the degree of PFOA pollution in sediment. When the concentrations of PFOA were below 100 ng . g-1, no significant effects on the microbial community structure were observed.

  14. Magnetic properties of sediments from the Pangani River Basin, Tanzania: Influence of lithology and particle size (United States)

    Mzuza, Maureen Kapute; Zhang, Weiguo; Kapute, Fanuel; Selemani, Juma R.


    Use of magnetic properties in tracing sediment source in river systems is valuable for proper management of soil erosion and dam siltation. This study investigated magnetic properties variation from the upstream down to the coast of the Pangani River Basin in Tanzania, East Africa. The influence of lithology and sedimentary sorting on magnetic properties from source to sink pathway has been discussed. Results show that lithology can explain the differences in magnetic properties among the tributaries in the upstream and in the lower reach of the main stream. Ferrimagnetic minerals mainly consist of magnetite and titanomagnetite, with the latter more abundant in the upstream tributary Kikuletwa River. Upstream sediments have higher ferrimagnetic mineral concentrations but coarser grain size than the mainstream sediments, especially the dam sediments. A decline in ferrimagnetic mineral concentration with fining grain size is also observed along the mainstream. Such a trend can be explained by hydrodynamic sorting effect, which is well documented elsewhere. This study demonstrates that lithology and sorting have strong effect on magnetic properties, which should be properly addressed when using magnetic method in assessing fluvial sediment source.

  15. Assessing sediment toxicity from navigational pools of the Upper Mississippi River using a 28-day Hyalella azteca test (United States)

    Kemble, N.E.; Brunson, E.L.; Canfield, T.J.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.


    To assess the extent of sediment contamination in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) system after the flood of 1993, sediment samples were collected from 24 of the 26 navigational pools in the river and from one site in the Saint Croix River in the summer of 1994. Whole-sediment tests were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca for 28 days measuring the effects on survival, growth, and sexual maturation. Amphipod survival was significantly reduced in only one sediment (13B) relative to the control and reference sediments. Body length of amphipods was significantly reduced relative to the control and reference sediments in only one sample (26C). Sexual maturation was not significantly reduced in any treatment when compared to the control and reference sediments. No significant correlations were observed between survival, growth, and maturation to either the physical or chemical characteristics of the sediment samples from the river. When highly reliable effect range medians (ERMs) were used to evaluate sediment chemistry, 47 of 49 (96%) of the samples were correctly classified as nontoxic. These results indicate that sediment samples from the Upper Mississippi River are relatively uncontaminated compared to other areas of known contamination in the United States.

  16. Water and sediment study of the Snake River watershed, Colorado, Oct. 9-12, 2001 (United States)

    Fey, D.L.; Church, S.E.; Unruh, D.M.; Bove, D.J.


    The Snake River watershed, located upstream from Dillon Reservoir in the central mountains of Colorado, has been affected by historical base-metal mining. Trout stocked in the Snake River for recreational purposes do not survive through the winter. Sediment cores analyzed by previous investigators from the reservoir revealed elevated concentrations of base metals and mercury. We collected 36 surface water samples (filtered and unfiltered) and 38 streambed-sediment samples from streams in the Snake River watershed. Analyses of the sediment and water samples show that concentrations of several metals exceed aquatic life standards in one or both media. Ribbon maps showing dissolved concentrations of zinc, cadmium, copper, and manganese in water (0.45-micron filtered and corrected for the ameliorating effect of hardness), and copper, cadmium, and zinc in sediment indicate reaches where toxic effects on trout would be expected and stream reaches where toxicity standards for rainbow, brown, and brook trout are exceeded. Instantaneous loads for sulfate, strontium, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc were calculated from 0.45-micron-filtered water concentrations and discharge measurements were made at each site. Sulfate and strontium behave conservatively, whereas copper, cadmium, and zinc are reactive. The dissolved copper load entering the reservoir is less than 20 percent of the value calculated from some upper reaches; copper is transferred to suspended and or streambed sediment by sorption to iron oxyhydroxides. Higher percentages of zinc and cadmium reach the reservoir in dissolved form; however, load calculations indicate that some of these metals are also precipitated out of solution. The most effective remediation activities should be concentrated on reducing the dissolved loads of zinc, cadmium, and copper in two reaches of lower Peru Creek between the confluence with the Snake River and Cinnamon Gulch. We analyzed all streambed sediment for mercury and selected

  17. Impact of climate change and anthropogenic activities on stream flow and sediment discharge in the Wei River basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, P.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.J.; Mu, X.M.; Wang, F.


    Reduced stream flow and increased sediment discharge are a major concern in the Yellow River basin of China, which supplies water for agriculture, industry and the growing populations located along the river. Similar concerns exist in the Wei River basin, which is the largest tributary of the Yellow

  18. Integrated estuary management for diffused sediment pollution in Dapeng Bay and neighboring rivers (Taiwan). (United States)

    Chung, Chung-Yi; Chen, Jen-Jeng; Lee, Chang-Gai; Chiu, Chun-Yen; Lai, Wen-Liang; Liao, Shao-Wei


    This work investigated sediment samples collected from Dapeng Bay and three neighboring rivers (Kaoping River, Tungkang River, and Lingbeng River) in southwestern Taiwan, Republic of China. Multivariate statistical analysis techniques, i.e., factor analysis, cluster analysis, and canonical discriminant analysis were used for the evaluation of spatial variations to determine the types of pollution and to identify pollutant sources from neighboring rivers. Factor analysis results showed that the most important latent factors in Dapeng Bay are soil texture, heavy metals, organic matter, and nutrients factors. Contour maps incorporating the factor scores showed heavy metals accumulate along the lakesides, especially on the southeastern banks of the lakes. A cluster analysis was performed using factor scores computed from these latent factors. We then classified these areas into five distinct classes using sampling stations, and we illustrate that in the three river classes, the sediment properties are influenced by industrial and domestic wastewater and agricultural activities (including livestock rearing and farm activities). However, in Dapeng Bay, the rivers were influenced more by complicated biogeochemical processes; these could be identified as a type of pollution. Canonical discriminant analysis illustrated that two constructed discriminant functions made a marked contribution to most of the discriminant variables, and the significant parameters of porosity and Cd, Cr, Al, and Pb content were combined as the "heavy metal factor". The recognition capacities of the two discriminant functions were 82.6% and 17.4%, respectively. It is also likely that the annual mean of the water exchange rate is insufficient (taking about 7 days to eliminate pollutants) and therefore has significantly influenced the carbon and nutrient biogeochemical processes and budgets in the semi-enclosed ecosystem. Thus, the sediment properties are not similar between the lagoon and the

  19. A theoretical assessment of microplastic transport in river catchments and their retention by soils and river sediments. (United States)

    Nizzetto, Luca; Bussi, Gianbattista; Futter, Martyn N; Butterfield, Dan; Whitehead, Paul G


    The presence of microplastics (MPs) in the environment is a problem of growing concern. While research has focused on MP occurrence and impacts in the marine environment, very little is known about their release on land, storage in soils and sediments and transport by run-off and rivers. This study describes a first theoretical assessment of these processes. A mathematical model of catchment hydrology, soil erosion and sediment budgets was upgraded to enable description of MP fate. The Thames River in the UK was used as a case study. A general lack of data on MP emissions to soils and rivers and the mass of MPs in agricultural soils, limits the present work to serve as a purely theoretical, nevertheless rigorous, assessment that can be used to guide future monitoring and impact evaluations. The fundamental assumption on which modelling is based is that the same physical controls on soil erosion and natural sediment transport (for which model calibration and validation are possible), also control MP transport and storage. Depending on sub-catchment soil characteristics and precipitation patterns, approximately 16-38% of the heavier-than-water MPs hypothetically added to soils (e.g. through routine applications of sewage sludge) are predicted to be stored locally. In the stream, MPs impact assessments should prioritize these environments.

  20. Suspended sediment levels and turbidity along the Guadalquivir river related to the hydrological regimes (United States)

    Carpintero García, Miriam; Contreras Arribas, Eva; Jurado Lopez, Alicia; Aguilar Porro, Cristina; José Polo Gómez, María


    In Mediterranean watersheds, soil loss is enhanced by the marked seasonality and torrential character of the rainfall regime, together with the usually predominant agricultural usesd. This fact determines the nature and amount of the discharges to the fluvial network in the Guadalquivir River (Spain), where the dense reservoir network within the contributing areas to the main stream alters the original sediment dynamics, and the transport and deposition patterns along the river, especially in the final stretch. The Guadalquivir River basin is located in southern Spain, with a contributing area of 57500 km2. It is a Mediterranean basin with a mean annual rainfall of 600 mm year-1.The changes of soil uses in the basin are associated with an increase of the irrigated area (in 201290 ha until 2007 upstream) and olive area (in 311115 ha until 2007).The suspended sediment concentration in the river is very high, with extreme values up to 16 g/l in the final stretch, which includes the estuary, associated with persistent turbidity events forced by different combinations of conditions. The solids are very fine- textured due to the great length of the river and, mainly, the extreme trapping efficiency of the dense reservoir network upstream. This work shows the spatial-temporal evolution of the suspended sediment concentration and turbidity regime along the Guadalquivir river and its relation with the different soil uses in the different contribunting areas within the watershed, together with the dependence on the hydrological annual regime. Turbidity trends are estimatedby means of data from Landsat-7 ETM that were validated with the quantified suspended sediment concentration values obtained from both field campaigns and automated monitored control points along the river. The results show a time lag between fluvial contributions and suspended sediment concentration due to the intense regulation in the watershed, that is dependent on the storage capacity upstream, the

  1. EU-wide survey of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, Robert [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi, 21020 Ispra (Italy)], E-mail:; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; Locoro, Giovanni; Rimaviciute, Erika; Contini, Serafino; Bidoglio, Giovanni [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi, 21020 Ispra (Italy)


    This study provides the first EU-wide reconnaissance of the occurrence of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters. More than 100 individual water samples from over 100 European rivers from 27 European Countries were analysed for 35 selected compounds, comprising pharmaceuticals, pesticides, PFOS, PFOA, benzotriazoles, hormones, and endocrine disrupters. Around 40 laboratories participated in this sampling exercise. The most frequently and at the highest concentration levels detected compounds were benzotriazole, caffeine, carbamazepine, tolyltriazole, and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NPE{sub 1}C). Only about 10% of the river water samples analysed could be classified as 'very clean' in terms of chemical pollution. The rivers responsible for the major aqueous emissions of PFOS and PFOA from the European Continent could be identified. For the target compounds chosen, we are proposing 'indicative warning levels' in surface waters, which are (for most compounds) close to the 90th percentile of all water samples analysed. - More than 100 river water samples from 27 European Countries were analysed for 35 selected polar organic contaminants.

  2. Application of 2-D sediment model to fluctuating backwater area of Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong FAN


    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of backflow, a two-dimensional mathematical model of sediment movement was established. The complexity of the watercourse boundary at the confluence of the main stream and the tributary was dealt with using a boundary-fitting orthogonal coordinate system. The basic equation of the two-dimensional total sediment load model, the numerical calculation format, and key problems associated with using the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system were discussed. Water and sediment flow in the Chongqing reach of the Yangtze River were simulated. The calculated water level, flow velocity distribution, amount of silting and scouring, and alluvial distribution are found to be in agreement with the measured data, which indicates that the numerical model and calculation method are reasonable. The model can be used for calculation of flow in a relatively complicated river network.

  3. Sediment Trapping by Emerged Channel Bars in the Lowermost Mississippi River during a Major Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang


    Full Text Available The formation of channel bars has been recognized as the most significant sediment response to the highly trained Mississippi River (MR. However, no quantitative study exists on the dynamics of emerged channel bars and associated sediment accumulation in the last 500-kilometer reach of the MR from the Gulf of Mexico outlet, also known as the lowermost Mississippi River. Such knowledge is especially critical for riverine sediment management to impede coastal land loss in the Mississippi River Delta. In this study, we utilized a series of satellite images taken from August 2010 to January 2012 to assess the changes in surface area and volume of three large emerged channel bars in the lowermost MR following an unprecedented spring flood in 2011. River stage data were collected to develop a rating curve of surface areas detected by satellite images with flow conditions for each of the three bars. A uniform geometry associated with the areal change was assumed to estimate the bar volume changes. Our study reveals that the 2011 spring flood increased the surface area of the bars by 3.5% to 11.1%, resulting in a total surface increase of 7.3%, or 424,000 m2. Based on the surface area change, we estimated a total bar volume increase of 4.4%, or 1,219,900 m3. This volume increase would be equivalent to a sediment trapping of approximately 1.0 million metric tons, assuming a sediment bulk density of 1.2 metric tons per cubic meter. This large quantity of sediment is likely an underestimation because of the neglect of subaqueous bar area change and the assumption of a uniform geometry in volume estimation. Nonetheless, the results imply that channel bars in the lowermost MR are capable of capturing a substantial amount of sediment during floods, and that a thorough assessment of their long-term change can provide important insights into sediment trapping in the lowermost MR as well as the feasibility of proposed river sediment diversions.

  4. Hydrological modelling of fine sediments in the Odzi River, Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, since the empirical model was dependent on monitored runoff and fine sediment concentrations for calibration purposes, a field measurement campaign was conducted to assess the accuracy of observed data at the station studied. The field measurements showed large errors in monitored runoff and fine ...

  5. Soil erosion and sediment yield from the degraded Mzinga River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil erosion measurements and sediment yield modelling were done to monitor land use practices that contribute to catchment degradation. The results showed very high soil erosion losses on agricultural lands (33 tons/ha) and low soil losses from fallow (4.8 tons/ha) and degraded miombo woodlands (2.4 tons/ha).

  6. Effects of river sediments on coral recruitment, algal abundance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of sediment concentration and season on coral recruitment algal abundance nd benthic community structure were studied in Kenyan coral reef lagoons to determine their potential influence on coral recovery. Nutrient levels and recruit numbers were higher during the southeast monsoon (SEM) than during the ...

  7. Heavy metals concentrations in coal and sediments from River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal fluctuations are higher in the sediments than the coal samples. Correlation coefficients show that all the metals are positively correlated with each other implying that they are from the same source or origin. The presence of toxic metals in the area is established, calling for the assessment of their impact on the ...

  8. Initial sediment transport model of the mining-affected Aries River Basin, Romania (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.; Linard, Joshua I.


    The Romanian government is interested in understanding the effects of existing and future mining activities on long-term dispersal, storage, and remobilization of sediment-associated metals. An initial Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was prepared using available data to evaluate hypothetical failure of the Valea Sesei tailings dam at the Rosia Poieni mine in the Aries River basin. Using the available data, the initial Aries River Basin SWAT model could not be manually calibrated to accurately reproduce monthly streamflow values observed at the Turda gage station. The poor simulation of the monthly streamflow is attributed to spatially limited soil and precipitation data, limited constraint information due to spatially and temporally limited streamflow measurements, and in ability to obtain optimal parameter values when using a manual calibration process. Suggestions to improve the Aries River basin sediment transport model include accounting for heterogeneity in model input, a two-tier nonlinear calibration strategy, and analysis of uncertainty in predictions.

  9. Hydrological Mechanism for Arsenic Deposits in Meghna River Hyporheic Zone Sediments (United States)

    Knappett, Peter; Datta, Saugata; Dimova, Natasha; Myers, Kimberly; Hossain, Abrar; Berube, Michelle; Shuai, Pin; Rhodes, Kimberly; Jewell, Katrina; Lipsi, Mehtaz; Hossain, Saddam; Hosain, Alamgir; Peterson, Jacqeline; Ahmed, Kazi


    Heavy metal deposits along the interface between aquifers and rivers have been discovered in diverse settings around the world. This so-called "Iron Curtain" is thought to be caused by groundwater flow towards the riverbank. To our knowledge the hydrology of this process hasn't been studied along a tidally influenced, completely fresh river-aquifer system. The Meghna River within the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta (GBMD) experiences tidal fluctuations that propagate over 400 km upstream, from the Bay of Bengal to Sylhet City. River and aquifer water levels also fluctuate seasonally by as much as 4 m as the region receives most of its ~ 2 m of rainfall from June through September. We studied a 10 km reach of the Meghna River 200 km north of the coast where the eastern side of the river is strongly gaining for most of the year. In contrast, the river both gains and loses water to shallow aquifers on the western side. High solid-phase iron (Fe) and arsenic (As) concentrations were previously observed in Meghna riverbank sediments. To test the hypothesis that groundwater discharge is responsible for depositing Fe and As in the riverbank we mapped major and trace element distribution at ~ 100 m spacing on both the east and west side of the river using X-ray fluorescence. The distribution of solid-phase Fe and As were compared to hydraulic gradients, hydraulic conductivity, and ambient liquid-phase concentrations in the riverbank aquifer. Hydraulic gradients were measured with transects of monitoring wells at three locations, and the 30 m deep shallow aquifer was mapped 500 m north and south parallel and orthogonal to each river bank using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). Resistivity, borehole logging, and slug tests indicate the aquifer dimensions and properties are remarkably consistent at the 3 locations on both sides of the river. Groundwater discharge to the river obtained from Darcy's Law and two independent methods indicate the high As deposits can

  10. Heavy metals partitioning in sediments of the Kabini River in South India. (United States)

    Hejabi, Azadeh Taghinia; Basavarajappa, H T


    Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the sediments of the Kabini River, Karnataka, India was studied to determine the association of metal with various geochemical phases by sequential extraction. The variations of heavy metal concentration depend on the lithology of the river basin and partly on anthropogenic activities. The Kabini River sediments are dominated by Sargur supracrustals with amphibolites, gneisses, carbonates, and ultrabasic rocks weathering into gneissic and serpentine soils carrying a natural load of cationic heavy metals. The source of heavy metals in the Kabini riverbed sediments is normally envisaged as additional inputs from anthropogenic over and above natural and lithogenic sources. Geochemical study indicates the metals under study were present mostly in the least mobilizable fraction in the overlying water and it is concluded that heavy metals in these sediments are to a great extent derived from multisource anthropogenic inputs besides geochemical background contributions The results show that lead and chromium have higher potential for mobilization from the sediment due to higher concentration at the exchangeable ion and sulfide ion bounded, also Cu and Pb have the greatest percentage of carbonate fraction, it means that the study area received inputs from urban and industrial effluents. Association of the Fe with organic matter fraction can be explained by the high affinity of these elements for the humic substances. Further, Zn and Ni reveal a significant enrichment in sediment and it is due to release of industrial wastewater into the river. These trace metals are possible contaminants to enter into aquatic and food chain.

  11. Upstream control of river anastomosis by sediment overloading, upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, Bart; Lavooi, Eva; de Haas, Tjalling; Kleinhans, Maarten G.; Smith, Derald G.


    Anastomosing rivers, systems of multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins, constitute a major category of rivers for which various sedimentary facies models have been developed. While the sedimentary products of anastomosing rivers are relatively well-known, their genesis is still

  12. Upstream control of river anastomosis by sediment overloading, upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, A.; Lavooi, E.; Haas, de Tjalling; Kleinhans, M.G.; Smith, D.G.


    Anastomosing rivers, systems of multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins, constitute a major category of rivers for which various sedimentary facies models have been developed. While the sedimentary products of anastomosing rivers are relatively well-known, their genesis is still

  13. Persistence of extracellular DNA in river sediment facilitates antibiotic resistance gene propagation. (United States)

    Mao, Daqing; Luo, Yi; Mathieu, Jacques; Wang, Qing; Feng, Ling; Mu, Quanhua; Feng, Chunyan; Alvarez, P J J


    The propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) represents a global threat to both human health and food security. Assessment of ARG reservoirs and persistence is therefore critical for devising and evaluating strategies to mitigate ARG propagation. This study developed a novel, internal standard method to extract extracellular DNA (eDNA) and intracellular DNA (iDNA) from water and sediments, and applied it to determine the partitioning of ARGs in the Haihe River basin in China, which drains an area of intensive antibiotic use. The concentration of eDNA was higher than iDNA in sediment samples, likely due to the enhanced persistence of eDNA when associated with clay particles and organic matter. Concentrations of sul1, sul2, tetW, and tetT antibiotic resistance genes were significantly higher in sediment than in water, and were present at higher concentrations as eDNA than as iDNA in sediment. Whereas ARGs (frequently located on plasmid DNA) were detected for over 20 weeks, chromosomally encoded 16S rRNA genes were undetectable after 8 weeks, suggesting higher persistence of plasmid-borne ARGs in river sediment. Transformation of indigenous bacteria with added extracellular ARG (i.e., kanamycin resistance genes) was also observed. Therefore, this study shows that extracellular DNA in sediment is a major ARG reservoir that could facilitate antibiotic resistance propagation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafaie


    Full Text Available Whereas the tank volume and dehydrating digits from kinds of tanks are depended on repository sludge, so calculating the sediments is so important in tank planning and hydraulic structures. We are worry a lot about soil erosion in the basin area leading to deposit in rivers and lakes. It holds two reasons: firstly, because the surface soil of drainage would lose its fertility and secondly, the capacity of the tank decreases also it causes the decrease of water quality in downstream. Several studies have shown that we can estimate the rate of suspension sediments through remote sensing techniques. Whereas using remote sensing methods in contrast to the traditional and current techniques is faster and more accurate then they can be used as the effective techniques. The intent of this study has already been to estimate the rate of sediments in Karaj watershed through remote sensing and satellite images then comparing the gained results to the sediments data to use them in gauge-hydraulic station. We mean to recognize the remote sensing methods in calculating sediment and use them to determine the rate of river sediments so that identifying their accuracies. According to the results gained of the shown relations at this article, the amount of annual suspended sedimentary in KARAJ watershed have been 320490 Tones and in hydrologic method is about 350764 Tones .

  15. Effect of salinity on adsorption and desorption of paraquat in Pak Phanang river sediment, Thailand. (United States)

    Noicharoen, Damrongsak; Parkpian, Preeda; Shipin, Oleg V; Polprasert, Chongrak; Delaune, Ronald D; Kongchum, Manoch


    Batch experiments were conducted to study the effect of salinity (0-30 g L(-1)) on adsorption and desorption of paraquat (1, 1'-dimethyl-4, 4'-dipyridylium dichloride), one of the most widely used herbicides in the world, in sediment of Pak Phanang River Basin, Thailand. Sediments from five locations were used in the studies (two from freshwater sites and three sites under saline environment). The adsorption capacity (K(f)) of the sediments was positively correlated with CEC (r = 0.81**) and clay content (r = 0.70*). Paraquat adsorption by sediment was faster under fresh water (0 g L(-1)) versus saline conditions (10 and 20 g L(-1)). The adsorption coefficient (K(f)) at low salinity (0 g L(-1)) was 17,302 whereas the K(f) at 10 and 20 g L(-1) were 5,344 and 4,263, respectively. Paraquat desorption was greater at higher salinity, which is similar to the salinity of estuarine or seawater. Approximately 12-31 % of sorbed paraquat in fresh water and saline sediment (7.67 and 7.98 mg kg(-1)) were released when leaching with 20 g L(-1) salinity. The amount of paraquat released was in proportion to the amount sorbed. Results show that increases in salinity resulting from salt water intrusion from the lower estuary into the Pak Phanang River Basin would result in release of adsorbed paraquat from sediment into the water column.

  16. Alluvial and colluvial sediment storage in the Geul River catchment (The Netherlands) — Combining field and modelling data to construct a Late Holocene sediment budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moor, J.J.W.; Verstraeten, G.


    We used a combined approach of a two-dimensional erosion and hillslope sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) and detailed geomorphological reconstructions to quantify the different components in a sediment budget for the Geul River catchment (southern Netherlands) since the High Middle Ages.

  17. Estuarine sediment acute toxicity testing with the European amphipod Corophium multisetosum Stock, 1952. (United States)

    Ré, Ana; Freitas, Rosa; Sampaio, Leandro; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor


    This study assessed the use of the European amphipod Corophium multisetosum Stock [Stock, J.H., 1952. Some notes on the taxonomy, the distribution and the ecology of four species of the genus Corophium (Crustacea, Malacostraca). Beaufortia 21, 1-10] in estuarine sediment acute toxicity testing. The sensitivity of adults to the reference toxicant CdCl(2) was determined in water-only 96 h exposures in salinity 2. LC(50) values ranged from 0.33mgCd(2+)L(-1) at 22 degrees C to 0.57mgCd(2+)L(-1) at 15 degrees C. Adult survival was studied in control sediment with water salinity from 0 to 36 and with fine particles content (sediment, dry weight. Experiments were conducted at 15, 18 and 22 degrees C and the results indicate that the species can be used under the full salinity range although higher mortality was observed at the lower salinity in the higher water temperature, and at the higher salinity in the lower water temperature. The species also tolerated the studied range of sediment fines content and showed the highest sensitivity at intermediate values of fines, especially at the higher temperature, thus advising that tests which have to accommodate sediments with a wide range in fines content should preferably be conducted at 15 degrees C rather than at 22 degrees C. The response in natural sediments was studied in samples collected yearly from 1997 to 2006, at a site located off the Tagus Estuary, western Portugal. A major flood event in winter 2000-2001 induced detectable alterations in sediment baseline descriptors (grain-size, redox potential and total volatile solids), organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, DDT metabolites and gamma-HCH) and the macrofauna benthic community. Mortality of the amphipod diminished significantly from the before to the after flood period, in close agreement with diminishing sediment contamination and increasing benthic fauna diversity, in the same time period. C. multisetosum is suitable to conduct acute sediment toxicity tests and

  18. Dispersal and transport of river sediment on the Catalan Shelf (NW Mediterranean Sea). (United States)

    Grifoll, Manel; Gracia, Vicente; Espino, Manuel; Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín


    A three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamics-sediment transport model for the Catalan shelf (NW Mediterranean Sea) is implemented and used to represent the fluvial sediment transport and depositional patterns. The modelling system COAWST (Warner et al., 2010) allows to exchange field from the water circulation model ROMS and the wave model SWAN including combined wave-current bed stress and both sediment transport mechanisms: bed and suspended load. Two rivers surrounding Barcelona harbour are considered in the numerical experiments. Different temporal and spatial scales are modelled in order to evaluate physical mechanisms such as: fine deposits formation in the inner-shelf, harbour siltation or sediment exporting to the outer shelf. Short-time simulations in a high-resolution mesh have been used to reproduce the initial stages of the sediment dispersal. In this case, sediment accumulation occurs confined in an area attached to the coastline. A subsequent reworking is observed due to the wave-induced bottom stresses which resuspend fine material exported then towards the mid-shelf by seawards fluxes. The long-term water circulation simulations explains the observed fine deposits over the shelf. The results provide knowledge of sediment transport processes in the near-shore area of a micro-tidal domain. REFERENCES: Warner, J.C., Armstrong, B., He, R., and Zambon, J.B., 2010, Development of a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system: Ocean Modeling, v. 35, no. 3, p. 230-244.

  19. Sedimentation problems in a lateral dock on the Paraná River (United States)

    Latessa, Gaston; Sabarots Gerbec, Martin; Arecco, Pablo


    The Paraná River is one of the largest water courses in the world and along its reach in the Argentine territory, it receives a large load of sediments from the Pilcomayo and Bermejo Rivers, through the Paraguay River, in the upper basin at the North of Argentina and South of Bolivia. The suspended sediment load is estimated in 100 Million ton/year. This unique characteristic drives the Paraná River morphology downstream, as well as the Paraná delta morphodynamics. On top of its natural behaviour, the Paraná-Paraguay river system is an important inland waterway transport corridor, with a significant amount of sea going vessels and inland barges navigating throughout stretches of more than 3000 Km. Consequently, there are numerous port complexes and terminals along the river banks. The typical wet infrastructure of these terminals is usually composed by jetties and quay walls, and occasionally with side or lateral docks. Whereas, the case included within this study presents all these components. This study presents a hydrodynamic and sedimentology 3D model to predict the velocity fields and the associated shear stresses that will drive morphological processes in the lateral dock. The terminal layout, side dock configuration, and sedimentation issues will be analyzed from multidisciplinary point of view, under different hydrological events and considering the correlated sediment loads. Recent bathymetry studies had been carried out and this set of data will be implemented to build the domain geometry. The flow series is as well extended with the up to date gauged flows and levels, to carry out statistical analysis and identify the design flows for different probabilities. The main objective of this analysis will be to understand and identify the scour and deposition processes and the possible problems to the structures safety and the operation of the docks, and introduce variations to the baseline design, if necessary. Results will be contrasted and validated

  20. Analysis of Sedimentation Rates in the Densu River Channel: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    dams, pipes, canals, bridges, water treatment processes and in the evaluation of quality of water problems (Ayibotele & Tuffour-Darko, ... The degradation of the basin is attributed to the increase in the population of districts through which the river flows, particularly in the Greater Accra Region. For instance, the population of ...

  1. Distributions, Early Diagenesis, and Spatial Characteristics of Amino Acids in Sediments of Multi-Polluted Rivers: A Case Study in the Haihe River Basin, China (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Shan, Baoqing; Tang, Wenzhong; Zhang, Hong; Rong, Nan; Ding, Yuekui


    The Haihe River Basin, which is one of the most water-scarce and polluted river basins in China, has abnormally high nitrogen levels. In this study, total hydrolyzable amino acids (THAAs) were measured in surface sediment and sediment core samples in the Haihe River Basin to determine if amino acids were potential sources of ammonium, organic nitrogen, and organic carbon. The rivers were found to be in a state of hypoxia and contain abnormally high levels of ammonium and organic nitrogen. Additionally, NH3-N was the predominant form of inorganic nitrogen in the surface sediments, while organic nitrogen accounted for 92.53% of sedimentary nitrogen. THAAs-C accounted for 14.92% of the total organic carbon, while THAAs-N accounted for more than 49.59% of organic nitrogen and 45.68% of total nitrogen. The major fraction of THAAs were protein amino acids. Three sediment cores of the most heavily polluted rivers also showed high levels of THAAs. Evaluation of the degradation index (DI) of sedimentary organic matter in sediments evaluated based on the THAAs revealed that most positive DI values were found in the downstream portion of the Ziya River Watershed. Additionally, the DI of surface sediment was correlated with THAAs (r2 = 0.763, p amino acids in sediments were found to be an important potential source of ammonium, organic nitrogen, and organic carbon. PMID:26907310

  2. Transport and bottom accumulation of fine river sediments under typhoon conditions and associated submarine landslides: case study of the Peinan River, Taiwan (United States)

    Osadchiev, Alexander; Korotenko, Konstantin; Zavialov, Peter; Chiang, Wen-Son; Liu, Cheng-Chi


    A combination of a three-dimensional Eulerian ocean circulation model (POM) and a Lagrangian particle-tracking model (STRiPE) is used to study the fate of fine river sediments discharged by the Peinan River at the south-eastern coast of the Taiwan Island. The composite model is verified against in situ measurements and applied to simulate primary sediment deposition under freshet and typhoon discharge conditions of the Peinan River. It is shown that local wind plays a crucial role in sediment transport and settling at the coastal area through its influence on the river plume dynamics and turbulent mixing in the upper layer. Wind forcing conditions generally determine the location of the sediment deposit area, while its final pattern is defined by coastal circulation as modulated by the geometry of the coast and local bathymetry. In the study, region river-born sediments are deposited to the sea floor mainly in the shallow shelf areas. A significant portion of discharged fine sediments is moved offshore to the deeper ocean where it is further advected and dispersed by strong coastal circulation mainly governed by the Kuroshio Current. The performed numerical experiments showed that sediment accumulation rate under typhoon conditions is about two orders of magnitude greater comparing to freshet condition. Basing on the simulation results, we identified areas of continental shelf and continental slope adjacent to the Peinan River estuary which exhibit high risk of formation of submarine landslides during and shortly after the typhoon events.

  3. Historical record of mercury contamination in sediments from the Babeni Reservoir in the Olt River, Romania. (United States)

    Bravo, Andrea Garcia; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Ancey, Lydie; Ungureanu, Viorel Gheorghe; Dominik, Janusz


    Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous and hazardous contaminant in the aquatic environment showing a strong biomagnification effect along the food chain. The most common transfer path of Hg to humans is contaminated fish consumption. In severely exposed humans, Hg poisoning may lead to damage in the central nervous system. Thus, it is important to examine current and past contamination levels of Hg in aquatic milieu. The Olt River is the largest Romanian tributary of the Danube River. The use of Hg as an electrode in a chlor-alkali plant contributed to the contamination of the aquatic environment in the Rm Valcea region. The purpose of this study was to compare the current state of Hg contamination with the past contamination using a historical record obtained from a dated sediment core from one of the Olt River reservoirs (Babeni) located downstream from the chlor-alkali plant. To our knowledge, no published data on Hg contamination in this region are available. The Babeni Reservoir was selected for this study because it is situated downstream from the chlor-alkali plant, whilst the other reservoirs only retain the pollutants coming from the upstream part of the watershed. Preliminary analyses (unpublished) showed high Hg concentrations in the surface sediment of the Babeni Reservoir. One core was taken in the upstream Valcea Reservoir to provide a local background level of Hg concentrations in sediments. Sediment texture was uniform in the cores from both reservoirs. Laminated sediment structure, without any obvious discontinuities, was observed. Hg concentrations in the sediment core from the Valcea Reservoir were low and constant (0.01-0.08 mg/kg). In Babeni Reservoir sediments, Hg concentrations were very high in the deeper core section (up to 45 mg/kg in the longest core) and decreased to lower concentrations toward the top of the cores (1.3-2.4 mg/kg). This decrease probably reflects technological progress in control of emissions from the Hg-cell-based chlor

  4. Potential risks of metal toxicity in contaminated sediments of Deule river in Northern France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz; Lesven, Ludovic; Charriau, Adeline [Equipe de Chimie Analytique et Marine, Universite de Lille 1, FRE CNRS Geosystemes 3298, Bat. C8, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Billon, Gabriel, E-mail: [Equipe de Chimie Analytique et Marine, Universite de Lille 1, FRE CNRS Geosystemes 3298, Bat. C8, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ouddane, Baghdad [Equipe de Chimie Analytique et Marine, Universite de Lille 1, FRE CNRS Geosystemes 3298, Bat. C8, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Boughriet, Abdel [Universite Lille Nord de France, Rue de l' Universite, P.O. Box 819, 62408 Bethune (France)


    Research highlights: {yields} A historical environmental pollution is evidenced with reference to background levels. {yields} Sedimentary trace metals partitioning is examined under undisturbed conditions. {yields} Anoxia and diagenetic processes induce geochemical and mineralogical variabilities. {yields} Do metals present in particles and pore waters exhibit a potential toxicity risk? {yields} Behaviour of binding fractions contributes to trace metals scavenging. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the potential sediment cumulative damage and toxicity due to metal contamination in a polluted zone of Deule river (in northern France) from nearby two smelters. Metal-enrichment factors and geoaccumulation indices measured with sediment depth revealed that - compared to background levels either in local reference soils or in world rivers sediments/suspended particulate matter - Cd contributed to the highest pollution levels, followed by Zn, Pb and to a much lesser extent Cu and Ni. A comparison of the vertical distribution of AVS (acid volatile sulfides), SEM (simultaneously extracted metals), TMC (total metal concentrations), TOC (total organic carbon) and interstitial water-metal concentrations in the sediment allowed us to highlight the extent of toxicity caused by Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu and to raise the possibility of their association with certain geochemical phases. To assess the actual environmental impacts of these metals in Deule river, numerical sediment quality guidelines were further used in the present work. Sedimentary Pb, Zn, and Cd contents largely exceeded PEC (probable effect concentration) values reported as consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. As for risks of toxicity from pore waters, metal concentrations reached their maxima at the surficial layers of the sediment (1-3 cm) and IWCTU (Interstitial Water Criteria Toxicity Unit) observed for Pb and to a lesser extent Cd, violated the corresponding water

  5. Contrasting mountain and piedmont dynamics of sediment discharge associated with groundwater storage variation in the Biobío River


    Violeta Tolorza; Sébastien Carretier; C. Andermann; Francisco Ortega-Culaciati; Luisa Pinto; María Mardones


    Supply and transport of sediment in catchments involve processes with fundamental consequences for river management, land use, and the prediction of climate-driven sediment fluxes. In the present study we addressed spatial variability in the water routes through the surface and subsurface of a catchment and the suspended sediment discharge (Q(s)) over a mountain-piedmont system. We analyzed daily suspended sediment concentration (C-s) and water discharge (Q) measurements at stations located i...

  6. Reservoir Sediment Management Workshop for Tuttle Creek Lake and Perry Lake Reservoirs in the Kansas River Basin (United States)


    ERDC/CHL CHETN-XIV-43 March 2015 Reservoir Sediment Management Workshop for Tuttle Creek Lake and Perry Lake Reservoirs in the Kansas River...was on ways to transport sediment from the reservoirs to the downstream channels, using concepts promoted by the USACE Regional Sediment Management...INTRODUCTION: Sedimentation in USACE reservoirs decreases available storage and may have deleterious effects on the reservoirs ’ authorized purposes

  7. Experiments in dam removal, sediment pulses and channel evolution on the Clark Fork River, MT and White Salmon River, WA (United States)

    Wilcox, A. C.


    Two recent dam removals on tributaries to the Columbia River in the northwestern United States present contrasting examples of how dam removal methods, reservoir contents, and geomorphic settings influence system responses. The 2008 removal of Milltown Dam, from the Clark Fork River (CFR), Montana, and the 2011 removal of Condit Dam from the White Salmon River (WSR), Washington (Table 1), represent two of the largest dam removals to date. The Milltown Dam removal was notable because the dam stored millions of cubic meters of contaminated mine tailings, a portion of which were excavated as part of Superfund remediation but a portion of which flowed downstream after the removal. On the CFR, post-breach high flows in 2008 produced reservoir erosion and downstream deposition in bed interstices, along bars, and on the floodplain, but above-average (3-15 year recurrence interval) floods since then have remobilized this material and have, to a large extent, erased signs of downstream sedimentation. The Condit Dam removal entailed dynamiting of a 4m by 5.5m hole at the base of the dam, which produced rapid and dramatic draining of fine reservoir sediments within hours of the blast. Downstream of Condit Dam, the initial hyperconcentrated flows and sediment pulse draped the WSR with fine sediment, filled pools, and, in an unconfined reach influenced by the Columbia River's backwater, caused meters of aggradation and new bar formation. In the confined, bedrock-dominated reach downstream of the Condit site, pool-riffle structure has started to reemerge as of summer 2012 and the finest bed materials have been evacuated from the main channel, although sediment storage in pools and eddies persists. Whereas post-breach geomorphic responses on the CFR have been largely driven by hydrology, the post-breach evolution of the WSR has been predominantly influenced by antecedent geomorphic conditions (slope, confinement, and Columbia River backwater). On both the CFR and WSR, the pace of

  8. Tracing suspended sediment sources in the Upper Sangamon River Basin using conservative and non-conservative tracers (United States)

    Yu, M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Stumpf, A.


    As the awareness of water pollution, eutrophication and other water related environmental concerns grows, the significance of sediment in the transport of nutrients and contaminants from agricultural areas to streams has received increasing attention. Both the physical and geochemical properties of suspended sediment are strongly controlled by sediment sources. Thus, tracing sources of suspended sediment in watersheds is important for the design of management practices to reduce sediment loads and contributions of sediment-adsorbed nutrients from agricultural areas to streams. However, the contributions of different sediment sources to suspended sediment loads within intensively managed watersheds in the Midwest still remain insufficiently explored. This study aims to assess the provenance of suspended sediment and the relation between channel morphology and production of suspended sediment in the Upper Sangamon River Basin, Illinois, USA. The 3,690-km2 Upper Sangamon River Basin is characterized by low-relief, agricultural lands dominated by row-crop agriculture. Sediment source samples were collected in the Saybrook from five potential sources: farmland, forests, floodplains, river banks, and grasslands. Event-based and accumulated suspended sediment samples were collected by ISCO automatic pump samplers and in situ suspended sediment samplers and from the stream at watershed outlet. A quantitative geochemical fingerprinting technique, combining statistically verified multicomponent signatures and an un-mixing model, was employed to estimate the relative contributions of sediment from five potential sources to the suspended sediment loads. Organic matter content, trace elements, and radionuclides from soil samples were used as potential tracers. Our preliminary results indicate that the majority of suspended sediment is derived from floodplains in the downstream portions of the watersheds, while only minor amounts of suspended sediment are derived from upland

  9. Comparison of pollution indices for the assessment of heavy metal in Brisbane River sediment. (United States)

    Duodu, Godfred Odame; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A


    Estuarine environment is complex and receives different contaminants from numerous sources that are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. The distribution, source, contamination and ecological risk status of heavy metals in sediment of Brisbane River, Australia were investigated. Sediment samples were analysed for major and minor elements using LA-ICP-MS. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis identified three main sources of metals in the samples: marine sand intrusion, mixed lithogenic and sand intrusion as well as transport related. To overcome inherent deficiencies in using a single index, a range of sediment quality indices, including contamination factor, enrichment factor, index of geo-accumulation, modified degree of contamination, pollution index and modified pollution index were utilised to ascertain the sediment quality. Generally, the sediment is deemed to be "slightly" to "heavily" polluted. A further comparison with the Australian Sediment Quality Guidelines indicated that Ag, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn had the potential to rarely cause biological effects while Hg could frequently cause biological effects. Application of potential ecological risk index (RI) revealed that the sediment poses moderate to considerable ecological risk. However, RI could not account for the complex sediment behaviour because it uses a simple contamination factor. Consequently, a modified ecological risk index (MRI) employing enrichment factor is proposed. This provides a more reliable understanding of whole sediment behaviour and classified the ecological risk of the sediment as moderate to very high. The results demonstrate the need for further investigation into heavy metal speciation and bioavailability in the sediment to ascertain the degree of toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The River Tisza is Hungary’s especially important river. It is significant not only because of the source of energy and the value insured by water (hydraulical power, shipping route, stock of fish,aquatic environment etc. but the active floodplain between levees as well. Ploughlands, orchards, pastures, forests and oxbow lakes can be found here. They play a significant role in the life of the people living near the river and depend considerably on the quality of the sediments settled by the river. Several sources of pollution can be found in the catchment area of the River Tisza and some of them significantly contribute to the pollution of the river and its active floodplain. In this paper we study the concentration of zinc, copper, nickel and cobalt in sediments settled in the active floodplain and the ratio of these metals taken up by plants. Furthermore, our aim was to study the vertical distribution of these elements by the examination of soil profiles. The metal content of the studiedarea does not exceed the critical contamination level, except in the case of nickel, and the ratio of metals taken up by plants does not endanger the living organisms. The vertical distribution of metals in the soil is heterogeneous, depending on the ratio of pollution coming from abroad and the quality of flood.

  11. Runoff and Sediment load of the Yan River, China: changes over the last 60 yr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Wang


    Full Text Available Runoff and sediment load changes are affected by climate change and human activities in an integrated way. Historical insight into these effects can not only improve the knowledge of river processes, but also promote more effective land and water management. In this study, we looked at runoff and sediment change in the Yan River basin, Loess Plateau, China, using data sets on land use and land cover (LUC, monthly data of precipitation and temperature, and observed data on runoff and sediment load from 1952 to 2010 at the Ganguyi Hydrologic Station. Available data on soil and water conservation structures and their effect were also studied. Five main findings emerged from the data analysis. (1 The annual runoff and sediment load varied greatly during the last 60 yr, and both had coefficients of variation that were much larger than those of precipitation and temperature. (2 Annual runoff and sediment load both showed a significant trend of linear decline over the period studied. The climate data showed a non-significant decline in precipitation over the same period, and a very significant increase in temperature; both can help explain the observed declines in runoff and soil loss. (3 Based on a mass curve analysis with anomalies of normalized runoff and sediment load, 4 stages in the change of runoff and soil loss were identified: 1951 to 1971 (Stage I, 1972 to 1986 (Stage II, 1987 to 1996 (Stage III and 1997 to 2010 (Stage IV. (4 When years were paired based on similar precipitation and temperature condition (SPTC and used to assess the impacts of human activities, it was found that 6 sets of paired years out of 12 (50% showed a decline in runoff, 8 (67% a decline in sediment load, and 9 (75% a decline in sediment concentration. The other sets show an increasing change with time. It showed the complexity of human impacts. (5 Human impacts relating to LUC change and soil and water measures in this basin were significant because of both the

  12. Experimental Salix shoot and root growth statistics on the alluvial sediment of a restored river corridor (United States)

    Pasquale, N.; Perona, P.; Verones, F.; Francis, R.; Burlando, P.


    River restoration projects encompass not only the amelioration of flood protection but also the rehabilitation of the riverine ecosystem. However, the interactions and feedbacks between river hydrology, riparian vegetation and aquifer dynamics are still poorly understood. Vegetation interacts with river hydrology on multiple time scales. Hence, there is considerable interest in understanding the morphodynamics of restored river reaches in relation to the characteristics of vegetation that may colonize the bare sediment, and locally stabilize it by root anchoring. In this paper we document results from a number of ongoing experiments within the project RECORD (Restored CORridor Dynamics, sponsored by CCES - - and Cantons Zurich and Thurgau, CH). In particular, we discuss both the above and below ground biomass growth dynamics of 1188 Salix cuttings (individual and group survival rate, growth of the longest shoots and number of branches and morphological root analysis) in relation to local river hydrodynamics. Cuttings were organized in square plots of different size and planted in spring 2009 on a gravel island of the restored river section of River Thur in Switzerland. By periodical monitoring the plots we obtained a detailed and quite unique set of data, including root statistics of uprooted samples derived from image analysis from a high-resolution scanner. Beyond describing the survival rate dynamics in relation to river hydrology, we show the nature and strength of correlations between island topography and cutting growth statistics. In particular, by root analysis and by comparing empirical histograms of the vertical root distribution vs satured water surface in the sediment, we show that main tropic responses on such environment are oxytropism, hydrotropism and thigmotropism. The main factor influencing the survival rate is naturally found in erosion by floods, of which we also give an interesting example that helps demonstrate the role of river

  13. Tracking sedimentation from the historic A.D. 2011 Mississippi River flood in the deltaic wetlands of Louisiana, USA (United States)

    Khan, Nicole S.; Horton, Benjamin P.; McKee, Karen L.; Jerolmack, Douglas; Falcini, Federico; Enache, Mihaela D.; Vane, Christopher H.


    Management and restoration of the Mississippi River deltaic plain (southern United States) and associated wetlands require a quantitative understanding of sediment delivery during large flood events, past and present. Here, we investigate the sedimentary fingerprint of the 2011 Mississippi River flood across the Louisiana coast (Atchafalaya Delta, Terrebonne, Barataria, and Mississippi River Delta basins) to assess spatial patterns of sedimentation and to identify key indicators of sediment provenance. The sediment deposited in wetlands during the 2011 flood was distinguished from earlier deposits based on biological characteristics, primarily absence of plant roots and increased presence of centric (planktonic) diatoms indicative of riverine origin. By comparison, the lithological (bulk density, organic matter content, and grain size) and chemical (stable carbon isotopes of bulk organic matter) properties of flood sediments were nearly identical to the underlying deposit. Flood sediment deposition was greatest in wetlands near the Atchafalaya and Mississippi Rivers and accounted for a substantial portion (37% to 85%) of the annual accretion measured at nearby monitoring stations. The amount of sediment delivered to those basins (1.1–1.6 g cm−2) was comparable to that reported previously for hurricane sedimentation along the Louisiana coast (0.8–2.1 g cm−2). Our findings not only provide insight into how large-scale river floods influence wetland sedimentation, they lay the groundwork for identifying previous flood events in the stratigraphic record.

  14. Chemical study of sediments from Solimoes and Negro rivers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose O. dos [Coordenacao de Cursos Tecnicos e Superiores. Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sergipe, Lagarto, SE (Brazil); Munita, Casimiro S., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Soares, Emilio A.A., E-mail: [Departamento de Geociencias. Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)


    The events of the last 70,000 yrs of the history of the Solimoes-Amazon river system are recorded in the fluvial terraces at region of confluence of the Negro and Solimoes rivers, and are markers of changes in the landscape of the Amazon region and it can be observed by analyzing the sedimentary deposits quaternary in Amazon fluvial system. The aim of this work was to contribute with the characterization sedimentological - stratigraphic of Pleistocene succession of the confluence zone of the Negro and Solimoes rivers by means of elemental chemical analysis. To provenance study, 24 elements were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis from sediment samples collected at confluence of Negro and Solimoes rivers and the results were interpreted using cluster and linear discriminant analysis, which classification to priori were samples previously defined according to Pleistocene stratigraphic units individualized at study area. According to discriminant analysis, one can infer that samples from the basin of the Solimoes River and Parana do Ariau grabens (GPA) are not significantly different, but there was a clear separation of sediments from Negro and GPA groups. It was also obtained that samples from highest and lowest terraces that the of the Solimoes river and Parana do Ariau are different, suggesting that it is a process that reflects the influence of chemical weathering on the uppermost terrace deposits. Thus, this work contributes to determine the contribution of the sediments deposited by the Solimoes and Negro rivers in the filling of tectonic depressions and in the variations of degree of weathering between younger and older units, and provides additional subsidies to build the geological evolution of the area. (author)

  15. Background concentrations of radionuclides in soils and river sediments in northern New Mexico, 1974-1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.J.; Buhl, T.E.; Maes, M.N.; Brown, F.H.


    This report documents the range and the upper limit for background concentrations of radionuclides and radioactivity in soils and river sediments that occur as natural rock-forming minerals and worldwide fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Documentation is based on the collection of soil and sediment in northern New Mexico and analyzed for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239,240/Pu, /sup 90/Sr, total uranium, gross gamma, and tritium. The data used to establish the statistical range and upper limit of background concentration cover a 9- or 13-year period ending in 1986. The knowledge of background levels is necessary to interpret soil and sediment data collected for the annual environmental surveillance report and other reports relating to radionuclides or radioactivity in soils and sediments. 11 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  16. The Effects of Varying Salinity on Ammonium Exchange in Estuarine Sediments of the Parker River, Massachusetts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weston, Nathaniel B.; Giblin, Anne E; Banta, Gary Thomas


    We examined the effects of seasonal salinity changes on sediment ammonium (NH4+) adsorption and exchange across the sediment–water interface in the Parker River Estuary, by means of seasonal field sampling, laboratory adsorption experiments, and modeling. The fraction of dissolvedNH4+relative...... to adsorbedNH4+in oligohaline sediments rose significantly with increased pore water salinity over the season. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that small (∼3) increases in salinity from freshwater conditions had the greatest effect onNH4+adsorption by reducing the exchangeable pool from 69% to 14......% of the totalNH4+in the upper estuary sediments that experience large (0–20) seasonal salinity shifts.NH4+dynamics did not appear to be significantly affected bysalinity in sediments of the lower estuary where salinities under 10 were not measured. We further assessed the importance of salinity...

  17. Energy Harvesting From River Sediment Using a Microbial Fuel Cell: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Namour


    Full Text Available We have built a sedimentary fuel cell or Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell (SMFC. The device works on the principle of microbial fuel cells by exploiting directly the energy contained in sedimentary organic matter. It converts in electricity the sediment potential, thanks to microorganisms able to waste electrons from their metabolism directly to a solid anode instead of their natural electron acceptors, such as oxygen or nitrate. The sediment microbial fuel cell was made of a non-corrodible anode (graphite buried in anoxic sediments layer and connected via an electrical circuit to a cathode installed in surface water. We present the first results of laboratory sedimentary fuel cell and a prototype installed in the river.

  18. Assessing the impact of chemical pollution on benthic invertebrates from three different European rivers using a weight-of-evidence approach. (United States)

    Wolfram, G; Höss, S; Orendt, C; Schmitt, C; Adámek, Z; Bandow, N; Großschartner, M; Kukkonen, J V K; Leloup, V; López Doval, J C; Muñoz, I; Traunspurger, W; Tuikka, A; Van Liefferinge, C; von der Ohe, P C; de Deckere, E


    The aim of this study was to combine different lines of evidence on the impact of chemical pollution on benthic invertebrate communities in three European river basins (Elbe, Scheldt, and Llobregat). The study integrates chemical analyses, a battery of different sediment toxicity tests, and field data from soft-sediment meio- and macrobenthic fauna within a sediment-quality triad in which chironomids, oligochaetes, and nematodes are identified on the species level. The use of TU (toxic units) and msPAF (multi-substance potentially affected fraction) in an approach assessing the chemical impact as well as the integration of sediment toxicity tests with bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), benthic invertebrates (Caenorhabditis elegans, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Lumbriculus variegatus, Chironomus riparius), and fish embryos (Danio rerio), together with univariate and non-parametric multivariate statistical analyses of the biological data revealed significant differences between unpolluted and polluted sites in all three river basins. To combine the different results obtained in the sediment-quality triad, a scoring system was successfully developed based on a simple algorithm. This system provides an easily understandable scheme for non-experts among decision makers and water managers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimating of suspended sediment loads of rivers in the Seine downstream basin and coastal rivers in Southeastern Channel (United States)

    Landemaine, Valentin; Cerdan, Olivier; Laignel, Benoit; Fournier, Matthieu; Copard, Yoann


    Sediment exports in rivers constitute the essential of materials transfer from the land surface to the ocean and contribute significantly to the transfer of nutrients, pesticides, heavy metals which can affect water quality. Such problems of water pollution are particularly present at the Norman loess plateaus because soil erosion is a frequent phenomena and mudslides are common. In this context, the quantification of sediment load, as well as the short and long term variability analysis are a key component for any sustainable management project of water resources. The quantification of sediment fluxes is based on turbidity, suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) and discharge measurements. These measurements must be made with sufficient high frequency for integrating temporal variability of SSC and flows. However, the cost of a high frequency monitoring limits their use at large scale. In France, discharges are monitored using daily frequency (Banque Hydro), while SSC are measured in monthly or bimonthly frequency under the national water quality survey system (RNB). With these low frequency measurements, an algorithm must be used to reconstruct SSC temporal variability and to estimate a sediment flux. Many estimation algorithms have been developed in recent decades, from the simplest to the most elaborate, but no consensus has been reached on the use of a particular algorithm because of the complexity of SSC-discharge relationship. In this study, the analysis focuses on eight Channel coastal watersheds and nine Seine watersheds in the downstream part. We have a several years of high-frequency measurements on nine watersheds with highly variable area (10 km² to 10,000 km²) and low-frequency measurements for all watersheds. From these data, we compared the statistical performance of eleven algorithms to estimate sediment fluxes conventionally used in the literature. These algorithms are: averaging estimator, ratio estimator, linear interpolation, rating curve

  20. An assessment of the suspended sediment rating curve approach for load estimation on the Rivers Bandon and Owenabue, Ireland (United States)

    Harrington, Seán T.; Harrington, Joseph R.


    This paper presents an assessment of the suspended sediment rating curve approach for load estimation on the Rivers Bandon and Owenabue in Ireland. The rivers, located in the South of Ireland, are underlain by sandstone, limestones and mudstones, and the catchments are primarily agricultural. A comprehensive database of suspended sediment data is not available for rivers in Ireland. For such situations, it is common to estimate suspended sediment concentrations from the flow rate using the suspended sediment rating curve approach. These rating curves are most commonly constructed by applying linear regression to the logarithms of flow and suspended sediment concentration or by applying a power curve to normal data. Both methods are assessed in this paper for the Rivers Bandon and Owenabue. Turbidity-based suspended sediment loads are presented for each river based on continuous (15 min) flow data and the use of turbidity as a surrogate for suspended sediment concentration is investigated. A database of paired flow rate and suspended sediment concentration values, collected between the years 2004 and 2011, is used to generate rating curves for each river. From these, suspended sediment load estimates using the rating curve approach are estimated and compared to the turbidity based loads for each river. Loads are also estimated using stage and seasonally separated rating curves and daily flow data, for comparison purposes. The most accurate load estimate on the River Bandon is found using a stage separated power curve, while the most accurate load estimate on the River Owenabue is found using a general power curve. Maximum full monthly errors of - 76% to + 63% are found on the River Bandon with errors of - 65% to + 359% found on the River Owenabue. The average monthly error on the River Bandon is - 12% with an average error of + 87% on the River Owenabue. The use of daily flow data in the load estimation process does not result in a significant loss of accuracy on

  1. Climate and land-use changes affecting river sediment and brown trout in alpine countries--a review. (United States)

    Scheurer, Karin; Alewell, Christine; Bänninger, Dominik; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia


    Catch decline of freshwater fish has been recorded in several countries. Among the possible causes, habitat change is discussed. This article focuses on potentially increased levels of fine sediments going to rivers and their effects on gravel-spawning brown trout. Indications of increased erosion rates are evident from land-use change in agriculture, changes in forest management practices, and from climate change. The latter induces an increase in air and river water temperatures, reduction in permafrost, changes in snow dynamics and an increase in heavy rain events. As a result, an increase in river sediment is likely. Suspended sediment may affect fish health and behaviour directly. Furthermore, sediment loads may clog gravel beds impeding fish such as brown trout from spawning and reducing recruitment rates. To assess the potential impact on fine sediments, knowledge of brown trout reproductive needs and the effects of sediment on brown trout health were evaluated. We critically reviewed the literature and included results from ongoing studies to answer the following questions, focusing on recent decades and rivers in alpine countries. Have climate change and land-use change increased erosion and sediment loads in rivers? Do we have indications of an increase in riverbed clogging? Are there indications of direct or indirect effects on brown trout from increased suspended sediment concentrations in rivers or from an increase in riverbed clogging? Rising air temperatures have led to more intensive precipitation in winter months, earlier snow melt in spring, and rising snow lines and hence to increased erosion. Intensification of land use has supported erosion in lowland and pre-alpine areas in the second half of the twentieth century. In the Alps, however, reforestation of abandoned land at high altitudes might reduce the erosion risk while intensification on the lower, more easily accessible slopes increases erosion risk. Data from laboratory experiments show

  2. Geochemical translocation of thallium in the sediments from the North River, China (United States)

    Liu, J.


    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic rare heavy metal. As a sulphophile element, it usually occurs in numerous sulphide minerals (such as pyrite, galena, sphlerite). Guangdong north region, known as the hometown of nonferrous metals, has abundant containing Tl mineral resources. Numerous industrial activities, such as mining, smelting, and electroplating are also flourishing. In 2010, a serious Tl pollution in the North River (a major river in the Northern Guangdong Province) shocked the society. The Tl pollution in water appeared to be under control after that incident. But in fact, even if the wastewater discharge of pollution sources has been controlled, the potential risk of heavy metal pollution in the sediments of the North River still exists, for the metals are easy to precipitate and accumulate into sediment from water. So far, Tl pollution in sediments has been studied to a very limited extent. In this paper, we investigated the content and vertical distribution characteristics of Tl and some other related heavy metals in a typical sediment profile from the North River by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Then the Pb isotopic compositions in the sediments were measured by using multi-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Several sediments from typical layers were also subjected to sequential extraction procedure for investigating the geochemical fractions of Tl. The risk of Tl and other metal pollution was finally assessed by calculating geo-accumulation indexes (Igeo) and potential ecological risk. The results showed that: (1) Tl concentrations range 1.03 mg/kg to 3.13 mg/kg with a mean of 1.89 mg/kg, three times higher than that in local background soil; (2) Tl content generally increased with depth with some fluctuations and significant correlations were found between Tl and Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, and Ni; (3) About 46 % to 70 % in sediment cores were resided in the residual fraction; (4) Igeo showed that the studied

  3. Bathymetry, topography, and sediment grain-size data from the Elwha River delta, Washington, February 2016 (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Warrick, Jonathan; Miller, Ian M.; Weiner, Heather M.


    Two dams on the Elwha River, Washington State, USA trapped over 20 million m3 of sediment, reducing downstream sediment fluxes and contributing to erosion of the river's coastal delta. The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams between 2011 and 2014 induced massive increases in river sediment supply and provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine the response of a delta system to changes in sediment supply. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an integrated research program aimed at understanding the ecosystem responses following dam removal. The research program included repeated surveys of beach topography, nearshore bathymetry, and surface sediment grain size to quantify changes in delta morphology and texture following the dam removals. For more information on the USGS role in the Elwha River Restoration Project, please visit This USGS data release presents data collected during surveys of nearshore bathymetry, beach topography, and surface sediment grain size from the Elwha River delta, Washington. Survey operations were conducted between February 15 and February 19, 2016 (USGS Field Activity Number 2016-608-FA) by a team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC), Washington State Department of Ecology (WA DOE), Washington Sea Grant, and National Park Service (table 1). Nearshore bathymetry data were collected using two personal watercraft (PWCs) and a kayak, each equipped with single-beam echosounders and survey-grade global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). Topography data were collected on foot with GNSS mounted on backpacks. Positions of the survey platforms were referenced to a GNSS base station placed on a nearby benchmark with known horizontal and vertical coordinates. Depths from the echosounders were computed using sound velocity profiles measured with a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor during the survey. A total of 126 km of

  4. Modification of the Revised Morgan-Morgan-Finney model for estimating sediment yield in large river basins (United States)

    Loos, S.; Van der Perk, M.; Van Beek, L. P. H.; Middelkoop, H.


    The RiNux model has been developed to simulate and predict monthly nutrient fluxes from land to coastal waters under various scenarios of global change. The RiNux model consists of different modules for simulating the hydrology, sediment transport, and nutrient transport within river basins at a 3 km resolution using available global data sets for input variables. The sediment transport module simulates the supply of sediment from the hillslopes to and transport through the river network and accounts for sediment detachment and transport capacity on hillslopes, transfer to and transport in the river channel network, conveyance losses due to sediment deposition in lakes and reservoirs, and overbank sedimentation on floodplains. To estimate sediment supply from hillslopes to the river network, we employed an adapted version of the Revised Morgan-Morgan-Finney (RMMF) model. As the RMMF model is intended for the prediction of annual soil loss in small-scale catchments, we accounted for the difference in scales between the RMMF and RiNux models by introducing appropriate scaling parameters for both spatial upscaling (from the original approximately 100 m resolution to the 3 km RiNux model resolution) and temporal downscaling (from an annual to a monthly resolution). In addition, the RiNux sediment module accounts for the limitation of the transfer of sediment from the hillslopes to the river channel due to the generally low slope gradients in the riparian zone. For this, we introduced an additional transport capacity parameter for the riparian zone, which was estimated taking into account the sub-grid variability using the SRTM digital elevation model (~ 90 m ×90 m). The transport capacity of the riparian zone was calculated from the average slope gradient in the SRTM grid cells adjacent to the river channel cells. The parameter values for RiNux sediment transport module were borrowed from the literature without further calibration. Test runs for three large river

  5. Chromium in water, suspended particles, sediments and biota in the Iraja River estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, W.C.; Fiszman, M.; de Lacerda, L.D.; van Weerfelt, M.; Carbonell, N.


    Analyses of chromium concentrations in waters, suspended particles, bottom sediments, fish (Poecilia reticulata), plants (Paspalum vaginatum, Sesuvium portulacastrum, Philoxeros vermicularis), soils and barnacles (Balanus sp.) were performed from August 1976 to September 1980 in samples collected from the Iraja River and inside its estuary in Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Sediments and water from the Iraja River showed chromium concentrations of 17536 and 23.39 ppm--a thousand times higher than the published data for freshwater systems. Chromium removed from solution by bottom sediments reaches Guanabara Bay linked to particulate matter. Fish and emergent grass inside the river concentrate chromium from water and/or sediment, returning the metal to the system as detritus. Soil and plants inside the estuary concentrate chromium thirty and ten times higher than in the control area. The vegetal community exhibits a concentration factor smaller than that related to soil and prevents the return of chromium to the estuarine waters. Inside the Guanabara Bay, Balanus sp. appears to be an effective biological monitor as it concentrates chromium in soft tissues 10/sup 3/ times higher than values found in suspended particles (0.012 ml/sup -1/).

  6. Content, distribution and fate of 33 elements in sediments of rivers receiving wastewater in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcussen, Helle [Department of Natural Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Stigboejlen 4, 1870 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)], E-mail:; Dalsgaard, Anders [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Stigboejlen 4, 1870 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Holm, Peter E. [Department of Natural Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)


    Untreated industrial and domestic wastewater from Hanoi city is discharged into rivers that supply water for various agricultural and aquacultural food production systems. The aim of this study was to assess the content, distribution and fate of 33 elements in the sediment and pore water of the main wastewater receiving rivers. The sediment was polluted with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) with maximum concentrations of 73 As, 427 Cd, 281 Cr, 240 Cu, 218 Ni, 363 Pb, 12.5 Sb and 1240 Zn mg kg{sup -1} d.w. Observed distribution coefficients (log{sub 10} K{sub d,obs}) were calculated as the ratio between sediment (mg kg{sup -1} d.w.) and pore water (mg L{sup -1}) concentrations. Maxima log{sub 10} K{sub d,obs} were >4.26 Cd, >6.60 Cu, 4.78 Ni, 7.01 Pb and 6.62 Zn. The high values show a strong PTE retention and indicate the importance of both sorption and precipitation as retention mechanisms. Sulphide precipitation was a likely mechanism due to highly reduced conditions. - Sorption and precipitation processes are important in retention of potentially toxic elements in Hanoi river sediment and prevent elements entering food production systems.

  7. Decabrominated diphenyl ether in river fish and sediment samples collected downstream an industrial park. (United States)

    Eljarrat, Ethel; Labandeira, Ana; Marsh, Göran; Raldúa, Demetrio; Barceló, Damià


    Fish, sediment and water samples from different places along the Spanish River Vero, a tributary of the Cinca River in the Ebro River basin, were collected in two different sampling campaigns, the first one during November 2004 and the second one in November 2005. The samples were collected up- and downstream from an industrial park. A total of 29 fishes, 6 sediments and 3 water samples were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Analytical work included 23 congeners, from tri- to deca-BDEs. The highest values for both sediment and fish samples were found downstream of the industrial park. High BDE-209 contamination was found in these sediment samples, with values up to 12 microg g(-1) dry weight. Moreover, BDE-209 was detected in 14 out of 15 biota samples collected downstream the industrial park, at concentration levels ranging from 20 to 707 ng g(-1) lipid weight, whereas it was not detected in samples collected upstream. These fish concentrations proved the bioavailability of BDE-209 and represented the highest deca-BDE values found in aquatic biota. The analysis of industrial effluents revealed that some industries contribute in some way to the BDE-209 contamination found in this area, but the industry focused on the polyamide polymerization is the main responsible.

  8. The investigation of sediment processes in rivers by means of the Acoustic Doppler Profiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guerrero


    Full Text Available The measurement of sediment processes at the scale of a river cross-section is desirable for the evaluation of many issues related to river hydro-morphodynamics, such as the calibration and validation of numerical models for predicting the climate change impacts on water resources and efforts of maintenance of the navigation channel and other hydraulic works. Suspended- and bed-load have traditionally been measured by cumbersome techniques that are difficult to apply in large rivers. The acoustics for the investigation of small-scale sedimentological processes gained acceptance in the marine community because of its ability to simultaneously profile sediment concentration and size distribution, non-intrusively, and with high temporal and spatial resolution. The application of these methods in true riverine case studies presents additional difficulties, mainly related to water depths and stream currents that limit sound propagation into water and challenge the instruments deployment, especially during floods. This article introduces the motivations for using the ADCP for sediment processes investigation other than for flow discharge measurement, summarizes the developed methods and indicates future desirable improvements. In addition, an application on the Po River in Italy is presented, focusing on the calibration of the existing software by means of ADCP recordings. The calibrated model will assist in planning the dredging activities to maintain the navigation channel and the intake of a pump station for irrigation that is periodically obstructed with a sandbar.

  9. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Sediments of Inflow Rivers to Lake Taihu, China. (United States)

    Niu, Yong; Niu, Yuan; Pang, Yong; Yu, Hui


    Lake Taihu, the third-largest freshwater body in China, has many functions, including drinking water supply, flood control, cultivation, navigation, and tourism. In this study, sediment samples were collected at 31 sites from 11 inflow rivers in 2012, to investigate the distribution and concentration of heavy metals copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr), and to assess their potential ecological risk. The highest mean concentration was found for Zn, followed by Cu, Cr, Pb, and Ni. Generally, heavy metal pollution was more serious in Wu Jingang River and Caoqiao River, probably because they receive large amounts of wastewater from various local industrial enterprises. The potential ecological risk values of the heavy metals were larger than 120 in more than 25.8% of the sediment samples, indicating a very high risk. The largest ecological risk was due to copper. Furthermore, the results of a principal component analysis and subsequent analysis of variance showed that heavy metal concentrations in the sediment of inflow rivers were higher than those of the lake, which created a large hazard for the aquatic ecosystems of Lake Taihu.

  10. Heavy metals concentration in water and sediments of the Prut River lower sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matache M. L.


    Full Text Available A 120 km sector of the Prut River, Eastern Romania, was surveyed for the concentration of four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in water and sediments samples. The analysed sector is located on the border between Romania and Moldova and it is part of the Lower Prut Floodplain Natural Park. The most important steel-producing factory in Romania is located in the park vicinity. Four campaigns have been performed for water collection during different river regimes (both flooding and drought. The water quality is an essential condition for the wetland ecosystems within the park area and the aquatic biota they support, as trace elements bioaccumulation along the food webs might appear (David et al., 2012. Sediments can provide useful information regarding mid- and long-term pollution of the aquatic bodies, being capable of sequestering and releasing important amounts of heavy metals depending on the river regime and extreme situations (van Gestel, 2008; Verhoeven, 2009. For the sediments samples, there is an ascendant trend from upstream to the junction with the Danube River, as the distance to the main urban pole approaches, consequence of a strong human insertion. Romanian standards were used for comparison (MEWM, 2006.

  11. Sediment accumulation owing to backwater effect in the lower reach of the Stung Sen River, Cambodia (United States)

    Nagumo, Naoko; Kubo, Sumiko; Sugai, Toshihiko; Egashira, Shinji


    We examined channel bars at two sites in the lower reach of the Stung Sen River, which flows into Lake Tonle Sap, Cambodia, to identify sediment transport and accumulation processes during monsoon-related flood events and to investigate how sediment transport capacity changes as a result of enhanced backwater effect of the lake. Channel bars in the lower reach of the Stung Sen River that emerge in the dry season were classified into type A (lateral bars), type B (point bars), type C (concave-bank benches) and type D (diagonal and island bars, or fluvial dunes) based on Nagumo et al.'s previous study. Type B, type C, and type D channel bars were at our study sites of SEN-01 and SEN-02, about 83 and 77 km from the river mouth respectively. Computation of water surface profiles showed that sediment transport capacity of the Stung Sen River decreased abruptly after the peak flow stage because of the backwater effect from Lake Tonle Sap during the decreasing flow stage. Our observations suggest that alternating layers of sand and silt to clay layers accumulate to form type C channel bars, corresponding to changes in sediment transport capacity controlled by backwater effects from Lake Tonle Sap and by changes in flow depths and associated slackwater systems. The accumulation of alternating silt and sand layers of type B channel bars results from lateral sediment transportation that is accelerated with an increase of secondary flow, whereas development of type D channel bars is related to bedload mobility.

  12. Potential linkage between sediment oxygen demand and pore water chemistry in weir-impounded rivers. (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Hee; Jung, Heon-Jae; Kim, Sung-Han; An, Sung-Uk; Choi, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Huh, In-Ae; Hur, Jin


    Due to recent weir construction on four major rivers in South Korea, sediment has accumulated in the river bottom near the weirs, which has in turn raised concerns over the quality of overlying water. In this study, the seasonal and spatial variations of sediment oxygen demand (SOD) and the influencing factors were explored using pore water chemistry for the weir-impounded rivers. Muddy and sandy sediment samples were taken from 24 different sites along the four major rivers in summer and autumn, 2016. The SOD was measured in a laboratory based on 10-hour incubation at in situ temperature. The measured pore water chemistry included the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), inorganic nitrogen (NH3-N, NO3-N, NO2-N), and phosphate phosphorous (PO4-P), and the optical properties from UV absorption spectra and fluorescence excitation-emission matrixes coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC). Significant differences in SOD values between muddy and sandy sediments were found only in summer (p=0.047). The higher SOD in summer versus autumn (p=0.015) was attributed to seasonal temperature differences. The higher NH3-N and the lower NO3-N of the pore water samples in summer versus autumn suggested that organic nitrogen decomposition via an ammonification and nitrification process could operate as an important factor for the SOD variations in summer and autumn, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed the mutual contributions of nitrogen-associated processes and the organic composition in pore water to increasing SOD levels. NH3-N in sediment pore water alone could be a good predictor for SOD. However, multiple regression analysis using NH3-N, fluorescence index and terrestrial humic-like components improved the estimation capability for SOD variations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Continuous monitoring of sediment and nutrients in the Illinois River at Florence, Illinois, 2012-13 (United States)

    Terrio, Paul J.; Straub, Timothy D.; Domanski, Marian M.; Siudyla, Nicholas A.


    The Illinois River is the largest river in Illinois and is the primary contributing watershed for nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended-sediment loading to the upper Mississippi River from Illinois. In addition to streamflow, the following water-quality constituents were monitored at the Illinois River at Florence, Illinois (U.S. Geological Survey station number 05586300), during May 2012–October 2013: phosphate, nitrate, turbidity, temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen. The objectives of this monitoring were to (1) determine performance capabilities of the in-situ instruments; (2) collect continuous data that would provide an improved understanding of constituent characteristics during normal, low-, and high-flow periods and during different climatic and land-use seasons; (3) evaluate the ability to use continuous turbidity as a surrogate constituent to determine suspended-sediment concentrations; and (4) evaluate the ability to develop a regression model for total phosphorus using phosphate, turbidity, and other measured parameters. Reliable data collection was achieved, following some initial periods of instrument and data-communication difficulties. The resulting regression models for suspended sediment had coefficient of determination (R2) values of about 0.9. Nitrate plus nitrite loads computed using continuous data were found to be approximately 8 percent larger than loads computed using traditional discrete-sampling based models. A regression model for total phosphorus was developed by using historic orthophosphate data (important during periods of low flow and low concentrations) and historic suspended-sediment data (important during periods of high flow and higher concentrations). The R2of the total phosphorus regression model using orthophosphorus and suspended sediment was 0.8. Data collection and refinement of the regression models is ongoing.

  14. Modelling of Sediment Transport of the Mehadica River, Caras Severin County, Romania (United States)

    Grozav, Adia; Beilicci, Robert; Beilicci, Erika


    Study case is situated in Caras-Severin County. Every sediment transport model application is different both in terms of time and space scale, study objectives, required accuracy, allocated resources, background of the study team etc. For sediment transport modelling, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the sediment in the river bed. Therefore, it is recommended to collect a number of bed sediment grap samples. These samples should be analysing in terms of grain size distribution. To solve theoretical problems of movement of water in the river Mehadica, it requires modelling of water flow in this case. Numerical modelling was performed using the program MIKE11. MIKE 11 is a user-friendly, fully dynamic, one-dimensional modelling tool for the detailed analysis, design, management and operation of both simple and complex river and channel systems. With its exceptional flexibility, speed and user friendly environment, MIKE 11 provides a complete and effective design environment for engineering, water resources, water quality management and planning applications. The Hydrodynamic (HD) module is the nucleus of the MIKE 11 modelling system and forms the basis for most modules including Flood Forecasting, Advection- Dispersion, Water Quality and Non-cohesive sediment transport modules. The MIKE 11 HD module solves the vertically integrated equations for the conservation of mass and momentum, i.e. the Saint-Venant equations. The input data are: area plan with location of cross sections; cross sections topographical data and roughness of river bed; flood discharge hydrograph. Advanced computational modules are included for description of flow over hydraulic structures, including possibilities to describe structure operation.

  15. Control of Sediment Availability on the Path of Channel Recovery in Bedload-Dominated Rivers (United States)

    Doyle, H.; Renshaw, C. E.; Magilligan, F. J.


    Following a disturbance, a channel can recover to an equilibrium form by adjusting its slope, width, depth, grain size, or some combination of these dimensions that define the recovery path. In this study we relate the channel recovery path to the quantity and caliber of sediment introduced due to dam construction/removal or erosion caused by flooding. We suggest that the recovery path of a channel depends on the availability of sediment of a size that is transported as bedload during bankfull flows (the "mobile fraction"). We define a ratio, S*, of the sediment volume added to the channel because of the disturbance to the average annual sediment flux. We compare S* values to the recovery path of New England gravel-bedded streams following two dam emplacements and removals and flooding related to Tropical Storm Irene. Pelham Dam in Pelham, MA (removed 2012) and Kendrick Dam in Pittsford, VT (removed 2014) were on similar streams: drainage areas ~25 km2, slopes 1-2%, and bankfull widths ~10 m. Sediment was excavated from both impoundments prior to removal, resulting in lower S* values. Irene-affected study sites are on ~10 gravel-bedded streams in VT, NH, and MA. Sediment input at these sites is due to bank failures and landslides, many of which continue to supply sediment to the channel four years after flooding. To track recovery we collected annual topographic and sediment size data and calculated Shields numbers to determine if channels had reached an equilibrium form. We define equilibrium for bedload rivers as Shields numbers at bankfull discharge equal to that required to initiate bedload transport. Following dam emplacements the channels failed to recover because mobile sediment was unavailable. Fining dominated the recovery at Irene-affected sites (~10% reduction in sediment size) and dam removal sites (up to 30-60% reduction) with little post-disturbance change in channel geometry, possibly due to the limited mobile fraction.

  16. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.


    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

  17. Sediment-hosted contaminants and distribution patterns in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River Deltas (United States)

    Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Ferina, Nicholas; Dreher, Chandra


    The Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers transport very large amounts of bedload and suspended sediments to the deltaic and coastal environments of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Absorbed onto these sediments are contaminants that may be detrimental to the environment. To adequately assess the impact of these contaminants it is first necessary to develop an understanding of sediment distribution patterns in these deltaic systems. The distribution patterns are defined by deltaic progradational cycles. Once these patterns are identified, the natural and industrial contaminant inventories and their depositional histories can be reconstructed. Delta progradation is a function of sediment discharge, as well as channel and receiving-basin dimensions. Fluvial energy controls the sediment distribution pattern, resulting in a coarse grained or sandy framework, infilled with finer grained material occupying the overbank, interdistributary bays, wetlands and abandoned channels. It has been shown that these fine-grained sediments can carry contaminants through absorption and intern them in the sediment column or redistribute them depending on progradation or degradation of the delta deposit. Sediment distribution patterns in delta complexes can be determined through high-resolution geophysical surveys and groundtruthed with direct sampling. In the Atchafalaya and Mississippi deltas, remote sensing using High-Resolution Single-Channel Seismic Profiling (HRSP) and Sidescan Sonar was correlated to 20-ft vibracores to develop a near-surface geologic framework that identifies variability in recent sediment distribution patterns. The surveys identified bedload sand waves, abandoned-channel back-fill, prodelta and distributary mouth bars within the most recently active portions of the deltas. These depositional features respond to changes in deltaic processes and through their response may intern or transport absorbed contaminants. Characterizing these features provides insight into the

  18. Sediment load and distribution in the lower Skagit River, Skagit County, Washington (United States)

    Curran, Christopher A.; Grossman, Eric E.; Mastin, Mark C.; Huffman, Raegan L.


    The Skagit River delivers about 40 percent of all fluvial sediment that enters Puget Sound, influencing flood hazards in the Skagit lowlands, critically important estuarine habitat in the delta, and some of the most diverse and productive agriculture in western Washington. A total of 175 measurements of suspended-sediment load, made routinely from 1974 to 1993, and sporadically from 2006 to 2009, were used to develop and evaluate regression models of sediment transport (also known as “sediment-rating curves”) for estimating suspended-sediment load as a function of river discharge. Using a flow-range model and 75 years of daily discharge record (acquired from 1941 to 2015), the mean annual suspended-sediment load for the Skagit River near Mount Vernon, Washington, was estimated to be 2.5 teragrams (Tg, where 1 Tg = 1 million metric tons). The seasonal model indicates that 74 percent of the total annual suspended‑sediment load is delivered to Puget Sound during the winter storm season (from October through March), but also indicates that discharge is a poor surrogate for suspended‑sediment concentration (SSC) during the summer low-flow season. Sediment-rating curves developed for different time periods revealed that the regression model slope of the SSC-discharge relation increased 66 percent between the periods of 1974–76 and 2006–09 when suspended-sediment samples were collected, implying that changes in sediment supply, channel hydraulics, and (or) basin hydrology occurred between the two time intervals. In the relatively wet water year 2007 (October 1, 2006, through September 30, 2007), an automated sampler was used to collect daily samples of suspended sediment from which an annual load of 4.5 Tg was calculated, dominated by a single large flood event that contributed 1.8 Tg, or 40 percent of the total. In comparison, the annual load calculated for water year 2007 using the preferred flow-range model was 4.8 Tg (+6.7 percent), in close agreement with

  19. Age, distribution, and significance within a sediment budget, of in-channel depositional surfaces in the Normanby River, Queensland, Australia (United States)

    Pietsch, T. J.; Brooks, A. P.; Spencer, J.; Olley, J. M.; Borombovits, D.


    We present the results of investigations into alluvial deposition in the catchment of the Normanby River, which flows into Princess Charlotte Bay (PCB) in the northern part of the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. Our focus is on the fine fraction (LiDAR based mapping combined with optical dating of exposures cut into these in-channel deposits to compare their aggradation rates with those found in other depositional zones in the catchment, namely the floodplain and coastal plain. In total 59 single grain OSL dates were produced across 21 stratigraphic profiles at 14 sites distributed though the 24 226 km2 catchment. In-channel storage in these inset features is a significant component of the contemporary fine sediment budget (i.e. recent decades/last century), annually equivalent to more than 50% of the volume entering the channel network from hillslopes and subsoil sources. Therefore, at the very least, in-channel storage of fine material needs to be incorporated into sediment budgeting exercises. Furthermore, deposition within the channel has occurred in multiple locations coincident in time with accelerated sediment production following European settlement. Generally, this has occurred on a subset of the features we have examined here, namely linear bench features low in the channel. This suggests that accelerated aggradation on in-channel depositional surfaces has been in part a response to accelerated erosion within the catchment. The entire contribution of ~ 370 kilotonnes per annum of fine sediment estimated to have been produced by alluvial gully erosion over the last ~ 100 years can be accounted for by that stored as in-channel alluvium. These features therefore can play an important role in mitigating the impact on the receiving water of accelerated erosion.

  20. The influence of a semi-arid sub-catchment on suspended sediments in the Mara River, Kenya. (United States)

    Dutton, Christopher L; Subalusky, Amanda L; Anisfeld, Shimon C; Njoroge, Laban; Rosi, Emma J; Post, David M


    The Mara River Basin in East Africa is a trans-boundary basin of international significance experiencing excessive levels of sediment loads. Sediment levels in this river are extremely high (turbidities as high as 6,000 NTU) and appear to be increasing over time. Large wildlife populations, unregulated livestock grazing, and agricultural land conversion are all potential factors increasing sediment loads in the semi-arid portion of the basin. The basin is well-known for its annual wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) migration of approximately 1.3 million individuals, but it also has a growing population of hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius), which reside within the river and may contribute to the flux of suspended sediments. We used in situ pressure transducers and turbidity sensors to quantify the sediment flux at two sites for the Mara River and investigate the origin of riverine suspended sediment. We found that the combined Middle Mara-Talek catchment, a relatively flat but semi-arid region with large populations of wildlife and domestic cattle, is responsible for 2/3 of the sediment flux. The sediment yield from the combined Middle Mara-Talek catchment is approximately the same as the headwaters, despite receiving less rainfall. There was high monthly variability in suspended sediment fluxes. Although hippopotamus pools are not a major source of suspended sediments under baseflow, they do contribute to short-term variability in suspended sediments. This research identified sources of suspended sediments in the Mara River and important regions of the catchment to target for conservation, and suggests hippopotami may influence riverine sediment dynamics.

  1. Metal removal and associated binding fraction transformation in contaminated river sediment washed by different types of agents


    Wang, Hong; Liu, Tongzhou; Feng, Shuai; Zhang, Weihua


    In ex-situ washing, HCl, EDTA and H2O2 solutions can effectively extract heavy metals in river sediment. Nevertheless they often target different sediment components, possibly transforming metal species into more bioavailable and hence toxic ones. This study, in batch settings, investigated the influences of different types of washing agents (i.e. HCl, EDTA and H2O2) on metal (i.e. Cu and Zn) removal from contaminated river sediment, destroy or dissolution of sediment components, and transfor...

  2. Hierarchy of factors which influence polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) distribution in river sediments. (United States)

    Liu, An; Duodu, Godfred O; Mummullage, Sandya; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha


    The sediment environment provides habitat for fauna and flora. As pollutants can interchange between water and sediments, pollution will exert a significant influence on the water environment. Previous studies on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) pollution of sediments have primarily focused on the comparison of concentrations between seasons, land uses and species. Studies on the identification of the hierarchy of factors which influence PAHs distribution and its variability in river sediments are limited. This paper discusses a comprehensive investigation into the inherent variability of PAHs in sediments and the primary factors which influence this variability. The study outcomes confirmed that key factors exerting influence on PAH distribution in sediments can be ranked in the order: land use > population > seasons. Accordingly, intensive urban land use was identified as the most important factor influencing PAHs distribution. Additionally, it was found that with increasing urban development, PAHs concentrations and their variability in sediments increase in terms of the molecular weight of different species. The study outcomes are expected to enhance management strategies to mitigate PAHs pollution of urban water environments including the prioritisation of factors requiring management and the selection of appropriate approaches in the context of cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heavy metal concentration of river sediment in the light of the environmental quality standard value of Japan from the river in and around the Tokyo Japan: A case study at the Tama, Tsurumi, Edo and Ara rivers (United States)

    Watanabe, K.; Matsumoto, I.


    The river sediment is basically composed of clastic materials derived from the surface of the Earth. Purpose of our study is clarify the quantitative estimation of ratio of influence given to river sediment of nature and human activity by using of heavy metals. We show the geochemical and geological characteristics of stream sediments from the Tama, Tsurumi, Edo and Ara Rivers that flow in Tokyo bay, Japan. We show research results of the degree of contamination in above four rivers that are the relativery polluted river in Japan. Sediment samples collected from various points along the upper and lower streams were subjected to content analysis and elution analysis (using liquate (flow) out test) on the heavy metals like Cd, CN, Pb, Cr(6+), As and Hg from the river sediment for the purpose of environment assessment. Content of Cd, CN, Pb, Cr(6+), As, and Hg except Pb was above the environmental quality limit in few locations of the Tsurumi river. However, in the down-river part (mouth region) Pb-concentration was 10 times higher than at the source regions as the result of human impact; for Hg the same tendency was detected at the all rivers. This study is the first research that investigated river sediment in the light of the envirnomental quality standard in Tokyo area, Japan.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sorption process to the "black carbon" (BC) component in river sediments (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Séquaris, Jean-Marie; Narres, Hans-Dieter; Vereecken, Harry; Klumpp, Erwin


    The importance of BC for the long term sequestration of organic carbon is actually discussed for mitigating climate change. In this context, the role of BC as a filter or source of nutrients or toxic chemicals is questioned. The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is especially concerned. In this study, we have investigated the binding of PAH compounds, pyrene and phenanthrene, to Yangtze River sediments. For this purpose, the PAHs sorption to pristine and preheated sediments at 375°C was studied, which allow discriminating the contributions of amorphous organic carbon (AOC) and black carbon (BC) fractions to the PAH sorption extent. An analytical procedure for the determination of PAHs in the solution phase of the batch experiments has been developed with fluorescence spectroscopy. The PAHs sorption isotherms to pristine sediments were fitted by Freundlich and composite models as linear Langmuir model (LLM) and linear Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes model (LPDMM). The sequential application of composite models LLM and LPDMM to the sorption isotherms allows assessing the partition of PAHs into AOC and its nonlinear adsorption in the porous structure of BC. The modelling results indicate that the PAHs sorption to minor BC component of sediments (molecular sieving plays an important role in the competitive PAHs sorption in a multi-solute system. J. Zhang, Ph.D. Dissertation, RWTH Aachen, Germany, 2010 J. Zhang et al., Effects of organic carbon and clay fractions on the pyrene sorption and distribution in Yangtze River sediments (submitted). J. Zhang et al., Pyrene and phenanthrene sorptions to Yangtze River sediments and their components in single and binary solute systems (submitted)

  5. Application of hierarchical Bayesian unmixing models in river sediment source apportionment (United States)

    Blake, Will; Smith, Hugh; Navas, Ana; Bodé, Samuel; Goddard, Rupert; Zou Kuzyk, Zou; Lennard, Amy; Lobb, David; Owens, Phil; Palazon, Leticia; Petticrew, Ellen; Gaspar, Leticia; Stock, Brian; Boeckx, Pacsal; Semmens, Brice


    Fingerprinting and unmixing concepts are used widely across environmental disciplines for forensic evaluation of pollutant sources. In aquatic and marine systems, this includes tracking the source of organic and inorganic pollutants in water and linking problem sediment to soil erosion and land use sources. It is, however, the particular complexity of ecological systems that has driven creation of the most sophisticated mixing models, primarily to (i) evaluate diet composition in complex ecological food webs, (ii) inform population structure and (iii) explore animal movement. In the context of the new hierarchical Bayesian unmixing model, MIXSIAR, developed to characterise intra-population niche variation in ecological systems, we evaluate the linkage between ecological 'prey' and 'consumer' concepts and river basin sediment 'source' and sediment 'mixtures' to exemplify the value of ecological modelling tools to river basin science. Recent studies have outlined advantages presented by Bayesian unmixing approaches in handling complex source and mixture datasets while dealing appropriately with uncertainty in parameter probability distributions. MixSIAR is unique in that it allows individual fixed and random effects associated with mixture hierarchy, i.e. factors that might exert an influence on model outcome for mixture groups, to be explored within the source-receptor framework. This offers new and powerful ways of interpreting river basin apportionment data. In this contribution, key components of the model are evaluated in the context of common experimental designs for sediment fingerprinting studies namely simple, nested and distributed catchment sampling programmes. Illustrative examples using geochemical and compound specific stable isotope datasets are presented and used to discuss best practice with specific attention to (1) the tracer selection process, (2) incorporation of fixed effects relating to sample timeframe and sediment type in the modelling

  6. Thermokarst and export of sediment and organic carbon in the Sheldrake River watershed, Nunavik, Canada (United States)

    Jolivel, Maxime; Allard, Michel


    spatiotemporal computation of permafrost decay covering the period from 1957 to 2009 and validated by field investigations was made over a 76 km2 river catchment straddling the tree line, in the discontinuous permafrost zone, east of Hudson Bay, in order to estimate the amounts of sediments and organic carbon released by thermokarst. Lithalsas and palsas are the dominant permafrost landforms, whereas thermokarst ponds, landslides, active layer failures, and gullies are the main features of permafrost degradation. Results show that 21% of the existing permafrost in 1957 had disappeared in 2009, resulting in a 96% growth of the thermokarst pond cover and a 46 to 217% increase of the number of active erosion landforms. An increase of stream connectivity related with the degradation of permafrost potentially allowed for an increase of sediments and carbon delivery to the main stream by a factor of 1.6. Volume of active landslides and gullies also increased by 12 to 38%, enhancing sediment and organic matter yields. Significant differences in permafrost degradation and in sediment and carbon inputs were observed along an east-west transect, from sites located at the head of the watershed near the tree line to sites located downstream close to the Hudson Bay coast. Thermokarst ponds in the forest tundra area released 2.3 times more sediments and dissolved organic carbon per unit of area in the fluvial system than in the shrub tundra area. Despite these yields by thermokarst, the Sheldrake River catchment currently does not seem to be yielding proportionally more sediments and carbon than a permafrost-free river catchment.

  7. Nile River sediment fluctuations over the past 7000 yr and their key role in sapropel development (United States)

    Krom, Michael D.; Stanley, J. Daniel; Cliff, Robert A.; Woodward, Jamie C.


    The provenance pattern of Nile River sediments can be used as a proxy for paleoclimatic changes in East Africa. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios are particularly appropriate for such provenance investigations, because the White Nile drains predominantly crystalline basement rocks, whereas the Blue Nile and Atbara flow off the Ethiopian Highlands, which consist of Tertiary volcanic rocks. A high-resolution profile of 87Sr/86Sr and Ti/Al ratios from a well-dated core in the Nile Delta shows a close correspondence with known changes in Nile flow over the past 7000 yr. At times of higher river flow there was markedly decreased input of Blue Nile derived and total sediment. This change was caused by northward movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone, resulting in increased vegetative cover in the Ethiopian Highlands due to higher rainfall and a longer wet season. This inverse relationship between Nile River flow and sediment flux may have had important implications in the development of agricultural technology in ancient Egypt. The marked minimum in 87Sr/86Sr at 4200 4500 yr B.P. is coincident with the end of the Old Kingdom in Egypt and provides independent evidence that demise of the Old Kingdom might have been associated with an extended period of catastrophic low floods. During the Quaternary and late Neogene, there was periodic deposition of organic-rich sediments (sapropels) in the eastern Mediterranean that represent important indicators of major environmental change. Evidence from the Ti/Al ratio suggests that the pattern of erosion and sediment supply from the Nile catchment observed in this study also occurred throughout much of the Neogene and Quaternary. The reduced inputs of Blue Nile sediment during times of sapropel formation contributed to the increased primary productivity by reducing the amount of phosphate removed on particles and to the observed change to N limitation in the eastern Mediterranean, which are important characteristics of sapropel deposition.

  8. Suspended-sediment loads in the lower Stillaguamish River, Snohomish County, Washington, 2014–15 (United States)

    Anderson, Scott A.; Curran, Christopher A.; Grossman, Eric E.


    Continuous records of discharge and turbidity at a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgage in the lower Stillaguamish River were paired with discrete measurements of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in order to estimate suspended-sediment loads over the water years 2014 and 2015. First, relations between turbidity and SSC were developed and used to translate the continuous turbidity record into a continuous estimate of SSC. Those concentrations were then used to predict suspended-sediment loads based on the current discharge record, reported at daily intervals. Alternative methods were used to in-fill a small number of days with either missing periods of turbidity or discharge records. Uncertainties in our predictions at daily and annual time scales were estimated based on the parameter uncertainties in our turbidity-SSC regressions. Daily loads ranged from as high as 121,000 tons during a large autumn storm to as low as –56 tons, when tidal return flow moved more sediment upstream than river discharge did downstream. Annual suspended-sediment loads for both water years were close to 1.4 ± 0.2 million tons.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorbiłowicz


    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems are a valuable part of natural environment. The increasing level of pollution in waters transforming biocoenoses and other adverse effects of the impact of toxic substances have contributed to the development of biological monitoring. The aim of the study was to determine the changes in contents of zinc and lead in bottom sediments and roots of aquatic plants: Phragmites australis and Acorus calamus in the river Narew. There were 14 points on the river, from where samples of bottom sediments and plant material were collected. The contents of lead and zinc were determined by means of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry using Varian device. It was proven that bottom sediments were characterized by low contents of zinc and lead except from two sampling points: in Bondary and Narew. Achieved results of analyzes of plant material showed a slight exceeding in the case of lead. Spatial distribution of zinc and lead contents in examined roots of plants coincided with their contents in bottom sediments, which was also confirmed by statistical analysis. It was proven that aquatic plants had greater tendency for accumulation of metals than bottom sediments.

  10. Spatial and temporal distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from the Songhua River, China (United States)

    Dong, D.; Guo, Z.; Liu, X.; Hua, X.; Liang, D.


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of typical persistent organic pollutants, widely exist in the environment and are potentially harmful to human health. They can enter the waters through atmospheric deposition, soil leaching, shipping, sewage discharges and surface runoff. In recent years, many studies on the distributions of PAHs in major rivers, lakes and bays around the world have been carried out. In this study, 9 surface sediments (0-10cm) were sampled from the Songhua River in Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces. The contents of 16 PAHs in the US Environmental Protection Agency list of priority pollutants were determined and their spatial distributions were discussed. Sediment cores (50cm length) in three oxbow lakes in this area were also collected and cut into 2 cm thickness sub-samples. PAHs concentrations in these samples were determined and the cores were dated using a 210Pb geochronology technique. Finally, the sedimentary history of PAHs in the Songhua River since the 1920s was revealed. Results indicated that total concentration of the 16 PAHs analyzed in the surface sediments was 187-2079 ng/g (dry weight), and the mean was 1029 ng/g. Sediments collected from near urban areas (Jilin and Harbin City) contained higher PAHs content. Compared with the domestic and international rivers, the PAHs content in this river sediments is at a medium level. The PAHs profiles showed that 2-3 ring PAHs, especially naphthalene, were dominant in all of the samples. Sedimentary flux can reflect the accumulating history of pollutants better. The PAHs fluxes were low and varied little from the 1920s to 1970s, but higher PAH fluxes were found since the 1980s in each core (Fig. 1). The PAHs sedimentary flux near Harbin City (Shuangcheng) was found changed remarkably. We inferred that the PAHs might be influenced by hydrological conditions, population mobility and economic activity in this area. PAHs sedimentary record in the Songhua River revealed that the

  11. River longitudinal profiles and bedrock incision models: Stream power and the influence of sediment supply (United States)

    Sklar, Leonard; Dietrich, William E.

    The simplicity and apparent mechanistic basis of the stream power river incision law have led to its wide use in empirical and theoretical studies. Here we identify constraints on its calibration and application, and present a mechanistic theory for the effects of sediment supply on incision rates which spotlights additional limitations on the applicability of the stream power law. On channels steeper than about 20%, incision is probably dominated by episodic debris flows, and on sufficiently gentle slopes, sediment may bury the bedrock and prevent erosion. These two limits bound the application of the stream power law and strongly constrain the possible combination of parameters in the law. In order to avoid infinite slopes at the drainage divide in numerical models of river profiles using the stream power law it is commonly assumed that the first grid cell is unchanneled. We show, however, that the size of the grid may strongly influence the calculated equilibrium relief. Analysis of slope-drainage area relationships for a river network in a Northern California watershed using digital elevation data and review of data previously reported by Hack reveal that non-equilibrium profiles may produce well defined slope-area relationships (as expected in equilibrium channels), but large differences between tributaries may point to disequilibrium conditions. To explore the role of variations in sediment supply and transport capacity in bedrock incision we introduce a mechanistic model for abrasion of bedrock by saltating bedload. The model predicts that incision rates reach a maximum at intermediate levels of sediment supply and transport capacity. Incision rates decline away from the maximum with either decreasing supply (due to a shortage of tools) or increasing supply (due to gradual bed alluviation), and with either decreasing transport capacity (due to less energetic particle movement) or increasing transport capacity (due less frequent particle impacts per unit bed

  12. Assessment of trace metal contamination in stream sediments of the Tuul River, Mongolia (United States)

    Dalai, B.


    Thirty four sediment samples were collected in Ulaanbaatar basin, along the Tuul River which is the main source of water for the capital city Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. The catchment can be divided three parts (upper, middle, and lower) according to the extent of urbanization. The upper part of the river basin is comparatively less affected by human activity and it can be represent the natural background condition. The middle part is the urban area of Ulaanbaatar and lower part extends SW of the end of the urban area mostly used for agriculture and farming activity. The present study focused on the levels of potentially toxic metals such as As, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr in order to assess the extent of environmental pollution and to discuss the origin of these contaminants in sediments of the Tuul River using X-ray fluorescence analyses. Metal concentrations in the sediments are discussed by comparison with average Upper Continental Crust values (UCC) and ecological risk assessment by reference to sediment quality guidelines (SQG). The results showed thet average abundances of metals are measurable contrast between upper, middle and lower parts of the river. The Upper part and its surrounding area's sediment signature indicated that more depletion comparatively other parts (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr), whereas enrichment sign did not detect. However, among the Upper part sediments, two samples (NA1 and NA2) enriched with trace metals which sampled from Nalaikh area were significantly affected by coal mining activity. Most metals are (As, Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni) higher in the middle part (within the city) than the upper and lower part due to the urban activities. The small tributaries such as Selbe, Uliastai, Gachuurt and Tolgoit were significantly affected by urban activities and highest values are detected from them. Lower part significantly enriched with Cr (av 98 ppm). Highest concentration of Cr (183 ppm) was at Shuvuu which is receiving point of domestic and industrial

  13. Sedimentation and Occurrence and Trends of Selected Nutrients, Other Chemical Constituents, and Diatoms in Bottom Sediment, Fall River Lake, Southeast Kansas, 1948-2006 (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.


    A combination of available bathymetric-survey information and bottom-sediment coring was used to investigate sedimentation and the occurrence of selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 25 trace elements, diatoms, and the radionuclide cesium-137 in the bottom sediment of Fall River Lake, southeast Kansas. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited from 1948 through 2006 in the original conservation pool of the reservoir was 470 million cubic feet and 18.8 billion pounds, respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 36 percent of the original conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the reservoir. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1948 in the original conservation pool of the reservoir was estimated to be 324 million pounds per year. Mean annual net sediment yield from the Fall River Lake Basin was estimated to be 585,000 pounds per square mile per year. The mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of Fall River Lake were estimated to be 648,000 pounds per year and 267,000 pounds per year, respectively. The estimated mean annual net yields of total nitrogen and total phosphorus from the Fall River Lake Basin were 1,170 pounds per square mile per year and 480 pounds per square mile per year, respectively. Throughout the history of Fall River Lake, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the deposited sediment were relatively uniform. Trace element concentrations in the bottom sediment of Fall River Lake generally were uniform over time. Arsenic, chromium, nickel, and zinc concentrations typically exceeded the threshold-effects guidelines, which represent the concentrations above which toxic biological effects occasionally occur. Trace element concentrations did not exceed the probable-effects guidelines (available for eight trace elements), which represent the concentrations above which toxic biological effects

  14. High Frequency Time-series of the Dynamic Sedimentation Processes on the Western Shelf of the Mississippi River Delta (United States)

    Dail, M. B.; Corbett, D. R.; McKee, B.; Duncan, D.


    Rivers annually transport billions of tons of organic and inorganic sediment to coastal environments, making them an extremely important part of global biogeochemical cycles. However, the majority of the freshwater and suspended materials are delivered to the coastal ocean by only a few rivers. In these river-dominated ocean margins (RiOMar), sediments are deposited and re-suspended repeatedly before stable deposition. This sediment cycling is poorly understood and is critical to understanding how deltas and continental shelves, considered to be major repositories of organic carbon in marine sediments, manipulate the global carbon cycle and biogeochemical processes affecting coastal environments. During six cruises in the fall of 2003 (October, November, and December) and spring of 2004 (March, April, and May), on the shelf west of the Mississippi River Delta, sediment samples collected from cores were analyzed for particle reactive radionuclides (210Pb, 137Cs, and 234Th) to create a quantitative high frequency time-series of sediment deposition and erosion processes and evaluate the transport and fate of material on the shelf. Based on previous work completed by Corbett et al. (2004), seasonal variations in short-lived tracers could be explained by river flow and weather conditions. Inventories of the tracers collected during the fall cruises suggest increased deposition during the late summer months and that most sediment reworking and export occurs during the winter months, typically a period of low/increasing river discharge and increased weather forcing.

  15. The mineralogy and trace element constituents of suspended stream sediments of the Linggi River Basin, Malaysia (United States)

    Nather Khan, I. S. A.

    The mineralogy and trace element concentrations of suspended stream sediments were determined at selected stations in the Linggi River Basin, Malaysia, while conducting an intensive study on water quality and a biological assessment of water pollution in the basin. The minerals that were identified from the X-ray patterns of the suspended stream sediments are kaolinite, mica, feldspar and quartz. Kaolinite was the most abundant mineral, followed by mica. By considering mean concentrations of various trace elements, aluminum and manganese were the most abundant elements. Higher concentrations of copper and zinc at some stations were due to pollutants from the nearby Senawang Industrial Estate.

  16. How are River Discharge - Suspended Sediment Relations Influenced by Watershed and Channel-Floodplain Morphology? (United States)

    Vaughan, A. A.; Belmont, P.


    Erosion, transport and deposition of fine sediment (clay, silt and fine sand) influence the form and function of river systems. Excess suspended sediment degrades stream ecosystems and is implicated as a leading cause of water quality and aquatic life impairment. Consequently, understanding the factors that control fine sediment transport regimes is an interesting topic for basic science and one that has important management and policy implications. Fine sediment is mostly transported in suspension as a non-capacity load; transport rates are dependent on sediment supply in addition to a river's transport capacity. Many studies have investigated watershed-scale topographic, hydrologic, climatic, and land use influences on fine sediment erosion and transport regimes. Several recent studies in a wide range of landscapes have demonstrated that the majority of suspended sediment may be sourced from the near-channel environment; therefore, near-channel morphological characteristics may provide better predictive power compared to watershed averages. This study analyzes recent total suspended solids (TSS) data from 45 gages on 35 separate rivers. The rivers span the state of Minnesota, draining basins ranging from 33 km2 to 68100 km2 with distinct settings in terms of topography, land cover, hydrology and geologic history. We generate rating curves of the form TSS = aQb, where Q is normalized discharge and a and b are parameters that describe the shape of the relations. Values of a range from 4 to 138 mg/L; b values range from -0.53 to 1.86. We use high resolution lidar topography data to characterize the near-channel environment upstream of gages. In addition to commonly studied metrics describing the topographic, climatic/hydrologic and land use setting of the basin, we extract near-channel morphometrics that we hypothesize to influence fine sediment generation and transport: the difference in height of banks/bluffs (a measure of the amount of material available to be

  17. Historical accumulation of Trace elements in sediment cores from Tiete river, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, S.; Rocha, F.; Baumgardt, D.; Martins, L.; Silva, P.; Favaro, D. [IPEN-CNEN (Brazil)


    Tiete River, with 1100 km of extension, is one of the most economically important river of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and throughout its length can be found reservoirs formed by damming its waters. This river is considered one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially when it passes through the city of Sao Paulo. As a result of pollution observed since the 1950's, a project was established with the aim of evaluating the historic concentration of the trace elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn ({sup -1}), in sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, sampled is several points of the river, since its source in Salesopolis up the mouth, on the Parana River. This work presents the results obtained by the trace elements above determined in two sediment cores collected in reservoirs in the city of Salesopolis and Pirapora do Bom Jesus. The analytical techniques used for the analysis were instrumental neutron activation analysis and gross beta measurement, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Br, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Nd, Sb, Sm, Th and U are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust and the sedimentation rate obtained for the reservoir in Salesopolis, 1.53 cm.y{sup -1}, suggest silting processes. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  18. Anthropogenic landforms and sediments from dredging and disposing sand along the Apalachicola River and its floodplain (United States)

    Mossa, Joann; Chen, Yin-Hsuen; Walls, Scott P.; Kondolf, G. Mathias; Wu, Chia-Yu


    The Apalachicola River, which begins at the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers near the Georgia-Florida State line, has multiple human impacts. Water inputs declined due to upstream irrigation and urbanization in Georgia. Sediment trapped by numerous small to large dams, including construction of Jim Woodruff Dam in 1954 near the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) confluence has increased degradation. Shortly thereafter, the river was modified for a navigation project, with 29.6 × 106 m3 dredged between 1957 and 2002 from the Apalachicola alone. This study investigates how historic dredging coincides with the modern morphology of the channel and how historic dredging, disposal, and other activities have modified the floodplain landforms and sediments. This analysis of the navigation impacts in the middle Apalachicola River (River Miles 40 to 65) ties spatial and temporal variations of dredging, field-derived bathymetry, historic maps, patterns of floodplain disposal of dredge spoil from LiDAR imagery, and modern point bar channel change of the Apalachicola River. Floodplain mounds of coarse material, built from out-of-bank disposal constitute > 800,000 m3 in the study area. Approximately 7.7 × 106 m3 of sediment was dredged within the study reach, roughly 11% of the volume dredged remains on the floodplain. Sand bars were disposal sites thus their increased area of 263% is partly tied to this practice. Thus, the legacy of dredging affects the modern sedimentology and morphology of the floodplain and channel. Findings show that a failed navigation project could have been pre-empted with better geomorphic, geologic and hydrologic study and suggest that vegetative restoration of point bars would help in narrowing and stabilizing this dynamic system.

  19. Debris flow occurrence and sediment persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO (United States)

    Grimsley, Kyle J; Rathburn, Sara L.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Mangano, Joseph F.


    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  20. Debris Flow Occurrence and Sediment Persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO. (United States)

    Grimsley, K J; Rathburn, S L; Friedman, J M; Mangano, J F


    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  1. Long-term continuous acoustical suspended-sediment measurements in rivers - Theory, application, bias, and error (United States)

    Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.


    It is commonly recognized that suspended-sediment concentrations in rivers can change rapidly in time and independently of water discharge during important sediment‑transporting events (for example, during floods); thus, suspended-sediment measurements at closely spaced time intervals are necessary to characterize suspended‑sediment loads. Because the manual collection of sufficient numbers of suspended-sediment samples required to characterize this variability is often time and cost prohibitive, several “surrogate” techniques have been developed for in situ measurements of properties related to suspended-sediment characteristics (for example, turbidity, laser-diffraction, acoustics). Herein, we present a new physically based method for the simultaneous measurement of suspended-silt-and-clay concentration, suspended-sand concentration, and suspended‑sand median grain size in rivers, using multi‑frequency arrays of single-frequency side‑looking acoustic-Doppler profilers. The method is strongly grounded in the extensive scientific literature on the incoherent scattering of sound by random suspensions of small particles. In particular, the method takes advantage of theory that relates acoustic frequency, acoustic attenuation, acoustic backscatter, suspended-sediment concentration, and suspended-sediment grain-size distribution. We develop the theory and methods, and demonstrate the application of the method at six study sites on the Colorado River and Rio Grande, where large numbers of suspended-sediment samples have been collected concurrently with acoustic attenuation and backscatter measurements over many years. The method produces acoustical measurements of suspended-silt-and-clay and suspended-sand concentration (in units of mg/L), and acoustical measurements of suspended-sand median grain size (in units of mm) that are generally in good to excellent agreement with concurrent physical measurements of these quantities in the river cross sections at

  2. Bathymetry, topography, and sediment grain-size data from the Elwha River delta, Washington, July 2015 (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Warrick, Jonathan; Miller, Ian M.; Weiner, Heather M.


    Two dams on the Elwha River, Washington State, USA trapped over 20 million m3 of sediment, reducing downstream sediment fluxes and contributing to erosion of the river's coastal delta. The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams between 2011 and 2014 induced massive increases in river sediment supply and provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine the response of a delta system to changes in sediment supply. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an integrated research program aimed at understanding the ecosystem responses following dam removal. The research program included repeated surveys of beach topography, nearshore bathymetry, and surface sediment grain size to quantify changes in delta morphology and texture following the dam removals. For more information on the USGS role in the Elwha River Restoration Project, please visit This USGS data release presents data collected during surveys of nearshore bathymetry, beach topography and surface sediment grain size from the Elwha River delta, Washington.  The majority of survey operations were conducted between July 29 and July 31, 2015 (USGS Field Activity Number 2015-648-FA) by a team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC), Washington State Department of Ecology (WA DOE), Washington Sea Grant, and National Park Service (table 1). Grain-size data from sediment samples collected during USGS Field Activity 2015-652-FA are also included in this dataset.Nearshore bathymetry data were collected using two personal watercraft (PWCs), each equipped with single-beam echosounders and survey-grade global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). Topography data were collected on foot with GNSS mounted on backpacks. Positions of the survey platforms were referenced to a GNSS base station placed on a nearby benchmark with known horizontal and vertical coordinates. Depths from the echosounders were computed using sound

  3. Denitrification in the banks of fluctuating rivers: The effects of river stage amplitude, sediment hydraulic conductivity and dispersivity, and ambient groundwater flow (United States)

    Shuai, Pin; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Knappett, Peter S. K.; Bennett, Philip C.; Neilson, Bethany T.


    Hyporheic exchange induced by periodic river fluctuations leads to important biogeochemical processes, particularly nitrogen cycling, in riparian zones (RZs) where chemically distinct surface water and groundwater mix. We developed a two-dimensional coupled flow, reactive transport model to study the role of bank storage induced by river fluctuations on removing river-borne nitrate. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to quantify the effects of river amplitude, sediment hydraulic conductivity and dispersivity, and ambient groundwater flow on nitrate removal rate. The simulations showed that nitrification occurred in the shallower zone adjacent to the bank where oxic river water and groundwater interacted while denitrification occurred deeper into the aquifer and in the riverbed sediments where oxygen was depleted. River fluctuations greatly increased the amount of nitrate being removed; the nitrate removal rate increased as river amplitude increased. Similarly, increasing hydraulic conductivity increased overall nitrate removal since it expanded the denitrifying zone but decreased efficiency. In contrast, increasing sediment dispersivity increased the removal efficien