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Sample records for european rectal cancer

  1. Multidisciplinary Rectal Cancer Management: 2nd European Rectal Cancer Consensus Conference (EURECA-CC2).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentini, V.; Aristei, C.; Glimelius, B.; Minsky, B.D.; Beets-Tan, R.G.; Borras, J.M.; Haustermans, K.; Maingon, P.; Overgaard, J.; Pahlman, L.; Quirke, P.; Schmoll, H.J.; Sebag-Montefiore, D.; Taylor, I.; Cutsem, E. van; Velde, C. van de; Cellini, N.; Latini, P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: During the first decade of the 21st century a number of important European randomized studies were published. In order to help shape clinical practice based on best scientific evidence from the literature, the International Conference on 'Multidisciplinary Rectal Cancer

  2. Immunoscore in Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-13

    Cancer of the Rectum; Neoplasms, Rectal; Rectal Cancer; Rectal Tumors; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Melanoma; Breast Cancer; Renal Cell Cancer; Lung Cancer; Bladder Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Thyroid Cancer

  3. Rectal cancer : developments in multidisciplinary treatment, quality control and European collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijn, Willem van

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades, treatment of rectal cancer has considerably improved in Europe. Although this applies to most solid malignancies, improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of rectal cancer surpass virtually all others. In the early 1990s, outcome after rectal cancer treatment was poor,

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Rectal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Rectal Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  5. Subtypes of fruit and vegetables, variety in consumption and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Max; Siersema, Peter D; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bastide, Nadia; Fagherazzi, Guy; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Klinaki, Eleni; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Peeters, Petra H M; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Ohlsson, Bodil; Jirström, Karin; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Romieu, Isabelle; Huybrechts, Inge; Cross, Amanda J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2015-12-01

    Previously, a lower risk of colorectal cancer was observed with fruit and vegetable consumption in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition within a follow-up period of 9 years which was not fully supported by a recent meta-analysis. Therefore, we were interested in the relation with extended follow-up, also focusing on single subtypes and a variety of intake of fruit and vegetables. Fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed at baseline. After an average of 13 years of follow-up, 3,370 participants were diagnosed with colon or rectal cancer. Diet diversity scores were constructed to quantify variety in fruit and vegetable consumption. A lower risk of colon cancer was observed with higher self-reported consumption of fruit and vegetable combined (HR Q4 vs. Q1 0.87, 95% CI 0.75-1.01, p for trend 0.02), but no consistent association was observed for separate consumption of fruits and vegetables. No associations with risk of rectal cancer were observed. The few observed associations for some fruit and vegetable subtypes with colon cancer risk may have been due to chance. Variety in consumption of fruits and vegetables was not associated with a lower risk of colon or rectal cancer. Although a lower risk of colon cancer is suggested with high consumption of fruit and vegetables, this study does not support a clear inverse association between fruit and vegetable consumption and colon or rectal cancer beyond a follow-up of more than 10 years. Attenuation of the risk estimates from dietary changes over time cannot be excluded, but appears unlikely. © 2015 UICC.

  6. Phase I Study of Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy With 5-Fluorouracil for Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  7. Metabolic syndrome and risks of colon and rectal cancer: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Jenab, Mazda; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Jansen, Eugene; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Fedirko, Veronika; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Romaguera, Dora; Overvad, Kim; Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Morois, Sophie; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Bamia, Christina; Peeters, Petra H; Rodríguez, Laudina; Buckland, Genevieve; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, Jose-María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Hallmans, Göran; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi E; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Pischon, Tobias

    2011-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is purportedly related to risk of developing colorectal cancer; however, the association of MetS, as defined according to recent international criteria, and colorectal cancer has not been yet evaluated. In particular, it remains unclear to what extent the MetS components individually account for such an association. We addressed these issues in a nested case-control study that included 1,093 incident cases matched (1:1) to controls by using incidence density sampling. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% CIs. MetS was defined according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the 2009 harmonized definition. Among individual components, abdominal obesity (RR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.16-1.96) was associated with colon cancer, whereas abnormal glucose metabolism was associated with both colon (RR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.57-2.68) and rectal cancer (RR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.45-2.96). MetS, as defined by each of the definitions, was similarly associated with colon cancer (e.g., RR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.47-2.42 for MetS by NCEP/ATPIII), whereas MetS by NCEP/ATPIII, but not IDF or harmonized definition, was associated with rectal cancer (RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.02-2.06). Overall, these associations were stronger in women than in men. However, the association between MetS and colorectal cancer was accounted for by abdominal obesity and abnormal glucose metabolism such that MetS did not provide risk information beyond these components (likelihood ratio test P = 0.10 for MetS by NCEP/ATPIII). These data suggest that simple assessment of abnormal glucose metabolism and/or abdominal obesity to identify individuals at colorectal cancer risk may have higher clinical utility than applying more complex MetS definitions.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging for the clinical management of rectal cancer patients: recommendations from the 2012 European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) consensus meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beets-Tan, Regina G.H. [Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 5800, AZ, Maastricht (Netherlands); Lambregts, Doenja M.J.; Maas, Monique [Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bipat, Shandra; Stoker, Jaap [Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barbaro, Brunella [Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Caseiro-Alves, Filipe; Curvo-Semedo, Luis [Coimbra University Hospitals, Coimbra (Portugal); Fenlon, Helen M. [Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Gollub, Marc J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States); Gourtsoyianni, Sofia [University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Guy' s and St. Thomas' NHS FT, London (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve; Taylor, Stuart A. [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Hoeffel, Christine [Reims University Hospital, Reims (France); Kim, Seung Ho [Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Laghi, Andrea [Sapienza - University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Maier, Andrea [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Rafaelsen, Soeren R. [Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); Torkzad, Michael R. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Blomqvist, Lennart [Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    To develop guidelines describing a standardised approach regarding the acquisition, interpretation and reporting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for clinical staging and restaging of rectal cancer. A consensus meeting of 14 abdominal imaging experts from the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) was conducted following the RAND-UCLA Appropriateness Method. Two independent (non-voting) chairs facilitated the meeting. Two hundred and thirty-six items were scored by participants for appropriateness and classified subsequently as appropriate or inappropriate (defined by {>=} 80 % consensus) or uncertain (defined by < 80 % consensus). Items not reaching 80 % consensus were noted. Consensus was reached for 88 % of items: recommendations regarding hardware, patient preparation, imaging sequences, angulation, criteria for MRI assessment and MRI reporting were constructed from these. These expert consensus recommendations can be used as clinical guidelines for primary staging and restaging of rectal cancer using MRI. (orig.)

  9. Treatment Options by Stage (Rectal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Rectal Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  10. General Information about Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... colorectal cancer include the following: Having a family history of colon or rectal cancer in a first-degree relative (parent, sibling , or child). Having a personal history of cancer of the colon , rectum , or ovary . Having a personal history of ...

  11. Treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, RA; Nieuwenhuijzen, GAP; Martijn, H; Rutten, HJT; Hospers, GAP; Wiggers, T

    2004-01-01

    Historically, locally advanced rectal cancer is known for its dismal prognosis. The treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer is subject to continuous change due to development of new and better diagnostic tools, radiotherapeutic techniques, chemotherapeutic agents and understanding of the

  12. Approach to Rectal Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence C. Chua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rectal cancer is a distinct subset of colorectal cancer where specialized disease-specific management of the primary tumor is required. There have been significant developments in rectal cancer surgery at all stages of disease in particular the introduction of local excision strategies for preinvasive and early cancers, standardized total mesorectal excision for resectable cancers incorporating preoperative short- or long-course chemoradiation to the multimodality sequencing of treatment. Laparoscopic surgery is also increasingly being adopted as the standard rectal cancer surgery approach following expertise of colorectal surgeons in minimally invasive surgery gained from laparoscopic colon resections. In locally advanced and metastatic disease, combining chemoradiation with radical surgery may achieve total eradication of disease and disease control in the pelvis. Evidence for resection of metastases to the liver and lung have been extensively reported in the literature. The role of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal metastases is showing promise in achieving locoregional control of peritoneal dissemination. This paper summarizes the recent developments in approaches to rectal cancer surgery at all these time points of the disease natural history.

  13. Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, M.; Leufkens, A.M.; Siersema, P.D.; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Vrieling, A.; Hulshof, P.J.; Gils, C.H. van; Overvad, K.; Roswall, N.; Kyro, C.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Fagerhazzi, G.; Cadeau, C.; Kuhn, T.; Johnson, T.; Boeing, H.; Aleksandrova, K.; Trichopoulou, A.; Klinaki, E.; Androulidaki, A.; Palli, D.; Grioni, S.; Sacerdote, C.; Tumino, R.; Panico, S.; Bakker, M.F.; Skeie, G.; Weiderpass, E.; Jakszyn, P.; Barricarte, A.; Huerta, J. Maria; Molina-Montes, E.; Arguelles, M.; Johansson, I.; Ljuslinder, I.; Key, T.J.; Bradbury, K.E.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Ferrari, P.; Duarte-Salles, T.; Jenab, M.; Gunter, M.J.; Vergnaud, A.C.; Wark, P.A.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E are possibly associated with a reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk through antioxidative properties. The association of prediagnostic plasma concentrations and dietary consumption of carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E with the risk of colon and rectal cancer was

  14. Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C and e and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, Max; Leufkens, Anke M.; Siersema, Peter D.; Van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Vrieling, Alina; Hulshof, Paul J M; Van Gils, Carla H.; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Kyrø, Cecilie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagerhazzi, Guy; Cadeau, Claire; Kühn, Tilman; Johnson, Theron; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Androulidaki, Anna; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bakker, Marije F.; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jakszyn, Paula; Barricarte, Aurelio; Huerta, José María; Molina-Montes, Esther; Argüelles, Marcial; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Key, Timothy J.; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ferrari, Pietro; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Jenab, Mazda; Gunter, Marc J.; Vergnaud, Anne Claire; Wark, Petra A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E are possibly associated with a reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk through antioxidative properties. The association of prediagnostic plasma concentrations and dietary consumption of carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E with the risk of colon and rectal cancer was

  15. Health-related Quality of Life after complex rectal surgery for primary advanced rectal cancer and locally recurrent rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Henriette Vind

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the treatment of rectal cancer, have made it possible to perform complex rectal cancer surgery (COMP-RCS) with curative intent in patients with primary advanced rectal caner (PARC) and local recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC). Due to the complexity of the treatment and its high postoperat......Advances in the treatment of rectal cancer, have made it possible to perform complex rectal cancer surgery (COMP-RCS) with curative intent in patients with primary advanced rectal caner (PARC) and local recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC). Due to the complexity of the treatment and its high...... postoperative morbidity, Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is an important issue. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore to evaluate HRQoL in patients with PARC and LRRC treated with COMP-RCS and curative intent. In study I a review of the literature was undertaken to provide an overview of HRQo...

  16. Rectal cancer surgery: volume-outcome analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Emmeline

    2010-12-01

    There is strong evidence supporting the importance of the volume-outcome relationship with respect to lung and pancreatic cancers. This relationship for rectal cancer surgery however remains unclear. We review the currently available literature to assess the evidence base for volume outcome in relation to rectal cancer surgery.

  17. Stages of Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... under a microscope ). Having inherited changes in certain genes that increase the risk of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer). Having a personal history of chronic ulcerative colitis ...

  18. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  19. Bevacizumab, Fluorouracil, Leucovorin Calcium, and Oxaliplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-11

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  20. Subtypes of fruit and vegetables, variety in consumption and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, Max; Siersema, Peter D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110603826; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Bastide, Nadia; Fagherazzi, Guy; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Klinaki, Eleni; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Peeters, Petra H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirõs, J. Ramõn; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Ohlsson, Bodil; Jirström, Karin; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Romieu, Isabelle; Huybrechts, Inge; Cross, Amanda J.; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06929528X

    2015-01-01

    Previously, a lower risk of colorectal cancer was observed with fruit and vegetable consumption in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition within a follow-up period of 9 years which was not fully supported by a recent meta-analysis. Therefore, we were interested in the

  1. Whither papillon? Future directions for contact radiotherapy in rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, J; Gerard, J P; Sun Myint, A

    2007-01-01

    Although contact radiotherapy was developed 70 years ago, and is highly effective with cure rates of over 90% for early rectal cancer, there are few centres that offer this treatment today. One reason is the lack of replacement of ageing contact X-ray machines, many of which are now over 30 years...... of rectal cancer. As a result of these efforts, a European company is starting production of the new Papillon RT-50 machine, which will be available shortly. In addition, the ICONE group is planning an observational study on contact X-ray and transanal endoscopic microsurgery (CONTEM) for curative treatment...... of rectal cancer. This protocol will ensure standardised diagnostic procedures, patient selection and treatment in centres across the world and the data will be collected prospectively for analysis and audit. It is hoped that the CONTEM trial will provide the scientific evidence that is needed to obtain...

  2. Thyroid gland metastasis of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Shinsuke; Matsuura, Sohei; Kishi, Hirohisa; Maeda, Mamoru; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-05-07

    A 72-year-old woman with a history of rectal cancer was admitted to our hospital to undergo thyroidectomy and left adrenalectomy. She had undergone low anterior resection and regional lymph node dissection for rectal cancer 52 months pre-admission (T3 N1 M0, stage IIIb according to International Union Against Cancer tumor-node-metastasis), and she had also undergone metastasectomy for lung metastases and right adrenal gland metastasis after the rectal surgery. Follow-up computed tomography scans detected nodules in the bilateral lobes of the thyroid gland and in the left adrenal gland. Subtotal thyroidectomy and left adrenalectomy were performed, and pathological examination revealed metastases of rectal cancer to the thyroid gland and left adrenal gland. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015.

  3. National and international guidelines for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liv Bjerre Juul; Wille-Jørgensen, P

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Rectal cancer is a common malignancy. Differences in daily practice may influence the morbidity and mortality, and many national and international organizations have created guidelines for staging and treatment of rectal cancer. Even though consensus is reached within individual guidelines...... concerning the definition of rectal cancer. Ten of the 11 guidelines use the TNM staging system and there was general agreement regarding the recommendation of MRI and CT in rectal cancer. There was consensus concerning a multidisciplinary approach, preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and total mesorectal...... excision (TME). There was no consensus concerning local treatment of T1 tumours and adjuvant therapy, and not all guidelines included metastatic disease and recurrence. There was no consensus on the protocol for follow up. The guidelines had different approaches to evidence. All referred to evidence...

  4. Improved survival after rectal cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, S; Harling, H; Iversen, L H

    2010-01-01

    treated from 1994 to 2006. Method The study was based on the National Rectal Cancer Registry and the National Colorectal Cancer Database, supplemented with data from the Central Population Registry. The analysis included actuarial overall and relative survival. Results A total of 10 632 patients were......Objective In 1995, an analysis showed an inferior prognosis after rectal cancer in Denmark compared with the other Scandinavian countries. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) was established with the aim of improving the prognosis, and in this study we present a survival analysis of patients...

  5. Locally advanced rectal cancer: management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokelaar RF

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available RF Kokelaar, MD Evans, M Davies, DA Harris, J Beynon Department of Colorectal Surgery, Singleton Hospital, Swansea, UK Abstract: Between 5% and 10% of patients with rectal cancer present with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC, and 10% of rectal cancers recur after surgery, of which half are limited to locoregional disease only (locally recurrent rectal cancer. Exenterative surgery offers the best long-term outcomes for patients with LARC and locally recurrent rectal cancer so long as a complete (R0 resection is achieved. Accurate preoperative multimodal staging is crucial in assessing the potential operability of advanced rectal tumors, and resectability may be enhanced with neoadjuvant therapies. Unfortunately, surgical options are limited when the tumor involves the lateral pelvic sidewall or high sacrum due to the technical challenges of achieving histological clearance, and must be balanced against the high morbidity associated with resection of the bony pelvis and significant lymphovascular structures. This group of patients is usually treated palliatively and subsequently survival is poor, which has led surgeons to seek innovative new solutions, as well as revisit previously discarded radical approaches. A small number of centers are pioneering new techniques for resection of beyond-total mesorectal excision tumors, including en bloc resections of the sciatic notch and composite resections of the first two sacral vertebrae. Despite limited experience, these new techniques offer the potential for radical treatment of previously inoperable tumors. This narrative review sets out the challenges facing the management of LARCs and discusses evolving management options. Keywords: rectal cancer, exenteration, pelvic sidewall, sacrectomy

  6. Talimogene Laherparepvec, Capecitabine, and Chemoradiation Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer AJCC v7

  7. Rectal and colon cancer : Not just a different anatomic site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamas, K.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.; de Vries, E. G. E.; van Vugt, M. A. T. M.; Beets-Tan, R. G.; van Etten, B.; de Groot, D. J. A.; Hospers, G. A. P.

    Due to differences in anatomy, primary rectal and colon cancer require different staging procedures, different neo-adjuvant treatment and different surgical approaches. For example, neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is administered solely for rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant therapy and total

  8. Local resection of early rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, Gunnar; Qvist, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of the National Danish screening programme for colorectal cancer will result in the detection of more early rectal cancers (ERC), which may be considered for local excision. For the low risk≤T1 cancer, the oncological outcome at local excision in smaller patient series has shown......, where rescue surgery may be considered. The establishment of a regional or national clinical database is necessary to improve the local treatment of ERC....

  9. What is being researched in rectal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina Duarte, Angel; Ferrer Márquez, Manuel; Rubio Gil, Francisco A; Belda Lozano, Ricardo; Alvarez García, Antonio; Blesa Sierra, Isabel; Fuentes Porcel, Orlando; Vidaña Márquez, Elisa; Rosado Cobian, Rafael

    2014-11-25

    Clinical evidence has a more significant role in medical specialties than in surgery. Rectal cancer (CR) is no exception. This paper explores what CR-related subjects are being investigated at the present time in a quantitative and qualitative way and analyzes this information to know what possible answers clinical research could give us in the future. The data collection was carried out in April 2014 and was based on 3 sources: 2 institutional clinical trials registries -American (clinicaltrials.gov) and European (EU Clinical Trials Register)- and a survey given to members of the Asociación Española de Coloproctología (AECP). The obtained studies were exported to a database designed especially for this review, which included a number of descriptive elements that would allow the cataloging of the different studies. The AECP survey results were analyzed separately. There are currently 216 clinical trials ongoing related to CR. Two-thirds are primarily conducted by oncologists. Nearly a third are surgical. The research focuses on improving preoperative treatment: new drugs, new schemes of chemo-radiotherapy (usually induction or consolidation schemes) or optimization of radiotherapy and its effects. Surgical clinical trials are related to robotics, laparoscopy, stoma, low colorectal anastomosis, distal CR and local treatment. Most of the current clinical trials ongoing on CR are analyzing aspects of chemo-radiotherapy and its effects. A third focus on purely surgical issues. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of synchronous rectal and prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, D O

    2012-11-01

    Although well described, there is limited published data related to management on the coexistence of prostate and rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to describe a single institution\\'s experience with this and propose a treatment algorithm based on the best available evidence.

  11. Comparative effectiveness in colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christine C; Madoff, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of colorectal cancer is becoming more uniform, with wider acceptance of standardized guidelines. However, areas of controversy exist where the appropriate treatment is not clear, including: should a segmental colectomy or a more extensive resection be performed in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer? should an asymptomatic primary cancer be resected in the presence of unresectable metastatic disease? what is the role of extended lymph node resection in colon and rectal cancer? are there clinically significant benefits for a robotic approach to colorectal resection versus a laparoscopic approach? This chapter will examine these issues and discuss how they may be resolved.

  12. Follow-up after rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovdenak Jakobsen, Ida; Juul, Therese; Bernstein, Inge

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main treatment for non-metastatic rectal cancer (RC) is surgical resection. Late adverse effects that are highly prevalent and negatively impact patients' symptom burden and quality of life are: bowel-, urological and sexual dysfunctions; psychological distress; fear of recurrence....... As a consequence, the randomized controlled trial Follow-up after Rectal Cancer (FURCA) has been launched, testing the effect of a new patient-led, follow-up program. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology used in the FURCA study and to report results from the development of the patient-led, follow......, or a control group following the current follow-up program with routine medicals. The primary outcomes are symptom burden and quality of life, measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Colorectal (FACT-C) questionnaire. Other outcome and demographic data are collected as patient...

  13. TME quality in rectal cancer surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzog T

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of total mesorectal excision has revolutionised rectal cancer surgery. TME reduces the rate of local recurrence and tumour associated mortality. However, in clinical trials only 50% of the removed rectal tumours have an optimal TME quality. Patients: During a period of 36 months we performed 103 rectal resections. The majority of patients (76%; 78/103 received an anterior resection. The remaining patients underwent either abdominoperineal resection (16%; 17/103, Hartmann's procedure (6%; 6/103 or colectomy (2%; 2/103. Results In 90% (93/103 TME quality control could be performed. 99% (92/93 of resected tumours had optimal TME quality. In 1% (1/93 the mesorectum was nearly complete. None of the removed tumours had an incomplete mesorectum. In 98% (91/93 the circumferential resection margin was negative. Major surgical complications occurred in 17% (18/103. 5% (4/78 of patients with anterior resection had anastomotic leakage. 17% (17/103 developed wound infections. Mortality after elective surgery was 4% (4/95. Conclusion Optimal TME quality results can be achieved in all stages of rectal cancer with a rate of morbidity and mortality comparable to the results from the literature. Future studies should evaluate outcome and local recurrence in accordance to the degree of TME quality.

  14. Technological advances in radiotherapy of rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Sebag-Montefiore, David

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the available evidence for the use of modern radiotherapy techniques for chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer, with specific focus on intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: The dosimetric....... Overall results are encouraging, as toxicity levels - although varying across reports - appear lower than for 3D conformal radiotherapy. Innovative treatment techniques and strategies which may be facilitated by the use of IMRT/VMAT include simultaneously integrated tumour boost, adaptive treatment...

  15. Chemotherapeutic Treatment of Priapism in Metastatic Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kitai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old man was admitted with penile tenderness and dysuria due to priapism. Enhanced computed tomography revealed metastatic tumors in the liver, lung, sacrum and lymph nodes. Advanced rectal cancer, detected by colonoscopy as a primary tumor, was treated with chemotherapy (FOLFOX4. Although the rectal cancer showed no change, five months of chemotherapy improveid the priapism, suggesting that chemotherapy can improve rare symptoms of rectal cancer.

  16. EURECCA colorectal : Multidisciplinary Mission statement on better care for patients with colon and rectal cancer in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Aristei, Cynthia; Boelens, Petra G.; Beets-Tan, Regina G. H.; Blomqvist, Lennart; Borras, Josep M.; van den Broek, Colette B. M.; Brown, Gina; Coebergh, Jan-Willem; Van Cutsem, Eric; Espin, Eloy; Gore-Booth, Jola; Glimelius, Bengt; Haustermans, Karin; Henning, Geoffrey; Iversen, Lene H.; van Krieken, J. Han; Marijnen, Corrie A. M.; Mroczkowski, Pawel; Nagtegaal, Iris; Naredi, Peter; Ortiz, Hector; Pahlman, Lars; Quirke, Philip; Roedel, Claus; Roth, Arnaud; Rutten, Harm J. T.; Schmoll, Hans J.; Smith, Jason; Tanis, Pieter J.; Taylor, Claire; Wibe, Arne; Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Meldolesi, Elisa; Wiggers, Theo; Cervantes, Andres; Valentini, Vincenzo

    Background: Care for patients with colon and rectal cancer has improved in the last twenty years however still considerable variation exists in cancer management and outcome between European countries. Therefore, EURECCA, which is the acronym of European Registration of cancer care, is aiming at

  17. Screening for Prostate Cancer: Digital rectal examination: outdated or still valuable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Gosselaar (Claartje)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction and Objective: Digital rectal examination (DRE) is an important diagnostic tool of a urologist and it has been incorporated in screening programmes for prostate cancer (PC), such as the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). In the Rotterdam

  18. Laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer (COLOR II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Pas, Martijn Hgm; Haglind, Eva; Cuesta, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery as an alternative to open surgery in patients with rectal cancer has not yet been shown to be oncologically safe. The aim in the COlorectal cancer Laparoscopic or Open Resection (COLOR II) trial was to compare laparoscopic and open surgery in patients with rectal cancer....

  19. Disseminated lung cancer presenting as a rectal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Mia M; Stamp, Inger M H; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, and approximately 50% had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. A rectal mass and unintended weight loss are common manifestations of rectal cancer. Our case presented with a rectal mass, but workup revealed...... a metastatic lesion from lung cancer. Lung cancer metastases to the lower gastrointestinal tract imply reduced survival compared with the already poor mean survival of stage IV lung cancer. Despite relevant therapy, the patient died 5 months after referral....

  20. Current management of locally recurrent rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Bak; Laurberg, Søren; Holm, Thorbjörn

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: A review of the literature was undertaken to provide an overview of the surgical management of locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC) after the introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME). Method: A systematic literature search was undertaken using PubMed, Embase, Web...... fulfilled the inclusion criteria. LRRC still occurs in 5-10% of the patients and is a major clinical problem, due to severe symptoms and poor survival. In most studies 40% to 50% of all patients with LRRC can be expected to undergo surgery with a curative intent and of those 30% to 45% will have R0...

  1. Postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sei Kyung; Kim, Jong Woo; Oh, Do Yeun; Chong, So Young; Shin, Hyun Soo [Bundang CHA General Hospital, Pochon CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To evaluate the role of postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer, we retrospectively analyzed the treatment outcome of patients with rectal cancer taken curative surgical resection and postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. A total 46 patients with AJCC stage II and III carcinoma of rectum were treated with curative surgical resection and postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. T3 and T4 stage were 38 and 8 patients, respectively. N0, N1, and N2 stage were 12, 16, 18 patients, respectively. Forty patients received bolus infusions of 5-fluorouracil (500 mg/m{sup 2}/day) with leucovorin (20 mg/m{sup 2}/day), every 4 weeks interval for 6 cycles. Oral Uracil/Tegafur on a daily basis for 6 {approx} 12 months was given in 6 patients. Radiotherapy with 45 Gy was delivered to the surgical bed and regional pelvic lymph node area, followed by 5.4 {approx} 9 Gy boost to the surgical bed. The follow up period ranged from 8 to 75 months with a median 35 months. Treatment failure occurred in 17 patients (37%). Locoregional failure occurred in 4 patients (8.7%) and distant failure in 16 patients (34.8%). There was no local failure only. Five year actuarial overall survival (OS) was 51.5% and relapse free survival (RFS) was 58.7%. The OS and RFS were 100%, 100% in stage N0 patients, 53.7%, 47.6% in N1 patients, and 0%, 41.2% in N2 patients ({rho} = 0.012, {rho} = 0.009). The RFS was 55%, 78.5%, and 31.2% in upper, middle, and lower rectal cancer patients, respectively ({rho} = 0.006). Multivariate analysis showed that N stage ({rho} = 0.012) was significant prognostic factor for OS and that N stage ({rho} = 0.001) and location of tumor ({rho} = 0.006) were for RFS. Bowel complications requiring surgery occurred in 3 patients. Postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was an effective modality for locoregional control of rectal cancer. But further investigations for reducing the distant failure rate are necessary because distant failure rate is still high.

  2. Abdominosacral resection for primary irresectable and locally recurrent rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannaerts, GHH; Rutten, HJT; Martijn, H; Groen, G.J.; Hanssens, PEJ; Wiggers, T

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to present a technique of abdominosacral resection and its results in patients with locally advanced primary or locally recurrent rectal cancer with dorsolateral fixation. METHODS: Between 1994 and 1999, 13 patients with locally advanced primary rectal cancer

  3. Rectal cancer: Pattern and outcome of management in University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This is a prospective study of all the patients with rectal cancer seen at the UITH from January 1998 to ... Conclusion: Rectal cancer is not rare in Africans. Surgical therapy still remains as the main treatment. When patients present early, outcome is satisfactory. .... had preoperative radiotherapy but 12 of them had.

  4. Predictive Biomarkers to Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Conde-Muíño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a high local recurrence rate in rectal cancer. Besides improvements in surgical techniques, both neoadjuvant short-course radiotherapy and long-course chemoradiation improve oncological results. Approximately 40–60% of rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation achieve some degree of pathologic response. However, there is no effective method of predicting which patients will respond to neoadjuvant treatment. Recent studies have evaluated the potential of genetic biomarkers to predict outcome in locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The articles produced by the PubMed search were reviewed for those specifically addressing a genetic profile’s ability to predict response to neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer. Although tissue gene microarray profiling has led to promising data in cancer, to date, none of the identified signatures or molecular markers in locally advanced rectal cancer has been successfully validated as a diagnostic or prognostic tool applicable to routine clinical practice.

  5. Predictive Biomarkers to Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Muíño, Raquel; Cuadros, Marta; Zambudio, Natalia; Segura-Jiménez, Inmaculada; Cano, Carlos; Palma, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    There has been a high local recurrence rate in rectal cancer. Besides improvements in surgical techniques, both neoadjuvant short-course radiotherapy and long-course chemoradiation improve oncological results. Approximately 40-60% of rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation achieve some degree of pathologic response. However, there is no effective method of predicting which patients will respond to neoadjuvant treatment. Recent studies have evaluated the potential of genetic biomarkers to predict outcome in locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The articles produced by the PubMed search were reviewed for those specifically addressing a genetic profile's ability to predict response to neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer. Although tissue gene microarray profiling has led to promising data in cancer, to date, none of the identified signatures or molecular markers in locally advanced rectal cancer has been successfully validated as a diagnostic or prognostic tool applicable to routine clinical practice.

  6. Rectal cancer: Pattern and outcome of management in University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine the incidence of rectal cancer, its pattern of presentation, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of treatment at the University of .... of hypertensive heart disease and obesity; the other ... stomach in the male and after cancer of the breast.

  7. Significance of thermoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ike, Hideyuki; Fukano, Masahiko; Yamaguchi, Sigeki [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1997-05-01

    In patients with rectal cancer, results of 27 cases receiving thermoradiotherapy and of 68 cases, radiotherapy before operation were compared with those of 119 cases receiving expanded radical operation. Radiotherapy was done with 10 MV X-ray generated by linear-accelerator at 2.0 Gy x 5/week and 60 Gy in total. Hyperthermotherapy was performed with the capacitive heating method with 8 MHz radiofrequency (Thermotoron RF8) twice/week x 5. Every thermotherapy was done for 40 min at 42degC-43degC within 1 hr after the radiotherapy. Good results were observed in cases whose cancer was disappeared by either preoperative therapy. However, results in survival and recurrence rates were not always improved when compared with those receiving surgery alone. (K.H.)

  8. Evidence-based treatment of patients with rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, QIANG; YANG, JIE; QIAN, QUN

    2016-01-01

    Rectal cancer is a worldwide disease whose incidence has increased significantly. Evidence-based medicine is a category of medicine that optimizes decision making by using evidence from well-designed and conducted research. Evidence-based medicine can be used to formulate a reasonable treatment plan for newly diagnosed rectal cancer patients. The current review focuses on the application of evidence-based treatment on patients with rectal cancer. The relationship between perioperative blood transfusion and recurrence of rectal cancer after surgery, the selection between minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery and traditional laparotomy, choice of chemotherapy for patients with rectal cancer prior to surgery, selection between stapled and hand-sewn methods for colorectal anastomosis during rectal cancer resection, and selection between temporary ileostomy and colostomy during the surgery were addressed. Laparoscopy is considered to have more advantages but is time-consuming and has high medical costs. In addition, laparoscopic rectal cancer radical resection is preferred to open surgery. In radical resection surgery, use of a stapling device for anastomosis can reduce postoperative anastomotic fistula, although patients should be informed of possible anastomotic stenosis. PMID:26998054

  9. Comparisons of Rigid Proctoscopy, Flexible Colonoscopy, and Digital Rectal Examination for Determining the Localization of Rectal Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akira; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Okada, Kazutake; Saito, Gota

    2018-02-01

    Rigid proctoscopy is considered essential for rectal tumor localization, although the current gold standard for detection of colorectal cancers is colonoscopy. The European Society for Medical Oncology Guidelines indicate that rigid and flexible endoscopies afford essentially identical results, although little evidence is yet available to support this. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of colonoscopy in identifying the location of rectal cancer and to compare the results with those of rigid proctoscopy and digital rectal examination. This was a retrospective analysis of a prospective database. The study was conducted at a single tertiary colorectal surgery referral center. A total of 173 patients scheduled for curative surgery for histologically verified rectal adenocarcinoma between December 2009 and February 2015 were entered into the study, after having given informed consent. The main study measure was the mean difference and limits of agreement in assessment of the height of the distal edge of rectal cancer from the anal verge, using the Bland and Altman method. The mean difference between rigid proctoscopy and flexible colonoscopy was -0.2 cm (95% CI, -2.0 to 1.6 cm). The mean difference between rigid proctoscopy and digital rectal examination was 0.3 cm (95% CI, 1.9 to 2.4 cm). Intermethod variability larger than the 95% CI between rigid and flexible endoscopes was correlated to the tumor height (OR, 4.27 (95% CI, 1.84-3.10); p = 0.021). This study was conducted in a single center. The limits of agreement (-2.0 and 1.6 cm) in identifying the height of rectal cancers from the anal verge are sufficiently small to support the view that flexible colonoscopy provides similar tumor locations to those measured by rigid proctoscopy, although the discrepancy occasionally exceeded 2 cm for tumors >5 cm above the anal verge. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A405.

  10. Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer operated for cure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sune Høirup; Harling, Henrik; Kirkeby, Lene Tschemerinsky

    2012-01-01

    preoperative (i.e., neoadjuvant) downstaging by radiotherapy (or chemoradiotion), whereas in the US postoperative chemoradiotion is considered the treatment of choice in all Dukes´ C rectal cancers. Overall, no universal consensus exists on the adjuvant treatment of surgically resectable rectal carcinoma...

  11. [Rectal cancer and Trousseau syndrome. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Montenegro, Ernesto; Sierra-Luzuriaga, Gastón; Calle-Loffredo, Daniel; Rodríguez Quinde, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The Trousseau syndrome, first described in 1865, is the relationship of venous thromboembolisms and cancer. We present a case with rectal cancer and Trousseau syndrome. Female 40 years old, went to the Coloproctology Service for painless bleeding. A computed tomography report showed a tumor of 5 by 6 cm up 5 cm from the anal margin. Ultra-low anterior resection with colonic reservoir and loop ileostomy surgery was performed. The pathology report showed a semidiferenciate adenocarcinoma of the rectum and we established the stage as T3N0M0. Within 72 hours of her operation, she experienced sudden hypotension and painful abdominal distention. A second surgery was done finding necrosis of the colon from the splenic angle until the colonic reservoir with thrombi in the left colic artery, ischemic signs of bilateral fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, pelvic floor and the small intestine, 40 cm before ileostomy and ileon. Left hemicolectomy and colostomy was done. She was taken to intensive care where continuous administration of heparin was given; she died within 5 days because of multiorgan failure. The mechanism for this syndrome was unknown but there are several hypotheses, suggesting that hematological cancer patients are at an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis. Pancreatic cancer is the most common presentation with this syndrome (in 50% of cases). We suggested continuing with the standards of prevention of thromboembolism.

  12. Role of laparoscopy in rectal cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Ido; Mazeh, Haggi

    2014-05-07

    Despite established evidence on the advantages of laparoscopy in colon cancer resection, the use of laparoscopy for rectal cancer resection is still controversial. The initial concern was mainly regarding the feasibility of laparoscopy to achieve an adequate total mesorectal excision specimen. These concerns have been raised following early studies demonstrating higher rates of circumferential margins positivity following laparoscopic resection, as compared to open surgery. Similar to colon resection, patients undergoing laparoscopic rectal cancer resection are expected to benefit from a shorter length of hospital stay, less analgesic requirements, and a faster recovery of bowel function. In the past decade there have been an increasing number of large scale clinical trials investigating the oncological and perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic rectal cancer resection. In this review we summarize the current literature available on laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery.

  13. Radiotherapy and local control in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, V; Rosetto, M E; Fares, C; Mantini, G; Salvi, G; Turriziani, A

    1998-01-01

    Recurrence is a stage in the natural history of rectal cancer. Preoperative radiotherapy or postoperative radiochemotherapy lower the rate of recurrence, improving local control. From 1980 to 1997, at the "Divisione di Radioterapia" of the "Università Cattolica del S. Cuore" of Rome 380 patients with rectal cancer of early clinical stage T2-3, candidates for surgery for cure, underwent radiation therapy. 119 patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy (45-50 Gy); 45 patients underwent "sandwich" radiotherapy (45 Gy:27 Gy before and 28 Gy after surgery), of whom 7 were treated with preoperative radiotherapy alone; 145 patients underwent preoperative concomitant radiochemotherapy according to 3 different protocols, radiotherapy (38 Gy) combined with mitomycin C and 5-FU; radiotherapy (50.4 Gy) combined with cisplatin and 5-FU; radiotherapy (45 Gy) combined with 5-FU and folinic acid. 71 patients were treated with preoperative radiotherapy (38 Gy) combined with IORT (10 Gy). Median follow-up was 6 years. Overall local control was 85% at 3 years, 83% at 5 years, 81% at 10 years. The rate of local control at 5 years was: 76% for postoperative radiotherapy, 83% for "sandwich" radiotherapy, 84% for preoperative radiochemotherapy and 93% for preoperative radiotherapy combined with IORT. Local control was shown to be significantly better with preoperative treatment as compared to postoperative treatment (p = 0.02). The incidence of metastases was 35% in the patients with local recurrence and 16% in those with local control. The difference in survival was highly significant in patients with local control as compared to those with local recurrence: at 5 years 87% and 32% respectively. Patients with local control showed a lower incidence of metastasis and a better survival.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging for clinical management of rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Lambregts, Doenja M J; Maas, Monique

    2018-01-01

    Radiology (ESGAR) participated in a consensus meeting, organised according to an adaptation of the RAND-UCLA Appropriateness Method. Two independent (non-voting) Chairs facilitated the meeting. 246 items were scored (comprising 229 items from the previous 2012 consensus and 17 additional items......OBJECTIVES: To update the 2012 ESGAR consensus guidelines on the acquisition, interpretation and reporting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for clinical staging and restaging of rectal cancer. METHODS: Fourteen abdominal imaging experts from the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal......) and classified as 'appropriate' or 'inappropriate' (defined by ≥ 80 % consensus) or uncertain (defined by consensus). RESULTS: Consensus was reached for 226 (92 %) of items. From these recommendations regarding hardware, patient preparation, imaging sequences and acquisition, criteria for MR imaging...

  15. Management of rectal cancer: Times they are changing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Cravo

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we critically examine recent advances in staging, surgery, and chemoradiation in the management of patients with rectal cancer which have not typically been incorporated in published treatment guidelines.

  16. Value of intraoperative radiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferenschild, Floris T. J.; Vermaas, Maarten; Nuyttens, Joost J. M. E.; Graveland, Wilfried J.; Marinelli, Andreas W. K. S.; van der Sijp, Joost R.; Wiggers, Theo; Verhoef, Cornelis; Eggermont, Alexander M. M.; de Wilt, Johannes H. W.

    PURPOSE: This study was designed to analyze the results of a multimodality treatment using preoperative radiotherapy, followed by surgery and intraoperative radiotherapy in patients with primary locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS: Between 1987 and 2002, 123 patients with initial unresectable

  17. Laparoscopic resection for low rectal cancer: evaluation of oncological efficacy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Diarmaid C

    2011-09-01

    Laparoscopic resection of low rectal cancer poses significant technical difficulties for the surgeon. There is a lack of published follow-up data in relation to the surgical, oncological and survival outcomes in these patients.

  18. How useful is rectal endosonography in the staging of rectal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kav, Taylan; Bayraktar, Yusuf

    2010-02-14

    It is essential in treating rectal cancer to have adequate preoperative imaging, as accurate staging can influence the management strategy, type of resection, and candidacy for neoadjuvant therapy. In the last twenty years, endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) has become the primary method for locoregional staging of rectal cancer. ERUS is the most accurate modality for assessing local depth of invasion of rectal carcinoma into the rectal wall layers (T stage). Lower accuracy for T2 tumors is commonly reported, which could lead to sonographic overstaging of T3 tumors following preoperative therapy. Unfortunately, ERUS is not as good for predicting nodal metastases as it is for tumor depth, which could be related to the unclear definition of nodal metastases. The use of multiple criteria might improve accuracy. Failure to evaluate nodal status could lead to inadequate surgical resection. ERUS can accurately distinguish early cancers from advanced ones, with a high detection rate of residual carcinoma in the rectal wall. ERUS is also useful for detection of local recurrence at the anastomosis site, which might require fine-needle aspiration of the tissue. Overstaging is more frequent than understaging, mostly due to inflammatory changes. Limitations of ERUS are operator and experience dependency, limited tolerance of patients, and limited range of depth of the transducer. The ERUS technique requires a learning curve for orientation and identification of images and planes. With sufficient time and effort, quality and accuracy of the ERUS procedure could be improved.

  19. Laparoscopic versus open total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vennix, Sandra; Pelzers, Loeki; Bouvy, Nicole; Beets, Geerard L.; Pierie, Jean-Pierre; Wiggers, Theo; Breukink, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer including rectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer deaths in the western world. For colon carcinoma, laparoscopic surgery is proven to result in faster postoperative recovery, fewer complications and better cosmetic results with equal oncologic results. These

  20. Laparoscopic versus open total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vennix, Sandra; Pelzers, Loeki; Bouvy, Nicole; Beets, Geerard L.; Pierie, Jean-Pierre; Wiggers, Theo; Breukink, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer including rectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer deaths in the western world. For colon carcinoma, laparoscopic surgery is proven to result in faster postoperative recovery, fewer complications and better cosmetic results with equal oncologic results.

  1. The rectal cancer microRNAome - microRNA expression in rectal cancer and matched normal mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaedcke, Jochen; Grade, Marian; Camps, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: miRNAs play a prominent role in a variety of physiologic and pathologic biologic processes, including cancer. For rectal cancers, only limited data are available on miRNA expression profiles, whereas the underlying genomic and transcriptomic aberrations have been firmly established. We...... mucosa. The predicted targets for these miRNAs were enriched for the following pathways: Wnt, TGF-beta, mTOR, insulin, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and ErbB signaling. Thirteen of these 49 miRNAs seem to be rectal cancer-specific, and have not been previously reported for colon cancers: miR-492, mi...

  2. Rectal biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy; Crohn disease - rectal biopsy; Colorectal cancer - biopsy; Hirschsprung disease - rectal biopsy ... Colorectal polyps Infection Inflammation Tumors Amyloidosis Crohn disease Hirschsprung disease in infants Ulcerative colitis

  3. Survival for colon and rectal cancer in Estonia: role of staging and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innos, Kaire; Soplepmann, Jaan; Suuroja, Tiit; Melnik, Priit; Aareleid, Tiiu

    2012-04-01

    International comparisons have indicated low colorectal cancer (CRC) survival in Estonia, compared to other European countries. The objective of this paper is to analyse long-term survival as well as staging and treatment patterns of CRC in Estonia. The analysis included all incident cases of CRC diagnosed in Estonia in 1997 (n = 546), identified through the Estonian Cancer Registry and followed up for 10 years after diagnosis. Staging and treatment data were retrospectively collected from medical records. Relative survival rate (RSR) was used to estimate the outcome. The 5-year RSR was 51% for colon cancer and 38% for rectal cancer; the corresponding 10-year RSR was 50% and 39%. We observed no excess mortality for early disease. For stages II and III, the survival was markedly higher in colon cancer (5-year RSR 79% and 66%, respectively) compared to rectal cancer (66% and 30%, respectively). Around 30% of cases were diagnosed with distant disease. Among radically operated colon and rectal cancer patients, the 10-year RSR was 90% and 70%, respectively. Most patients with available pathological information had one to four lymph nodes examined. Survival has notably improved for colon cancer, but not for rectal cancer in Estonia. High proportion of cases with distant metastasis at first diagnosis along with inadequate staging and low proportion of patients treated with curatively intended surgery and appropriate chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have contributed to this outcome. Progress could be achieved by earlier diagnosis and implementing higher standards for staging and treatment. These conclusions are likely to be relevant also for other Eastern European countries.

  4. [Turnbull-cutait technique in low rectal cancer: Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León-Rendón, Jorge Luis; Vallribera-Valls, Francesc; Caspari, Cristina; Espín-Basany, Eloy

    2016-01-01

    The surgical treatment for low rectal cancer involves an ultra-low anterior resection with complete mesorectal resection and coloanal anastomosis. Two-stage coloanal anastomosis such as the Turnbull-Cutait technique represents an option for patients with low rectal cancer. A 69 year-old female patient with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma (T2N1), located 4 cm from the anal margin. She received neoadjuvant radiotherapy. An ultra-low anterior resection and total resection of the mesorectum were performed. The intestinal transit was reconstructed by coloanal anastomosis using the Turnbull-Cutait technique. Coloanal anastomosis with the Turnbull-Cutait technique represents a primary option for patients with low rectal cancer, avoiding a loop ileostomy, its economic impact and on their quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding What are the possible causes of minor rectal bleeding? Hemorrhoids Anal fissures Proctitis (inflammation of the rectum) Polyps Colon or anal cancer Rectal ulcers Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding Minor rectal ...

  6. Bupivacaine administered intrathecally versus rectally in the management of intractable rectal cancer pain in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak I

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Iwona Zaporowska-Stachowiak,1,2 Grzegorz Kowalski,3 Jacek Łuczak,2 Katarzyna Kosicka,4 Aleksandra Kotlinska-Lemieszek,3 Maciej Sopata,3 Franciszek Główka4 1Chair and Department of Pharmacology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 2Palliative Medicine In-patient Unit, University Hospital of Lord's Transfiguration, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 3Palliative Medicine Chair and Department, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 4Department of Physical Pharmacy and Pharmacokinetics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland Background: Unacceptable adverse effects, contraindications to and/or ineffectiveness of World Health Organization step III "pain ladder" drugs causes needless suffering among a population of cancer patients. Successful management of severe cancer pain may require invasive treatment. However, a patient's refusal of an invasive procedure necessitates that clinicians consider alternative options. Objective: Intrathecal bupivacaine delivery as a viable treatment of intractable pain is well documented. There are no data on rectal bupivacaine use in cancer patients or in the treatment of cancer tenesmoid pain. This study aims to demonstrate that bupivacaine administered rectally could be a step in between the current treatment options for intractable cancer pain (conventional/conservative analgesia or invasive procedures, and to evaluate the effect of the mode of administration (intrathecal versus rectal on the bupivacaine plasma concentration.Cases: We present two Caucasian, elderly inpatients admitted to hospice due to intractable rectal/tenesmoid pain. The first case is a female with vulvar cancer, and malignant infiltration of the rectum/vagina. Bupivacaine was used intrathecally (0.25–0.5%, 1–2 mL every 6 hours. The second case is a female with ovarian cancer and malignant rectal infiltration. Bupivacaine was adminstered rectally (0.05–0.1%, 100 m

  7. A Single Centre Retrospective Evaluation of Laparoscopic Rectal Resection with TME for Rectal Cancer: 5-Year Cancer-Specific Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Quarati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic colon resection has established its role as a minimally invasive approach to colorectal diseases. Better long-term survival rate is suggested to be achievable with this approach in colon cancer patients, whereas some doubts were raised about its safety in rectal cancer. Here we report on our single centre experience of rectal laparoscopic resections for cancer focusing on short- and long-term oncological outcomes. In the last 13 years, 248 patients underwent minimally invasive approach for rectal cancer at our centre. We focused on 99 stage I, II, and III patients with a minimum follow-up period of 5 years. Of them 43 had a middle and 56 lower rectal tumor. Laparoscopic anterior rectal resection was performed in 71 patients whereas laparoscopic abdomino-perineal resection in 28. The overall mortality rate was 1%; the overall morbidity rate was 29%. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 69.7%, The 5-year overall survival rate was 78.8%.

  8. Modern management of rectal cancer: A 2006 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Glen C; Meo, Alex De; Guillem, Jose G

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this review is to outline some of the important surgical issues surrounding the management of patients with early (T1/T2 and N0), as well as locally advanced (T3/T4 and/or N1) rectal cancer. Surgery for rectal cancer continues to develop towards the ultimate goals of improved local control and overall survival, maintaining quality of life, and preserving sphincter, genitourinary, and sexual function. Information concerning the depth of tumor penetration through the rectal wall, lymph node involvement, and presence of distant metastatic disease is of crucial importance when planning a curative rectal cancer resection. Preoperative staging is used to determine the indication for neoadjuvant therapy as well as the indication for local excision versus radical cancer resection. Local excision is likely to be curative in most patients with a primary tumor which is limited to the submucosa (T1N0M0), without high-risk features and in the absence of metastatic disease. In appropriate patients, minimally invasive procedures, such as local excision, TEM, and laparoscopic resection allow for improved patient comfort, shorter hospital stays, and earlier return to preoperative activity level. Once the tumor invades the muscularis propria (T2), radical rectal resection in acceptable operative candidates is recommended. In patients with transmural and/or node positive disease (T3/T4 and/or N1) with no distant metastases, preoperative chemoradiation followed by radical resection according to the principles of TME has become widely accepted. During the planning and conduct of a radical operation for a locally advanced rectal cancer, a number of surgical management issues are considered, including: (1) total mesorectal excision (TME); (2) autonomic nerve preservation (ANP); (3) circumferential resection margin (CRM); (4) distal resection margin; (5) sphincter preservation and options for restoration of bowel continuity; (6) laparoscopic approaches; and (7) postoperative

  9. The influence of hormone therapies on colon and rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Lidegaard, Øjvind; Keiding, Niels

    2016-01-01

    analyses with 5-year age bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. Use of estrogen-only therapy and combined therapy were associated with decreased risks of colon cancer (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.77, 95 % confidence interval 0.68–0.86 and 0.88, 0.80–0.96) and rectal cancer (0......Exogenous sex hormones seem to play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Little is known about the influence of different types or durations of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on colorectal cancer risk. A nationwide cohort of women 50–79 years old without previous cancer (n = 1,006,219) were...... followed 1995–2009. Information on HT exposures was from the National Prescription Register and updated daily, while information on colon (n = 8377) and rectal cancers (n = 4742) were from the National Cancer Registry. Potential confounders were obtained from other national registers. Poisson regression...

  10. Intratumoral Heterogeneity of MicroRNA Expression in Rectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Anne Haahr Mellergaard; Andersen, Rikke Fredslund; Nielsen, Boye Schnack

    2016-01-01

    study was to assess the heterogeneity of a panel of selected miRNAs in rectal cancer, using two different technical approaches.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of the investigated miRNAs was analysed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH...

  11. Multicenter evaluation of rectal cancer reimaging post neoadjuvant (MERRION) therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanly, Ann M

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of reimaging rectal cancer post-CRT (chemoradiotherapy) with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pelvis for local staging and computed tomography of thorax, abdomen, and pelvis (CT TAP) to identify distant metastases.

  12. digital rectal examination for prostate cancer: attitude and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    digital rectal examination (DRE). There are concerns however that medical students are not acquiring the necessary DRE skills. We therefore studied'their experience and attitude towards DRE for prostate cancer to assist us make any necessary adjustments in training. Methods: This was a self-administered questionnaire ...

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life after surgery for primary advanced rectal cancer and recurrent rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Henriette Vind; Jess, Per; Laurberg, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A review of the literature was undertaken to provide an overview of Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after surgery for primary advanced or recurrent rectal cancer and to outline proposals for future HRQoL studies in this area. Method: A systematic literature search was undertaken. Only...... studies concerning surgery for primary advanced or recurrent rectal cancer and describing methods used for measuring HRQoL were considered. Results Seven studies were identified including two prospective longitudinal, three cross-sectional and two based on qualitative data. Global quality of life...... of time of impaired HRQoL and also if this is different after surgery for locally advanced or recurrent disease than after total mesorectal excision used for earlier tumours.. Conclusion Several aspects of HRQoL are impaired for a variable time after treatment for locally advanced or recurrence of rectal...

  14. The curative management of synchronous rectal and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavan, Naomi A; Kavanagh, Dara O; Martin, Joseph; Small, Cormac; Joyce, Myles R; Faul, Clare M; Kelly, Paul J; O'Riordain, Michael; Gillham, Charles M; Armstrong, John G; Salib, Osama; McNamara, Deborah A; McVey, Gerard; O'Neill, Brian D P

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant "long-course" chemoradiation is considered a standard of care in locally advanced rectal cancer. In addition to prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy with or without androgen suppression (AS) are well established in prostate cancer management. A retrospective review of ten cases was completed to explore the feasibility and safety of applying these standards in patients with dual pathology. To our knowledge, this is the largest case series of synchronous rectal and prostate cancers treated with curative intent. Eligible patients had synchronous histologically proven locally advanced rectal cancer (defined as cT3-4Nx; cTxN1-2) and non-metastatic prostate cancer (pelvic nodal disease permissible). Curative treatment was delivered to both sites simultaneously. Follow-up was as per institutional guidelines. Acute and late toxicities were reviewed, and a literature search performed. Pelvic external beam radiotherapy (RT) 45-50.4 Gy was delivered concurrent with 5-fluorouracil (5FU). Prostate total dose ranged from 70.0 to 79.2 Gy. No acute toxicities occurred, excluding AS-induced erectile dysfunction. Nine patients proceeded to surgery, and one was managed expectantly. Three relapsed with metastatic colorectal cancer, two with metastatic prostate cancer. Five patients have no evidence of recurrence, and four remain alive with metastatic disease. With a median follow-up of 2.2 years (range 1.2-6.3 years), two significant late toxicities occurred; G3 proctitis in a patient receiving palliative bevacizumab and a G3 anastomotic stricture precluding stoma reversal. Patients proceeding to synchronous radical treatment of both primary sites should receive 45-50.4 Gy pelvic RT with infusional 5FU. Prostate dose escalation should be given with due consideration to the potential impact of prostate cancer on patient survival, as increasing dose may result in significant late morbidity. Review of published series explores the possibility of

  15. Rectal cancer survival in the Nordic countries and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, J.; Engholm, G.; Ehrnrooth, E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present detailed population-based survival estimates four patients with a rectal adenocarcinoma, using cancer register data supplemented with clinical data. Based oil cancer register data. differences in rectal cancer survival have been reported between countries ill...... Europe. Variation ill the distribution of stage at diagnosis. initial therapy including surgical technique, and comorbidity are possible explanatory factors. Adenocarcinomas in the rectum. diagnosed in 1997 and identified in the national cancer registries in the Nordic countries and Scotland were...... to Norway, Sweden and Scotland. Danish men hall the highest rate of excess deaths in the first six months after diagnosis. Stage adjusted, the elevated relative excess mortality decreased and after six months the excess mortality rates were the same in all countries. The poor 5-year relative survival...

  16. Rectal cancer survival in the Nordic countries and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Joakim; Engholm, Gerda; Ehrnrooth, Eva

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present detailed population-based survival estimates for patients with a rectal adenocarcinoma, using cancer register data supplemented with clinical data. Based on cancer register data, differences in rectal cancer survival have been reported between countries...... in Europe. Variation in the distribution of stage at diagnosis, initial therapy including surgical technique, and comorbidity are possible explanatory factors. Adenocarcinomas in the rectum, diagnosed in 1997 and identified in the national cancer registries in the Nordic countries and Scotland were included......, Sweden and Scotland. Danish men had the highest rate of excess deaths in the first six months after diagnosis. Stage adjusted, the elevated relative excess mortality decreased and after six months the excess mortality rates were the same in all countries. The poor 5-year relative survival in Danish men...

  17. Nomogram to predict rectal toxicity following prostate cancer radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Bernard Delobel

    Full Text Available To identify predictors of acute and late rectal toxicity following prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT, while integrating the potential impact of RT technique, dose escalation, and moderate hypofractionation, thus enabling us to generate a nomogram for individual prediction.In total, 972 patients underwent RT for localized prostate cancer, to a total dose of 70 Gy or 80 Gy, using two different fractionations (2 Gy or 2.5 Gy/day, by means of several RT techniques (3D conformal RT [3DCRT], intensity-modulated RT [IMRT], or image-guided RT [IGRT]. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of acute and late rectal toxicity. A nomogram was generated based on the logistic regression model used to predict the 3-year rectal toxicity risk, with its accuracy assessed by dividing the cohort into training and validation subgroups.Mean follow-up for the entire cohort was 62 months, ranging from 6 to 235. The rate of acute Grade ≥2 rectal toxicity was 22.2%, decreasing when combining IMRT and IGRT, compared to 3DCRT (RR = 0.4, 95%CI: 0.3-0.6, p<0.01. The 5-year Grade ≥2 risks for rectal bleeding, urgency/tenesmus, diarrhea, and fecal incontinence were 9.9%, 4.5%, 2.8%, and 0.4%, respectively. The 3-year Grade ≥2 risk for overall rectal toxicity increased with total dose (p<0.01, RR = 1.1, 95%CI: 1.0-1.1 and dose per fraction (2Gy vs. 2.5Gy (p = 0.03, RR = 3.3, 95%CI: 1.1-10.0, and decreased when combining IMRT and IGRT (RR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8, p<0.01. Based on these three parameters, a nomogram was generated.Dose escalation and moderate hypofractionation increase late rectal toxicity. IMRT combined with IGRT markedly decreases acute and late rectal toxicity. Performing combined IMRT and IGRT can thus be envisaged for dose escalation and moderate hypofractionation. Our nomogram predicts the 3-year rectal toxicity risk by integrating total dose, fraction dose, and RT technique.

  18. Predictive Biomarkers of Radiation Sensitivity in Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tut, Thein Ga

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world. Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the United States, and parts of Europe have the highest incidence rates of CRC. China, India, South America and parts of Africa have the lowest risk of CRC. CRC is the second most common cancer in both sexes in Australia. Even though the death rates from CRC involving the colon have diminished, those arising from the rectum have revealed no improvement. The greatest obstacle in attaining a complete surgical resection of large rectal cancers is the close anatomical relation to surrounding structures, as opposed to the free serosal surfaces enfolding the colon. To assist complete resection, pre-operative radiotherapy (DXT) can be applied, but the efficacy of ionising radiation (IR) is extremely variable between individual tumours. Reliable predictive marker/s that enable patient stratification in the application of this otherwise toxic therapy is still not available. Current therapeutic management of rectal cancer can be improved with the availability of better predictive and prognostic biomarkers. Proteins such as Plk1, gammaH2AX and MMR proteins (MSH2, MSH6, MLH1 and PMS2), involved in DNA damage response (DDR) pathway may be possible biomarkers for radiation response prediction and prognostication of rectal cancer. Serine/threonine protein kinase Plk1 is overexpressed in most of cancers including CRC. Plk1 functional activity is essential in the restoration of DNA damage following IR, which causes DNA double strand break (DSB). The earliest manifestation of this reparative process is histone H2AX phosphorylation at serine 139, leading to gammaH2AX. Colorectal normal mucosa showed the lowest level of gammaH2AX with gradually increasing levels in early adenoma and then in advanced malignant colorectal tissues, leading to the possibility that gammaH2AX may be a prospective biomarker in rectal cancer management. There are numerous publications regarding DNA mismatch

  19. Differences in telomerase activity between colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiomamitis, Georgios D; Notas, George; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Zizi-Sermpetzoglou, Adamantia; Georgiadou, Maria; Sfakianaki, Ourania; Kouroumallis, Elias

    2014-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers and the third leading cause of cancer death in both sexes. The disease progresses as a multistep process and is associated with genetic alterations. One of the characteristic features of cancer is telomerase activation. We sought to evaluate the differences in telomerase activity between colon cancer and adjacent normal tissue and to correlate the differences in telomerase activity between different locations with clinicopathological factors and survival. Matched colon tumour samples and adjacent normal mucosa samples 10 cm away from the tumour were collected during colectomy. We assessed telomerase activity using real time polymerase chain reaction. Several pathological characteristics of tumours, including p53, Ki-67, p21, bcl2 and MLH1 expression were also studied. We collected samples from 49 patients. There was a significantly higher telomerase activity in colon cancer tissue than normal tissue. Adenocarcinomas of the right colon express significantly higher telomerase than left-side cancers. Colon cancers and their adjacent normal tissue had significantly more telomerase and were more positive to MLH1 than rectal cancers. The expression of p53 negatively correlated to telomerase activity and was linked to better patient survival. Colon and rectal cancers seem to have different telomerase and MLH1 profiles, and this could be another factor for their different biologic and clinical behaviour and progression. These results support the idea that the large bowel cannot be considered a uniform organ, at least in the biology of cancer.

  20. Differences in telomerase activity between colon and rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiomamitis, Georgios D.; Notas, George; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Zizi-Sermpetzoglou, Adamantia; Georgiadou, Maria; Sfakianaki, Ourania; Kouroumallis, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers and the third leading cause of cancer death in both sexes. The disease progresses as a multistep process and is associated with genetic alterations. One of the characteristic features of cancer is telomerase activation. We sought to evaluate the differences in telomerase activity between colon cancer and adjacent normal tissue and to correlate the differences in telomerase activity between different locations with clinicopathological factors and survival. Methods Matched colon tumour samples and adjacent normal mucosa samples 10 cm away from the tumour were collected during colectomy. We assessed telomerase activity using real time polymerase chain reaction. Several pathological characteristics of tumours, including p53, Ki-67, p21, bcl2 and MLH1 expression were also studied. Results We collected samples from 49 patients. There was a significantly higher telomerase activity in colon cancer tissue than normal tissue. Adenocarcinomas of the right colon express significantly higher telomerase than left-side cancers. Colon cancers and their adjacent normal tissue had significantly more telomerase and were more positive to MLH1 than rectal cancers. The expression of p53 negatively correlated to telomerase activity and was linked to better patient survival. Conclusion Colon and rectal cancers seem to have different telomerase and MLH1 profiles, and this could be another factor for their different biologic and clinical behaviour and progression. These results support the idea that the large bowel cannot be considered a uniform organ, at least in the biology of cancer. PMID:24869613

  1. Quality of life in rectal cancer patients with permanent colostomy in Xi'an.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiuxiu; Li, Qin; Zhao, Haihong; Li, Junhua; Duan, Jiaobo; Wang, Dandan; Fang, Ningning; Zhu, Ping; Fu, Jufang

    2014-03-01

    To observe the quality of life (QOL) in rectal cancer patients with permanent colostomy in different periods after operation. A 1-,3-,6-month prospective study of QOL in 51 rectal cancer patients with permanent colostomy and 50 without permanent colostomy was assessed using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QOL-30 and CR38 questionnaires. The variation of QOL in different periods was "v" type. In the 1st postoperative month, these patients had the lowest quality of life scores, accompanied significantly varied functions and severe symptoms. Almost of all indexes of these patients had improved consistently in the postoperative period. The scores of global QOL even better than pre-operative level at 6th months post-operation, but the social function, body image, chemotherapy side effects and financial difficulties had not restored to the baseline level. Patients without permanent colostomy had a better score in most of categories of QOL-30 and CR38. The 1st postoperative month was crucial for patients' recovery, in which we should pay great attention to these problems which relate to the recovery of rectal cancer patients with permanent colostomy.

  2. Effect of Multidisciplinary Cancer Conference on Treatment Plan for Patients With Primary Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelgrove, Ryan C; Subendran, Jhananiee; Jhaveri, Kartik; Thipphavong, Seng; Cummings, Bernard; Brierley, James; Kirsch, Richard; Kennedy, Erin D

    2015-07-01

    Although multidisciplinary cancer conferences have been reported to lead to improved patient outcomes, few studies have reported results of these for rectal cancer. The purpose of this work was to assess the quality of multidisciplinary cancer conferences, the effect of the conference on the initial treatment plan, compliance with the conference treatment recommendations, and clinical outcomes for rectal cancer. This was a prospective, longitudinal study. The study was conducted at a tertiary care academic hospital. Patients with primary rectal cancer were included in this study. The intervention was a rectal cancer-specific multidisciplinary cancer conference. The quality of the multidisciplinary cancer conference was assessed using the Cancer Care Ontario Multidisciplinary Cancer Conference standards score. A change in treatment plan was defined as a change from the initial treatment plan selected by the treating physician to an alternate treatment plan recommended at the conference. Twenty-five multidisciplinary cancer conferences were conducted over a 10-month study period. The Cancer Care Ontario Multidisciplinary Cancer Conference standards score was 7 (from a maximum score of 9). Forty-two patients with primary rectal cancer were presented, and there was a 29% (12/42) change in the initial treatment plan. A total of 42% (5/12) of these changes were attributed to reinterpretation of the MRI findings. There was 100% compliance with the conference treatment recommendations. The circumferential resection margin was positive in 5.5% (2/36). Selection bias may have led to an overestimate of effect, and there is no control group for comparison of clinical outcomes. A high-quality rectal cancer-specific multidisciplinary cancer conference led to a 29% change in the treatment plan for patients with primary rectal cancer, with almost half of these changes attributed to reinterpretation of the magnetic resonance images.

  3. Correlation of chromosomal instability, telomere length and telomere maintenance in microsatellite stable rectal cancer: a molecular subclass of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Lisa A; Johnson, Ruth A; Viker, Kimberly B; Hafner, Kari A; Jenkins, Robert B; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas L; Smyrk, Thomas C; Litzelman, Kristin; Seo, Songwon; Gangnon, Ronald E; Engelman, Corinne D; Rider, David N; Vanderboom, Russell J; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Petersen, Gloria M; Skinner, Halcyon G

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) tumor DNA is characterized by chromosomal damage termed chromosomal instability (CIN) and excessively shortened telomeres. Up to 80% of CRC is microsatellite stable (MSS) and is historically considered to be chromosomally unstable (CIN+). However, tumor phenotyping depicts some MSS CRC with little or no genetic changes, thus being chromosomally stable (CIN-). MSS CIN- tumors have not been assessed for telomere attrition. MSS rectal cancers from patients ≤50 years old with Stage II (B2 or higher) or Stage III disease were assessed for CIN, telomere length and telomere maintenance mechanism (telomerase activation [TA]; alternative lengthening of telomeres [ALT]). Relative telomere length was measured by qPCR in somatic epithelial and cancer DNA. TA was measured with the TRAPeze assay, and tumors were evaluated for the presence of C-circles indicative of ALT. p53 mutation status was assessed in all available samples. DNA copy number changes were evaluated with Spectral Genomics aCGH. Tumors were classified as chromosomally stable (CIN-) and chromosomally instable (CIN+) by degree of DNA copy number changes. CIN- tumors (35%; n=6) had fewer copy number changes (cancer appears to represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that may be categorized both on the basis of CIN status and telomere maintenance mechanism. MSS CIN- rectal cancers appear to have longer telomeres than those of MSS CIN+ rectal cancers and to utilize ALT rather than activation of telomerase.

  4. Irinotecan-Eluting Beads in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer That Has Spread to the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  5. Bladder filling variation during conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithamparam, S.; Ahmad, R.; Sabarudin, A.; Othman, Z.; Ismail, M.

    2017-05-01

    Conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with small bowel toxicity mainly diarrhea. Treating patients with a full bladder is one of the practical solutions to reduce small bowel toxicity. Previous studies on prostate and cervix cancer patients revealed that maintaining consistent bladder volume throughout radiotherapy treatment is challenging. The aim of this study was to measure bladder volume variation throughout radiotherapy treatment. This study also measured the association between bladder volume changes and diarrhea. Twenty two rectal cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were planned for treatment with full bladder following departmental bladder filling protocol and the planning bladder volume was measured during CT-simulation. During radiotherapy, the bladder volume was measured weekly using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compared to planning bladder volume. Incidence and severity of diarrhea were recorded during the weekly patient review. There was a negative time trend for bladder volume throughout five weeks treatment. The mean bladder volume decreased 18 % from 123 mL (SD 54 mL) during CT-simulation to 101 mL (SD 71 mL) on the 5th week of radiotherapy, but the decrease is not statistically significant. However, there was a large variation of bladder volume within each patient during treatment. This study showed an association between changes of bladder volume and diarrhea (P = 0.045). In conclusion bladder volume reduced throughout radiotherapy treatment for conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer and there was a large variation of bladder volume within patients.

  6. Correlation of chromosomal instability, telomere length and telomere maintenance in microsatellite stable rectal cancer: a molecular subclass of rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Boardman

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC tumor DNA is characterized by chromosomal damage termed chromosomal instability (CIN and excessively shortened telomeres. Up to 80% of CRC is microsatellite stable (MSS and is historically considered to be chromosomally unstable (CIN+. However, tumor phenotyping depicts some MSS CRC with little or no genetic changes, thus being chromosomally stable (CIN-. MSS CIN- tumors have not been assessed for telomere attrition.MSS rectal cancers from patients ≤50 years old with Stage II (B2 or higher or Stage III disease were assessed for CIN, telomere length and telomere maintenance mechanism (telomerase activation [TA]; alternative lengthening of telomeres [ALT]. Relative telomere length was measured by qPCR in somatic epithelial and cancer DNA. TA was measured with the TRAPeze assay, and tumors were evaluated for the presence of C-circles indicative of ALT. p53 mutation status was assessed in all available samples. DNA copy number changes were evaluated with Spectral Genomics aCGH.Tumors were classified as chromosomally stable (CIN- and chromosomally instable (CIN+ by degree of DNA copy number changes. CIN- tumors (35%; n=6 had fewer copy number changes (<17% of their clones with DNA copy number changes than CIN+ tumors (65%; n=13 which had high levels of copy number changes in 20% to 49% of clones. Telomere lengths were longer in CIN- compared to CIN+ tumors (p=0.0066 and in those in which telomerase was not activated (p=0.004. Tumors exhibiting activation of telomerase had shorter tumor telomeres (p=0.0040; and tended to be CIN+ (p=0.0949.MSS rectal cancer appears to represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that may be categorized both on the basis of CIN status and telomere maintenance mechanism. MSS CIN- rectal cancers appear to have longer telomeres than those of MSS CIN+ rectal cancers and to utilize ALT rather than activation of telomerase.

  7. Rectal bleeding and its management after irradiation for cervix cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Mi Son; Kang, Seung Hee; Kil, Hoon Jong; Oh, Young Taek; Sohn, Jeong Hye; Ryu, Hee Suk; Lee, Kwang Jae [School of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hye Young [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Radiotherapy is the main treatment modality for uterine cervix cancer. Since the rectum is in the radiation target volume, rectal bleeding is a common late side effect. The study evaluates the risk factors of radiation induced rectal bleeding and discusses its optimal management. A total of 213 patients who completed external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and intracavitary radiation (ICR) between September 1994 and December 1999 were included in this study. No patient had undergone concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. Ninety patients received radiotherapy according to a modified hyperfractionated schedule. A midline block was placed at a pelvic dose of between 30.6 Gy to 39.6 Gy. The total parametrial dose from the EBRT was 51 to 59 Gy depending on the extent of their disease. The point A dose from the HDR brachytherapy was 28 Gy to 30 Gy (4 Gy x 7, or 5 Gy x 6). The rectal point dose was calculated either by the ICRU 38 guideline, or by anterior rectal wall point seen on radiographs, with barium contrast. Rectal bleeding was scored by the LENT/SOMA criteria. For the management of rectal bleeding, we opted for observation, sucralfate enema or coagulation based on the frequency or amount of bleeding. The median follow-up period was 39 months (12 {approx} 86 months). The incidence of rectal bleeding was 12.7% (27/213); graded as 1 in 9 patients, grade 2 in 16 and grade 3 in 2. The overall moderate and severe rectal complication rate was 8.5%. Most complications (92.6%) developed within 2 years following completion of radiotherapy (median 16 months). No patient progressed to rectal fistula or obstruction during the follow-up period. In the univariate analysis, three factors correlated with a high incidence of bleeding: an icruCRBED greater than 100 Gy (19.7% vs. 4.2%), an EBRT dose to the parametrium over 55 Gy (22.1% vs. 5.1%) and higher stages of III and IV (31.8% vs. 10.5%). In the multivariate analysis, the icruCRBED was the only significant factor ({rho} > 0.0432). The

  8. Treatment tactics in patient with rectal cancer complicating ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Barsukov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A successful treatment of a young patient with a 15-year anamnesis of ulcerative colitis, who has been diagnosed with rectal cancer, is presented in this case report. A non-standard surgical intervention has been performed following all principles of oncologic surgery. A subtotal colectomy has been performed with ultra-low anterior resection of rectum. Ascendoanal anastomosis has been performed forming the neo-rectum. There were no complications in postoperative period. Considering disease stage (T3N1M0 adjuvant XELOX was administered for 6 months along with 2 cycles of prophylactic treatment with 5-aminosalycilic acid. During 2-years follow-up there are no signs of rectal cancer and ulcerative colitis progression. After pelvic electrostimulation defecation frequency decreased to 3–4 times per day, a patient has complete social rehabilitation.

  9. Ultrasound elastography in patients with rectal cancer treated with chemoradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, S R; Vagn-Hansen, C; Sørensen, T

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current literature has described several predictive markers in rectal cancer patients treated with chemoradiation, but so far none of them have been validated for clinical use. The purpose of the present study was to compare quantitative elastography based on ultrasound measurements...... in the course of chemoradiation with tumor response based on T stage classification and the Mandard tumor regression grading (TRG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively examined 31 patients with rectal cancer planned for high dose radiochemotherapy. The tumor and the mesorectal fat elasticity were measured...... using the Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse to generate information on the mechanical properties of the tissue. The objective quantitative elastography shear wave velocity was compared to the T stage classification and TRG. RESULTS: The baseline mean tumor elasticity was 3.13m/s. Two and six weeks after...

  10. Effect of transanal total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perdawood, Sharaf Karim; Thinggaard, Benjamin Sejr; Bjoern, Maya Xania

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare short-term results of total mesorectal excision (TME) for mid and low rectal cancer, achieved by transanal (TaTME), laparoscopic (LaTME), and open (OpTME) approaches. BACKGROUND: The impact of TaTME on the surgical treatment of mid and low rectal cancer has yet to be clarified...... LaTME and one OpTME based on sex, BMI, tumor status, and the height of the tumor from the anal verge. Primary end-points were rates of positive circumferential resection margin (CRM), distal resection margin, and the macroscopic quality of the surgical specimen. Composite of these outcomes...... benefits over other approaches. The pathological results were not significantly superior to LaTME and OpTME. The procedure is however feasible and safe. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term oncological and quality of life outcomes....

  11. Female urogenital dysfunction following total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Ashraf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of Total Mesorectal Excision (TME on sexual function in the male is well documented. However, there is little literature in female patients. The aim of this study was to review the pelvic autonomic nervous anatomy in the female and to perform a retrospective audit of urinary and sexual function in women following surgery for rectal cancer where TME had been performed. Urogenital dysfunction was assessed through interview and questionnaire. Method Twenty-three questionnaires, eighteen returned, were sent to women with a mean age 65.5 yrs (range 34–86. All had undergone total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer between 1998–2001. Mean follow-up was 18.8 months (range 3–35. Results Preoperatively 5/18 (28% were sexually active, 3/18 (17% of patients described urinary frequency and nocturia and 7/18 (39% described symptoms of stress incontinence prior to surgery. Postoperatively all sexually active patients remained active although all described some discomfort with penetration. Two of the patients sexually active described reduced libido secondary to the stoma. Postoperative urinary symptoms developed with 59% reporting the development of nocturia, 18% developed stress incontinence and one patient required a permanent catheter. Of those with symptoms, 80% persisted longer than three months from surgery. Symptoms were predominant in those patients with low rectal cancers, particularly those undergoing abdomino-perineal excision and in those who had previously undergone abdominal hysterectomy. Conclusion The treatment of rectal cancer involves surgery to the pelvic floor. Despite nerve preservation this is associated with the development of worsening nocturia and stress incontinence. This is most marked in those patients who had previously undergone a hysterectomy. Further studies are warranted to assess the interaction with previous gynaecological surgery.

  12. Evaluating national practice of preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer based on clinical auditing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leersum, N J; Snijders, H S; Wouters, M W J M; Henneman, D; Marijnen, C A M; Rutten, H R; Tollenaar, R A E M; Tanis, P J

    2013-09-01

    Internationally, the use of preoperative radiotherapy (RT) for rectal cancer varies largely, related to different decision-making based on the harm-benefit ratio. In the Dutch guideline, RT is indicated in all cT2-4 tumours. We aimed to evaluate the use of RT in the Netherlands and to discuss Dutch practice in the context of current literature. Data of the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit (DSCA) were used and 6784 patients surgically treated for primary rectal cancer in 2009-2011 were included. The application and type of RT were described according to age, comorbidity, tumour localization and tumour stage at population level with analysis of hospital variation for specific subsets. In total, 85% of patients who underwent resection for rectal cancer received RT. Comorbidity (Charlson Comorbidity Index 2+) and older age (≥70 years) were associated with a slight decrease in application of RT (75 and 80% respectively). In stage I tumours, 77% of patients received RT, but large hospital variation existed (0-100%). The proportion chemoradiotherapy of the whole group of RT increased with increasing N-stage, increasing T-stage, decreasing distance from the anus, younger age and less comorbidity with hospital variation from 0 to 73%. From a European perspective, a high percentage of rectal cancer patients are treated with RT in the Netherlands. Considerable hospital variation was observed for RT in stage I and the proportion of chemoradiotherapy among all RT schemes. Data from clinical auditing enable evaluation of national practice and current standards from both a scientific and international perspective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. GLUT-1 expression and response to chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brophy, Sarah

    2009-12-15

    Preoperative chemoradiotherapy is used in locally advanced rectal cancer to reduce local recurrence and improve operability, however a proportion of tumors do not undergo significant regression. Identification of predictive markers of response to chemoradiotherapy would improve patient selection and may allow response modification by targeting of specific pathways. The aim of this study was to determine whether expression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) and p53 in pretreatment rectal cancer biopsies was predictive of tumor response to chemoradiotherapy. Immunohistochemical staining for GLUT-1 and p53 was performed on 69 pretreatment biopsies and compared to tumor response in the resected specimen as determined by the tumor regression grade (TRG) scoring system. GLUT-1 expression was significantly associated with reduced response to chemoradiotherapy and increasing GLUT expression correlated with poorer response (p=0.02). GLUT-1 negative tumors had a 70% probability of good response (TRG3\\/4) compared to a 31% probability of good response in GLUT-1 positive tumors. GLUT-1 may be a useful predictive marker of response to chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer.

  14. Ozone Therapy in the Management of Persistent Radiation-Induced Rectal Bleeding in Prostate Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardino Clavo; Norberto Santana-Rodriguez; Pedro Llontop; Dominga Gutierrez; Daniel Ceballos; Charlin Méndez; Gloria Rovira; Gerardo Suarez; Dolores Rey-Baltar; Laura Garcia-Cabrera; Gregorio Martínez-Sánchez; Dolores Fiuza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Persistent radiation-induced proctitis and rectal bleeding are debilitating complications with limited therapeutic options. We present our experience with ozone therapy in the management of such refractory rectal bleeding. Methods. Patients (n = 12) previously irradiated for prostate cancer with persistent or severe rectal bleeding without response to conventional treatment were enrolled to receive ozone therapy via rectal insufflations and/or topical application of ozonized-oil...

  15. A multidisciplinary clinical treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer complicated with rectovesical fistula: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan Tiancheng; Wang Lin; Li Ming; Li Zhongwu; Cai Yong; Shen Lin; Gu Jin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Rectal cancer with rectovesical fistula is a rare and difficult to treat entity. Here, we describe a case of rectal cancer with rectovesical fistula successfully managed by multimodality treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case report in the literature. Case presentation A 51-year-old Chinese man was diagnosed as having rectal cancer accompanied by rectovesical fistula. He underwent treatment with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy combined with to...

  16. Permanent stoma after low anterior resection for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junginger, Theodor; Gönner, Ursula; Trinh, Tong T; Lollert, André; Oberholzer, Katja; Berres, Manfred

    2010-12-01

    A low anterior resection procedure for removing a rectal tumor aims to preserve the sphincter and avoid a permanent stoma. Permanent stomas are primarily necessary in cases of poor anorectal function and local recurrence. The aim of this study was to clarify whether anastomosis-related complications and local recurrence influenced the rate of permanent stomas in a long-term follow-up. Of 1032 consecutive patients with rectal cancer, 397 were treated by low anterior resection (R0 and R1 resections) between 1985 and 2007 at the Department of General and Abdominal Surgery of the University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). All patient data were collected prospectively. A retrospective, multivariate analysis was conducted to determine factors that influenced the occurrence of delayed and nonreversal of defunctioning stoma, the rate of repeat stoma after closure, and the need for a permanent stoma in patients whose stomas were not initially defunctioning. A defunctioning stoma was created in 292 of 397 patients (74%); 12% of stomas were not reversible (33/279 that survived the operation >90 d); 11% (28/246) required a repeat stoma after stoma closure; 10% (10/105) of patients whose stomas were not initially defunctioning received a late permanent stoma. The overall rate of a permanent stoma was 18%. The main reasons for a permanent stoma were anastomosis-related complications and local recurrence. Risk factors for anastomosis-related complication were male gender, low tumor site, and tumor stage. Despite a significant reduction in local recurrence rates from 1997 to 2007, the rate of creating a permanent stoma did not change. The possibility of a permanent stoma should be considered when planning surgery for treating rectal cancer. It might be preferable in older patients, in poor condition and with more advanced rectal cancers, to consider an abdominoperineal resection or Hartmann procedure instead of a low anterior resection.

  17. Colon and rectal cancer survival by tumor location and microsatellite instability: the Colon Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Lindor, Noralane M; Jenkins, Mark A; Baron, John A; Win, Aung Ko; Gallinger, Steven; Gryfe, Robert; Newcomb, Polly A

    2013-08-01

    Cancers in the proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum are frequently studied together; however, there are biological differences in cancers across these sites, particularly in the prevalence of microsatellite instability. We assessed the differences in survival by colon or rectal cancer site, considering the contribution of microsatellite instability to such differences. This is a population-based prospective cohort study for cancer survival. This study was conducted within the Colon Cancer Family Registry, an international consortium. Participants were identified from population-based cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Information on tumor site, microsatellite instability, and survival after diagnosis was available for 3284 men and women diagnosed with incident invasive colon or rectal cancer between 1997 and 2002, with ages at diagnosis ranging from 18 to 74. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios for the association between all-cause mortality and tumor location, overall and by microsatellite instability status. Distal colon (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.49-0.71) and rectal cancers (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.81) were associated with lower mortality than proximal colon cancer overall. Compared specifically with patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting no/low microsatellite instability, patients with distal colon and rectal cancers experienced lower mortality, regardless of microsatellite instability status; patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting high microsatellite instability had the lowest mortality. Study limitations include the absence of stage at diagnosis and cause-of-death information for all but a subset of study participants. Some patient groups defined jointly by tumor site and microsatellite instability status are subject to small numbers. Proximal colon cancer survival differs from survival for distal colon and rectal cancer in a manner apparently dependent on microsatellite instability status. These

  18. Rectal cancer: Pattern and outcome of management in University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Nigerians, outcome, rectal cancer, resectability. Résumé. Arrière-plan: Cancer du côlon et rectum était considérée comme rare en Afrique il y a trois ou quatre décennies. Ce n'est plus vrai s'il n'est pas aussi courant que dans l'Europe de l'Ouest et en Amérique du Nord. L'objectif de cette étude est de déterminer ...

  19. The Quality-of-Life Effects of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, Joseph M., E-mail: jherma15@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Narang, Amol K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Zalupski, Mark M. [Department of Hematology Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Reese, Jennifer B. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Gearhart, Susan L. [Department of Medical Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Azad, Nolifer S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chan, June; Olsen, Leah [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Efron, Jonathan E. [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Existing studies that examine the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer on patient quality of life (QOL) are limited. Our goals were to prospectively explore acute changes in patient-reported QOL endpoints during and after treatment and to establish a distribution of scores that could be used for comparison as new treatment modalities emerge. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were prospectively enrolled at 2 institutions. Validated cancer-specific European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ-CR30) and colorectal cancer-specific (EORTC QLQ-CR38 and EORTC QLQ-CR 29) QOL questionnaires were administered to patients 1 month before they began CRT, at week 4 of CRT, and 1 month after they had finished CRT. The questionnaires included multiple symptom scales, functional domains, and a composite global QOL score. Additionally, a toxicity scale was completed by providers 1 month before the beginning of CRT, weekly during treatment, and 1 month after the end of CRT. Results: Global QOL showed a statistically significant and borderline clinically significant decrease during CRT (-9.50, P=.0024) but returned to baseline 1 month after the end of treatment (-0.33, P=.9205). Symptoms during treatment were mostly gastrointestinal (nausea/vomiting +9.94, P<.0001; and diarrhea +16.67, P=.0022), urinary (dysuria +13.33, P<.0001; and frequency +11.82, P=.0006) or fatigue (+16.22, P<.0001). These symptoms returned to baseline after therapy. However, sexual enjoyment (P=.0236) and sexual function (P=.0047) remained persistently diminished after therapy. Conclusions: Rectal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant CRT may experience a reduction in global QOL along with significant gastrointestinal and genitourinary symptoms during treatment. Moreover, provider-rated toxicity scales may not fully capture this decrease in patient-reported QOL. Although most symptoms are transient

  20. A structured approach to reporting rectal cancer with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarulli, Emidio; Thipphavong, Seng; Jhaveri, Khartik

    2015-10-01

    Rectal cancers are the second most common GI carcinoma. Prognosis and therapeutic decisions hinge on the extent of disease. We present a comprehensive structured approach for staging rectal cancer using MRI to ensure the clear, concise, and standardized communication of disease extent to guide optimal treatment planning. MRI is crucial for local staging of rectal cancer. A standardized approach to reporting of rectal MRI focused on communication of essential treatment planning and prognostic indicators ensures maximal added value to referring physicians to guide appropriate management.

  1. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor producing rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoh Mikinori

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF-producing cancer has been reported to occur in various organs, especially the lung. However, G-CSF-producing colorectal cancer (CRC has never been reported in the English literature. Case presentation A 57-year-old man was admitted for the surgical removal of a rectal cancer. Some hepatic tumors in the liver were revealed concurrently, and their appearance suggested multiple liver metastases. Low anterior resection was performed. with the help of histopathological examination and immunohistochemical studies, we diagnosed this case to be an undifferentiated carcinoma of the rectum. After the operation, the white blood cell (WBC count increased gradually to 81,000 cells/μL. Modified-FOLFOX6 therapy was initiated to treat the liver metastases, but there was no effect, and peritoneal dissemination had also occurred. The serum level of G-CSF was elevated to 840 pg/mL (normal range, Conclusion This is the first case of G-CSF-producing rectal cancer, and its prognosis was very poor.

  2. Rectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases: Do we have a clear direction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S; Nunes, Q M; Daniels, I R; Smart, N J; Poston, G J; Påhlman, L

    2015-12-01

    Rectal cancer is a common entity and often presents with synchronous liver metastases. There are discrepancies in management guidelines throughout the world regarding the treatment of advanced rectal cancer, which are further compounded when it presents with synchronous liver metastases. The following article examines the evidence regarding treatment options for patients with synchronous rectal liver metastases and suggests potential treatment algorithms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The outcome of rectal cancer after early salvage surgery following transanal endoscopic microsurgery seems promising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levic, Katarina; Bulut, Orhan; Hesselfeldt, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) allows locally complete resection of early rectal cancer as an alternative to conventional radical surgery. In patients with unfavourable post-TEM histology, salvage surgery can be performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of early radical...... surgery after TEM for rectal cancer....

  4. Long-term effects and quality of life after treatment for rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiltink, L.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis long-term effects and quality of life after treatment for rectal cancer are evaluated. Long-term data were assessed from the TME trial. In this trial 1530 Dutch patients with rectal cancer were included between 1996 and 1999. These patients were randomly assigned to total mesorectal

  5. Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer: a single-centre experience of 120 cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Daniel W

    2011-10-01

    For colorectal surgeons, laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery poses a new challenge. The defence of the questionable oncological safety tempered by the impracticality of the long learning curve is rapidly fading. As a unit specialising in minimally invasive surgery, we have routinely undertaken rectal cancer surgery laparoscopically since 2005.

  6. Quality of life in rectal cancer patients with permanent colostomy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purposes: The aim of this study was to observe the quality of life (QOL) in rectal cancer patients with permanent colostomy in different periods after operation. Methods: A 1-,3-,6-month prospective study of QOL in 51 rectal cancer patients with permanent colostomy and 50 ones without permanent colostomy was assessed ...

  7. The "liver-first approach" for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, C.; Pool, A.E. van der; Nuyttens, J.J.; Planting, A.S.; Eggermont, A.M.M.; Wilt, J.H.W. de

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the outcome of "the liver-first" approach in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases. METHODS: Patients with locally advanced rectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases were primarily treated for their liver

  8. Risk factors for anastomotic failure after total mesorectal excision of rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, KCMJ; Tollenaar, RAEM; Marijnen, CAM; Kranenbarg, EK; Steup, WH; Wiggers, T; Rutten, HJ; van de Velde, CJH

    Background: Anastomotic leakage is a major complication of rectal cancer surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors associated with symptomatic anastomotic leakage after total mesorectal excision (TME). Methods: Between 1996 and 1999, patients with operable rectal cancer were

  9. Systematic review of outcomes after intersphincteric resection for low rectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, S T

    2012-05-01

    For a select group of patients proctectomy with intersphincteric resection (ISR) for low rectal cancer may be a viable alternative to abdominoperineal resection, with good oncological outcomes while preserving sphincter function. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the current evidence regarding oncological outcomes, morbidity and mortality, and functional outcomes after ISR for low rectal cancer.

  10. Molecular targeted treatment and radiation therapy for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, Friederike; Roedel, Franz; Capalbo, Gianni; Weiss, Christian; Roedel, Claus [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. of Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Background: EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) inhibitors confer clinical benefit in metastatic colorectal cancer when combined with chemotherapy. An emerging strategy to improve outcomes in rectal cancer is to integrate biologically active, targeted agents as triple therapy into chemoradiation protocols. Material and methods: cetuximab and bevacizumab have now been incorporated into phase I-II studies of preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. The rationale of these combinations, early efficacy and toxicity data, and possible molecular predictors for tumor response are reviewed. Computerized bibliographic searches of Pubmed were supplemented with hand searches of reference lists and abstracts of ASCO and ASTRO meetings. Results: the combination of cetuximab and CRT can be safely applied without dose compromises of the respective treatment components. Disappointingly low rates of pathologic complete remission have been noted in several phase II studies. The K-ras mutation status and the gene copy number of EGFR may predict tumor response. The toxicity pattern (radiation-induced enteritis, perforations) and surgical complications (wound healing, fistula, bleeding) observed in at least some of the clinical studies with bevacizumab and CRT warrant further investigations. Conclusion: longer follow-up (and, finally, randomized trials) is needed to draw any firm conclusions with respect to local and distant failure rates, and toxicity associated with these novel treatment approaches. (orig.)

  11. Interleukin genes and associations with colon and rectal cancer risk and overall survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondurant, Kristina L.; Lundgreen, Abbie; Herrick, Jennifer S.; Kadlubar, Susan; Wolff, Roger K.; Slattery, Martha L.

    2012-01-01

    Interleukins are a group of cytokines that contribute to growth and differentiation, cell migration, and inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses by the immune system. In this study we examined genetic variation in genes from various anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory interleukins to determine association with colon and rectal cancer risk and overall survival. Data from two population-based incident studies of colon cancer (1555 cases and 1956 controls) and rectal cancer (754 cases and 954 controls) were utilized. After controlling for multiple comparisons, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from four genes, IL3, IL6R, IL8, IL15, were associated with increased colon cancer risk and CXCR1, and CXCR2 were significantly associated with increased rectal cancer risk. Only SNPs from genes within the IL-8 pathway (IL8, CXCR1, and CXCR2) showed a significant association with both colon and rectal cancer risk. Several SNPs interacted significantly with IL8 and IFNG SNPs and with aspirin/NSAID, cigarette smoking, estrogen use and BMI. For both colon and rectal cancer, increasing numbers of risk alleles were associated with increased hazard of death from cancer; the estimated hazard of death for colon cancer for the highest category of risk alleles was 1.74 (95% CI 1.18–2.56) and 1.96 (95% CI 1.28–2.99) for rectal cancer. These data suggest interleukin genes play a role in risk and overall survival for colon and rectal cancer. PMID:22674296

  12. Differences in survival between colon and rectal cancer from SEER data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chien Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about colorectal cancer or colon and rectal cancer. Are they the same disease or different diseases? OBJECTIVES: The aim of this epidemiology study was to compare the features of colon and rectal cancer by using recent national cancer surveillance data. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data included colorectal cancer (1995-2008 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER database. Only adenocarcinoma was included for analysis. PATIENTS: A total of 372,130 patients with a median follow-up of 32 months were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean survival of patients with the same stage of colon and rectal cancer was evaluated. RESULTS: Around 35% of patients had stage information. Among them, colon cancer patients had better survival than those with rectal cancer, by a margin of 4 months in stage IIB. In stage IIIC and stage IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer patients, by about 3 months. Stage IIB colorectal cancer patients had a poorer prognosis than those with stage IIIA and IIIB colorectal cancer. After adjustment of age, sex and race, colon cancer patients had better survival than rectal cancer of stage IIB, but in stage IIIC and IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer. LIMITATIONS: The study is limited by its retrospective nature. CONCLUSION: This was a population-based study. The prognosis of rectal cancer was not worse than that of colon cancer. Local advanced colorectal cancer had a poorer prognosis than local regional lymph node metastasis. Stage IIB might require more aggressive chemotherapy, and no less than that for stage III.

  13. Synchronous rectal and prostate cancer – The impact of MRI on incidence and imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturludóttir, Margrét, E-mail: margret.sturludottir@karolinska.se [Department of Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Martling, Anna, E-mail: anna.martling@ki.se [Center of Surgical Gastroenterology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Solna (Sweden); Carlsson, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.carlsson@ki.se [Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Solna (Sweden); Blomqvist, Lennart, E-mail: lennart.k.blomqvist@ki.se [Department of Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Solna (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Prostate and rectal cancers are two of the most common cancers in male. •Synchronous diagnosis of prostate and rectal cancer is a rare identity. •Strong increase in the synchronous diagnosis likely due to improved diagnostic methods. •Pre-treatment MRI for rectal cancer has led to increased synchronous diagnosis. -- Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the incidence of synchronous diagnosis of rectal and prostate cancer and to identify how the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for preoperative staging of rectal cancer has affected the incidence. Methods: Regional data from the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry and the Regional Cancer Registry in Stockholm-Gotland area (two million inhabitants) between the years 1995–2011 were used. Patients were included when the rectal cancer was diagnosed prior to the prostate cancer. Medical records and pre-treatment MRI were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of 29,849 patients diagnosed with either disease, synchronous diagnosis was made in 29 patients (0.1%). Two patients were diagnosed in the years 1995–1999, seven patients between the years 2000–2005 and 20 patients between the years 2006–2011. The most common presentation, for the prostate cancer was incidental finding during staging for rectal cancer, n = 20, and of those led MRI to the diagnosis in 14 cases. At retrospective review, all patients had focal lesions in the prostate on MRI and patients with higher suspicion of malignancy on MRI had more locally advanced disease. Conclusion: Synchronous rectal and prostate cancer are a rare entity, but a strong increase in synchronous diagnosis is seen which may be attributed to improved diagnostic methods, including the use of pre-treatment MRI in routine work-up for rectal cancer.

  14. Overexpression of connective tissue growth factor WISP-1 in Chinese primary rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chao; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Meng, Wen-Jian; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Yong-Yang; Li, Li; Luo, Hong-Zhi; Yang, Lie; Zhou, Bin; Gu, Jun

    2007-07-28

    To clarify the expression change of Wnt-induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1) in human rectal cancer and to determine whether it is correlated with invasion and metastasis of human rectal cancer. Eighty-six paired samples of rectal cancer and surgically resected distant normal rectal tissue were collected and allocated into cancer group and control group respectively. WISP-1 mRNA was detected by relative quantitative real-time RT-PCR and WISP-1 protein was examined by immunohistochemical staining. WISP-1 gene overexpression was found in 65% (56/86) primary rectal cancers, 2-30 times that of the level in normal matched rectal tissues (P = 0.001). The mRNA expression level was correlated with Duke's staging, histological differentiation grade and lymph node status. The WISP-1 protein expression was in accordance with mRNA expression level. The positive degree of immunohistochemical staining in the cancer group (1.40 +/- 0.35) was different from that in control group (1.04 +/- 0.08, P WISP-1 expression may play a role in rectal tumorigenesis. WISP-1 may be used as a specific clinical diagnosis and prognosis marker in rectal cancer.

  15. Patient-reported genitourinary dysfunction after laparoscopic and open rectal cancer surgery in a randomized trial (COLOR II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, J; Abis, G; Gellerstedt, M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article reports on patient-reported sexual dysfunction and micturition symptoms following a randomized trial of laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer. METHODS: Patients in the COLOR II randomized trial, comparing laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer, completed...... the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-CR38 questionnaire before surgery, and after 4 weeks, 6, 12 and 24 months. Adjusted mean differences on a 100-point scale were calculated using changes from baseline value at the various time points in the domains of sexual functioning......, sexual enjoyment, male and female sexual problems, and micturition symptoms. RESULTS: Of 617 randomized patients, 385 completed this phase of the trial. Their mean age was 67·1 years. Surgery caused an anticipated reduction in genitourinary function after 4 weeks, with no significant differences between...

  16. Choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuyoshi Tei

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: This is the first report of choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer. We consider it important to enforce systemic chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy for choroidal metastasis from colorectal cancer.

  17. Intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Karin M; Ulintz, Peter J; Kuick, Rork D; Hovelson, Daniel H; Gates, Christopher M; Bhasi, Ashwini; Rodrigues Grant, Ana; Liu, Jianhua; Cani, Andi K; Greenson, Joel K; Tomlins, Scott A; Fearon, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer arises in part from the cumulative effects of multiple gene lesions. Recent studies in selected cancer types have revealed significant intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity and highlighted its potential role in disease progression and resistance to therapy. We hypothesized the existence of significant intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in rectal cancers involving variations in localized somatic mutations and copy number abnormalities. Two or three spatially disparate regions from each of six rectal tumors were dissected and subjected to the next-generation whole-exome DNA sequencing, Oncoscan SNP arrays, and targeted confirmatory sequencing and analysis. The resulting data were integrated to define subclones using SciClone. Mutant-allele tumor heterogeneity (MATH) scores, mutant allele frequency correlation, and mutation percent concordance were calculated, and copy number analysis including measurement of correlation between samples was performed. Somatic mutations profiles in individual cancers were similar to prior studies, with some variants found in previously reported significantly mutated genes and many patient-specific mutations in each tumor. Significant intra-tumor heterogeneity was identified in the spatially disparate regions of individual cancers. All tumors had some heterogeneity but the degree of heterogeneity was quite variable in the samples studied. We found that 67-97% of exonic somatic mutations were shared among all regions of an individual's tumor. The SciClone computational method identified 2-8 shared and unshared subclones in the spatially disparate areas in each tumor. MATH scores ranged from 7 to 41. Allele frequency correlation scores ranged from R(2)=0.69-0.96. Measurements of correlation between samples for copy number changes varied from R(2)=0.74-0.93. All tumors had some heterogeneity, but the degree was highly variable in the samples studied. The occurrence of significant intra-tumor heterogeneity may allow selected

  18. Current debate in the oncologic management of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Trish; Kunk, Paul R; Ramsdale, Erika; Rahma, Osama E

    2016-10-15

    Despite the considerable amount of research in the field, the management of locally advanced rectal cancer remains a subject to debate. To date, effective treatment centers on surgical resection with the standard approach of total mesorectal resection. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy have been incorporated in order to decrease local and systemic recurrence. While it is accepted that a multimodality treatment regimen is indicated, there remains significant debate for how best to accomplish this in regards to order, dosing, and choice of agents. Preoperative radiation is the standard of care, yet remains debated with the option for chemoradiation, short course radiation, and even ongoing studies looking at the possibility of leaving radiation out altogether. Chemotherapy was traditionally incorporated in the adjuvant setting, but recent reports suggest the possibility of improved efficacy and tolerance when given upfront. In this review, the major studies in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer will be discussed. In addition, future directions will be considered such as the role of immunotherapy and ongoing trials looking at timing of chemotherapy, inclusion of radiation, and non-operative management.

  19. [Circumferential resection margin in the modern treatment of rectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihnát, P; Martínek, L; Ihnát Rudinská, L; Mitták, M; Vávra, P; Zonča, P

    2013-06-01

    In the last decades, the assessment of circumferential resection margin (CRM) has gained enormous importance in the management of patients with rectal carcinoma, not only in predicting the prognosis, but also in precise cancer staging, in multimodal treatment indications and in quality assessment of provided care. The authors present a review article containing CRM definition, describing the technique of CRM assessment, the effect of CRM status on the prognosis and quality of provided therapy. CRM assessment in the context of a multidisciplinary team is especially emphasised. The aspect of CRM has to be considered by the radiologist during cancer staging, the surgeon in the course of the operation, the pathologist during precise macroscopic and histopathological specimen evaluation, and the oncologist when deciding on neoadjuvant/adjuvant therapy administration. CRM nowadays represents a fundamental aspect in modern treatment of patients with rectal carcinoma. The introduction of CRM assessment into clinical practice has lead to more precise staging, better multimodal therapy indications, more precise surgical technique (total mesorectal excision), an increased rate of sphincter-saving resections, lowered local recurrence rates and improved patient survival.

  20. Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin Before, During, and After Radiotherapy for High-Risk Rectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn Ole; Markussen, Alice; Jensen, Benny V

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of capecitabine and oxaliplatin before, during, and after radiotherapy for high-risk rectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with rectum cancer T4 or T3 involving the mesorectal fascia was included in a prospective phase 2 trial. Liver or lung metastases were...... accepted if the surgeons found them resectable. The patients received 6 weeks of capecitabine and oxaliplatin before chemoradiotherapy (CRT), continued capecitabine and oxaliplatin during radiotherapy, and received 4 weeks of capecitabine and oxaliplatin after CRT. The patients received radiotherapy...... as intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Total mesorectal excision was planned 8 weeks after CRT. The patients were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before start of treatment, after 6 weeks of chemotherapy, and again just before the operation. The European Organization for Research and Treatment...

  1. Laparoscopic versus open total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennix, Sandra; Pelzers, Loeki; Bouvy, Nicole; Beets, Geerard L; Pierie, Jean-Pierre; Wiggers, Theo; Breukink, Stephanie

    2014-04-15

    Colorectal cancer including rectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer deaths in the western world. For colon carcinoma, laparoscopic surgery is proven to result in faster postoperative recovery, fewer complications and better cosmetic results with equal oncologic results. These short-term benefits are expected to be similar for laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. However, the oncological safety of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer remained controversial due to the lack of definitive long-term results. Thus, the expected short-term benefits can only be of interest when oncological results are at least equal. To evaluate the differences in short- and long-term results after elective laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (LTME) for the resection of rectal cancer compared with open total mesorectal excision (OTME). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2), MEDLINE (January 1990 to February 2013), EMBASE (January 1990 to February 2013), ClinicalTrials.gov (February 2013) and Current Controlled Trials (February 2013). We handsearched the reference lists of the included articles for missed studies. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing LTME and OTME, reporting at least one of our outcome measures, was considered for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed study quality according to the CONSORT statement, and resolved disagreements by discussion. We rated the quality of the evidence using GRADE methods. We identified 45 references out of 953 search results, of which 14 studies met the inclusion criteria involving 3528 rectal cancer patients. We did not consider the risk of bias of the included studies to have impacted on the quality of the evidence. Data were analysed according to an intention-to-treat principle with a mean conversion rate of 14.5% (range 0% to 35%) in the laparoscopic group.There was moderate quality evidence that laparoscopic and open TME had similar

  2. The Results of Postoperative Radiation Therapy in the Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ja [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    Purpose: Despite apparently complete resection of cancer of the rectum, local recurrence rate was high. Radiation therapy has been used either alone or in combination with chemotherapy as an adjunct to surgery to reduce the risk of recurrence. This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic factors, survival rate and local recurrence rate of the rectal cancer who had received postoperative radiation therapy by retrospective analysis. Method: From 1982 to 1990, 63 patients with cancer of the rectum surgically staged as B2 or C disease received postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy after curative resection of tumor for cure. Postoperative radiation therapy was given to the whole pelvis (mean dose: 5040 cGy in 5-6weeks) and perineum was included in irradiated field in case of abdominoperineal resection. Results: Three-year actuarial survival rate was 73.2% overall, 87.7% in stage B2+3 and 62.9% in stage C2+3. Three-year disease-free survival rate was 69.5% overall, 87.7% in stage B2+3 and 56.8% in stage C2+3. Three-year disease-free survival rate in anterior resection was 77.8% and 44.4% in abdominoperineal resection. The local recurrence rate was 15.9% and distant failure rate was 20.6%. Severe late complication was small bowel obstruction in 6 patients and surgery was required in 4 patients (6.3%). The prognostic factors were stage (p=0.0221) and method of surgery(p=0.0414) (anterior resection vs abdominoperineal resection). Conclusion: This study provides evidence supporting the use of postoperative radiation therapy for reducing the local recurrence rate in patients who have had curative resection of rectal cancer with involvement of perirectal fat or regional nodes or both (stage B2 and C)

  3. VALUE OF PROTECTIVE STOMA IN RECTAL CANCER SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratrić, Ivana; Radovanović, Zoran; Radovanović, Dragana; Vicko, Ferenc; Petrović, Tomislav; Nikin, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Anastomotic leakage is the most serious surgical complication in rectal surgery. The aim of this study was to find out whether a protective stoma was capable of lowering the rate of clinical anastomotic leakage and to evaluate the rate of anastomotic leakages requiring resurgery. A retrospective study included a sample of 149 consecutive patients with rectal cancer who had undergone elective rectal resection with primary anastomosis. After total mesorectal excision, the anastomosis was created using either the single stapling or double stapling anastomotic technique. Anastomotic integrity was verified by transanal air insufflations with the pelvis filled with saline. A protective covering colostomy was added in selected cases and according to the surgeon's preference. A protective stoma was created in 31% of patients. Clinical anastomotic leakage occurred in 6.7% of patients (10/149). Anastomotic leakage occurred in 8.5% of the patients with a protective stoma (4/47) and in 5.9% of those without a protective stoma (6/102), which was not statistically significant. Surgery lasted significantly longer when a stoma had to be created than in case when it was not needed (p=0.024). The overall rate of resurgery due to postoperative surgical complications was 5.3% and in three cases this happened because of anastomotic leakage. All patients with a protective stoma and clinical anastomotic leakage were treated conservatively, compared to 50% of patients without a protective stoma who suffered anastomotic leakage and had to be operated. A stoma cannot prevent but it can surely minimize surgical complications related to anastomotic leakage and it does reduce the rate of resurgery.

  4. Pelvic lymphoscintigraphy: contribution to the preoperative staging of rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva José Hyppolito da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Preservation of the anal sphincter in surgery for cancer of the distal rectum in an attempt to avoid colostomy has been a main concern of colorectal surgeons. Various proposed procedures contradict oncological principles, especially with respect to pelvic lymphadenectomy. Therefore, prior knowledge of pelvic lymph node involvement is an important factor in choosing the operative technique, i.e., radical or conservative resection. Introduction of ultrasound, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance have made preoperative study of the area possible. Nevertheless, these resources offer information of an anatomical nature only. Lymphoscintigraphy enables the morphological and functional evaluation of the pelvic area and contributes toward complementing the data obtained with the other imaging techniques. The objective of this prospective study is twofold: to standardize the lymphoscintigraphy technique and to use it to differentiate patients with rectal cancer from those with other coloproctologic diseases. CASUISTIC AND METHODS: Sixty patients with various coloproctologic diseases were studied prospectively. Ages ranged from 21 to 96 years (average, 51 and median, 55 years. Twenty-six patients were male and 34 were female. Thirty patients had carcinoma of the distal rectum as diagnosed by proctologic and anatomic-pathologic examinations, 20 patients had hemorrhoids, 5 had chagasic megacolon, 2 had diverticular disease, 2 had neoplasm of the right colon, and 1 had ulcerative colitis as diagnosed by proctologic exam and/or enema. The lymphoscintigraphy method consisted of injecting 0.25 mL of a dextran solution marked with radioactive technetium-99m into the right and left sides of the perianal region and obtaining images with a gamma camera. The results were analyzed statistically with a confidence level of 95% (P < .05 using the following statistical techniques: arithmetic and medium average, Fisher exact test, chi-square test

  5. Rectal cancer and Fournier’s gangrene - current knowledge and therapeutic options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruketa, Tomislav; Majerovic, Matea; Augustin, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Fournier’s gangrene (FG) is a rapid progressive bacterial infection that involves the subcutaneous fascia and part of the deep fascia but spares the muscle in the scrotal, perianal and perineal region. The incidence has increased dramatically, while the reported incidence of rectal cancer-induced FG is unknown but is extremely low. Pathophysiology and clinical presentation of rectal cancer-induced FG per se does not differ from the other causes. Only rectal cancer-specific symptoms before presentation can lead to the diagnosis. The diagnosis of rectal cancer-induced FG should be excluded in every patient with blood on digital rectal examination, when urogenital and dermatological causes are excluded and when fever or sepsis of unknown origin is present with perianal symptomatology. Therapeutic options are more complex than for other forms of FG. First, the causative rectal tumor should be removed. The survival of patients with rectal cancer resection is reported as 100%, while with colostomy it is 80%. The preferred method of rectal resection has not been defined. Second, oncological treatment should be administered but the timing should be adjusted to the resolution of the FG and sometimes for the healing of plastic reconstructive procedures that are commonly needed for the reconstruction of large perineal, scrotal and lower abdominal wall defects. PMID:26290629

  6. Rectal cancer: An evidence-based update for primary care providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Wolfgang B; Kwaan, Mary R; Madoff, Robert D; Melton, Genevieve B

    2015-01-01

    Rectal adenocarcinoma is an important cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and key anatomic differences between the rectum and the colon have significant implications for management of rectal cancer. Many advances have been made in the diagnosis and management of rectal cancer. These include clinical staging with imaging studies such as endorectal ultrasound and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging, operative approaches such as transanal endoscopic microsurgery and laparoscopic and robotic assisted proctectomy, as well as refined neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies. For stage II and III rectal cancers, combined chemoradiotherapy offers the lowest rates of local and distant relapse, and is delivered neoadjuvantly to improve tolerability and optimize surgical outcomes, particularly when sphincter-sparing surgery is an endpoint. The goal in rectal cancer treatment is to optimize disease-free and overall survival while minimizing the risk of local recurrence and toxicity from both radiation and systemic therapy. Optimal patient outcomes depend on multidisciplinary involvement for tailored therapy. The successful management of rectal cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach, with the involvement of enterostomal nurses, gastroenterologists, medical and radiation oncologists, radiologists, pathologists and surgeons. The identification of patients who are candidates for combined modality treatment is particularly useful to optimize outcomes. This article provides an overview of the diagnosis, staging and multimodal therapy of patients with rectal cancer for primary care providers. PMID:26167068

  7. [The quality of life after rectal cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Woo

    2006-04-01

    Surgery is a definite treatment for rectal cancer by resecting the tumor. Surgeon not only aims to cure the patient but aims to relieve distressing symptoms as well. Unfortunately, patients may suffer adverse consequences from such surgery. The operative dissection of the rectum may damage the pelvic autonomic nerves disturbing bladder and sexual function. The construction of a permanent colostomy following an abdominoperineal resection may be associated with one or more physical problems as well as clinically significant psychosocial problems as well. The advances in knowledge of tumor biology and the improvements of surgical techniques and devices result in an increasing number of sphincter saving procedures such as low anterior resection. Although avoiding permanent stoma is generally regarded as a favorable outcome measure, patients undergoing sphincter-saving surgery may develop a number of unpleasant symptoms, typically fecal soiling and urgency, especially with low anastomosis. It is evident that the consequences of rectal surgery have an important bearing on quality of life. Although differences in definition exist, quality of life may be regarded as representing an individual's ability to carry out daily activities, as well as satisfaction with personal performance and with balance between disease control and adverse effects of treatment. In addition to traditional endpoints, such as survival and disease recurrences, assessing quality of life is necessary to provide a proper, comprehensive understanding of the outcome of surgery and other forms of treatment.

  8. Social inequalities in stage at diagnosis of rectal but not in colonic cancer: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Osler, M; Harling, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    We investigated stage at diagnosis in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) among 15 274 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed in 1996-2004 nationwide in Denmark. The effect of SES on the risk of being diagnosed with distant metastasis was analysed using logistic regression models....... A reduction in the risk of being diagnosed with distant metastasis was seen in elderly rectal cancer patients with high income, living in owner-occupied housing and living with a partner. Among younger rectal cancer patients, a reduced risk was seen in those having long education. No social gradient was found...... among colon cancer patients. The social gradient found in rectal cancer patients was significantly different from the lack of association found among colon cancer patients. There are socioeconomic inequalities in the risk of being diagnosed with distant metastasis of a rectal, but not a colonic, cancer...

  9. The evaluation of the oxidative stress for patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbanescu, G L; Gruia, M I; Bara, M; Anghel, R M

    2017-01-01

    Hypothesis: Nowadays, rectal cancer is an important healthcare challenge that affects many thousands of people each year worldwide, being diagnosed especially after the age of 50 years. Objective: This study attempted to evaluate the oxidative stress in patients with rectal cancer. Methods and results: 30 patients from the "Prof. Dr. Al. Trestioreanu" Institute of Oncology in Bucharest were treated with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy during 2014 and 2016 and were included in the clinical study. Blood samples were obtained in dynamics during the treatment. From the blood samples, the serum was separated and used to identify the biochemical oxidative stress parameters. Results: Regarding the determination of lipid peroxides, albumin thiols, the cuprum oxidase activity of ceruloplasmin, the values registered in the dynamic of the treatment highlighted their increase to a maximum at the treatment's endpoint due to an important oxidative stress. Regarding the serum values for total antioxidants, the results pointed out the activation of the natural protection systems, which in time were overwhelmed, due to the installed oxidative stress. Conclusion: Part of the cytotoxic effect of radiotherapy was due to the production of oxidative stress. The cell was constantly exposed to the cytotoxic action of the reactive oxygen species. The obtained results indicated the dual relation to which the tumoral cell exposed itself and the installed oxidative stress, respectively, the oxidative stress being a cause or a consequence of the malign transformation. Abbreviations: CT = computed tomography, MRI = magnetic resonance imaging, ESMO = European Society for Medical Oncology, ECOG = performance status scale.

  10. Quality of life after rectal resection for cancer, with or without permanent colostomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pachler, Jørn; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2012-01-01

    cancers, except for those cancers very close to the anal sphincter. The main reason for this has been the conviction that the quality of life for patients with a colostomy after abdominoperineal excision was poorer than for patients undergoing an operation with a sphincter-preserving technique. However......For almost one hundred years abdominoperineal excision has been the standard treatment of choice for rectal cancer. With advances in the techniques for rectal resection and anastomosis, anterior resection with preservation of the sphincter function has become the preferred treatment for rectal...

  11. Postoperative morbidity after fast-track laparoscopic resection of rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stottmeier, S; Harling, H; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer Anders

    2012-01-01

    cancer surgery were analysed prospectively from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Database supplemented by data from the medical records. We studied in detail the nature and chronological order of postoperative morbidity and reason for prolonged stay (>5 days). Results: Twenty-five patients (25 per cent) had......Aim: Analysis was carried out of the nature and chronological order of early complications after fast-track laparoscopic rectal surgery with a view to optimize the short-time outcome of rectal cancer surgery. Method: 102 consecutive patients who underwent elective fast-track laparoscopic rectal...

  12. Trametinib and TAS-102 in Treating Patients With Colon or Rectal Cancer That is Advanced, Metastatic, or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-23

    RAS Family Gene Mutation; Stage III Colon Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Colon Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Colon Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Colon Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer AJCC v7

  13. Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma with liver metastasis of rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Kiyoto; Aoki, Hideki; Takehara, Yuko; Yamasaki, Rie; Tanakaya, Kohji; Takeuchi, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma is a particularly rare tumor with a poor prognosis. Curative resection is currently the only effective treatment, and the efficacy of chemotherapy is unclear. This represents the first case report of a patient with primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma co-existing with metastatic liver carcinoma. We present a 59-year-old man who was diagnosed preoperatively with rectal cancer with multiple liver metastases. He underwent a curative hepatectomy after a series of chemotherapy regimens with modified FOLFOX6 consisting of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin plus bevacizumab, FOLFIRI consisting of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and irinotecan plus bevacizumab, and irinotecan plus cetuximab. One of the liver tumors showed a different response to chemotherapy and was diagnosed as a leiomyosarcoma following histopathological examination. This case suggests that irinotecan has the potential to inhibit the growth of hepatic leiomyosarcomas. The possibility of comorbid different histological types of tumors should be suspected when considering the treatment of multiple liver tumors. PMID:23082067

  14. Transanal vs laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perdawood, Sharaf; Al Khefagie, Ghalib Ali Abod

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (LaTME) has improved short-term outcomes of rectal cancer surgery with comparable oncological results to open approach. LaTME can be difficult in the lower most part of the rectum, leading potentially to higher rates of complications, conversion...... to open surgery and probably suboptimal oncological quality. Transanal TME (TaTME) can potentially solve these problems. The aim of this study was to compare the short-term results after TaTME with those after LaTME. METHODS: A prospectively collected database of consecutive patients who underwent Ta......TME was maintained. Results were compared with those underwent LaTME in the preceding period. Patients who underwent low anterior resection or intersphincteric abdominoperineal excision (APE) were included. Primary end-points were radical resection and specimen quality. Secondary end-points were complications, rates...

  15. A case of radiation-induced rectal cancer after an irradiation for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikenaga, Masakazu; Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Ikeda, Masataka; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Monden, Morito [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-04-01

    A 75-year-old woman, who had undergone a hysterectomy and an irradiation for cervical cancer 44 years earlier, was seen at the hospital because of anal bleeding. Barium enema and colonoscopy demonstrated a cancerous lesion in the rectum, and an abdominoperineal excision of the rectum was performed. Marcoscopic findings of the resected specimen demonstrated an ulcerous lesion accompanied by rectal wall thickening and mucosal atrophy. No apparent crater was seen. Histopathological findings revealed moderately differentiated ademocarcinoma with subserosal invasion without lymph node metastases (ss, ly1, v0, n0, stage II), accompanied by mucosal atrophy and fibrous change both in submucoal and subserosal areas. The late phase features of radiation colitis were observed around the cancer which provided a clue to diagnose the lesions with radiation-induced cancer. In the follow-up of patients who underwent pelvic irradiation, attention should be paid for possible occurrence of second rectal cancer. (author)

  16. Severe rectal injury following radiation for prostatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, N.; Goldberg, H.; Goldman, H.; Lombardo, L.; Skaist, L.

    1984-04-01

    Between 1970 and 1981, 348 patients underwent definitive irradiation. Of these patients 6 (1.7 per cent) sustained severe rectal injury as manifest by major rectal bleeding, rectal stricture, rectal mucosal slough and rectal ulceration. Severe rectal injury was observed in 0 of 13 patients (0 per cent) treated with 125iodine, 3 of 329 (1 per cent) treated with 6,400 to 6,800 rad external irradiation, 2 of 39 (5 per cent) treated with 7,000 to 7,300 rad external irradiation, and 1 of 7 (14 per cent) treated with 198gold and external irradiation. The impact of radiation dose, radiation therapy technique and surgical trauma was assessed. Rectal injury was managed by supportive measures in 2 patients and by diverting colostomy in 3 with benefit. One patient underwent abdominoperineal resection. A small bowel fistula and an intra-abdominal abscess developed, and the patient died.

  17. Reduced Circumferential Resection Margin Involvement in Rectal Cancer Surgery: Results of the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, L.; Wouters, M.W.; Tanis, P.J.; Deken, M.M.; Berge, M.G. Ten; Tollenaar, R.A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Noo, M.E. de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The circumferential resection margin (CRM) is a significant prognostic factor for local recurrence, distant metastasis, and survival after rectal cancer surgery. Therefore, availability of this parameter is essential. Although the Dutch total mesorectal excision trial raised awareness

  18. A multidisciplinary clinical treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer complicated with rectovesical fistula: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Tiancheng; Wang, Lin; Li, Ming; Li, Zhongwu; Cai, Yong; Shen, Lin; Gu, Jin

    2012-10-29

    Rectal cancer with rectovesical fistula is a rare and difficult to treat entity. Here, we describe a case of rectal cancer with rectovesical fistula successfully managed by multimodality treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case report in the literature. A 51-year-old Chinese man was diagnosed as having rectal cancer accompanied by rectovesical fistula. He underwent treatment with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy combined with total pelvic excision and adjuvant chemotherapy, as recommended by a multimodality treatment team. Post-operative pathology confirmed the achievement of pathological complete response. This case suggests that a proactive multidisciplinary treatment is needed to achieve complete cure of locally advanced rectal cancer even in the presence of rectovesical fistula.

  19. Double blind randomized phase II study with radiation + 5-fluorouracil ± celecoxib for resectable rectal cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Debucquoy, Annelies; Roels, Sarah; Goethals, Laurence; Libbrecht, Louis; Cutsem, Eric Van; Geboes, Karel; Penninckx, Freddy; D’Hoore, André; McBride, William H; Haustermans, Karin

    2009-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and efficacy of the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib in conjunction with preoperative chemoradiation for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer in a double blind randomized phase II study...

  20. International preoperative rectal cancer management: staging, neoadjuvant treatment, and impact of multidisciplinary teams.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Augestad, Knut M

    2010-11-01

    Little is known regarding variations in preoperative treatment and practice for rectal cancer (RC) on an international level, yet practice variation may result in differences in recurrence and survival rates.

  1. Case report: Locoregional (perineum and inguinal) recurrence after treatment of rectal cancer by low anterior resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rong; Zhang, Li

    2013-08-12

    This report presents a case of perineal and inguinal recurrence and metastasis after treatment of rectal cancer by low anterior resection. A 57-year-old Chinese woman was diagnosed with rectal cancer in September 2008. The tumor and metastasis were recurrent many times in the perineum and inguinal regions from first diagnosis to October 2011. Twelve surgeries were performed and several nodules were removed. Adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy were also carried out. Pathological analysis indicated that most nodules were adenocarcinoma. The interesting finding was that this case did not seem to belong to any traditional rectal cancer metastasis pathway. This case is representative and worthy of further study to explore whether there is another rectal cancer metastasis pathway.

  2. A multidisciplinary clinical treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer complicated with rectovesical fistula: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Tiancheng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Rectal cancer with rectovesical fistula is a rare and difficult to treat entity. Here, we describe a case of rectal cancer with rectovesical fistula successfully managed by multimodality treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case report in the literature. Case presentation A 51-year-old Chinese man was diagnosed as having rectal cancer accompanied by rectovesical fistula. He underwent treatment with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy combined with total pelvic excision and adjuvant chemotherapy, as recommended by a multimodality treatment team. Post-operative pathology confirmed the achievement of pathological complete response. Conclusions This case suggests that a proactive multidisciplinary treatment is needed to achieve complete cure of locally advanced rectal cancer even in the presence of rectovesical fistula.

  3. Robot-assisted Versus Laparoscopic Surgery for Rectal Cancer: A Phase II Open Label Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Park, Sung Chan; Park, Ji Won; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Dae Yong; Nam, Byung-Ho; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Oh, Jae Hwan

    2018-02-01

    The phase II randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the outcomes of robot-assisted surgery with those of laparoscopic surgery in the patients with rectal cancer. The feasibility of robot-assisted surgery over laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer has not been established yet. Between February 21, 2012 and March 11, 2015, patients with rectal cancer (cT1-3NxM0) were enrolled. Patients were randomized 1:1 to either robot-assisted or laparoscopic surgery, and stratified per sex and administration of preoperative chemoradiotherapy. The primary outcome was the quality of total mesorectal excision (TME) specimen. Secondary outcomes were the circumferential and distal resection margins, the number of harvested lymph nodes, morbidity, bowel function recovery, and quality of life. A total of 163 patients were randomly assigned to the robot-assisted (n = 81) and laparoscopic (n = 82) surgery groups, and 139 patients were eligible for the analyses (73 vs 66, respectively). One patient (1.2%) in the robot-assisted group was converted to open surgery. The TME quality did not differ between the robot-assisted and laparoscopic groups (80.3% vs 78.1% complete TME, respectively; 18.2% vs 21.9% nearly complete TME, respectively; P = 0.599). The resection margins, number of harvested lymph nodes, morbidity, and bowel function recovery also were not significantly different. On analyzing quality of life, scores of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life (EORTC QLQ C30) and EORTC QLQ CR38 were similar in the 2 groups, but in the EORTC QLQ CR 38 questionnaire, sexual function 12 months postoperatively was better in the robot-assisted group than in the laparoscopic group (P = 0.03). Robot-assisted surgery in rectal cancer showed TME quality comparable with that of laparoscopic surgery, and it demonstrated similar postoperative morbidity, bowel function recovery, and quality of life.

  4. Anastomotic leakage after sphincter-sparing surgery in a young woman diagnosed with low rectal cancer - case report

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Aslan; Adrian Bordea; Traean Burcoș

    2017-01-01

    Rectal cancer is the third most common site for cancer in the world, with a high morbidity and mortality. The new techniques for the treatment of low rectal cancer have been improved recently, allowing sphincter-sparing surgery to be available for more patients, with an optimal oncological and functional outcome. The most fundamental advance in rectal cancer surgery was the concept of total mesorectal resection (TME) introduced by Heald in 1982. Association with neoadjuvant radio-chemotherapy...

  5. Prognostic Value of the Lymph Node Ratio in Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ince

    2014-08-01

    Materials and Methods: A total of 130 patients who had rectal adenocarcinoma and who underwent surgery between 1996 and 2011 were included in this study. Age, gender, serum carcinoembryonic antigen, type of surgery, and pathological features were retrieved retrospectively. Cut-off values for LNR were 1/12, 1/4, and 1/2; patients were stratified into four groups according to this ratio. The relationship between disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS and LNR was investigated. Cumulative survival curves were calculated by the Kaplan Meier method, and survival differences between groups were calculated by the log-rank test. Results: The mean number of lymph nodes examined was 11.5+/-8. In 75 of all patients (57.7%, fewer than 12 lymph nodes were harvested. Seventy-six patients (58.5% were evaluated as N0, 35 (26.9% were N1, and 19 (14.6% were N2. The number of patients in these LNR groups was 87 (66.9%, 13 (10%, 17 (13.1%, and 13 (10%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate was found to be 72.3% in the LNR1 group, 55.6% in the LNR2 group, 44.4% in the LNR3 group, and 22.2% in the LNR4 group. The difference in OS and DFS rates was significant (p<0.001 for both. Conclusion: The LNR for rectal cancer has a prognostic effect on both DFS and OS. Thus, it may be beneficial for adjuvant therapy decisions, especially in patients with an insufficient number of dissected lymph nodes. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2014; 3(4.000: 207-212

  6. SHMT1 1420 and MTHFR 677 variants are associated with rectal but not colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tóth Béla; Müller Judit; Schoket Bernadette; Rudnai Péter; Bíró Anna; Székely Éva; Réti Andrea; Adleff Vilmos; Pap Éva; Hitre Erika; Komlósi Viktor; Ottó Szabolcs; Kásler Miklós; Kralovánszky Judit; Budai Barna

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Association between rectal or colon cancer risk and serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (SHMT1) C1420T or methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphisms was assessed. The serum total homocysteine (HCY), marker of folate metabolism was also investigated. Methods The SHMT1 and MTHFR genotypes were determined by real-time PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively in 476 patients with rectal, 479 patients with colon cancer and in 461 and 478, respective controls matched fo...

  7. PET/CT and Histopathologic Response to Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Charlotte; Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne K

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using positron emission tomography/computer tomography to predict the histopathologic response in locally advanced rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemoradiation. METHODS: The study included 30 patients with locally...... of chemoradiation is not able to predict the histopathologic response in locally advanced rectal cancer. There is an obvious need for other complementary methods especially with respect to the low sensitivity of positron emission tomography/computer tomography....

  8. PET/CT and histopathologic response to preoperative chemoradiation therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, C.; Loft, A.; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using positron emission tomography/computer tomography to predict the histopathologic response in locally advanced rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemoradiation. METHODS: The study included 30 patients with locally...... is not able to predict the histopathologic response in locally advanced rectal cancer. There is an obvious need for other complementary methods especially with respect to the low sensitivity of positron emission tomography/computer tomography Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1...

  9. Prognostic role of sensitive-to-apoptosis gene expression in rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozden, Sevgi A; Ozyurt, Hazan; Ozgen, Zerrin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the association between prognosis of rectal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and expression of sensitive-to-apoptosis (SAG), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-X(L)) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak).......To investigate the association between prognosis of rectal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and expression of sensitive-to-apoptosis (SAG), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-X(L)) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak)....

  10. Quantitative aspects of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in rectal cancer response to neoadjuvant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassaneze Thiago

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the added value of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI in patients with rectal cancer who received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT. The use of DW-MRI for response evaluation in rectal cancer still remains a widely investigated issue, as the accurate detection of pathologic complete response (pCR is critical in making therapeutic decisions.

  11. Use of primary radiotherapy for rectal cancer in the Netherlands between 1997 and 2008: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jobsen, J. J.; Aarts, M. J.; Siesling, S.; Klaase, J.; Louwman, W. J.; Poortmans, P. M. P.; Lybeert, M. L. M.; Koning, C. C. E.; Struikmans, H.; Coebergh, J. W. W.

    2012-01-01

    To describe variation in the utilisation rates of primary radiotherapy for patients with rectal cancer in the Netherlands, focusing on time trends and age effects. Data on primary non-metastatic rectal cancer were derived from the population-based cancer registries of four comprehensive cancer

  12. A case of metastatic carcinoma of anal fistula caused by implantation from rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Rina; Ichikawa, Ryosuke; Ito, Singo; Mizukoshi, Kosuke; Ishiyama, Shun; Sgimoto, Kiichi; Kojima, Yutaka; Goto, Michitoshi; Tomiki, Yuichi; Yao, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    This case involved an 80-year-old man who was seen for melena. Further testing revealed a tubular adenocarcinoma 50 mm in size in the rectum. In addition, an anal fistula was noted behind the anus along with induration. A biopsy of tissue from the external (secondary) opening of the fistula also revealed adenocarcinoma. Nodules suspected of being metastases were noted in both lung fields. The patient was diagnosed with rectal cancer, a cancer arising from an anal fistula, and a metastatic pulmonary tumor, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy was begun. A laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection was performed 34 days after 6 cycles of mFOLFOX-6 therapy. Based on pathology, the rectal cancer was diagnosed as moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, and this adenocarcinoma had lymph node metastasis (yp T3N2aM1b). There was no communication between the rectal lesion and the anal fistula, and a moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma resembling the rectal lesion was noted in the anal fistula. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that both the rectal lesion and anal fistula were cytokeratin 7 (CK7) (-) and cytokeratin 20 (CK20) (+), and the patient's condition was diagnosed as implantation of rectal cancer in an anal fistula.In instances where an anal fistula develops in colon cancer, cancer implantation in that fistula must also be taken into account, and further testing should be performed prior to surgery.

  13. Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) for rectal cancer: effects on patient-reported quality of life and functional outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedam, T W A; van Ramshorst, G H; Deijen, C L; Elfrink, A K E; Meijerink, W J H J; Bonjer, H J; Sietses, C; Tuynman, J B

    2017-01-01

    Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) has rapidly become an important component of the treatment of rectal cancer surgery. Cohort studies have shown feasibility concerning procedure, specimen quality and morbidity. However, concerns exist about quality of life and ano(neo)rectal function. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate quality of life in patients following TaTME for rectal cancer with anastomosis. Consecutive patients who underwent restorative TaTME surgery for rectal adenocarcinoma in an academic teaching center with tertiary referral function were evaluated. Validated questionnaires were prospectively collected. Quality of life was assessed by the EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D), European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer's QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR29 and low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) scale. Outcomes of the questionnaires at 1 and 6 months were compared with preoperative (baseline) values. Thirty patients after restorative TaTME for rectal cancer were included. Deterioration for all domains was mainly observed at 1 month after surgery compared to baseline, but most outcomes had returned to baseline at 6 months. Social function and anal pain remained significantly worse at 6 months. Major LARS (score >30) was 33% at 6 months after ileostomy closure. No end colostomies were required. TaTME is associated with acceptable quality of life and functional outcome at 6 months after surgery comparable to published results after conventional laparoscopic low anterior resection.

  14. A Case of Metastatic Rectal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Initially Diagnosed as Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Zaw Win

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the rectum is extremely rare with a reported incidence of only 0.025-0.1% of all colorectal tumors. The patient was a 68-year-old man who presented with fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and unintentional weight loss. A chest CT revealed a left suprahilar mass suspected to be lung cancer and an initial diagnosis of primary lung cancer was made. However, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT exam revealed an intensely hypermetabolic rectal mass which turned out to be rectal squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first report that shows FDG-PET/CT images of rectal squamous cell carcinoma metastasis to the skin, muscle, bone, and lung. Use of PET/CT in the initial diagnosis of non-resectable rectal cancers may avoid unnecessary surgery.

  15. A case of metastatic rectal squamous cell carcinoma initially diagnosed as lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Aung Zaw; Aparici, Carina Mari

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the rectum is extremely rare with a reported incidence of only 0.025-0.1% of all colorectal tumors. The patient was a 68-year-old man who presented with fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and unintentional weight loss. A chest CT revealed a left suprahilar mass suspected to be lung cancer and an initial diagnosis of primary lung cancer was made. However, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) exam revealed an intensely hypermetabolic rectal mass which turned out to be rectal squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first report that shows FDG-PET/CT images of rectal squamous cell carcinoma metastasis to the skin, muscle, bone, and lung. Use of PET/CT in the initial diagnosis of non-resectable rectal cancers may avoid unnecessary surgery.

  16. VEGF concentrations in tumour arteries and veins from patients with rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, Kim; Bülow, Steffen; Hesselfeldt, Peter

    2002-01-01

    in numbers during the same passage. These findings indicate that the tumour itself is not the only source of elevated VEGF concentrations in peripheral blood from patients with rectal cancer. A consistent finding was that a large number of neutrophils disappeared from the blood during passage through......This pilot study investigated the hypothesis that the tumour itself is the source of the elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations which are often observed in peripheral blood from patients with rectal cancer. Twenty-four consecutive patients with primary rectal cancer were...... significantly (p = 0.03) lower in venous blood than in arterial blood. Unexpectedly, a 16% reduction (p number of neutrophils was observed during transit of the arterial blood through the rectal tumours, while none of the other types of leukocytes or platelets was significantly reduced...

  17. Quality of life in rectal cancer patients after radical surgery: a survey of Chinese patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the impact of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in disease-free survivors after radical surgery for rectal cancer in a Chinese mainland population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional survey from August 2002 to February 2011 by use of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38 questionnaires of 438 patients who underwent curative surgery for rectal cancer. Patients who were followed up for a minimum of 6 months, had no relevant major comorbidities and whose disease had not recurred were asked to complete both questionnaires. The impact of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on HRQoL were compared by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results In total, 285 patients responded to the survey (response rate, 65.1%). Psychological-related HRQoL variables such as emotional function (P = 0.021) and future perspectives (P = 0.044) were poorer for younger patients than for older patients; and physiological-related HRQoL was reflected by physical function (P = 0.039), which was poorer for older patients than for younger patients. In terms of physiologic function and symptoms concerning HRQoL, such as pain (P = 0.002) and insomnia (P = 0.018), females had lower values than males. Low education and unemployment were associated with a worse HRQoL. HRQoL was worse for patients with stomas compared to those without, especially in psychosocial areas such as role function (P = 0.025), social function (P sociodemographic and clinical factors in Chinese mainland patients. PMID:24886668

  18. Neighborhood socioeconomic status and behavioral pathways to risks of colon and rectal cancer in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Masyn, Katherine E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Laden, Francine; Colditz, Graham A

    2010-09-01

    Neighborhood amenities and resources plausibly determine individual modifiable risk factors for colon and rectal cancer. Evidence on the associations between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and incident colon and rectal cancer is limited. The authors analyzed a prospective cohort of 111,129 women in the Nurses' Health Study with no history of cancer in 1986 followed to 2006. Neighborhood SES was based on Census-derived characteristics of block groups of residence. Cox models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted associations between neighborhood SES and incident colon and rectal cancer, and to examine for effect modification. For significant associations, path models were estimated with behavioral risk factors included as potential mediators. Neighborhood SES was unassociated with colon cancer among all women. However, among women with college or greater education, higher neighborhood SES was inversely related to colon cancer (P for trend = .01; P for interaction between neighborhood SES and education = .03). Path analysis suggested mediation by red meat intakes and body mass index (BMI). Higher neighborhood SES was inversely related to rectal cancer among all women (relative risk in highest quintile, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.93; P for trend = .08). Path analysis was consistent with mediation by multivitamin use and BMI. These findings suggest that living in a higher-SES neighborhood may protect against rectal cancer in women and colon cancer in higher-educated women, mediated by selected behavioral risk factors. Risk factor differences between colon and rectal cancer may account for discrepancies in estimated neighborhood effects by cancer site. Cancer 2010. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  19. Potential tumor spread of lateral pelvic lymphatic flow in low rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Kimihiko; Koike, Junichi; Shiokawa, Hiroyuki; Ushigome, Mitsunori; Matsuda, Satoshi; Kagami, Satoru; Koda, Takamaru; Kurihara, Akiharu; Shimada, Hideaki; Kaneko, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    In Japan lateral pelvic lymph node dissection has been actively performed with total mesorectal excision for low rectal cancer. However, its definitive efficacy remains unclear. This study is to evaluate clinical significance of lateral pelvic lymphatic drainage in low rectal cancer patients by 99mTc-Sn colloid radioactive tracers. Intraoperatively detecting rectal lymphatic drainage using 99mTc-Sn colloid radioactive tracer in 39 low rectal cancer patients, we performed lateral pelvic lymph node dissection in lateral pelvic lymphatic flow-positive patients. Lateral pelvic lymphatic flow was detected in 11 patients (28%). In four (36%) of 11 patients, tumor cells were histologically identified in lateral pelvic lymph nodes. A median size of metastatic lateral pelvic lymph nodes was 7.5 (range, 2-150) mm, and all but one overlooked patient could not be detected by routine preoperative imaging scans retrospectively. The five-year disease-free survival rate of lateral pelvic lymphatic flow-positive patients was significantly poorer (45% vs. 75%, p = 0.0044). Tumor cells potentially extended beyond the fascia propria recti in low rectal cancer with lateral pelvic lymphatic flow. Preoperative chemoradiation therapy and adjuvant therapy are considered to be reasonable to improve a poor prognosis of low rectal cancer patients with lateral pelvic lymphatic flow.

  20. FXYD-3 expression in relation to local recurrence of rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftas, Per; Arbman, Gunnar; Sun, Xiao Feng; Hallbook, Olof [Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoping University, Norrkoping (Sweden); Edler, David [Dept. of Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Syk, Erik [Dept. of Surgery, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-03-15

    In a previous study, the transmembrane protein FXYD-3 was suggested as a biomarker for a lower survival rate and reduced radiosensitivity in rectal cancer patients receiving preoperative radiotherapy. The purpose of preoperative irradiation in rectal cancer is to reduce local recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of FXYD-3 as a biomarker for increased risk for local recurrence of rectal cancer. FXYD-3 expression was immunohistochemically examined in surgical specimens from a cohort of patients with rectal cancer who developed local recurrence (n = 48). The cohort was compared to a matched control group without recurrence (n = 81). Weak FXYD-3 expression was found in 106/129 (82%) of the rectal tumors and strong expression in 23/129 (18%). There was no difference in the expression of FXYD-3 between the patients with local recurrence and the control group. Furthermore there was no difference in FXYD-3 expression and time to diagnosis of local recurrence between patients who received preoperative radiotherapy and those without. Previous findings indicated that FXYD-3 expression may be used as a marker of decreased sensitivity to radiotherapy or even overall survival. We were unable to confirm this in a cohort of rectal cancer patients who developed local recurrence.

  1. Extralevator versus standard abdominoperineal excision for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdawood, S K; Lund, T

    2015-03-01

    Extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) probably improves the oncological quality of low rectal cancer surgery, as compared to standard abdominoperineal excision (SAPE), possibly due to lower rates of accidental perioperative bowel perforations and lower rates of circumferential resection margin (CRM) positivity. The procedure may however, increase post-operative morbidity. The aim of this paper was to compare outcomes of SAPE and ELAPE for carcinoma of the lower rectum. This is a retrospective study of patients operated on at a single colorectal unit, in a provincial hospital in Denmark. Consecutive patients undergoing abdominoperineal excision (APE) between 2006 and 2012 were included. During this period, a gradual paradigm shift occurred towards adopting ELAPE, although both procedures were performed without a clear selection strategy. We reviewed medical records, including the pathological and radiological data. Patients were divided into two groups, SAPE and ELAPE. Main endpoints were rates of positive CRM, intraoperative bowel perforations, local recurrence rate, length of hospital stay, operative time, and perineal wound-related complications. One hundred and seven patients were included (median age 68 years, range 42-88 years; men = 72). The SAPE group included 39 patients and the ELAPE group 68 patients. Intraoperative bowel perforation was significantly lower in the ELAPE group (20.5% SAPE vs 7.4% ELAPE, p = 0.045). The rate of positive CRM was not significantly different (2.6% SAPE vs 7.4% ELAPE, p = 0.413). The local recurrence rate was not statistically significant (17.9% SAPE vs 13.2% ELAPE, p = 0.513). In the ELAPE group, operative time and hospital stay were significantly longer than the SAPE group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.021, respectively). We found low rates of positive CRM after APE compared with the literature. ELAPE did not reduce these rates, and although the local recurrence rate was lower, this did not reach statistical significance

  2. Preoperative CT versus diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the liver in patients with rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Michael P; Løgager, Vibeke B; Skjoldbye, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in the world and liver metastases are seen in up to 19% of patients with colorectal cancers. Detection of liver metastases is not only vital for sufficient treatment and survival, but also for a better estimation of prognosis....... The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of diffusion weighted MRI of the liver as part of a combined MR evaluation of patients with rectal cancers and compare it with the standard preoperative evaluation of the liver with CT. Methods. Consecutive patients diagnosed with rectal cancers were....... The current standard preoperative evaluation with CT-scan results in disadvantages like missed metastases and futile operations. We recommend that patients with rectal cancer, who are scheduled for MR of the rectum, should have a DWMR of the liver performed at the same time....

  3. Exercise during and after neoadjuvant rectal cancer treatment (the EXERT trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morielli, Andria R; Usmani, Nawaid; Boulé, Normand G; Severin, Diane; Tankel, Keith; Nijjar, Tirath; Joseph, Kurian; Fairchild, Alysa; Courneya, Kerry S

    2018-01-12

    Standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer includes 5-6 weeks of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) followed by total mesorectal excision 6-8 weeks later. NACRT improves local disease control and surgical outcomes but also causes side effects including fatigue, diarrhea, hand-foot syndrome, and physical deconditioning that may impede quality of life (QoL), treatment completion, treatment response, and long-term prognosis. Interventions to improve treatment outcomes and manage side effects that are safe, tolerable and low-cost are highly desirable. Exercise has been shown to improve some of these outcomes in other cancer patient groups but no study to date has examined the potential benefits (and harms) of exercise training during and after NACRT for rectal cancer. The Exercise During and After Neoadjuvant Rectal Cancer Treatment (EXERT) trial is a single-center, prospective, two-armed, phase II randomized controlled trial designed to test the preliminary efficacy of exercise training in this clinical setting and to further evaluate its feasibility and safety. Participants will be 60 rectal cancer patients scheduled to receive long-course NACRT followed by total mesorectal excision. Participants will be randomly assigned to exercise training or usual care. Participants in the exercise training group will be asked to complete three supervised, high-intensity interval training sessions/week during NACRT and ≥ 150 min/week of unsupervised, moderate-to-vigorous-intensity, continuous exercise training after NACRT prior to surgery. Participants in the usual care group will be asked not to increase their exercise from baseline. Assessments will be completed pre NACRT, post NACRT, and pre surgery. The primary endpoint will be cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak) at the post-NACRT time point assessed by a graded exercise test. Secondary endpoints will include functional fitness assessed by the Senior's Fitness Test, QoL assessed by the European

  4. Preoperative hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy for patients with rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Shimono, Reishi; Inoue, Tetsuya; Mori, Masaki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Sugimachi, Keizo

    1989-04-01

    Between April 1986 and February 1988, 17 patients with rectal cancer were treated with preoperative hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy (HCR). Hyperthermia was given 4 or 5 times over a 2-week period before irradiation. X-ray irradiation was given 20 times in 1.5 Gy x 2/day to a total dose of 30 Gy. Two hundred and fifty milligrams of 5 FU was intravenously injected or 400-600 mg of HCFU was orally administered. Of evaluable 16 patients, 6 were roentgenologically evaluated as partial response, 3 as moderate response, and 7 as non-response. Histological examination revealed complete response in 9 (53%), moderate response in 4 (24%), and slight response in 4 (24%). In 9 patients seropositive for CEA, CEA tended to decrease after HCR. Early side effects of HCR was not encountered. Although some of the patients complained of fever in the anal site, defecation desire, and micturition desire attributable to hyperthermia, these complaints were not so severe as to discontinue the treatment. (Namekawa, K).

  5. The Role of Postoperative Pelvic Radiation Therapy in Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yong Chan; Kim, Jae Sung; Yun, Hyong Geun; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-06-15

    To evaluate the role of postoperative pelvic radiation therapy in rectal cancer, a retrospective analysis was done on 189 patients with modified Astler-Coller stages B2+3, C1, and C2+3 who were treated from February 1979 to June 1986. Forty-seven patients were staged as B2+3, 17 as C1, and 125 as C2+3. As a curative resection, 41 received low anterior resection, 143 received abdomino-perineal resection, and five received pelvic exenteration. The survival and disease-free survival rates of the total patients at five year were 45.3% and 44.1%, respectively. The stage was an important prognostic factor for survival and disease-free survival: the survival rates at five year were 55.7% in B2+3, 65.7% in C1, and 36.4% in C2+3, respectively (p<0.01). The liver was the most frequently involved organ of recurrence followed by the lung and the perineum. The patients who received low anterior resection achieved better disease-free survival but were more prone to late radiation bowel morbidities than those who received abdominoperineal resection. Postoperative pelvic radiation therapy proved to be effective in locoregional disease control but did not prevent the appearance of distant metastasis, which was of major concern in advanced stages. Patterns of treatment failure, and factors relating to radiation morbidity are discussed, and therapeutic options for better results are proposed.

  6. Technological advances in radiotherapy of rectal cancer: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelt, Ane L; Sebag-Montefiore, David

    2016-07-01

    This review summarizes the available evidence for the use of modern radiotherapy techniques for chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer, with specific focus on intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) techniques. The dosimetric benefits of IMRT and VMAT are well established, but prospective clinical studies are limited, with phase I-II studies only. Recent years have seen the publication of a few larger prospective patient series as well as some retrospective cohorts, several of which include much needed late toxicity data. Overall results are encouraging, as toxicity levels - although varying across reports - appear lower than for 3D conformal radiotherapy. Innovative treatment techniques and strategies which may be facilitated by the use of IMRT/VMAT include simultaneously integrated tumour boost, adaptive treatment, selective sparing of specific organs to enable chemotherapy escalation, and nonsurgical management. Few prospective studies of IMRT and VMAT exist, which causes uncertainty not just in regards to the clinical benefit of these technologies but also in the optimal use. The priority for future research should be subgroups of patients who might receive relatively greater benefit from innovative treatment techniques, such as patients receiving chemoradiotherapy with definitive intent and patients treated with dose escalation.

  7. Dietary folate intake and K-ras mutations in sporadic colon and rectal cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Engeland, M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    We studied the association between dietary folate and specific K-ras mutations in colon and rectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. After 7.3 years of follow-up, 448 colon and 160 rectal cancer patients and 3,048 sub-cohort members (55-69 years at baseline) were available

  8. Use of Primary Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer in the Netherlands between 1997 and 2008: A Population-based Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jobsen, J.J.; Aarts, M.J.; Siesling, Sabine; Klaase, J.; Louwman, W.J.; Poortmans, P.M.P.; Lybeert, M.L.M.; Koning, C.C.E.; Struikmans, H.; Coebergh, J.W.W.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To describe variation in the utilisation rates of primary radiotherapy for patients with rectal cancer in the Netherlands, focusing on time trends and age effects. Materials and methods: Data on primary non-metastatic rectal cancer were derived from the population-based cancer registries of

  9. Selection Criteria for the Radical Treatment of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansel Leigh Davies

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are over 14,000 newly diagnosed rectal cancers per year in the United Kingdom of which between 50 and 64 percent are locally advanced (T3/T4 at presentation. Pelvic exenterative surgery was first described by Brunschwig in 1948 for advanced cervical cancer, but early series reported high morbidity and mortality. This approach was later applied to advanced primary rectal carcinomas with contemporary series reporting 5-year survival rates between 32 and 66 percent and to recurrent rectal carcinoma with survival rates of 22–42%. The Swansea Pelvic Oncology Group was established in 1999 and is involved in the assessment and management of advanced pelvic malignancies referred both regionally and UK wide. This paper will set out the selection, assessment, preparation, surgery, and outcomes from pelvic exenterative surgery for locally advanced primary rectal carcinomas.

  10. Pre-surgery radiotherapy of rectal cancer; Radioterapia pre-operatoria no cancer de reto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes-Paulo, Francisco [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2005-04-15

    High indexes of loco-regional recurrence in patients with rectal cancer have stimulated the search of complementary therapy. Since the sixties, neo adjuvant radiotherapy has gained space in order to reduce local recurrence and to increase the survival of these patients. Recently some publications have pointed out the importance of associating chemotherapy and total excision of mesorectum to the radiotherapy in the same way. The results of large prospective researches are expected to determine the exact role of this association. (author)

  11. Learning curve in robotic rectal cancer surgery: current state of affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, Rosa M; Rubio-Dorado-Manzanares, Mercedes; Díaz-Pavón, José Manuel; Reyes-Díaz, M Luisa; Vazquez-Monchul, Jorge Manuel; Garcia-Cabrera, Ana M; Padillo, Javier; De la Portilla, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    Robotic-assisted rectal cancer surgery offers multiple advantages for surgeons, and it seems to yield the same clinical outcomes as regards the short-time follow-up of patients compared to conventional laparoscopy. This surgical approach emerges as a technique aiming at overcoming the limitations posed by rectal cancer and other surgical fields of difficult access, in order to obtain better outcomes and a shorter learning curve. A systematic review of the literature of robot-assisted rectal surgery was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The search was conducted in October 2015 in PubMed, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, for articles published in the last 10 years and pertaining the learning curve of robotic surgery for colorectal cancer. It consisted of the following key words: "rectal cancer/learning curve/robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery". A total of 34 references were identified, but only 9 full texts specifically addressed the analysis of the learning curve in robot-assisted rectal cancer surgery, 7 were case series and 2 were non-randomised case-comparison series. Eight papers used the cumulative sum (CUSUM) method, and only one author divided the series into two groups to compare both. The mean number of cases for phase I of the learning curve was calculated to be 29.7 patients; phase II corresponds to a mean number 37.4 patients. The mean number of cases required for the surgeon to be classed as an expert in robotic surgery was calculated to be 39 patients. Robotic advantages could have an impact on learning curve for rectal cancer and lower the number of cases that are necessary for rectal resections.

  12. A population-based comparison of 30-day readmission after surgery for colon and rectal cancer: How are they different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumouras, Aristithes G; Tsao, Miriam W; Saleh, Fady; Hong, Dennis

    2016-09-01

    An implicit assumption in the analysis of colorectal readmission is that colon and rectal cancer patients are similar enough to analyze together. However, no studies have examined this assumption and whether substantial differences exist between colon and rectal cancer patients. This was a retrospective analysis of the differences in predictors, diagnoses, and costs of readmission between colon and rectal cancer cohorts for 30-day readmission. This study included all patients aged >18 who received an elective colectomy or low anterior resection for colorectal cancer from April 2008 until March 2012 in the province of Ontario. Overall, 13,571 patients were identified and the readmission rates significantly differed between rectal and colon cancer patients (7.1% colon and 10.7% rectal P = 0.001). Diabetes, age, and discharge to long term care were significantly different among colon and rectal patients in the prediction of readmission. Readmission for renal and stoma causes was more prominent in the rectal cohort. The adjusted cost difference for readmission did not significantly differ between rectal and colon cancer $178 ($1,924-1,568 P = 0.84) CONCLUSION: Several important differences in predictors and diagnoses exist between the two cohorts. Conversely, the costs associated with readmission were homogenous between rectal and colon cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:354-360. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. CLINICAL OUTCOME OF INTERSPHINCTERIC RESECTION FOR ULTRA-LOW RECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin L. Ignatov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery has been reported to be one of the approaches for total mesorectal excision (TME in rectal cancer surgery. Intersphincteric resection (ISR has been reported as a promising method for sphincter-preserving operation in selected patients with very low rectal cancer. METHODS: We try to underline the important surgical issues surrounding the management of patients with low rectal cancer indicated to laparoscopic intersphincteric resection (ISR. From January 2007 till now, 35 patients with very low rectal cancer underwent laparoscopic TME with ISR. We report and analyze the results from them RESULTS: Conversion to open surgery was necessary in one (3% patient. The median operation time was 293 min and median estimated blood loss was 40 ml. The pelvic plexus was completely preserved in 32 patients. There was no mortality. Postoperative complications occurred in three (9% patients. The median length of postoperative hospital stay was 11 days. Macroscopic complete mesorectal excision was achieved in all cases. Complete resection (R0 was achieved in 21 (91% patients.CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic TME with ISR is technically feasible and a safe alternative to laparotomy with favorable short-term postoperative outcomes. The literature research made by us found that the laparoscopic approach can be underwent in most patients with low rectal cancer in which laparoscopic ISR represents a feasible alternative to conventional open surgery.

  14. Prognostic significance of tumor budding in rectal cancer biopsies before neoadjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ailín C; Gibbons, David; Hanly, Ann M; Hyland, John M P; O'Connell, P Ronan; Winter, Desmond C; Sheahan, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Tumor budding is an increasingly important prognostic feature for pathologists to recognize. The aim of this study was to correlate intra-tumoral budding in pre-treatment rectal cancer biopsies with pathological response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and with long-term outcome. Data from a prospectively maintained database were acquired from patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Pre-treatment rectal biopsies were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of intra-tumoral budding. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors contributing to cancer-specific death, expressed as hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Of the 185 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, 89 patients met the eligibility criteria, of whom 18 (20%) exhibited budding in a pre-treatment tumor biopsy. Intra-tumoral budding predicted a poor pathological response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (higher ypT stage, P=0.032; lymph node involvement, P=0.018; lymphovascular invasion, P=0.004; and residual poorly differentiated tumors, P=0.005). No patient with intra-tumoral budding exhibited a tumor regression grade 1 or complete pathological response, providing a 100% specificity and positive predictive value for non-response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Intra-tumoral budding was associated with a lower disease-free 5-year survival rate (33 vs 78%, Ptumoral budding at diagnosis of rectal cancer identifies those who will poorly respond to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and those with a poor prognosis.

  15. Slug expression enhances tumor formation in a noninvasive rectal cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, E Ramsay; Findlay, Victoria J; Vaena, Silvia G; Walsh, Jarret; Lewin, David N; Turner, David P; Watson, Dennis K

    2011-09-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a series of molecular changes allowing epithelial cancer cells to acquire properties of mesenchymal cells: increased motility, invasion, and protection from apoptosis. Transcriptional regulators such as Slug mediate EMT, working in part to repress E-cadherin transcription. We report a novel, noninvasive in vivo rectal cancer model to explore the role of Slug in colorectal cancer (CRC) tumor development. For the generation of DLD-1 cells overexpressing Slug (Slug DLD-1), a Slug or empty (Empty DLD-1) pCMV-3Tag-1 (kanamycin-resistant) vector was used for transfection. Cells were evaluated for Slug and E-cadherin expression, and cell migration and invasion. For the in vivo study, colon cancer cells (parental DLD-1, Slug DLD-1, empty DLD-1, and HCT-116) were submucosally injected into the posterior rectum of nude mice using endoscopic guidance. After 28 d, tumors were harvested and tissue was analyzed. Slug expression in our panel of colon cancer cell lines was inversely correlated with E-cadherin expression and enhanced migration/invasion. Slug DLD-1 cells demonstrated a 21-fold increased Slug and 19-fold decreased E-cadherin expression compared with empty DLD-1. Similarly, the Slug DLD-1 cells had significantly enhanced cellular migration and invasion. In the orthotopic rectal cancer model, Slug DLD-1 cells formed rectal tumors in 9/10 (90%) of the mice (mean volume = 458 mm(3)) compared with only 1/10 (10%) with empty DLD-1 cells. Slug mediates EMT with enhanced in vivo rectal tumor formation. Our noninvasive in vivo model enables researchers to explore the molecular consequences of altered genes in a clinically relevant rectal cancer in an effort to develop novel therapeutic approaches for patients with rectal cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. SUCCESSFUL MINI-INVASIVE TREATMENT FOR SYNCHRONOUS RECTAL AND SIGMOID CANCER: A CLINICAL EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Rasulov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The case report describes successful treatment of synchronous low rectal and sigmoid cancers with mini-invasive technologies. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery allowed to perform sphincter-saving treatment. Treatment tactics for described tumor localizations are discussed. This case represents individualized approach to colorectal cancer patient, use of modern technologies in oncological surgery.

  17. Associations between birth weight and colon and rectal cancer risk in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Natalie R; Jensen, Britt W; Zimmermann, Esther

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight has inconsistent associations with colorectal cancer, possibly due to different anatomic features of the colon versus the rectum. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between birth weight and colon and rectal cancers separately. METHODS: 193,306 childr...

  18. Study shows colon and rectal tumors constitute a single type of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pattern of genomic alterations in colon and rectal tissues is the same regardless of anatomic location or origin within the colon or the rectum, leading researchers to conclude that these two cancer types can be grouped as one, according to The Cancer

  19. Multidisciplinary team conferences promote treatment according to guidelines in rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännström, Fredrik; Bjerregaard, Jon K; Winbladh, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multidisciplinary team (MDT) conferences have been introduced into standard cancer care, though evidence that it benefits the patient is weak. We used the national Swedish Rectal Cancer Register to evaluate predictors for case discussion at a MDT conference and its impact on treatment...

  20. ACR Appropriateness Criteria®  Resectable Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones William E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The management of resectable rectal cancer continues to be guided by clinical trials and advances in technique. Although surgical advances including total mesorectal excision continue to decrease rates of local recurrence, the management of locally advanced disease (T3-T4 or N+ benefits from a multimodality approach including neoadjuvant concomitant chemotherapy and radiation. Circumferential resection margin, which can be determined preoperatively via MRI, is prognostic. Toxicity associated with radiation therapy is decreased by placing the patient in the prone position on a belly board, however for patients who cannot tolerate prone positioning, IMRT decreases the volume of normal tissue irradiated. The use of IMRT requires knowledge of the patterns of spreads and anatomy. Clinical trials demonstrate high variability in target delineation without specific guidance demonstrating the need for peer review and the use of a consensus atlas. Concomitant with radiation, fluorouracil based chemotherapy remains the standard, and although toxicity is decreased with continuous infusion fluorouracil, oral capecitabine is non-inferior to the continuous infusion regimen. Additional chemotherapeutic agents, including oxaliplatin, continue to be investigated, however currently should only be utilized on clinical trials as increased toxicity and no definitive benefit has been demonstrated in clinical trials. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every two years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to

  1. Neoadjuvant bevacizumab, oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and radiation for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipetrillo, Tom; Pricolo, Victor; Lagares-Garcia, Jorge; Vrees, Matt; Klipfel, Adam; Cataldo, Tom; Sikov, William; McNulty, Brendan; Shipley, Joshua; Anderson, Elliot; Khurshid, Humera; Oconnor, Brigid; Oldenburg, Nicklas B E; Radie-Keane, Kathy; Husain, Syed; Safran, Howard

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and pathologic complete response rate of induction bevacizumab + modified infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) 6 regimen followed by concurrent bevacizumab, oxaliplatin, continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and radiation for patients with rectal cancer. Eligible patients received 1 month of induction bevacizumab and mFOLFOX6. Patients then received 50.4 Gy of radiation and concurrent bevacizumab (5 mg/kg on Days 1, 15, and 29), oxaliplatin (50 mg/m(2)/week for 6 weeks), and continuous infusion 5-FU (200 mg/m(2)/day). Because of gastrointestinal toxicity, the oxaliplatin dose was reduced to 40 mg/m(2)/week. Resection was performed 4-8 weeks after the completion of chemoradiation. The trial was terminated early because of toxicity after 26 eligible patients were treated. Only 1 patient had significant toxicity (arrhythmia) during induction treatment and was removed from the study. During chemoradiation, Grade 3/4 toxicity was experienced by 19 of 25 patients (76%). The most common Grade 3/4 toxicities were diarrhea, neutropenia, and pain. Five of 25 patients (20%) had a complete pathologic response. Nine of 25 patients (36%) developed postoperative complications including infection (n = 4), delayed healing (n = 3), leak/abscess (n = 2), sterile fluid collection (n = 2), ischemic colonic reservoir (n = 1), and fistula (n = 1). Concurrent oxaliplatin, bevacizumab, continuous infusion 5-FU, and radiation causes significant gastrointestinal toxicity. The pathologic complete response rate of this regimen was similar to other fluorouracil chemoradiation regimens. The high incidence of postoperative wound complications is concerning and consistent with other reports utilizing bevacizumab with chemoradiation before major surgical resections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neoadjuvant Bevacizumab, Oxaliplatin, 5-Fluorouracil, and Radiation for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dipetrillo, Tom; Pricolo, Victor; Lagares-Garcia, Jorge; Vrees, Matt; Klipfel, Adam; Cataldo, Tom; Sikov, William; McNulty, Brendan; Shipley, Joshua; Anderson, Elliot; Khurshid, Humera; Oconnor, Brigid; Oldenburg, Nicklas B.E.; Radie-Keane, Kathy; Husain, Syed [Brown University Oncology Group, Providence, RI (United States); Safran, Howard, E-mail: hsafran@lifespan.org [Brown University Oncology Group, Providence, RI (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and pathologic complete response rate of induction bevacizumab + modified infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) 6 regimen followed by concurrent bevacizumab, oxaliplatin, continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and radiation for patients with rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients received 1 month of induction bevacizumab and mFOLFOX6. Patients then received 50.4 Gy of radiation and concurrent bevacizumab (5 mg/kg on Days 1, 15, and 29), oxaliplatin (50 mg/m{sup 2}/week for 6 weeks), and continuous infusion 5-FU (200 mg/m{sup 2}/day). Because of gastrointestinal toxicity, the oxaliplatin dose was reduced to 40 mg/m{sup 2}/week. Resection was performed 4-8 weeks after the completion of chemoradiation. Results: The trial was terminated early because of toxicity after 26 eligible patients were treated. Only 1 patient had significant toxicity (arrhythmia) during induction treatment and was removed from the study. During chemoradiation, Grade 3/4 toxicity was experienced by 19 of 25 patients (76%). The most common Grade 3/4 toxicities were diarrhea, neutropenia, and pain. Five of 25 patients (20%) had a complete pathologic response. Nine of 25 patients (36%) developed postoperative complications including infection (n = 4), delayed healing (n = 3), leak/abscess (n = 2), sterile fluid collection (n = 2), ischemic colonic reservoir (n = 1), and fistula (n = 1). Conclusions: Concurrent oxaliplatin, bevacizumab, continuous infusion 5-FU, and radiation causes significant gastrointestinal toxicity. The pathologic complete response rate of this regimen was similar to other fluorouracil chemoradiation regimens. The high incidence of postoperative wound complications is concerning and consistent with other reports utilizing bevacizumab with chemoradiation before major surgical resections.

  3. Ozone Therapy in the Management of Persistent Radiation-Induced Rectal Bleeding in Prostate Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavo, Bernardino; Santana-Rodriguez, Norberto; Llontop, Pedro; Gutierrez, Dominga; Ceballos, Daniel; Méndez, Charlin; Rovira, Gloria; Suarez, Gerardo; Rey-Baltar, Dolores; Garcia-Cabrera, Laura; Martínez-Sánchez, Gregorio; Fiuza, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Persistent radiation-induced proctitis and rectal bleeding are debilitating complications with limited therapeutic options. We present our experience with ozone therapy in the management of such refractory rectal bleeding. Methods. Patients (n = 12) previously irradiated for prostate cancer with persistent or severe rectal bleeding without response to conventional treatment were enrolled to receive ozone therapy via rectal insufflations and/or topical application of ozonized-oil. Ten (83%) patients had Grade 3 or Grade 4 toxicity. Median follow-up after ozone therapy was 104 months (range: 52-119). Results. Following ozone therapy, the median grade of toxicity improved from 3 to 1 (p ozone therapy, respectively (p = 0.008). Ozone therapy was well tolerated and no adverse effects were noted, except soft and temporary flatulence for some hours after each session. Conclusions. Ozone therapy was effective in radiation-induced rectal bleeding in prostate cancer patients without serious adverse events. It proved useful in the management of rectal bleeding and merits further evaluation.

  4. Ozone Therapy in the Management of Persistent Radiation-Induced Rectal Bleeding in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardino Clavo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Persistent radiation-induced proctitis and rectal bleeding are debilitating complications with limited therapeutic options. We present our experience with ozone therapy in the management of such refractory rectal bleeding. Methods. Patients (n=12 previously irradiated for prostate cancer with persistent or severe rectal bleeding without response to conventional treatment were enrolled to receive ozone therapy via rectal insufflations and/or topical application of ozonized-oil. Ten (83% patients had Grade 3 or Grade 4 toxicity. Median follow-up after ozone therapy was 104 months (range: 52–119. Results. Following ozone therapy, the median grade of toxicity improved from 3 to 1 (p<0.001 and the number of endoscopy treatments from 37 to 4 (p=0.032. Hemoglobin levels changed from 11.1 (7–14 g/dL to 13 (10–15 g/dL, before and after ozone therapy, respectively (p=0.008. Ozone therapy was well tolerated and no adverse effects were noted, except soft and temporary flatulence for some hours after each session. Conclusions. Ozone therapy was effective in radiation-induced rectal bleeding in prostate cancer patients without serious adverse events. It proved useful in the management of rectal bleeding and merits further evaluation.

  5. Genetic variation in selenoprotein genes, lifestyle, and risk of colon and rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L Slattery

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Associations between selenium and cancer have directed attention to role of selenoproteins in the carcinogenic process. METHODS: We used data from two population-based case-control studies of colon (n = 1555 cases, 1956 controls and rectal (n = 754 cases, 959 controls cancer. We evaluated the association between genetic variation in TXNRD1, TXNRD2, TXNRD3, C11orf31 (SelH, SelW, SelN1, SelS, SepX, and SeP15 with colorectal cancer risk. RESULTS: After adjustment for multiple comparisons, several associations were observed. Two SNPs in TXNRD3 were associated with rectal cancer (rs11718498 dominant OR 1.42 95% CI 1.16,1.74 pACT 0.0036 and rs9637365 recessive 0.70 95% CI 0.55,0.90 pACT 0.0208. Four SNPs in SepN1 were associated with rectal cancer (rs11247735 recessive OR 1.30 95% CI 1.04,1.63 pACT 0.0410; rs2072749 GGvsAA OR 0.53 95% CI 0.36,0.80 pACT 0.0159; rs4659382 recessive OR 0.58 95% CI 0.39,0.86 pACT 0.0247; rs718391 dominant OR 0.76 95% CI 0.62,0.94 pACT 0.0300. Interaction between these genes and exposures that could influence these genes showed numerous significant associations after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Two SNPs in TXNRD1 and four SNPs in TXNRD2 interacted with aspirin/NSAID to influence colon cancer; one SNP in TXNRD1, two SNPs in TXNRD2, and one SNP in TXNRD3 interacted with aspirin/NSAIDs to influence rectal cancer. Five SNPs in TXNRD2 and one in SelS, SeP15, and SelW1 interacted with estrogen to modify colon cancer risk; one SNP in SelW1 interacted with estrogen to alter rectal cancer risk. Several SNPs in this candidate pathway influenced survival after diagnosis with colon cancer (SeP15 and SepX1 increased HRR and rectal cancer (SepX1 increased HRR. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support an association between selenoprotein genes and colon and rectal cancer development and survival after diagnosis. Given the interactions observed, it is likely that the impact of cancer susceptibility from genotype is

  6. Dual-energy CT can detect malignant lymph nodes in rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najami, I.; Lahaye, M. J.; Beets-Tan, Regina G H

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a need for an accurate and operator independent method to assess the lymph node status to provide the most optimal personalized treatment for rectal cancer patients. This study evaluates whether Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) could contribute to the preoperative lymph...... node assessment, and compared it to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The objective of this prospective observational feasibility study was to determine the clinical value of the DECT for the detection of metastases in the pelvic lymph nodes of rectal cancer patients and compare the findings to MRI...... and histopathology. Materials and methods The patients were referred to total mesorectal excision (TME) without any neoadjuvant oncological treatment. After surgery the rectum specimen was scanned, and lymph nodes were matched to the pathology report. Fifty-four histology proven rectal cancer patients received...

  7. Possible benefits of robot-assisted rectal cancer surgery regarding urological and sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm Andersen, Malene; Pommergaard, H-C; Gögenür, I

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Robot-assisted surgery for rectal cancer may result in lower rates of urogenital dysfunction compared with laparoscopic surgery. A systematic review was conducted of studies reporting urogenital dysfunction after robot-assisted rectal cancer surgery. METHOD: PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane...... Library were systematically searched in February 2014. All studies investigating urogenital function after robot-assisted rectal cancer surgery were identified. The inclusion criteria for meta-analysis studies required comparison of robot-assisted with laparoscopic surgery and the evaluation of urological...... to four including 152 patients in the robotic group and 161 in the laparoscopic group, without heterogeneity. The IPSS score at 3 and 12 months favoured robot-assisted surgery [mean difference (MD) -1.58; 95% CI (-3.1, -0.0), [P = 0.04; and MD -0.90 (-1.81, -0.02), P = 0.05]. IIEF scores at 3 months...

  8. Do older Americans undergo stoma reversal following low anterior resection for rectal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgion, Christopher M; Neville, Bridget A; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Hu, Yue-Yung; Schrag, Deborah; Breen, Elizabeth; Greenberg, Caprice C

    2013-07-01

    For low-lying rectal cancers, proximal diversion can reduce anastomotic leak after sphincter-preserving surgery; however, evidence suggests that such temporary diversions are often not reversed. We aimed to evaluate nonreversal and delayed stoma reversal in elderly patients undergoing low anterior resection (LAR). SEER-Medicare-linked analysis from 1991-2007. A total of 1179 primary stage I-III rectal cancer patients over age 66 who underwent LAR with synchronous diverting stoma. (1) Stoma creation and reversal rates; (2) time to reversal; (3) characteristics associated with reversal and shorter time to reversal. Within 18 mo of LAR, 51% of patients (603/1179) underwent stoma reversal. Stoma reversal was associated with age stoma have not undergone stoma reversal by 18 mo. Identifiable risk factors predict both nonreversal and longer time to reversal. These results help inform preoperative discussions and promote realistic expectations for elderly rectal cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors affecting sexual function: A comparison between women with gynecological or rectal cancer and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Chun; Rew, Lynn; Chen, Lynn

    2014-11-23

    This study had two purposes: (i) to explore differences in sexual function between women with gynecological or rectal cancer after related pelvic-area treatments and women without cancer; and (ii) to investigate the relationships among body image, anxiety and depression, sexual relationship power, sexual self-schema, and female sexual function. The participants (n = 139) were recruited through Internet cancer support groups and women's health organizations in the USA. Six structured questionnaires were mailed, and the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that women with gynecological or rectal cancer had significantly worse sexual function than women without cancer. Having gynecological/rectal cancer and a negative sexual self-schema were significantly related to poor sexual function. Furthermore, sexual self-schema moderated the relationship between sexual relationship power and female sexual function. Healthcare providers could give more attention to sexual issues in women who have undergone treatment for gynecological or rectal cancer, especially for those with a negative sexual self-schema and high sexual relationship power, which might improve these women's quality of life. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. XPO1 Inhibition Enhances Radiation Response in Preclinical Models of Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-Neira, Isabel; Torres, Nancy E; Liesenfeld, Lukas F; Chan, Carlos H F; Penson, Tristan; Landesman, Yosef; Senapedis, William; Shacham, Sharon; Hong, Theodore S; Cusack, James C

    2016-04-01

    Combination of radiation with radiosensitizing chemotherapeutic agents improves outcomes for locally advanced rectal cancer. Current treatment includes 5-fluorouracil-based chemoradiation prior to surgical resection; however pathologic complete response varies from 15% to 20%, prompting the need to identify new radiosensitizers. Exportin 1 (XPO1, also known as chromosome region 1, CRM1) mediates the nuclear export of critical proteins required for rectal cancer proliferation and treatment resistance. We hypothesize that inhibition of XPO1 may radiosensitize cancer cells by altering the function of these critical proteins resulting in decreased radiation resistance and enhanced antitumoral effects. To test our hypothesis, we used the selective XPO1 inhibitor, selinexor, to inhibit nuclear export in combination with radiation fractions similar to that given in clinical practice for rectal cancer: hypofractionated short-course radiation dosage of 5 Gy per fraction or the conventional long-course radiation dosage of 1 Gy fractions. Single and combination treatments were tested in colorectal cancer cell lines and xenograft tumor models. Combination treatment of radiotherapy and selinexor resulted in an increase of apoptosis and decrease of proliferation compared with single treatment, which correlated with reduced tumor size. We found that the combination promoted nuclear survivin accumulation and subsequent depletion, resulting in increased apoptosis and enhanced radiation antitumoral effects. Our findings suggest a novel therapeutic option for improving radiation sensitivity in the setting of rectal cancer and provide the scientific rationale to evaluate this combination strategy for clinical trials. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Associations between red meat and risks for colon and rectal cancer depend on the type of red meat consumed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeberg, Rikke; Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane; Halkjær, Jytte; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2013-04-01

    Cancer prevention guidelines recommend limiting intake of red meat and avoiding processed meat; however, few studies have been conducted on the effects of specific red meat subtypes on colon cancer or rectal cancer risk. The study aim was to evaluate associations between intake of red meat and its subtypes, processed meat, fish, and poultry and risk for colon cancer or rectal cancer in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. We also evaluated whether fish or poultry should replace red meat intake to prevent colon cancer or rectal cancer. During follow-up (13.4 y), 644 cases of colon cancer and 345 cases of rectal cancer occurred among 53,988 participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute incidence rate ratio (IRRs) and 95% CIs. No associations were found between intake of red meat, processed meat, fish, or poultry and risk for colon cancer or rectal cancer. The risk associated with specific red meat subtypes depended on the animal of origin and cancer subsite; thus, the risk for colon cancer was significantly elevated for higher intake of lamb [IRR(per 5g/d) = 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02-1.13)], whereas the risk for rectal cancer was elevated for higher intake of pork [IRR(per 25g/d) = 1.18 (95% CI: 1.02-1.36)]. Substitution of fish for red meat was associated with a significantly lower risk for colon cancer [IRR(per 25g/d) = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80-0.99)] but not rectal cancer. Substitution of poultry for red meat did not reduce either risk. This study suggests that the risks for colon cancer and potentially for rectal cancer differ according to the specific red meat subtype consumed.

  12. Measuring the health-related quality of life and sexual functioning of patients with rectal cancer : Does type of treatment matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traa, M.J.; Orsini, R.; den Oudsten, B.L.; de Vries, J.; Roukema, J.A.; Bosman, S.J.; Dudink, R.L.; Rutten, H.J.T.

    2014-01-01

    The literature on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after rectal cancer is growing, however, a comparison between patients with nonadvanced disease (NAD), locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC) and a normative population has not been made. Data on the

  13. Gender differences in pelvic anatomy and effects on rectal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seike, Kazuhiro; Koda, Keiji; Oda, Kenji; Kosugi, Chihiro; Shimizu, Kimio; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    The male pelvis is said to be narrower and deeper than the female pelvis. The present study aimed to evaluate anatomical differences in the pelvis between genders, and to analyze effects on rectal cancer surgery. Gender differences in pelvic anatomy were evaluated using computed tomography in 78 Japanese patients who had received low anterior resection for rectal cancer. Factors affecting operative duration and intraoperative blood loss were analyzed for both low anterior resection and ultra-low anterior resection. Pelvic capacity was significantly lower in males (460.0 +/- 16.7 cm3) than in females (634.8 +/- 22.0 cm3; p pelvic floor.

  14. The prognostic value of tumour regression grade following neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdul-Jalil, K I

    2014-01-01

    To date, there is no uniform consensus on whether tumour regression grade (TRG) is predictive of outcome in rectal cancer. Furthermore, the lack of standardization of TRG grading is a major source of variability in published studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of TRG in a cohort of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT). In addition to the Mandard TRG, we utilized four TRG systems modified from the Mandard TRG system and applied them to the cohort to assess which TRG system is most informative.

  15. Rectal cancer: prognostic indicators of long-term outcome in patients considered for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, E J; Lloyd, G M; Boyle, K M; Miller, A S

    2014-02-01

    Patients and clinicians seek an accurate prognosis after resectional surgery for rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to determine long-term outcomes after potentially curative surgery for rectal cancer with particular focus on factors associated with longer-term survival that are available to surgeons in the early post-operative setting. We conducted a retrospective review of a prospectively gathered database of all primary rectal adenocarcinomas considered for surgery in the University Hospitals of Leicester National Health Service (NHS) Trust between 1998 and 2007. Survival was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier method. Factors thought to be associated with survival were subjected to univariate analysis followed by Cox proportion regression. One thousand and twelve patients with primary rectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed between 1998 and 2007 were identified. Eight hundred and fifty three patients did not have metastases at the time of presentation and 726 patients underwent major resectional surgery. Five-year survival was 66 %. Patients' age, Dukes' stage, UICC stage, nodal involvement and circumferential resection margin status were independently associated with long-term survival on multivariate analysis. This is one of the largest series of rectal cancers from a single NHS trust. We have demonstrated that age, Dukes' stage and CRM status are associated with long-term survival. These clinical factors are readily available to the surgeon at the time of first post-operative review and can provide a good clinical guide to prognosis.

  16. Differential Impact of Anastomotic Leak in Patients With Stage IV Colonic or Rectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Rolff, Hans Christian; Krarup, Peter-Martin

    2017-01-01

    . PATIENTS: Patients who were diagnosed with stage IV colorectal cancer between 2009 and 2013 and underwent elective resection of their primary tumors were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality depending on the occurrence of anastomotic leak. Secondary outcomes were...... the administration of and time to adjuvant chemotherapy, metastasectomy rate, and risk factors for leak. RESULTS: Of the 774 patients with stage IV colorectal cancer who were included, 71 (9.2%) developed anastomotic leaks. Anastomotic leak had a significant impact on the long-term survival of patients with colon...... cancer (p = 0.04) but not on those with rectal cancer (p = 0.91). Anastomotic leak was followed by the decreased administration of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with colon cancer (p = 0.007) but not in patients with rectal cancer (p = 0.47). Finally, anastomotic leak had a detrimental impact...

  17. Application of objective clinical human reliability analysis (OCHRA) in assessment of technical performance in laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J D; Miskovic, D; Allison, A S; Conti, J A; Ockrim, J; Cooper, E J; Hanna, G B; Francis, N K

    2016-06-01

    Laparoscopic rectal resection is technically challenging, with outcomes dependent upon technical performance. No robust objective assessment tool exists for laparoscopic rectal resection surgery. This study aimed to investigate the application of the objective clinical human reliability analysis (OCHRA) technique for assessing technical performance of laparoscopic rectal surgery and explore the validity and reliability of this technique. Laparoscopic rectal cancer resection operations were described in the format of a hierarchical task analysis. Potential technical errors were defined. The OCHRA technique was used to identify technical errors enacted in videos of twenty consecutive laparoscopic rectal cancer resection operations from a single site. The procedural task, spatial location, and circumstances of all identified errors were logged. Clinical validity was assessed through correlation with clinical outcomes; reliability was assessed by test-retest. A total of 335 execution errors identified, with a median 15 per operation. More errors were observed during pelvic tasks compared with abdominal tasks (p technical performance of laparoscopic rectal surgery.

  18. Results of Neoadjuvant Short-Course Radiation Therapy Followed by Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery for T1-T2 N0 Extraperitoneal Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arezzo, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.arezzo@unito.it [General Surgery I, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Arolfo, Simone; Allaix, Marco Ettore [General Surgery I, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Munoz, Fernando [Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Cassoni, Paola [Pathology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Monagheddu, Chiara [Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Piedmont Reference Centre for Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention, City of Health and Science Hospital of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ricardi, Umberto [Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ciccone, Giovannino [Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Piedmont Reference Centre for Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention, City of Health and Science Hospital of Torino, Torino (Italy); Morino, Mario [General Surgery I, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to assess the short-term outcomes of neoadjuvant short-course radiation therapy (SCRT) followed by transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) for T1-T2 N0 extraperitoneal rectal cancer. Recent studies suggest that neoadjuvant radiation therapy followed by TEM is safe and has results similar to those with abdominal rectal resection for the treatment of extraperitoneal early rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: We planned a prospective pilot study including 25 consecutive patients with extraperitoneal T1-T2 N0 M0 rectal adenocarcinoma undergoing SCRT followed by TEM 4 to 10 weeks later (SCRT-TEM). Safety, efficacy, and acceptability of this treatment modality were compared with historical groups of patients with similar rectal cancer stage and treated with long-course radiation therapy (LCRT) followed by TEM (LCRT-TEM), TEM alone, or laparoscopic rectal resection with total mesorectal excision (TME) at our institution. Results: The study was interrupted after 14 patients underwent SCRT of 25 Gy in 5 fractions followed by TEM. Median time between SCRT and TEM was 7 weeks (range: 4-10 weeks). Although no preoperative complications occurred, rectal suture dehiscence was observed in 7 patients (50%) at 4 weeks follow-up, associated with an enterocutaneous fistula in the sacral area in 2 cases. One patient required a colostomy. Quality of life at 1-month follow-up, according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 survey score, was significantly worse in SCRT-TEM patients than in LCRT-TEM patients (P=.0277) or TEM patients (P=.0004), whereas no differences were observed with TME patients (P=.604). At a median follow-up of 10 months (range: 6-26 months), we observed 1 (7%) local recurrence at 6 months that was treated with abdominoperineal resection. Conclusions: SCRT followed by TEM for T1-T2 N0 rectal cancer is burdened by a high rate of painful dehiscence of the suture line and enterocutaneous

  19. Remission of Unresectable Lung Metastases from Rectal Cancer After Herbal Medicine Treatment: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungsuk; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-01-01

    Lung metastasis is frequent in rectal cancer patients and has a poor prognosis, with an expected three-year survival rate of about 10%. Though western medicine has made great strides in the curative resection of liver metastases, resection of lung metastases has lagged far behind. Many preclinical studies have suggested that herbal treatments block metastasis, but few clinical studies have addressed this topic. We present the case of a 57-year-old Asian male with lung metastases from rectal cancer. He first underwent resection of the primary lesion (stage IIA, T3N0M0) and six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Unfortunately, lung metastases were confirmed about one year later. Palliative chemotherapy was begun, but his disease continued to progress after three cycles and chemotherapy was halted. The patient was exclusively treated with herbal medicine-standardized allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua stokes extract combined with Dokhwaljihwang-tang (Sasang constitutional medicine in Korea). After seven weeks of herbal medicine treatment, the lung metastases were markedly improved. Regression of lung metastases has continued; also, the patient's rectal cancer has not returned. He has been receiving herbal medicine for over two years and very few side effects have been observed. We suggest that the herbal regimen used in our patient is a promising candidate for the treatment of lung metastases secondary to rectal cancer, and we hope that this case stimulates further investigation into the efficacy of herbal treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Negative impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye Bin; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-09-15

    Although anemia is considered to be a contributor to intra-tumoral hypoxia and tumor resistance to ionizing radiation in cancer patients, the impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for rectal cancer remains unclear. We reviewed the records of 247 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with NACRT followed by curative-intent surgery. The patients with anemia before NACRT (36.0%, 89/247) achieved less pathologic complete response (pCR) than those without anemia (p = 0.012). The patients with pretreatment anemia had worse 3-year local control than those without pretreatment anemia (86.0% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor and nodal stage (p = 0.020 and 0.032, respectively) were independently significant factors for local control. Pretreatment anemia had negative impacts on pCR and local control among patients who underwent NACRT and surgery for rectal cancer. Strategies maintaining hemoglobin level within normal range could potentially be used to improve local control in rectal cancer patients.

  1. [Short-term efficacy of da Vinci robotic surgical system on rectal cancer in 101 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dong-Zhu; Shi, Yan; Lei, Xiao; Tang, Bo; Hao, Ying-Xue; Luo, Hua-Xing; Lan, Yuan-Zhi; Yu, Pei-Wu

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the feasibility and safety of da Vinci robotic surgical system in rectal cancer radical operation, and to summarize its short-term efficacy and clinical experience. Data of 101 cases undergoing da Vinci robotic surgical system for rectal cancer radical operation from March 2010 to September 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Evaluation was focused on operative procedure, complication, recovery and pathology. All the 101 cases underwent operation successfully and safely without conversion to open procedure. Rectal cancer radical operation with da Vinci robotic surgical system included 73 low anterior resections and 28 abdominoperineal resections. The average operative time was (210.3±47.2) min. The average blood lose was (60.5±28.7) ml without transfusion. Lymphadenectomy harvest was 17.3±5.4. Passage of first flatus was (2.7±0.7) d. Distal margin was (5.3±2.3) cm without residual cancer cells. The complication rate was 6.9%, including anastomotic leakage(n=2), perineum incision infection(n=2), pulmonary infection (n=2), urinary retention (n=1). There was no postoperative death. The mean follow-up time was(12.9±8.0) months. No local recurrence was found except 2 cases with distant metastasis. Application of da Vinci robotic surgical system in rectal cancer radical operation is safe and patients recover quickly The short-term efficacy is satisfactory.

  2. Late adverse effects of radiation therapy for rectal cancer - a systematic overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgisson, Helgi; Paahlman, Lars; Gunnarsson, Ulf [Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Glimelius, Bengt [Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Dept. of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose. The use of radiation therapy (RT) together with improvement in the surgical treatment of rectal cancer improves survival and reduces the risk for local recurrences. Despite these benefits, the adverse effects of radiation therapy limit its use. The aim of this review was to present a comprehensive overview of published studies on late adverse effects related to the RT for rectal cancer. Methods. Meta-analyses, reviews, randomised clinical trials, cohort studies and case-control studies on late adverse effects, due to pre- or postoperative radiation therapy and chemo-radiotherapy for rectal cancer, were systematically searched. Most information was obtained from the randomised trials, especially those comparing preoperative short-course 5x5 Gy radiation therapy with surgery alone. Results. The late adverse effects due to RT were bowel obstructions; bowel dysfunction presented as faecal incontinence to gas, loose or solid stools, evacuation problems or urgency; and sexual dysfunction. However, fewer late adverse effects were reported in recent studies, which generally used smaller irradiated volumes and better irradiation techniques; although, one study revealed an increased risk for secondary cancers in irradiated patients. Conclusions. These results stress the importance of careful patient selection for RT for rectal cancer. Improvements in the radiation technique should further be developed and the long-term follow-up of the randomised trials is the most important source of information on late adverse effects and should therefore be continued.

  3. Rectal cancer patients' quality of life with a temporary stoma: shifting perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Heather B; Park, Jason; Fuzesi, Sarah; Temple, Larissa K

    2012-11-01

    Patients with rectal cancer who have a temporary ostomy report good quality of life despite identifying a number of stoma-related difficulties. This study aimed to qualitatively explore the experiences of patients with rectal cancer who have a temporary ileostomy to better understand the discordant findings of previous quantitative quality-of-life studies. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with patients with stage I to III rectal cancer who underwent sphincter-preserving surgery that resulted in a temporary ileostomy. Twenty-six patients (54% male, median age 54) participated. Sixty-five percent had stage III disease, and 88% received neoadjuvant therapy. Interviews examined preoperative expectations, overall experience, and stoma impact on quality of life. With the use of grounded theory, 2 investigators independently performed line-by-line content analysis to identify key themes. Analysis continued until data saturation. Two major themes were identified: stoma-related difficulties and perceived response shift. Patients reported difficulty in exercise, sleep, social activities, sexuality, and clothing. Patients' perception of quality of life with a temporary stoma appears to have undergone a response shift through recalibration of their standards for measuring quality of life (internal measurement scale altered by side effects of neoadjuvant/adjuvant treatment, temporary nature of stoma, and accommodation to stoma) and reconceptualization of what "good quality of life" is (stoma difficulties were felt to be less important in comparison with cancer-related mortality). Although qualitative research is, by design, not generalizable, these data support our previous quantitative work. This convergence of findings suggests that our data may be representative. A temporary ileostomy represents significant difficulties for patients with rectal cancer. However, because of response shift, these difficulties may not be perceived as important to overall quality of

  4. The influence of circumferential resection margins on survival following rectal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mois, Emil; Graur, Florin; Hajjar, Nadim Al; Puia, Cosmin; Cote, Adrian; Zaharie, Florin; Bartos, Adrian; Momani, Noemi Al; Pop, Flaviu; Neagos, Horatiu; Ciorogar, George; Iancu, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    A negative (R0) circumferential resection margin (CRM) is described as one of the most important factor that decrease the rate of local recurrence in rectal cancer. The primary outcome of the study was the status of the CRM, while the secondary outcomes were local recurrence and overall survival. Study includes 192 patients with rectal cancer operated between January 2012 and December 2013 in our Institute. The incidence of positive CRM and its impact on the survival rates after oncologic surgical resection were investigated along with factors that determine positive CRM. R1 was defined as a distance of ≤ 1 mm between the tumor and the resection margin. The R1 rate was 3.6 % (7 cases). Nine patients (4.68%) developed local recurrence during a median followup period of 720 days. A positive CRM was found to be a risk factor of local recurrence (p-value = 0.031) and it decreased the overall survival (p-value=0.001). pT4 stage (p-value=0.008) and vascular invasion (p-value=0.005) are factors that play significant roles in determining CRM positivity. In case of inferior rectal tumours abdomino-perineal resection (APR) determines significantly higher (p-value=0.048) rates of positive CRM than anterior resection (AR) of the rectum. Positive CRM affects overall survival and local recurrence in rectal cancer. pT4 stage and vascular invasion play determinant roles in determine CRM status. APR is a risk factor for positive CRM in inferior rectal tumors. Abdomino-perineal resection, Circumferential resection margins, Local recurrence, Rectal cancer, Overall survival.

  5. The differential impact of microsatellite instability as a marker of prognosis and tumour response between colon cancer and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Pil; Min, Byung So; Kim, Tae Il; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Nam Kyu; Kim, Hoguen; Kim, Won Ho

    2012-05-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a distinct molecular phenotype of colorectal cancer related to prognosis and tumour response to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. We investigated the differential impact of MSI between colon and rectal cancers as a marker of prognosis and chemotherapeutic response. PCR-based MSI assay was performed on 1125 patients. Six hundred and sixty patients (58.7%) had colon cancer and 465 patients (41.3%) had rectal cancer. Among 1125 patients, 106 (9.4%) had high-frequency MSI (MSI-H) tumours. MSI-H colon cancers (13%) had distinct phenotypes including young age at diagnosis, family history of colorectal cancer, early Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) stage, proximal location, poor differentiation, and high level of baseline carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), while MSI-H rectal cancers (4.3%) showed similar clinicopathological characteristics to MSS/MSI-L tumours except for family history of colorectal cancer. MSI-H tumours were strongly correlated with longer disease free survival (DFS) (P=0.005) and overall survival (OS) (P=0.009) than MSS/MSI-L tumours in colon cancer, while these positive correlations were not observed in rectal cancers. The patients with MSS/MSI-L tumours receiving 5-FU-based chemotherapy showed good prognosis (P=0.013), but this positive association was not observed in MSI-H (P=0.104). These results support the use of MSI status as a marker of prognosis and response to 5-FU-based chemotherapy in patients with colon cancers. Further study is mandatory to evaluate the precise role of MSI in patients with rectal cancers and the effect of 5-FU-based chemotherapy in MSI-H tumours. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Local antibiotic decontamination to prevent anastomotic leakage short-term outcome in rectal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Ulrich; Rogers, Susanne; Haubensak, Kristina; Schopf, Stefan; von Ahnen, Thomas; Schardey, Hans Martin

    2017-11-08

    Anastomotic leakage still presents an issue in rectal cancer surgery with rates of about 11%. As bacteria play a critical role, there is the concept of perioperative local decontamination to prevent anastomotic leakage. To ascertain the effectiveness of this treatment, we performed a retrospective analysis on 206 rectal resections with primary anastomosis and routine use of a selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) regimen for local decontamination. SDD medication was administered every 8 h from the day before surgery to the seventh postoperative day. All patients were treated according to the fast-track protocol without mechanical bowel preparation; instead, a laxative was used. Overall morbidity was 30%, overall mortality 0.5%. In our data, overall rate of anastomotic leakage (AL) was 5.8%, with 3.9% in anterior rectal resection and 6.5% in low anterior rectal resection group. In 75% of cases, anastomotic leakage was grade "C" and needed re-laparotomy. Surgical site infection rate was 19.9%. No serious adverse events were related to decontamination. Local antibiotic decontamination appears to be safe and effective to decrease the rate of anastomotic leakage in rectal cancer surgery. Further focus should be on perioperative management including bowel preparation and choice of antimicrobial agents for local decontamination.

  7. Increased Lymph Node Yield Is Associated with Improved Survival in Rectal Cancer Irrespective of Neoadjuvant Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jakob; Jess, Per; Roikjaer, Ole

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the lymph node yield achieved during rectal cancer resection is associated with survival. It is debated whether a high lymph node yield improves survival, per se, or whether it does so by diminishing the International Union Against Cancer stage drifting effect....... OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic implications of the lymph node yield in curative resected rectal cancer. DESIGN: This study was based on data from a prospectively maintained colorectal cancer database. SETTINGS: This was a national cohort study. PATIENTS: All 6793...... patients in Denmark who were diagnosed with International Union Against Cancer stage I to III adenocarcinoma of the rectum and so treated in the period from 2003 to 2011 were included in the analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was overall survival. RESULTS: The observed percentages...

  8. Dietary patterns associated with colon and rectal cancer: Results from the Dietary Patterns and Cancer (DIETSCAN) Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, L.B.; Balder, H.F.; Virtanen, M.J.; Rashidkhani, B.; Männistö, S.; Krogh, V.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Hartman, A.M.; Pietinen, P.; Tan, F.; Virtamo, J.; Wolk, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: An analysis of dietary patterns or combinations of foods may provide insight regarding the influence of diet on the risk of colon and rectal cancer. Objective: A primary aim of the Dietary Patterns and Cancer (DIETSCAN) Project was to develop and apply a common methodologic approach to

  9. Essential items for structured reporting of rectal cancer MRI: 2016 consensus recommendation from the Korean society of abdominal radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-01-15

    High-resolution rectal MRI plays a crucial role in evaluating rectal cancer by providing multiple prognostic findings and imaging features that guide proper patient management. Quality reporting is critical for accurate effective communication of the information among multiple disciplines, for which a systematic structured approach is beneficial. Existing guides on reporting of rectal MRI are divergent on some issues, largely reflecting the differences in overall management of rectal cancer patients between the United States and Europe. The Korean Society of Abdominal Radiology (KSAR) study group for rectal cancer has developed an expert consensus recommendation regarding essential items for structured reporting of rectal cancer MRI using a modified Delphi method. This recommendation aims at presenting an up-to-date, evidence-based, practical, structured reporting template that can be readily adopted in daily clinical practice. In addition, a thorough explanation of the clinical and scientific rationale underlying the reporting items and their formats is provided. This KSAR recommendation may serve as a useful tool to help achieve more standardized optimal care for rectal cancer patients using rectal MRI.

  10. Sphincter preservation for distal rectal cancer--a goal worth achieving at all costs?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulsow, Jürgen

    2011-02-21

    To assess the merits of currently available treatment options in the management of patients with low rectal cancer, a review of the medical literature pertaining to the operative and non-operative management of low rectal cancer was performed, with particular emphasis on sphincter preservation, oncological outcome, functional outcome, morbidity, quality of life, and patient preference. Low anterior resection (AR) is technically feasible in an increasing proportion of patients with low rectal cancer. The cost of sphincter preservation is the risk of morbidity and poor functional outcome in a significant proportion of patients. Transanal and endoscopic surgery are attractive options in selected patients that can provide satisfactory oncological outcomes while avoiding the morbidity and functional sequelae of open total mesorectal excision. In complete responders to neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, a non-operative approach may prove to be an option. Abdominoperineal excision (APE) imposes a permanent stoma and is associated with significant incidence of perineal morbidity but avoids the risk of poor functional outcome following AR. Quality of life following AR and APE is comparable. Given the choice, most patients will choose AR over APE, however patients following APE positively appraise this option. In striving toward sphincter preservation the challenge is not only to achieve the best possible oncological outcome, but also to ensure that patients with low rectal cancer have realistic and accurate expectations of their treatment choice so that the best possible overall outcome can be obtained by each individual.

  11. Sphincter preservation for distal rectal cancer--a goal worth achieving at all costs?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulsow, Jurgen

    2012-02-01

    To assess the merits of currently available treatment options in the management of patients with low rectal cancer, a review of the medical literature pertaining to the operative and non-operative management of low rectal cancer was performed, with particular emphasis on sphincter preservation, oncological outcome, functional outcome, morbidity, quality of life, and patient preference. Low anterior resection (AR) is technically feasible in an increasing proportion of patients with low rectal cancer. The cost of sphincter preservation is the risk of morbidity and poor functional outcome in a significant proportion of patients. Transanal and endoscopic surgery are attractive options in selected patients that can provide satisfactory oncological outcomes while avoiding the morbidity and functional sequelae of open total mesorectal excision. In complete responders to neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, a non-operative approach may prove to be an option. Abdominoperineal excision (APE) imposes a permanent stoma and is associated with significant incidence of perineal morbidity but avoids the risk of poor functional outcome following AR. Quality of life following AR and APE is comparable. Given the choice, most patients will choose AR over APE, however patients following APE positively appraise this option. In striving toward sphincter preservation the challenge is not only to achieve the best possible oncological outcome, but also to ensure that patients with low rectal cancer have realistic and accurate expectations of their treatment choice so that the best possible overall outcome can be obtained by each individual.

  12. Intersphincteric completion proctectomy with omentoplasty for chronic presacral sinus after low anterior resection for rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musters, G. D.; Borstlap, W. A.; Bemelman, W. A.; Buskens, C. J.; Tanis, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the clinical outcome of salvage surgery without restoring continuity for symptomatic chronic presacral sinus after low anterior resection (LAR) for rectal cancer. Out of a prospective cohort of 46 patients with chronic presacral sinus (> 1 year after LAR), 27 underwent

  13. Incidence and risk factors for rectovaginal fistula after low anterior resection for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Daisuke; Shima, Hidetaka; Kaida, Shuhei; Osada, Shunichi; Kamimukai, Nobuyuki; Kamiya, Noriyuki; Ishibe, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Akiyama, Hirotoshi; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Oba, Mari; Endo, Itaru

    2015-12-01

    The rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is a rare complication after low anterior resection (LAR) for rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for RVF after LAR for rectal cancer. This was a retrospective multi-institution study of 371 female rectal cancer patients who underwent LAR with anastomosis between January 2007 and December 2011. Patient-, tumor-, and surgery-related variables were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses. The overall RVF rate was 3.0 % (11/371). The RVF was diagnosed on median postoperative day 83 (15-766). In 81.8 % (9/11) of the patients, the diagnosis of RVF was made after hospital discharge. Multivariate analysis identified prognostic nutritional index (PNI; odds ratio (OR) 6.97; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.47-33.08; P = 0.015), preoperative chemotherapy (OR 27.31; CI 3.49-213.62; P = 0.002), tumor size (OR 5.90; CI 1.04-33.47; P = 0.045), intraoperative bleeding (OR 13.91; CI 1.34-144.42; P = 0.027), and lateral lymph node dissection (OR 4.92; CI 1.02-23.63; P = 0.045) as independent risk factors for RVF after LAR. Risk factors of RVF were PNI (rectal cancer.

  14. Dietary intake and nutritional indicators are transiently compromised during radiotherapy for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guren, M G; Tobiassen, L B; Trygg, K U; Drevon, C A; Dueland, S

    2006-01-01

    Patients with rectal cancer receive curative radiotherapy towards the pelvis for 5 weeks. Little is known about the impact of radiotherapy on dietary intake and nutritional status. The objective was to examine whether curative radiotherapy for rectal cancer promoted altered intake of energy and nutrients, and change in nutritional indicators. Prospective study. Department of Oncology in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 31 consecutive patients receiving radiotherapy for rectal cancer (50 Gray). A 7-day food intake registration, body weight, upper arm circumference, and analyses of blood samples were performed at the start and the end of radiotherapy, and at follow-up 4-6 weeks and 1 year after the end of radiotherapy. At the end of 5 weeks of radiotherapy, the mean daily energy intake was reduced by 15% from 8.9 to 7.6 MJ as compared with baseline (P = 0.002), and the intake of several nutrients was reduced (P < 0.01). The percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrates did not change, nor did the nutrient density. A transient body weight reduction of < 1 kg was observed (P = 0.009). Serum concentrations of vitamin A and 25-OH vitamin D did not change during radiotherapy. The daily intake of energy and nutrients, and body weight, had increased towards pretreatment values 4-6 weeks after radiotherapy. Radiotherapy for rectal cancer caused a transient reduction in energy intake and nutritional indicators. The nutritional quality of the diet was unchanged during radiotherapy.

  15. Impact of Comorbidities on the Outcomes of Older Patients Receiving Rectal Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ru Chang

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: Older patients with comorbidities are at a higher risk of in-hospital complications following rectal cancer surgery, whereas the presence of comorbidities did not show a significant adverse effect on 1-year mortality in the present study. We suggest using population-based data to establish effective therapeutic strategies for treating each comorbidity.

  16. Dose-Effect Relationship in Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders; Ploen, John; Vuong, Té

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Locally advanced rectal cancer represents a major therapeutic challenge. Preoperative chemoradiation therapy is considered standard, but little is known about the dose-effect relationship. The present study represents a dose-escalation phase III trial comparing 2 doses of radiation. METH...

  17. Does extended surgery influence health-related quality of life in patients with rectal cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsini, R.; Vermeer, T.A.; Traa, M.J.; Nieuwenhuijzen, G.A.P.; de Hingh, I.H.J.T.; Rutten, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In locally advanced rectal cancer, an extended resection peripheral to the mesorectal fascia is needed to achieve a radical resection. The influence of extended resections on health-related quality of life is unclear. OBJECTIVE: Differences in health-related quality of life and sexuality

  18. ORGAN-SPARING SURGERY FOR RECTAL CANCER: EVOLUTION, CURRENT TRENDS, AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tamrazov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main stages of the development of sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer. An historical look at this issue from the standpoint of research of past years in our country and abroad, as well as analysis of current sphincter-preserving surgery and future directions in this area.

  19. Combined radical prostatectomy and abdominoperineal resection for locally invasive rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernández-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: En bloc radical prostatectomy and proctosigmoidectomy is feasible in selected patients with rectal cancer and invasion limited to the prostate or seminal vesicles because it provides good local tumor control and significantly improves the patient's quality of life in comparison to total pelvic exenteration.

  20. High 1-Year Complication Rate after Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, H. S.; Bakker, I. S.; Dekker, J. W. T.; Vermeer, T. A.; Consten, E. C. J.; Hoff, C.; Klaase, J. M.; Havenga, K.; Tollenaar, R. A. E. M.; Wiggers, T.

    Surgical options after anterior resection for rectal cancer include a primary anastomosis, anastomosis with a defunctioning stoma, and an end colostomy. This study describes short-term and 1-year outcomes of these different surgical strategies. Patients undergoing surgical resection for primary mid

  1. Consequence of Restaging After Neoadjuvant Treatment for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, Cees; Tjalma, J. J. J.; Hospers, G. A. P.; Van Geldere, D.; de Groot, J.W.B.; Wiegman, E. M.; Van't Veer-ten Kate, M.; Havenith, M. G.; Vecht, J.; Beukema, J. C.; Kats-Ugurlu, G.; Mahesh, S V K; van Etten, B.; Havenga, Klaas; Burgerhof, J. G. M.; de Groot, D. J. A.; Cappel, W. H. de Vos Tot Nederveen

    Locally advanced rectal cancer is customarily treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by a total mesorectal excision. During the course of CRT, previously non-detectable distant metastases can appear. Therefore, a restaging CT scan of the chest and abdomen was performed prior to

  2. Rectal cancer mortality and total hardness levels in Taiwan's drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C Y; Tsai, S S; Lai, T C; Hung, C F; Chiu, H F

    1999-05-01

    The possible association between the risk of rectal cancer and hardness levels in drinking water from municipal supplies was investigated in a matched case-control study in Taiwan. All eligible rectal cancer deaths (986 cases) of Taiwan residents from 1990 through 1994 were compared with deaths from other causes (986 controls), and the hardness levels of the drinking water used by these residents were determined. Data on water hardness throughout Taiwan were collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The control group consisted of people who died from other causes and the controls were pair matched to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. The results show a significant negative relationship between drinking water hardness and rectal cancer mortality. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were 1.24 (1.01-1. 55) and 1.38 (1.10-1.73), respectively, for exposure to moderately hard water and soft water compared with the use of hard water. Trend analyses showed an increasing odds ratio for rectal cancer with decreasing levels of hardness in drinking water. This is an important finding for the Taiwan water industry and human health. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Urinary dysfunction after rectal cancer treatment is mainly caused by surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M. M.; Maas, C. P.; Marijnen, C. A. M.; Wiggers, T.; Rutten, H. J.; Kranenbarg, E. Klein; van de Velde, C. J. H.

    Background. Urinary dysfunction (UD) is common after rectal cancer treatment, but the contribution of each treatment component (surgery and radiotherapy) to its development remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate UD during 5 years after total mesorectal excision (TME) and to investigate the

  4. Reducing rectal injury in men receiving prostate cancer radiation therapy: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano NA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas A Serrano,1 Noah S Kalman,1 Mitchell S Anscher2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University – Massey Cancer Center, Richmond, VA, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Dose escalation is now the standard of care for the treatment of prostate cancer with radiation therapy. However, the rectum tends to be the dose-limiting structure when treating prostate cancer, given its close proximity. Early and late toxicities can occur when the rectum receives large doses of radiation therapy. New technologies allow for prevention of these toxicities. In this review, we examine the evidence that supports various dose constraints employed to prevent these rectal injuries from occurring. We also examine the use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy and how this compares to older radiation therapy techniques that allow for further sparing of the rectum during a radiation therapy course. We then review the literature on endorectal balloons and the effects of their daily use throughout a radiation therapy course. Tissue spacers are now being investigated in greater detail; these devices are injected into the rectoprostatic fascia to physically increase the distance between the prostate and the anterior rectal wall. Last, we review the use of systemic drugs, specifically statin medications and antihypertensives, as well as their impact on rectal toxicity. Keywords: rectal toxicity, radiation therapy, prostate, prevention 

  5. Perineal wound healing after abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musters, Gijsbert D.; Buskens, Christianne J.; Bemelman, Willem A.; Tanis, Pieter J.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired perineal wound healing has become a significant clinical problem after abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer. The increased use of neoadjuvant radiotherapy and wider excisions might have contributed to this problem. The primary aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to

  6. Robotic technology: Optimizing the outcomes in rectal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, Nicolas C

    2015-06-10

    Minimally invasive rectal resection remains a challenging procedure, even in experienced hands. Technical limitations explain at least in part the reasons of a relatively poor adoption of laparoscopy for rectal resection, in particular for low tumors in a deep and narrow pelvis. Robotics is intended to overcome these limitations. Potentially better short-term outcomes have been published: reduced conversion rates, better functional outcomes, shorter learning curve, reduction of positive margins, better specimen… However, robotic surgery has not yet taken over as the gold standard approach for low anterior resection. Several drawbacks might indeed discourage the most fervent surgeon: the size of the robot, the lack of tactile feedback, the risk and difficulties during multiquadrant surgery, and, of course, costs. Whilst new systems might overcome most of these drawbacks, it seems obvious that the development of robotic surgery is underway. Robotics is not just another interesting technical tool, but more a new concept, which should play a role in the future.

  7. [Liver metastases from colon and rectal cancer in terms of differences in their clinical parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liška, V; Emingr, M; Skála, M; Pálek, R; Troup, O; Novák, P; Vyčítal, O; Skalický, T; Třeška, V

    2016-02-01

    From the clinical point of view, rectal cancer and colon cancer are clearly different nosological units in their progress and treatment. The aim of this study was to analyse and clarify the differences between the behaviour of liver metastases from colon and rectal cancer. The study of these factors is important for determining an accurate prognosis and indication of the most effective surgical therapy and oncologic treatment of colon and rectal cancer as a systemic disease. 223 patients with metastatic disease of colorectal carcinoma operated at the Department of Surgery, University Hospital in Pilsen between January 1, 2006 and January 31, 2012 were included in our study. The group of patients comprised 145 men (65%) and 117 women (35%). 275 operations were performed. Resection was done in 177 patients and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the total of 98 cases. Our sample was divided into 3 categories according to the location of the primary tumor to C (colon), comprising 58 patients, S (c. sigmoideum) in 61 patients, and R (rectum), comprising 101 patients. Significance analysis of the studied factors (age, gender, staging [TNM classification], grading, presence of mucinous carcinoma, type of operation) was performed using ANOVA test. Overall survival (OS), disease-free interval (DFI) or no evidence of disease (NED) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves, which were compared with the log-rank and Wilcoxon tests. As regards the comparison of primary origin of colorectal metastases in liver regardless of their treatment (resection and RFA), our study indicated that rectal liver metastases showed a significantly earlier recurrence than colon liver metastases (shorter NED/DFI). Among other factors, a locally advanced finding, further R2 resection of liver metastases and positivity of lymph node metastases were statistically significant for the prognosis of an early recurrence of the primary colon and sigmoid tumor. Furthermore, we proved that in patients with

  8. Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: current immediate clinical and oncological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso; Seid, Victor Edmond; Klajner, Sidney

    2014-10-21

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery continues to be a challenging operation associated to a steep learning curve. Robotic surgical systems have dramatically changed minimally invasive surgery. Three-dimensional, magnified and stable view, articulated instruments, and reduction of physiologic tremors leading to superior dexterity and ergonomics. Therefore, robotic platforms could potentially address limitations of laparoscopic rectal surgery. It was aimed at reviewing current literature on short-term clinical and oncological (pathological) outcomes after robotic rectal cancer surgery in comparison with laparoscopic surgery. A systematic review was performed for the period 2002 to 2014. A total of 1776 patients with rectal cancer underwent minimally invasive robotic treatment in 32 studies. After robotic and laparoscopic approach to oncologic rectal surgery, respectively, mean operating time varied from 192-385 min, and from 158-297 min; mean estimated blood loss was between 33 and 283 mL, and between 127 and 300 mL; mean length of stay varied from 4-10 d; and from 6-15 d. Conversion after robotic rectal surgery varied from 0% to 9.4%, and from 0 to 22% after laparoscopy. There was no difference between robotic (0%-41.3%) and laparoscopic (5.5%-29.3%) surgery regarding morbidity and anastomotic complications (respectively, 0%-13.5%, and 0%-11.1%). Regarding immediate oncologic outcomes, respectively among robotic and laparoscopic cases, positive circumferential margins varied from 0% to 7.5%, and from 0% to 8.8%; the mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was between 10 and 20, and between 11 and 21; and the mean distal resection margin was from 0.8 to 4.7 cm, and from 1.9 to 4.5 cm. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is being undertaken by experienced surgeons. However, the quality of the assembled evidence does not support definite conclusions about most studies variables. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is associated to increased costs and operating time. It also seems to be

  9. Rectal cancer presenting tumor thrombosis in the inferior vena cava and common iliac vein: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Sun Jung; Park, Seong Jin; Lee, Hae Kyung; Yi, Boem Ha; Park, Sung Il; Hong, Soo Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Park, Jeong Mi [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    We report the radiologic findings of a rectal carcinoma case with tumor thrombus in the inferior vana cava and left common iliac vein of a 48-year-old woman. The patient complained of swelling in the left leg and consequently underwent a lymphoscintigraphy, CT venography, abdominal CT, PET-CT, pelvis MRI, and ultrasound doppler. The rectal cancer was determined via a colonoscopy. The tissue biopsy of tumor thrombus in the IVC was done during insertion of IVC filter and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma was revealed by pathology.

  10. Nanocytology of rectal colonocytes to assess risk of colon cancer based on field cancerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damania, Dhwanil; Roy, Hemant K; Subramanian, Hariharan; Weinberg, David S; Rex, Douglas K; Goldberg, Michael J; Muldoon, Joseph; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Zhu, Yuanjia; Bianchi, Laura K; Shah, Dhiren; Pradhan, Prabhakar; Borkar, Monica; Lynch, Henry; Backman, Vadim

    2012-06-01

    Developing a minimally invasive and cost-effective prescreening strategy for colon cancer is critical because of the impossibility of conducting colonoscopy on the entire at-risk population. The concept of field carcinogenesis, in which normal-appearing tissue away from a tumor has molecular and, consequently, nano-architectural abnormalities, offers one attractive approach to identify high-risk patients. In this study, we investigated whether the novel imaging technique partial wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy could risk-stratify patients harboring precancerous lesions of the colon, using an optically measured biomarker (L(d)) obtained from microscopically normal but nanoscopically altered cells. Rectal epithelial cells were examined from 146 patients, including 72 control patients, 14 patients with diminutive adenomas, 20 patients with nondiminutive/nonadvanced adenomas, 15 patients with advanced adenomas/high-grade dysplasia, 12 patients with genetic mutation leading to Lynch syndrome, and 13 patients with cancer. We found that the L(d) obtained from rectal colonocytes was well correlated with colon tumorigenicity in our patient cohort and in an independent validation set of 39 additional patients. Therefore, our findings suggest that PWS-measured L(d) is an accurate marker of field carcinogenesis. This approach provides a potential prescreening strategy for risk stratification before colonoscopy. ©2012 AACR

  11. Ileorectal fistula due to a rectal cancer-A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Minoru; Fukuda, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    A 51-year-old man was seen at our hospital because of diarrhea. Barium enema and colonoscopy revealed a cancer in the lower rectum and fistula formation from the site to ileum. Resection of the rectal cancer and ileorectal fistula was performed. Histologically, the resected lesion was mucinous adenocarcinoma with contiguous invasion from the rectum to the ileum. The patient is alive with no sign of recurrence 120 months after operation. Fistula formation between the colon and other gastrointestinal tract organs is very rare, especially for rectal cancer. Fistula-forming colorectal cancers are rarely found to have metastatic lesions in the liver, peritoneum and lymph nodes despite their invasive behavior; accordingly, curative resection involving partial resection of the intestine with fistula is expected.

  12. High complication rate after low anterior resection for mid and high rectal cancer; results of a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I. S.; Snijders, H. S.; Wouters, M. W.; Havenga, K.; Tollenaar, R. A. E. M.; Wiggers, T.; Dekker, J. W. T.

    Background: Surgical resection is the cornerstone of treatment for rectal cancer patients. Treatment options consist of a primary anastomosis, anastomosis with defunctioning stoma or end-colostomy with closure of the distal rectal stump. This study aimed to compare postoperative outcome of these

  13. A case of rectal cancer with sternal metastasis as initial presentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, J. H.; Kim, S. J.; Oh, J. Y.; Ryu, S. R.; Shim, K. S.; Kim, K. H.; Baek, S. Y.; Choi, H. Y.; Lee, S. W.; Kim, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    Colorectal cancer with bone metastasis as initial manifestation is a very rare event. We have reported a case of rectal cancer presenting with sternal metastasis. A 30 year-old man was evaluated due to pain in the sternal area with a bulging mass. History and physical examination did not suggest any specific disease. A radionuclide bone scan revealed increased uptake in the sternal area, right 6th rib, and sacrum. Microscopic examination of a biopsy specimen from the sternum showed metastatic...

  14. Cost-effectiveness of carbon ion radiation therapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, Abdulelah; Ohno, Tatsuya; Yamada, Shigeru; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Nakano, Takashi

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of carbon ion radiotherapy compared with conventional multimodality therapy in the treatment of patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer. Direct costs for diagnosis, recurrent treatment, follow-up, visits, supportive therapy, complications, and admission were computed for each individual using a sample of 25 patients presenting with local recurrent rectal cancer at the National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS) and Gunma University Hospital (GUH). Patients received only radical surgery for primary rectal adenocarcinoma and had isolated unresectable pelvic recurrence. Fourteen and 11 patients receiving treatment for the local recurrence between 2003 and 2005 were followed retrospectively at NIRS and GUH, respectively. Treatment was carried out with carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) alone at NIRS, while multimodality therapy including three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia was performed at GUH. The 2-year overall survival rate was 85% and 55% for CIRT and multimodality treatment, respectively. The mean cost was yen4 803 946 for the CIRT group and yen4 611 100 for the multimodality treatment group. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for CIRT was yen6428 per 1% increase in survival. The median duration of total hospitalization was 37 days for CIRT and 66 days for the multimodality treatment group. In conclusion, by calculating all direct costs, CIRT was found to be a potential cost effective treatment modality as compared to multimodality treatment for locally recurrent rectal cancer.

  15. Dual energy CT - a possible new method to assess regression of rectal cancers after neoadjuvant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Najami, Issam; Drue, Henrik C; Steele, Robert; Baatrup, Gunnar

    2017-12-01

    The measurement of tumor regression after neoadjuvant oncological treatment has gained increasing interest because it has a prognostic value and because it may influence the method of treatment in rectal cancer. The assessment of tumor regression remains difficult and inaccurate with existing methods. Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) enables qualitative tissue differentiation by simultaneous scanning with different levels of energy. We aimed to assess the feasibility of DECT in quantifying tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy in loco-advanced rectal cancer. We enrolled 11 patients with histological and MRI verified loco-advanced rectal adenocarcinoma and followed up on them prospectively. All patients had one DECT scanning before neoadjuvant treatment and one 12 weeks after using the spectral imaging scan mode. DECT analyzing tools were used to determine the average quantitative parameters; effective-Z, water- and iodine-concentration, Dual Energy Index (DEI), and Dual Energy Ratio (DER). These parameters were compared to the regression in the resection specimen as measured by the pathologist. Changes in the quantitative parameters differed significantly after treatment in comparison with pre-treatment, and the results were different in patients with different CRT response rates. DECT might be helpful in the assessment of rectal cancer regression grade after neoadjuvant treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The preoperative reaction and decision-making process regarding colostomy surgery among Chinese rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-E; Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; Zheng, Mei-Chun

    2017-06-01

    Patients with rectal cancer have issues in adjusting to their permanent colostomy after surgery, and support is required to help them resume normal life. However, few studies have explored the experience and factors that affect a patient's decision-making and maladjustment prior to colostomy surgery. The aim of this study was to explore the experience of rectal cancer patients who have to undergo colostomy surgery. A descriptive, qualitative design was used. We studied a purposive sample of 18 patients who had received a diagnosis of primary rectal cancer and were expecting permanent colostomy surgery. The thematic analysis approach was used to analyze the data collected using semi-structured, open-ended questions. The overriding theme that emerged was 'stoma dilemma: a hard decision-making process'. From this main theme, three themes were derived: the resistance stage, the hesitation stage, and the acquiescence stage. It is hard for preoperative rectal patients to choose to undergo stoma surgery or a sphincter-saving operation. From the initial stage of definitive diagnosis to the final consent to stoma surgery, most patients experience the resistance and hesitation stages before reaching the acquiescence stage. Arriving at a decision is a process that nurses can facilitate by eliminating unnecessary misunderstanding surrounding colostomy surgery and by fully respecting patients' right to choose at the various stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Random Forests to Predict Rectal Toxicity Following Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospina, Juan D. [LTSI, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); INSERM, U1099, Rennes (France); Escuela de Estadística, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); Zhu, Jian [LTSI, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Laboratory of Image Science and Technology, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Department of Radiation Physics, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan (China); Centre de Recherche en Information Biomédical Sino-Français, Rennes (France); Chira, Ciprian [Département de Radiothérapie, Centre Eugène Marquis, Rennes (France); Bossi, Alberto [Département de Radiothérapie, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Delobel, Jean B. [Département de Radiothérapie, Centre Eugène Marquis, Rennes (France); Beckendorf, Véronique [Département de Radiothérapie, Centre Alexis Vautrin, Nancy (France); Dubray, Bernard [Département de Radiothérapie, CRLCC Henri Becquerel, Rouen (France); Lagrange, Jean-Léon [Département de Radiothérapie, Hôpital Henri Mondor, Créteil (France); Correa, Juan C. [Escuela de Estadística, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); and others

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: To propose a random forest normal tissue complication probability (RF-NTCP) model to predict late rectal toxicity following prostate cancer radiation therapy, and to compare its performance to that of classic NTCP models. Methods and Materials: Clinical data and dose-volume histograms (DVH) were collected from 261 patients who received 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer with at least 5 years of follow-up. The series was split 1000 times into training and validation cohorts. A RF was trained to predict the risk of 5-year overall rectal toxicity and bleeding. Parameters of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model were identified and a logistic regression model was fit. The performance of all the models was assessed by computing the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: The 5-year grade ≥2 overall rectal toxicity and grade ≥1 and grade ≥2 rectal bleeding rates were 16%, 25%, and 10%, respectively. Predictive capabilities were obtained using the RF-NTCP model for all 3 toxicity endpoints, including both the training and validation cohorts. The age and use of anticoagulants were found to be predictors of rectal bleeding. The AUC for RF-NTCP ranged from 0.66 to 0.76, depending on the toxicity endpoint. The AUC values for the LKB-NTCP were statistically significantly inferior, ranging from 0.62 to 0.69. Conclusions: The RF-NTCP model may be a useful new tool in predicting late rectal toxicity, including variables other than DVH, and thus appears as a strong competitor to classic NTCP models.

  18. Exacerbation of Dermatomyositis with Recurrence of Rectal Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nagano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dermatomyositis (DM is a rare idiopathic inflammatory myopathy characterized by cutaneous and muscle manifestations. The association between DM and malignancy has been well recognized for many years. The clinical course of paraneoplastic DM may be affected by malignancies, although the cause and effect relationship between exacerbation of DM and cancer progression is uncertain. Herein, we report a 44-year-old woman who presented with progressive DM associated with rectal cancer. After curative resection of rectal cancer, DM symptoms resolved. Three months after surgery, blood test surveillance showed elevation of serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels, although the patient remained asymptomatic. One month later she had a DM flare-up, and multiple lung and liver metastases were found. She immediately underwent cancer chemotherapy with prednisolone therapy for DM. However, her condition deteriorated and she was unable to swallow. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was constructed, allowing alimentation and oral delivery, which made it possible to keep her on chemotherapy. She had remarkable response for unresectable metastases 8 weeks after the administration of chemotherapy. Seven months after onset of recurrence, her condition improved considerably and she had stable disease. Moreover, she can now eat food of soft consistency. Our case provides further support for the clinical importance of cancer chemotherapy for patients who have progressive DM and unresectable rectal cancer.

  19. SHMT1 1420 and MTHFR 677 variants are associated with rectal but not colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Béla

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association between rectal or colon cancer risk and serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (SHMT1 C1420T or methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T polymorphisms was assessed. The serum total homocysteine (HCY, marker of folate metabolism was also investigated. Methods The SHMT1 and MTHFR genotypes were determined by real-time PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively in 476 patients with rectal, 479 patients with colon cancer and in 461 and 478, respective controls matched for age and sex. Homocysteine levels were determined by HPLC kit. The association between polymorphisms and cancer risk was evaluated by logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and body mass index. The population stratification bias was also estimated. Results There was no association of genotypes or diplotypes with colon cancer. The rectal cancer risk was significantly lower for SHMT1 TT (OR = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.36-0.89 and higher for MTHFR CT genotypes (OR = 1.4, 95%CI 1.06-1.84. A gene-dosage effect was observed for SHMT1 with progressively decreasing risk with increasing number of T allele (p = 0.014. The stratified analysis according to age and sex revealed that the association is mainly present in the younger (SHMT1 T allele/MTHFR CC diplotype was associated with reduced rectal cancer risk (OR 0.56, 95%CI 0.42-0.77 vs all other diplotypes together. The above results are unlikely to suffer from population stratification bias. In controls HCY was influenced by SHMT1 polymorphism, while in patients it was affected only by Dukes' stage. In patients with Dukes' stage C or D HCY can be considered as a tumor marker only in case of SHMT1 1420CC genotypes. Conclusions A protective effect of SHMT1 1420T allele or SHMT1 1420 T allele/MTHFR 677 CC diplotype against rectal but not colon cancer risk was demonstrated. The presence of SHMT1 1420 T allele significantly increases the HCY levels in controls but not in patients. Homocysteine could

  20. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and total mesorectal excision: a Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) randomized phase III trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugom, A.J.; Gijn, W. van; Muller, E.W.; Berglund, A; Broek, C.B. van den; Fokstuen, T.; Gelderblom, H.; Kapiteijn, E.; Leer, J.W.H.; Marijnen, C.A.; Martijn, H.; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Pahlman, L.; Punt, C.J.A.; Putter, H.; Roodvoets, A.G.; Rutten, H.J.; Steup, W.H.; Glimelius, B.; Velde, C.J. van de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The discussion on the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated according to current guidelines is still ongoing. A multicentre, randomized phase III trial, PROCTOR-SCRIPT, was conducted to compare adjuvant chemotherapy with observation for rectal cancer patients

  1. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and total mesorectal excision: a Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) randomized phase III trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugom, A. J.; van Gijn, W.; Muller, E. W.; Berglund, Å; van den Broek, C. B. M.; Fokstuen, T.; Gelderblom, H.; Kapiteijn, E.; Leer, J. W. H.; Marijnen, C. A. M.; Martijn, H.; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E.; Nagtegaal, I. D.; Påhlman, L.; Punt, C. J. A.; Putter, H.; Roodvoets, A. G. H.; Rutten, H. J. T.; Steup, W. H.; Glimelius, B.; van de Velde, C. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    The discussion on the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated according to current guidelines is still ongoing. A multicentre, randomized phase III trial, PROCTOR-SCRIPT, was conducted to compare adjuvant chemotherapy with observation for rectal cancer patients treated with

  2. Does Robot Overcome Obesity-related Limitations of Minimally Invasive Rectal Surgery for Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Onur; Aytaç, Erman; Özben, Volkan; Atasoy, Deniz; Bilgin, İsmail A; Erenler Bayraktar, İlknur; Baca, Bilgi; Hamzaoğlu, İsmail; Karahasanoğlu, Tayfun

    2017-12-15

    Adoption of laparoscopic surgery for cancers requiring partial or total proctectomy has been slow due to difficulty of achieving oncologically adequate resection. Obesity is a factor complicating use and outcomes of laparoscopic technique for rectal surgery. Impact of obesity on the outcomes of robotic rectal surgery for cancer is not well defined. This study is designed to assess whether if the robotic technique has potential to overcome the limitations of obesity and to improve outcomes of minimally invasive rectal surgery for cancer. Patients undergoing robotic sphincter-saving radical resection with da Vinci Xi System between December 2014 and December 2016 were included. Patients were divided into 2 groups as obese and nonobese. Patient demographics, perioperative outcomes and short-term results were compared between the groups. The study included 101 patients (30 were obese). Sex (female: 35 vs. 37%, P=0.89), American Society of Anesthesiologists score (2 vs. 2, P=0.41), number of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation (39% vs. 23%, P=0.12) and history of prior abdominal surgery (28% vs. 23%, P=0.62) were comparable between the groups. Operative time was longer in the obese group (311 vs. 332 min. P=0.01). Overall complication rates (27% vs. 23%, P=0.72), length of hospital stay (6 vs. 7, P=0.10) and pathologic outcomes were similar between the groups. Conversion to laparoscopy was not required in any operation. Two nonobese patients required conversion to open surgery. Robotic rectal surgery for cancer in obese patients is equally safe and effective as in nonobese patients. The new robotic platform can facilitate to overcome obesity-related limitations of rectal surgery.

  3. Modified methylene blue injection improves lymph node harvest in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianpei; Huang, Pinjie; Zheng, Zongheng; Chen, Tufeng; Wei, Hongbo

    2017-04-01

    The presence of nodal metastases in rectal cancer plays an important role in accurate staging and prognosis, which depends on adequate lymph node harvest. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the feasibility and survival benefit of improving lymph node harvest by a modified method with methylene blue injection in rectal cancer specimens. One hundred and thirty-one patients with rectal cancer were randomly assigned to the control group in which lymph nodes were harvested by palpation and sight, or to the methylene blue group using a modified method of injection into the superior rectal artery with methylene blue. Analysis of clinicopathologic records, including a long-term follow-up, was performed. In the methylene blue group, 678 lymph nodes were harvested by simple palpation and sight. Methylene blue injection added 853 lymph nodes to the total harvest as well as 32 additional metastatic lymph nodes, causing a shift to node-positive stage in four patients. The average number of lymph nodes harvested was 11.7 ± 3.4 in the control group and 23.2 ± 4.7 in the methylene blue group, respectively. The harvest of small lymph nodes (methylene blue group. The modified method of injection with methylene blue had no impact on overall survival. The modified method with methylene blue injection improved lymph node harvest in rectal cancer, especially small node and metastatic node retrieval, which provided more accurate staging. However, it was not associated with overall survival. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  4. Intratumoral Genetic Heterogeneity in Rectal Cancer: Are Single Biopsies representative of the entirety of the tumor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettoni, Fabiana; Masotti, Cibele; Habr-Gama, Angelita; Correa, Bruna R; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim; Vianna, Maria R; Vailati, Bruna B; São Julião, Guilherme P; Fernandez, Laura M; Galante, Pedro A; Camargo, Anamaria A; Perez, Rodrigo O

    2017-01-01

    Demonstrate intratumoral genetic heterogeneity in rectal cancer. Several clinical management decisions in rectal cancer may be influenced by pretreatment biopsy information. However, in the setting of significant intratumoral heterogeneity, biopsies may not be representative of the entirety of the tumor and limit the reliability of the information provided from them for clinical decision management. Three fragments from a single rectal adenocarcinoma were chosen for whole-exome sequencing followed by mutation detection analysis. About 25 Gb of unambiguously mapped sequences were generated for each sample resulting in a median fold-coverage of 35x. Captured sequences mapped to the reference human genome were then used for the detection of somatic point mutations. Overall, 193 unique somatic point mutations were identified. Only 53 (27%) of these were shared by all three fragments, including known genes involved in early phases of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence (such as, APC). Approximately, 115 (59%) mutations were exclusively present in only one of the fragments, including mutations in "driver" genes (DNAH12). Jaccard distances showed a median distance of 0.603 for pair-wise comparison of fragments indicating significant heterogeneity between them. Considerable intratumoral heterogeneity is present among naive rectal cancers. The majority of point mutations detected in different fragments from rectal cancers are frequently unique to a single fragment. These findings support that gene mutations found on single pretreatment biopsies will not necessarily be representative of mutations present in the entirety of the tumor and therefore may limit the utility of the biological information provided by single biopsy fragments for clinical management decisions.

  5. Chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddern, Marie-Louise; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Laurberg, Søren

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life (QoL). This is a population-based cross-sectional study of chronic pain and QoL in patients treated for rectal cancer from 2001 to 2007. A modified version of the Brief Descriptive Danish Pain Questionnaire and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 questionnaire were mailed to 1713 Danish patients. Informative answers were obtained from 1369 patients (80%). A total of 426 patients (31%) reported chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities, 173 (41%) of whom had daily pain. Pain in other parts of the body was associated with the presence of pain in the pelvic region (odds ratio [OR] 4.81 [3.63-6.38], P chronic pain in female patients (OR 1.91 [1.51-2.43], P pain. Chronic pain in the pelvic region or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment is a common but largely neglected problem that is associated with female gender, type of surgery, radio(chemo)therapy, and young age, all of which impact the patient's QoL.

  6. The short-term outcomes of conventional and single-port laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levic, Katarina; Bulut, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) has evolved as an alternative method to conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS). The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of SPLS compared to CLS in the treatment of rectal cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospectively collected data...... of patients who had undergone either CLS (n = 194) or SPLS (n = 36) for rectal cancer in the period between 2009 and 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Median operative time was higher in patients with SPLS (p = 0.01), but the median operative blood loss was significantly lower (p = 0...... cancer is a safe method in a selected group of patients. Further studies are needed to confirm the benefits of SPLS. Operative time is longer, but the intraoperative blood loss is reduced....

  7. High-dose chemoradiotherapy and watchful waiting for distal rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Pløen, John; Harling, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    -dose radiotherapy with concomitant chemotherapy followed by observation (watchful waiting) was successful for non-surgical management of low rectal cancer. METHODS: Patients with primary, resectable, T2 or T3, N0-N1 adenocarcinoma in the lower 6 cm of the rectum were given chemoradiotherapy (60 Gy in 30 fractions......BACKGROUND: Abdominoperineal resection is the standard treatment for patients with distal T2 or T3 rectal cancers; however, the procedure is extensive and mutilating, and alternative treatment strategies are being investigated. We did a prospective observational trial to assess whether high....... Enrolment is closed, but follow-up continues for secondary endpoints. FINDINGS: Between Oct 20, 2009, and Dec 23, 2013, we enrolled 55 patients. Patients were recruited from three surgical units throughout Denmark and treated in one tertiary cancer centre (Vejle Hospital, Vejle, Denmark). Of 51 patients who...

  8. Staging and survival of rectal cancer in Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Miguel Henriques; Matos, Eduarda; Castro Poças, Fernando; Rocha, Rosa; Pinto, Jorge; Lopes, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    In the county of Vila Nova de Gaia (northern Portugal) in the period of 2004-2006, there were an average of 35 new cases of colorectal cancer per 100,000 population, which constitutes one of the highest rates in the world. The latest research has shown that there are many differences between colon and rectal cancers, thereby justifying an independent approach. The study pertained to the period 1995-2004, by using the census of 1991 and 2001 for calculating specific rates. The 399 diagnosed cases of rectal cancer were drawn from a specialized and active cancer registry, oncological registry of Gaia. Overall survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the curves were compared using a Log Rank test. The effect of topography and histological type on survival was obtained by controlling the stage disease, using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. There was a slight predominance of males, with a ratio between sexes of 1 : 3. The 50% overall survival rate after 5 years increased over time. The localization of the tumour and the histological type, after adjusting by stage, were not significant factors in the prognosis. Our study shows an increase in the number of cases over time, particularly in elderly women. The cumulative risk of having rectal cancer remains unchanged from 1981 to 2004. Unlike other studies, an increase in early lesions was not observed.

  9. Correlation Between Preoperative Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen Levels and Expression on Pancreatic and Rectal Cancer Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LSF Boogerd

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA–targeted imaging and therapeutic agents are being tested in clinical trials. If CEA overexpression in malignant tissue corresponds with elevated serum CEA, serum CEA could assist in selecting patients who may benefit from CEA-targeted agents. This study aims to assess the relationship between serum CEA and CEA expression in pancreatic (n = 20 and rectal cancer tissues (n = 35 using histopathology. According to local laboratory standards, a serum CEA >3 ng/mL was considered elevated. In pancreatic cancer patients a significant correlation between serum CEA and percentage of CEA-expressing tumor cells was observed ( P  = .04, ρ = .47. All 6 patients with homogeneous CEA expression in the tumor had a serum CEA >3 ng/mL. Most rectal cancer tissues (32/35 showed homogeneous CEA expression, independent of serum CEA levels. This study suggests that selection of pancreatic cancer patients for CEA-targeted agents via serum CEA appears adequate. For selection of rectal cancer patients, serum CEA levels are not informative.

  10. Rectal cancer and exposure to metalworking fluids in the automobile manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Elizabeth J; Miller, Katie L; Eisen, Ellen A

    2007-04-01

    Rectal cancer has been previously associated with exposure to metalworking fluids in a cohort mortality study of autoworkers. To better specify the exposure-response relationship with straight metalworking fluids (mineral oils) by applying non-parametric regression methods that avoid linearity constraints and arbitrary exposure cut points and by lagging exposure to account for cancer latency, in a nested case-control analysis. In addition to the classical Poisson regression with categorical exposure, survival models with penalised splines were used to estimate the exposure-response relationship between cumulative exposure to straight metalworking fluid and mortality from rectal cancer. Exposures to water-based metalworking fluids were treated as potential confounders, and all exposures were lagged by 5, 10, 15 and 20 years to account for cancer latency. The influence of the highest exposures was dealt with by a log transformation and outlier removal. The sensitivity of the penalised splines to alternative criteria for model selection and to the placement of knots was also examined. The hazard ratio for mortality from rectal cancer increased essentially linearly with cumulative exposure to straight metalworking fluid (with narrow confidence bands) up to a maximum of 2.2 at the 99th centile of exposure and then decreased (with wide confidence bands). Lagging exposure up to 15 years increased the initial steepness of the curve and raised the maximum hazard ratio to 3.2. Non-parametric smoothing of lagged exposures has shown stronger evidence for a causal association between straight metalworking fluid and rectal cancer than was previously described using standard analytical methods. This analysis suggests an exposure-response trend that is close to linear and statistically significant over most of the exposure range and that increases further with lagged exposures. Smoothing should be regularly applied to environmental studies with quantitative exposure estimates to

  11. Increased spontaneous apoptosis, but not survivin expression, is associated with histomorphologic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation in rectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDowell, Dermot T

    2009-11-01

    Survivin has been shown to be an important mediator of cellular radioresistance in vitro. This study aims to compare survivin expression and apoptosis to histomorphologic responses to neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT) in rectal cancer.

  12. Tumour hypoxia imaging with 18F-fluoroazomycinarabinofuranoside PET/CT in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Birgitte M; Holdgaard, Paw; Rafaelsen, Søren R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of F-fluoroazomycinarabinofuranoside (F-FAZA) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer....

  13. Efficacy and toxicity of rectal cancer reirradiation using IMRT for patients who have received prior pelvic radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady F. Youssef, MS

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Rectal cancer reirradiation using IMRT is well-tolerated in the setting of prior pelvic radiation therapy. Given significant risk of local progression, further dose escalation may be warranted for patients with life expectancy exceeding 1 year.

  14. Anastomotic leakage after sphincter-sparing surgery in a young woman diagnosed with low rectal cancer - case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denis Aslan; Adrian Bordea; Traean Burcoș

    2017-01-01

    .... The new techniques for the treatment of low rectal cancer have been improved recently, allowing sphincter-sparing surgery to be available for more patients, with an optimal oncological and functional outcome...

  15. Rectal dose-volume constraints in high-dose radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Cozzarini, Cesare; Fellin, Gianni; Foppiano, Franca; Menegotti, Loris; Piazzolla, Anna; Vavassori, Vittorio; Valdagni, Riccardo

    2003-11-15

    To investigate the relationship between rectal bleeding and dosimetric-clinical parameters in patients receiving three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for localized prostate cancer. In a retrospective national study (AIROPROS01-01, AIRO: Associazione Italiana Radioterapia Oncologica), planning/clinical data for 245 consecutive patients with stage T1-4N0-x prostate carcinoma who underwent 3D-CRT to 70-78 Gy (ICRU point) were pooled from four Italian institutions. The correlation between late rectal bleeding and rectal dose-volume data (the percentage of rectum receiving more than 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, and 75 Gy [V(50-70)]) and other dosimetric and clinical parameters were investigated in univariate (log-rank) and multivariate (Cox regression model) analyses. Median follow-up was 2 years. Twenty-three patients were scored as late bleeders according to a modified RTOG definition (Grade 2: 16; Grade 3: 7); the actuarial 2-year rate was 9.2%. Excepting V75, all median and third quartile V(50-70) values were found to be significantly correlated with late bleeding at univariate analysis. The smallest p value was seen for V(50) below/above the third quartile value (66%). The V70 (cut-off value: 30%) was found to be also predictive for late bleeding. In the high-dose subgroup (74-78 Gy), Grade 3 bleeding was highly correlated with this constraint. The predictive value of both V(50) and V(70) was confirmed by multivariate analyses. The present article provides evidence for correlation between rectal DVH parameters and late rectal bleeding in patients treated with curative intent with 3D-CRT. To keep the rate of moderate/severe rectal bleeding below 5-10%, it seems advisable to limit V(50) to 60-65%, V(60) to 45-50%, and V70 to 25-30%.

  16. Anal metastasis of rectal cancer-adenocarcinoma of squamous cells: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shun; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Nakaji, Yu; Nakanishi, Ryota; Nakashima, Yuichiro; Saeki, Hiroshi; Oki, Eiji; Oda, Yoshinao; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2017-12-01

    Anal metastasis of colorectal cancer is very rare and is usually associated with a history of anal disease, including anal fistula, fissure, hemorrhoidectomy, and anastomotic injury. We report a case of rectal cancer with a synchronous anal metastasis consisting of adenocarcinoma of squamous cells without a history of anal disease. A 60-year-old woman had a chief complaint of melena. She had a 1.5-cm anal tumor on the perianal skin, and a Bollman type 2 rectal tumor on the Ra portion was found on colonoscopy. Biopsy of both tumors revealed a similar histology of well- to moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. There was no sign of metastases in lymph nodes or other organs. For the purpose of diagnosis and treatment, transperineal local resection of the anal tumor was performed, and it was histologically identified as adenocarcinoma of squamous cells with no invasion to muscles, lymph ducts, or microvessels. The pathological margin was free. Then, to achieve radical cure, laparoscopic low anterior resection (LAR) with D3 lymphadenectomy was performed. The histological diagnosis of the anal tumor was adenocarcinoma of squamous cells without invasion to muscles, lymph ducts, or vessels. The surgical margin was completely free. Immunohistochemical analysis of both tumors revealed similar staining patterns, and the final diagnosis was rectal cancer with metastasis to the anal skin. The patient received no postoperative therapy, and no recurrences have been observed 12 months after surgery. We expect that our sphincter-preserving surgical strategy provided a good prognosis for the synchronous rectal cancer and anal metastasis. This is a rare report of a case with an anal metastasis of colorectal cancer on perianal squamous cells without a history of anal disease that was resected while preserving anal function.

  17. European position statement on lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudkerk, Matthijs; Devaraj, Anand; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT can save lives. This European Union (EU) position statement presents the available evidence and the major issues that need to be addressed to ensure the successful implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening in Europe. This statement identified...... specific actions required by the European lung cancer screening community to adopt before the implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening. This position statement recommends the following actions: a risk stratification approach should be used for future lung cancer low-dose CT programmes...... need to set a timeline for implementing lung cancer screening....

  18. Association between obesity and local control of advanced rectal cancer after combined surgery and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Seon; Park, Sung Kwang; Cho, Heung Lae; Ahn, Ki Jung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun Han [Dept. of Molecular Medicine, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The association between metabolism and cancer has been recently emphasized. This study aimed to find the prognostic significance of obesity in advanced stage rectal cancer patients treated with surgery and radiotherapy (RT). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 111 patients who were treated with combined surgery and RT for clinical stage 2–3 (T3 or N+) rectal cancer between 2008 and 2014. The prognostic significance of obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m{sup 2}) in local control was evaluated. The median follow-up was 31.2 months (range, 4.1 to 85.7 months). Twenty-five patients (22.5%) were classified as obese. Treatment failure occurred in 33 patients (29.7%), including local failures in 13 patients (11.7%), regional lymph node failures in 5, and distant metastases in 24. The 3-year local control, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 88.7%, 73.6%, and 87.7%, respectively. Obesity (n = 25) significantly reduced the local control rate (p = 0.045; 3-year local control, 76.2%), especially in women (n = 37, p = 0.021). Segregation of local control was best achieved by BMI of 25.6 kg/m{sup 2} as a cutoff value. Obese rectal cancer patients showed poor local control after combined surgery and RT. More effective local treatment strategies for obese patients are warranted.

  19. Stoma-related symptoms in patients operated for rectal cancer with abdominoperineal excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinez, Adiela Correa; González, Elisabeth; Holm, Kajsa; Bock, David; Prytz, Mattias; Haglind, Eva; Angenete, Eva

    2016-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to characterize the frequency, severity, and distress of symptoms from the colostomy and colostomy acceptance in rectal cancer patients. The secondary aims were to study the symptomatic parastomal herniation, its relationship to stoma-related symptoms, and potential risk factors for the development of symptomatic parastomal herniation. Data was collected from the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry and from surgical charts. Patients operated for rectal cancer with an abdominoperineal excision in Sweden between 2007 and 2009 and alive 3 years postoperatively were contacted (n = 852). Patients who consented to participate, had a colostomy constructed during the abdominoperineal excision, and who answered a questionnaire 3 years postoperative were included (n = 495). Answers were analyzed with emphasis on stoma-related symptoms and their intensity as well as the level of distress associated with the symptoms. Almost 90% of patients did not feel limited in their daily life by their colostomy. Patients with symptomatic parastomal hernia had a 53% higher risk of flatulence. Fifty-six patients developed symptomatic parastomal hernia (11%). The only risk factor associated with the development of symptomatic parastomal hernia was high body mass index (BMI). This study shows that most patients do not feel limited by their stoma 3 years after surgery for rectal cancer. Symptomatic parastomal hernia was associated with high BMI but not with the surgical technique.

  20. SHMT1 1420 and MTHFR 677 variants are associated with rectal but not colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlósi, Viktor; Hitre, Erika; Pap, Eva; Adleff, Vilmos; Réti, Andrea; Székely, Eva; Bíró, Anna; Rudnai, Péter; Schoket, Bernadette; Müller, Judit; Tóth, Béla; Ottó, Szabolcs; Kásler, Miklós; Kralovánszky, Judit; Budai, Barna

    2010-10-04

    Association between rectal or colon cancer risk and serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (SHMT1) C1420T or methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphisms was assessed. The serum total homocysteine (HCY), marker of folate metabolism was also investigated. The SHMT1 and MTHFR genotypes were determined by real-time PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively in 476 patients with rectal, 479 patients with colon cancer and in 461 and 478, respective controls matched for age and sex. Homocysteine levels were determined by HPLC kit. The association between polymorphisms and cancer risk was evaluated by logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and body mass index. The population stratification bias was also estimated. There was no association of genotypes or diplotypes with colon cancer. The rectal cancer risk was significantly lower for SHMT1 TT (OR = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36-0.89) and higher for MTHFR CT genotypes (OR = 1.4, 95%CI 1.06-1.84). A gene-dosage effect was observed for SHMT1 with progressively decreasing risk with increasing number of T allele (p = 0.014). The stratified analysis according to age and sex revealed that the association is mainly present in the younger (cancer risk (OR 0.56, 95%CI 0.42-0.77 vs all other diplotypes together). The above results are unlikely to suffer from population stratification bias. In controls HCY was influenced by SHMT1 polymorphism, while in patients it was affected only by Dukes' stage. In patients with Dukes' stage C or D HCY can be considered as a tumor marker only in case of SHMT1 1420CC genotypes. A protective effect of SHMT1 1420T allele or SHMT1 1420 T allele/MTHFR 677 CC diplotype against rectal but not colon cancer risk was demonstrated. The presence of SHMT1 1420 T allele significantly increases the HCY levels in controls but not in patients. Homocysteine could be considered as a tumor marker in SHMT1 1420 wild-type (CC) CRC patients in Dukes' stage C and D. Further studies need to clarify

  1. Preoperative concurrent chemo-radiation in rectal cancer; Radiochimiotherapie concomitante preoperatoire pour cancer du rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C.; Kirscher, S.; Felix-Faure, C.; Chauvet, B.; Vincent, P.; Brewer, Y.; Reboul, F. [Clinique Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France)

    1998-05-01

    To evaluate retrospectively treatment-related morbidity of concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy for rectal cancer. Between 1992 and 1995, 38 patients (median age: 60) were treated for locally advanced resectable rectal cancer. Median dose of radiotherapy was 45 Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks. Chemotherapy consisted of two courses of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin administered during the first and the fifth weeks of radiotherapy. Median dose of 5-fluorouracil was 350 mg/m{sup 2}/day, and median dose of leucovorin was 350 mg/m{sup 2}/day, day 1 to day 5. Surgery was performed 5 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Before surgery, one patient died of febrile neutropenia and sepsis after two cycles of chemotherapy and 45 Gy. Main pre-operative grade 3-4 toxicities were respectively: neutropenia: 3% ; nausea/vomiting: 3%; diarrhea: 3%; proctitis: 5%; radiation dermatitis: 8%. Twenty-six patients underwent a low anterior resection and 11 an abdomino-perineal resection. A temporary colostomy was performed in 12 patients. Pathologic complete response rate was 27 %. There was one post-operative death due to thrombo-embolic disease. Major post-operative grade 3-4 complications were: pelvic infection: 14 %; abdominal infection : 5%; perineal sepsis: 8%; anastomotic dehiscence: 8%; cardiac failure: 5%. Delayed perineal wound healing was observed in six patients. No significant prognostic factor of post-operative complications has been observed. Median duration of hospitalization was 22 days. With a median follow-up of 24 months, 2-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 82 and 64%. Tolerance of preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy was acceptable. Ongoing controlled studies will assess the impact of this combined treatment on survival. (authors)

  2. Circumferential resection margin (CRM) positivity after MRI assessment and adjuvant treatment in 189 patients undergoing rectal cancer resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, G S; Eardley, N; McNicol, F; Healey, P; Hughes, M; Rooney, P S

    2014-05-01

    The management of rectal cancer relies on accurate MRI staging. Multi-modal treatments can downstage rectal cancer prior to surgery and may have an effect on MRI accuracy. We aim to correlate the findings of MRI staging of rectal cancer with histological analysis, the effect of neoadjuvant therapy on this and the implications of circumferential resection margin (CRM) positivity following neoadjuvant therapy. An analysis of histological data and radiological staging of all cases of rectal cancer in a single centre between 2006 and 2011 were conducted. Two hundred forty-one patients had histologically proved rectal cancer during the study period. One hundred eighty-two patients underwent resection. Median age was 66.6 years, and male to female ratio was 13:5. R1 resection rate was 11.1%. MRI assessments of the circumferential resection margin in patients without neoadjuvant radiotherapy were 93.6 and 88.1% in patients who underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy. Eighteen patients had predicted positive margins following chemoradiotherapy, of which 38.9% had an involved CRM on histological analysis. MRI assessment of the circumferential resection margin in rectal cancer is associated with high accuracy. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy has a detrimental effect on this accuracy, although accuracy remains high. In the presence of persistently predicted positive margins, complete resection remains achievable but may necessitate a more radical approach to resection.

  3. Technique and long-term results of intersphincteric resection for low rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiessel, Rudolf; Novi, Gabriele; Holzer, Brigitte; Rosen, Harald R; Renner, Karl; Hölbling, Nikolaus; Feil, Wolfgang; Urban, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Intersphincteric resection of low rectal tumors is a surgical technique extending rectal resection into the intersphincteric space. This procedure is performed by a synchronous abdominoperineal approach with mesorectal excision and excision of the entire or part of the internal sphincter. This study was designed to evaluate the long-term results of this method focused on continence function and oncologic results. From 1984 to 2000, a total of 121 patients were operated on. The patients were evaluated prospectively according to a detailed preoperative and postoperative program. One hundred seventeen patients had rectal cancers, two had dysplastic villous adenomas, and two had carcinoid tumors. Cancers were staged according to the Dukes classification (Stage A in 41 percent, Stage B in 28 percent, and Stage C in 31 percent; median distance from the anal margin, 3 (range, 1-5) cm). Postoperative complications were: one death because of pulmonary embolism, 5.1 percent developed an anastomotic fistula, one patient had a fistula to the bladder requiring reoperation, one patient with ileus needed relaparotomy as well as one for intra-abdominal hemorrhage and a small-bowel fistula. One patient developed a fistula after closing the protective colostomy. Five patients developed late strictures of the coloanal anastomosis. After a median follow-up of 72.86 months, 5.3 percent of patients developed local recurrence. The continence status was satisfactory with 16 patients (13.7 percent) showing continence for solid stool only, and 1 patient (0.8 percent) showing episodes of incontinence. A transient problem was a high stool frequency after closure of the protective stoma. Intersphincteric resection is a valuable procedure for sphincter-saving rectal surgery. We showed that this technique has satisfactory long-term results in functional and oncologic respects. An important prerequisite is a careful preoperative evaluation of local tumor spread with rectal magnetic resonance

  4. Better Check Your Bowels: Screening for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and older don’t get screened for colorectal cancer. The most common reason, says Klabunde, is that “people don’t realize ... is something they need to do.” Other common reasons include costs and inconvenience, such as taking time off from work. Colorectal cancer is cancer of the colon or rectum, both ...

  5. Low risk of pelvic sepsis after intersphincteric proctectomy in patients with low rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Marianne H.; Maina, Pierre; Jensen, Kenneth Højsgaard

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pelvic sepsis after Hartmann's procedure for low rectal cancer is a frequent complication. It has been reported at a frequency of 12.2-17.2% and has even reached 33% when the transection level of the rectum is ≤ 2 cm from the anal verge. The aim of this study was to examine whether...... intersphincteric proctectomy reduces the frequency of pelvic sepsis in patients operated with an extended Hartmann's procedure for rectal cancer. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective extended Hartmann's procedure with an intersphincteric proctectomy from 2010 until 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Patient...... characteristics and post-operative complications were obtained and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 50 patients were included in this analysis. Sixteen were female, the median age was 73 years, and the median BMI was 26 kg/m2. Furthermore, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores were as follows: ASA 1...

  6. Low risk of pelvic sepsis after intersphincteric proctectomy in patients with low rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Marianne H; Maina, Pierre; Jensen, Kenneth Højsgaard

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pelvic sepsis after Hartmann's procedure for low rectal cancer is a frequent complication. It has been reported at a frequency of 12.2-17.2% and has even reached 33% when the transection level of the rectum is ≤ 2 cm from the anal verge. The aim of this study was to examine whether...... intersphincteric proctectomy reduces the frequency of pelvic sepsis in patients operated with an extended Hartmann's procedure for rectal cancer. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective extended Hartmann's procedure with an intersphincteric proctectomy from 2010 until 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Patient...... (28%), ASA 2 (60%), and ASA 3 (12%); their tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) staging was TNM: ≤ T2 (30%), T3 (50%), and T4 (20%); and 26% had received neoadjuvant radiotherapy, whereas 40% had received chemotherapy. A total of three patients (6%) developed a post-operative pelvic sepsis. The median length...

  7. Graciloplasty for the rectovaginal fistula after chemoradiation followed by total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalavicius, Narimantas Evaldas; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is one of the intractable complications following chemoradiation and total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal cancer. It is supposed that there is a strong possibility of this complication occurring in patients after radiation therapy and having underlying sepsis. We describe herein two female patients (73 and 40 years old) who developed RVF after chemoradiation and TME for rectal cancer, who were successfully managed by gracilis muscle transposition. Fecal diversion was done as a preliminary step to the fistula repair. Success was defined as healed fistula after stoma closure. The strategy in the present report is a useful option for RVF management in such patients as other successful modalities are very limited.

  8. Dose-response of acute urinary toxicity of long-course preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L.; Bentzen, Søren M.; Jakobsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-course preoperative chemoradiotherapy (chemo-RT) improves outcomes for rectal cancer patients, but acute side effects during treatment may cause considerable patient discomfort and may compromise treatment compliance. We developed a dose-response model for acute urinary toxicity...... based on a large, single-institution series. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total 345 patients were treated with (chemo-)RT for primary rectal cancer from January 2007 to May 2012. Urinary toxicity during RT was scored prospectively using the CTCAE v 3.0 cystitis score (grade 0-5). Clinical variables...... and radiation dose to the bladder were related to graded toxicity using multivariate ordinal logistic regression. Three models were optimized, each containing all available clinical variables and one of three dose metrics: Mean dose (Dmean), equivalent uniform dose (EUD), or relative volume given x Gy or above...

  9. Ultrasound elastography and diffusion weighted MRI in patients with rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Vagn-Hansen, Chris Aksel; Sørensen, Torben

    OBJECTIVE: The current literature has described the usefulness of elastography and diffusion weighted MRI in cancer patients, but to the best of our knowledge so far none of them have compared the two new methods. The tumour cell density is related to the MRI measured apparent diffusion weighted .......59), P ADC measurements in rectal tumours. The relationship between ARFI and ADC measurement was linear in our study population....... coefficient (ADC). The purpose of the present study was to compare quantitative elastography based on ultrasound shear wave measurements with MRI ADC. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We prospectively examined consecutive 52 patients with histopathological proven rectal cancer. The tumour elasticity was measured using...... the Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) to generate information on the mechanical properties of the tissue. The objective quantitative elastography shear wave velocity was blindly compared to the ADC measurements using a 1.5 Tesla MRI system. The study was approved by the local Clinical Ethics Committee...

  10. Elastography and diffusion-weighted MRI in patients with rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Vagn-Hansen, Chris Aksel; Sørensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    .86), slope = -1.949 (95% CI: -1.31 to -2.59), p MRI ADC measurements in rectal tumours. The relationship between ARFI and ADC measurement was linear in our study population. Advances in knowledge: This work describes......OBJECTIVE: The current literature has described the usefulness of elastography and diffusion-weighted MRI in patients with cancer, but to the best of our knowledge so far none of them has compared the two new methods. The tumour cell density is related to the MRI-measured apparent diffusion......-weighted coefficient (ADC). The purpose of the present study was to compare quantitative elastography based on ultrasound shear wave measurements with MRI ADC. METHODS: We prospectively examined 52 patients with histopathologically proven rectal cancer. The mean age was 67 years (range 42-90 years). Males: 39, females...

  11. CURRENT TREATMENT POLICY FOR RECTAL CANCER WITH SYNCHRONOUS DISTANT METASTASES (A CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Davydov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment results of low rectal cancer patient with internal sphincter involvement and synchronous liver metastases is presented. After combined treatment including preoperative targeted therapy, chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy a synchronous resection of primary tumour and liver metastases was carried out (R0. Synchronous right hepihepatectomy and proctectomy was performed with resection of the deep part of external sphincter, neorectum creation by transverse coloplasty, neoanal sphincter creation using colonic smooth muscle layer without preventive colostomy. A possibility of synchronous plastic sphincter-sparing surgery in metastatic rectal cancer patient with locally advanced tumour is demonstrated. Such treatment allows to remove the risk of primary tumour complications, facilitates further chemotherapy treatment and improves quality of life and long-term treatment outcome.

  12. Endothelial dysfunction in rectal cancer patients chronically exposed to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Pak, Laura; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Manambayeva, Zukhra; Tokanova, Sholpan; Madiyeva, Madina [Semey State Medical University, Semey (Kazakhstan); Inoue, Ken [Kochi University, Health Service Center, Kochi (Japan); Kawano, Noriyuki; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Takeichi, Nobuo [Takeichi Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan); Noso, Yoshihiro [Shimane University, Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane (Japan); Khozhayev, Arman; Molgazhdarov, Maulen [The Kazakh National Medical University of S.D.Asfendiyarov, Department of Oncology, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Olzhaev, Sayakhat [Almaty Regional Oncologic Hospital, Department of Oncology, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-08-15

    We sought to identify the features of endothelial function in rectal cancer patients who were exposed to chronic ionizing radiation from a nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. We examined 146 individuals, 76 of whom were rectal cancer patients. The existence of a complex of disturbances of the endothelium and hemostasis systems in patients vs non-patients was revealed. Endothelial dysfunction was expressed as an increase of nitric oxide (NO) production along with decreases in vasodilatation function, and increased levels of von Willebrand factor in blood, along with an increase in the number of circulating endotheliocytes. Significant correlations between indicators of endothelial function and vascular-platelet hemostasis were observed. These changes and their interrelations were expressed more strongly in the patients who lived in the contaminated area around the nuclear test site. Such patients could have an increased risk of thrombosis and other complications after the treatment of a malignant neoplasm. (orig.)

  13. Early Closure of a Temporary Ileostomy in Patients With Rectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne K; Park, Jennifer; Jansen, Jens E

    2017-01-01

    anastomotic dehiscence. However, the temporary ileostomy is afflicted with complications and requires a second surgical procedure (closure) with its own complications. Early closure of the temporary ileostomy could reduce complications for rectal cancer patients. METHODS: Early closure (8-13 days after stoma...... creation) of a temporary ileostomy was compared with late closure (>12 weeks) in a multicenter randomized controlled trial, EASY (www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01287637) including patients undergoing rectal resection for cancer. Patients with a temporary ileostomy without signs of postoperative complications......: The trial included 127 patients in eight Danish and Swedish surgical departments, and 112 patients were available for analysis. The mean number of complications after index surgery up to 12 months follow up was significantly lower in the intervention group (1.2) compared with the control group (2.9), P

  14. Intraoperative monitoring of bladder and internal anal sphincter innervation: a predictor of erectile function following low anterior rectal resection for rectal cancer? Results of a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, Werner; Kauff, Daniel W; Rubenwolf, Peter; Thomas, Christian; Hampel, Christian; Lang, Hauke

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to investigate whether two-dimensional intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) of pelvic autonomic nerves has the potential to predict erectile function (EF) following surgery for rectal cancer. A consecutive series of 17 sexually active male rectal cancer patients undergoing IONM-based nerve-sparing low anterior rectal resection were evaluated prospectively. IONM was performed by electric stimulation of the pelvic splanchnic nerves with concomitant electromyography of the internal anal sphincter and cystomanometry. Sexual function was assessed using a validated questionnaire. The degree of agreement between electromyography-based and cystomanometry-based IONM with postoperative EF was moderate and good (κ = 0.43 and κ = 0.66). Combined assessment yielded the best agreement (κ = 0.76) with sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 86%, positive predictive value of 90%, negative predictive value of 86%, and overall accuracy of 88%, respectively, in terms of prediction of postoperative EF. The method may be suitable to predict male EF following rectal resection. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Permanent stoma rates: a misleading marker of quality in rectal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, R J; Evans, M D; Davies, M; Harris, D A; Chandrasekaran, T V; Khot, U P; Morgan, A R; Beynon, J

    2014-04-01

    The latest National Bowel Cancer Audit Programme (NBOCAP) audit identified our colorectal unit as an outlier with regard to the high permanent stoma rate. The aim of this study was to perform an audit of the rationale for stoma formation in patients undergoing rectal cancer resection in our unit. A review was conducted of all rectal cancer operations between April 2011 and March 2013. Preoperative staging investigations and operation reports were reviewed to identify the reasons for nonrestorative surgery. Postoperative histology reports were used to identify circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement and tumour height. One-hundred and twenty-five patients underwent surgery for rectal cancer, of whom 102 underwent elective resection with curative intent. The permanent stoma rate was 63.2% when emergency and palliative procedures were included and 54.9% when only elective curative cases were considered. Tertiary referrals made up 31.4% of elective cases. The main reasons for nonrestorative surgery included multivisceral resection (n = 24) for locally advanced cancer and operations for lesions close to the anal sphincter (n = 21). The median length of stay was 8 days, the 90-day mortality was 2.9% and the rate of CRM involvement was 2.0%. Our unit provides multivisceral surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer and receives a substantial number of tertiary referrals. Many of the rectal cancers referred are locally advanced or threaten the anal sphincter. This study demonstrates that the complexity of a unit's case-mix can have a profound effect on the permanent stoma rate. Stoma rates taken at face value do not therefore provide an accurate representation of surgical quality. What does this paper add to the literature? The study reviews the practice of a colorectal surgical unit with an interest in multivisceral surgery with regard to the permanent stoma rate. The reasons for nonrestorative surgery are analysed, and the problems associated with the use of

  16. Epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation reveals a rectal cancer-specific epigenomic signature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vymetálková, Veronika; Vodička, Pavel; Pardini, Barbara; Rosa, F.; Levý, M.; Schneiderová, M.; Liška, V.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Nilsson, T.K.; Farkas, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 9 (2016), s. 1193-1207 ISSN 1750-1911 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13424; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-27580A; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08239S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14050 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : DNA methylation * Illumina Human Methylation 450 BeadChip * rectal cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.541, year: 2016

  17. Anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for low rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Skrovina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our single centre comparative study is focused on perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic total mesorectal excision in patients with middle and low rectal cancer with attention to complications of double stapling coloanal anastomosis with and without protective ileostomy. Material and methods: From 1 January 2005 to 30 June 2008, 349 patients with rectal cancer underwent surgery at our centre. Of these, 114 patients (41 women and 73 men with middle and low rectal cancer ( 12 cm from the anal verge after laparoscopic resection with total mesorectal excision and primary coloanal anastomosis were included in the study. There were 64 patients with primary anastomosis without protective ileostomy in the first group, and 50 patients with primary protective ileostomy in the second one. Anastomotic leakage was defined as presence of stapler line dehiscence, presacral abscess or rectovaginal fistula.Results: Coloanal anastomotic leakage was present in 11.4% of cases (13 of 114 patients. In the no stoma group leakage was present in 17.2% of cases, in the stoma group in 4.0% of cases. Reoperation was needed in 9.4% (6 of 64 in the no stoma group and in 2.0% (1 of 50 in the stoma group. Stage of disease was found to be another factor influencing anastomotic healing. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to preoperative chemoradiotherapy, sex, body mass index, ASA score, age, time of surgery and tumour location in our study. Conclusions: Protective loop ileostomy significantly reduces the presence of symptomatic anastomotic leakage of double stapling coloanal anastomosis after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision in patients with low rectal cancer.

  18. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelian, Jason M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Callister, Matthew D., E-mail: Callister.matthew@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Ashman, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Young-Fadok, Tonia M. [Division of Colorectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Borad, Mitesh J. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a

  19. Salvage high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellizzon, Antonio Cassio Assis, E-mail: acapellizzon@hcancer.org.br [A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radioterapia

    2016-05-15

    For tumors of the lower third of the rectum, the only safe surgical procedure is abdominal-perineal resection. High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy is a promising treatment for local recurrence of previously irradiated lower rectal cancer, due to the extremely high concentrated dose delivered to the tumor and the sparing of normal tissue, when compared with a course of external beam radiation therapy. (author)

  20. Predictive clinical model of tumor response after chemoradiation in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marisa D; Silva, Cristina; Rocha, Anabela; Nogueira, Carlos; Castro-Poças, Fernando; Araujo, António; Matos, Eduarda; Pereira, Carina; Medeiros, Rui; Lopes, Carlos

    2017-08-29

    Survival improvement in rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) is achieved only if pathological response occurs. Mandard tumor regression grade (TRG) proved to be a valid system to measure nCRT response. The ability to predict tumor response before treatment may significantly have impact the selection of patients for nCRT in rectal cancer. The aim is to identify potential predictive pretreatment factors for Mandard response and build a clinical predictive model design. 167 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were treated with nCRT and curative surgery. Blood cell counts in peripheral blood were analyzed. Pretreatment biopsies expression of cyclin D1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and protein 21 were assessed. A total of 61 single nucleotide polymorphisms were characterized using the Sequenom platform through multiplex amplification followed by mass-spectometric product separation. Surgical specimens were classified according to Mandard TRG. The patients were divided as: "good responders" (Mandard TRG1-2) and "poor responders" (Mandard TGR3-5). We examined predictive factors for Mandard response and performed statistical analysis. In univariate analysis, distance from anal verge, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), cyclin D1, VEGF, EGFR, protein 21 and rs1810871 interleukin 10 (IL10) gene polymorphism are the pretreatment variables with predictive value for Mandard response. In multivariable analysis, NLR, cyclin D1, protein 21 and rs1800871 in IL10 gene maintain predictive value, allowing a clinical model design. It seems possible to use pretreatment expression of blood and tissue biomarkers, and build a model of tumor response prediction to neoadjuvant chemoradiation in rectal cancer.

  1. Radiation Techniques for Increasing Local Control in the Non-Surgical Management of Rectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L.; Jakobsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A fraction of patients with rectal cancer can achieve clinical complete response following long-course chemoradiotherapy (CRT), and there is accumulating clinical evidence that these patients can be managed non-surgically with acceptable oncological outcome. Consequently, strategies for increasing...... for dose escalation are considered. Ultimately, no technique provides definitive advantage over others, and the choice in clinical practice will have to depend on the patient population treated as well as the technical capabilities of the treating department....

  2. Exercise motivation in rectal cancer patients during and after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morielli, Andria R; Usmani, Nawaid; Boulé, Normand G; Severin, Diane; Tankel, Keith; Nijjar, Tirath; Joseph, Kurian; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic exercise is safe and feasible for rectal cancer patients during and after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT), but their motivation to perform such exercise is unknown. Here, we explore the motivational outcomes, perceived benefits and harms, and perceived barriers to exercise during and after NACRT. Rectal cancer patients (n = 18) participated in supervised aerobic exercise during NACRT followed by unsupervised exercise after NACRT. Using the theory of planned behavior, we assessed perceived benefits, harms, enjoyment, support, difficulty, and barriers for exercise both during and after NACRT. Patients reported that exercise during NACRT was more enjoyable (p = 0.003) and less difficult (p = 0.037) than initially anticipated. The most common perceived benefits of exercise during NACRT were cardiovascular endurance (75 %), quality of life (75 %), and self-esteem (65 %). After NACRT, the most common perceived benefits were physical functioning (93 %), cardiovascular endurance (86 %), and quality of life (79 %). The most common perceived harms of exercise during NACRT were fatigue (31 %), diarrhea (31 %), and skin irritation (24 %). After NACRT, the most common perceived harms were fatigue (21 %) and hand-foot-syndrome (15 %). Side effects from NACRT were the most common exercise barrier during NACRT (88 %) whereas lack of motivation was the most common barrier after NACRT (79 %). Rectal cancer patients reported aerobic exercise during NACRT to be more enjoyable and less difficult than anticipated despite significant barriers. This positive motivational response may facilitate recruitment and adherence in future interventions. Moreover, rectal cancer patients identified potential benefits and harms that should be closely monitored in future interventions.

  3. A study of laparoscopic extraperitoneal sigmoid colostomy after abdomino-perineal resection for rectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Heiying, Jin; Yonghong, Du; Xiaofeng, Wang; Hang, Yao; Kunlan, Wu; Bei, Zhang; Jinhao, Zhang; Qiang, Leng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To established a procedure for laparoscopic extraperitoneal ostomy after abdomino-perineal resection (APR) and study safety aspects and complications. Method: From July 2011 to July 2012, 36 patients with low rectal cancer undergoing APR were included in the study and divided into extraperitoneal ostomy group (n = 18) and intraperitoneal ostomy group (n = 18). Short- and long-term complications were compared between the two groups. All patients were followed up and the median durat...

  4. ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFICTIVENESS OF EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA IN TREATMENT OF RECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Avdeev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of the efficacy of anesthetic management in 53 patients with operable rectal cancer was carried out. In the study group patients (n=29, preemptive thoracic epidural analgesia was used. In the control group, (n=24, anesthesia was induced with sevofluorane and fentanyl. Preemptive thoracic epidural analgesia provided a reliable blockade of nociceptors and neural pathways, normalized stress response and decreased the severity of the systemic inflammatory response by stimulating the production of antiinflammatory cytokines.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFICTIVENESS OF EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA IN TREATMENT OF RECTAL CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. Avdeev; S. G. Afanasyev; S. I. Savosina; V. V. Faltin; L. V. Gerdt; M. N. Stakheeva; S. A. Tuzikov

    2015-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the efficacy of anesthetic management in 53 patients with operable rectal cancer was carried out. In the study group patients (n=29), preemptive thoracic epidural analgesia was used. In the control group, (n=24), anesthesia was induced with sevofluorane and fentanyl. Preemptive thoracic epidural analgesia provided a reliable blockade of nociceptors and neural pathways, normalized stress response and decreased the severity of the systemic inflammatory response by st...

  6. [Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) for primary rectal cancer : Video article].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, W

    2017-07-10

    Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) is a new surgical technique in the treatment of selected patients with rectal cancer. This manuscript and the accompanying video report with commentary, which is available online, outlines various equipment requirements and step by step aspects of the surgical technique. With respect to the implementation of TaTME particular attention should be paid to the topography and surgical education.

  7. Clinical observations on safety and efficacy of OxyContin® administered by rectal route in treating cancer related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Guang; Huang, Xin-En; Li, Ying; Lu, Yan-Yan

    2011-01-01

    To determine the efficacy and adverse reactions of OxyContin® administered by rectal route in advanced cancer patients. Patients were enrolled into this study in which OxyContin was administered by the rectal route. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was applied to score pain intensity, separated into five degrees. National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC) were adopted to record the side effects. VAS scores were 10 before treatment, and decreased to 5-6 after OxyContin application by the rectal route.The main side effects were constipation, flatulence and fatigue,with no elevation of transaminases and creatinine. OxyContin admistered by rectal route is safe for advanced cancer patients with satisfactory pain control effects, thus deserving further clinical observation.

  8. Strategies to evaluate the impact of rectal volume on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poli, Ana Paula Diniz Fortuna, E-mail: anapaulafortuna@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CAISM/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Atencao Integrada a Saude da Mulher. Divisao de Radioterapia; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo; Segreto, Roberto Araujo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Divisao de Radioterapia

    2016-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate the rectal volume influence on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one patients with prostate cancer underwent a series of three computed tomography scans including an initial planning scan and two subsequent scans during 3D-CRT. The organs of interest were outlined. The prostate contour was compared with the initial CT images considering the anterior, posterior, superior, inferior and lateral edges of the organ. Variations in the anterior limits and volume of the rectum were assessed and correlated with prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction. Results: The maximum range of prostate motion was observed in the superoinferior direction, followed by the anteroposterior direction. A significant correlation was observed between prostate motion and rectal volume variation (p = 0.037). A baseline rectal volume superior to 70 cm{sup 3} had a significant influence on the prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction (p = 0.045). Conclusion: The present study showed a significant interfraction motion of the prostate during 3D-CRT with greatest variations in the superoinferior and anteroposterior directions, and that a large rectal volume influences the prostate motion with a cutoff value of 70 cm{sup 3}. Therefore, the treatment of patients with a rectal volume > 70 cm{sup 3} should be re-planned with appropriate rectal preparation. Keywords: Rectal volume; Prostate cancer; Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. (author)

  9. Rectal Tumour Staging with Endorectal Ultrasound: Is There Any Difference between Western and Eastern European Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Fábián

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rectal tumour management depends highly on locoregional extension. Rectal endoscopic ultrasound (ERUS is a good alternative to computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, in Hungary only a small amount of rectal tumours is examined with ERUS. Methods. Our retrospective study (2006–2012 evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of ERUS and compares the results, the first data from Central Europe, with those from Western Europe. The effect of neoadjuvant therapy, rectal probe type, and investigator’s experience were also assessed. Results. 311 of the 647 ERUS assessed locoregional extension. Histological comparison was available in 177 cases: 67 patients underwent surgery alone; 110 received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT; ERUS preceded CRT in 77 and followed it in 33 patients. T-staging was accurate in 72% of primarily operated patients. N-staging was less accurate (62%. CRT impaired staging accuracy (64% and 59% for T- and N-staging. Rigid probes were more accurate (79%. At least 30 examinations are needed to master the technique. Conclusions. The sensitivity of ERUS complies with the literature. ERUS is easy to learn and more accurate in early stages but unnecessary for restaging after CRT. Staging accuracy is similar in Western and Central Europe, although the number of examinations should be increased.

  10. Rectal Tumour Staging with Endorectal Ultrasound: Is There Any Difference between Western and Eastern European Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábián, Anna; Bor, Renáta; Farkas, Klaudia; Bálint, Anita; Milassin, Ágnes; Rutka, Mariann; Tiszlavicz, László; Wittmann, Tibor; Nagy, Ferenc; Molnár, Tamás; Szepes, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Background. Rectal tumour management depends highly on locoregional extension. Rectal endoscopic ultrasound (ERUS) is a good alternative to computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, in Hungary only a small amount of rectal tumours is examined with ERUS. Methods. Our retrospective study (2006–2012) evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of ERUS and compares the results, the first data from Central Europe, with those from Western Europe. The effect of neoadjuvant therapy, rectal probe type, and investigator's experience were also assessed. Results. 311 of the 647 ERUS assessed locoregional extension. Histological comparison was available in 177 cases: 67 patients underwent surgery alone; 110 received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT); ERUS preceded CRT in 77 and followed it in 33 patients. T-staging was accurate in 72% of primarily operated patients. N-staging was less accurate (62%). CRT impaired staging accuracy (64% and 59% for T- and N-staging). Rigid probes were more accurate (79%). At least 30 examinations are needed to master the technique. Conclusions. The sensitivity of ERUS complies with the literature. ERUS is easy to learn and more accurate in early stages but unnecessary for restaging after CRT. Staging accuracy is similar in Western and Central Europe, although the number of examinations should be increased. PMID:26858754

  11. Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: A systematic review of current practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Tony Wing Chung; Lee, Janet Fung Yee; Futaba, Kaori; Hon, Sophie Sok Fei; Ngo, Dennis Kwok Yu; Ng, Simon Siu Man

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To give a comprehensive review of current literature on robotic rectal cancer surgery. METHODS: A systematic review of current literature via PubMed and Embase search engines was performed to identify relevant articles from january 2007 to november 2013. The keywords used were: “robotic surgery”, “surgical robotics”, “laparoscopic computer-assisted surgery”, “colectomy” and “rectal resection”. RESULTS: After the initial screen of 380 articles, 20 papers were selected for review. A total of 1062 patients (male 64.0%) with a mean age of 61.1 years and body mass index of 24.9 kg/m2 were included in the review. Out of 1062 robotic-assisted operations, 831 (78.2%) anterior and low anterior resections, 132 (12.4%) intersphincteric resection with coloanal anastomosis, 98 (9.3%) abdominoperineal resections and 1 (0.1%) Hartmann’s operation were included in the review. Robotic rectal surgery was associated with longer operative time but with comparable oncological results and anastomotic leak rate when compared with laparoscopic rectal surgery. CONCLUSION: Robotic colorectal surgery has continued to evolve to its current state with promising results; feasible surgical option with low conversion rate and comparable short-term oncological results. The challenges faced with robotic surgery are for more high quality studies to justify its cost. PMID:24936229

  12. Phase II clinical trial of preoperative combined chemoradiation for T3 and T4 resectable rectal cancer: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjandra, J J; Reading, D M; McLachlan, S A; Gunn, I F; Green, M D; McLaughlin, S J; Millar, J L; Pedersen, J S

    2001-08-01

    Although preoperative chemoradiation for high-risk rectal cancer may improve survival and local recurrence rate, its adverse effects are not well defined. This prospective study evaluated the use of preoperative chemoradiation for T3 and T4 resectable rectal cancer, with special emphasis on treatment morbidity, pathologic remission rate, quality of life, and anorectal function. Forty-two patients (30 men, 12 women) were enrolled in the study. Median distance of the distal tumor margin from the anal verge was 6.5 cm. Preoperative staging was based on digital rectal examination, endorectal ultrasound, and computed tomography. None of the patients had distant metastases. All patients had 45 Gy (1.8 Gy/day in 25 fractions) over five weeks, plus 5-fluorouracil (350 mg/m(2)/day) and leucovorin (20 mg/m(2)/day) bolus on days 1 to 5 and 29 to 33. Quality of life was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer 30-item quality-of-life questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and its colorectal cancer-specific module (QLQ-CR38) questionnaires. Objective anorectal function was assessed by anorectal manometry and pudendal nerve terminal motor latency. Surgery was performed 46 (range, 24-63) days after completion of adjuvant therapy. Nineteen patients (45 percent) had Grade 3 or 4 chemoradiation-induced toxic reactions. Four patients developed intercurrent distant metastases or intraperitoneal carcinomatosis at completion of chemoradiation. Thirty-eight patients underwent surgical resection: abdominoperineal resection, anterior resection, and Hartmann's procedure were performed in 55 percent, 39 percent (11 of 15 patients had a diverting stoma), and 5 percent, respectively. Major surgical complications occurred in 7 patients (18 percent) and included anastomotic leak (n = 1), pelvic abscess (n = 1), small-bowel obstruction (n = 3), and wound breakdown (n = 2). Final pathology was Stage 0 (no residual disease), I, II, and III in 6 (16 percent), 7 (18 percent), 9

  13. Iterative dataset optimization in automated planning: Implementation for breast and rectal cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiawei; Wang, Jiazhou; Zhang, Zhen; Hu, Weigang

    2017-06-01

    To develop a new automated treatment planning solution for breast and rectal cancer radiotherapy. The automated treatment planning solution developed in this study includes selection of the iterative optimized training dataset, dose volume histogram (DVH) prediction for the organs at risk (OARs), and automatic generation of clinically acceptable treatment plans. The iterative optimized training dataset is selected by an iterative optimization from 40 treatment plans for left-breast and rectal cancer patients who received radiation therapy. A two-dimensional kernel density estimation algorithm (noted as two parameters KDE) which incorporated two predictive features was implemented to produce the predicted DVHs. Finally, 10 additional new left-breast treatment plans are re-planned using the Pinnacle3 Auto-Planning (AP) module (version 9.10, Philips Medical Systems) with the objective functions derived from the predicted DVH curves. Automatically generated re-optimized treatment plans are compared with the original manually optimized plans. By combining the iterative optimized training dataset methodology and two parameters KDE prediction algorithm, our proposed automated planning strategy improves the accuracy of the DVH prediction. The automatically generated treatment plans using the dose derived from the predicted DVHs can achieve better dose sparing for some OARs without compromising other metrics of plan quality. The proposed new automated treatment planning solution can be used to efficiently evaluate and improve the quality and consistency of the treatment plans for intensity-modulated breast and rectal cancer radiation therapy. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by local excision in clinical T2N0 rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Seob; Park, Jin Hong; Ahn, Seung Do [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-09-15

    To investigate whether preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) followed by local excision (LE) is feasible approach in clinical T2N0 rectal cancer patients. Patients who received PCRT and LE because of clinical T2 rectal cancer within 7 cm from anal verge between January 2006 and June 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. LE was performed in case of a good clinical response after PCRT. Patients' characteristics, treatment record, tumor recurrence, and treatment-related complications were reviewed at a median follow-up of 49 months. All patients received transanal excision or transanal minimally invasive surgery. Of 34 patients, 19 patients (55.9%) presented pathologic complete response (pCR). The 3-year local recurrence-free survival and disease free-survival were 100.0% and 97.1%, respectively. There was no recurrence among the patients with pCR. Except for 1 case of grade 4 enterovesical fistula, all other late complications were mild and self-limiting. PCRT followed by an LE might be feasible as an alternative to total mesorectal excision in good responders with clinical T2N0 distal rectal cancer.

  15. Prediction of residual disease or distant metastasis after resection of locally recurrent rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Hirai, Takashi; Komori, Koji; Kato, Tomoyuki

    2010-05-01

    It is important to preoperatively identify patients at high risk of relapse at extrapelvic sites or residual disease after salvage surgery for locally recurrent rectal cancer to maximize the survival benefit by indicating whether a surgical approach might be successful. Data from 101 consecutive patients who underwent exploration with curative intent for local recurrence after radical resection of rectal cancer were retrospectively collected. Preoperative factors were examined in univariate and multivariate analyses for their ability to predict resectability and distant disease-free survival. The 5-year disease-specific survival rates of R0, R1, and R2 resection were 43.3%, 19.5%, and 10.0%, respectively (P sacrum)/lateral invasive type and high-grade lymphatic invasion of the primary tumor were associated with palliative surgery. A Cox regression analysis revealed that upper sacral/lateral invasive type, extrapelvic disease, hydronephrosis at recurrence, and high-grade lymphatic or venous invasion of the primary tumor were associated with a lower distant disease-free survival rate. Patients with one or more of these risk factors had a 3-year distant disease-free survival rate of 6.2% compared with 54.1% for those with none of these risk factors. It was possible to preoperatively identify patients at high risk of relapse or residual disease. This system might be used on an individual basis to select patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer for chemotherapy or radiotherapy before surgical intervention with curative intent.

  16. Urogenital function in robotic vs laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleimonitis, Sofoklis; Ahmed, Jamil; Ramachandra, Meghana; Farooq, Muhammad; Harper, Mick; Parvaiz, Amjad

    2017-02-01

    Urological and sexual dysfunction are recognised risks of rectal cancer surgery; however, there is limited evidence regarding urogenital function comparing robotic to laparoscopic techniques. The aim of this study was to assess the urogenital functional outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic and robotic rectal cancer surgery. Urological and sexual functions were assessed using gender-specific validated standardised questionnaires. Questionnaires were sent a minimum of 6 months after surgery, and patients were asked to report their urogenital function pre- and post-operatively, allowing changes in urogenital function to be identified. Questionnaires were sent to 158 patients (89 laparoscopy, 69 robotic) of whom 126 (80 %) responded. Seventy-eight (49 male, 29 female) of the responders underwent laparoscopic and 48 (35 male, 13 female) robotic surgery. Male patients in the robotic group deteriorated less across all components of sexual function and in five components of urological function. Composite male urological and sexual function score changes from baseline were better in the robotic cohort (p robotic group (p = 0.003). Robotic rectal cancer surgery might offer better post-operative urological and sexual outcomes compared to laparoscopic surgery in male patients and better urological outcomes in females. Larger scale, prospective randomised control studies including urodynamic assessment of urogenital function are required to validate these results.

  17. The learning curve of laparoscopic treatment of rectal cancer does not increase morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján, Juan; Gonzalez, Antonio; Abrisqueta, Jesús; Hernandez, Quiteria; Valero, Graciela; Abellán, Israel; Frutos, María Dolores; Parrilla, Pascual

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of rectal cancer via laparoscopy is controversial due to its technical complexity. Several randomized prospective studies have demonstrated clear advantages for the patient with similar oncological results to those of open surgery, although during the learning of this surgical technique there may be an increase in complications and a worse prognosis. Our aim is to analyze how the learning curve for rectal cancer via laparoscopy influences intra- and postoperative results and oncological markers. A retrospective review was conducted of the first 120 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery for rectal neoplasia. The operations were performed by the same surgical team with a wide experience in the treatment of open colorectal cancer and qualified to perform advanced laparoscopic surgery. We analyzed sex, ASA, tumour location, neoadjuvant treatment, surgical technique, operating time, conversion, postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, number of lymph nodes, stage and involvement of margins. Significant differences were observed with regard to surgical time (224 min in the first group, 204 min in the second group), with a higher rate of conversion in the first group (22.5%) than in the second (11.3%). No significant differences were noted for rate of conservative sphincter surgery, length of hospital stay, post-surgical complications, number of affected/isolated lymph nodes or affected circumferential and distal margins. It is possible to learn this complex surgical technique without compromising the patient's safety and oncological outcome. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Second harmonic generation for collagen I characterization in rectal cancer patients with and without preoperative radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockhuys, Stéphanie; Agarwal, Nisha Rani; Hildesjö, Camilla; Jarlsfelt, Ingvar; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2017-10-01

    Rectal cancer is treated with preoperative radiotherapy (RT) to downstage the tumor, reduce local recurrence, and improve patient survival. Still, the treatment outcome varies significantly and new biomarkers are desired. Collagen I (Col-I) is a potential biomarker, which can be visualized label-free by second harmonic generation (SHG). Here, we used SHG to identify Col-I changes induced by RT in surgical tissue, with the aim to evaluate the clinical significance of RT-induced Col-I changes. First, we established a procedure for quantitative evaluation of Col-I by SHG in CDX2-stained tissue sections. Next, we evaluated Col-I properties in material from 31 non-RT and 29 RT rectal cancer patients. We discovered that the Col-I intensity and anisotropy were higher in the tumor invasive margin than in the inner tumor and normal mucosa, and RT increased and decreased the intensity in inner tumor and normal mucosa, respectively. Furthermore, higher Col-I intensity in the inner tumor was related to increased distant recurrence in the non-RT group but to longer survival in the RT group. In conclusion, we present a new application of SHG for quantitative analysis of Col-I in surgical material, and the first data suggest Col-I intensity as a putative prognostic biomarker in rectal cancer.

  19. Fortune of temporary ileostomies in patients treated with laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haksal, Mustafa; Okkabaz, Nuri; Atici, Ali Emre; Civil, Osman; Ozdenkaya, Yasar; Erdemir, Ayhan; Aksakal, Nihat

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The current study aims to analyze the risk factors for the failure of ileostomy reversal after laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer. Methods All patients who underwent a laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer with a diverting ileostomy between 2007 and 2014 were abstracted. The patients who underwent and did not undergo a diverting ileostomy procedure were compared regarding patient, tumor, treatment related parameters, and survival. Results Among 160 (103 males [64.4%], mean [± standard deviation] age was 58.1 ± 11.9 years) patients, stoma reversal was achieved in 136 cases (85%). Anastomotic stricture (n = 13, 52.4%) was the most common reason for stoma reversal. These were the risk factors for the failure of stoma reversal: Male sex (P = 0.035), having complications (P = 0.01), particularly an anastomotic leak (P patients cannot receive a stoma reversal after laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer. Anastomotic stricture is the most common reason for the failure of stoma takedown. Having complications, particularly an anastomotic leak and the necessity of reoperation, limits the stoma closure rate. Male sex and additional organ resection are the risk factors for the failure in multivariate analyses. These patients require a longer hospitalization period, but have similar survival rates as those who receive stoma closure procedure. PMID:28090504

  20. Effects of radiation and surgery on function and quality of life (QOL) in rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linda; Wang, Xiaodong; Lo, Ada; Raval, Manoj; Brown, Carl; Karimuddin, Ahmer; Phang, P Terry

    2018-01-31

    Pre-operative radiotherapy (PRT) and total mesorectal excision surgery (TME) for rectal cancer yield the lowest risk for local recurrence. However, both treatments negatively impact quality of life (QOL). To understand individual treatment effects, we ask whether PRT affects function and quality of life before TME. Function and QOL were prospectively assessed in 26 patients using EORTC QLQ-C30/-CR38, and Wexner scale at three time points: before PRT, 6 weeks after PRT and before TME, and one year after stoma closure. Wexner score did not change post-PRT but did increase post-TME (p < .01). Micturition score did not change with PRT or TME (p = .29). Sexual function score improved post-PRT (p = .03) but did not change post-TME. Global health status did not change post-treatments (p = .45). Future perspective improved post-surgery (p = .04). PRT did not affect micturition, bowel function, or QOL. Future perspective improved despite increased bowel problems and fecal incontinence. QOL was maintained after curative rectal cancer treatments, radiation and TME surgery. This information may help patients and physicians better understand effects of PRT and TME treatments for rectal cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbon-Ion Radiation Therapy for Pelvic Recurrence of Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Shigeru, E-mail: s_yamada@nirs.go.jp [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kamada, Tadashi [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Ebner, Daniel K. [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Brown University Alpert Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Shinoto, Makoto [Ion Beam Therapy Center, SAGA HIMAT Foundation, Saga (Japan); Terashima, Kotaro [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Isozaki, Yuka; Yasuda, Shigeo; Makishima, Hirokazu; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Tsujii, Hirohiko [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Isozaki, Tetsuro; Endo, Satoshi [Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Takahashi, Keiichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Disease Center, Komagome, Tokyo (Japan); Sekimoto, Mitsugu [National Hospital Organization Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Saito, Norio [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Matsubara, Hisahiro [Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: Investigation of the treatment potential of carbon-ion radiation therapy in pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A phase 1/2 dose escalation study was performed. One hundred eighty patients (186 lesions) with locally recurrent rectal cancer were treated with carbon-ion radiation therapy (CIRT) (phase 1/2: 37 and 143 patients, respectively). The relapse locations were 71 in the presacral region, 82 in the pelvic sidewalls, 28 in the perineum, and 5 near the colorectal anastomosis. A 16-fraction in 4 weeks dose regimen was used, with total dose ranging from 67.2 to 73.6 Gy(RBE); RBE-weighted absorbed dose: 4.2 to 4.6 Gy(RBE)/fraction. Results: During phase 1, the highest total dose, 73.6 Gy(RBE), resulted in no grade >3 acute reactions in the 13 patients treated at that dose. Dose escalation was halted at this level, and this dose was used for phase 2, with no other grade >3 acute reactions observed. At 5 years, the local control and survival rates at 73.6 Gy(RBE) were 88% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80%-93%) and 59% (95% CI, 50%-68%), respectively. Conclusion: Carbon-ion radiation therapy may be a safe and effective treatment option for locally recurrent rectal cancer and may serve as an alternative to surgery.

  2. [Occult lymph node metastasis in the middle and lower third rectal cancer after neoadjuvant radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-wei; Yao, Yun-feng; Li, Ming; Gu, Jin

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the occult lymph node metastasis in the middle and lower third rectal cancer after neoadjuvant radiotherapy. From June 2003 to December 2006, 74 rectal cancer patients received neoadjuvant radiotherapy (30 Gy/10 f/2 w, CACA-CRC-001) and underwent total mesorectal excision (TME) two weeks later. Fat clearance technique was used in all the samples. Occult lymph node metastasis was detected in the mesorectum using the anti-CK antibody. In total 1883 retrieved lymph nodes, 172 metastasis lymph nodes were harvested by HE examination with the mean diameter [(4.9+/-2.6) mm] being larger than that (2.7+/-1.4) mm of the 1711 negative nodes (Poccult metastasis was found in 40 lymph nodes (2.33%) from 24 patients. Most of these nodes were less than 5 mm (90.0%) with a mean diameter of (3.2+/-1.2)mm, smaller than those of HE-positive metastasis nodes (POccult metastasis was found in 23.1% (9/39) of HE-negative patients. Occult metastasis incidence was higher in patients with HE-positive nodes (42.8%,Poccult metastasis with tumor differentiation, age, or surgical procedures was found. There was no significant difference in recurrence-free survival between ypN(0) patients with and without occult metastasis (P=0.157). It is not necessary to include occult lymph node metastasis in the TNM staging in patients with ypN(0) rectal cancer.

  3. Prognostic aspects of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in synchronous distant metastatic rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jing; Xu, Qing; Song, Jia-Cheng; Li, Yan; Xu, Lu-Lu; Shi, Hai-Bin [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of Radiology, Nanjing (China); Huang, Dong-Ya [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of General Surgery, Nanjing (China)

    2017-05-15

    To explore the correlations between DCE-MRI quantitative parameters and synchronous distant metastasis and the clinicopathological factors in rectal cancers. Sixty-three patients with rectal cancer (synchronous distant metastasis, n = 31; non-metastasis, n = 32) were enrolled in this study. Student's t test and ANOVA were used to compare DCE-MRI parameters (K{sup trans}, K{sub ep} and V{sub e}). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to find the reasonable threshold of DCE-MRI parameters to differentiate lesions with synchronous distant metastasis from those without metastasis. The K{sup trans}, K{sub ep}, and V{sub e} value were significantly higher in the lesions with distant metastasis than in the lesions without distant metastasis (0.536 ± 0.242 vs. 0.299 ± 0.118 min{sup -1}, p < 0.001; 1.598 ± 0.477 vs. 1.341 ± 0.390 min{sup -1}, p = 0.022; and 0.324 ± 0.173 vs. 0.249 ± 0.091, p = 0.034; respectively). The K{sup trans} showed the highest AUCs of 0.788 (p < 0.001), with sensitivity of 61.29 % and specificity of 87.5 %, respectively. DCE-MRI parameters may represent a prognostic indicator for synchronous distant metastases in patients with rectal cancer. (orig.)

  4. Direct and indirect costs and long-term survival of laparoscopic anterior resection for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bo; Zhu, Qian-Lin; Xia, Yi; Lu, Ai-Guo; Wang, Ming-Liang; Li, Jian-Wen; Hu, Wei-Guo; Zang, Lu; Mao, Zhi-Hai; Dong, Feng; Ma, Jun-Jun; Zheng, Min-Hua

    2010-12-01

    Few studies evaluate the cost-effectiveness issues of laparoscopic anterior resection (LAR) for rectal cancer. This study evaluates direct and indirect costs of LAR and its long-term survival rate in rectal cancer patients. This prospective nonrandomized controlled trial included 2 endpoints (direct and indirect costs, and disease-free survival). From January 2003 to May 2005, rectal cancer patients admitted to our center were assigned to 2 groups: 87 patients underwent LAR (LAP), while 86 cases received open anterior resection (OPEN). The direct costs were prospectively evaluated. Main indirect cost is productivity loss. The data of direct costs, indirect costs, and the total costs were collected for the minimal cost analysis. Disease-free survival at 65 months in the LAP group and the OPEN group was 78.2% and 74.7%; there was no significant difference between the groups. Median direct costs were not significantly different between the LAP and the OPEN groups. Indirect costs of the LAP group were significantly lower than those of the OPEN group, while total costs were not significantly different. Cost percentage for operations, medications, and hospitalization were 75.90%, 11.28%, and 2.18% in the LAP group; while in the operation group, they were 54.50%, 29.09%, and 3.35%. Total economic budget for a patient receiving LAR was not significantly increased compared with the conservative method owing to its technical predominance, oncologic safety, as well as frequent bed turnover.

  5. Quality of Life and Functional Outcome After Transanal Abdominal Transanal Proctectomy for Low Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, John H; Salem, Jean F; Valsdottir, Elsa B; Yarandi, Shadi S; Marks, Gerald J

    2017-03-01

    Transanal abdominal transanal proctectomy is a sphincter-preserving procedure designed to avoid colostomy in patients with cancer in the distal third of the rectum. Oncologic outcomes of this procedure have been established. However, data regarding patient satisfaction and quality of life are scant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of life and functional outcomes of patients after transanal abdominal transanal proctectomy. This is a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral colorectal center. Patients who underwent transanal abdominal transanal proctectomy were included and surveyed using the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30, the Quality of Life Questionnaire CR38 module, and a questionnaire designed by the authors to assess satisfaction with quality of life. Quality of life, functional outcomes, and patient satisfaction were measured and compared by age, tumor level, and stage of the disease. A total of 133 surveys were mailed, and 90 patients responded and were included in the study. Patient quality of life was not significantly different after surgery. Patients with more proximal tumors had better lifestyle, physical, and emotional scores. Older patients performed better on multiple levels, including coping, emotional, body image, future perspective, and digestive. Stage of disease had no impact on quality of life. Compared with reference values, patients who underwent transanal abdominal transanal proctectomy performed better on most of the components. All of patients preferred transanal abdominal transanal proctectomy over having a stoma based on their current anal sphincter function, and >97% of patients preferred transanal abdominal transanal proctectomy based on their current quality of life, sexual function, and level of activities. This study is limited by the lack of a comparison group and a potential

  6. Ethnic differences in Colon and Rectal Cancer incidence in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer has for a long time occurred at lower rates in the native African than in Caucasians. The reasons adduced have included the lack of premalignant conditions like polyps and ulcerative colitis and majorly to the high fibre, low animal protein diet that Africans consume. Nigeria has a low colorectal cancer ...

  7. Nitrates in drinking water and the risk of death from rectal cancer: does hardness in drinking water matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Ching; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Deng-Chuang; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between nitrate levels in public water supplies and increased risk of death from rectal cancer and (2) determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water might modify the effects of nitrate on development of rectal cancer. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death from rectal cancer and exposure to nitrate in drinking water in Taiwan. All rectal cancer deaths of Taiwan residents from 2003 through 2007 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Information on the levels of nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N), Ca, and Mg in drinking water was collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subject's NO(3)-N, Ca, and Mg exposure via drinking water. Relative to individuals whose NO(3)-N exposure level was water with a NO(3)-N exposure > or =0.38 ppm. There was no apparent evidence of an interaction between drinking water NO(3)-N levels with low Mg intake via drinking water. However, evidence of a significant interaction was noted between drinking-water NO(3)-N concentrations and Ca intake via drinking water. Our findings showed that the correlation between NO(3)-N exposure and risk of rectal cancer development was influenced by Ca in drinking water. This is the first study to report effect modification by Ca intake from drinking water on the association between NO(3)-N exposure and risk of rectal cancer occurrence. Increased knowledge of the mechanistic interaction between Ca and NO(3)-N in reducing rectal cancer risk will aid in public policymaking and setting threshold standards.

  8. Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS): new treatment for early rectal cancer and large rectal polyps—experience of an Italian center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Riccardo; Muzi, Gallinella Marco; Massimo, Massimo Meucci; Masoni, Luigi

    2015-03-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is a minimally invasive technique for excision of rectal tumors that avoids conventional pelvic resectional surgery along with its risks and side effects. Although appealing, the associated cost and complex learning curve limit TEM use by colorectal surgeons. Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) has emerged as an alternative to TEM. This platform uses ordinary laparoscopic instruments to achieve high-quality local excision. The aim of the study is to assess reliability of the technique. From July 2012 to August 2013, 15 consecutive patients with rectal pathology underwent TAMIS. After a single-incision laparoscopic surgery port was introduced into the anal canal, a pneumorectum was established with a laparoscopic device followed by transanal excision with conventional laparoscopic instruments, including graspers, electrocautery, and needle drivers. Patient demographics, operative data, and pathologic data were recorded. Of the 15 patients, 10 had rectal cancers (six T1 lesions and four T2 after preoperative chemoradiotherapy). The remainder of patients had a local excision for voluminous benign rectal adenomas. The median length of the lesions from the anal verge was 7 cm (range, 4 to 20 cm). The median operating time was 86 minutes (range, 33 to 160 minutes). There was no surgical morbidity or mortality. The median postoperative hospital stay was two days (range, 1 to 4 days). TAMIS seems to be a feasible and safe treatment option for early rectal cancer. We believe that this new technique is easy to perform, cost-effective, and less traumatic to the anal sphincter compared with traditional TEM.

  9. [Application of robotic surgical system in sphincter-preserving surgery for low rectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pingping; Xu, Jianmin

    2017-06-25

    Robotic surgical system has been widely applied in sphincter-preserving surgery for low rectal cancer with the advantages of clear 3D images and stably flexile manipulation. Its application principle includes radical resection of tumor and complete preservation of function. The main operation procedures of robotic surgical system in sphincter-preserving surgery for low rectal cancer are as follows: (1) Anterior resection of low rectal cancer: It is safe and feasible and has obvious advantages in observation of pelvic nerves, dissociation of presacral and sacral side, and high rate of sphincter-preserving, while the improvement of postoperative recovery and long-term survival needs to be verified by further large sample researches. (2) Per anus intersphincteric resection (ISR): It is mainly applied in T1 and T2 stage tumors with 2 cm distance from tumor low margin to anal edge after dissociation of mesorectum. The greater difficulty of manipulation is found in ISR, while robotic surgical system can complete the intersphincteric resection by transabdominal approach, but anal function may be affected with the possibility of feces spillage at night, so robotic ISR is now still in exploration stage. (3) Transanal everted pull-through resection (Welch resection): Associated application of this operation is rarely reported at home and abroad. Our department has completed 51 robotic procedures of Welch resection till March 2017. Welch resection is successfully performed in all the patients. The short-term clinical outcomes are quite satisfactory and long-term survival is followed up. We think that this procedure is safe and feasible under the strict mastering of indications. Owing to special manipulation advantages of quickly precise dissociation, cutting and anastomosis in small pelvic space, when compared to laparoscopic surgery, robotic surgical system has higher sphincter-preserving rate for low rectal cancer, however, no other advantages are found. We believe that

  10. Greatest Challenges of Rectal Cancer Survivors: Results of a Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Carmit K.; Bulkley, Joanna E.; Altschuler, Andrea; Wendel, Christopher S.; Grant, Marcia; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Sun, Virginia; Krouse, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Eliciting cancer survivors’ priorities is essential to address the specific needs of cancer survivor subgroups. Objective To describe long-term rectal cancer survivors’ greatest challenges related to treatment. Design Observational study with cross-sectional survey. Setting Members of Kaiser Permanente, Northern California and Northwest health plans. Patients A survey was mailed to long-term (≥5 years post diagnosis) rectal cancer survivors who had an anastomosis, temporary ostomy, or permanent ostomy. Main Outcome Measures An open-ended question about the greatest challenge related to cancer surgery. We categorized responses using a grounded theory approach with double coding for reliability. Bonferroni-adjusted X2 values were used to assess differences in the proportions of subgroups who mentioned challenges within each response category. Results The survey completion rate was 61% (577/953); 76% (440/577) of participants responded to the greatest challenge question. Respondents’ greatest challenges were bowel/ostomy management (reported by 44%), negative psychosocial effects (37%), late effects of treatment (21%), comorbidities and aging (13%), postoperative recovery (5%), and negative health care experiences (5%). Survivors with temporary ostomy or anastomosis were more likely than survivors with permanent ostomy to report late effects (postomy to report negative psychosocial impacts (p=0.0001). Conclusions Our results reveal the need for bowel/ostomy management, psychosocial services and surveillance for late effects in survivorship and supportive care services for all rectal cancer survivors, regardless of ostomy status. The perspective of long-term survivors with anastomosis reveals challenges that may not be anticipated during treatment decision-making. Limitations Generalizability is restricted by the lack of ethnically and racially diverse, uninsured (non-Medicare-eligible population), and non-English-speaking participants. Because the

  11. Patient expectations of functional outcomes after rectal cancer surgery: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jason; Neuman, Heather B; Bennett, Antonia V; Polskin, Lily; Phang, P Terry; Wong, W Douglas; Temple, Larissa K

    2014-02-01

    Rectal cancer patients' expectations of health and function may affect their disease- and treatment-related experience, but how patients form expectations of postsurgery function has received little study. We used a qualitative approach to explore patient expectations of outcomes related to bowel function after sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer. This was a cohort study of patients who were about to undergo sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer. The study was conducted through individual telephone interviews with participants. Twenty-six patients (14 men and 12 women) with clinical TNM stage I to III disease were enrolled. The semistructured interview script contained open-ended questions on patient expectations of postoperative bowel function and its perceived impact on daily function and life. Two researchers analyzed the interview transcripts for emergent themes using a grounded theory approach. Participant expectations of bowel function reflected 3 major themes: 1) information sources, 2) personal attitudes, and 3) expected outcomes. The expected outcomes theme contained references to specific symptoms and participants' descriptions of the certainty, importance, and imminence of expected outcomes. Despite multiple information sources and attempts at maintaining a positive personal attitude, participants expressed much uncertainty about their long-term bowel function. They were more focused on what they considered more important and imminent concerns about being cancer free and getting through surgery. This study was limited by context in terms of the timing of interviews (relative to the treatment course). The transferability to other contexts requires further study. Patient expectations of long-term functional outcomes cannot be considered outside of the overall context of the cancer experience and the relative importance and imminence of cancer- and treatment-related events. Recognizing the complexities of the expectation formation

  12. Patients’ Expectations of Functional Outcomes Following Rectal Cancer Surgery: a Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jason; Neuman, Heather B.; Bennett, Antonia V.; Polskin, Lily; Phang, P. Terry; Wong, W. Douglas; Temple, Larissa K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rectal cancer patients’ expectations of health and function may affect their disease- and treatment-related experience, but how patients form expectations of post-surgery function has received little study. Objective We used a qualitative approach to explore patients’ expectations of outcomes related to bowel function following sphincter-preserving surgery (SPS) for rectal cancer. Design and Setting Individual telephone interviews with patients who were about to undergo SPS for rectal cancer. Patients 26 patients (14 men, 12 women) with clinical stage (cTNM) I to III disease. Main Outcome Measures The semi-structured interview script contained open-ended questions on patients’ expectations of post-operative bowel function and its perceived impact on daily function and life. Two researchers analyzed the interview transcripts for emergent themes using a grounded theory approach. Results Participants’ expectations of bowel function reflected three major themes: (1) information sources, (2) personal attitudes, and (3) expected outcomes. The expected outcomes theme contained references to specific symptoms and participants’ descriptions of the certainty, importance and imminence of expected outcomes. Despite multiple information sources and attempts at maintaining a positive personal attitude, participants expressed much uncertainty about their long term bowel function. They were more focused on what they considered more important and imminent concerns about being cancer-free and getting through surgery. Limitations This study is limited by context in terms of the timing of interviews (relative to the treatment course). The transferability to other contexts requires further study. Conclusions Patients’ expectations of long term functional outcomes cannot be considered outside of the overall context of the cancer-experience and the relative importance and imminence of cancer- and treatment-related events. Recognizing the complexities of the

  13. The location of surgical care for rural patients with rectal cancer: patterns of treatment and patient perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nostedt, Michelle C.; McKay, Andrew M.; Hochman, David J.; Wirtzfeld, Debrah A.; Yaffe, Clifford S.; Yip, Benson; Silverman, Richard; Park, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background Where cancer patients receive surgical care has implications on policy and planning and on patients’ satisfaction and outcomes. We conducted a population-based analysis of where rectal cancer patients undergo surgery and a qualitative analysis of rectal cancer patients’ perspectives on location of surgical care. Methods We reviewed Manitoba Cancer Registry data on patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed between 2004 and 2006. We interviewed rural patients with rectal cancer regarding their preferences and the factors they considered when deciding on treatment location. Interview data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results From 2004 to 2006, 2086 patients received diagnoses of CRC in Manitoba (colon: 1578, rectal: 508). Among rural patients (n = 907), those with rectal cancer were more likely to undergo surgery at an urban centre than those with colon cancer (46.5% v. 28.8%, p themes from the interview data: the decision-maker, treatment factors and personal factors. Participants described varying input into referral decisions, and often they did not perceive a choice regarding treatment location. Treatment factors, including surgeon factors and hospital factors, were important when considering treatment location. Personal factors, including travel, support, accommodation, finances and employment, also affected participants’ treatment experiences. Conclusion A substantial proportion of rural patients with rectal cancer undergo surgery at urban centres. The reasons are complex and only partly related to patient choice. Further studies are required to better understand cancer system access in geographically dispersed populations and to support cancer patients through the decision-making and treatment processes. PMID:25421082

  14. Living with the physical and mental consequences of an ostomy : A study among 1–10-year rectal cancer survivors from the population-based PROFILES registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, F.; Lemmens, V.E.P.P.; Bosscha, K.J.; Broek van den, W.; Thong, M.S.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined the physical and mental consequences of an ostomy among 1–10-year rectal cancer survivors. Methods Patients with rectal cancer diagnosed from 2000 to 2009, as registered in the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry, received a questionnaire on quality of life

  15. Role of protective stoma in low anterior resection for rectal cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Wen; Ma, Cong-Chao; Yang, Yu

    2014-12-21

    To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the role of a protective stoma in low anterior resection (LAR) for rectal cancer. The PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases were searched for studies and relevant literature published between 2007 and 2014 regarding the construction of a protective stoma during LAR. A pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was used to assess the outcomes of the studies, including the rate of postoperative anastomotic leakage and reoperations related to leakage. Funnel plots and Egger's tests were used to evaluate the publication biases of the studies. P values stoma and 2744 of whom did not. The sample size of the studies varied from 34 to 1912 patients. All studies reported the number of patients who developed an anastomotic leakage and required a reoperation related to leakage. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled RR with the corresponding 95%CI because obvious heterogeneity was observed among the 11 studies (I (2) = 77%). The results indicated that the creation of a protective stoma during LAR significantly reduces the rate of anastomotic leakage and the number of reoperations related to leakage, with pooled RRs of 0.38 (95%CI: 0.30-0.48, P stoma effectively decreased the incidences of anastomotic leakage and reoperation and is recommended in patients undergoing low rectal anterior resections for rectal cancer.

  16. Genetic variation in C-reactive protein in relation to colon and rectal cancer risk and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Martha L; Curtin, Karen; Poole, Elizabeth M; Duggan, David J; Samowitz, Wade S; Peters, Ulrike; Caan, Bette J; Potter, John D; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2011-06-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of inflammation, has been shown to be influenced by genetic variation in the CRP gene. In this study, we test the hypothesis that genetic variation in CRP influences both the risk of developing colon and rectal cancer and survival. Two population-based studies of colon cancer (n = 1,574 cases, 1,970 controls) and rectal (n = 791 cases, 999 controls) were conducted. We evaluated four CRP tagSNPs: rs1205 (G > A, 3' UTR); rs1417938 (T > A, intron); rs1800947 (G > C, L184L); and rs3093075 (C > A, 3' flanking). The CRP rs1205 AA genotype was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer (OR 1.3, 95%CI 1.1-1.7), whereas the rs3093075 A allele was associated with a reduced risk of rectal cancer (OR 0.7, 95%CI 0.5-0.9). The strongest association for the rs1205 polymorphism and colon cancer was observed among those with KRAS2 mutations (OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.1-2.0). The CRP rs1205 AA genotype also was associated with an increased risk of CIMP+ rectal tumors (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.2-5.3); conversely, the rs1417938 A allele was associated with a reduced risk of CIMP+ rectal tumors (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.9). We observed interactions between CRP rs1800947 and BMI and family history of CRC in modifying risk of both colon and rectal cancer. These data suggest that genetic variation in the CRP gene influences risk of both colon and rectal cancer development. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  17. Integrated transcriptomic analysis of distance-related field cancerization in rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Honglin; Zeng, Weigen; Feng, Lin; Yu, Xuexin; Li, Ping; Zhang, Kaitai; Zhou, Zhixiang; Cheng, Shujun

    2017-09-22

    Field cancerization (FC) occurs in various epithelial carcinomas, including colorectal cancer, which indicates that the molecular events in carcinogenesis might occur in normal tissues extending from tumors. However, the transcriptomic characteristics of FC in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain largely unexplored. To investigate the changes in gene expression associated with proximity to the tumor, we analyzed the global gene expression profiles of cancer tissues and histologically normal tissues taken at various distances from the tumor (1 cm, 5 cm and the proximal end of the resected sample) from 32 rectal cancer patients. Significantly differentially expressed genes related to the distance from the tumor were screened by linear mixed effects analysis using the lme4 package in R. The distance-related differentially expressed genes that were gradually up-regulated (n=302) or gradually down-regulated (n=568) from normal tissues to the tumor were used to construct protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Three subnetworks among the gradually up-regulated genes and four subnetworks among the gradually down-regulated genes were identified using the MCODE plugin in the Cytoscape software program. The most significantly enriched Gene Ontology (GO) biological process terms were "ribosome biogenesis", "mRNA splicing via spliceosome", and "positive regulation of leukocyte migration" for the gradually up-regulated subnetworks and "cellular calcium ion homeostasis", "cell separation after cytokinesis", "cell junction assembly", and "fatty acid metabolic process" for the gradually down-regulated subnetworks. Combined with the previously constructed multistep carcinogenesis model used for the analysis, 50.59% of the genes in the subnetworks (43/85) displayed identical changes in expression from normal colon tissues to adenoma and colon cancer. We focused on the 7 genes associated with fatty acid metabolic processes in the distance-related down-regulated subnetwork. Survival

  18. Feasibility of mesorectal vascular invasion in predicting early distant metastasis in patients with stage T3 rectal cancer based on rectal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Chul; Kim, Jai Keun; Lee, Jei Hee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myeong-Jin [Yonsei University Health system, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institute of Gastroenterology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Bae [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Jae [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of mesorectal vascular invasion (MVI) in predicting early distant metastasis developed within 1 year of diagnosis of T3 rectal cancer using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Sixty-five patients with T3 rectal cancer (early metastasis, n = 28; non-metastasis, n = 37) were enrolled in this study. Early distant metastases developed in 28 patients (liver, n = 15; lung, n = 9; both, n = 4). Logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors for early distant metastasis. In univariate analysis, tumour location, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), MRI-detected MVI, and mesorectal fat infiltration (MFI) (odds ratio [OR], 4.533, 9.583, 5.539, 27.046, and 5.539, respectively) were associated with early distant metastasis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that MVI (OR, 29.949; P < 0.002) and LVI (OR, 6.684; P = 0.033) were independent factors for early distant metastasis. Specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of MVI (94.59 %, and 89.47 %, respectively) were significantly higher than those of LVI (64.86 %, and 61.76 %), but sensitivity and negative predictive value were not significantly different between MVI (60.71 %, and 76.09 %) and LVI (75.00 %, and 77.42 %). While sensitivity of MRI-detected MVI was equal to that of CEA in predicting early distant metastasis from T3 rectal cancer, specificity and PPV may be improved by assessing MVI. (orig.)

  19. Pelvic intraoperative neuromonitoring during robotic-assisted low anterior resection for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grade, Marian; Beham, Alexander W; Schüler, P; Kneist, Werner; Ghadimi, B Michael

    2016-06-01

    While the oncological outcome of patients with rectal cancer has been considerably improved within the last decades, anorectal, urinary and sexual functions remained impaired at high levels, regardless of whether radical surgery was performed open or laparoscopically. Consequently, intraoperative monitoring of the autonomic pelvic nerves with simultaneous electromyography of the internal anal sphincter and manometry of the urinary bladder has been introduced to advance nerve-sparing surgery and to improve functional outcome. Initial results suggested that pelvic neuromonitoring may result in better functional outcomes. Very recently, it has also been demonstrated that minimally invasive neuromonitoring is technically feasible. Because, to the best of our knowledge, pelvic neuromonitoring has not been performed during robotic surgery, we report the first case of robotic-assisted low anterior rectal resection combined with intraoperative monitoring of the autonomic pelvic nerves.

  20. Trihalomethanes in drinking water and the risk of death from rectal cancer: does hardness in drinking water matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsin-Wei; Chen, Pei-Shih; Ho, Shu-Chen; Wang, Li-Yu; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to examine the relationship between total trihalomethanes (TTHM) levels in public water supplies and risk of rectal cancer development and (2) to determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water might modify the effects of TTHM on risk of developing rectal cancer. A matched cancer case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death attributed to rectal cancer and exposure to TTHM in drinking water in 53 municipalities in Taiwan. All rectal cancer deaths in the 53 municipalities from 1998 through 2007 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each cancer case. Data on TTHM levels in drinking water were collected from the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. Information on the levels of Ca and Mg in drinking water was obtained from the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation. The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subject's TTHM, Ca, and Mg exposure via drinking water. Relative to individuals whose TTHM exposure level was water with a TTHM exposure >or=4.9 ppb. There was no evidence of an interaction of drinking-water TTHM levels with low Ca intake via drinking water. However, evidence of an interaction was noted between drinking-water TTHM concentrations and Mg intake via drinking water. Our findings showed that the correlation between TTHM exposure and risk of rectal cancer is influenced by Mg in drinking water. Increased knowledge of the interaction between Mg and TTHM in reducing rectal cancer risk will aid in public policymaking and standard setting.

  1. The interval approach: an adaptation of the liver-first approach to treat synchronous liver metastases from rectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    D'Hondt, Mathieu; Lucidi, Valerio; Vermeiren, Koen; Van Den Bossche, Bert; Donckier, Vincent; Sergeant, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Background The waiting interval after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is an interesting therapeutic window to treat patients with synchronous liver metastases (SLM) from rectal cancer. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed of 18 consecutive patients (M/F 10/8, age (range) 60 (51?75) years) from five institutions who underwent liver resection of SLM during the waiting interval after CRT for rectal adenocarcinoma. Results All patients underwent interval liver surgery for a median (range) of 4 ...

  2. Differential effects of patient-related factors on the outcome of radiation therapy for rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ikuko; Dyson, Gregory; Snyder, Michael; Kim, Hyeong-Reh; Severson, Richard K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate whether cancer specific survival in rectal cancer patients is affected by patient-related factors, conditional on radiation treatment. Methods 359 invasive rectal cancer patients who consented and provided questionnaire data for a population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer in Metropolitan Detroit were included in this study. Their vital status was ascertained through to the population-based cancer registry. Hazard ratios (HR) for cancer specific and other deaths and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated according to selected patients' characteristics, stratified by radiation status, using joint Cox proportional hazards models. Results A total of 159 patients were found to be deceased after the median follow-up of 9.2 years, and 70% of them were considered to be cancer specific. Smoking and a history of diabetes were associated with an increased probability of deaths from other causes (HR 3.20, 95% CI 1.72–5.97 and HR 2.02, 95% CI 0.98–4.16, respectively), while regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was inversely correlated with cancer-specific mortality (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30–0.81). Furthermore, the associations of smoking and NSAIDs with the two different types of deaths (cancer vs others) significantly varied with radiation status (P-values for the interactions= 0.014 for both). In addition, we observed a marginally significantly reduced risk of cancer specific deaths in the patients who had the relative ketogenic diet overall (HR=0.49, 95% 0.23–1.02). Conclusion Further research is warranted to confirm these results in order to develop new interventions to improve outcome from radiation treatment. PMID:27746859

  3. The usefulness of fleet rectal enemas on high-dose-rate intracavitary cervical cancer brachytherapy. A prospective trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Andres

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effects of rectal enemas on rectal doses during radical high-dose-rate (HDR intracavitary cervical brachytherapy (BT. Material and methods : Twenty patients suffering from cervical cancer and treated with external beam radiotherapy and HDR-BT were included in a prospective trial. The first brachytherapy fraction was considered the basal status, and patients were instructed to self-administer two rectal cleansing enemas before the second fraction. Dose-volume histogram (DVH values were generated for the rectum and correlated with rectal volume variation. Brachytherapy was carried out with a Fletcher or Utrecht applicator. Results : No significant rectal volume differences were observed between fractions with or without rectal enemas (without, 52.64 ± 15.92 cc; with, 53.16 ± 19.28 cc. There was a significant correlation between both rectal volumes (r = 0.722, p = 0.001. No significant differences were observed in analyzed DVH parameters (median values: ΔD 0.1cc , 4.17 vs. 3.61 Gy; ΔD 1cc , 3.23 vs. 2.87 Gy; Δ D2cc , 2.9 vs. 2.54 Gy; ΔD 5cc , 2.35 vs. 2.05 Gy, for no enema and enema fraction, respectively. No significant rectal volume differences nor DVH parameter differences were observed according the applicator type. Conclusions : Our rectal enemas protocol prior to HDR-BT was ineffective in significantly modifying rectal DVH parameters. No differences were observed according to the type of applicator used.

  4. Diffusion weighted imaging in patients with rectal cancer: Comparison between Gaussian and non-Gaussian models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikis, Georgios C; Marias, Kostas; Lambregts, Doenja M J; Nikiforaki, Katerina; van Heeswijk, Miriam M; Bakers, Frans C H; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of four diffusion models, including mono and bi-exponential both Gaussian and non-Gaussian models, in diffusion weighted imaging of rectal cancer. Nineteen patients with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent MRI examination of the rectum before chemoradiation therapy including a 7 b-value diffusion sequence (0, 25, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 s/mm2) at a 1.5T scanner. Four different diffusion models including mono- and bi-exponential Gaussian (MG and BG) and non-Gaussian (MNG and BNG) were applied on whole tumor volumes of interest. Two different statistical criteria were recruited to assess their fitting performance, including the adjusted-R2 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). To decide which model better characterizes rectal cancer, model selection was relied on Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) and F-ratio. All candidate models achieved a good fitting performance with the two most complex models, the BG and the BNG, exhibiting the best fitting performance. However, both criteria for model selection indicated that the MG model performed better than any other model. In particular, using AIC Weights and F-ratio, the pixel-based analysis demonstrated that tumor areas better described by the simplest MG model in an average area of 53% and 33%, respectively. Non-Gaussian behavior was illustrated in an average area of 37% according to the F-ratio, and 7% using AIC Weights. However, the distributions of the pixels best fitted by each of the four models suggest that MG failed to perform better than any other model in all patients, and the overall tumor area. No single diffusion model evaluated herein could accurately describe rectal tumours. These findings probably can be explained on the basis of increased tumour heterogeneity, where areas with high vascularity could be fitted better with bi-exponential models, and areas with necrosis would mostly follow mono-exponential behavior.

  5. Role of biopsies in patients with residual rectal cancer following neoadjuvant chemoradiation after downsizing: can they rule out persisting cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, R O; Habr-Gama, A; Pereira, G V; Lynn, P B; Alves, P A; Proscurshim, I; Rawet, V; Gama-Rodrigues, J

    2012-06-01

    The study aimed to determine the value of postchemoradiation biopsies, performed after significant tumour downsizing following neoadjuvant therapy, in predicting complete tumour regression in patients with distal rectal cancer. A retrospective comparative study was performed in patients with rectal cancer who achieved an incomplete clinical response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Patients with significant tumour downsizing (> 30% of the initial tumour size) were compared with controls (downsizing and underwent postchemoradiation biopsies. Overall, 53 biopsies were carried out. Of the 39 patients who achieved significant tumour downsizing, the biopsy result was positive in 25 and negative in 14. Only three of the patients with a negative biopsy result were found to have had a complete pathological response (giving a negative predictive value of 21%). Considering all biopsies performed, only three of 28 negative biopsies were true negatives, giving a negative predictive value of 11%. In patients with distal rectal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation, post-treatment biopsies are of limited clinical value in ruling out persisting cancer. A negative biopsy result after a near-complete clinical response should not be considered sufficient for avoiding a radical resection. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Comparative trace elemental analysis of cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectal cancer patients using PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Raju, G. J.; Sarita, P.; Murthy, K. S. R.

    2017-08-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), an accelerator based analytical technique has been employed in this work for the analysis of trace elements in the cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectal cancer patients. A beam of 3 MeV protons generated from 3 MV Pelletron accelerator at the Ion Beam Laboratory of Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India was used as projectile to excite the atoms present in the tissues samples. PIXE technique, with its capability to detect simultaneously several elements present at very low concentrations, offers an excellent tool for trace element analysis. The characteristic X-rays emitted by the samples were recorded by a high resolution Si (Li) detector. On the basis of the PIXE spectrum obtained for each sample, the elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Br were identified and their relative concentrations were estimated in the cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectum. The levels of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and As were higher (p cancer tissues relative to the normal tissues. The alterations in the levels of the trace elements observed in the present work are discussed in this paper with respect to their potential role in the initiation, promotion and inhibition of cancer of the rectum.

  7. The result of implementation of multidisciplinary teams in rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille-Jørgensen, Peer; Sparre, Peter; Glenthøj, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Aim:  In 2003 colorectal multidisciplinary teams (MDT) were established in all major Danish hospitals treating colorectal cancer. The aim was to improve the prognosis by a multidisciplinary evaluation and decision about surgical and oncological treatment, based on medical history, clinical...

  8. Digital rectal examination for prostate cancer: Attitude and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety percent agreed that DRE is useful for screening for prostate cancer. The major reason for not performing DRE more than half the time was the student not feeling competent (54%). Conclusion: Students have received adequate teaching on DRE, have the right attitude and perspective, have adequate knowledge on ...

  9. ‘I–We’ boundary fluctuations in couple adjustment to rectal cancer and life with a permanent colostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Molly; Fergus, Karen; Miller, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates couples’ adjustment to rectal cancer and a colostomy using the ‘Classification System of Couple Adjustment to Cancer’, a framework delineating fluctuations in couples’ sense of ‘I’ and ‘We’ in response to cancer. Nine couples affected by rectal cancer and adjusting to life with a colostomy were interviewed. A theoretical thematic analysis of the transcripts was conducted; nearly all ‘I–We’ shifts of the Classification System of Couple Adjustment to Cancer were observed – often in unique ways in response to rectal cancer–specific challenges – and one new shift was described. The results provide a novel and experientially grounded means of conceptualizing complex dyadic coping processes. PMID:28070388

  10. Meat consumption and K-ras mutations in sporadic colon and rectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, M.; Weijenberg, M.P.; de Goeij, A.F.; Roemen, G M J M; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; de Bruine, A.P.; Goldbohm, R. A.; van den Brandt, P. A.

    2005-01-01

    Case-cohort analyses were performed on meat and fish consumption in relation to K-ras mutations in 448 colon and 160 rectal cancers that occurred during 7.3 years of follow-up, excluding the first 2.3 years, and 2948 subcohort members of The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. Adjusted incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed for colon and rectal cancer and for K-ras mutation status subgroups. Total fresh meat, most types of fresh meat and fish were not associ...

  11. Predictors of pathologic complete response after preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy of rectal cancer: A single center experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun Cheol [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Ok Bae; Kim, Mi Young; Oh, Young Ki; Baek, Sung Gyu [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To identify possible predictors of pathologic complete response (pCR) of rectal cancer after preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). We conducted a retrospective review of 53 patients with rectal cancer who underwent preoperative CCRT followed by radical surgery at a single center between January 2007 and December 2012. The median radiotherapy dose to the pelvis was 54.0 Gy (range, 45.0 to 63.0 Gy). Five-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy was administered via continuous infusion with leucovorin. The pCR rate was 20.8%. The downstaging rate was 66%. In univariate analyses, poor and undifferentiated tumors (p = 0.020) and an interval of ≥7 weeks from finishing CCRT to surgery (p = 0.040) were significantly associated with pCR, while female gender (p = 0.070), initial carcinoembryonic antigen concentration of <5.0 ng/dL (p = 0.100), and clinical stage T2 (p = 0.100) were marginally significant factors. In multivariate analysis, an interval of ≥7 weeks from finishing CCRT to surgery (odds ratio, 0.139; 95% confidence interval, 0.022 to 0.877; p = 0.036) was significantly associated with pCR, while stage T2 (odds ratio, 5.363; 95% confidence interval, 0.963 to 29.877; p = 0.055) was a marginally significant risk factor. We suggest that the interval from finishing CCRT to surgery is a predictor of pCR after preoperative CCRT in patients with rectal cancer. Stage T2 cancer may also be an important predictive factor. We hope to perform a robust study by collecting data during treatment to obtain more advanced results.

  12. Effect of leukocyte alteration on treatment outcomes following preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Park, Won; Choi, Doo Ho [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-09-15

    Hematotoxicity following anti-cancer treatment is known to be related to treatment efficacy in several malignancies. The purpose of this study was to examine the hematologic parameters related to the tumor response and survival in patients treated with curative surgery following preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. Four hundred eighteen patients with rectal cancer who underwent preoperative CRT and curative surgery were analyzed, retrospectively. The main clinical factors and blood cell counts before and after CRT were investigated with respect to their relationships with tumor downstaging and patient survival. The post-CRT leukocyte count was significantly different between the tumor downstaging group and the nondownstaging group (median, 4740/uL vs. 5130/uL; p = 0.013). Multivariate analysis showed that histological grade, circumferential extent, and post-CRT leukocyte count were related to tumor downstaging. In addition, histological grade, post-CRT leukocyte count, and tumor downstaging were related to disease-free survival. The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with post-CRT leukocyte count ≤3730/uL, which is the cut-off value derived from the receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, were significantly higher than those with higher counts (88.0% vs. 71.6%, p = 0.001; 94.4% vs. 84.1%, p = 0.024). Post-CRT leukocyte count of ≤3730/uL could be regarded as a good prognostic factor for tumor response and survival in rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative CRT.

  13. SPARCL1 Expression Increases With Preoperative Radiation Therapy and Predicts Better Survival in Rectal Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotti, Angeliki, E-mail: angkotti@yahoo.gr; Holmqvist, Annica; Albertsson, Maria; Sun, Xiao-Feng, E-mail: xiao-feng.sun@liu.se

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: The secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine-like 1 (SPARCL1) is expressed in various normal tissues and many types of cancers. The function of SPARCL1 and its relationship to a patient's prognosis have been studied, whereas its relationship to radiation therapy (RT) is not known. Our aim was to investigate the expression of SPARCL1 in rectal cancer patients who participated in a clinical trial of preoperative RT. Methods and Materials: The study included 136 rectal cancer patients who were randomized to undergo preoperative RT and surgery (n=63) or surgery alone (n=73). The expression levels of SPARCL1 in normal mucosa (n=29), primary tumor (n=136), and lymph node metastasis (n=35) were determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: Tumors with RT had stronger SPARCL1 expression than tumors without RT (P=.003). In the RT group, strong SPARCL1 expression was related to better survival than weak expression in patients with stage III tumors, independent of sex, age, differentiation, and margin status (P=.022; RR = 18.128; 95% confidence interval, 1.512-217.413). No such relationship was found in the non-RT group (P=.224). Further analysis of interactions among SPARCL1 expression, RT, and survival showed statistical significance (P=.024). In patients with metastases who received RT, strong SPARCL1 expression was related to better survival compared to weak expression (P=.041) but not in the non-RT group (P=.569). Conclusions: SPARCL1 expression increases with RT and is related to better prognosis in rectal cancer patients with RT but not in patients without RT. This result may help us to select the patients best suited for preoperative RT.

  14. Prognostic implications of the number of retrieved lymph nodes of patients with rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In Ja; Yu, Chang Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Yoon, Yong Sik; Kim, Chan Wook; Kim, Tae Won; Kim, Jong Hoon; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2014-10-01

    The impact of the number of retrieved lymph nodes (LNs) on oncological outcomes in patients with rectal cancer remains unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic implications of the number of retrieved LNs in patients with rectal cancer receiving preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The study cohort consisted of 859 patients with locally advanced (cT3-4 or cN+) mid to low rectal cancer that had been treated with preoperative CRT and radical resection between 2000 and 2009. Multivariate analysis and the Kaplan-Meier method were used to evaluate the influence of the number of retrieved LNs on disease-free survival (DFS). The median number of LNs retrieved from included patients was 13 (interquartile range [IQR] 9-17). Multivariate analysis confirmed the independent prognostic importance of the number of retrieved LNs on DFS (hazard ratio = 0.97, 95% confidence interval = 0.95-0.99, p = 0.029). The 3-year DFS rate in patients with yp stage II rectal cancer was associated with the total number of retrieved LNs. DFS was associated with the number of LNs retrieved from patients with rectal cancer who received preoperative CRT, especially among patients with ypT3-4 N0 stage tumors. The oncological importance of the number of retrieved LNs should be considered when treating these patients.

  15. Anastomotic leakage after sphincter-sparing surgery in a young woman diagnosed with low rectal cancer - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Aslan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rectal cancer is the third most common site for cancer in the world, with a high morbidity and mortality. The new techniques for the treatment of low rectal cancer have been improved recently, allowing sphincter-sparing surgery to be available for more patients, with an optimal oncological and functional outcome. The most fundamental advance in rectal cancer surgery was the concept of total mesorectal resection (TME introduced by Heald in 1982. Association with neoadjuvant radio-chemotherapy determines regression of the disease by “down staging” the tumors and allows for sphincter-sparing surgery to be performed, with low recurrence rate and increased overall survival. We present the case of 48-year old woman who had low rectal resection with colorectal anastomosis for middle rectal cancer. The patient had a BMI of 29, was hypertensive, had uterine fibroids and underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy. During the 4th postoperative day the patient developed an anastomotic leakage grade B which was spontaneously closed on the 15th postoperative day. The patient did not manifest fever or any other symptoms. Normal bowel function resumed on the 5th postoperative day. No recurrence was detected at the one-year follow-up.

  16. Recurrent rectal cancer causing lumbosacral plexopathy with perineural spread to the spinal nerves and the sciatic nerve: an anatomic explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, Stepan; Sullivan, Patrick S; Howe, Benjamin M; Smyrk, Thomas C; Amrami, Kimberly K; Spinner, Robert J; Dozois, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Several groups have reported cases of rectal cancer with carcinomatous involvement of the lumbosacral plexus and sciatic, obturator, pudendal, or spinal nerves. To our best knowledge, clear examples of perineural tumor spread in rectal carcinoma have not yet been described. We retrospectively reviewed clinical data and imaging studies of three patients with primary or recurrent rectal cancer involving the lumbosacral plexus. Imaging studies included MRI and (18)FDG PET/CT scans in all (n = 3) patients, histological samples were available in two (n = 2). Imaging studies demonstrated distinct features of tumor spread from the organ to the plexus and beyond in all cases (n = 3), histological specimens demonstrated perineural involvement thus supporting our theory (n = 2). We present these three cases of perineural tumor spread in rectal cancer as a proof of concept. We hypothesize that not only our cases, but other similar reported cases can be explained anatomically by extension of the rectal cancer to the inferior hypogastric plexus with perineural tumor spread to the lumbosacral plexus using the pelvic and sacral splanchnic nerves as conduits. Once the tumor reaches the lumbosacral plexus, it can continue to spread proximally or distally. We believe that perineural spread of colon cancer represents an important, under-recognized mechanism of recurrence to neighboring major nerves in the pelvis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Clinical Outcome of Laparoscopic Intersphincteric Resection Combined with Transanal Rectal Dissection for T3 Low Rectal Cancer in Patients with a Narrow Pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiko Funahashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to analyze the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic intersphincteric resection (ISR combined with transanal rectal dissection (TARD for T3 low rectal cancer in a narrow pelvis. Methods. We studied 20 patients with a narrow pelvis of median body mass index 25.3 (16.9–31.2. Median observation period was 23.6 months (range 12.2–56.7. Results. Partial, subtotal, and total ISR was performed in 15, 1, and 4 patients, respectively. Median duration of TARD was 83 min (range 43–135. There were no major complications perioperatively or postoperatively. Surgical margins were histologically free of tumor cells in all patients, and there was no local recurrence. Excluding urgency, frequency of bowel movements, and incontinence status improved gradually after stoma closure. Conclusion. Laparoscopic ISR combined with TARD is technically feasible for selective T3 low rectal cancer in patients with a narrow pelvis.

  18. The role of faecal diversion in low rectal cancer: a review of 1791 patients having rectal resection with anastomosis for cancer, with and without a proximal stoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurkin, S; Kakarla, V R; Ruiz, D E; Cance, W G; Tiszenkel, H I

    2013-06-01

    The morbidity of anastomotic dehiscence may be mitigated by a defunctioning stoma, but it is unclear if it is required for most low rectal anastomoses. Preoperative risk factors leading to anastomotic complications and the indications for faecal diversion have yet to be clearly defined. Using the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (ACS-NSQIP) participant-use file, patients were identified who underwent low anterior resection with anastomosis for cancer at the 211 participating hospitals in 2005-08. A total of 1791 patients underwent low anterior resection. Patients were subdivided into two groups based on the level of the anastomosis. Of these 1266 patients had a low pelvic anastomosis (LPA) and 525 a coloanal anastomosis (CAA). In the LPA group, 606 patients had a stoma and 660 had no stoma. There were no differences in wound complications, sepsis or septic shock. Patients who had a stoma were more likely to have postoperative acute renal failure (1.7 vs 0.5%, P = 0.0485, OR 3.674). In the CAA group, 352 had a stoma and 173 had no stoma. In patients without faecal diversion, there was a significantly greater incidence of sepsis (8.7 vs 3.7%, P = 0.022, OR 2.47), septic shock (3.5 vs 0.57%, P = 0.018, OR 6.29) and need for reoperation (11 vs 1.7%, P = 0.0001, OR 7.11). Hospital length of stay was significantly longer with CAA and no stoma. On multivariate analysis, not having a stoma with a CAA was a risk factor for serious postoperative morbidity. While a defunctioning stoma with a coloanal anastomosis seems to protect from postoperative sepsis, septic shock and need for reoperation, it is likely that it is overused in rectal cancer surgery. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergomas, Francesca [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Grizzi, Fabio [Laboratory of Molecular Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Doni, Andrea; Pesce, Samantha [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Laghi, Luigi [Laboratory of Molecular Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Department of Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Allavena, Paola [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Mantovani, Alberto [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Department of Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan 20089 (Italy); Marchesi, Federica, E-mail: federica.marchesi@humanitasresearch.it [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy)

    2011-12-28

    Ectopic (or tertiary) lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21{sup +} follicular dendritic cells (FDC). We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS). B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV). Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response.

  20. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Marchesi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic (or tertiary lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21+ follicular dendritic cells (FDC. We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS. B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV. Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response.

  1. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergomas, Francesca; Grizzi, Fabio; Doni, Andrea; Pesce, Samantha; Laghi, Luigi; Allavena, Paola; Mantovani, Alberto; Marchesi, Federica

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic (or tertiary) lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21+ follicular dendritic cells (FDC). We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS). B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV). Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response. PMID:24213222

  2. The anatomy of the perineal body in relation to abdominoperineal excision for low rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraima, A C; West, N P; Treanor, D; Magee, D; Roberts, N; van de Velde, C J H; DeRuiter, M C; Quirke, P; Rutten, H J T

    2016-07-01

    Dissection of the perineal body (PB) during abdominoperineal excision (APE) for low rectal cancer is often difficult due to the lack of a natural plane of dissection. Understanding the PB and its relation to the anorectum is essential to permit safe dissection during the perineal phase of the operation and avoid damage to the anorectum and urogenital organs. This study describes the anatomy and histology of the PB relevant to APE. Six human adult cadaver pelvic exenteration specimens (three male, three female) from the Leeds GIFT Research Tissue Programme were studied. Paraffin-embedded mega-blocks were produced and serially sectioned at 50- and 250-μm intervals. Sections were stained by immunohistochemistry to show collagen, elastin and smooth muscle. The PB was cylindrically shaped in the male specimens and wedge-shaped in the female ones. Although centrally located between the anal and urogenital triangles, it was nearly completely formed by muscle fibres derived from the rectal muscularis propria. Thick bundles of smooth muscle, mostly arising from the longitudinal muscle, inserted into the PB and levator ani muscle (LAM). The recto-urethralis muscle originated from the PB and separated the anterolateral PB from the urogenital organs. Smooth muscle fibres derived from the rectal muscularis propria extend into the PB and LAM and appear to fix the anorectum. Dissection of the PB during APE is safe only when the smooth muscle fibres that extend into the PB are divided. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    were given for carcinogenic drugs and medical radiation in the 4th edition of European Code against Cancer. It is crucial that the application of these measures relies on medical expertise and thorough benefit-risk evaluation. This also pertains to cancer-preventive drugs, and self-medication...

  4. Meat consumption and K-ras mutations in sporadic colon and rectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Case-cohort analyses were performed on meat and fish consumption in relation to K-ras mutations in 448 colon and 160 rectal cancers that occurred during 7.3 years of follow-up, excluding the first 2.3 years, and 2948 subcohort members of The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. Adjusted

  5. Weight change later in life and colon and rectal cancer risk in participants in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steins Bisschop, Charlotte N; van Gils, Carla H; Emaus, Marleen J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A moderate association exists between body mass index (BMI) and colorectal cancer. Less is known about the effect of weight change. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relation between BMI and weight change and subsequent colon and rectal cancer risk. DESIGN: This was studied among 328,781...

  6. Marked improvements in survival of patients with rectal cancer in the Netherlands following changes in therapy, 1989-2006.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, M.A.; Steenbergen, L.N. van; Krijnen, P.; Lemmens, V.E.; Rutten, H.J.; Marijnen, C.A.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Karim-Kos, H.E.; Vries, E. de; Siesling, S.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1990s, treatment of patients with rectal cancer has changed in the Netherlands. Aim of this study was to describe these changes in treatment over time and to evaluate their effects on survival. METHODS: All patients in the Netherlands Cancer Registry with invasive primary

  7. Marked improvements in survival of patients with stage II-IV rectal cancer in the Netherlands 1989-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, M.A.G.; van Steenbergen, L.N.; Krijnen, P.; Lemmens, V.E.P.P.; Rutten, H.J.; Marijnen, C.A.M.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Karim-Kos, H.E.; de Vries, E.; Siesling, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Background: Since the 1990s, treatment of patients with rectal cancer has changed in the Netherlands. Aim of this study was to describe these changes in treatment over time and to evaluate their effects on survival. Methods: All patients in the Netherlands Cancer Registry with invasive primary

  8. High risk of anal and rectal cancer in patients with anal and/or perianal Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugerie, Laurent; Carrat, Fabrice; Nahon, Stéphane; Zeitoun, Jean-David; Sabate, Jean-Marc; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Allez, Matthieu; Fléjou, Jean-François; Kirchgesner, Julien; Svrcek, Magali

    2017-11-30

    Little is known about the magnitude of the risk of anal and rectal cancer in patients with anal and/or perineal Crohn's disease. We aimed to assess the risk of anal and rectal cancer in patients with Crohn's perianal disease followed in the Cancers Et Surrisque Associé aux Maladies inflammatoires intestinales En France (CESAME) cohort. We collected data from 19,486 patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) enrolled in the observational CESAME study in France, from May 2004 through June 2005; 14.9% of participants had past or current anal and/or perianal Crohn's disease. Subjects were followed for a median time of 35 months (interquartile range, 29-40 months). To identify risk factors for anal cancer in the total CESAME population, we performed a case-control study in which participants were matched for age and sex. Among the total IBD population, 8 patients developed anal cancer and 14 patients developed rectal cancer. In the subgroup of 2911 patients with past or current anal and/or perianal Crohn's lesions at cohort entry, 2 developed anal squamous-cell carcinoma, 3 developed perianal fistula-related adenocarcinoma, and 6 developed rectal cancer. The corresponding incidence rates were 0.26/1000 patient-years for anal squamous-cell carcinoma, 0.38/1000 patient-years for perianal fistula-related adenocarcinoma, and 0.77/1000 patient-years for rectal cancer. Among the 16,575 patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease without anal or perianal lesions, the incidence rate of anal cancer were 0.08/1000 patient-years and of rectal cancer was 0.21/1000 patient-years. Among factors tested by univariate conditional regression (IBD subtype, disease duration, exposure to immune-suppressive therapy, presence of past or current anal and/or perianal lesions), the presence of past or current anal and/or perianal lesions at cohort entry was the only factor significantly associated with development of anal cancer (odds ratio, 11.2; 95%CI, 1.18-551.51) (P = .03). In

  9. Strategies to evaluate the impact of rectal volume on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Diniz Fortuna Poli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the rectal volume influence on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one patients with prostate cancer underwent a series of three computed tomography scans including an initial planning scan and two subsequent scans during 3D-CRT. The organs of interest were outlined. The prostate contour was compared with the initial CT images considering the anterior, posterior, superior, inferior and lateral edges of the organ. Variations in the anterior limits and volume of the rectum were assessed and correlated with prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction. Results: The maximum range of prostate motion was observed in the superoinferior direction, followed by the anteroposterior direction. A significant correlation was observed between prostate motion and rectal volume variation ( p = 0.037. A baseline rectal volume superior to 70 cm3 had a significant influence on the prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction ( p = 0.045. Conclusion: The present study showed a significant interfraction motion of the prostate during 3D-CRT with greatest variations in the superoinferior and anteroposterior directions, and that a large rectal volume influences the prostate motion with a cutoff value of 70 cm3. Therefore, the treatment of patients with a rectal volume > 70 cm3 should be re-planned with appropriate rectal preparation.

  10. Rectal cancer staging: Multidetector-row computed tomography diagnostic accuracy in assessment of mesorectal fascia invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Davide; Drago, Silvia Girolama; Franzesi, Cammillo Talei; Fior, Davide; Sironi, Sandro

    2016-05-28

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as compared with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in identifying mesorectal fascia (MRF) invasion in rectal cancer patients. Ninety-one patients with biopsy proven rectal adenocarcinoma referred for thoracic and abdominal CT staging were enrolled in this study. The contrast-enhanced MDCT scans were performed on a 256 row scanner (ICT, Philips) with the following acquisition parameters: tube voltage 120 KV, tube current 150-300 mAs. Imaging data were reviewed as axial and as multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) images along the rectal tumor axis. MRI study, performed on 1.5 T with dedicated phased array multicoil, included multiplanar T2 and axial T1 sequences and diffusion weighted images (DWI). Axial and MPR CT images independently were compared to MRI and MRF involvement was determined. Diagnostic accuracy of both modalities was compared and statistically analyzed. According to MRI, the MRF was involved in 51 patients and not involved in 40 patients. DWI allowed to recognize the tumor as a focal mass with high signal intensity on high b-value images, compared with the signal of the normal adjacent rectal wall or with the lower tissue signal intensity background. The number of patients correctly staged by the native axial CT images was 71 out of 91 (41 with involved MRF; 30 with not involved MRF), while by using the MPR 80 patients were correctly staged (45 with involved MRF; 35 with not involved MRF). Local tumor staging suggested by MDCT agreed with those of MRI, obtaining for CT axial images sensitivity and specificity of 80.4% and 75%, positive predictive value (PPV) 80.4%, negative predictive value (NPV) 75% and accuracy 78%; while performing MPR the sensitivity and specificity increased to 88% and 87.5%, PPV was 90%, NPV 85.36% and accuracy 88%. MPR images showed higher diagnostic accuracy, in terms of MRF involvement, than native axial images, as compared to the

  11. SU-F-J-122: Rectal Sparing Reproducibility in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Hydrogel Spacer and Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedrick, S; Robison, B; Blakey, M; Artz, M; Renegar, J; Schreuder, A; Fagundes, M [Provision Center for Proton Therapy, Knoxville, TN (United States); Case, S [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Rectal hydrogel spacer has been shown to improve rectal sparing in prostate radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility of rectal sparing throughout treatment in patients undergoing proton therapy. Methods: At our facility, prostate cancer patients are treated with pencil beam scanning proton therapy, utilizing an endorectal balloon (ERB) or rectal spacer hydrogel (Gel) “SpaceOAR” implant. All patients were treated with a full bladder and empty rectum (low residue diet and stool softeners). A quality assurance CT (QACT) was performed periodically throughout treatment to ensure rectal filling consistency and sparing in 41 patients treated with Gel. The treatment planning (TP) dose was calculated on each QACT and the rectum V90%, V75%, V65%, V50%, and V40% were recorded. QACT scans were acquired on day 0, week 1, week 3, and week 5. Results: 144 QACT scans were analyzed, each patient receiving 3–4 QACTs. Rectum V90% was within +/−1% of the TP dose in 70% of the QACTs and within +/−5% in 95% of scans. From previous data analyses, our ERB rectum V90% average is 6%. This value was used as an upper threshold for the Gel QACT analysis. 5 of the 41 patients (12%), corresponding to 7 QACTs, had a rectum V90% that exceeded 6% on one or more QACTs. However, the average rectal V90% measured over multiple QACTs never exceeded 6%. 55% of the QACTs had a rectum volume within 5cc of the TPCT volume, 68% were within 10cc. Conclusion: In this study, we have shown that a majority of our prostate patients can maintain consistent rectal sparing when treated with a hydrogel spacer. QACT rectal V90% exceeding our threshold was most often related to increased rectal filling and gas, which was addressed with improved dietary compliance and the intensification of stool softeners or laxatives.

  12. Radiotherapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer treated with surgery alone as the initial treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hidekazu; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Hachiya, Kae; Okada, Sunaho; Kitahara, Masashi; Matsuyama, Katsuya; Matsuo, Masayuki [Gifu University, Gifu (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Although the technical developments of radiotherapy have been remarkable, there are currently few reports on the treatment results of radiotherapy for local recurrence of rectal cancer treated with surgery alone as initial treatment in this three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy era. Thus, we retrospectively evaluated the treatment results of radiotherapy for local recurrence of rectal cancer treated with surgery alone as the initial treatment. Thirty-two patients who underwent radiotherapy were enrolled in this study. The dose per fraction was 2.0–3.5 Gy. Because the treatment schedule was variable, the biological effective dose (BED) was calculated. Local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) rates from the completion of radiotherapy were calculated. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year LC rates were 51.5%, 24.5%, 19.6%, 19.6%, and 13.1%, respectively. LC rates were significantly higher for the high BED group (≥75 Gy10) than for the lower BED group (<75 Gy10). All patients who reported pain achieved pain relief. The duration of pain relief was significantly higher for the high BED group than for the lower BED group. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year OS rates were 82.6%, 56.5%, 45.2%, 38.7%, and 23.2%, respectively. There was a trend toward higher OS rates in with higher BED group compared to lower BED group. For patients with unresectable locally recurrent rectal cancer treated with surgery alone, radiotherapy is effective treatment. The prescribed BED should be more than 75 Gy10, if the dose to the organ at risk is within acceptable levels.

  13. The role of postoperative pelvic radiation in stage IV rectal cancer after resection of primary tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Hwan; Jo, In Young; Lee, Jong Hoon; Yoon, Sei Chul; Kim, Yeon Sil; Choi, Byung Ock; Kim, Jun Gi; Oh, Seong Taek; Lee, Myeong A; Jang, Hong Seok [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    To evaluate the effect of pelvic radiotherapy (RT) in patients with stage IV rectal cancer treated with resection of primary tumor with or without metastasectomy. Medical records of 112 patients with stage IV rectal cancer treated with resection of primary tumor between 1990 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Fifty-nine patients received synchronous or staged metastasectomy whereas fifty-three patients did not. Twenty-six patients received pelvic radiotherapy. Median overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and progression-free survival (PFS) of all patients was 27, 70, and 11 months, respectively. Pathologic T (pT), N (pN) classification and complete metastasectomy were statistically significant factors in OS (p = 0.040, 0.020, and 0.002, respectively). RT did not improve OS or LRFS. There were no significant factors in LRFS. pT and pN classification were also significant prognostic factors in PFS (p = 0.010 and p = 0.033, respectively). In the subgroup analysis, RT improved LRFS in patients with pT4 disease (p = 0.026). The locoregional failure rate of the RT group and the non-RT group were 23.1% and 33.7%, showing no difference in the failure pattern of both groups (p = 0.260). Postoperative pelvic RT did not improve LRFS of all metastatic rectal cancer patients; however, it can be recommended to patients with pT4 disease. A complete resection of metastatic masses should be performed if possible.

  14. Measurement of Skin Dose for Rectal Cancer Patients in Radiotherapy using Optically Stimulated Luminescence Detectors (OSLDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, In Chul; Yu, Yun Sik [Dongeui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Seung [Good Samaritan Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    This study used the optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs), recently, received the revaluation of usefulness in vivo dosimetry, and the diode detecters to measure the skin dose of patient with the rectal cancer. The measurements of dose delivered were compared with the planned dose from the treatment planning system (TPS). We evaluated the clinical application of OSDs in radiotherapy. We measured the calibration factor of OSLDs and used the percent depth dose to verified, also, we created the three point of surface by ten patients of rectal cancer to measured. The calibration factors of OSLD was 1.17 for 6 MV X-ray and 1.28 for 10 MV X-ray, demonstrating the energy dependency of X-ray beams. Comparison of surface dose measurement using the OSLDs and diode detectors with the planned dose from the TPS, The skin dose of patient was increased 1.16 ∼ 2.83% for diode detectors, 1.36 ∼ 2.17% for OSLDs. Especially, the difference between planned dose and the delivery dose was increased in the perineum, a skin of intense flexure region, and the OSLDs as a result of close spacing of measuring a variate showed a steady dose verification than the diode detecters. Therefore, on behalf of the ionization chamber and diode detecters, OSLDs could be applied clinically in the verification of radiation dose error and in vivo dosimety. The research on the dose verification of the rectal cancer in the around perineal, a surface of intense flexure region, suggest continue to be.

  15. Circumferential resection margin involvement after laparoscopic abdominoperineal excision for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftopoulos, I; Reed, J F; Bergamaschi, R

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement in patients with rectal adenocarcinoma after laparoscopic abdominoperineal excision (APR).   Prospectively collected data were analyzed on consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic APR for histologically proven rectal cancer following neoadjuvant chemotherapy, from 1998 to 2006. Patients with no sphincter involvement were not included and underwent intersphincteric resection with coloanal anastomosis. CRM involvement was defined as ≤ 2 mm using a standardized pathology protocol. Data were presented as mean ± SD or as median (range). Seventy-four patients (60 ± 14 years of age; body mass index = 29.7 ± 7.9 kg/m(2) ) underwent laparoscopic APR. The distance of the tumour from the anal verge was 3.1 ± 0.93 cm. All patients had sphincter involvement. The operative time was 180 ± 73 min, and estimated blood loss was 269 ± 149 ml. There were no conversions and no postoperative mortality. The adverse event rate was 11%. There were two reoperations and three readmissions. Seventy-one patients had a T3 tumour and three patients had a T4 tumour. The median tumour size was 3.1 (range, 0-10) × 3 (range, 0-8.5) × 2 (range, 0-3.6) cm, and 26 (range, 3-41) lymph nodes were harvested. The median CRM was 7 (range, 1-11) mm. This was localized at the waist of the specimen in 12 (16.2%) of patients. Adjuvant therapy was given to 92% and 97% of patients with an involved and an uninvolved CRM, respectively. At 50 ± 27 months of follow up of 73 patients, 12 had CRM involvement and had a significantly decreased cancer-specific survival (log rank test, P = 0.002). Laparoscopic APR resulted in CRM involvement in 16.2% of patients with rectal cancer. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. The outcome of rectal cancer after early salvage surgery following transanal endoscopic microsurgery seems promising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levic, Katarina; Bulut, Orhan; Hesselfeldt, Peter; Bülow, Steffen

    2012-09-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) allows locally complete resection of early rectal cancer as an alternative to conventional radical surgery. In patients with unfavourable post-TEM histology, salvage surgery can be performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of early radical surgery after TEM for rectal cancer. From 1997 to 2010, 86 TEM procedures were performed in 79 patients due to rectal cancer. Early salvage surgery was performed in 25 patients. Data were obtained from the patients' charts and reviewed retrospectively. Perioperative data and oncological outcome were analysed. No patients received preoperative chemotherapy. The median time to salvage surgery was 37 days. Five patients underwent laparoscopic surgery. The median operative time was 165 min (range: 101-341 min, 95% confidence interval (CI): 156-214 min) and the median blood loss 275 ml (range: 0-1,275 ml, 95% CI: 232-530 ml). The 30-day mortality was 8% (95% CI: 1-19%, n = 2). Intraoperative perforation occurred in 20% (95% CI: 3-37%, n = 5). The median number of harvested lymph nodes was 12 (range: 3-25, 95% CI: 9-14) and the median circumferential resection margin (CRM) was 10 mm (range: 0-20 mm, 95% CI: 5-12 mm). Only one patient (4%, 95%CI: 1-12%) had a positive CRM. The median follow-up time was 25 months (range: 3-80 months). There was no local recurrence. Distant metastasis occurred in 4% (95% CI: 1-12%, n = 1). Early salvage surgery after TEM seems to be safe despite a high risk of specimen perforation during the operation. not relevant. not relevant.

  17. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and surgery for advanced rectal cancer. Prognostic significance of tumor regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eich, Hans Theodor; Stepien, Anna; Zimmermann, Christian; Mueller, Rolf-Peter [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Hellmich, Martin [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Medical Statistics, Informatics, and Epidemiology; Metzger, Ralf; Hoelscher, Arnulf [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of General, Visceral and Cancer Surgery

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: Preoperative radiochemotherapy is widely used in the treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer. The predictive value of response to neoadjuvant treatment remains uncertain. We retrospectively evaluated the impact of downstaging and tumor regression as prognostic factors and its influence on the ability to perform sphincter-sparing surgery. Patients and Methods: A total of 72 consecutive patients with advanced rectal cancer were included in this retrospective analysis. All patients were treated with preoperative 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy and pelvic radiation with a total dose of 50.4 Gy followed by surgery 6 weeks later. Results: A sphincter-preserving procedure could be performed on 42 patients, and in all 72 patients complete resection (R0) was achieved. A pathological complete response (ypT0, ypN0) was achieved in 8 (11%) patients. None of the patients showing a complete pathological response relapsed or died during the follow-up period. At a median follow-up of 28 months, 65 patients were alive, none of these patients had local recurrence and 15 patients had metastatic disease. Patients showing a complete pathological response had a significantly better 2-year disease-free survival compared to patients with {>=} 10% residual tumor cells (p = 0.024). Patients < 65 years showed a significantly better response rate, compared with those > 65 years of age (p = 0.036). Acute toxicity was moderate. Conclusion: Preoperative radiochemotherapy is an effective and safe treatment for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Pathological parameters after preoperative radiochemotherapy, including tumor regression grading, could be correlated with disease-free survival. The impact of tumor regression grading needs to be further validated in prospective clinical trials. (orig.)

  18. Cell-free DNA levels and correlation to stage and outcome following treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Anders Kindberg; Wettergren, Yvonne; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl; Taflin, Helena; Gustavson, Bengt; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm

    2017-11-01

    Accurate staging of rectal cancer remains essential for optimal patient selection for combined modality treatment, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery. We aimed at examining the correlation of cell free DNA with the pathologic stage and subsequent risk of recurrence for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer undergoing preoperative chemoradiation. We examined 75 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving preoperative chemoradiation. Blood samples for translational use were drawn prior to rectal surgery. The level of cell free DNA was quantified by digital droplet PCR and expressed as copy number of beta 2 microglobulin. We found a median level of cell free DNA in the AJCC stages I-III of 3100, 8300, and 10,700 copies/mL respectively. For patients with 12 sampled lymph nodes or above, the median level of cell free DNA were 2400 copies/mL and 4400 copies/mL (p = 0.04) for node negative and node positive disease respectively. The median follow-up was 39 months and 11 recurrences were detected (15%). The median level for patients with recurrent disease was 13,000 copies/mL compared to 5200 copies/mL for non-recurrent patients (p = 0.08). We have demonstrated a correlation between the level of total cell free DNA and the pathologic stage and nodal involvement. Furthermore, we have found a trend towards a correlation with the risk of recurrence following resection of localized rectal cancer.

  19. Understanding the factors associated with reduction in the number of lymph nodes in rectal cancer patients treated by neoadjuvant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Lopez, L; Nahas, C S; Nahas, S C; Ribeiro, U; Marques, C F; Cotti, G; Rocco, A; Cecconello, I

    2017-06-01

    Rectal cancer patients frequently present with locally advanced disease for which the standard of care includes neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision. Positive lymph nodes are one of the most powerful risk factors for recurrence and survival in colorectal cancer. In the absence of specific rectal guidelines, the literature recommends to the pathologist to optimize the number of rectal lymph nodes (LN) retrieved. We made a literature review in order to identify factors that could potentially affect the number of LN retrieved in specimens of patients with rectal cancer treated by chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by total mesorectal excision (TME). Age did not have a significant effect on LN yield. The effect of sex on LN number is not consistent in the literature. Most of the papers did not find a relationship between lower LN obtained and gender. Laparoscopy for primary rectal cancer is associated with a greater number of LN as well as short-term benefits. Tumors in the upper rectum are associated with a higher number of LN than those in the mid and lower rectum. The type of surgery had no effect on lymph node yield either. Tumors with complete or almost complete pathologic regression were exactly the ones with lower number of lymph nodes detected. Approximately one-third of patients with neoadjuvant treatment had less than 12 LN yield. The tumor regression grade is the most important factor for the decrease in the number of lymph nodes.

  20. The association of rectal equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) to late rectal toxicity in locally advanced cervical cancer patients who were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy in Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tharavichtikul, Ekkasit; Chitapanarux, Taned; Chakrabandhu, Somvilai; Klunklin, Pitchayaponne; Onchan, Wimrak; Wanwilairat, Somsak; Chitapanarux, Imjai [Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Meungwong, Pooriwat [Lampang Cancer Hospital, Lampang (Thailand); Traisathit, Patrinee [Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Galalae, Razvan [aculty of Medicine, Christian-Albrechts University at Kiel, Kiei (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    To evaluate association between equivalent dose in 2 Gy (EQD2) to rectal point dose and gastrointestinal toxicity from whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) and intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) in cervical cancer patients who were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy in Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University. Retrospective study was designed for the patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, treated by radical radiotherapy from 2004 to 2009 and were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy. The cumulative doses of WPRT and ICBT to the maximally rectal point were calculated to the EQD2 and evaluated the association of toxicities. Thirty-nine patients were evaluated for late rectal toxicity. The mean cumulative dose in term of EQD2 to rectum was 64.2 Gy. Grade 1 toxicities were the most common findings. According to endoscopic exam, the most common toxicities were congested mucosa (36 patients) and telangiectasia (32 patients). In evaluation between rectal dose in EQD2 and toxicities, no association of cumulative rectal dose to rectal toxicity, except the association of cumulative rectal dose in EQD2 >65 Gy to late effects of normal tissue (LENT-SOMA) scale > or = grade 2 (p = 0.022; odds ratio, 5.312; 95% confidence interval, 1.269-22.244). The cumulative rectal dose in EQD2 >65 Gy have association with > or = grade 2 LENT-SOMA scale.

  1. Promising results after endoscopic vacuum treatment of anastomotic leakage following resection of rectal cancer with ileostomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerup, Nikolaj; Johansen, John Lykkegaard; Alkhefagie, Ghalib Ali Abod

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In colorectal surgery, the most feared complication is anastomotic leakage (AL), which is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In this study, we focus on treatment of perianastomotic abscess following AL after low anterior resection (LAR) of rectal cancer. In the literature...... period. Patients who initiated treatment more than one month after the leakage were excluded. All patients had primary ileostomy. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients were included. All patients had successful closure of the perianastomotic abscess for a median of 18 (3-40) days in a median of eight (1...

  2. Methods of comprehensive geriatric assessment of older patients with rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Gordeev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a literature review on application of modern risk predictors of complications and morbidity necessary for selection of oncologically justified treatment methods for older patients with rectal cancer taking into account advancement of the disease and concomitant pathology. Use of modern scales, calculators, and questionnaires for evaluation of functional and physical status of this complex patient category by a multidisciplinary team allows to personalize therapy approach, minimize complications and morbidity after specific treatment. Application of the developed algorithms of assessment of older patients creates satisfactory conditions for their treatment based on oncological adequacy, functionality, and safety.  

  3. COLOR II. A randomized clinical trial comparing laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buunen, M; Bonjer, H J; Hop, W C J

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic resection of rectal cancer has been proven efficacious but morbidity and oncological outcome need to be investigated in a randomized clinical trial. Trial design: Non-inferiority randomized clinical trial. METHODS: The COLOR II trial is an ongoing international randomized...... clinical trial. Currently 27 hospitals from Europe, South Korea and Canada are including patients. The primary endpoint is loco-regional recurrence rate three years post-operatively. Secondary endpoints cover quality of life, overall and disease free survival, post-operative morbidity and health economy...

  4. Promising results after endoscopic vacuum treatment of anastomotic leakage following resection of rectal cancer with ileostomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerup, Nikolaj; Johansen, John Lykkegaard; Alkhefagie, Ghalib Ali Abod

    2013-01-01

    , conservative irrigation regimes are reported to perdure for months and some even years and to be associated with a poor stoma closure rate. In the present paper, we evaluated endoscopic vacuum treatment of the perianastomotic abscess. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients who had LAR due to rectal cancer with total......-18) sessions. The median length of hospital stay was 25 (7-39) days. Mortality was zero, and the stoma closure rate was 12/13 (97%). CONCLUSION: Our data support the positive findings previously reported by other studies. Endoscopic vacuum treatment seems to be a safe approach for selected patients...

  5. Rectovaginal Fistula after Low Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer Using a Double Stapling Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yodonawa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A 55-year-old female underwent low anterior resection for rectal cancer using a double stapling technique. She developed a rectovaginal fistula on the 9th postoperative day. She was discharged from hospital after undergoing transverse colostomy, and 5 months later she underwent transvaginal repair of the rectovaginal fistula. She subsequently had an uneventful recovery. The leading cause of this complication is involvement of the posterior wall of the vagina in the staple line when firing the circular stapler. Transvaginal repair with a diverting stoma for rectovaginal fistula is a safe, minimally invasive and effective method.

  6. Clinical outcome in 520 consecutive Danish rectal cancer patients treated with short course preoperative radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L H; Altaf, R; Harling, H

    2010-01-01

    tumours in the lower two thirds of the rectum and were referred for preoperative radiotherapy with 5 x 5 Gy. The inclusion period was 56 months. Radiotherapy data was retrospectively collected. RESULTS: Of the 520 patients, 514 completed radiotherapy and 506 had surgery. Surgery was considered curative......AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyse the results of preoperative short course radiotherapy in a consecutive, national cohort of patients with rectal cancer. METHODS: Through a validated, prospective national database we identified 520 Danish patients who presented with high-risk mobile...

  7. Length of Distal Resection Margin after Partial Mesorectal Excision for Upper Rectal Cancer Estimated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondeven, Peter; Hagemann-Madsen, Rikke Hjarnø; Bro, Lise

    . Studies at our department have shown inadequate DRM in 75 % of the patients estimated by post-operative MRI of the pelvis and by measurements of the histopathological specimen. Correspondingly, a higher rate of local recurrence in patients surgically treated with PME for rectal cancer - compared to TME...... - has been reported. AIM: To estimate the length of the DRM by MRI of the surgical specimen from patients operated for rectal cancer with PME. METHODS: Rectal PME-specimens will undergo MRI immediately after surgery (fresh specimen) and once more after pathological fixation (fixed specimen). Normal...... procedures for handling, pathological examination and reporting are completed according to international guidelines. Length of DRM measured on MR-imaging and by pathological examination will be compared. PERSPECTIVE: PME for cancer of the upper rectum may be associated with suboptimal surgery. Knowledge...

  8. A national cohort study of long-course preoperative radiotherapy in primary fixed rectal cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, S; Jensen, L H; Altaf, R

    2010-01-01

    -7%), and the actuarial distant recurrence rate was 41% (95% CI: 35-47%). The cumulative 5-year disease-free survival was 27% (95% CI: 22-32%) and overall 5-year survival was 34% (95% CI: 29-39%). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first population-based report on outcome of preoperative long-course radiotherapy in a large......OBJECTIVE: Preoperative radiotherapy has been shown to enable a fixed rectal cancer to become resectable which in turn may result in long-time survival. In this study, we analysed the outcome of long-course preoperative radiotherapy in fixed rectal cancer in a national cohort including all Danish...... patients registered with primary inoperable rectal cancer and treated in the period May 2001 to December 2005. METHOD: The study was based on surgical and demographic data from a continuously updated and validated national database. In addition, retrospective data were retrieved from all departments...

  9. Meat and fish consumption, APC gene mutations and hMLH1 expression in colon and rectal cancer: a prospective cohort study (the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luchtenborg, M.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goeij, de A.F.P.M.; Wark, P.A.; Brink, M.; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Bruine, de A.P.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Veer, van 't P.; Brandt, van den P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between meat and fish consumption and APC mutation status and hMLH1 expression in colon and rectal cancer. Methods:The associations were investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study, and included 434 colon and 154 rectal cancer

  10. The frequencies and clinical implications of mutations in 33 kinase-related genes in locally advanced rectal cancer: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdul-Jalil, Khairun I

    2014-08-01

    Locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC: T3\\/4 and\\/or node-positive) is treated with preoperative\\/neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT), but responses are not uniform. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), MAP kinase (MAPK), and related pathways are implicated in rectal cancer tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the association between genetic mutations in these pathways and LARC clinical outcomes.

  11. Meat and fish consumption, APC gene mutations and hMLH1 expression in colon and rectal cancer: A prospective cohort study (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüchtenborg, M.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Wark, P.A.; Brink, M.; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Veer, P. van 't; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between meat and fish consumption and APC mutation status and hMLH1 expression in colon and rectal cancer. Methods: The associations were investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study, and included 434 colon and 154 rectal cancer

  12. Morphology and prognostic value of tumor budding in rectal cancer after neoadjuvant radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Changzheng; Xue, Weicheng; Li, Jiyou; Cai, Yong; Gu, Jin

    2012-07-01

    Tumor budding is an acknowledged prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the morphology and prognostic significance of budding in rectal cancer after neoadjuvant radiotherapy. Surgical specimens from 96 consecutive patients who underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy and curative resection were retrieved to assess budding and other clinicopathologic factors. The morphology and prognostic significance of postirradiation tumor budding were closely associated with tumor regression grade. In the tumor regression grade 1 group, tumor budding presented as "false budding" and did not have a significant association with prognosis. In the tumor regression grade 2 and 3 groups, budding was observed surrounded by radiation-induced fibrosis and large populations of infiltrating inflammatory cells, and budding intensity was significantly associated with histologic differentiation, ypN stage, and lymphovascular invasion (P budding subgroup showed a significantly higher rate of 5-year disease-free survival than the high-grade budding subgroup (87.5% versus 55.6%, P tumor regression grade, and tumor budding were the major independent factors affecting long-term disease-free survival. In conclusion, postirradiation budding has distinct morphology and prognostic significance in rectal cancer after neoadjuvant radiotherapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prospective assessment of the quality of life in patients treated surgically for rectal cancer with lower anterior resection and abdominoperineal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastyrska, E; Hagner, W; Jankowski, M; Głowacka, I; Zegarska, B; Zegarski, W

    2016-11-01

    Rectal cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the study was to assess the quality of life in patients undergoing surgical treatment for the rectal cancer, either lower anterior or abdominoperineal resection. 100 patients suffering from rectal cancer were selected for a prospective study (50-APR, 50-LAR). The quality of life was assessed two times: at the admission to the Department and 6 months following surgery. For assessment of the quality of life, two standard questionnaires were used, EORT QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-C29. The studied groups were not different with respect to demographic factors. The patients who underwent LAR spent less time in hospital (p = 0.00001). The patients undergoing APR scored less with respect to physical ability (p = 0.0434), cognitive (p = 0.0363) and emotional state (p = 0.0463) and on symptom scale (nausea and vomiting - p: 0.0199, diarrhea - p: 0.0000, constipation (p = 0.0018)); however, the patients who were treated with LAR scored less on pain scale (p = 0.0189). The QLQ-C29 questionnaire revealed impaired functioning of patients 6 months following APR in terms of life chances (p = 0.0000) and problems with body weight (p = 0.0212). In both groups, the quality of life improved 6 months after surgery. LAR is a chance for better quality of life for many patients. Six months after surgery, the quality of life of patients improves regardless of the operating method (APR, LAR). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ the Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  14. The colostomy impact score: development and validation of a patient reported outcome measure for rectal cancer patients with a permanent colostomy. A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyø, A; Emmertsen, K J; Pinkney, T D; Christensen, P; Laurberg, S

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to develop and validate a simple scoring system evaluating the impact of colostomy dysfunction on quality of life (QOL) in patients with a permanent stoma after rectal cancer treatment. In this population-based study, 610 patients with a permanent colostomy after previous rectal cancer treatment during the period 2001-2007 completed two questionnaires: (i) the basic stoma questionnaire consisting of 22 items about stoma function with one anchor question addressing the overall stoma impact on QOL and (ii) the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ) C30. Answers from half of the cohort were used to develop the score and subsequently validated on the remaining half. Logistic regression analyses identified and selected items for the score and multivariate analysis established the score value allocated to each item. The colostomy impact score includes seven items with a total range from 0 to 38 points. A score of ≥ 10 indicates major colostomy impact (Major CI). The score has a sensitivity of 85.7% for detecting patients with significant stoma impact on QOL. Using the EORTC QLQ scales, patients with Major CI experienced significant impairment in their QOL compared to the Minor CI group. This new scoring system appears valid for the assessment of the impact on QOL from having a permanent colostomy in a Danish rectal cancer population. It requires validation in non-Danish populations prior to its acceptance as a valuable patient-reported outcome measure for patients internationally. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Late Patient-Reported Toxicity After Preoperative Radiotherapy or Chemoradiotherapy in Nonresectable Rectal Cancer: Results From a Randomized Phase III Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braendengen, Morten, E-mail: mortbrae@medisin.uio.no [Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, Cancer Centre, Oslo (Norway); Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Tveit, Kjell Magne [Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, Cancer Centre, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Bruheim, Kjersti [Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, Cancer Centre, Oslo (Norway); Cvancarova, Milada [Department of Clinical Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Radiumhospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Berglund, Ake [Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Glimelius, Bengt [Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is superior to radiotherapy (RT) in locally advanced rectal cancer, but the survival gain is limited. Late toxicity is, therefore, important. The aim was to compare late bowel, urinary, and sexual functions after CRT or RT. Methods and Materials: Patients (N = 207) with nonresectable rectal cancer were randomized to preoperative CRT or RT (2 Gy Multiplication-Sign 25 {+-} 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin). Extended surgery was often required. Self-reported late toxicity was scored according to the LENT SOMA criteria in a structured telephone interview and with questionnaires European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30), International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), and sexual function -vaginal changes questionnaire (SVQ). Results: Of the 105 patients alive in Norway and Sweden after 4 to 12 years of follow-up, 78 (74%) responded. More patients in the CRT group had received a stoma (73% vs. 52%, p = 0.09). Most patients without a stoma (7 of 12 in CRT group and 9 of 16 in RT group) had incontinence for liquid stools or gas. No stoma and good anal function were seen in 5 patients (11%) in the CRT group and in 11 (30%) in the RT group (p = 0.046). Of 44 patients in the CRT group, 12 (28%) had had bowel obstruction compared with 5 of 33 (15%) in the RT group (p = 0.27). One-quarter of the patients reported urinary incontinence. The majority of men had severe erectile dysfunction. Few women reported sexual activity during the previous month. However, the majority did not have concerns about their sex life. Conclusions: Fecal incontinence and erectile dysfunction are frequent after combined treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. There was a clear tendency for the problems to be more common after CRT than after RT.

  16. Radiation Therapy Did Not Induce Long-Term Changes in Rectal Mucosa: Results From the Randomized Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group 7 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slagsvold, Jens Erik, E-mail: Jens.Erik.Slagsvold@stolav.no [Cancer Clinic, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim (Norway); Viset, Trond [Department of Pathology, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim (Norway); Wibe, Arne [Institute of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Department of Surgery, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim (Norway); Kaasa, Stein [Cancer Clinic, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim (Norway); European Palliative Care Research Center, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Widmark, Anders [Department of Radiation Sciences, Cancercentrum, Umeå (Sweden); Lund, Jo-Åsmund [Cancer Clinic, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim (Norway); European Palliative Care Research Center, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate long-term changes in the rectal mucosa after curative external beam radiation therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: In the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group 7 trial, 880 men with locally advanced prostate cancer were randomized to hormonal therapy alone versus hormonal therapy plus radiation therapy to 70 Gy. A subcohort from this trial being randomized at our center (n=178) was invited to a study on late anorectal side effects during 2003-2005, approximately 5 years after treatment, including measuring health-reported quality of life and physician-assessed toxicity score by the Late Effects Normal Tissue Task Force/Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic (LENT/SOMA) and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group score. Sixty-seven patients had a rectal mucosa biopsy. Sixty-four biopsies were included in the final analysis, of which 33 patients were randomized to hormonal treatment and 31 to hormonal treatment plus radiation therapy. The presence of fibrosis, number of capillaries, and lymphocyte infiltration was then evaluated by light microscopy. Results: The group receiving radiation therapy had significantly higher LENT/SOMA and function/bother scale scores than the group that only received hormonal treatment, but there was no significant difference in the presence of fibrosis, ectasia, number of capillaries in the lamina propria, or lymphocyte infiltration between the groups. Conclusion: Radiation therapy to 70 Gy to the prostate does not induce long-term microscopic mucosal changes in the rectum 5 years after treatment. This is in contrast to the general assumption that structural changes, including fibrosis, seen after radiation therapy include the mucosa. We speculate that the main late effects of radiation therapy on the structure of the rectum are located in the deeper layers of the rectal wall than the mucosa.

  17. Comparison of short-term clinical outcomes between transanal and laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for the treatment of mid and low rectal cancer: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W; Xu, Z; Cheng, H; Ying, J; Cheng, F; Xu, W; Cao, J; Luo, J

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and short-term clinical outcomes of transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) comparing with laparoscopy total mesorectal excision (LapTME) for mid and low rectal cancer. Relevant studies were searched from the databases of Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. The qualities of all of the included studies were evaluated using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The synthesized outcomes were pooled using fixed-effects models or random-effects models, which weighted the odds ratio (OR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A funnel plot was used to evaluate the publication bias. Seven original studies including 209 TaTME patients and 257 LapTME patients with rectal cancer met the inclusion criteria in this meta-analysis. Compared with LapTME, TaTME showed a longer CRM, lower rate of positive CRM, complete TME rate, and less operative time. There were no significant differences in the outcomes of the harvested lymph nodes, distal margin distance, hospital stay, intraoperative complications, anastomotic leakage, postoperative complications, reoperation, readmission, or conversion between the TaTME group and the LapTME group. Compared with LapTME, TaTME is a feasible and safe approach for patients with mid and low rectal cancer. In addition, TaTME showed a better short-term clinical outcomes, such as a longer CRM, lower risk of positive CRM, higher complete quality of TME rate, and shorter operative duration. Further prospective studies with long-term follow-up are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical significance of CT in the preoperative diagnosis of the staging of rectal cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itano, S.; Fuchimoto, S.; Hamada, F.; Kimura, T.; Iwagaki, H.; Maeda, T.; Orita, K.

    1987-02-01

    The value of computed tomography (CT) in the preoperative clinical staging of rectal cancer was prospectively studied in 28 patients with macroscopically proven cancer. The CT studies were based on the previously established CT diagnostic criteria for wall invasion (S factor), lymph node metastases (N factor), and liver metastases (H factor). When macroscopic findings were used as the standard, the accuracy of CT was 61 % for S factor, 32 % for N factor, and 86 % for H factor. Using histological findings as the standard, the accuracy was 48 % for S factor and 16 % for N factor. Overall, CT had a high accuracy for H factor in all sites of cancer (75 % in the rectosigmoid, 86 % in the area above the peritoneal reflection, and 90 % in the area below the peritoneal reflection). For the other S and N factors, CT seemed to be of limited value in the preoperative diagnosis.

  19. Common variables in European pancreatic cancer registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Leede, E. M.; Sibinga Mulder, B. G.; Bastiaannet, E.

    2016-01-01

    Care, is a platform aiming to harmonize cancer data collection and improve cancer care by feedback. After the prior launch of the projects on colorectal, breast and upper GI cancer, EURECCA's newest project is collecting data on pancreatic cancer in several European countries. Methods National cancer...... registries, as well as specific pancreatic cancer audits/registries, were invited to participate in EURECCA Pancreas. Participating countries were requested to share an overview of their collected data items. Of the received datasets, a shared items list was made which creates insight in similarities between...... data. Conclusions A list of 25 shared items on pancreatic cancer coming from eleven participating registries was created, providing a basis for future prospective data collection in pancreatic cancer treatment internationally....

  20. Pretreatment HIF-1α and GLUT-1 expressions do not correlate with outcome after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Birgitte Mayland; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Lindebjerg, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) expressions as predictors of response and survival after chemoradiotherapy in pretreatment biopsy specimens from patients with rectal cancer.......The aim of the present study was to investigate hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) expressions as predictors of response and survival after chemoradiotherapy in pretreatment biopsy specimens from patients with rectal cancer....

  1. Transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) for rectal cancer: a training pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLemore, Elisabeth C; Harnsberger, Christina R; Broderick, Ryan C; Leland, Hyuma; Sylla, Patricia; Coker, Alisa M; Fuchs, Hans F; Jacobsen, Garth R; Sandler, Bryan; Attaluri, Vikram; Tsay, Anna T; Wexner, Steven D; Talamini, Mark A; Horgan, Santiago

    2016-09-01

    With increasing interest in natural orifice surgery, there has been a dramatic evolution of transanal and endoluminal surgical techniques. These techniques began with transanal endoluminal surgical removal of rectal masses and have progressed to transanal radical proctectomy for rectal cancer. The first transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) was performed in 2009 by Sylla, Rattner, Delgado, and Lacy. The improved visibility and working space associated with the taTME technique is intriguing. This video manuscript outlines the training pathway followed by pioneers in the taTME technique, the process of implementation into clinical practice, and initial case report. A double board-certified colorectal surgeon with expertise in rectal cancer, minimally invasive total mesorectal excision, transanal endoscopic surgery (TES), and intersphincteric dissection, underwent taTME training in male cadaver models. Institutional review board (IRB) approval for a phase I clinical trial was achieved. The entire operative team including surgeons, nurses, and operative staff underwent taTME cadaver training the day prior to the first clinical case. The case was proctored by an expert in taTME. A 66-year-old male with uT3N1M0 rectal cancer located in the posterior distal rectum, underwent taTME with laparoscopic abdominal assistance, hand sewn coloanal anastomosis, and diverting loop ileostomy. The majority of the TME was performed transanally with laparoscopic assistance for exposure, splenic flexure mobilization, and high ligation of the vascular pedicles. Operative time was 359 min. There were no intraoperative complications. Pathology revealed a ypT2N1 moderately differentiated invasive adenocarcinoma, grade I TME, 1 cm circumferential radial margin, and 2/13 positive lymph nodes. Implementation of taTME into practice can be achieved by surgeons with expertise in minimally invasive TME, TES, pre-clinical taTME training in cadavers, case observation, proctoring, and ongoing

  2. Association of cigarette smoking and microRNA expression in rectal cancer: Insight into tumor phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, Lila E; Herrick, Jennifer S; Wolff, Roger K; Stevens, John R; Slattery, Martha L

    2016-12-01

    Smoking is known to influence messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. As microRNAs (miRNAs) are known repressors of mRNAs, we hypothesize that smoking may influence miRNA expression, thus altering mRNA expression. Our sample consisted of 1447 CRC cases that had normal colorectal mucosa and carcinoma miRNA data and lifestyle data. We examined current smoking, current versus never and former versus never (C/F/N) smoking1, and pack-years smoked with miRNA expression in normal mucosa as well as differential miRNA expression between paired normal and carcinoma tissue for colon and rectal tissue to determine associations between smoking and miRNA expression. We adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Benjamini Hochberg false discovery rate (FDR). Significant associations were seen for rectal differential miRNA expression only. We analyzed miRNAs significantly associated with smoking with CIMP and MSI status, using a polytomous logistic regression. Two hundred and thirty-one miRNAs were differentially expressed with current smoking, 172 with C/F/N, and 206 with pack-years smoked; 111 were associated with all three. Forty-three miRNAs were unique to current smoking, 14 were unique to C/F/N and 57 were unique to pack years smoked. Of the 306 unique miRNAs associated with cigarette smoking, 41 were inversely associated and 200 were directly associated with CIMP high or MSI tumor molecular phenotype for either colon or rectal cancer. Our results suggest that cigarette smoking can alter miRNA expression and, given associations with CIMP high and MSI tumor molecular phenotype, it is possible that smoking influences tumor phenotype through altered miRNA expression. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. [Preoperative chemoradiotherapy with FOLFOX in low rectal cancer: a multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Ping; Ding, Wei-Xing; Deng, Yan-Hong; Lan, Ping; Pan, Kai; Dong, Gong-Hang; Deng, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Lei; Wu, Xiao-Jian; Guo, Xue-Feng; Zheng, Jie

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the toxicity and safety of FOLFOX regimen concurrent with radiotherapy in neoadjuvant setting in patients with low rectal cancer. Fifty-six patients with stage T(3-4)N(0)M(0) and T(1-4)N(1-2)M(0) were eligible from Aug. 2004 to Jul. 2007. Upon entry the study, they received 4 cycles of chemotherapy with FOLFOX regimen. Radiotherapy was added from the second cycle of chemotherapy (CT). The total dose of radiotherapy (RT) was 46 Gy (2 Gy x 23). Total mesorectal excision (TME) was performed 4-8 weeks after RT. Among them, 54 cases received 4 cycles of CT, 1 patient stopped CT after the second cycle of CT because of unrecovery from neutropenia. One patient stopped chemoradiotherapy(CRT) because of complicating with active pulmonary tuberculosis after 2 cycles of CT and 10 times of RT. Two occurred liver, lung and bone metastases after CT. Totally 220 cycles of CT were administrated. Fifty-two patients received operation after CRT, 50 with anal interior sphincter reservation, 19 with prophylactic ileac stoma. Anastomotic leakage occurred in 2 patients after operation, and rectal vaginal fistula in 2 patients 1 month after operation. According to the pathologic results, 7 patients achieved complete response, 41 partial response, 4 stable disease, and the objective response rate was 85.7%. Concomitant treatment of FOLFOX regimen and RT in neoadjuvant setting of rectal cancer was safe and tolerable, and it suggests that protective ileostomy for anastomotic leakage following anus-preserving operation should be performed.

  4. Advances in management of adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer: Consequences for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netter, Jeanne; Douard, Richard; Durdux, Catherine; Landi, Bruno; Berger, Anne; Taieb, Julien

    2016-11-01

    More than half the patients with rectal cancer present with locally advanced rectal disease at diagnosis with a high risk of recurrence. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy and standardized radical surgery with total mesorectal excision have been established as the 'gold standard' for treating these patients. Pathological staging using the ypTNM classification system to decide on adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) is widely used in clinical practice, but the delivery of ACT is still controversial, as many discrepancies persist in the conclusions of different trials, due to heterogeneity of the inclusion criteria between studies, lack of statistical power, and variations in preoperative and adjuvant regimens. In 2014, a meta-analysis of four randomized phase-III trials (EORTC 22921, I-CNR-RT, PROCTOR-SCRIPT, CHRONICLE) failed to demonstrate any statistical efficacy of fluorouracil (5FU)-based ACT. Three recent randomized trials aimed to compare 5FU with 5FU plus oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Two of them (ADORE, CAO/ARO/AIO-04) appeared to find a disease-free survival benefit for patients treated with the combination therapy. Thus, while awaiting new data, it can be said that, as of 2015, patients with yp stage I tumors or histological complete response derived no benefit from adjuvant therapy. On the other hand, the FOLFOX chemotherapy regimen should be proposed for yp stage III patients, and may be considered for yp stage II tumors in fit patients with high-risk factors. Nevertheless, well-designed and sufficiently powered clinical trials dedicated to adjuvant treatments for rectal cancer remain justified in future to achieve a high level of proof in keeping with evidence-based medical standards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of perfusion models for quantitative T1 weighted DCE-MRI of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaa, Tanja; Neumann, Wiebke; Sudarski, Sonja; Attenberger, Ulrike I; Schönberg, Stefan O; Schad, Lothar R; Zöllner, Frank G

    2017-09-20

    In this work, the two compartment exchange model and two compartment uptake model were applied to obtain quantitative perfusion parameters in rectum carcinoma and the results were compared to those obtained by the deconvolution algorithm. Eighteen patients with newly diagnosed rectal carcinoma underwent 3 T MRI of the pelvis including a T1 weighted dynamic contrastenhanced (DCE) protocol before treatment. Mean values for Plasma Flow (PF), Plasma Volume (PV) and Mean Transit Time (MTT) were obtained for all three approaches and visualized in parameter cards. For the two compartment models, Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and [Formula: see text] were calculated. Perfusion parameters determined with the compartment models show results in accordance with previous studies focusing on rectal cancer DCE-CT (PF2CX = 68 ± 44 ml/100 ml/min, PF2CU = 55 ± 36 ml/100 ml/min) with similar fit quality (AIC:169 ± 81/179 ± 77, [Formula: see text]:10 ± 12/9 ± 10). Values for PF are overestimated whereas PV and MTT are underestimated compared to results of the deconvolution algorithm. Significant differences were found among all models for perfusion parameters as well as between the AIC and [Formula: see text] values. Quantitative perfusion parameters are dependent on the chosen tracer kinetic model. According to the obtained parameters, all approaches seem capable of providing quantitative perfusion values in DCE-MRI of rectal cancer.

  6. Evaluation of endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) and MRI for prediction of circumferential resection margin (CRM) for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Catherine; Hague, Cameron; Xiong, Wei; Raval, Manoj; Karimuddin, Ahmer; Brown, Carl; Phang, P Terry

    2017-05-01

    ERUS and MRI are used for preoperative imaging of rectal cancer. Here, we compare ERUS and MRI for accuracy of CRM prediction at mid- and distal rectal locations. In retrospective review, 20 rectal cancer patients having TME surgery had both ERUS and MRI preoperatively: 8 mid rectum and 12 in distal rectum. Predicted CRM by ERUS and MRI were compared to TME pathology. Overall, predicted CRM was 6.5 ± 3.6 mm by ERUS, 7.7 ± 5.0 mm by MRI, and 6.0 ± 4.6 mm by pathology. Overall, correlation coefficients to pathology were 0.77 (p = 0.0004) for ERUS and 0.64 (p = 0.008) for MRI. In distal rectum, correlation coefficients were 0.71 (p = 0.02) for ERUS and -0.10 (p = 0.79) for MRI. In mid rectum, correlation coefficients were 0.92 (p = 0.01) for ERUS and 0.44 (p = 0.38) for MRI. While MRI is used routinely for preoperative rectal cancer imaging, ERUS can provide additional assessment of CRM for mid or distal rectal lesions. Further investigation is needed to support these preliminary ERUS CRM findings in mid and distal rectum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Timeliness of cancer care from diagnosis to treatment: a comparison between patients with breast, colon, rectal or lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Scarfe, Andrew; King, Karen; Fenton, David; Butts, Charles; Winget, Marcy

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value in measuring specific time intervals across cancer sites to identify potentially important variation in the timeliness of cancer care that may inform needed changes and/or improvements in coordination of care. Retrospective population-level study. Demographic and treatment information were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry. Date of oncologist-consult was obtained from cancer medical records. Alberta, Canada. All patients diagnosed in 2005 with breast, colon, rectal or lung cancer who were residents of Alberta, Canada. (i) Number of days from diagnosis to first treatment by treatment modality and cancer site, (ii) number of days from surgery to post-surgery consultation and subsequent treatment and (iii) relationship between clinical and demographic factors and the cancer-specific provincial median time for outcome measures (i) and (ii). Time from diagnosis to surgery, if first treatment, was ∼4 months for lung cancer compared with 1-2 months for breast and colorectal cancers. Factors associated with this time interval for breast and colorectal cancers was stage at diagnosis but was region of residence for lung cancer. Important variation within and across cancer sites identified in the care intervals evaluated in this study provides relevant information to inform local areas for improvement. Comparisons of these intervals across healthcare systems may also provide insights into strengths of different models for coordinating care.

  8. Age and Comorbid Illness Are Associated With Late Rectal Toxicity Following Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Stenmark, Matt H.; Ritter, Tim [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Litzenberg, Dale; Jackson, William; Johnson, Skyler; Albrecht-Unger, Liesel; Donaghy, Alex; Phelps, Laura; Blas, Kevin; Halverson, Schuyler; Marsh, Robin; Olson, Karin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Felix Y., E-mail: ffeng@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the impacts of patient age and comorbid illness on rectal toxicity following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer and to assess the Qualitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model in this context. Methods and Materials: Rectal toxicity was analyzed in 718 men previously treated for prostate cancer with EBRT (≥75 Gy). Comorbid illness was scored using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCMI), and the NTCP was evaluated with the QUANTEC model. The influence of clinical and treatment-related parameters on rectal toxicity was assessed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: The cumulative incidence of rectal toxicity grade ≥2 was 9.5% and 11.6% at 3 and 5 years and 3.3% and 3.9% at 3 and 5 years for grade ≥3 toxicity, respectively. Each year of age predicted an increasing relative risk of grade ≥2 (P<.03; hazard ratio [HR], 1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.06]) and ≥3 rectal toxicity (P<.0001; HR, 1.14 [95% CI,1.07-1.22]). Increasing CCMI predicted rectal toxicity where a history of either myocardial infarction (MI) (P<.0001; HR, 5.1 [95% CI, 1.9-13.7]) or congestive heart failure (CHF) (P<.0006; HR, 5.4 [95% CI, 0.6-47.5]) predicted grade ≥3 rectal toxicity, with lesser correlation with grade ≥2 toxicity (P<.02 for MI, and P<.09 for CHF). An age comorbidity model to predict rectal toxicity was developed and confirmed in a validation cohort. The use of anticoagulants increased toxicity independent of age and comorbidity. NTCP was prognostic for grade ≥3 (P=.015) but not grade ≥2 (P=.49) toxicity. On multivariate analysis, age, MI, CHF, and an NTCP >20% all correlated with late rectal toxicity. Conclusions: Patient age and a history of MI or CHF significantly impact rectal toxicity following EBRT for the treatment of prostate cancer, even after controlling for NTCP.

  9. Utility of Digital Rectal Examination as an Adjunct to Prostate Specific Antigen in the Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Joshua A; Oromendia, Clara; Shoag, Jonathan E; Mittal, Sameer; Cosiano, Michael F; Ballman, Karla V; Vickers, Andrew J; Hu, Jim C

    2017-10-20

    Guidelines from NCCN (National Comprehensive Cancer Network®) advocate digital rectal examination screening only in men with elevated prostate specific antigen. We investigated the effect of prostate specific antigen on the association of digital rectal examination and clinically significant prostate cancer in a large American cohort. We evaluated the records of the 35,350 men who underwent digital rectal examination in the screening arm of the PLCO (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian) Cancer Screening trial for the development of clinically significant prostate cancer (Gleason 7 or greater). Followup was 343,273 person-years. The primary outcome was the rate of clinically significant prostate cancer among men with vs without suspicious digital rectal examination. We performed competing risks regression to evaluate the interaction between time varying suspicious digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen. A total of 1,713 clinically significant prostate cancers were detected with a 10-year cumulative incidence of 5.9% (95% CI 5.6-6.2). Higher risk was seen for suspicious vs nonsuspicious digital rectal examinations. Increases in absolute risk were small and clinically irrelevant for normal (less than 2 ng/ml) prostate specific antigen (1.5% vs 0.7% risk of clinically significant prostate cancer at 10 years), clinically relevant for elevated (3 ng/ml or greater) prostate specific antigen (23.0% vs 13.7%) and modest clinical relevance for equivocal (2 to 3 ng/ml) prostate specific antigen (6.5% vs 3.5%). Digital rectal examination demonstrated prognostic usefulness when prostate specific antigen was greater than 3 ng/ml, limited usefulness for less than 2 ng/ml and marginal usefulness for 2 to 3 ng/ml. These findings support the restriction of digital rectal examination to men with higher prostate specific antigen as a reflex test to improve specificity. It should not be used as a primary screening modality to improve sensitivity. Copyright

  10. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and total mesorectal excision: a Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) randomized phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breugom, A J; van Gijn, W; Muller, E W; Berglund, Å; van den Broek, C B M; Fokstuen, T; Gelderblom, H; Kapiteijn, E; Leer, J W H; Marijnen, C A M; Martijn, H; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E; Nagtegaal, I D; Påhlman, L; Punt, C J A; Putter, H; Roodvoets, A G H; Rutten, H J T; Steup, W H; Glimelius, B; van de Velde, C J H

    2015-04-01

    The discussion on the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated according to current guidelines is still ongoing. A multicentre, randomized phase III trial, PROCTOR-SCRIPT, was conducted to compare adjuvant chemotherapy with observation for rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and total mesorectal excision (TME). The PROCTOR-SCRIPT trial recruited patients from 52 hospitals. Patients with histologically proven stage II or III rectal adenocarcinoma were randomly assigned (1:1) to observation or adjuvant chemotherapy after preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and TME. Radiotherapy consisted of 5 × 5 Gy. Chemoradiotherapy consisted of 25 × 1.8-2 Gy combined with 5-FU-based chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy consisted of 5-FU/LV (PROCTOR) or eight courses capecitabine (SCRIPT). Randomization was based on permuted blocks of six, stratified according to centre, residual tumour, time between last irradiation and surgery, and preoperative treatment. The primary end point was overall survival. Of 470 enrolled patients, 437 were eligible. The trial closed prematurely because of slow patient accrual. Patients were randomly assigned to observation (n = 221) or adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 216). After a median follow-up of 5.0 years, 5-year overall survival was 79.2% in the observation group and 80.4% in the chemotherapy group [hazard ratio (HR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62-1.39; P = 0.73]. The HR for disease-free survival was 0.80 (95% CI 0.60-1.07; P = 0.13). Five-year cumulative incidence for locoregional recurrences was 7.8% in both groups. Five-year cumulative incidence for distant recurrences was 38.5% and 34.7%, respectively (P = 0.39). The PROCTOR-SCRIPT trial could not demonstrate a significant benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidine monotherapy after preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and TME on overall survival, disease-free survival, and recurrence rate. However, this trial did not complete

  11. Probiotics for Rectal Volume Variation During Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ki, Yongkan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wontaek, E-mail: rokwt@hanmail.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Jiho; Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Juhye; Park, Dahl; Jeon, Hosang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Honggu; Kim, Taenam [Department of Urology, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dongwon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus on the percentage volume change of the rectum (PVC{sub R}), a crucial factor of prostate movement. Methods and Materials: Prostate cancer patients managed with tomotherapy as a radical treatment were enrolled in the study to take a probiotic capsule containing 1.0 × 10{sup 8} colony-forming units of L acidophilus or a placebo capsule twice daily. Radiation therapy was performed at a dose of 78 Gy in 39 fractions. The PVC{sub R}, defined as the difference in rectal volume between the planning computed tomographic (CT) and daily megavoltage CT images, was analyzed. Results: Forty patients were randomized into 2 groups. The L acidophilus group showed significantly lower median rectal volume and median PVC{sub R} values than the placebo group. L acidophilus showed a significant reduction effect on the PVC{sub R} (P<.001). However, the radiation therapy fraction number did not significantly influence the PVC{sub R}. Conclusions: L acidophilus was useful in reducing the PVC{sub R}, which is the most important determining factor of prostate position, during radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  12. MR vs CT imaging: low rectal cancer tumour delineation for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, B D P

    2009-06-01

    Modern three-dimentional radiotherapy is based upon CT. For rectal cancer, this relies upon target definition on CT, which is not the optimal imaging modality. The major limitation of CT is its low inherent contrast resolution. Targets defined by MRI could facilitate smaller, more accurate, tumour volumes than CT. Our study reviewed imaging and planning data for 10 patients with locally advanced low rectal cancer (defined as < 6 cm from the anal verge on digital examination). Tumour volume and location were compared for sagittal pre-treatment MRI and planning CT. CT consistently overestimated all tumour radiological parameters. Estimates of tumour volume, tumour length and height of proximal tumour from the anal verge were larger on planning CT than on MRI (p < 0.05). Tumour volumes defined on MRI are smaller, shorter and more distal from the anal sphincter than CT-based volumes. For radiotherapy planning, this may result in smaller treatment volumes, which could lead to a reduction in dose to organs at risk and facilitate dose escalation.

  13. Effects of preoperative chemoradiotherapy on anal sphincter functions and quality of life in rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, Aras Emre; Terzi, Cem; Gorken, Ilknur B; Oztop, Ilhan; Sokmen, Selman; Fuzun, Mehmet

    2010-02-01

    Deterioration of anorectal function after long-course preoperative chemoradiotherapy combined with surgery for rectal cancer is poorly defined. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the acute and long term effects of preoperative chemoradiotherapy on anorectal function and quality of life of the patients. There were 26 patients in surgery group and 31 patients in preoperative chemoradiotherapy group. Anorectal function and quality of life of the patients were assessed by anorectal manometry, incontinence score, quality of life questionnaire. Significant lower resting pressures in both groups and lower maximal squeeze pressures in the preoperative chemoradiotherapy group were observed after postsurgical evaluations compared with the paired pretreatment ones. In the surgery group, both the Wexner continence score, FIQL score, and the rectoscopy score were comparable before and after surgery, whereas significant worsening in the Wexner score was observed in the preoperative chemoradiotherapy group postoperatively (P < 0.01). Significant reduction in anal canal resting pressures and squeeze pressures, Wexner score, and FIQL score were observed immediately after the completion of preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Significant lower maximal squeeze pressures and worsening of the Wexner scores were observed in the preoperative chemoradiotherapy group compared to the surgery group during the postoperative assessments (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Both total mesorectal excision and preoperative chemoradiotherapy may adversely affect the anorectal function. Careful selection of the patients who will benefit from neoadjuvant therapy and identifying the patients with a high risk of developing functional problems may help to improve functional outcomes for the treatment of rectal cancer.

  14. Preoperative chemoradiation in rectal cancer: Retrospective comparison between capecitabine and continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerushalmi, Rinat; Idelevich, Efraim; Dror, Ygael; Stemmer, Salomon M; Figer, Arie; Sulkes, Aaron; Brenner, Baruch; Loven, David; Dreznik, Zeev; Nudelman, Israel; Shani, Adi; Fenig, Eyal

    2006-06-01

    We compared the efficacy and toxicity of oral capecitabine and continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the preoperative chemoradiation treatment of patients with rectal cancer. The files of 89 patients with rectal cancer, 43 treated preoperatively with oral capecitabine and 46 with intravenous 5-FU, were reviewed, and the outcome of the groups was compared. There was no statistically significant difference in the complete pathological response rate between the capecitabine and the 5-FU groups (30% vs. 17%, P = 0.15). The downstaging rate was higher in the capecitabine group (77% vs. 50%, P = 0.009). Toxicity was mild in both groups. The rate of Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity was similar in the two groups (diarrhea 2% vs. 4%, proctitis 5% vs. 7%), except for one patient in the 5-FU group (2%) who developed a rectovaginal fistula. In the capecitabine group, one patient (2%) had Grade 3 hand-foot syndrome, and another had an acute myocardial infarction. In the 5-FU group, two patients (4%) had Grade 3 hematological toxicity, and three (6%) had complications from Port-a-Cath insertion. Preoperative chemoradiation with oral capecitabine appears to be safe and well tolerated, and at least as good as continuous 5-FU. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. STED super-resolution microscopy of clinical paraffin-embedded human rectal cancer tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ilgen

    Full Text Available Formalin fixed and paraffin-embedded human tissue resected during cancer surgery is indispensable for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and represents a vast and largely unexploited resource for research. Optical microscopy of such specimen is curtailed by the diffraction-limited resolution of conventional optical microscopy. To overcome this limitation, we used STED super-resolution microscopy enabling optical resolution well below the diffraction barrier. We visualized nanoscale protein distributions in sections of well-annotated paraffin-embedded human rectal cancer tissue stored in a clinical repository. Using antisera against several mitochondrial proteins, STED microscopy revealed distinct sub-mitochondrial protein distributions, suggesting a high level of structural preservation. Analysis of human tissues stored for up to 17 years demonstrated that these samples were still amenable for super-resolution microscopy. STED microscopy of sections of HER2 positive rectal adenocarcinoma revealed details in the surface and intracellular HER2 distribution that were blurred in the corresponding conventional images, demonstrating the potential of super-resolution microscopy to explore the thus far largely untapped nanoscale regime in tissues stored in biorepositories.

  16. Defunctioning stoma in low anterior resection for rectal cancer: a meta- analysis of five recent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Wang, Dao-Rong; Yu, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Ze-Kun; Wang, Liu-Hua; Li, Yong-Kun

    2012-09-01

    The necessity of a defunctioning stoma in low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer remains controversial. This meta-analysis evaluates the advantages of prophylactic stomas in patients undergoing low anterior resection and assesses postoperative outcomes of patients with or without a defunctioning stoma. Studies and relevant literatures regarding the formation of defunctioning stomas after low anterior resection were searched through PubMed and Embase. The rates of anastomotic leakage and re-operation related to leakage with or without defunctioning stoma were pooled and compared using a meta-analysis. The risk ratios were calculated with 95% confidence intervals to evaluate the influence of defunctioning stomas. Five recent studies including 878 patients in total were included in this meta-analysis. These studies demonstrated that defunctioning stomas significantly reduced the rate of postoperative anastomotic leakage and reoperation after low anterior resection, the pooled risk ratio was 0.34 (95% CI=0.22-0.53, pstomas can be useful to minimize the rate of anastomotic leakage and re-operation related to leakage. Furthermore, anorectal function was not affected. However, the influence of a defunctioning stoma on long-term mortality and the quality of life in patients treated for rectal cancer is inconclusive.

  17. The nutritional impact of diverting stoma-related complications in elderly rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Bong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Jun-Gi; Cho, Hyeon-Min

    2013-10-01

    Diverting stomas following rectal cancer surgery can affect patients' quality of life, and their complications may negatively affect patients' long-term outcomes and quality of life. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between diverting stoma-related complications and nutritional status. In a retrospective study of 114 patients aged 65 years and older who underwent diverting loop ileostomy following rectal cancer surgery between June 2004 and March 2011, we analyzed retrospectively diverting stoma-related complications and nutrition status for the following time periods: before stoma construction, before stoma closure, and after stoma closure. Complications related to the diverting stoma developed in 24 (21.1%) patients and complications related to stoma closure in 11 (9.6%) patients. Nutritional screening performed prior to stoma closure showed that patients who experienced stoma formation-related complications had lower albumin levels (P = 0.016) and lower total lymphocytes (P = stoma-related complication (P = 0.036). Diverting stoma-related complications may affect patient's nutritional status. Stoma closure operation and proper nutritional support may be important for avoiding complications and improving patients' long-term outcomes and quality of life.

  18. Large variation in the use of defunctioning stomas after rectal cancer surgery. A lack of consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Heleen S; Kunneman, Marleen; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Boerma, Djamila; Pieterse, Arwen H; Wouters, Michel J W M; Stiggelbout, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    When deciding about the use of a defunctioning stoma in rectal cancer surgery, benefits and risks need to be weighed. This study investigated: (1a) factors associated with the use of defunctioning stomas; (1b) hospital variation; and (2) surgeons' perceptions regarding factors that determine this decision. Population-based data from the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit were used. Factors for receiving a defunctioning stoma were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression analysis. Hospital variation was assessed before and after case-mix adjustment. A survey was performed among gastroenterological surgeons on the importance of factors for the decision to construct a defunctioning stoma. In total 4368 patients were analyzed and 103 (34%) surgeons participated. Male gender, higher body mass index, lower tumors, preoperative radiotherapy, and treatment in a teaching/university hospital increased the odds for a defunctioning stoma. Unadjusted hospital variation ranged from 0% to 98%. Variation remained after case-mix adjustment (0-100%). There was large variation in factors considered important for the decision; almost all factors were ranked as 'most important' at least once. There is large variation in the use of defunctioning stomas for patients with rectal cancer, and a lack in uniformity of the selection criteria. These results underline the need to improve current decision making and identification of high-risk patients.

  19. Role of Intra- and Peritumoral Budding in the Interdisciplinary Management of Rectal Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inti Zlobec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of tumor budding (TuB at the invasive front of rectal cancers is a valuable indicator of tumor aggressiveness. Tumor buds, typically identified as single cells or small tumor cell clusters detached from the main tumor body, are characterized by loss of cell adhesion, increased migratory, and invasion potential and have been referred to as malignant stem cells. The adverse clinical outcome of patients with a high-grade TuB phenotype has consistently been demonstrated. TuB is a category IIB prognostic factor; it has yet to be investigated in the prospective setting. The value of TuB in oncological and pathological practice goes beyond its use as a simple histomorphological marker of tumor aggressiveness. In this paper, we outline three situations in which the assessment of TuB may have direct implications on treatment within the multidisciplinary management of patients with rectal cancer: (a patients with TNM stage II (i.e., T3/T4, N0 disease potentially benefitting from adjuvant therapy, (b patients with early submucosally invasive (T1, sm1-sm3 carcinomas at a high risk of nodal positivity and (c the role of intratumoral budding assessed in preoperative biopsies as a marker for lymph node and distant metastasis thus potentially aiding the identification of patients suitable for neoadjuvant therapy.

  20. Development of an irradiation method of intraoperative radiation therapy for curatively resected rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadahiro, Sataro; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Ishikawa, Kenji [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine] (and others)

    1999-08-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) has been performed to prevent local recurrence of rectal cancer only when positive margins are suspected. To further reduce local recurrence, we attempted to develop a new IORT irradiation method in which electron beam irradiation is administered as uniformly as possible to the intrapelvic dissection surfaces. Low anterior resection and abdominoperineal resection were performed in one male and one female cadaver. Electron beam irradiation was administered by four different methods, and absorbed doses were measured at 15 sites within the pelvis. We also attempted to measure absorbed doses at nine sites within the pelvis in 14 patients treated with IORT. The cadaver study revealed low absorbed doses in the lateral walls of the pelvis when a single irradiation was delivered from the anterior. When the lateral walls of the pelvis were irradiated twice, once each time on the right and left, the absorbed doses were low in the central pelvis and presacrum. Relatively high absorbed doses were achieved in all of these areas by a technique that combined these two methods. Adequate absorbed doses were not achieved by a single irradiation administered from the perineum. This study suggests that electron beam irradiation administered three times to the dissected surfaces in the pelvis after resection of rectal cancer (i.e., to the central pelvis and presacrum from the anterior, and to the left and right lateral walls of the pelvis) is the most suitable method for achieving adequate absorbed doses. (author)

  1. Isolated rectal cancer surgery: a 2007-2014 population study based on a large administrative database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, Mario; Buja, Alessandra; Mantoan, Domenico; Sartor, Gino; Agresta, Ferdinando; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2017-04-13

    Rectal resection is technically one of the most demanding laparoscopic procedures, requiring additional training and expertise of both surgeons and institutions. The literature has shown that laparoscopic procedures can be appropriate for the treatment of rectal cancer (RC), in terms of safety, outcome and efficiency, but results may not always be directly transferable to the general population. This study aimed to investigate the use of laparoscopic rectal cancer resections in a north-eastern Italian region (the Veneto) and to see how the characteristics of patients and hospitals are associated with the use of laparoscopy. This was a retrospective cohort study based on administrative data collected from 2007 to 2014 in the Veneto region (north-east Italy). In the period considered (2007-2014), 4953 rectal resections were performed for RC in Veneto hospitals, accounting for 35% of the total 14,243 surgical procedures involving the rectum, and resulting in 76,739 days in hospital [mean length of stay-post-operative (MLOS) 15.5 ± 11.1 days]. Patients were a mean 67.9 ± 11.7 years old (68 ± 12.7 for women, 67.9 ± 11 for men), while the subgroup of patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures was on average 2 years younger (66.5 ± 11.8 vs 68.8 ± 11.5; p < 0.05). The four main findings of this study are: (1) the increasing rates of laparoscopic procedures for RC resection at all the hospitals in our geographical area, rising up to 52% in 2014. This is probably related to not only to availability of better equipment but surely to a growing expertise of surgeons; (2) the esteem of proportion of laparoscopically treated RC; (3) the significant difference between the laparoscopic and open surgical approach in terms of mean length of hospital stay after RC resection, making the laparoscopic approach cost-effective generally speaking; and (4) the disparities in hospitals' use of laparoscopy by patients' age group: Laparoscopic surgery is safe also in

  2. Pathologic Complete Response Rates After Neoadjuvant Treatment in Rectal Cancer: An Analysis of the National Cancer Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Patrick D; Motz, Benjamin M; Kirks, Russell C; Boselli, Danielle M; Walsh, Kendall K; Prabhu, Roshan S; Hill, Joshua S; Salo, Jonathan C

    2017-08-01

    Pathologic complete response (pCR) of rectal cancer following neoadjuvant therapy is associated with decreased local recurrence and increased overall survival. This study utilizes a national dataset to identify predictors of pCR in patients with rectal cancer. The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with nonmetastatic rectal cancer (2004-2014) who underwent neoadjuvant therapy and surgical resection. Unadjusted associations were assessed using rank-sum tests and χ (2) tests where appropriate. Backward elimination and forward selection multivariable logistic regression models were created to determine the relationship of annual surgical volume with pCR rate, adjusting for preoperative characteristics and radiation-surgery interval. Statistical tests were two-sided, with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Analyses were performed using SAS version 9.4. A total of 27,532 patients from 1179 participating hospitals met the inclusion criteria. Generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that the odds of achieving pCR was independently associated with more recent diagnosis, female sex, private insurance, lower grade, lower clinical T classification, lower clinical N classification, increasing interval between the end of radiation and surgery, and treatment at higher-volume institutions. pCR was associated with favorable tumor factors, insurance status, time between radiation and surgery, and institutional volume. It is not clear what is driving the higher rates of pCR at high-volume institutions. Research targeted at understanding processes that are associated with pCR in high-volume institutions is needed so that similar results can be achieved across the spectrum of facilities caring for patients in this population.

  3. High Immunoreactivity of DUOX2 Is Associated With Poor Response to Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy and Worse Prognosis in Rectal Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Chun; Chang, I-Wei; Hsieh, Pei-Ling; Lin, Ching-Yih; Sun, Ding-Ping; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Yang, Ching-Chieh; Lin, Li-Ching; He, Hong-Lin; Tian, Yu-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and also the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. For rectal cancer, neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by radical proctectomy is gold standard treatment for patients with stage II/III rectal cancer. By data mining a documented database of rectal cancer transcriptome (GSE35452) from Gene Expression Omnibus, National Center of Biotechnology Information, we recognized that DUOX2 was the most significantly up-regulated transcript among those related to cytokine and chemokine mediated signaling pathway (GO:0019221). Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the DUOX2 expression level and its clinicopathological correlation and prognostic significance in patients of rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: DUOX2 immunostain was performed in 172 rectal adenocarcinomas treated with preoperative CCRT followed by radical proctectomy, which were divided into high- and low-expression subgroups. Furthermore, statistical analyses were examined to correlate the relationship between DUOX2 immunoreactivity and important clinical and pathological characteristics, as well as three survival indices: disease-specific survival (DSS), local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) and metastasis-free survival (MeFS). Results: DUOX2 overexpression was linked to post-CCRT tumor advancement, pre- and post-CCRT nodal metastasis and poor response to CCRT (all P ≤ 0.021). Furthermore, DUOX2 high expression was significantly associated with inferior DSS, LRFS and MeFS in univariate analysis ( P ≤ 0.0097) and also served as an independent prognosticator indicating shorter DSS and LRFS interval in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.413, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.349-8.633; HR = 4.533, 95% CI: 1.499-13.708, respectively). Conclusion: DUOX2 may play a pivotal role in carcinogenesis, tumor progression and response to neoadjuvant CCRT in rectal cancers, and serve as a novel prognostic

  4. Benchmarking trial between France and Australia comparing management of primary rectal cancer beyond TME and locally recurrent rectal cancer (PelviCare Trial): rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denost, Quentin; Saillour, Florence; Masya, Lindy; Martinaud, Helene Maillou; Guillon, Stephanie; Kret, Marion; Rullier, Eric; Quintard, Bruno; Solomon, Michael

    2016-04-04

    Among patients with rectal cancer, 5-10% have a primary rectal cancer beyond the total mesorectal excision plane (PRC-bTME) and 10% recur locally following primary surgery (LRRC). In both cases, patients 'care remains challenging with a significant worldwide variation in practice regarding overall management and criteria for operative intervention. These variations in practice can be explained by structural and organizational differences, as well as cultural dissimilarities. However, surgical resection of PRC-bTME and LRRC provides the best chance of long-term survival after complete resection (R0). With regards to the organization of the healthcare system and the operative criteria for these patients, France and Australia seem to be highly different. A benchmarking-type analysis between French and Australian clinical practice, with regards to the care and management of PRC-bTME and LRRC, would allow understanding of patients' care and management structures as well as individual and collective mechanisms of operative decision-making in order to ensure equitable practice and improve survival for these patients. The current study is an international Benchmarking trial comparing two cohorts of 120 consecutive patients with non-metastatic PRC-bTME and LRRC. Patients with curative and palliative treatment intent are included. The study design has three main parts: (1) French and Australian cohorts including clinical, radiological and surgical data, quality of life (MOS SF36, FACT-C) and distress level (Distress thermometer) at the inclusion, 6 and 12 months; (2) experimental analyses consisting of a blinded inter-country reading of pelvic MRI to assess operatory decisions; (3) qualitative analyses based on MDT meeting observation, semi-structured interviews and focus groups of health professional attendees and conducted by a research psychologist in both countries using the same guides. The primary endpoint will be the clinical resection rate. Secondary end points will

  5. A case of rectal cancer with sternal metastasis as initial presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J H; Kim, S J; Oh, J Y; Ryu, S R; Shim, K S; Kim, K H; Baek, S Y; Choi, H Y; Lee, S W; Kim, M J

    1995-08-01

    Colorectal cancer with bone metastasis as initial manifestation is a very rare event. We have reported a case of rectal cancer presenting with sternal metastasis. A 30 year-old man was evaluated due to pain in the sternal area with a bulging mass. History and physical examination did not suggest any specific disease. A radionuclide bone scan revealed increased uptake in the sternal area, right 6th rib, and sacrum. Microscopic examination of a biopsy specimen from the sternum showed metastatic adenocarcinoma. A barium enema and CT scan of the pelvis suggested carcinoma of the upper rectum. Adenocarcinoma of the rectosigmoid junction area was demonstrated by colonoscopic examination with biopsy. He received palliative transverse colostomy for obstruction without further treatment.

  6. Association Between Geographic Access to Cancer Care and Receipt of Radiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun Chieh, E-mail: anna.lin@cancer.org [American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Bruinooge, Suanna S.; Kirkwood, M. Kelsey [American Society of Clinical Oncology, Alexandria, Virginia (United States); Hershman, Dawn L. [Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Jemal, Ahmedin [American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yu, James B. [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Hopkins, Shane [William R. Bliss Cancer Center, Ames, Iowa (United States); Goldstein, Michael [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bajorin, Dean [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Giordano, Sharon H. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kosty, Michael [Scripps Clinic, San Diego, California (United States); Arnone, Anna [American Society for Radiation Oncology, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Hanley, Amy [American Society of Clinical Oncology, Alexandria, Virginia (United States); Stevens, Stephanie [American Society for Radiation Oncology, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Olsen, Christine [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: Trimodality therapy (chemoradiation and surgery) is the standard of care for stage II/III rectal cancer but nearly one third of patients do not receive radiation therapy (RT). We examined the relationship between the density of radiation oncologists and the travel distance to receipt of RT. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study based on the National Cancer Data Base identified 26,845 patients aged 18 to 80 years with stage II/III rectal cancer diagnosed from 2007 to 2010. Radiation oncologists were identified through the Physician Compare dataset. Generalized estimating equations clustering by hospital service area was used to examine the association between geographic access and receipt of RT, controlling for patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Results: Of the 26,845 patients, 70% received RT within 180 days of diagnosis or within 90 days of surgery. Compared with a travel distance of <12.5 miles, patients diagnosed at a reporting facility who traveled ≥50 miles had a decreased likelihood of receipt of RT (50-249 miles, adjusted odds ratio 0.75, P<.001; ≥250 miles, adjusted odds ratio 0.46; P=.002), all else being equal. The density level of radiation oncologists was not significantly associated with the receipt of RT. Patients who were female, nonwhite, and aged ≥50 years and had comorbidities were less likely to receive RT (P<.05). Patients who were uninsured but self-paid for their medical services, initially diagnosed elsewhere but treated at a reporting facility, and resided in Midwest had an increased the likelihood of receipt of RT (P<.05). Conclusions: An increased travel burden was associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving RT for patients with stage II/III rectal cancer, all else being equal; however, radiation oncologist density was not. Further research of geographic access and establishing transportation assistance programs or lodging services for patients with an unmet need might help decrease

  7. Smooth muscle enfoldment internal sphincter construction after intersphincteric resection for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Heiying; Zhang, Bei; Yao, Hang; Du, Yonghong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Leng, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    To assess smooth muscle enfoldment and internal sphincter construction (SMESC) for improvement of continence after intersphincteric resection (ISR) for rectal cancer. Twenty-four Bama miniature pigs were randomly divided into a conventional ISR group and experimental SMESC group, with 12 pigs in each group. The proximal sigmoid colon was anastomosed directly to the anus in the ISR group. In the SMESC group, internal sphincter construction was performed. At 12 weeks before and after surgery, rectal resting pressure and anal canal length were assessed. Three-dimensional ultrasound was used to determine the thickness of the internal sphincter. After the animals were sacrificed, the rectum and anus were resected and pathological examinations were performed to evaluate the differences in sphincter thickness and muscle fibers. All 24 animals in the SMESC group and the ISR group survived the surgery. Twelve weeks post-surgery, the rectal resting pressure, length of the anal high-pressure zone and the postoperative internal sphincter thickness for the ISR group were significantly lower than for the SMESC group. There was a thickened area (about 2 cm) above the anastomotic stoma among animals from the SMESC group; in addition, the smooth muscles were significantly enlarged and enfolded when compared to the ISR group. This animal model study shows that the SMESC procedure achieved acceptable reconstruction of the internal anal neo-sphincter (IAN/S), without increasing surgical risk. However, the findings in this experimental animal model must be confirmed by clinical trials to determine the safety and efficacy of this procedure in clinical practice.

  8. Smooth muscle enfoldment internal sphincter construction after intersphincteric resection for rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiying Jin

    Full Text Available To assess smooth muscle enfoldment and internal sphincter construction (SMESC for improvement of continence after intersphincteric resection (ISR for rectal cancer.Twenty-four Bama miniature pigs were randomly divided into a conventional ISR group and experimental SMESC group, with 12 pigs in each group. The proximal sigmoid colon was anastomosed directly to the anus in the ISR group. In the SMESC group, internal sphincter construction was performed. At 12 weeks before and after surgery, rectal resting pressure and anal canal length were assessed. Three-dimensional ultrasound was used to determine the thickness of the internal sphincter. After the animals were sacrificed, the rectum and anus were resected and pathological examinations were performed to evaluate the differences in sphincter thickness and muscle fibers.All 24 animals in the SMESC group and the ISR group survived the surgery. Twelve weeks post-surgery, the rectal resting pressure, length of the anal high-pressure zone and the postoperative internal sphincter thickness for the ISR group were significantly lower than for the SMESC group. There was a thickened area (about 2 cm above the anastomotic stoma among animals from the SMESC group; in addition, the smooth muscles were significantly enlarged and enfolded when compared to the ISR group.This animal model study shows that the SMESC procedure achieved acceptable reconstruction of the internal anal neo-sphincter (IAN/S, without increasing surgical risk. However, the findings in this experimental animal model must be confirmed by clinical trials to determine the safety and efficacy of this procedure in clinical practice.

  9. Oncologic and Functional Hazards of Obesity Among Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Following Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In J; You, Y Nancy; Skibber, John M; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A; Das, Prajnan; Eng, Cathy; Kopetz, Scott; Wolff, Robert A; Crane, Christopher H; Krishnan, Sunil; Minsky, Bruce; Hu, Chung-Yuan; Nguyen, Sa; Chang, George J

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a major health concern and risk factor for colorectal cancer that may also impact cancer treatment and outcomes. Rectal cancer response to chemoradiotherapy (CXRT) is associated with long-term survival and sphincter preservation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity on treatment outcomes after neoadjuvant CXRT for rectal cancer. A retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed (1993 to 2010) with cT3-4 or cN+ (by endorectal ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging) rectal carcinoma and treated with CXRT and total mesorectal excision was performed. Patients were classified as obese (body mass index ≥30 kg/m) or nonobese (body mass index obesity, tumor response, and sphincter preservation were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis and survival outcomes by Cox regression. A total of 753 patients met criteria and 28.7% (n=216) patients were obese. Obese and nonobese groups did not differ in age, sex, tumor location, grade, or number of examined lymph nodes. However, obesity was associated with a lower rate of pCR (ORmulti=0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.94; P=0.04) and among mid to low rectal cancer patients, a lower rate of sphincter preservation (ORmulti=0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.99). Among both obese and nonobese patients, CR was associated with more favorable recurrence-free survival than pIR. Considering the increasing obesity prevalence and its association with CXRT response, oncologic outcomes, and sphincter preservation, further study is needed regarding the impact of obesity on neoadjuvant treatment response. Moreover, obesity should be targeted as a modifiable risk factor for adverse outcomes following multimodality treatment for rectal cancer.

  10. Increased use of multidisciplinary treatment modalities adds little to the outcome of rectal cancer treated by optimal total mesorectal excision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chang, Kah Hoong

    2012-10-01

    Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard surgical treatment for rectal cancer. The roles of chemotherapy and radiotherapy have become more defined, accompanied by improvements in preoperative staging and histopathological assessment. We analyse our ongoing results in the light of changing patterns of treatment over consecutive time periods.

  11. Diffusion-weighted MRI to assess response to chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer: main interpretation pitfalls and their use for teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambregts, Doenja M. J.; van Heeswijk, Miriam M.; Delli Pizzi, Andrea; van Elderen, Saskia G. C.; Andrade, Luisa; Peters, Nicky H. G. M.; Kint, Peter A. M.; Osinga-de Jong, Margreet; Bipat, Shandra; Ooms, Rik; Lahaye, Max J.; Maas, Monique; Beets, Geerard L.; Bakers, Frans C. H.; Beets-Tan, Regina G. H.

    2017-01-01

    To establish the most common image interpretation pitfalls for non-expert readers using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to assess response to chemoradiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer and to explore the use of these pitfalls in an expert teaching setting. Two independent non-expert readers

  12. Preoperative treatment with capecitabine, cetuximab and radiotherapy for primary locally advanced rectal cancer : A phase II clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisterer, Wolfgang; de Vries, Alexander; Öfner, Dietmar; Rabl, Hans; Koplmüller, Renate; Greil, Richard; Tschmelitsch, Jöerg; Schmid, Rainer; Kapp, Karin; Lukas, Peter; Sedlmayer, Felix; Höfler, Gerald; Gnant, Michael; Thaler, Josef; Widder, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the feasibility and safety of preoperative capecitabine, cetuximab and radiation in patients with MRI-defined locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC, cT3/T4). PATIENTS AND METHODS: 31 patients with LARC were treated with cetuximab and capecitabine concomitantly with 45

  13. Dietary fat and risk of colon and rectal cancer with aberrant MLH1 expression, APC or KRAS genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenberg, M.P.; Luchtenborg, M.; Goeij, A.F. de; Brink, M.; Muijen, G.N.P. van; Bruine, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate baseline fat intake and the risk of colon and rectal tumors lacking MLH1 (mutL homolog 1, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 2) repair gene expression and harboring mutations in the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) tumor suppressor gene and in the KRAS (v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat

  14. Defining pelvic factors in sphincter-preservation of low rectal cancer with a three-dimensional digital model of pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jin; Bo, Xue Feng; Xiong, Chun Yang; Wu, Ai Wen; Zhang, Xiao Peng; Li, Ming; An, Qi; Fang, Jing; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Hong Yi; Gao, Fei; You, Wei Cheng

    2006-10-01

    Surgeons often can contribute failure of sphincter-preserving procedure to a limitation of pelvis anatomy; however, they cannot determine definitely which anatomic diameter or spatial factor actually affected the success of the procedure. Colorectal surgeons, radiologists, and research fellows collaborated closely to establish a three-dimensional digital model of the pelvis with spiral computerized tomography scanning data of patients with rectal cancer. Retrospective analysis on data of 97 patients with low rectal cancer was performed with this model to identify geometric factors that might affect a successful sphincter preservation procedure for low rectal cancer. A digital pelvic model was established. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that distance from the anal verge, body mass index, and pelvic factors affected the success of sphincter preservation. Sphincter preservation was more likely to succeed when the distance from anal verge was > or =5 cm and body mass index was affect the success of sphincter preservation for low rectal cancer patients besides the distance from anal verge and body mass index.

  15. Health-related quality of life after laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer in a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, J; Angenete, E; Gellerstedt, M

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies comparing laparoscopic and open surgical techniques have reported improved health-related quality of life (HRQL). This analysis compared HRQL 12¿months after laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer in a subset of a randomized trial....

  16. Comparison of intraoperative radiation therapy-containing multimodality treatment with historical treatment modalities for locally recurrent rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannaerts, GHH; Rutten, HJT; Martijn, H; Hanssens, PEJ; Wiggers, T

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: Treatment protocols for patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer have changed in the last two decades. Subsequently, treatment goals shifted from palliation to possible cure. In this retrospective study, we explored the treatment variables that may have contributed to the improvement

  17. Combination of pseudocontinent perineal colostomy and appendicostomy: a new approach in the treatment of low rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Rasoul; Alvandipour, Mina; Shoar, Saeed; Mahjoubi, Bahar

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal perineal resection (APR) with applied colostomy remains the standard treatment for low rectal cancer; however, to date, a very high morbidity rate has been reported. The aims of this study were to assess fecal continence, persistence of disease-related symptoms, and quality of life in patients with low rectal cancer after APR and pseudocontinent perineal colostomy and concomitant appendicostomy. We included 17 patients with low rectal cancer who underwent APR at our hospital in this cross-sectional study. Following APR, pseudocontinent perineal colostomy and concomitant appendicostomy were performed. Patients then underwent antegrade colonic enema with tap water. Patients' symptoms, fecal continence, and quality of life were evaluated at regular time intervals. After a median follow-up of 12 months, 15 of 17 patients completed the study period. All patients were able to perform an antegrade enema by themselves. Mean continence score was 7 (out of 20) based on the Wexner Scale scoring system. Mean global health status score was 78, physical function was 93, and emotional function was 88. Minor morbidity was observed in 6 patients (40%). Pseudocontinent perineal colostomy with appendicostomy provides an acceptable level of continence and functional and emotional improvement in patients with low rectal cancer undergoing APR. Hence, this combinative method could be considered as an alternative for abdominal colostomy in selected patients.

  18. The anatomical substrate for a difference in surgical approach to rectal cancer in male and female patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschueren, RCJ; Mulder, NH; VanLoon, AJ; DeRuiter, AJ; Szabo, BG

    1997-01-01

    This review emphasizes gender related anatomical differences warranting a difference in surgical approach to the problem of rectal cancer in men and women. Differences in the anatomy of the bony pelvis, the pelvic viscera and the lymphatics of the rectum, inspired the authors to extend the margins

  19. Effects on functional outcome after IORT-containing multimodality treatment for locally advanced primary and locally recurrent rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannaerts, GHH; Rutten, HJT; Martijn, H; Hanssens, PEJ; Wiggers, T

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: In the treatment of patients with locally advanced primary or locally recurrent rectal cancer, much attention is focused on. the oncologic outcome. Little is known about the functional outcome. In this study, the functional outcome after a multimodality treatment for locally advanced

  20. Performance of gadofosveset-enhanced MRI for staging rectal cancer nodes: can the initial promising results be reproduced?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijnen, Luc A.; Martens, Milou H. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Lambregts, Doenja M.J.; Maas, Monique; Bakers, Frans C.H. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Cappendijk, Vincent C. [Jeroen Bosch Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, ' s Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Oliveira, Pedro [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, Department of Radiology, Porto (Portugal); Lammering, Guido [Maastro Clinic, Radiation Oncology, Maastricht (Netherlands); GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Riedl, Robert G. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Beets, Geerard L. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Beets-Tan, Regina G.H. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    A previous study showed promising results for gadofosveset-trisodium as a lymph node magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to prospectively confirm the diagnostic performance of gadofosveset MRI for nodal (re)staging in rectal cancer in a second patient cohort. Seventy-one rectal cancer patients were prospectively included, of whom 13 (group I) underwent a primary staging gadofosveset MRI (1.5-T) followed by surgery (± preoperative 5 x 5 Gy) and 58 (group II) underwent both primary staging and restaging gadofosveset MRI after a long course of chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery. Nodal status was scored as (y)cN0 or (y)cN+ by two independent readers (R1, R2) with different experience levels. Results were correlated with histology on a node-by-node basis. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) were 94 %, 79 % and 0.89 for the more experienced R1 and 50 %, 83 % and 0.74 for the non-experienced R2. R2's performance improved considerably after a learning curve, to an AUC of 0.83. Misinterpretations mainly occurred in nodes located in the superior mesorectum, nodes located in between vessels and nodes containing micrometastases. This prospective study confirms the good diagnostic performance of gadofosveset MRI for nodal (re)staging in rectal cancer. (orig.)

  1. Sphincter-sparing surgery after preoperative radiotherapy for low rectal cancers: feasibility, oncologic results and quality of life outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allal, A. S.; Bieri, S.; Pelloni, A.; Spataro, V.; Anchisi, S.; Ambrosetti, P.; Sprangers, M. A.; Kurtz, J. M.; Gertsch, P.

    2000-01-01

    The present study assesses the choice of surgical procedure, oncologic results and quality of life (QOL) outcomes in a retrospective cohort of 53 patients with low-lying rectal cancers (within 6 cm of the anal verge) treated surgically following preoperative radiotherapy (RT, median dose 45Gy) with

  2. Assessment for effects and adverse effects of preoperative high-dose-rate intraluminal brachytherapy for lower rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terauchi, Kazuo (Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan))

    1993-11-01

    Endoscopic and histological effects and perianal dermal side effects after high-dose-rate intraluminal brachytherapy (HDRIBT) using [sup 60]Co for preoperative irradiation were assessed in thirty-five patients with low-lying rectal cancers. In more than half of the patients irradiated with 30 Gy or more, marked effective change was observed under endoscopy. In the histological assessment, while the resected lesions irradiated with 16-20 Gy showed no effective change, 68.8%, 75.0%, and 76.9% respectively, of those in the groups given 30 Gy, 40-60 Gy, and 80 Gy showed marked destruction. While 23. 1% of the patients irradiated with 80 Gy developed severe perianal dermal lesions requiring surgical removal of the anus, 18.8% of the 30 Gy group and 25% of the 40-60 Gy group suffered from dermal side effects which were mild and reversible. Consequently, it has been concluded that the proper regimen for preoperative HDRIBT for rectal cancer was 30 Gy followed by surgery within two weeks. During the follow up period from 35 to 70 months, one patient (2.9%) who received 16 Gy HDRIBT developed local recurrence within 3 years after resection, and the other one developed hepatic metastasis. The 3-year local recurrence rate after resection for lower rectal cancer in the previous series at our department was 19.6%. We, therefore, concluded that HDRIBT was a promising adjuvant therapy for rectal cancer. (author).

  3. Clinical nature and prognosis of locally recurrent rectal cancer after total mesorectal excision with or without preoperative radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, M.; Stiggelbout, AM; van den Hout, WB; Kievit, J; Kranenbarg, EK; Marijnen, CAM; Nagtegaal, ID; Rutten, HJT; Wiggers, T; van de Velde, CJH

    2004-01-01

    Purpose To document the clinical nature and prognosis of locally. recurrent rectal cancer after total mesorectal excision (TME) with or without 5 X 5 Gy preoperative radiotherapy (PRT) and to identify patient-, disease-, and treatment-related factors associated with differences in prognosis after

  4. Clinical nature and prognosis of locally recurrent rectal cancer after total mesorectal excision with or without preoperative radiotherapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Hout, W.B. van den; Kievit, J.; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E.; Marijnen, C.A.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Rutten, H.J.; Wiggers, T.; Velde, C.J. van de

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To document the clinical nature and prognosis of locally recurrent rectal cancer after total mesorectal excision (TME) with or without 5 x 5 Gy preoperative radiotherapy (PRT) and to identify patient-, disease-, and treatment-related factors associated with differences in prognosis after

  5. Detection of colorectal cancer in symptomatic outpatients without visible rectal bleeding: Validity of the fecal occult blood test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Niels Christian; Tøttrup, Anders; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, a new diagnostic strategy in symptomatic outpatients without known established colorectal cancer risk factors aged 40 years or older was implemented in Denmark. Fecal occult blood test (Hemoccult Sensa®) was a part of that strategy in patients without visible rectal bleeding....

  6. Clinical Implication of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression for Rectal Cancer Patients with Lymph Node Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyung Sik; Choi, Young Min; Hur, Won Joo; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Dae Cheol; Roh, Mee Sook; Hong, Young Seoub; Park, Ki Jae [Dona-A University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To assess the influence of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression on the survival of patients with a combination of rectal cancer and lymph node metastasis. The study included rectal cancer patients treated by radical surgery and postoperative radiotherapy at the Dong-A university hospital from 1998 to 2004. A retrospective analysis was performed on a subset of patients that also had lymph node metastasis. After excluding eight of 86 patients, due to missing tissue samples in three, malignant melanoma in one, treatment of gastric cancer around one year before diagnosis in one, detection of lung cancer after one year of diagnosis in one, liver metastasis in one, and refusal of radiotherapy after 720 cGy in one, 78 patients were analyzed. The immunohistochemistry for COX-2 was conducted with an autostainer (BenchMark; Ventana, Tucson, AZ, USA). An image analyzer (TissueMine; Bioimagene, Cupertino, CA, USA) was used for analysis after scanning (ScanScope; Aperio, Vista, CA, USA). A survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan Meier method and significance was evaluated using the log rank test. COX-2 was stained positively in 62 patients (79.5%) and negatively in 16 (20.5%). A total of 6 (7.7%), 15 (19.2%), and 41 (52.6%) patients were of grades 1, 2, and 3, respectively for COX-2 expression. No correlation was found between being positive of COX-2 patient characteristics, which include age (<60-year old vs. {>=}60), sex, operation methods (abdominoperineal resection vs. lower anterior resection), degrees of differentiation, tumor size (<5 cm vs. {>=}5 cm), T stages, N stages, and stages (IIIa, IIIb, IIIc). The 5-year overall and 5-year disease free survival rates for the entire patient population were 57.0% and 51.6%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates for the COX-2 positive and negative patients were 53.0% and 72.9%, respectively (p=0.146). Further, the 5-year disease free survival rates for the COX-2 positive and negative patients were 46.3% and 72

  7. Prognostic Significance of Digital Rectal Examination and Prostate Specific Antigen in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Joshua A; Shoag, Jonathan E; Mittal, Sameer; Oromendia, Clara; Ballman, Karla V; Hershman, Dawn L; Wright, Jason D; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Nguyen, Paul L; Hu, Jim C

    2017-02-01

    The absence of definitive data or explicit guidelines regarding the use of digital rectal examination for prostate cancer screening may lead to confusion for physicians and patients alike. We evaluated the prognostic value of abnormal digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen following the widespread dissemination of prostate specific antigen testing in the U.S. Collectively, men comprising the screening arm of the PLCO cancer screening trial who underwent digital rectal examination screening (35,350) were followed for 314,033 person-years. Adjusted analyses with competing risks regression were performed to assess the association of suspicious (nodularity, induration, asymmetry) digital rectal examination and abnormal prostate specific antigen (4 ng/ml or greater) with the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer, prostate cancer specific mortality and overall mortality. Among all screening encounters with a suspicious digital rectal examination only 15.4% had a concurrently abnormal prostate specific antigen (McNemar's test p digital rectal examination and abnormal prostate specific antigen were associated with a greater risk of clinically significant prostate cancer (HR 2.21, 95% CI 1.99-2.44 vs HR 5.48, 95% CI 5.05-5.96, p digital rectal examination and abnormal prostate specific antigen on routine screening were independently associated with clinically significant prostate cancer and prostate cancer specific mortality. However, additional research is needed to optimize screening protocols. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Putrescine, DNA, RNA and protein contents in human uterine, breast and rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandopadhyay M

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To find out the status of DNA, RNA and protein in human uterine, ovarian, breast and rectal carcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective study, patients of age group between late thirties and late fifties suffering from uterine, ovarian, breast and rectal cancer were taken as subjects of the present study. The total number of cases studied for each cases was ten. Pieces of human carcinomatous tissues of above mentioned cases were taken along with surrounding normal tissues. From the tissue samples, putrescine is separated by the method of Herbst et al, DNA analysed by Diphenylamine method, RNA by Orcinol method and protein by Biuret method. RESULTS: Tissue content of putrescine rises simultaneously with that of DNA, RNA and protein in carcinomatous growths as above in comparison to their respective adjacent normal tissue, the differences being statistically highly significant. CONCLUSIONS: Increase in DNA, RNA and protein concentration may be a pre-requisite for increased synthesis of putrescine in carcinomatous tissue and thereby the concentration of other di- and poly-amines.

  9. Significance of pelvic CT examination for the diagnosis of the distal colonic and rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Takeshi (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-05-01

    Pelvic CT examination was performed in preoperative 40 patients and postoperrative 51 patients of the distal colonic and rectal carcinoma. CT study expect for the decision of the depth of invasion and the detection of lymph node metastasis, or the location of recurrence. Diagnostic accuracy rate of the depth of invasion was 68.6% in tumors of sigmoid colon, rectosigmoid, and upper rectum, and 78.9% in lower rectum, and anal canal. These rates were superior to those of selective angiographic examination. Diagnostic accuracy rate for lymph node metastasis was 73.0%. CT examination could define the lymph node swelling, but could not define if those were metastasis or not. Furthermore, CT-angiography was beneficial for the estimation of the depth of invasion. The differentiation between local recurrent tumor and granulomatous mass in the perineum after abdomino-perineal resection is the most important problem. However, further studies are necessary to obtain the definite criteria of differential diagnosis. Above results support that CT examination should be used routinely in the distal colonic and rectal cancer patients.

  10. Predictive factors of complete response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Chiara; Pepe, Stefano; D'Armiento, Francesco Paolo; D'Armiento, Maria; Cannella, Lucia; De Stefano, Alfonso; Crispo, Anna; Giordano, Marcella; De Placido, Sabino

    2010-01-01

    Pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is a favorable prognosticator in rectal cancer patients. We investigated whether the biological features of the primary tumor affect pCR. Forty-six patients treated with capecitabine-oxaliplatin and pelvic conformal radiotherapy were considered. Forty-three patients underwent surgery, and the pathologic response was scored according to the tumor regression grade (TRG) scale. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor, poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1, X-ray cross-complimenting, thymidylate synthase (TS) and Ki67 expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry on rectal biopsies obtained before chemoradiotherapy, and scored as the percentage of positive cells. Cutoffs were selected based on ROC analysis. The correlation between the biological factors and the TRG coded as TRG1 (pCR) versus TRG ≥2 (no pCR) was assessed by the χ(2) test and logistic regression analysis. Low EGFR (p = 0.007), high TS (p = 0.002), and high Ki67 (p = 0.05) were strongly associated with pCR. Upon univariate analysis, TRG significantly affected disease-free survival (p = 0.03). pCR was significantly associated with high TS, high Ki67 and low EGFR expression. Patients with pCR have a significantly lower incidence of relapse. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Adjuvant treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer patients after preoperative chemoradiotherapy: when, and for whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Alfonso; Moretto, Roberto; Bucci, Luigi; Pepe, Stefano; Romano, Francesco Jacopo; Cella, Alessandra Chiara; Attademo, Laura; Rosanova, Mario; De Falco, Stefano; Fiore, Giovanni; Raimondo, Lucia; De Placido, Sabino; Carlomagno, Chiara

    2014-09-01

    The standard treatment for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (clinical tumor, node, metastases [TNM] stage II or III) is radiotherapy before surgery (with or without concomitant fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy) followed by surgery. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in this setting of patients is controversial in terms of the overall benefit on survival, the subgroup of patients who might not need it, and the best regimen (combination regimens vs. fluoropyrimidine alone). Based on the retrospective analysis of the clinical outcome of all patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma treated at our institute during the past 9 years, we comment on prognostic factors for local and distant metastases of patients who received neoadjuvant treatment followed by surgery, and the scientific evidence that can help to decide the adjuvant chemotherapy. We conclude that pathological TNM stage after neoadjuvant chemoradiation (ypTNM) stage after surgery significantly affects disease-free and overall survival. In particular, patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes (ypN+) after surgery have a high probability of developing distant metastases. ypN+ patients are candidate for intensified adjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Clinical application of pelvic floor reconstruction in extralevator abdominoperineal excision for low rectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wei; Chen, Gang; Jiang, Songsong; Wang, Hao

    2018-01-25

    To investigate the safety and clinical significance of pelvic floor reconstruction in extralevator abdominoperineal excision(ELAPE) for advanced low rectal cancer. The clinical efficacy was retrospectively analyzed in 30 patients with low rectal cancer who underwent ELAPE from January 2013 to December 2016 in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, the affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School. There were 21 male patients and 9 female, with an average age of 61.7 years old. We used 13*15 cm Biodesign biologic meshes(Cook, China) for the reconstruction and the procedure involved soaking in saline solution for 5 minutes and fixation of the mesh to the cut edges of the levators by non-absorbable 2-0 sutures. A perineal drain was used and was removed when drainage was minimal. Potassium permanganate was used for hip bath after removing the stitches. The surgical procedure, postoperative complications, prognosis and follow-up of all these patients were documented. The operations of all patients were completed successfully. ELAPE could remove more para cancer tissues in the distant rectum. There was no rectum perforation, and the circumferential resection margins of all specimens were proved to be negative. During the follow-up of 21 months, only 2 patients suffered incision infection and healed uneventfully after strengthening the dressing. No one developed perineal breakdown, bulge or intestinal obstruction, as well as local recurrence and pelvic floor hernia. There was also no complication related to mesh. The average hospitalization time was 10 days (9-15 days). The ELAPE could render a low occurrence of intraoperative perforations and circumferential resection margins. Reconstruction of pelvic floor with biologic meshmight lower the complication incidences associated with the perineal region.

  13. Reduced Circumferential Resection Margin Involvement in Rectal Cancer Surgery: Results of the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietelink, Lieke; Wouters, Michel W J M; Tanis, Pieter J; Deken, Marion M; Ten Berge, Martijn G; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; van Krieken, J Han; de Noo, Mirre E

    2015-09-01

    The circumferential resection margin (CRM) is a significant prognostic factor for local recurrence, distant metastasis, and survival after rectal cancer surgery. Therefore, availability of this parameter is essential. Although the Dutch total mesorectal excision trial raised awareness about CRM in the late 1990s, quality assurance on pathologic reporting was not available until the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit (DSCA) started in 2009. The present study describes the rates of CRM reporting and involvement since the start of the DSCA and analyzes whether improvement of these parameters can be attributed to the audit. Data from the DSCA (2009-2013) were analyzed. Reporting of CRM and CRM involvement was plotted for successive years, and variations of these parameters were analyzed in a funnelplot. Predictors of CRM involvement were determined in univariable analysis and the independent influence of year of registration on CRM involvement was analyzed in multivariable analysis. A total of 12,669 patients were included for analysis. The mean percentage of patients with a reported CRM increased from 52.7% to 94.2% (2009-2013) and interhospital variation decreased. The percentage of patients with CRM involvement decreased from 14.2% to 5.6%. In multivariable analysis, the year of DSCA registration remained a significant predictor of CRM involvement. After the introduction of the DSCA, a dramatic improvement in CRM reporting and a major decrease of CRM involvement after rectal cancer surgery have occurred. This study suggests that a national quality assurance program has been the driving force behind these achievements. Copyright © 2015 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  14. Adjuvant therapy sparing in rectal cancer achieving complete response after chemoradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Albéniz, Xabier; Gallego, Rosa; Hofheinz, Ralf Dieter; Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria; Ayuso-Colella, Juan Ramón; Bombí, Josep Antoni; Conill, Carles; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Delgado, Salvadora; Ginés, Angels; Miquel, Rosa; Pagés, Mario; Pineda, Estela; Pereira, Verónica; Sosa, Aarón; Reig, Oscar; Victoria, Iván; Feliz, Luis; María de Lacy, Antonio; Castells, Antoni; Burkholder, Iris; Hochhaus, Andreas; Maurel, Joan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the long-term results of conventional chemoradiotherapy and laparoscopic mesorectal excision in rectal adenocarcinoma patients without adjuvant therapy. METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the rectum staged cT3-T4 by endoscopic ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging received neoadjuvant continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil for five weeks and concomitant radiotherapy. Laparoscopic surgery was planned after 5-8 wk. Patients diagnosed with ypT0N0 stage cancer were not treated with adjuvant therapy according to the protocol. Patients with ypT1-2N0 or ypT3-4 or N+ were offered 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant treatment on an individual basis. An external cohort was used as a reference for the findings. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy six patients were treated with induction chemoradiotherapy and 170 underwent total mesorectal excision. Cancer staging of ypT0N0 was achieved in 26/170 (15.3%) patients. After a median follow-up of 58.3 mo, patients with ypT0N0 had five-year disease-free and overall survival rates of 96% (95%CI: 77-99) and 100%, respectively. We provide evidence about the natural history of patients with localized rectal cancer achieving a complete response after preoperative chemoradiation. The inherent good prognosis of these patients will have implications for clinical trial design and care of patients. CONCLUSION: Withholding adjuvant chemotherapy after complete response following standard neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and laparoscopic mesorectal excision might be safe within an experienced multidisciplinary team. PMID:25400468

  15. Preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer: comparison of three radiation dose and fractionation schedules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Shin Hyung; Kim, Jae Chul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The standard radiation dose for patients with locally rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy is 45–50 Gy in 25–28 fractions. We aimed to assess whether a difference exists within this dose fractionation range. A retrospective analysis was performed to compare three dose fractionation schedules. Patients received 50 Gy in 25 fractions (group A), 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions (group B), or 45 Gy in 25 fractions (group C) to the whole pelvis, as well as concurrent 5-fluorouracil. Radical resection was scheduled for 8 weeks after concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Between September 2010 and August 2013, 175 patients were treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy at our institution. Among those patients, 154 were eligible for analysis (55, 50, and 49 patients in groups A, B, and C, respectively). After the median follow-up period of 29 months (range, 5 to 48 months), no differences were found between the 3 groups regarding pathologic complete remission rate, tumor regression grade, treatment-related toxicity, 2-year locoregional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, or overall survival. The circumferential resection margin width was a prognostic factor for 2-year locoregional recurrence-free survival, whereas ypN category was associated with distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival. High tumor regression grading score was correlated with 2-year distant metastasis-free survival and disease-free survival in univariate analysis. Three different radiation dose fractionation schedules, within the dose range recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, had no impact on pathologic tumor regression and early clinical outcome for locally advanced rectal cancer.

  16. Phase II Study of Preoperative Helical Tomotherapy With a Simultaneous Integrated Boost for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Benedikt; Tournel, Koen [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Everaert, Hendrik [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Hoorens, Anne [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Sermeus, Alexandra [Department of Gastroenterology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Christian, Nicolas; Storme, Guy; Verellen, Dirk [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); De Ridder, Mark, E-mail: mark.deridder@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The addition of concomitant chemotherapy to preoperative radiotherapy is considered the standard of care for patients with cT3-4 rectal cancer. The combined treatment modality increases the complete response rate and local control (LC), but has no impact on survival or the incidence of distant metastases. In addition, it is associated with considerable toxicity. As an alternative strategy, we explored prospectively, preoperative helical tomotherapy with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). Methods and Materials: A total of 108 patients were treated with intensity-modulated and image-guided radiotherapy using the Tomotherapy Hi-Art II system. A dose of 46 Gy, in daily fractions of 2 Gy, was delivered to the mesorectum and draining lymph nodes, without concomitant chemotherapy. Patients with an anticipated circumferential resection margin (CRM) of less than 2 mm, based on magnetic resonance imaging, received a SIB to the tumor up to a total dose of 55.2 Gy. Acute and late side effects were scored using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results: A total of 102 patients presented with cT3-4 tumors; 57 patients entered the boost group and 51 the no-boost group. One patient in the no-boost group developed a radio-hypersensitivity reaction, resulting in a complete tumor remission, a Grade 3 acute and Grade 5 late enteritis. No other Grade {>=}3 acute toxicities occurred. With a median follow-up of 32 months, Grade {>=}3 late gastrointestinal and urinary toxicity were observed in 6% and 4% of the patients, respectively. The actuarial 2-year LC, progression-free survival and overall survival were 98%, 79%, and 93%. Conclusions: Preoperative helical tomotherapy displays a favorable acute toxicity profile in patients with cT3-4 rectal cancer. A SIB can be safely administered in patients with a narrow CRM and resulted in a promising LC.

  17. Drug allergy and the risk of lymph node metastasis in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chun; Li, Jing-Tao; Fang, Long; Xu, Ying-Ying; Zhao, Hong-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have reported that a history of allergy is associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and other malignancies. However, no information is available for the association between allergy and the risk of lymph node metastasis. Our study was designed to determine this association in rectal cancer. Patients who were treated at our hospital in the period from January 2003 to June 2011, and with a pathologically hospital discharge diagnosis of rectal adencarcinoma, were included. The clinical, laboratory, and pathologic parameters were analyzed. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the association. Moreover, for type of allergic drug, sub-group analysis was performed. 469 patients were included, including 231 with pathological lymph node metastasis (pLNM) (49.3%) and 238 without pLNM. Univariate analysis showed, compared with patients without pLNM, patients with pLNM had a younger age (60.6 ± 12.8 yr vs. 63.6 ± 12.2 yr, P = 0.012), a lower percentage of drug allergy (8.7% vs. 16.0%, P = 0.016), an increased CEA (median/interquartile-range 5.40/2.40-13.95 vs. 3.50/2.08-8.67, P = 0.009), and a lower serum sodium (141 ± 3.1 mmol/L vs. 142 ± 2.9 mmol/L, P = 0.028). Multivariate analysis showed that drug allergy was associated with a reduced risk of pLNM (OR = 0.553; 95% CI, 0.308-0.994; P = 0.048). In addition, our results showed that: (1) for tumor classification, patients with drug allergy had a higher percentage of group patients with pT1/pT2; and (2) for type of allergic drug, this inverse association was found for penicillins, not for other allergic drugs. Drug allergy is associated with a reduced risk of pLNM in rectal cancer.

  18. Palliative Short-Course Radiation Therapy in Rectal Cancer: A Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picardi, Vincenzo; Deodato, Francesco [Department of Radiotherapy, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Campobasso (Italy); Guido, Alessandra; Giaccherini, Lucia [Radiation Oncology Center, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Macchia, Gabriella, E-mail: gmacchia@rm.unicatt.it [Department of Radiotherapy, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Campobasso (Italy); Frazzoni, Leonardo; Farioli, Andrea; Cuicchi, Dajana [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Cilla, Savino [Department of Radiotherapy, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Campobasso (Italy); Cellini, Francesco [Radiation Oncology Department, Policlinico Universitario Campus Bio-Medico, Rome (Italy); Uddin, A.F.M. Kamal [Department of Radiation Oncology, United Hospital Limited, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta [Department of Radiotherapy, Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome (Italy); Buwenge, Milly [Radiation Oncology Center, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Ardizzoni, Andrea [Medical Oncology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Poggioli, Gilberto [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Valentini, Vincenzo [Department of Radiotherapy, Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome (Italy); and others

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: The management of patients with symptomatic rectal cancer not amenable to curative treatment may be challenging. The aim of this phase 2 study was to evaluate the efficacy of short-course radiation therapy in patients with obstructing rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients who were not candidates for surgical resection because of synchronous metastases, age, and/or comorbidities were considered eligible. The sample size was calculated based on the 2-stage design of Simon. Short-course radiation therapy was delivered with an isocentric 4-field box technique (total, 25 Gy; 5 fractions in 5 days). Chemotherapy was suspended during radiation treatment. Clinical outcome measures were symptomatic response rate, toxicity, colostomy-free survival, and overall survival. Results: From October 2003 to November 2012, 18 patients (median age, 77.5 years) were enrolled. The median follow-up was 11.5 months (range, 3-36 months). Four weeks after treatment, a complete response (ie, complete symptom resolution) was observed in 38.9% of patients and a partial response in 50.0% cases, whereas 11.1% had no response. The rates of reduction or resolution of pain and bleeding were 87.5% and 100%, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year colostomy-free survival rates were 100%, 71.4%, and 47.6%, respectively (median, 30 months). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year cumulative overall survival rates were 85.2%, 53%, and 39.8%, respectively (median, 25 months). No patients stopped treatment because of gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities: 38.9% of patients had grade 1 to 2 toxicity, and 16.7% had grade 3 toxicity. Only 1 patient had hematologic grade 2 toxicity, and 2 patients had grade 2 skin toxicity. Conclusions: Short-course radiation therapy may represent a safe and effective alternative treatment option in patients with obstructing rectal cancer not eligible for curative treatment, allowing colostomy to be avoided in a substantial proportion of patients.

  19. Drug allergy and the risk of lymph node metastasis in rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Gao

    Full Text Available Previous epidemiologic studies have reported that a history of allergy is associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and other malignancies. However, no information is available for the association between allergy and the risk of lymph node metastasis. Our study was designed to determine this association in rectal cancer.Patients who were treated at our hospital in the period from January 2003 to June 2011, and with a pathologically hospital discharge diagnosis of rectal adencarcinoma, were included. The clinical, laboratory, and pathologic parameters were analyzed. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the association. Moreover, for type of allergic drug, sub-group analysis was performed.469 patients were included, including 231 with pathological lymph node metastasis (pLNM (49.3% and 238 without pLNM. Univariate analysis showed, compared with patients without pLNM, patients with pLNM had a younger age (60.6 ± 12.8 yr vs. 63.6 ± 12.2 yr, P = 0.012, a lower percentage of drug allergy (8.7% vs. 16.0%, P = 0.016, an increased CEA (median/interquartile-range 5.40/2.40-13.95 vs. 3.50/2.08-8.67, P = 0.009, and a lower serum sodium (141 ± 3.1 mmol/L vs. 142 ± 2.9 mmol/L, P = 0.028. Multivariate analysis showed that drug allergy was associated with a reduced risk of pLNM (OR = 0.553; 95% CI, 0.308-0.994; P = 0.048. In addition, our results showed that: (1 for tumor classification, patients with drug allergy had a higher percentage of group patients with pT1/pT2; and (2 for type of allergic drug, this inverse association was found for penicillins, not for other allergic drugs.Drug allergy is associated with a reduced risk of pLNM in rectal cancer.

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARAMETERS OF TUMOR NEOANGIOGENESIS AND LYMPHOGENOUS METASTASIS IN PATIENTS WITH RECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Stepanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis (neoangiogenesis characterized by the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels is the main condition for the intensive growth of the primary tumor. This process is characterized by a sequence of events beginning with vasodilation, separation of pericytes from the vascular wall with subsequent proliferation of endotheliocytes and formation of vascular glomeruli surrounded by stromal cells. Evaluation of the density of microvessels, as well as «vascular kidneys» (clusters of endotheliocytes is the most widely used method for quantifying intracellular angiogenesis. The purpose of the study was to analyze the expression characteristics of markers of neoangiogenesis (CD34 and VEGFR in tumor tissue and to evaluate their relationship with the parameters of lymphogenous metastasis in colorectal cancer. Material and methods. Surgical specimens from 130 patients with ypT1–4N0–2M0 stage of rectal cancer, who were treated at the Thoracic and Abdominal Department of Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, were analyzed. The standard techniques for histological and immunohistochemical examinations were used. Diagnose was made according to WHO classification (2010. The study included only cases with rectal adenocarcinoma. Results. When studying the density of microvessels and «vascular budding» in a tumor tissue using an antibody to CD34, it turned out that the density of microvessels in the submucosal layer of the rectum was higher in cases with the presence of lymphogenous metastases than in cases without lymphogenous metastasis. The microvessel density determined by the antibody to VEGFR in the mucosa, submucosal and muscle layers, as well as in the serosa of the rectum did not differ between groups with the presence or absence of lymphogenous metastases. The density of «vascular kidneys» in all layers of the rectum wall was not associated with lymphogenous metastasis. Conclusion. The study showed that the expression of

  1. Quality of life in a randomized trial of early closure of temporary ileostomy after rectal resection for cancer (EASY trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, J; Danielsen, A K; Angenete, E

    2018-01-01

    was to compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following early versus late closure of a temporary ileostomy. METHODS: Early closure of a temporary ileostomy (at 8-13 days) was compared with late closure (at more than 12 weeks) in a multicentre RCT (EASY) that included patients who underwent rectal...... resection for cancer. Inclusion of participants was made after index surgery. Exclusion criteria were signs of anastomotic leakage, diabetes mellitus, steroid treatment, and signs of postoperative complications at clinical evaluation 1-4 days after rectal resection. HRQOL was evaluated at 3, 6 and 12 months...

  2. Magnetic Resonance–Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Hyperthermia for Recurrent Rectal Cancer: MR Thermometry Evaluation and Preclinical Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, William, E-mail: William.Chu@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Staruch, Robert M. [Clinical Sites Research Program, Philips Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Pichardo, Samuel [Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute, Thunder Bay, Ontario (Canada); Physics and Electrical Engineering, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario (Canada); Tillander, Matti; Köhler, Max O. [MR Therapy, Philips Healthcare, Vantaa (Finland); Huang, Yuexi [Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ylihautala, Mika [MR Therapy, Philips Healthcare, Vantaa (Finland); McGuffin, Merrylee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Czarnota, Gregory [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hynynen, Kullervo [Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance–guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) mild hyperthermia in deep tissue targets for enhancing radiation therapy and chemotherapy in the context of recurrent rectal cancer. A preclinical study was performed to evaluate the safety and performance of MR-HIFU mild hyperthermia. A prospective imaging study was performed in volunteers with rectal cancer to evaluate MR thermometry quality near the rectum and accessibility of rectal tumors using MR-HIFU. Methods and Materials: Mild hyperthermia was performed in pig thigh (9 sonications, 6 pigs) using a clinical MR-HIFU system. Targets near the rectal wall and deep thigh were evaluated. Thermal maps obtained in 6 planes every 3.2 seconds were used to control sonications in 18-mm diameter treatment regions at temperatures of 42°C to 42.5°C for 10 to 60 minutes. Volunteer imaging-only studies to assess the quality of MR thermometry (without heating) were approved by the institutional research ethics board. Anatomic and MR thermometry images were acquired in consenting volunteers with rectal cancer. In 3 of 6 study participants, rectal filling with saline was used to reduce motion-related MR thermometry artifacts near the tumor. Results: In pigs, mean target temperature matched the desired hyperthermia temperature within 0.2°C; temporal standard deviation ≤0.5°C. With optimized control thresholds, no undesired tissue damage was observed. In human volunteers, MR temperature measurements had adequate precision and stability, especially when rectal filling was used to reduce bowel motion. Conclusions: In pigs, MR-HIFU can safely deliver mild hyperthermia (41°C-43°C) to a targeted volume for 30 minutes. In humans, careful patient selection and preparation will enable adequate targeting for recurrent rectal cancers and sufficient MR temperature mapping stability to control mild hyperthermia. These results enable human trials of MR-HIFU hyperthermia.

  3. Patients' bowel symptom experiences and self-care strategies following sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Margaret; McCarthy, Geraldine; Livingstone, Vicki; Savage, Eileen

    2014-08-01

    To investigate patients' bowel symptom experiences and self-care strategies following sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer and the relationship between bowel symptom experiences and the self-care strategies used. Earlier diagnosis of rectal cancer allows for less invasive surgical treatments such as sphincter-saving procedures to be performed. Although a permanent stoma is generally not required, patients experience changes in bowel function following this surgery. However, limited research exists on patients' bowel symptom experiences and the self-care strategies used to manage symptoms following sphincter-saving surgery of rectal cancer. Quantitative descriptive correlational. A convenience sample of 143 patients aged 30 to over 70 years was used. Data were collected (April 2010-December 2010) using the Illness Perception Questionnaires, the Difficulties of Life Scale and a researcher developed Self-care Strategy Measure. The research was underpinned by the Symptom Management Theory. Relating to the four most effective self-care strategies used respondents reporting more bowel symptom were more likely to use the self-care strategy proximity/knowing the location of a toilet at all times. Females, respondents with high timeline cyclical scores and respondents with high physiological responses scores were more likely to use protective clothing. Respondents reporting more bowel symptom and with high social responses scores were more likely to use bowel medication. Females were more likely to wear incontinence pads. This research provides insights into the daily bowel symptom experiences of patients following sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer. It demonstrates the range of self-care strategies that individuals use to manage their bowel symptoms and the self-care-strategies that were most effective for them. Patients should be encouraged to report on-going bowel problems following sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer. Supportive care for patients

  4. Distribution of lymph node metastases is an independent predictor of survival for sigmoid colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jung Wook; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Hyeong Rok

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the prognostic significance of the distribution of lymph node metastases (LND) in patients with colorectal cancer. The impact of the LND on survival in colorectal cancer is unknown. A total of 1205 consecutive patients who underwent potentially curative surgery for sigmoid colon or rectal cancer with high ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) from January 1997 to February 2008 were assigned to 4 groups based on LND: LND0, no lymph node metastases-615 patients (51.0%); LND1, metastases in the pericolic nodes-324 patients (26.9%); LND2, metastases in the intermediate nodes-172 patients (14.3%); and LND3, node metastases at the origin of the IMA-94 patients (7.8%). The 5-year overall survival rates of patients with LND0, LND1, LND2, and LND3 were 83%, 63%, 52%, and 28%, respectively (P curves among the LND groups significantly differed (P sigmoid colon or rectal cancer.

  5. Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for late rectal bleeding, stool frequency and fecal incontinence after radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaake, Wouter; van der Schaaf, Arjen; van Dijk, Lisanne V.; Bongaerts, Alfons H. H.; van den Bergh, Alfons C. M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    Background and purpose: Curative radiotherapy for prostate cancer may lead to anorectal side effects, including rectal bleeding, fecal incontinence, increased stool frequency and rectal pain. The main objective of this study was to develop multivariable NTCP models for these side effects. Material

  6. The Quality Initiative in Rectal Cancer (QIRC trial: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial in surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabane Lehana

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two unfortunate outcomes for patients treated surgically for rectal cancer are placement of a permanent colostomy and local tumor recurrence. Total mesorectal excision is a new technique for rectal cancer surgery that can lead to improved patient outcomes. We describe a cluster randomized controlled trial that is testing if the above patient outcomes can be improved through a knowledge translation strategy called the Quality Initiative in Rectal Cancer (QIRC strategy. The strategy is designed to optimize the use of total mesorectal excision techniques. Methods and Design Hospitals were randomized to the QIRC strategy (experimental group versus normal practice environment (control group. Participating hospitals, and the respective surgeon group operating in them, are from Ontario, Canada and have an annual procedure volume for major rectal cancer resections of 15 or greater. Patients were eligible if they underwent major rectal surgery for a diagnosis of primary rectal cancer. The surgeon-directed QIRC interventions included a workshop, use of opinion leaders, operative demonstrations, a post-operative questionnaire, and, audit and feedback. For an operative demonstration participating surgeons invited a study team surgeon to assist them with a case of rectal cancer surgery. The intent was to demonstrate total mesorectal excision techniques. Control arm surgeons received no intervention. Sample size calculations were two-sided, considered the clustering of data at the hospital level, and were driven by requirements for the outcome local recurrence. To detect an improvement in local recurrence from 20% to 8% with confidence we required 16 hospitals and 672 patients – 8 hospitals and 336 patients in each arm. Outcomes data are collected via chart review for at least 30 months after surgery. Analyses will use an intention-to-treat principle and will consider the clustering of data. Data collection will be complete by the end of

  7. Case control study of the geographic variability of exposure to disinfectant byproducts and risk for rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerson Peter A

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of byproducts that result from the disinfection of drinking water vary within a water distribution system. This prompted us to question whether the risk for rectal cancer also varies, depending upon one's long term geographic location within the system. Such a geographic distribution in rectal cancer risk would follow naturally from an association between level of byproduct and rectal cancer risk. We assess the effects of estimated geographic variability in exposure to some of the components of the trihalomethane group of disinfectant byproducts (DBPs on the odds ratios and probabilities for rectal cancer in white males in a case control study of 128 cases and 253 controls, conducted in Monroe County, Western New York State, U.S.A. The study was designed around health data initially collected at the University at Buffalo (Department of Social and Preventative Medicine as part of the Upstate New York Diet Study, and trihalomethane (THM data collected from a separate independent study of THMs conducted by Monroe County Department of Health. Case participants were chosen from hospital pathology records. The controls are disease-free white males between 35–90 years old, living in Monroe County, and chosen from control groups for studies from cancer of five other (unrelated sites. Using a combination of case control methodology and spatial analysis, the spatial patterns of THMs and individual measures of tap water consumption provide estimates of the effects of ingestion of specific amounts of some DBPs on rectal cancer risk. Trihalomethane (THM data were used to spatially interpolate levels at the taps of cases and controls, and odds ratios were estimated using logistic regression to assess the effects of estimated THM exposure dose on cancer risk, adjusting for alcohol, dietary beta carotene intake, tap water intake, and total caloric intake. Results Trihalomethane levels varied spatially within the county; although

  8. Characteristics of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in anastomotic sinus and fistula following rectal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun Hee; Park, Geon

    To assess the characteristics of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in persisting anastomotic sinus and fistula following rectal cancer surgery. Eight patients with anastomotic sinus and fistula were retrospectively studied. A total of 13 anastomotic sinuses (n=11) and fistulas (n=2) were observed. Sixteen FDG-positron emission tomography/computed tomography studies for 13 lesions performed and 26 uptake patterns were evaluated. Twenty-one lesions were found to have diffuse increased uptake, whereas four lesions had focal uptake. There was only one lesion without FDG uptake. Increased FDG uptake is frequently observed in anastomotic sinus and fistula, which should be known to avoid making wrong diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation Dose-Response Model for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer After Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, A. L.; Ploen, J.; Vogelius, I. R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) is part of the standard treatment of locally advanced rectal cancers. Tumor regression at the time of operation is desirable, but not much is known about the relationship between radiation dose and tumor regression. In the present study we...... estimated radiation dose-response curves for various grades of tumor regression after preoperative CRT. Methods and Materials: A total of 222 patients, treated with consistent chemotherapy and radiation therapy techniques, were considered for the analysis. Radiation therapy consisted of a combination...... of external-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. Response at the time of operation was evaluated from the histopathologic specimen and graded on a 5-point scale (TRG1-5). The probability of achieving complete, major, and partial response was analyzed by ordinal logistic regression, and the effect...

  10. Four-arm single docking full robotic surgery for low rectal cancer: technique standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Reinan Ramos

    Full Text Available The authors present the four-arm single docking full robotic surgery to treat low rectal cancer. The eight main operative steps are: 1- patient positioning; 2- trocars set-up and robot docking; 3- sigmoid colon, left colon and splenic flexure mobilization (lateral-to-medial approach; 4-Inferior mesenteric artery and vein ligation (medial-to-lateral approach; 5- total mesorectum excision and preservation of hypogastric and pelvic autonomic nerves (sacral dissection, lateral dissection, pelvic dissection; 6- division of the rectum using an endo roticulator stapler for the laparoscopic performance of a double-stapled coloanal anastomosis (type I tumor; 7- intersphincteric resection, extraction of the specimen through the anus and lateral-to-end hand sewn coloanal anastomosis (type II tumor; 8- cylindric abdominoperineal resection, with transabdominal section of the levator muscles (type IV tumor. The techniques employed were safe and have presented low rates of complication and no mortality.

  11. Reconstruction of the pelvic floor with a biological mesh after abdominoperineal excision for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille-Jørgensen, Peer; Pilsgaard, B.; Moller, P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the results of reconstruction of the pelvic floor by using an absorbable biological mesh after having performed an abdomino-perineal resection with excision of whole of the pelvic floor for rectal cancer Eleven consecutive patients had reconstruction...... of the pelvic floor after abdominoperineal excision (APR) with a biological mesh. The peri- and postoperative courses were registered in a prospective database. Six patients received preoperative radiochemotherapy. One patient had the mesh removed due to infection and later developed local recurrence. The rest...... had an uneventful postoperative course despite more pain than is usually experienced in the perineal wound after traditional APR. The use of a biological mesh for pelvic floor reconstruction is feasible with satisfactory results. A randomised trial is warranted in order to evaluate this technique...

  12. The effect of bowel preparation regime on interfraction rectal filling variation during image guided radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosni, Ali; Rosewall, Tara; Craig, Timothy; Kong, Vickie; Bayley, Andrew; Berlin, Alejandro; Bristow, Robert; Catton, Charles; Warde, Padraig; Chung, Peter

    2017-03-09

    This study aimed to investigate the tolerability and impact of milk of magnesia (MoM) on interfraction rectal filling during prostate cancer radiotherapy. Two groups were retrospectively identified, each consisting of 40 patients with prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy to prostate+/-seminal vesicles, with daily image-guidance in 78Gy/39fractions/8 weeks. The first-group followed anti-flatulence diet with MoM started 3-days prior to planning-CT and continued during radiotherapy, while the second-group followed the same anti-flatulence diet only. The rectum between upper and lower limit of the clinical target volume (CTV) was delineated on planning-CT and on weekly cone-beam-CT (CBCT). Rectal filling was assessed by measurement of anterio-posterior diameter of the rectum at the superior and mid levels of CTV, rectal volume (RV), and average cross-sectional rectal area (CSA; RV/length). Overall 720 images (80 planning-CT and 640 CBCT images) from 80 patients were analyzed. Using linear mixed models, and after adjusting for baseline values at the time of planning-CT to test the differences in rectal dimensions between both groups over the 8-week treatment period, there were no significant differences in RV (p = 0.4), CSA (p = 0.5), anterio-posterior diameter of rectum at superior (p = 0.4) or mid level of CTV (p = 0.4). In the non-MoM group; 22.5% of patients had diarrhea compared to 60% in the MoM group, while 40% discontinued use of MoM by end of radiotherapy. The addition of MoM to antiflatulence diet did not reduce the interfraction variation in rectal filling but caused diarrhea in a substantial proportion of patients who then discontinued its use.

  13. Evaluation of dual energy spectral CT in differentiating metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes in rectal cancer: Initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huanhuan [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Department of Radiology, Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine (China); Yan, Fuhua; Pan, Zilai; Lin, Xiaozhu; Luo, Xianfu; Shi, Cen [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Xiaoyan [Department of Pathology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Baisong [Department of Biomedical Statistics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhang, Huan, E-mail: huanzhangy@126.com [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer and the status of the regional lymph nodes in rectal cancer is considered to be one of the most powerful prognostic factor in the absence of distant metastatic disease. Detecting LNs metastasis is still a challenging problem due to the presence of microscopic metastasis or inflammatory swelling of LNs. • We investigated the value of dual energy spectral CT in differentiating metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes in rectal cancer. Our study demonstrated that the quantitative normalized iodine concentration (nIC) could be useful for differentiating metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes. The combination of nIC in portal venous phase and conventional size criterion could improve the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of rectal cancer. - Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the value of dual energy spectral CT (DEsCT) imaging in differentiating metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes in rectal cancer. Methods: Fifty-five patients with rectal cancer underwent the arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (PP) contrast-enhanced DEsCT imaging. The virtual monochromatic images and iodine-based material decomposition images derived from DEsCT imaging were interpreted for lymph nodes (LNs) measurement. The short axis diameter and the normalized iodine concentration (nIC) of metastatic and non-metastatic LNs were measured. The two-sample t test was used to compare the short axis diameters and nIC values of metastatic and non-metastatic LNs. ROC analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic performance. Results: One hundred and fifty two LNs including 92 non-metastatic LNs and 60 metastatic LNs were matched using the radiological-pathological correlation. The mean short axis diameter of metastatic LNs was significantly larger than that of the non-metastatic LNs (7.28 ± 2.28 mm vs. 4.90 ± 1.64 mm, P < 0.001). The mean n

  14. Radiochemotherapy in combination with regional hyperthermia in preirradiated patients with recurrent rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, V.; Issels, R.D.; Buecklein, V. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Univ. Hospital Grosshadern, Dept. of Internal Medicine III; Institute of Molecular Immunology, Muenchen (Germany). KKG Hyperthermie GSF-Haematologikum; Pazos, M.; Schaffer, P.; Wilkowski, R.; Duehmke, E. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Univ. Hospital Grosshadern, Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Rahman, S.; Tschoep, K.; Schaffer, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Univ. Hospital Grosshadern, Dept. of Internal Medicine III

    2008-03-15

    Background and Purpose: Encouraging results of phase II studies combining chemotherapy with radiotherapy have been published. In this study, the results of a multimodal salvage therapy including radiochemotherapy (RCT) and regional hyperthermia (RHT) in preirradiated patients with recurrent rectal cancer are reported. Patients and Methods: All patients enrolled had received previous pelvic irradiation (median dose 50.4 Gy). The median time interval between prior radiotherapy and the onset of local recurrence was 34 months. The combined treatment consisted of reirradiation with a median dose of 39.6 Gy (30.0-45.0 Gy), delivered in fractions of 1.8 Gy/day. 5-fluorouracil was given as continuous infusion 350 mg/m2/day five times weekly, and RHT (BSD-2000 system) was applied twice a week within 1 h after radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was local progression-free survival (LPFS); secondary endpoints were overall survival, symptom control, and toxicity. Results: 24 patients (median age 59 years) with a previously irradiated locally recurrent adenocarcinoma of the rectum were enrolled. The median LPFS was 15 months (95% confidence interval 12-18 months) with a median follow-up of 27 months (16-37 months). The overall 1-year and 3-year survival rates were 87% and 30%, respectively. Pain was the main symptom in 17 patients. Release of pain was achieved in 12/17 patients (70%). No grade 3 or 4 hematologic or skin toxicity occurred. Grade 3 gastrointestinal acute toxicity was observed in 12.5% of the patients. Paratumoral thermometry revealed a homogeneous distribution of temperatures. Conclusion: RCT combined with RHT is an efficient salvage therapy showing high efficacy with acceptable toxicity and can be recommended as treatment option for this unfavorable group of preirradiated patients with local recurrence of rectal cancer. (orig.)

  15. Wait and see approach for rectal cancer with a clinically complete response after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Song, Jin Ho; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Choi, Bong-Hoi; Jeong, Hojin; Choi, Hoon Sik; Lee, Yun Hee; Kang, Ki Mun; Jeong, Bae Kwon

    2017-05-01

    Rectal cancer patients with a pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) have a better prognosis compared to those without a pCR. Therefore, the "Wait and See" (W&S) approach in those who achieved clinically complete response (cCR) after CCRT was introduced as an alternative modality to the total mesorectal excision (TME). The aim of this study was to compare the oncological outcomes between W&S and TME via meta-analysis. We performed a comprehensive literature search on January 14, 2016, using MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and Scopus. In addition, the references of all articles obtained were searched manually. The qualities of each study were assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. The main outcomes were recurrence, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and hazard ratio (HR) for the recurrence and survival rates, respectively. The RR of patients whose initial recurrences was local recurrence (LR), distant metastasis (DM), LR + DM, or overall recurrences were 0.18, 1.00, 0.61, and 0.49, respectively. There was no heterogeneity in the results. The HR of DFS was 0.59 and indicated that DFS in the TME group was superior compared with that in the W&S group. The OS has no significant difference between the studies. Although the W&S approach seemed feasible for rectal cancer patients with a cCR after neoadjuvant CCRT, concrete evidence obtained in well-controlled randomized trials with a long-term follow-up is required to validate potential treatment options.

  16. Magnetization transfer imaging to assess tumour response after chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Milou H. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, PO Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, GROW School of Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Lambregts, Doenja M.J.; Maas, Monique [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, PO Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Alefantinou, Styliani [N. Papanikolaou and Associates LLC, Heraklion (Greece); Manikis, Georgios C.; Marias, Kostantinos [Foundation for Research and Technology, Computational Medicine Laboratory, Institute of Computer Science, Hellas (Greece); Riedl, Robert G. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Beets, Geerard L. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, GROW School of Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Beets-Tan, Regina G.H. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, PO Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, GROW School of Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Single-slice magnetization transfer (MT) imaging has shown promising results for evaluating post-radiation fibrosis. The study aim was to evaluate the value of multislice MT imaging to assess tumour response after chemoradiotherapy by comparing magnetization transfer ratios (MTR) with histopathological tumour regression grade (TRG). Thirty patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (cT3-4 and/or cN2) underwent routine restaging MRI 8 weeks post-chemoradiotherapy, including multislice MT-sequence, covering the entire tumour bed. Two independent readers delineated regions of interest on MTR maps, covering all potential remaining tumour and fibrotic areas. Mean MTR and histogram parameters (minimum, maximum, median, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, and 5-30-70-95th percentiles) were calculated. Reference standard was histological TRG1-2 (good response) and TRG3-5 (poor response). 24/30 patients were male; mean age was 67.7 ± 10.8 years. Mean MTR rendered AUCs of 0.65 (reader1) and 0.87 (reader2) to differentiate between TRG1-2 versus TRG3-5. Best results were obtained for 95{sup th} percentile (AUC 0.75- 0.88). Interobserver agreement was moderate (ICC 0.50) for mean MTR and good (ICC 0.80) for 95{sup th} percentile. MT imaging is a promising tool to assess tumour response post-chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer. Particularly, 95{sup th} percentile results in AUCs up to 0.88 to discriminate a good tumour response. (orig.)

  17. Response to treatment and interval to surgery after preoperative short-course radiotherapy in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cabezas, Sonia; Rodríguez-Liñán, Milagrosa; Otero-Romero, Ana M; Bueno-Serrano, Carmen M; Gómez-Barbadillo, José; Palacios-Eito, Amalia

    2016-10-01

    Preoperative short-course radiotherapy with immediate surgery improves local control in patients with rectal cancer. Tumor responses are smaller than those described with radiochemotherapy. Preliminary data associate this lower response to the short period until surgery. The aim of this study is to analyze the response to preoperative short-course radiotherapy and its correlation with the interval to surgery especially analyzing patients with mesorectal fascia involvement. A total of 155 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with preoperative radiotherapy (5×5Gy) were retrospectively analyzed. Tumor response in terms of rates of complete pathological response, downstaging, tumor regression grading and status of the circumferential resection margin were quantified. The mean interval from radiotherapy to surgery was 23 days. The rate of complete pathological response was 2.2% and 28% experienced downstaging (stage decreased). No differences between these rates and interval to surgery were detected. Eighty-eight patients had magnetic resonance imaging for staging (in 31 patients the mesorectal fascia was involved).The mean time to surgery in patients with involvement of the fascia and R0 surgery was 27 days and 16 days if R1 (P=.016). The cutoff of 20 days reached the highest probability of achieving a free circumferential resection margin between patients with mesorectal fascia involvement, with no statistically significant differences: RR 3.036 95% CI=(0.691-13.328), P=.06. After preoperative short-course radiotherapy, an interval>20 days enhances the likelihood of achieving a free circumferential resection margin in patients with mesorectal fascia involvement. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Quality of life in patients with a permanent stoma after rectal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsvall, Pia; Dahlstrand, Ursula; Löwenmark, Thyra; Rutegård, Jörgen; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Strigård, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessment is important in understanding the patient's perspective and for decision-making in health care. HRQoL is often impaired in patients with stoma. The aim was to evaluate HRQoL in rectal cancer patients with permanent stoma compared to patients without stoma. 711 patients operated for rectal cancer with abdomino-perineal resection or Hartman's procedure and a control group (n = 275) operated with anterior resection were eligible. Four QoL questionnaires were sent by mail. Comparisons of mean values between groups were made by Student´s independent t test. Comparison was made to a Swedish background population. 336 patients with a stoma and 117 without stoma replied (453/986; 46 %). A bulging or a hernia around the stoma was present in 31.5 %. Operation due to parastomal hernia had been performed in 11.7 % in the stoma group. Mental health (p = 0.007), body image (p stoma. Fatigue (p = 0.019) and loss of appetite (p = 0.027) were also more prominent in the stoma group. Sexual function was impaired in the non-stoma group (p = 0.034). However in the stoma group, patients with a bulge/hernia had more sexual problems (p = 0.004). Pain was associated with bulge/hernia (p stoma was inferior compared to patients without stoma. In the stoma group, a bulge or a hernia around the stoma further impaired HRQoL.

  19. Efficacy of High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Preoperative Local Staging of Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Uçar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the efficacy of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HRMRI for preoperative local staging in patients with rectal cancer who did not receive preoperative radiochemotherapy. Methods: In this retrospective study, 30 patients with biopsy proved primary rectal cancer were evaluated by HRMRI. Two observers independently scored the tumour and lymph node stages, and circumferential resection margin (CRM involvement. The sensitivity, specificity, the negative predictive value and the positive predictive value of HRMRI findings were calculated within the 95% confidence interval. The area under the curve was measured for each result. Agreement between two observers was assessed by means of the Kappa test. Results: In T staging the accuracy rate of HRMRI was 47-67%, overstaging was 10-21%, and understaging was 13-43%. In the prediction of extramural invasion with HRMRI, the sensitivity was 79-89%, the specificity was 72-100%, the PPV was 85-100%, the NPV was 73-86%, and the area under the curve was 0.81-0.89. In the prediction of lymph node metastasis, the sensitivity was 58-58%, the specificity was 50-55%, the PPV was 43-46%, and the NPV was 64-66%. The area under the curve was 0.54-0.57. When the cut off value was selected as 1 mm, the sensitivity of HRMRI was 38-42%, the specificity was 73-82%, the PPV was 33-42%, and NPV was 79-81% in the prediction of the CRM involvement. The correlation between the two observers was moderate for tumour staging, substantial for lymph node staging and predicting of CRM involvement. Conclusion: Preoperative HRMRI provides good predictive data for extramural invasion but poor prediction of lymph node status and CRM involvement.

  20. Risk Factors for Early Postoperative Small Bowel Obstruction After Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, Katsuhito; Ushigome, Takuro; Ohtsu, Masamichi; Narihiro, Satoshi; Ryu, Shunjin; Shimoyama, Yuya; Okamoto, Tomoyoshi; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate risk factors for small bowel obstruction (SBO) in early postoperative period after anterior resection for rectal cancer. Patients who underwent anterior resection (AR) [high AR (HAR) or low AR (LAR)] for rectal cancer between January 2009 and April 2016 were enrolled into the study after fulfilling selection criteria. In included patients, risk factors for early postoperative SBO (EPSBO) were analyzed by means of univariate and multivariate analysis. Cases with perioperative major complications other than intestinal obstruction and with simultaneous resection of other organs were excluded. The same analyses were also performed for cases of redo surgery due to EPSBO. EPSBO was defined as clinically and radiologically confirmed SBO that developed after resuming oral intake within 30 days following surgery. The logistic regression method was used for statistical analyses. In enrolled 180 patients, EPSBO occurred in 23 (12.8%). In univariate analysis, male sex [odds ratio (OR) = 2.17, 95% CI = 0.82-6.84, p surgery (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.03-0.73, p = 0.0117), low tumor (OR = 3.26, 95% CI = 1.28-8.13, p = 0.0140), LAR (OR = 17.25, 95% CI = 3.49-312.55, p risk factors for EPSBO. Four cases (17.4%) with EPSBO required re-operation because conservative therapies failed; all were laparoscopic DI formation cases. In three of those four cases, stenosis of stoma at the level of the posterior sheath of rectus abdominis muscle was the reason of SBO, and in one case it was kinking of the stomal limb. D3 lymph node dissection and DI formation are independent risk factors for EPSBO in AR.

  1. Quality of life of patients operated on for low rectal cancer: impact of the type of surgery and patients' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideris, Lucas; Zenasni, Franck; Vernerey, Dewi; Dauchy, Sarah; Lasser, Philippe; Pignon, Jean-Pierre; Elias, Dominique; Di Palma, Mario; Pocard, Marc

    2005-12-01

    This study was designed to compare the impact of a permanent colostomy and sociodemographic characteristics on the quality of life of patients operated on for low rectal cancer. A cross-sectional study was performed by use of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and CR-38 questionnaires. Patients came to the hospital to fill out the self-administered questionnaire or were sent the questionnaire by mail, followed by a live or telephone interview. All patients had undergone one of four operations: low anterior resection with colorectal or coloanal anastomosis (non-stoma group), or abdominoperineal resection with pseudocontinent perineal colostomy (nonstoma group) or left lower quadrant colostomy (stoma group). A total of 132 patients were included for analysis and there were no missing data. For the majority of quality of life scores (26/29), there was no significant difference between stoma and nonstoma patients. However, stoma patients complained of diminished body image (P = 0.0022), and this was especially true for married (P = 0.0073) and less educated (P = 0.0014) patients at subgroup analysis. Stoma patients experienced greater financial worries (P = 0.0029), whereas nonstoma patients had greater gastrointestinal concerns (P = 0.0098). Although most quality of life scores between stoma and nonstoma patients were similar, significant differences regarding body image, finance, and gastrointestinal symptoms, especially for married and less educated patients, were noticed. These factors should be taken into account, along with oncologic criteria, to better tailor treatments to patients.

  2. Predictors of Rectal Tolerance Observed in a Dose-Escalated Phase 1-2 Trial of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.W. Nathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Cho, L. Chinsoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Straka, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Christie, Alana [Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Lotan, Yair [Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Pistenmaa, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado (United States); Nanda, Akash [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Health Cancer Center at Orlando Health, Orlando, Florida (United States); Kueplian, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Brindle, Jeffrey [Prairie Lakes Hospital, Watertown, South Dakota (United States); Cooley, Susan; Perkins, Alida [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Raben, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado (United States); Xie, Xian-Jin [Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Timmerman, Robert D., E-mail: robert.timmerman@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To convey the occurrence of isolated cases of severe rectal toxicity at the highest dose level tested in 5-fraction stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for localized prostate cancer; and to rationally test potential causal mechanisms to guide future studies and experiments to aid in mitigating or altogether avoiding such severe bowel injury. Methods and Materials: Clinical and treatment planning data were analyzed from 91 patients enrolled from 2006 to 2011 on a dose-escalation (45, 47.5, and 50 Gy in 5 fractions) phase 1/2 clinical study of SBRT for localized prostate cancer. Results: At the highest dose level, 6.6% of patients treated (6 of 91) developed high-grade rectal toxicity, 5 of whom required colostomy. Grade 3+ delayed rectal toxicity was strongly correlated with volume of rectal wall receiving 50 Gy >3 cm{sup 3} (P<.0001), and treatment of >35% circumference of rectal wall to 39 Gy (P=.003). Grade 2+ acute rectal toxicity was significantly correlated with treatment of >50% circumference of rectal wall to 24 Gy (P=.010). Conclusion: Caution is advised when considering high-dose SBRT for treatment of tumors near bowel structures, including prostate cancer. Threshold dose constraints developed from physiologic principles are defined, and if respected can minimize risk of severe rectal toxicity.

  3. Fecal Incontinence and Quality of Life in Adults With Rectal Cancer After Lower Anterior Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hua; Chen, Hsin-Pao; Liu, Kuang-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI) and its impact on health-related quality of life in rectal cancer patients following low anterior resection surgery for colorectal cancer. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Patients who were diagnosed with rectal cancer and underwent low anterior resection were recruited from a 1264-bed hospital in southern Taiwan. Potential participants were mailed a questionnaire survey. They were followed up 8 to 16 months postoperatively. Some clinical data were collected via retrospective review of their medical records. Questionnaires were mailed to 172 patients, and 71 with colorectal cancer underwent low anterior resection and agreed to participate and completed questionnaires in the research, reflecting a return rate of 41%. Data were collected on demographic characteristics and disease-related variables. Participants were asked if they had experienced FI during the past week. Fecal incontinence health-related quality of life was measured using the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score (CCIS) and the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Index. Completion of the questionnaire required approximately 15 minutes. More than half of the 71 participants (n = 45; 63.4%) experienced incontinence of flatus, 42.3% (n = 30) reported incontinence of liquid stool, and 14.1% (n = 10) stated that they experienced incontinence of solid stool. Based on mean CCIS scores, 35.2% (n = 25) experienced moderate to severe FI. One-third wore pads to contain FI and 21.1% changed daily activities because of FI. Nearly two-thirds reported FI during the week prior to completing the research questionnaire. The average Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Index cumulative score was significantly lower in the FI group (2.62 ± 0.61) than in the without-FI group (3.32 ± 0.77; P incontinence is prevalent among persons undergoing low anterior resection for colorectal cancer. Persons with FI report poor health-related quality of

  4. Sphincter saving surgery is the standard procedure for treatment of low rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M S; Khair, M A; Khanam, F; Haque, S; Alam, M K; Haque, M M; Salam, M A; Sikder, A H

    2013-04-01

    Carcinoma rectum is a challenging problem both for the developed and underdeveloped countries. Colorectal cancer accounts for 9% of all cancer deaths (49,920) in 2009 in USA. Carcinoma involving the lower part of the rectum is now successfully managed by sphincter saving surgery with less morbidity and uneventful recovery. To observe the objective, subjective and functional outcome of the patients suffering from cancer of the lower third of the rectum managed by surgical intervention with preservation of sphincter. A comparative study was carried out on 54 patients with low rectal cancer who underwent ultra-low anterior resection in the department of surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka from January 2009 to December 2010. Patients were divided into two groups depending on the tumor distance from anal verge. Thirty one (57%) patients were in Group A (Experimental) where tumor distance was 5cm from anal verge and upper 1cm of anal sphincter was sacrificed during surgical intervention. Twenty three (43%) patients were in Group B (Control) where tumor distance was 6cm from anal verge and whole length (4cm) of anal sphincter was preserved during surgical intervention. Functional integrity of anal sphincter was assessed between these two groups of patients following surgery. The mean age of the patients was 45.96±14.41 years. During surgery, ultra low anterior resection was performed to remove the tumor in all patients and for anastomosis double stapling technique was performed in 52(96%) patients and hand sewn technique was performed in 2(4%) patients irrespective of tumor distance from anal verge. Covering ileostomy was fashioned in all but one patient. During post-operative follow up anal sphincter muscle tone, anal sphincter function (Anal continence, p = 0.54), Quality of life (Social life, p = 0.54; Professional life, p = 0.23; House work and Need a diaper, p = 0.54) were not significantly impaired in both groups. Functional outcome of anal

  5. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Beelen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  6. Quality of Life and Timing of Stoma Closure in Patients With Rectal Cancer Undergoing Low Anterior Resection With Diverting Stoma: A Multicenter Longitudinal Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrle, Florian; Sandra-Petrescu, Flavius; Weiss, Christel; Post, Stefan; Runkel, Norbert; Kienle, Peter

    2016-04-01

    After low anterior resection for rectal cancer, creation of a diverting stoma is recommended. Data on the impact of a diverting stoma on quality of life are conflicting. Optimal timing of stoma closure in the setting of adjuvant chemotherapy is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a diverting stoma on quality of life in patients undergoing rectal cancer resection before and after stoma closure. Furthermore, the study was conducted to look at the timing of stoma reversal and the potential influence of factors such as adjuvant chemotherapy. This was a longitudinal, observational, multicenter study. The study was conducted at 17 German colorectal centers. Patients with rectal cancer who planned for elective curative surgery with creation of temporary diverting stoma were included. This longitudinal observational study assessed quality of life at 3 occasions using European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core Questionnaire/Colorectal Cancer Module before cancer resection, before stoma closure, and 6 months after stoma closure. Furthermore, the timing of stoma closure and continence were evaluated. A total of 120 patients (64% men; mean age, 63.2 ± 11.5 years) were analyzed. Longitudinal global quality of life was not influenced by the presence of a stoma. Several functional and GI symptom scales were markedly impaired after stoma creation. Physical, role functioning, and sexual interest recovered after stoma closure. Social functioning stayed impaired (p stoma closure was 5 months (range, 17 days to 18 months). A total of 3.4% of patients had very early stoma closure (within 30 days). Adjuvant chemotherapy delayed stoma closure (median, 5.6 vs 3.4 months without chemotherapy; p = 0.0001). The study was limited by its missing quality-of-life data for sexual function. The presence of a stoma had a negative impact on social functioning and GI symptoms. However, this had no clinically relevant

  7. European Breast Cancer Service Screening Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast...... seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer...... cancer overdiagnosis, and false-positive results. On the basis of the studies reviewed, the authors present a first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet. For every 1,000 women screened biennially from ages 50 to 51 years until ages 68 to 69 years and followed up until age 79 years, an estimated...

  8. Chemoradiation-induced changes in serum CEA and plasma TIMP-1 in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldulaymi, Bahir; Christensen, Ib J; Sölétormos, György

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative biomarkers serum CEA and plasma TIMP-1 have been shown to have prognostic and predictive value in patients with colorectal cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible impact of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) on preoperative biomarker levels in patients with...... biomarker levels may be affected by treatments received before blood sample collection. Translation of results of preoperative biomarkers needs to take such facts into consideration....... with rectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients with rectal cancer were prospectively included. The patients received CRT for 6-8 weeks. Blood samples were collected before CRT (pre-CRT) and preoperatively (post-CRT). RESULTS: Median CEA was 3.5 (range 0.6-36.1) µg/l and 2.4 (range 0...

  9. Self-reported quality of life and functional outcome in patients with rectal cancer – QoLiREC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asplund, Dan; Heath, Jane; González, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    of the common QoL instruments are brief and not sufficiently detailed to provide a deeper understanding of the factors that determine QoL. The aim of this study was to explore patients' experiences and long-term QoL in an unselected cohort of patients with rectal cancer. METHODS: This is a prospective...... international multicentre study based on a comprehensive, validated questionnaire on functional impairments and QoL administered to an unselected population of 1,500 patients with rectal cancer at diagnosis and after one, two and five years. The clinical characteristics are retrieved from the national quality...... improve patients' QoL. FUNDING: This study was supported by the Swedish Research Council, grant number 2012-1768; the Swedish Cancer Society CAN 2010/593 and CAN 2013/500; the Swedish Society of Medicine; the Gothenburg Medical Society; the Health & Medical Care Committee of the Regional Executive Board...

  10. Post Graduate Multidisciplinary Development Programme – Impact on the Interpretation of Pelvic MRI in Rectal Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Ginnerup; Blomqvist, Lennart; Brown, Gina

    2011-01-01

    . Objective: To assess the impact of a multidisciplinary team course for doctors in West Denmark on the technical quality, reporting and interpretation of pelvic MRI in rectal cancer. Design: Interventional, observational study. Two expert reviewers served as reference standard in the evaluation...... cancer were enrolled. Interventions: A multidisciplinary team course including on-site-visits. Main Outcome Measures: The MR-scans were evaluated concerning technical performance, reporting, interpretation and the ability to correctly allocate patients to chemo-irradiation based on imaging findings pre....... Conclusions: Performance and reporting of pelvic MRI in rectal cancer patients can be improved significantly through multidisciplinary development courses and on-site-visits while improvements in image interpretation with regard to treatment stratification may demand more intensive efforts....

  11. Does gadolinium-based contrast material improve diagnostic accuracy of local invasion in rectal cancer MRI? A multireader study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Marc J; Lakhman, Yulia; McGinty, Katrina; Weiser, Martin R; Sohn, Michael; Zheng, Junting; Shia, Jinru

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to compare reader accuracy and agreement on rectal MRI with and without gadolinium administration in the detection of T4 rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS. In this study, two radiologists and one fellow independently interpreted all posttreatment MRI studies for patients with locally advanced or recurrent rectal cancer using unenhanced images alone or combined with contrast-enhanced images, with a minimum interval of 4 weeks. Readers evaluated involvement of surrounding structures on a 5-point scale and were blinded to pathology and disease stage. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and AUC were calculated and kappa statistics were used to describe interreader agreement. RESULTS. Seventy-two patients (38 men and 34 women) with a mean age of 61 years (range, 32-86 years) were evaluated. Fifteen patients had 32 organs invaded. Global AUCs without and with gadolinium administration were 0.79 and 0.77, 0.91 and 0.86, and 0.83 and 0.78 for readers 1, 2, and 3, respectively. AUCs before and after gadolinium administration were similar. Kappa values before and after gadolinium administration for pairs of readers ranged from 0.5 to 0.7. CONCLUSION. On the basis of pathology as a reference standard, the use of gadolinium during rectal MRI did not significantly improve radiologists' agreement or ability to detect T4 disease.

  12. MRI-detected extramural vascular invasion is an independent prognostic factor for synchronous metastasis in patients with rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Beomseok; Lim, Joon-seok; Kim, Honsoul; Kim, Myeong-Jin [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Myoung, Sungmin [Jungwon University, Department of Medical Inf