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Sample records for european practice assessment

  1. European Educational Systems and Assessment Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Robert Harry; Cross, David; Grangeat, Michel

    2018-01-01

    . Such associations are useful both for understanding different existing assessment conditions as well as for providing possible pathways for change. Next, the chapter takes a closer look at teacher practices in these educational systems in order to identify the actual assessment practices of teachers in each country......Abstract This chapter surveys the status of educational systems and assessment practices across eight European countries that are part of the ASSIST-ME project. First, variations in country educational systems are examined to identify possible connections between systems and educational practices....... With these understandings of the systems and current uses of assessment, it is possible to identify affordances and challenges for improving assessment practices....

  2. Can we import quality tools? a feasibility study of European practice assessment in a country with less organised general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestiaux Dominique

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality is on the agenda of European general practice (GP. European researchers have, in collaboration, developed tools to assess quality of GPs. In this feasibility study, we tested the European Practice Assessment (EPA in a one-off project in Belgium, where general practice has a low level of GP organisation. Methods A framework for feasibility analysis included describing the recruiting of participants, a brief telephone study survey among non-responders, organisational and logistic problems. Using field notes and focus groups, we studied the participants' opinions. Results In this study, only 36 of 1000 invited practices agreed to participate. Co-ordination, administrative work, practice visits and organisational problems required several days per practice. The researchers further encountered technical problems, for instance when entering the data and uploading to the web-based server. In subsequent qualitative analysis using two focus groups, most participant GPs expressed a positive feeling after the EPA procedure. In the short period of follow-up, only a few GPs reported improvements after the visit. The participant GPs suggested that follow-up and coaching would probably facilitate the implementation of changes. Conclusion This feasibility study shows that prior interest in EPA is low in the GP community. We encountered a number of logistic and organisational problems. It proved attractive to participants, but it can be augmented by coaching of participants in more than a one-off project to identify and achieve targets for quality improvement. In the absence of commitment of the government, a network of universities and one scientific organisation will offer EPA as a service to training practices.

  3. Strategic Environmental Assessment practices in European small islands: Insights from Azores and Orkney islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polido, Alexandra, E-mail: a.polido@campus.fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); João, Elsa, E-mail: elsa.joao@strath.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Level 5, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ramos, Tomás B., E-mail: tabr@fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-02-15

    The literature concerning Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) often refers to the importance of context-specific approaches. However, there is a lack of systematised and consistent studies that enhance tailor-made SEA practices and procedures. Small islands are bounded units of study which may help explore SEA theory and practice in special territories. Small islands present particular features and unique values, such as, small size and population, geographic isolation, limited resources and vulnerable ecosystems. Hence, the main goal of this research was to profile SEA practices and procedures in European small islands and provide a background for future research aiming to improve context-specific SEA applications. To achieve this goal, an exploratory case study was developed using Azores (Portugal) and Orkney (Scotland) archipelagos. An analysis of the corresponding mainland was also carried out to contextualise both case studies. The data collection was achieved through a qualitative content analysis of 43 Environmental Reports. The research found that there is not an SEA context-specific approach used within these European small islands, including guidelines, assessment topics, assessment techniques, follow-up and stakeholders engagement. The debate concerning specific approaches to small islands must be re-focused on the enhancement of SEA capacity-building amongst different stakeholders (including decision-makers), on the development and implementation of collaborative approaches, and on the exchange of knowledge and experiences between small islands networks. - Highlights: • Reviewed the differences between the Portuguese and Scottish SEA system • Showed a low integration of SEA specific features in reports of European small islands • Provides background for future SEA research for small islands approaches.

  4. Teachers' Perspectives and Practices in Assessing Young Foreign Language Learners in Three Eastern European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumen, Mihaela; Cagran, Branka

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate foreign language teachers' experiences, understanding, attitudes and expertise in regard to the assessment of foreign languages at the primary level in three Eastern European countries (the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Croatia). The central part of the paper focuses on the current assessment…

  5. Safety of Novel Microbes for Human Consumption: Practical Examples of Assessment in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Brodmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Novel microbes are either newly isolated genera and species from natural sources or bacterial strains derived from existing bacteria. Novel microbes are gaining increasing attention for the general aims to preserve and modify foods and to modulate gut microbiota. The use of novel microbes to improve health outcomes is of particular interest because growing evidence points to the importance of gut microbiota in human health. As well, some recently isolated microorganisms have promise for use as probiotics, although in-depth assessment of their safety is necessary. Recent examples of microorganisms calling for more detailed evaluation include Bacteroides xylanisolvens, Akkermansia muciniphila, fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. This paper discusses each candidate's safety evaluation for novel food or novel food ingredient approval according to European Union (EU regulations. The factors evaluated include their beneficial properties, antibiotic resistance profiling, history of safe use (if available, publication of the genomic sequence, toxicological studies in agreement with novel food regulations, and the qualified presumptions of safety. Sufficient evidences have made possible to support and authorize the use of heat-inactivated B. xylanisolvens in the European Union. In the case of A. muciniphila, the discussion focuses on earlier safety studies and the strain's suitability. FLAB are also subjected to standard safety assessments, which, along with their proximity to lactic acid bacteria generally considered to be safe, may lead to novel food authorization in the future. Further research with F. prausnitzii will increase knowledge about its safety and probiotic properties and may lead to its future use as novel food. Upcoming changes in EUU Regulation 2015/2283 on novel food will facilitate the authorization of future novel products and might increase the presence of novel microbes in the food market.

  6. Safety of Novel Microbes for Human Consumption: Practical Examples of Assessment in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, Theodor; Endo, Akihito; Gueimonde, Miguel; Vinderola, Gabriel; Kneifel, Wolfgang; de Vos, Willem M; Salminen, Seppo; Gómez-Gallego, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Novel microbes are either newly isolated genera and species from natural sources or bacterial strains derived from existing bacteria. Novel microbes are gaining increasing attention for the general aims to preserve and modify foods and to modulate gut microbiota. The use of novel microbes to improve health outcomes is of particular interest because growing evidence points to the importance of gut microbiota in human health. As well, some recently isolated microorganisms have promise for use as probiotics, although in-depth assessment of their safety is necessary. Recent examples of microorganisms calling for more detailed evaluation include Bacteroides xylanisolvens, Akkermansia muciniphila, fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. This paper discusses each candidate's safety evaluation for novel food or novel food ingredient approval according to European Union (EU) regulations. The factors evaluated include their beneficial properties, antibiotic resistance profiling, history of safe use (if available), publication of the genomic sequence, toxicological studies in agreement with novel food regulations, and the qualified presumptions of safety. Sufficient evidences have made possible to support and authorize the use of heat-inactivated B. xylanisolvens in the European Union. In the case of A. muciniphila, the discussion focuses on earlier safety studies and the strain's suitability. FLAB are also subjected to standard safety assessments, which, along with their proximity to lactic acid bacteria generally considered to be safe, may lead to novel food authorization in the future. Further research with F. prausnitzii will increase knowledge about its safety and probiotic properties and may lead to its future use as novel food. Upcoming changes in EUU Regulation 2015/2283 on novel food will facilitate the authorization of future novel products and might increase the presence of novel microbes in the food market.

  7. Assessing the quality of corporate social responsibility reports: the case of reporting practices in selected European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hąbek, Patrycja; Wolniak, Radosław

    The organization may communicate its engagement in sustainability and may presents results achieved in this field by creating and publishing corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports. Today, we can observe a growing number of companies issuing such reports as a part of their annual reports or as stand-alone CSR reports. Despite the increase in the number of such reports their quality is different. CSR reports do not always provide complete data that readers desire, which in turn intensifies the problem with the evaluation and comparison of the organization's results achieved in this scope. Differences also occur between reporting models used in different EU countries caused by, inter alia, differently applied EU legislation on the disclosure of non-financial information in different Member States. This paper is one of the first attempts to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of corporate sustainability reporting practices in several European Union countries. The purpose of this article is to present the current state of CSR reporting practices in selected EU Member States and identify the differences in the quality and level of this kind of practices, taking into account the mandatory and voluntary model of disclosure. The study included separate CSR reports as well as annual reports with CSR sections and integrated reports published in 2012 in six selected EU Member States. The authors have used a specific evaluation tool in the examination of the individual reports. The assessment questionnaire consists of seventeen criteria grouped into two categories (relevance and credibility of information). In order to assess the quality of examined reports, the authors aggregated the indicators related with the reporting practices. The findings show that the quality level of the studied reports is generally low. Referring to its components, the relevance of the information provided in the assessed reports is at the higher level than its credibility. The

  8. Assessing University Excellence Management Practices by using the European Excellence Model according to Students’ and Employees’ Perspectives in Jadara University

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Qawasmeh, Farid; Al-Bourini, Faisal A.

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to seek knowledge about excellence management (EM) practices in Jadara University according to employees and students perspectives by using the European Excellence model. This model is built around nine core dimensions (leadership, people, strategy and policies, resources and relations, processes, people results, customer results, society results, and overall results). The researchers have developed the required questionnaire that consisted of (50) questions, and randomly distr...

  9. European Practice Assessment of Cardiovascular risk management (EPA Cardio: protocol of an international observational study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Lieshout Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite important improvements in available prevention and treatment, cardiovascular diseases (CVD remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Not all high-risk patients and patients with CVD have healthy lifestyles and receive the best possible healthcare. Internationally comparative data are needed to compare cardiovascular risk management in different countries, and to examine the impact of improvement programs and others factors. Objectives This study aims to provide internationally comparative data on cardiovascular risk management provided in primary care and on health-related lifestyles of patients in Europe. The study will also explore the views of doctors and patients on innovative preventive services for CVDs. Design and methods An observational cross-sectional study is planned. In 10 European countries, stratified samples of 36 practices per country will be recruited. In each practice, three samples of 15 patients each will be sampled: patients with coronary heart disease, patients at high risk for CVD, and healthy adult patients. The quality of cardiovascular risk management has been specified in terms of 44 performance indicators that resulted from an international Delphi-procedure with general practitioners. Most indicators are based on medical records, and some on a structured interview with a contact person of the practice. Lifestyle (smoking, physical exercise, diet will be measured with previously validated questionnaires that are completed by patients. Additional measures include practice characteristics and exposure to programs to improve cardiovascular care.

  10. Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomba, Angela; Alves, Paulo; Jongman, Rob H G; McCracken, David I

    2015-03-01

    Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their inherent potential to help characterize and direct financial support to European landscapes where high nature and/or conservation value is dependent on the continuation of specific low-intensity farming systems. Assessing the extent of HNV farmland by necessity relies on the availability of both ecological and farming systems' data, and difficulties associated with making such assessments have been widely described across Europe. A spatially explicit framework of data collection, building out from local administrative units, has recently been suggested as a means of addressing such difficulties. This manuscript tests the relevance of the proposed approach, describes the spatially explicit framework in a case study area in northern Portugal, and discusses the potential of the approach to help better inform the implementation of conservation and rural development policies. Synthesis and applications: The potential of a novel approach (combining land use/cover, farming and environmental data) to provide more accurate and efficient mapping and monitoring of HNV farmlands is tested at the local level in northern Portugal. The approach is considered to constitute a step forward toward a more precise targeting of landscapes for agri-environment schemes, as it allowed a more accurate discrimination of areas within the case study landscape that have a higher value for nature conservation.

  11. European practice in haemodialysis: results of the EPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, J Y; Elseviers, M; Harrington, M; Zampieron, A; Vlaminck, H; Ormandy, P; Kafkia, T

    2006-01-01

    The European Practice Database (EPD) project, developed by the EDTNA/ERCA Research Board, collects data on renal practice at centre level in different European countries. Results presented in this paper focus on the European Practice in Haemodialysis centres from 8 European countries or regions following data collection from 2002 to 2004. These results will enable international comparison in practice and will stimulate further research and the development of new practice recommendations.

  12. Stress and practical assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Neil D.; Gardiner, Nick

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the role of stress in practical assessments, which have long been used in an academic Sports Science and Sports Therapy setting. Practical exams have the potential to assess many aspects of both theory and practice. They are especially important for assessing a student’s competence in performance of a particular skill. In addition, practical exams are designed to recreate the stresses of a clinical environment (Rushforth, 2006). The practical exams for Sports Therapy also ...

  13. Teachers' Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Bruce B.; Schmitt, Vicki L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined classroom assessment practices of 3rd- through 12th-grade teachers in a Midwestern state. In addition to determining the frequency with which specific assessment item formats were utilized, the level of use of selected "best practice" approaches to assessment was considered ("performance-based assessment,…

  14. The accountability of European agencies: legal provisions and ongoing practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busuioc, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The book ''The Accountability of European Agencies: Legal Provisions and Ongoing Practices '' addresses one of the most relevant yet under- researched topic in current European governance: the accountability of European agencies. European agencies have been created at a rapid pace in recent years,

  15. Assessing enclosure design and husbandry practices for successful keeping and breeding of the Burmese brow antlered deer (Eld's deer, Rucervus eldii thamin) in European zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Ellis L; Hartley, Matt

    2017-05-01

    The endangered Burmese brow antlered deer (Rucervus eldii thamin) is a medium sized tropical cervid kept in a number of European zoos. Studbook data and anecdotal reports have suggested that this species suffers from poor reproductive success and relatively high neonatal mortality in captivity. Questionnaires were sent to 10 European zoos, holding 91 (20.71.0) deer, in order to record information on husbandry practices and enclosure design. Studbook analysis was performed to determine reproductive success and mortality values at each of the zoos participating in the study. Statistical analysis was carried out to identify any links between husbandry or enclosure design and the population parameters calculated from the studbook. From the nine zoos that were analyzed in this study, no significant differences were found for population parameters between male and female deer. Neonatal mortality was negatively correlated to enclosure size (in males) and enclosure cover (in females). Positive correlations were found between enclosure cover, average temperature and group size with life expectancy, and negative correlations between enclosure visibility and visitor distance with female life expectancy. These results may be useful for informing husbandry guidelines, although further research into stress responses in captivity is recommended for this species to improve their welfare. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. European risk assessment methodology for critical infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.; Cavenne, F.; Ulisse, A.; Bridegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    Most risk assessment methodologies aim at the risk at the level of an individual organization or company. The European Union commissioned a study to define the elements for a uniform and scalable risk assessment methodology which takes into account critical infrastructure dependencies across

  17. An overview of European good practices in public procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada POPESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public procurement has always been a major source of corruption in Europe, as acknowledged by national and European officials, by NGOs and by representatives of civil society. Too often, public procurement serves the personal interests of corrupt officials rather than the best interest of the community. During the last decade, anti-corruption efforts have increasingly focused on public procurement corruption. Most European countries, including European Union members, have tried to eliminate public procurement corruption by implementing new legal rules to ensure compliance with public procurement standards and by prosecuting offenders. After surveying a variety of good practices for eliminating corruption in public procurement in Europe, this paper concludes that the new rules have produced mixed results, with the most unfavourable outcomes occurring in Central and Eastern European countries where public procurement corruption is more virulent than elsewhere in Europe.

  18. Assessing Vulnerability to Drought on a pan-European scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquijo, Julia; De Stefano, Lucia; González-Tánago, Itziar; Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin

    2014-05-01

    During the past decade, a number of theoretical frameworks have been defined within the Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change communities to assess drought vulnerability at different scales, sectors, socio-political contexts, and geo-climatic conditions. However, there is still little consensus around the criteria, dimensions and factors used in these assessments; and none of them has been applied at a pan-European scale. This is due to a triple complexity. Firstly, drought as a natural hazard is a complex phenomenon due to the difficulty of determining its onset and its multiscale, multifaceted and dynamic nature. Secondly, there is an on-going debate regarding the concept of vulnerability and its constitutive elements, together with an important diversity of theoretical approaches to assess it. Finally, Europe's diversity in bioclimatic conditions, national water use practice and water use policies adds a challenging characteristic for working on pan-European scale. This work addresses the challenge of defining a methodological approach to the assessment of vulnerability factors to drought at a pan-European scale. For this purpose, we first review existing conceptual frameworks as well as of past initiatives for drought vulnerability assessment. The literature review showed that the high complexity of drought vulnerability assessment requires a clear definition of the concept of vulnerability and the associated terms, and that, before undertaking any assessment, it is necessary to clearly define the "vulnerable unit" i.e. replying to the questions 'whose vulnerability is being assessed?' and 'vulnerability to what type of impact?'. In this context, this work proposes the application of a factor-based approach, consisting in the analysis of significant factors that influence vulnerability in the context of specific situations of potential vulnerability. Those situations are framed within the specific drought characteristics of four different geoclimatic macro

  19. How Do European Pharmacy Students Rank Competences for Practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; De Paepe, Kristien; Sánchez Pozo, Antonio; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris; Hočevar, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    European students (n = 370), academics (n = 241) and community pharmacists (n = 258) ranked 13 clusters of 68 personal and patient care competences for pharmacy practice. The results show that ranking profiles for all three groups as a rule were similar. This was especially true of the comparison

  20. Dietary practices in isovaleric acidemia: A European survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, A.; Daly, A.; Evans, S.; Almeida, M.F.; Assoun, M.; Belanger-Quintana, A.; Bernabei, S.; Bollhalder, S.; Cassiman, D.; Champion, H.; Chan, H.; Dalmau, J.; Boer, F. de; Laet, C. de; Meyer, A; Desloovere, A.; Dianin, A.; Dixon, M.; Dokoupil, K.; Dubois, S.; Eyskens, F.; Faria, A.; Fasan, I.; Favre, E.; Feillet, F.; Fekete, A.; Gallo, G.; Gingell, C.; Gribben, J.; Kaalund-Hansen, K.; Horst, N.; Jankowski, C.; Janssen-Regelink, R.G.; Jones, I.; Jouault, C.; Kahrs, G.E.; Kok, I.L.; Kowalik, A.; Laguerre, C.; Verge, S. Le; Lilje, R.; Maddalon, C.; Mayr, D.; Meyer, U.; Micciche, A.; Robert, M.; Rocha, J.C.; Rogozinski, H.; Rohde, C.; Ross, K.; Saruggia, I.; Schlune, A.; Singleton, K.; Sjoqvist, E.; Stolen, L.H.; Terry, A.; Timmer, C.; Tomlinson, L.; Tooke, A.; Kerckhove, K. Vande; Dam, E. van; Hurk, T. van den; Ploeg, L. van der; Driessche, M. Van; Rijn, M. van de; Teeffelen-Heithoff, A. van; Wegberg, A.M. van; Vasconcelos, C.; Vestergaard, H.; Vitoria, I.; Webster, D.; White, F.J.; White, L.; Zweers, H.E.; Macdonald, A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Europe, dietary management of isovaleric acidemia (IVA) may vary widely. There is limited collective information about dietetic management. AIM: To describe European practice regarding the dietary management of IVA, prior to the availability of the E-IMD IVA guidelines (E-IMD 2014).

  1. Good Practice in European Recreation Planning and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaae, B.C.; Pröbstl, U.; Wirth, V.; Bell, S.; McCormack, A.; Elands, B.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes a number of good practice examples in outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism collected from different European countries. The examples provide trans-national inspiration on how to solve some of the problems and challenges identified in the previous chapters. Furthermore,

  2. European Fissure Sealant Guidelines: assessment using AGREE II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin-Galindo, L; Rodríguez-Lozano, F J; Abalos-Labruzzi, C; Niederman, R

    2017-02-01

    Pit and fissure sealants are effective in reducing the incidence of occlusal caries, and multiple clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed for recommending their proper use. The usefulness of CPGs depends on their quality and on the rigour of the guideline development process. A study was made to assess the quality of current European CPGs based on the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument, which uses 23 key items rated on a 7-point scale to assess practice guideline development and the quality of reporting. A search was conducted for fissure sealant guidelines for preventing caries in children and adults at high and low risk published in the last 10 years. Calibration was carried out before scoring to assess agreement between the appraisers using the AGREE II instrument. The searches identified 19 relevant guidelines, and following application of the inclusion/exclusion criteria, three guidelines were retained for evaluation. The proportion of observed agreement was calculated, expressed by the agreement separately for positive and negative ratings (PA = 0.89, NA = 0-91). The results of the guideline assessments revealed the highest score for the Irish guideline, a moderate score for the French guideline and the lowest score for the European guideline. Based on the AGREE II instrument, the results obtained show significant variation in the quality assessment of the three European Fissure Sealant Guidelines. Future studies should be carried out both to develop quality dental CPGs and to investigate effective ways of adopting them. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Practical Privacy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peen, Søren; Jansen, Thejs Willem; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes a privacy assessment model called the Operational Privacy Assessment Model that includes organizational, operational and technical factors for the protection of personal data stored in an IT system. The factors can be evaluated in a simple scale so that not only the resulting...... graphical depiction can be easily created for an IT system, but graphical comparisons across multiple IT systems are also possible. Examples of factors presented in a Kiviat graph are also presented. This assessment tool may be used to standardize privacy assessment criteria, making it less painful...... for the management to assess privacy risks on their systems....

  4. Assessing competence: The European survey on aging protocol (ESAP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Ballesteros, R.; Zamarron, M.D.; Rudinger, G.; Schroots, J.J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The main goal of this research project was to translate and adapt the European Survey on Ageing Protocol (ESAP) to 7 European countries/cultures. This article presents preliminary results from the ESAP, the basic assessment instrument of EXCELSA (European Longitudinal Study of Aging).

  5. Clinicians' adherence versus non adherence to practice guidelines in the management of patients with sarcoma: a cost-effectiveness assessment in two European regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrier Lionel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the management of sarcoma is improving, non adherence to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs remains high, mainly because of the low incidence of the disease and the variety of histological subtypes. Since little is known about the health economics of sarcoma, we undertook a cost-effectiveness analysis (within the CONnective TIssue CAncer NETwork, CONTICANET comparing costs and outcomes when clinicians adhered to CPGs and when they did not. Methods Patients studied had a histological diagnosis of sarcoma, were older than 15 years, and had been treated in the Rhône-Alpes region of France (in 2005/2006 or in the Veneto region of Italy (in 2007. Data collected retrospectively for the three years after diagnosis were used to determine relapse free survival and health costs (adopting the hospital's perspective and a microcosting approach. All costs were expressed in euros (€ at their 2009 value. A 4% annual discount rate was applied to both costs and effects. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was expressed as cost per relapse-free year gained when management was compliant with CPGs compared with when it was not. To capture uncertainty surrounding ICER, a probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed based on a non-parametric bootstrap method. Results A total of 219 patients were included in the study. Compliance with CPGs was observed for 118 patients (54%. Average total costs reached 23,571 euros when treatment was in accordance with CPGs and 27,313 euros when it was not. In relation to relapse-free survival, compliance with CPGs strictly dominates non compliance, i.e. it is both less costly and more effective. Taking uncertainty into account, the probability that compliance with CPGs still strictly dominates was 75%. Conclusions Our findings should encourage physicians to increase their compliance with CPGs and healthcare administrators to invest in the implementation of CPGs in the management of

  6. European consensus conference on faecal microbiota transplantation in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Giovanni; Ianiro, Gianluca; Tilg, Herbert; Rajilić-Stojanović, Mirjana; Kump, Patrizia; Satokari, Reetta; Sokol, Harry; Arkkila, Perttu; Pintus, Cristina; Hart, Ailsa; Segal, Jonathan; Aloi, Marina; Masucci, Luca; Molinaro, Antonio; Scaldaferri, Franco; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Lopez-Sanroman, Antonio; Link, Alexander; de Groot, Pieter; de Vos, Willem M; Högenauer, Christoph; Malfertheiner, Peter; Mattila, Eero; Milosavljević, Tomica; Nieuwdorp, Max; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Simren, Magnus; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an important therapeutic option for Clostridium difficile infection. Promising findings suggest that FMT may play a role also in the management of other disorders associated with the alteration of gut microbiota. Although the health community is assessing FMT with renewed interest and patients are becoming more aware, there are technical and logistical issues in establishing such a non-standardised treatment into the clinical practice with safety and proper governance. In view of this, an evidence-based recommendation is needed to drive the practical implementation of FMT. In this European Consensus Conference, 28 experts from 10 countries collaborated, in separate working groups and through an evidence-based process, to provide statements on the following key issues: FMT indications; donor selection; preparation of faecal material; clinical management and faecal delivery and basic requirements for implementing an FMT centre. Statements developed by each working group were evaluated and voted by all members, first through an electronic Delphi process, and then in a plenary consensus conference. The recommendations were released according to best available evidence, in order to act as guidance for physicians who plan to implement FMT, aiming at supporting the broad availability of the procedure, discussing other issues relevant to FMT and promoting future clinical research in the area of gut microbiota manipulation. This consensus report strongly recommends the implementation of FMT centres for the treatment of C. difficile infection as well as traces the guidelines of technicality, regulatory, administrative and laboratory requirements. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. ASSESSMENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marysther García

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to evaluate some management practices as tools for organizational learning. The methodological strategy used was descriptive, documentary and field research unit taking as a firm of auditors of Carabobo state. This allowed to determine as current management practices appear within this type of organization and how they affect their survival over time, indicating that strategies that make the managerial model alone do not ensure the success of the organization but is necessary for them to be creative and dynamic to adjust to new realities, for which they need to be aware of the need for continuous learning.

  8. Cost-benefit assessment of using electronic health records data for clinical research versus current practices: Contribution of the Electronic Health Records for Clinical Research (EHR4CR) European Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresniak, Ariel; Schmidt, Andreas; Proeve, Johann; Bolanos, Elena; Patel, Neelam; Ammour, Nadir; Sundgren, Mats; Ericson, Mats; Karakoyun, Töresin; Coorevits, Pascal; Kalra, Dipak; De Moor, Georges; Dupont, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a new opportunity to improve the efficiency of clinical research. The European EHR4CR (Electronic Health Records for Clinical Research) 4-year project has developed an innovative technological platform to enable the re-use of EHR data for clinical research. The objective of this cost-benefit assessment (CBA) is to assess the value of EHR4CR solutions compared to current practices, from the perspective of sponsors of clinical trials. A CBA model was developed using an advanced modeling approach. The costs of performing three clinical research scenarios (S) applied to a hypothetical Phase II or III oncology clinical trial workflow (reference case) were estimated under current and EHR4CR conditions, namely protocol feasibility assessment (S1), patient identification for recruitment (S2), and clinical study execution (S3). The potential benefits were calculated considering that the estimated reduction in actual person-time and costs for performing EHR4CR S1, S2, and S3 would accelerate time to market (TTM). Probabilistic sensitivity analyses using Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to manage uncertainty. Should the estimated efficiency gains achieved with the EHR4CR platform translate into faster TTM, the expected benefits for the global pharmaceutical oncology sector were estimated at €161.5m (S1), €45.7m (S2), €204.5m (S1+S2), €1906m (S3), and up to €2121.8m (S1+S2+S3) when the scenarios were used sequentially. The results suggest that optimizing clinical trial design and execution with the EHR4CR platform would generate substantial added value for pharmaceutical industry, as main sponsors of clinical trials in Europe, and beyond. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. English Teachers Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saefurrohman; Balinas, Elvira S.

    2016-01-01

    The new language assessment policies in the Philippines and in Indonesia have impact on English teachers' assessment practices. Classroom assessment; as mandated in the current curriculum of both countries swifts from sources of information to the inseparable process of teaching and learning. This study describes Filipino and Indonesian high…

  10. Impact Assessment of Public Innovation Support in European Economic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Vilys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is related to the public innovation support in Euro-pean Economic Area and its effectiveness assessment. Main aim of the re-search presented in this paper is to propose new model for public innovation support effectiveness assessment, which could be relevant to the contempo-rary needs and would be based on new explored practice of public innova-tion support developments. The methods of comparative, regression, model-ling analysis, multi-criteria evaluation, analogy search, logical abstraction and impact evaluation have been applied for the research presented in this paper. Proposed original system of quantitative and qualitative indicators that characterize any public innovation support system (public innovation support index enables creation and implementation of measures devoted to the public innovation support impact improvement at EU and national level.

  11. Dietary practices in propionic acidemia: A European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, A; Pinto, A; Evans, S; Almeida, M F; Assoun, M; Belanger-Quintana, A; Bernabei, S M; Bollhalder, S; Cassiman, D; Champion, H; Chan, H; Dalmau, J; de Boer, F; de Laet, C; de Meyer, A; Desloovere, A; Dianin, A; Dixon, M; Dokoupil, K; Dubois, S; Eyskens, F; Faria, A; Fasan, I; Favre, E; Feillet, F; Fekete, A; Gallo, G; Gingell, C; Gribben, J; Kaalund Hansen, K; Ter Horst, N M; Jankowski, C; Janssen-Regelink, R; Jones, I; Jouault, C; Kahrs, G E; Kok, I L; Kowalik, A; Laguerre, C; Le Verge, S; Lilje, R; Maddalon, C; Mayr, D; Meyer, U; Micciche, A; Och, U; Robert, M; Rocha, J C; Rogozinski, H; Rohde, C; Ross, K; Saruggia, I; Schlune, A; Singleton, K; Sjoqvist, E; Skeath, R; Stolen, L H; Terry, A; Timmer, C; Tomlinson, L; Tooke, A; Vande Kerckhove, K; van Dam, E; van den Hurk, T; van der Ploeg, L; van Driessche, M; van Rijn, M; van Wegberg, A; Vasconcelos, C; Vestergaard, H; Vitoria, I; Webster, D; White, F J; White, L; Zweers, H; MacDonald, A

    2017-12-01

    The definitive dietary management of propionic acidaemia (PA) is unknown although natural protein restriction with adequate energy provision is of key importance. To describe European dietary practices in the management of patients with PA prior to the publication of the European PA guidelines. This was a cross-sectional survey consisting of 27 questions about the dietary practices in PA patients circulated to European IMD dietitians and health professionals in 2014. Information on protein restricted diets of 186 PA patients from 47 centres, representing 14 European countries was collected. Total protein intake [PA precursor-free L-amino acid supplements (PFAA) and natural protein] met WHO/FAO/UNU (2007) safe protein requirements for age in 36 centres (77%). PFAA were used to supplement natural protein intake in 81% (n = 38) of centres, providing a median of 44% (14-83%) of total protein requirement. Seventy-four per cent of patients were prescribed natural protein intakes below WHO/FAO/UNU (2007) safe levels in one or more of the following age groups: 0-6 m, 7-12 m, 1-10 y, 11-16 y and > 16 y. Sixty-three per cent (n = 117) of patients were tube fed (74% gastrostomy), but only 22% received nocturnal feeds. There was high use of PFAA with intakes of natural protein commonly below WHO/FAO/UNU (2007) safe levels. Optimal dietary management can only be determined by longitudinal, multi-centre, prospective case controlled studies. The metabolic instability of PA and small patient cohorts in each centre ensure that this is a challenging undertaking.

  12. Exchange of best practices within the European Union: surgery standardization of abdominal organ retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graauw, J A; Mihály, S; Deme, O; Hofker, H S; Baranski, A G; Gobée, O P; Krikke, C; Fehérvari, I; Langer, R M; Ploeg, R J; Marazuela, R; Domínguez-Gil, B; Haase-Kromwijk, B J J M; Font-Sala, C

    2014-01-01

    Considering the growing organ demand worldwide, it is crucial to optimize organ retrieval and training of surgeons to reduce the risk of injury during the procedure and increase the quality of organs to be transplanted. In the Netherlands, a national complete trajectory from training of surgeons in procurement surgery to the quality assessment of the procured organs was implemented in 2010. This mandatory trajectory comprises training and certification modules: E-learning, training on the job, and a practical session. Thanks to the ACCORD (Achieving Comprehensive Coordination in Organ Donation) Joint Action coordinated by Spain and co-funded under the European Commission Health Programme, 3 twinning activities (led by France) were set to exchange best practices between countries. The Dutch trajectory is being adapted and implemented in Hungary as one of these twinning activities. The E-learning platform was modified, tested by a panel of Hungarian and UK surgeons, and was awarded in July 2013 by the European Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education of the European Union of Medical Specialists. As a pilot phase for future national training, 6 Hungarian surgeons from Semmelweis University are being trained; E-learning platform was fulfilled, and practical sessions, training-on-the-job activities, and evaluations of technical skills are ongoing. The first national practical session was recently organized in Budapest, and the new series of nationwide selected candidates completed the E-learning platform before the practical. There is great potential for sharing best practices and for direct transfer of expertise at the European level, and especially to export this standardized training in organ retrieval to other European countries and even broader. The final goal was to not only provide a national training to all countries lacking such a program but also to improve the quality and safety criteria of organs to be transplanted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  13. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory...... of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second...... hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N...

  14. A history of health technology assessment at the European level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, David; Kristensen, Finn Børlum; Jonsson, Egon

    2009-07-01

    This study summarizes the experience with health technology assessment (HTA) at the European level. Geographically, Europe includes approximately fifty countries with a total of approximately 730 million people. Politically, twenty-seven of these countries (500 million people) have come together in the European Union. The executive branch of the European Union is named the European Commission, which supports several activities, including research, all over Europe and in many other parts of the world. The European Commission has promoted HTA by several policy positions and has funded a series of projects aimed at strengthening HTA in Europe. Around fifteen of the European countries now have formal national programs on HTA and some also have regional public programs. All countries that are members of the European Union and do not have a national approach to HTA have an interest in becoming more involved. The HTA projects sponsored by the European Commission have focused on networking and collaboration among established agencies and institutions for HTA, however, also on capacity building, support, and facilitation in creating mechanisms for HTA in European countries that still do not have any program in the field.

  15. [Interpretation of Guidelines on Good Pharmacovigilance Practices for European Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-Ming; Tian, Feng

    2013-09-01

    Due to the limitations of pre-authorization clinical trials, the safety information obtained from them is relatively limited. Therefore, it is very necessary to carry out pharmacovigilance activities on drugs post-marketing. In order to promote the specific implementation of the new pharmacovigilance regulations, the European medicines agency (EMA) developed the Guideline on Good Pharmacovigilance Practices (GVP), as the new criteria for pharmacovigilance in the European Union (EU). Compared with the previously published, Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance for Medicinal Products for Human Use (2007), the GVP proposed more comprehensive and systematic provisions of pharmacovigilance systems, quality control systems, judgements, pharmacovigilance inspections and audits. In addition, it set more specific and comprehensive requirements on risk management systems, the management and reporting of adverse reactions to medicinal products, periodic safety update reports, post-authorization safety studies, signal management, and so on. Interpreting the basic principles, working mechanisms, key technologies and methods of the GVP provides a useful reference for us to carry out pharmacovigilance (especially regarding safety monitoring of parenterally administered Chinese medicine).

  16. [Comparison of medical rehabilitation in various European countries and the impact of European law on rehabilitation practice in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittag, Oskar; Welti, Felix

    2017-04-01

    Medical rehabilitation practice differs substantially among European countries. In most countries, rehabilitation is predominantly carried out on an outpatient basis. It is funded by health care, and rehabilitation facilities are not very specialized in terms of specific indications. In contrast, medical rehabilitation in Germany is mostly carried out on an in-patient basis as a contained 3‑week treatment. European law and European policies merely have an indirect impact on rehabilitation practice in Germany. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of the various forms of rehabilitation services are discussed.

  17. The implementation of the European Statistics Code of Practice in the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg CARA

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To assure the high quality of statistical products and services fromthe users’ perspectives has become a major concern for the national statistical institutes within the European Statistical System (ESS, as well as for the Republic of Moldova. The implementation of the European Statistics Code of Practice (CoP - an useful tool intended to assess and monitor the quality of statistics based on common criteria of ESS - aims at the achievement of this goal.The paper presents the results of the assessment of compliance ofMoldovan statistics (through that of the activity of the National Bureau of Statistics, NBS with some of the principles stipulated in the Code of Practice (for selected 7 principles of quality, in comparison with the state of art within ESS. This exercise has been carried out using self-assessment questionnaire, used by the ESS statistical institutes as a common evaluation and reportingtool of the compliance with CoP within the comprehensive study carried out by Eurostat in 2005- 2006. The results of peer reviews of European statistical institutes, which had completed the study, were used as well.

  18. The clinical practice of interventional radiology: a European perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current clinical environment in which interventional radiology (IR) is practiced throughout Europe. A survey, comprising 12 questions on IR clinical practice, was sent to 1800 CIRSE members. Members were asked to return one survey per department. Two hundred seventy-four departments returned completed questionnaires, 22% from the United Kingdom (n = 60), 11% from Germany (n = 30), 8% from Austria (n = 23), and the remainder spread over Europe. Experts, with more than 10 years of IR experience, comprised 74% of the survey group. Almost one-third of the radiologists dedicated more than 80% of their clinical sessions to IR alone (27%; n = 75), with two-thirds practicing in a university teaching hospital setting (66%; n = 179). Few institutions have dedicated IR inpatient hospital beds (17%; n = 46), however, to compensate, day case beds are available (31%), IR admitting rights are in place (64% overall, 86% for in-patients, and 89% for day cases), and elective IR admissions can be made through other clinicians (87%). IR outpatient clinics are run at 26% of departments, with an average of two sessions per week. Dedicated nurses staff the majority of IR suites (82%), but clinical junior doctors are lacking (46%). Hospital management\\'s refusing access to beds was the most commonly cited reason for not developing a clinical IR service (41%). In conclusion, there is marked variation across European centers in the current practice of IR. Half do not have dedicated junior doctors and only a small minority have inpatient hospital beds. If IR is to be maintained as a dedicated clinical specialty, these issues need to be addressed urgently.

  19. Sarcopenia in daily practice: assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudart, Charlotte; McCloskey, Eugène; Bruyère, Olivier; Cesari, Matteo; Rolland, Yves; Rizzoli, René; Araujo de Carvalho, Islène; Amuthavalli Thiyagarajan, Jotheeswaran; Bautmans, Ivan; Bertière, Marie-Claude; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Burlet, Nansa; Cavalier, Etienne; Cerreta, Francesca; Cherubini, Antonio; Fielding, Roger; Gielen, Evelien; Landi, Francesco; Petermans, Jean; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Visser, Marjolein; Kanis, John; Cooper, Cyrus

    2016-10-05

    Sarcopenia is increasingly recognized as a correlate of ageing and is associated with increased likelihood of adverse outcomes including falls, fractures, frailty and mortality. Several tools have been recommended to assess muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance in clinical trials. Whilst these tools have proven to be accurate and reliable in investigational settings, many are not easily applied to daily practice. This paper is based on literature reviews performed by members of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) working group on frailty and sarcopenia. Face-to-face meetings were afterwards organized for the whole group to make amendments and discuss further recommendations. This paper proposes some user-friendly and inexpensive methods that can be used to assess sarcopenia in real-life settings. Healthcare providers, particularly in primary care, should consider an assessment of sarcopenia in individuals at increased risk; suggested tools for assessing risk include the Red Flag Method, the SARC-F questionnaire, the SMI method or different prediction equations. Management of sarcopenia should primarily be patient centered and involve the combination of both resistance and endurance based activity programmes with or without dietary interventions. Development of a number of pharmacological interventions is also in progress. Assessment of sarcopenia in individuals with risk factors, symptoms and/or conditions exposing them to the risk of disability will become particularly important in the near future.

  20. Dietary management practices in phenylketonuria across European centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Kirsten; Bélanger-Quintana, Amaya; Dokoupil, Katharina

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary phenylalanine restriction is the cornerstone of phenylketonuria (PKU) management. However, there are no European consensus guidelines for its optimal dietary care. METHODS: Detailed information on the routine dietary management of PKU was obtained from 10 European centres usin...

  1. European Union Risk Assessment Report - Sodium Perborate

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This report provides , with conclusions, the risk assessment report of the substance sodium perborate that has been prepared by Austria in the context of Council Regulation (EEC) No. 793/93 on the evaluation and control of existing substances.

  2. Assessment Practices of Child Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jonathan R; Hausman, Estee M; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Hawley, Kristin M

    2017-03-01

    Assessment is an integral component of treatment. However, prior surveys indicate clinicians may not use standardized assessment strategies. We surveyed 1,510 clinicians and used multivariate analysis of variance to explore group differences in specific measure use. Clinicians used unstandardized measures more frequently than standardized measures, although psychologists used standardized measures more frequently than nonpsychologists. We also used latent profile analysis to classify clinicians based on their overall approach to assessment and examined associations between clinician-level variables and assessment class or profile membership. A four-profile model best fit the data. The largest profile consisted of clinicians who primarily used unstandardized assessments (76.7%), followed by broad-spectrum assessors who regularly use both standardized and unstandardized assessment (11.9%), and two smaller profiles of minimal (6.0%) and selective assessors (5.5%). Compared with broad-spectrum assessors, unstandardized and minimal assessors were less likely to report having adequate standardized measures training. Implications for clinical practice and training are discussed.

  3. Genetics in clinical practice: general practitioners' educational priorities in European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julian-Reynier, C.; Nippert, I.; Calefato, J.M.; Harris, H.J.; Kristoffersson, U.; Schmidtke, J.; Kate, L. ten; Anionwu, E.; Benjamin, C.; Challen, K.; Plass, A.M.; Harris, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess how general practitioners (GPs) from European countries prioritized their genetic educational needs according to their geographic, sociodemographic, and educational characteristics. Methods: Cross-sectional survey, random and total samples of GPs in five European countries

  4. A critical assessment of the European approach to financial reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a critical assessment of the financial reforms adopted or proposed at the European level. The reshaping of the EU institutional architecture and the adoption of the new Basel 3 rules should reduce the national margins of discretion that have up to now characterised supervisory practices, often leading to light touch supervision, and restrain the growth of bankarisation, hence excessive systemic leveraging. However, the limitations of a purely prudential approach to regulation may not be overcome by setting up new institutions and make prudential requirements more stringent. In addition, given unavoidable national banking specificities, more severe rulebooks homogenously applied across the EU countries could further worsen the inconsistencies of a one-size-fits-all rule. The criticisms directed at the new regulatory framework assume particular relevance in the EU, whose peculiar construction requires that the financial sector should not be permitted to jeopardise its critical fiscal equilibrium. This opens the way to the adoption of structural measures, as the one presented by the Vickers Commission on ring-fencing. Looking at the financial system as a whole, we argue that even these measures do not offer effective protection for the economy and tax-payers, and that much more radical interventions are needed.

  5. Practicality of intraoperative teamwork assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phitayakorn, Roy; Minehart, Rebecca; Pian-Smith, May C M; Hemingway, Maureen W; Milosh-Zinkus, Tanya; Oriol-Morway, Danika; Petrusa, Emil

    2014-07-01

    High-quality teamwork among operating room (OR) professionals is a key to efficient and safe practice. Quantification of teamwork facilitates feedback, assessment, and improvement. Several valid and reliable instruments are available for assessing separate OR disciplines and teams. We sought to determine the most feasible approach for routine documentation of teamwork in in-situ OR simulations. We compared rater agreement, hypothetical training costs, and feasibility ratings from five clinicians and two nonclinicians with instruments for assessment of separate OR groups and teams. Five teams of anesthesia or surgery residents and OR nurses (RN) or surgical technicians were videotaped in simulations of an epigastric hernia repair where the patient develops malignant hyperthermia. Two anesthesiologists, one OR clinical RN specialist, one educational psychologist, one simulation specialist, and one general surgeon discussed and then independently completed Anesthesiologists' Non-Technical Skills, Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons, Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, and Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery forms to rate nontechnical performance of anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, technicians, and the whole team. Intraclass correlations of agreement ranged from 0.17-0.85. Clinicians' agreements were not different from nonclinicians'. Published rater training was 4 h for Anesthesiologists' Non-Technical Skills and Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, 2.5 h for Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons, and 15.5 h for Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery. Estimated costs to train one rater to use all instruments ranged from $442 for a simulation specialist to $6006 for a general surgeon. Additional training is needed to achieve higher levels of agreement; however, costs may be prohibitive. The most cost-effective model for real-time OR teamwork assessment may be to use a simulation technician

  6. Red list assessment of European habitat types. A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodwell, J.S.; Janssen, J.A.M.; Gubbay, S.; Schaminee, J.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents an achievable methodology for the Red List assessment of European habitats in terrestrial, freshwater and marine realms, outlines a process that will deliver such evaluations and gives an indication of resources needed. It shows how the EUNIS habitat classification can be

  7. How to assess extreme weather impacts - case European transport network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviäkangas, P.

    2010-09-01

    To assess the impacts of climate change and preparing for impacts is a process. This process we must understand and learn to apply. EWENT (Extreme Weather impacts on European Networks of Transport) will be a test bench for one prospective approach. It has the following main components: 1) identifying what is "extreme", 2) assessing the change in the probabilities, 3) constructing the causal impact models, 4) finding appropriate methods of pricing and costing, 5) finding alternative strategy option, 6) assessing the efficiency of strategy option. This process follows actually the steps of standardized risk management process. Each step is challenging, but if EWENT project succeeds to assess the extreme weather impacts on European transport networks, it is one possible benchmark how to carry out similar analyses in other regions and on country level. EWENT approach could particularly useful for weather and climate information service providers, offering tools for transport authorities and financiers to assess weather risks, and then rationally managing the risks. EWENT project is financed by the European Commission and participated by met-service organisations and transport research institutes from different parts of Europe. The presentation will explain EWENT approach in detail and bring forth the findings of the first work packages.

  8. Health impact assessment of cycling network expansions in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David; Salmon, Maëlle; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Brand, Christian; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dons, Evi; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Gerike, Regine; Götschi, Thomas; Iacorossi, Francesco; Int Panis, Luc; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Raser, Elisabeth; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2018-01-09

    We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA) of cycling network expansions in seven European cities. We modeled the association between cycling network length and cycling mode share and estimated health impacts of the expansion of cycling networks. First, we performed a non-linear least square regression to assess the relationship between cycling network length and cycling mode share for 167 European cities. Second, we conducted a quantitative HIA for the seven cities of different scenarios (S) assessing how an expansion of the cycling network [i.e. 10% (S1); 50% (S2); 100% (S3), and all-streets (S4)] would lead to an increase in cycling mode share and estimated mortality impacts thereof. We quantified mortality impacts for changes in physical activity, air pollution and traffic incidents. Third, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis. The cycling network length was associated with a cycling mode share of up to 24.7% in European cities. The all-streets scenario (S4) produced greatest benefits through increases in cycling for London with 1,210 premature deaths (95% CI: 447-1,972) avoidable annually, followed by Rome (433; 95% CI: 170-695), Barcelona (248; 95% CI: 86-410), Vienna (146; 95% CI: 40-252), Zurich (58; 95% CI: 16-100) and Antwerp (7; 95% CI: 3-11). The largest cost-benefit ratios were found for the 10% increase in cycling networks (S1). If all 167 European cities achieved a cycling mode share of 24.7% over 10,000 premature deaths could be avoided annually. In European cities, expansions of cycling networks were associated with increases in cycling and estimated to provide health and economic benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reframing assessment research: through a practice perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Boud, David; Dawson, Phillip; Bearman, Margaret; Bennett, Sue; Joughin, Gordon; Molloy, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Assessment as a field of investigation has been influenced by a limited number of perspectives. These have focused assessment research in particular ways that have emphasised measurement, or student learning or institutional policies. The aim of this paper is to view the phenomenon of assessment from a practice perspective drawing upon ideas from practice theory. Such a view places assessment practices as central. This perspective is illustrated using data from an empirical study of assessmen...

  10. Quality assessments for cancer centers in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Anke; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim H

    2016-09-07

    Cancer centers are pressured to deliver high-quality services that can be measured and improved, which has led to an increase of assessments in many countries. A critical area of quality improvement is to improve patient outcome. An overview of existing assessments can help stakeholders (e.g., healthcare professionals, managers and policy makers) improve the quality of cancer research and care and lead to patient benefits. This paper presents key aspects of assessments undertaken by European cancer centers, such as: are assessments mandatory or voluntary? Do they focus on evaluating research, care or both? And are they international or national? A survey was sent to 33 cancer centers in 28 European Union member states. Participants were asked to score the specifics for each assessment that they listed. Based on the responses from 19 cancer centers from 18 member states, we found 109 assessments. The numbers have steadily increased from 1990's till 2015. Although, a majority of assessments are on patient-care aspects (n = 45), it is unclear how many of those include assessing patient benefits. Only few assessments cover basic research. There is an increasing trend towards mixed assessments (i.e., combining research and patient-care aspects) The need for assessments in cancer centers is increasing. To improve efforts in the quality of research and patient care and to prevent new assessments that "reinvent the wheel", it is advised to start comparative research into the assessments that are likely to bring patient benefits and improve patient outcome. Do assessments provide consistent and reliable information that create added value for all key stakeholders?

  11. Patient blood management knowledge and practice among clinicians from seven European university hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzini, P. M.; Dall'Omo, A. M.; D'Antico, S.

    2018-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this survey was to evaluate the knowledge about Patient Blood Management (PBM) principles and practices amongst clinicians working in seven European hospitals participating in a European Blood Alliance (EBA) project. Materials and Methods: A web-based questio...

  12. Testing practices in the 21st century: developments and European psychologists' opinions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.; Muñiz, J.; Bartram, D.; Boben, D.; Egeland, J.; Fernández-Hermida, J.R.; Frans, Ö.; Gintiliené, G.; Hagemeister, C.; Halama, P.; Iliescu, D.; Jawarowska, A.; Jiménez, P.; Manthouli, M.; Matesic, K.; Schittekatte, M.; Sümer, H.C.; Urbánek, T.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of the European Federation of Psychologists’Associations (EFPA) Standing Committee on Tests and Testing (SCTT) is the improvement of testing practices in European countries. In order to reach this goal, the SCTT carries out various actions and projects, some of which are described in

  13. A Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment for Salmonella in Pigs for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snary, Emma L.; Swart, Arno N.; Simons, Robin R. L.

    2016-01-01

    A farm‐to‐consumption quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) for Salmonella in pigs in the European Union has been developed for the European Food Safety Authority. The primary aim of the QMRA was to assess the impact of hypothetical reductions of slaughter‐pig prevalence and the imp......A farm‐to‐consumption quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) for Salmonella in pigs in the European Union has been developed for the European Food Safety Authority. The primary aim of the QMRA was to assess the impact of hypothetical reductions of slaughter‐pig prevalence...... and the impact of control measures on the risk of human Salmonella infection. A key consideration during the QMRA development was the characterization of variability between E.U. Member States (MSs), and therefore a generic MS model was developed that accounts for differences in pig production, slaughterhouse...... practices, and consumption patterns. To demonstrate the parameterization of the model, four case study MSs were selected that illustrate the variability in production of pork meat and products across MSs. For the case study MSs the average probability of illness was estimated to be between 1 in 100...

  14. Industrial Policy Approaches from Theory to Practice in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main debate about industrial policy consists of the attitude regarding the role of state versus market. The admission of possible market failures was the inspiration source for policies in the field of competition strengthening, supply of public goods, overcoming the deficit of capital etc. The general objectives of industrial policy may vary from the absolute role of the market to the market control. The European Community has applied a diversity of policies, differentiated from one period to another, in connection with the competition pressure on the world market and with the European integration stages. The EC had at its beginning a complete faith in the market mechanism, then a period of protectionism followed, as an answer to the oil shock and to the pressure of competition on international markets, especially coming from large American and Japanese companies. During the period 1985-1990, the European Community began to establish an industrial policy to encourage partnership between European companies and to promote cooperation in the field of research and development. In 1990 the European Commission proposed a new coherent concept of market oriented industrial policy, according to the model of neutral policy. Industrial policy is strongly connected to the competition policy. Especially after 1995, there have been signs of worry about the lower competitiveness in terms of productivity growth rate, expenditures for research and innovation capacity compared to USA and Japan. In addition, the European industry must face the competition pressure coming from the emergence of countries, mainly those from South-East Asia. In this context, the key factor which ensures a favorable perspective for the industry is competitiveness. This also implies expected positive effects of EU enlargement. The decision to sustain competitiveness was already taken in Lisbon, where a modern strategy was presented. Its priorities are the creation of a suitable

  15. Industrial Policy Approaches from Theory to Practice in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The main debate about industrial policy consists of the attitude regarding the role of state versus market. The admission of possible market failures was the inspiration source for policies in the field of competition strengthening, supply of public goods, overcoming the deficit of capital etc. The general objectives of industrial policy may vary from the absolute role of the market to the market control. The European Community has applied a diversity of policies, differentiated from one period to another, in connection with the competition pressure on the world market and with the European integration stages. The EC had at its beginning a complete faith in the market mechanism, then a period of protectionism followed, as an answer to the oil shock and to the pressure of competition on international markets, especially coming from large American and Japanese companies. During the period 1985-1990, the European Community began to establish an industrial policy to encourage partnership between European companies and to promote cooperation in the field of research and development. In 1990 the European Commission proposed a new coherent concept of market oriented industrial policy, according to the model of neutral policy. Industrial policy is strongly connected to the competition policy. Especially after 1995, there have been signs of worry about the lower competitiveness in terms of productivity growth rate, expenditures for research and innovation capacity compared to USA and Japan. In addition, the European industry must face the competition pressure coming from the emergence of countries, mainly those from South-East Asia. In this context, the key factor which ensures a favorable perspective for the industry is competitiveness. This also implies expected positive effects of EU enlargement. The decision to sustain competitiveness was already taken in Lisbon, where a modern strategy was presented. Its priorities are the creation of a suitable

  16. Assessing the resources and mitigation potential of European forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenauer, Hubert; Neumann, Mathias; Moreno, Adam; Running, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Today 40 % of the European land area is covered with forests managed for the provision of ecosystem services including timber production. Forests store large amounts of carbon and are the main resource for the growing demand of a bio-based economy. They are also a major source for biodiversity. Thus a consistent pan-European gridded data set on the state of forest resources is essential for researchers, policy makers and conservationists to study and understand the European forests for the global carbon cycle independent of political boundaries. The purpose of this study is to use existing European data to develop a consistent pan-European data set for Net Primary Production (NPP), live tree carbon per hectare, volume per hectare, mean tree height and mean tree age by integrating remotely sensed satellite data and harmonized NFI data from 13 different European countries. We provide new NPP estimates using the MOD17 algorithm by collating a newly down-scaled daily climate dataset across Europe. By consolidating these two independent productivity data sources (top down satellite versus bottom up terrestrial forest NFI data) for assessing forest resources in Europe, we are able to detect and quantify forest management impacts. We produce a pan-European map for each of the five key variables on a 0.133° grid representing the time period 2000-2010. The results show distinct differences in the carbon storage of European forests due to biophysical limits and regional historic drivers in forest management, which directly affect the carbon mitigation option of European forests. We use this data to assess the state of forest resources across Europe showing that mountainous regions have the highest carbon and volume per hectare values, central Europe has the tallest mean tree heights and Austria and Northern Scandinavia have the oldest mean tree ages. Cross-validation of the data indicates that the error varies by forest characteristic but shows negligible biases for all. We

  17. European Nanotechnology Experts Visit NCL; Harmonize Best Practices for Nanomedicine Collaboration in Europe | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    European nanotechnology experts visited the Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) to observe best practices and methods and to share their own knowledge with NCL scientists as they prepared to launch an NCL-like operation in Europe. The Eu

  18. European Nanotechnology Experts Visit NCL; Harmonize Best Practices for Nanomedicine Collaboration in Europe | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    European nanotechnology experts visited the Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) to observe best practices and methods and to share their own knowledge with NCL scientists as they prepared to launch an NCL-like operation in Europe. The Eu

  19. Policies and practices for an energy efficient European housing stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The housing stock has a major energy saving potential and is mostly considered to be the sector in which energy efficiency most cost effectively could be achieved. 30% of all energy use is consumed in the housing stock. The European union has formulated targets for a reduction of CO2 emissions to be

  20. Dietary management of urea cycle disorders : European practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, S.; Almeida, M. F.; Assoun, M.; Baruteau, J.; Bernabei, S. M.; Bigot, S.; Champion, H.; Daly, A.; Dassy, M.; Dawson, S.; Dixon, M.; Dokoupil, K.; Dubois, S.; Dunlop, C.; Evans, S.; Eyskens, F.; Faria, A.; Favre, E.; Ferguson, C.; Goncalves, C.; Gribben, J.; Heddrich-Ellerbrok, M.; Jankowski, C.; Janssen-Regelink, R.; Jouault, C.; Laguerre, C.; Le Verge, S.; Link, R.; Lowry, S.; Luyten, K.; MacDonald, A.; Maritz, C.; McDowell, S.; Meyer, U.; Micciche, A.; Robertson, L. V.; Rocha, J. C.; Rohde, C.; Saruggia, I.; Sjoqvist, E.; Stafford, J.; Terry, A.; Thom, R.; Vande Kerckhove, K.; van Rijn, M.; van Teeffelen-Heithoff, A.; van Wegberg, A.; van Wyk, K.; Vasconcelos, C.; Vestergaard, H.; Webster, D.; White, F. J.; Wildgoose, J.; Zweers, H.; Robert, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is no published data comparing dietary management of urea cycle disorders (UCD) in different countries. Methods: Cross-sectional data from 41 European Inherited Metabolic Disorder (IMD) centres (17 UK, 6 France, 5 Germany, 4 Belgium, 4 Portugal, 2 Netherlands, 1 Denmark, 1 Italy, 1

  1. Developing a European Drought Observatory for Monitoring, Assessing and Forecasting Droughts across the European Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, J.; Barbosa, P.; Hofer, B.; Magni, D.; Jager, A. D.; Singleton, A.; Horion, S.; Sepulcre, G.; Micale, F.; Sokolova, E.; Calcagni, L.; Marioni, M.; Antofie, T. E.

    2011-12-01

    Many European countries have repeatedly been affected by droughts, resulting in considerable ecological and economic damage. Climate change studies indicate a trend towards increasing climate variability most likely resulting in more frequent drought occurrences also in Europe. Against this background, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) is developing methods and tools for assessing, monitoring and forecasting droughts in Europe and develops a European Drought Observatory (EDO) to complement national activities with a European view. As droughts affect the entire water cycle continuous monitoring of a suite of indicators is required. Drought indicators at continental scale are supplemented by indicators at national, regional and local scales, providing more detailed information. At the core of the European Drought Observatory (EDO) are a portal and a map server presenting Europe-wide up-to-date drought-relevant information to the public and to decision makers in policy and water resources management. The final portal will include access to metadata catalogues, media reports, a map server and other related resources. The current version of EDO publishes continental information based on data processed and analysed at JRC as well as more detailed information at national and river basin scale processed by the local authorities. Available drought products include monthly updated Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPI), modelled soil moisture anomalies, remote sensing observations on the state of the vegetation cover (i.e. fAPAR and NDWI) and groundwater levels. A one-week soil moisture anomaly forecast complements the picture. Access to information at the national and river basin scale is established through interoperability arrangements with local authorities, making use of a special metadata catalogue and OWS standards (especially WMS and WCS). In addition, time series of drought indices can be retrieved for grid cells and administrative regions in

  2. Characteristics of improved formative assessment practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andersson, Catarina; Palm, Torulf

    2017-01-01

    An earlier study showed that the changes in teachers’ classroom practice, after participation in a professional development program in formative assessment, significantly improved student achievement in mathematics...

  3. Potential carbon sequestration of European arable soils estimated by modelling a comprehensive set of management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugato, Emanuele; Bampa, Francesca; Panagos, Panos; Montanarella, Luca; Jones, Arwyn

    2014-11-01

    Bottom-up estimates from long-term field experiments and modelling are the most commonly used approaches to estimate the carbon (C) sequestration potential of the agricultural sector. However, when data are required at European level, important margins of uncertainty still exist due to the representativeness of local data at large scale or different assumptions and information utilized for running models. In this context, a pan-European (EU + Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Norway) simulation platform with high spatial resolution and harmonized data sets was developed to provide consistent scenarios in support of possible carbon sequestration policies. Using the CENTURY agroecosystem model, six alternative management practices (AMP) scenarios were assessed as alternatives to the business as usual situation (BAU). These consisted of the conversion of arable land to grassland (and vice versa), straw incorporation, reduced tillage, straw incorporation combined with reduced tillage, ley cropping system and cover crops. The conversion into grassland showed the highest soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates, ranging between 0.4 and 0.8 t C ha(-1)  yr(-1) , while the opposite extreme scenario (100% of grassland conversion into arable) gave cumulated losses of up to 2 Gt of C by 2100. Among the other practices, ley cropping systems and cover crops gave better performances than straw incorporation and reduced tillage. The allocation of 12 to 28% of the European arable land to different AMP combinations resulted in a potential SOC sequestration of 101-336 Mt CO2 eq. by 2020 and 549-2141 Mt CO2 eq. by 2100. Modelled carbon sequestration rates compared with values from an ad hoc meta-analysis confirmed the robustness of these estimates. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Is a European Practice of Mass Atrocity Prevention Emerging? The European Union, Responsibility to Protect and the 2011 Libya Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara De Franco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Observers have classified the European Union (EU as reluctant in its implementation of the “Responsibility to Protect” (R2P (Task Force on the EU Prevention of Mass Atrocities, 2013. This contribution revisits that argument by employing a more nuanced interpretation of norm implementation than the binary conceptualisation typically applied. By appraising EU reactions to the 2011 Libyan crisis, we investigate whether a “European practice of mass atrocity prevention” is emerging and if so how this relates—or not—to R2P. We do this by investigating EU practices seeking to protect people from genocide, ethnic cleansing, war crimes and crimes against humanity—paying particular attention to the three pillars and four policy areas included in the R2P framework (ICISS, 2001. Our review of EU responses to Libya seeks to unveil whether and if so how EU practice related to mass atrocity prevention in that country rejected, adopted or indeed adapted R2P. The enquiry appraises both how R2P mattered to the EU response and how the Libya crisis affected the Union’s approach to mass atrocity prevention and within it R2P. In this way, the study asks how norms can change practice, but also how practice can change norms. As such, our focus is on the inter-relationship between principles and practices of protection.

  5. A systematic map of ecosystem services assessments around European agroforestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholm, Nora; Torralba Viorreta, Mario; Burgess, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Agroforestry offers proven strategies as an environmentally benign and ecologically sustainable land management practice to promote ecosystem services. In this literature review, we systematically consider the agroforestry and ecosystem services literature with the aim to identify and catalogue...... the knowledge field and provide the first systematic synthesis of ecosystem services research in relation to European agroforestry. We reviewed 71 scientific publications from studies conducted in farmland and forest ecosystems with various types of agroforestry management. Each publication was systematically...... characterized and classified by agroforestry practice and research approach in order to provide an insight into the current research state in addressing ecosystem services (including methods, indicators, and approaches). Spatial distribution of the case study sites in Europe was also explored. In addition...

  6. Wind turbines and aviation interests - European experience and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jago, P.; Taylor, N.

    2002-07-01

    The approach of other European countries to the effects of wind turbines on civil and military aviation has been studied in order to determine the applicability of these experiences to UK stakeholders. The background to the study is traced, and the restriction on the siting of turbines due to the hazards posed to aviation and defence interests, and the potential effects on radar for air traffic control, defence and low flying aircraft are examined. The planning and siting issues in different European countries, the planning system in the UK, and the safeguarding of aerodromes and military sites are discussed along with issues involved in low flying aircraft and search and rescue operations, and the marking and illumination of wind farms.

  7. Is haemovigilance improving transfusion practice?--The european experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strengers, P F W

    2007-01-01

    Improving transfusion practice for a donor means a safer donation process and maximal use of the donation. From the clinical perspective, it includes the production of the right type of blood component of adequate quality, administered at the right dose at the right moment to the right patient in order to obtain the expected or anticipated effect in absence of harm. Transfusion practice involves not only the complete blood chain, i.e. from the donation to clinical usage, but also the input from the competent authority that bears responsibility for the concepts of improving health care practice. In Europe, experience has shown that haemovigilance offers an effective tool in improving transfusion practice.

  8. European Social Work Research Association SIG to Study Decisions, Assessment, and Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian; Killick, Campbell; Bertotti, Teresa; Enosh, Guy; Gautschi, Joel; Hietamäki, Johanna; Sicora, Alessandro; Whittaker, Andrew

    2017-12-13

    The increasing interest in professional judgement and decision making is often separate from the discourse about "risk," and the time-honored focus on assessment. The need to develop research in and across these topics was recognized in the founding of a Decisions, Assessment, and Risk Special Interest Group (DARSIG) by the European Social Work Research Association in 2014. The Group's interests include cognitive judgements; decision processes with clients, families, other professionals and courts; assessment tools and processes; the assessment, communication, and management of risk; and legal, ethical, and emotional aspects of these. This article outlines the founding and scope of DARSIG; gives an overview of decision making, assessment, and risk for practice; illustrates connections between these; and highlights future research directions. Professional knowledge about decision making, assessment, and risk complements knowledge about effectiveness of interventions. DARSIG promises to be a useful mechanism for the purpose.

  9. Assessment of morphosyntactic development in European Portuguese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadório, Inês; Lousada, Marisa; Aparici, Melina; Hall, Andreia

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the late acquisition of morphosyntax in European Portuguese (EP)-speaking children are relatively scarce in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to report data on the morphosyntactic domain from typically developing children. The present investigation focused on differences in morphosyntactic performance according to specific demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, ecological setting, and socioeconomic background). Eighty EP-speaking children aged between 6 years and 6 years and 11 months were assessed with the Language Test - Preschool Language Assessment (TL-ALPE). Within the age range considered, some receptive and productive competencies were acquired. Significant differences were found for gender and age. These outcomes contribute to the knowledge of late developmental processes in the morphosyntactic domain, in EP-speaking children, presenting well-established performance standards. The provided reference information is fundamental to accurately identify children with language impairment and to construct new valid assessment instruments. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Assessing quality in European educational research indicators and approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Åström, Fredrik; Hansen, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Competition-based models for research policy and management have an increasing influence throughout the research process, from attracting funding to publishing results. The introduction of quality control methods utilizing various forms of performance indicators is part of this development. The authors presented in this volume deal with the following questions: What counts as ‘quality’ and how can this be assessed? What are the possible side effects of current quality control systems on research conducted in the European Research Area, especially in the social sciences and the humanities?

  11. European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) Guideline development methodology: towards the best possible guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagler, Evi V.; Webster, Angela C.; Bolignano, Davide; Haller, Maria C.; Nistor, Ionut; van der Veer, Sabine N.; Fouque, Denis; van Biesen, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The prime mission of European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) is to improve the outcome of patients with kidney disease in a sustainable way through enhancing the availability of the knowledge on the management of these patients in a format that stimulates its use in clinical practice in Europe. A key

  12. Mapping the Context and Practice of Training, Development and HRD in European Call Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Wilson, John P.; Cross, Christine; Carbery, Ronan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Utilising data from 18 in-depth case studies, this study seeks to explore training, development and human resource development (HRD) practices in European call centres. It aims to argue that the complexity and diversity of training, development and HRD practices is best understood by studying the multilayered contexts within which call…

  13. An Assessment of Radiation Modification from a European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, J. E.; Lawrence, M. G.; Boucher, O.; Haywood, J. M.; Irvine, P. J.; Muri, H.; Schmidt, H.; Schulz, M.; Vaughan, N.; Watson, M.; Born, W.; Schaefer, S.; Stelzer, H.

    2014-12-01

    The European Transdisciplinary Assessment of Climate Engineering (EuTRACE) project (2012-2014) is funded by the European Commission (EC). In EuTRACE, researchers from the natural sciences, social sciences and the humanities have joined forces to assess various proposed geoengineering techniques concerning their radiative forcing potential and side effects, ethical aspects, economics aspects, as well as governance and regulation aspects. A comprehensive assessment report will be submitted to the EC in autumn 2014. We will present some highlights of the part of the EuTRACE assessment that deals with the natural science aspects of proposed Radiation Modification (RM) techniques. The techniques considered are: a) Stratospheric Sulfur Injections; b) Marine Cloud Brightening; c) Desert Brightening; d) Vegetation Brightening; and e) Cirrus Cloud Thinning. A large number of publications in the scientific literature has been considered, as well as recently published assessment reports by the Royal Society in the UK and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Some of the findings of the assessment are: Globally averaged, the current anthropogenic radiative forcing could conceivably be offset by the RM techniques considered. The RM techniques could have a significant global effect already after 1 year or less. Model simulations consistently show that Solar RM leads to regional imbalances due to different spatial footprints of solar and carbon dioxide radiative forcings. This may have significant consequences for precipitation patterns and the hydrological cycle. Very rapid warming is virtually certain if RM were to be stopped abruptly or over a period of one to a few years. Model studies of RM usually assume that the techniques are technologically feasible. In fact, the technological challenges are poorly known, and in many cases the physical processes involved are poorly understood. We will end by discussing key research questions and knowledge gaps.

  14. Energy efficiency in the European water industry. A compendium of best practices and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frijns, J. [Watercycle Research Institute KWR, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Uijterlinde, C. [Foundation for Applied Water Research STOWA, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    This European report on best practices of energy efficiency in the water industry showcases 23 energy efficiency initiatives which were collected as case studies from European water utilities. The 25 case studies presented in this report will be submitted to UKWIR and Black and Veatch, for potential inclusion in the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC) global compendium of best practice case studies. The aim of the GWRC-compendium is to identify the promising developments and future opportunities to help deliver incremental improvements in energy efficiency through optimisation of existing assets and operations. But also more substantial improvements in energy efficiency from the adoption of novel (but proven at full scale) technologies. The European report describes case studies from: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Spain and Switzerland. Black and Veatch has gathered furthermore information on 47 cases from the UK. These are reported separately and are not included in this European overview.

  15. Is a European Practice of Mass Atrocity Prevention Emerging?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Franco, Chiara; Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2015-01-01

    – paying particular attention to the three pillars and four policy areas included in the R2P framework. Our review of EU responses to Libya seeks to unveil whether and if so how EU practice related to mass atrocity prevention in that country rejected, adopted or indeed adapted R2P. The enquiry appraises...... both how R2P mattered to the EU response and how the Libya crisis affected the Union’s approach to mass atrocity prevention and within it R2P. In this way, the study asks how norms can change practice, but also how practice can change norms. As such, our focus is on the inter-relationship between...

  16. Oral surgery in the European Union: challenges of diversity in training and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseripour, M N; Hervé, C; Meningaud, J-P

    2017-02-01

    At the crossroads of medicine and dentistry, oral surgery with orthodontics are the only recognised dental specialties by the European Union. The goal of our study is to evaluate the current state of oral surgery in Europe from its teaching to its practice, the hypothesis being that a notable diversity persists despite European Union harmonisation process. To understand the impact of this diversity applied to European Union freedom of movement and its ethical implications for the practice of oral surgery, English and French questionnaires were sent by email to universities and organisations delivering authorisation to practise in France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom chosen based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. An analysis of documents on these organisations' official websites was also conducted. Demographic information was obtained from the aforementioned organisations. The profile of practising oral surgeons is different dependent on the country. The university and hospital trainings conform to European recommendations and span 3-4 years. European Board certification is not required. Continuing education is mandatory only in France, Germany and United Kingdom. As for curricula and scope of practice, no consensus can be derived. There is potential conflict of interest between European Union principles of freedom of movement and protection of all citizens, as member countries do not uniformly apply Directives and recommendations. A new survey of all European Union oral surgery programmes as well as organisations delivering authorisation to practise is necessary to implement across the board harmonisation of training and practice to insure patient safety in light of the migration of European Union practitioners. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Learning Community Assessment 101--Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Juan Carlos; Hansen, Michele J.

    2013-01-01

    Good assessment is part of all good learning communities, and this article provides a useful set of best practices for learning community assessment planning: (1) articulating agreed-upon learning community program goals; (2) identifying the purpose of assessment (e.g., summative or formative); (3) employing qualitative and quantitative assessment…

  18. Assessment of avionics technology in European aerospace organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinec, D. A.; Baumbick, Robert; Hitt, Ellis; Leondes, Cornelius; Mayton, Monica; Schwind, Joseph; Traybar, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the observations and recommendations made by a technical panel formed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The panel, comprising prominent experts in the avionics field, was tasked to visit various organizations in Europe to assess the level of technology planned for use in manufactured civil avionics in the future. The primary purpose of the study was to assess avionics systems planned for implementation or already employed on civil aircraft and to evaluate future research, development, and engineering (RD&E) programs, address avionic systems and aircraft programs. The ultimate goal is to ensure that the technology addressed by NASa programs is commensurate with the needs of the aerospace industry at an international level. The panel focused on specific technologies, including guidance and control systems, advanced cockpit displays, sensors and data networks, and fly-by-wire/fly-by-light systems. However, discussions the panel had with the European organizations were not limited to these topics.

  19. ECHO: health care performance assessment in several European health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Delgado, E; Christiansen, T; Bloor, K; Mateus, C; Yazbeck, A M; Munck, J; Bremner, J

    2015-02-01

    Strengthening health-care effectiveness, increasing accessibility and improving resilience are key goals in the upcoming European Union health-care agenda. European Collaboration for Health-Care Optimization (ECHO), an international research project on health-care performance assessment funded by the seventh framework programme, has provided evidence and methodology to allow the attainment of those goals. This article aims at describing ECHO, analysing its main instruments and discussing some of the ECHO policy implications. Using patient-level administrative data, a series of observational studies (ecological and cross-section with associated time-series analyses) were conducted to analyze population and patients' exposure to health care. Operationally, several performance dimensions such as health-care inequalities, quality, safety and efficiency were analyzed using a set of validated indicators. The main instruments in ECHO were: (i) building a homogeneous data infrastructure; (ii) constructing coding crosswalks to allow comparisons between countries; (iii) making geographical units of analysis comparable; and (iv) allowing comparisons through the use of common benchmarks. ECHO has provided some innovations in international comparisons of health-care performance, mainly derived from the massive pooling of patient-level data and thus: (i) has expanded the usual approach based on average figures, providing insight into within and across country variation at various meaningful policy levels, (ii) the important effort made on data homogenization has increased comparability, increasing stakeholders' reliance on data and improving the acceptance of findings and (iii) has been able to provide more flexible and reliable benchmarking, allowing stakeholders to make critical use of the evidence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. Assisted living nursing practice: admission assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitty, Ethel; Flores, Sandi

    2007-01-01

    Admission assessment, generally conducted by a registered nurse, is autonomous, without opportunity for dialogue with colleagues and other health care professionals and bounded by the nurse's knowledge and skills, state regulations, facility practices, and marketing. The fact that some states permit admission and retention of nursing home level-of-care residents and provision of end-of-life care means that the assessment has to be able to predict the resident's likely trajectory of well-being as well as chronic illness exacerbation. The nurse must have a clear perspective on staff competencies and judge whether additional education or training will be necessary. This article reviews assessment standards of practice as put forth by the American Assisted Living Nurses Association as part of its application for recognition of assisted living nursing as specialty nursing practice by the American Nurses Association. The role of the Licensed Practical Nurse/Licensed Vocational Nurse in resident assessment is also discussed.

  1. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in ...

  2. Offering prenatal diagnostic tests: European guidelines for clinical practice [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirton, Heather; Goldsmith, Lesley; Jackson, Leigh; Lewis, Celine; Chitty, Lyn

    2014-05-01

    For over four decades, it has been possible to offer prenatal diagnostic testing for fetal abnormalities. Prenatal testing is now available for a wide range of monogenic disorders as well as chromosomal abnormalities and should be provided within the ethical framework of informed consent and autonomous choice. However, there are no published guidelines for health professionals from varied disciplines who offer prenatal diagnosis (PND) in a range of possible settings including departments of maternity, obstetrics and clinical genetics. We used an Expert Group technique to develop a set of guidelines for provision of prenatal diagnostic services. Thirteen European health professionals, all experts in PND, participated in a workshop to develop the guidelines, which were then subjected to a wide consultation process. The objective of PND was defined as providing prenatal diagnostic testing services (for genetic conditions) that enable families to make informed choices consistent with their individual needs and values and which support them in dealing with the outcome of such testing. General principles, logistical considerations, clinical care and counselling topics are all described and are equally applicable to invasive and non-invasive testing. These guidelines provide a framework for ethical clinical care; however, they are flexible enough to enable practitioners to adapt them to their particular setting. Ideally, an individualised approach to each family is required to ensure autonomous choice and informed consent regarding prenatal diagnostic testing within the local ethical and legal framework.

  3. European network for health technology assessment, EUnetHTA: planning, development, and implementation of a sustainable European network for health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Finn Børlum; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Neikter, Susanna Allgurin; Rehnqvist, Nina; Håheim, Lise Lund; Mørland, Berit; Milne, Ruairidh; Nielsen, Camilla Palmhøj; Busse, Reinhard; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; Wild, Claudia; Espallargues, Mireia; Chamova, Julia

    2009-12-01

    The European network on Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) aimed to produce tangible and practical results to be used in the various phases of health technology assessment and to establish a framework and processes to support this. This article presents the background, objectives, and organization of EUnetHTA, which involved a total of sixty-four partner organizations. Establishing an effective and sustainable structure for a transnational network involved many managerial, policy, and methodological tools, according to the objective of each task or Work Package. Transparency in organization, financial transactions, and decision making was a key principle in the management of the Project as was the commitment to appropriately involve stakeholders. EUnetHTA activities resulted in a clear management and governance structure, efficient partnership, and transnational cooperation. The Project developed a model for sustainable continuation of the EUnetHTA Collaboration. The EUnetHTA Project achieved its goals by producing a suite of practical tools, a strong network, and plans for continuing the work in a sustainable EUnetHTA Collaboration that facilitates and promotes the use of HTA at national and regional levels. Responsiveness to political developments in Europe should be balanced with maintaining a high level of ambition to promote independent, evidence-based information and well-tested tools for best practice based on a strong network of HTA institutions.

  4. Pediatricians' weight assessment and obesity management practices

    OpenAIRE

    Galvan Kate; Walker-Gallego Edward; Fernandez Susan; Golnari Golnaz; Donohue Michael; Huang Jeannie S; Briones Christina; Tamai Jennifer; Becerra Karen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Clinician adherence to obesity screening guidelines from United States health agencies remains suboptimal. This study explored how personal and career demographics influence pediatricians' weight assessment and management practices. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to U.S. pediatricians. Respondents were asked to identify the weight status of photographed children and about their weight assessment and management practices. Associations between career and personal...

  5. A European Competence Framework for Industrial Pharmacy Practice in Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The PHAR-IN (“Competences for industrial pharmacy practice in biotechnology” looked at whether there is a difference in how industrial employees and academics rank competences for practice in the biotechnological industry. A small expert panel consisting of the authors of this paper produced a biotechnology competence framework by drawing up an initial list of competences then ranking them in importance using a three-stage Delphi process. The framework was next evaluated and validated by a large expert panel of academics (n = 37 and industrial employees (n = 154. Results show that priorities for industrial employees and academics were similar. The competences for biotechnology practice that received the highest scores were mainly in: “Research and Development”, ‘“Upstream” and “Downstream” Processing’, “Product development and formulation”, “Aseptic processing”, “Analytical methodology”, “Product stability”, and “Regulation”. The main area of disagreement was in the category “Ethics and drug safety” where academics ranked competences higher than did industrial employees.

  6. Discrepancy Between European Association of Urology Guidelines and Daily Practice in the Management of Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of a European Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricksen, Kees; Aziz, Atiqullah; Bes, Perrine; Chun, Felix K-H; Dobruch, Jakub; Kluth, Luis A; Gontero, Paolo; Necchi, Andrea; Noon, Aidan P; van Rhijn, Bas W G; Rink, Michael; Roghmann, Florian; Rouprêt, Morgan; Seiler, Roland; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Qvick, Brian; Babjuk, Marek; Xylinas, Evanguelos

    2017-10-23

    The European Association of Urology (EAU) non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) guidelines are meant to help minimise morbidity and improve the care of patients with NMIBC. However, there may be underuse of guideline-recommended care in this potentially curable cohort. To assess European physicians' current practice in the management of NMIBC and evaluate its concordance with the EAU 2013 guidelines. Initial 45-min telephone interviews were conducted with 20 urologists to develop a 26-item questionnaire for a 30-min online quantitative interview. A total of 498 physicians with predefined experience in treatment of NMIBC patients, from nine European countries, completed the online interviews. Descriptive statistics of absolute numbers and percentages of the use of diagnostic tools, risk group stratification, treatment options chosen, and follow-up regimens were used. Guidelines are used by ≥87% of physicians, with the EAU guidelines being the most used ones (71-100%). Cystoscopy (60-97%) and ultrasonography (42-95%) are the most used diagnostic techniques. Using EAU risk classification, 40-69% and 88-100% of physicians correctly identify all the prognostic factors for low- and high-risk tumours, respectively. Re-transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (re-TURB) is performed in 25-75% of low-risk and 55-98% of high-risk patients. Between 21% and 88% of patients received a single instillation of chemotherapy within 24h after TURB. Adjuvant intravesical treatment is not given to 6-62%, 2-33%, and 1-20% of the patients with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk NMIBC, respectively. Patients with low-risk NMIBC are likely to be overmonitored and those with high-risk NMIBC undermonitored. Our study is limited by the possible recall bias of the selected physicians. Although most European physicians claim to apply the EAU guidelines, adherence to them is low in daily practice. Our survey among European physicians investigated discrepancies between guidelines and

  7. Risk assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetics: a European union perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkler, Frank; Tralau, Tewes; Tentschert, Jutta; Kneuer, Carsten; Haase, Andrea; Platzek, Thomas; Luch, Andreas; Götz, Mario E

    2012-11-01

    In Europe, the data requirements for the hazard and exposure characterisation of chemicals are defined according to the REACH regulation and its guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment (Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), and its guidance documents; available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:396:0001:0849:EN:PDF ; and at: http://guidance.echa.europa.eu/docs/guidance_document/information_requirements_en.htm ). This is the basis for any related risk assessment. The standard reference for the testing of cosmetic ingredients is the SCCP's 'Notes of Guidance for the Testing of Cosmetic Ingredients and their Safety Evaluation' (The SCCP's Notes of Guidance for the testing of cosmetic ingredients and their safety evaluation (2006); available at: http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/docs/sccp_o_03j.pdf ), which refers to the OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals (The OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals as a collection of the most relevant internationally agreed testing methods used by government, industry and independent laboratories to assess the safety of chemical products; available at: http://www.oecd.org/topic/0,2686,en_2649_34377_1_1_1_1_37407,00.html ). According to the cosmetics directive [76/768/EEC], compounds that are classified as mutagenic, carcinogenic or toxic to reproduction are banned for the use in cosmetic products. Since December 2010, the respective labelling is based on the rules of regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Official Journal L 353, 31

  8. Stigma of Schizophrenia: Assessing Attitudes among European University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etien Benov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Stigma creates a barrier in the recovery from severe mental illness such as schizophrenia. Although stigmatising behaviour can be observed both among the general public and healthcare professionals, little is known about stigmatisation towards people with schizophrenia (PwS among university students. This study will target psychology students, medical students and students of subjects not directly associated with healthcare professions in seven European countries (Bulgaria, Denmark, England, Ireland, Malta, Slovenia and Switzerland. The aims of the current study are to explore the stigma held by students in the aforementioned countries, and any possible differences between students of health-related and non health-related subjects. Furthermore, potential differences between those that have taken a module in psychopathology and/or schizophrenia will be considered. Measures assessing knowledge, contact, negative emotions and desired social distance were distributed in an online format.

  9. European consensus conference on faecal microbiota transplantation in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cammarota, Giovanni; Ianiro, Gianluca; Tilg, Herbert; Rajilić-stojanović, Mirjana; Kump, Patrizia; Satokari, Reetta; Sokol, Harry; Arkkila, Perttu; Pintus, Cristina; Hart, Ailsa; Vos, de Willem M.

    2017-01-01

    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an important therapeutic option for Clostridium difficile infection. Promising findings suggest that FMT may play a role also in the management of other disorders associated with the alteration of gut microbiota. Although the health community is assessing

  10. Refining lecturers' assessment practices through formal professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Higher Education Quality Committee's emphasis on the assessment of student learning in its criteria for institutional audits (June 2004) signals that institutional arrangements to ensure quality assessment practices are to come under the spotlight. One means to demonstrate institutional commitment to quality in ...

  11. Public Innovation Support index for Impact Assessment in the European Economic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Vilys

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The object of this research is public innovation support in European Economic Area and its effectiveness assessment. The main aim is to propose a new model for public innovation support effectiveness assessment, adjusted to contemporary needs and based on practice of public innovation support development. Research Design & Methods: The methods of comparative, cluster, regression, modelling analysis, multi-criteria evaluation, analogy search, logical abstraction and impact evaluation have been applied for the research presented in this paper. Findings:  The paper conceptualizes a new model for the assessment of public innovation support. It is based on theoretical argumentation and practical verification. Its structure is based on new solutions and quantitative assessment methods. Implications & Recommendations: The analysis of the proposed model applicability revealed important patterns for the public innovation support impact assessment. Findings suggest that the increase of public innovation support index is a necessary but insufficient condition for the growth of the countries innovation index. The impact of public innovation support occurs only in the long run, as the delay of the effect exists. Contribution & Value Added: The proposed system of quantitative and qualitative indicators that characterize any public innovation support system (public innovation support index enables the creation and implementation of measures devoted to the public innovation support impact improvement at EU and national level. The practical application of the suggested model is significant for the effectiveness improvement of public innovation support at EU institutions.

  12. Emotion Socialization Practices in Latina and European American Mothers of Preschoolers with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Breaux, Rosanna P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined mothers’ emotion socialization of 3-year-old children with behavior problems, to determine whether emotion socialization practices, as well as the relation between these practices and child functioning, varied across ethnicities. Participants were 134 preschoolers with behavior problems. Mothers were European American (n = 96) and Latina American (n = 38; predominately Puerto Rican). Audiotaped mother-child interactions were coded for emotion socialization behaviors. Latina and European American mothers used similar emotion socialization practices on most dimensions. Latina mothers were more likely to minimize or not respond to their children’s negative affect. However, this difference did not appear to have ramifications for children. This study provided evidence for both differences and similarities across ethnicities on emotion socialization practices. PMID:27042157

  13. Management of obesity in adults: European clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigos, Constantine; Hainer, Vojtech; Basdevant, Arnaud; Finer, Nick; Fried, Martin; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth; Micic, Dragan; Maislos, Maximo; Roman, Gabriela; Schutz, Yves; Toplak, Hermann; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The development of consensus guidelines for obesity is complex. It involves recommending both treatment interventions and interventions related to screening and prevention. With so many publications and claims, and with the awareness that success for the individual is short-lived, many find it difficult to know what action is appropriate in the management of obesity. Furthermore, the significant variation in existing service provision both within countries as well as across the regions of Europe makes a standardised approach, even if evidence-based, difficult to implement. In formulating these guidelines, we have attempted to use an evidence-based approach while allowing flexibility for the practicing clinician in domains where evidence is currently lacking and ensuring that in treatment there is recognition of clinical judgment and of regional diversity as well as the necessity of an agreed approach by the individual and family. We conclude that i) physicians have a responsibility to recognise obesity as a disease and help obese patients with appropriate prevention and treatment, ii) treatment should be based on good clinical care and evidence-based interventions and iii) obesity treatment should focus on realistic goals and lifelong management. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Good practices and health policy analysis in European sports stadia: results from the 'Healthy Stadia' project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drygas, Wojciech; Ruszkowska, Joanna; Philpott, Matthew; Björkström, Olav; Parker, Mike; Ireland, Robin; Roncarolo, Federico; Tenconi, Maria

    2013-06-01

    Sport plays an important role within society and sports stadia provide significant settings for public health strategies. In addition to being places of mass gathering, stadia are often located in less affluent areas and are traditionally attended by 'harder to reach' communities. Unfortunately sports stadia and the clubs they host are rarely perceived as places that promote healthy lifestyles. Fast food, alcohol and tobacco are commonly advertized, served and consumed during sports games giving the spectators and TV fans contradictory messages concerning healthy choices. As part of a wider programme of work part-funded by the European Union, a study was therefore designed to explore current 'good practice' relating to positive health interventions in sports stadia across a number of European countries. Using a specially designed questionnaire, information about health policies and good practices relating to food offerings in stadia, physical activity promotion among local communities, tobacco policy, positive mental health initiatives, environmental sustainability practices and social responsibility policies were collected in 10 European countries (England and Northern Ireland, Finland, Georgia, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Spain and Sweden) involving 88 stadia. The audit results show that stadia health policies differ considerably between specific countries and sports. Based on the literature analysed, the examples of good practices collected through the study, and the subsequent instigation of a European Healthy Stadia Network, it shows that there is considerable potential for stadia to become health promoting settings.

  15. European radiation protection in the Essen practice test; Europaeischer Strahlenschutz im Essener Praxistest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Bernd; Ludwig, Sabine; Peinsipp, Norbert (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    The proceeding of the meeting European radiation protection in the Essen practice test includes contributions to the following issues: basic radiation protection standards; clearance values and permitted activities; optimization, guidance values for dose limits; radon and radiation protection standards; radiation protection - eye lens; RPE (radiation protection expert)/RPO (radiation protection officer); environmental radiation protection; radiation protection in medicine.

  16. The Cardiology Audit and Registration Data Standards (CARDS), European data standards for clinical cardiology practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Flynn (Rachel); C. Barrett (Conor); F.G. Cosio (Francisco); A.K. Gitt (Anselm); L.C. Wallentin (Lars); P. Kearney (Peter); M. Lonergan (Moira); E. Shelley (Emer); M.L. Simoons (Maarten)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: Systematic registration of data from clinical practice is important for clinical care, local, national and international registries, and audit. Data to be collected for these different purposes should be harmonized. Therefore, during Ireland's Presidency of the European Union (EU)

  17. Development of European creep crack growth testing code of practice for industrial specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, B.; Nikbin, K. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Petrovski, B. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (DE). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde (IFW)

    2004-07-01

    The integrity and residual life assessment of high temperature components require defects, detected or assumed to exist, through minimum allowable limits of detectable flaws using nondestructive testing methods. It relies on information obtained from the material's mechanical, uniaxial creep, creep crack initiation and growth properties. The information derived from experiments needs to be validated and harmonised following a Code of Practice that data variability between different institutions can be reduced to a minimum. The present paper reports on a Code of Practice (CoP) being prepared within the framework of the partially European Commission funded project CRETE. The novel aspect of the presented CoP is the inclusion of component relevant industrial specimen geometries. It covers testing and analysis of Creep Crack growth (CCG) in metallic materials at elevated temperature using six different cracked geometries that have been validated in. It aims to give advice on testing, measurements and analysis of creep crack growth data for a range of creep brittle to creep ductile materials using component service relevant specimen geometries and sizes. The CoP may be used for material selection criteria and inspection requirements for damage tolerant applications. In quantitative terms, these types of tests can be used to assess the individual and combined effects of metallurgical, fabrication, operating temperature, and loading conditions on creep crack growth life. Further issues will be addressed including material properties, damage and crack growth related constraint effect, stress relaxation and stress-strain fields, residual stresses, partitioning displacement, analysis of elasticcreep, elastic compliance measurements.

  18. Complementary and alternative medicine in paediatrics in daily practice--a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Längler, Alfred; Zuzak, Tycho J

    2013-04-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is used by both adults and children in Europe. Diverse cultural, ethnic and historical preconditions in European countries result in broad differences between the types of CAM practiced, prevalence of CAM use and integration in the health system. To date, no survey of CAM availability to paediatric patients in Europe exists. We present an overview of CAM integration within the different levels of the European paediatric health systems as a narrative review. Paediatric CAM specialists in 20 European countries provided information about CAM integration in their countries in semi-structured interviews. Data from 20 European countries were available, representing 68% of the European population. CAM is offered in private practices in all 20 (100%) countries, and 80% described some form of CAM training for health professionals. While CAM is offered in outpatient clinics treating adults in 80% of these countries, only 35% offer CAM in paediatric outpatient clinics. Dedicated CAM inpatient wards exist in 65% of the countries for adults, but only in Germany and the Netherlands for children. Groups conducting some CAM research or CAM research focussed on paediatrics exist in 65% and 50% of the 20 countries, respectively. Homeopathy, acupuncture and anthroposophic medicine were most often named. Every child in Europe has access to CAM treatment, mainly in private practices, whereas CAM outpatient clinics and inpatient services for children are rare. This is in contrast to adult treatment facilities, many of which offer CAM services, and the high percentage of European children using CAM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Differences in treatment regimes, consultation frequency and referral patterns of diabetes mellitus in general practice in five European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, G.A.; Fleming, D.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Spreeuwenberg, P.

    2004-01-01

    Background. In many European countries, maturity onset diabetes mellitus (DM) is to a large extent managed in general practice. Objective. Our aim was to compare management of DM in general practice in five European countries in order to contribute to international guidelines on the management of DM

  20. Electronic management of practice assessment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutsky, Brenda

    2014-08-01

    The assessment of a practising physician's performance may be conducted for various reasons, including licensure. In response to a request from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Manitoba (CPSM), the Division of Continuing Professional Development in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, has established a practice-based assessment programme - the Manitoba Practice Assessment Program (MPAP) - as the College needed a method to evaluate the competence and performance of physicians on the conditional register. Using a multifaceted approach and CanMEDS as a guiding framework, a variety of practice-based assessment surveys and tools were developed and piloted. Because of the challenge of collating data, the MPAP team needed a computerised solution to manage the data and assessment process. Over a 2-year period, a customised web-based forms and information management system was designed, developed, tested and implemented. The secure and robust system allows the MPAP team to create assessment surveys and tools in which each item is mapped to Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists (CanMEDS) roles and competencies. Reports can be auto-generated, summarising a physician's performance on specific competencies and roles. Overall, the system allows the MPAP team to effectively manage all aspects of the assessment programme. Throughout all stages of design to implementation, a variety of lessons were learned that can be shared with those considering building their own customised web-based system. The key to success is active involvement in all stages of the process! © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Pediatricians' weight assessment and obesity management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvan Kate

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinician adherence to obesity screening guidelines from United States health agencies remains suboptimal. This study explored how personal and career demographics influence pediatricians' weight assessment and management practices. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to U.S. pediatricians. Respondents were asked to identify the weight status of photographed children and about their weight assessment and management practices. Associations between career and personal demographic variables and pediatricians' weight perceptions, weight assessment and management practices were evaluated using univariate and multivariate modeling. Results 3,633 pediatric medical providers correctly identified the weight status of children at a median rate of 58%. The majority of pediatric clinicians were white, female, and of normal weight status with more than 10 years clinical experience. Experienced pediatric medical providers were less likely than younger colleagues to correctly identify the weight status of pictured children and were also less likely to know and use BMI criteria for assessing weight status. General pediatricians were more likely than subspecialty practitioners to provide diverse interventions for weight management. Non-white and Hispanic general practitioners were more likely than counterparts to consider cultural approaches to weight management. Conclusion Pediatricians' perceptions of children's weight and their weight assessment and management practices are influenced by career and personal characteristics. Objective criteria and clinical guidelines should be uniformly applied by pediatricians to screen for and manage pediatric obesity.

  2. Marine and coastal ecosystem services on the science–policy–practice nexus: challenges and opportunities from 11 European case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drakou, Evangelia G.; Kermagoret, Charlène; Liquete, Camino

    2018-01-01

    call for continuous involvement of MCES ‘end users’, integrated knowledge on marine social–ecological systems, defining thresholds to MCES use and raising awareness to the general public. Such improvements at the intersection of science, policy and practice are essential starting points toward building...... Partnership in September 2016. The MCES assessments were used to (1) address multiple policy objectives simultaneously, (2) interpret EU-wide policies to smaller scales and (3) inform local decision-making. Most of the studies did inform decision makers, but only in a few cases, the outputs were applied...... a stronger science foundation supporting management of European marine ecosystems....

  3. [Natriuretic peptides and their use in clinical practice according to the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryjewski, Piotr J; Nessler, Bohdan; Paweł, Matusik; Badacz, Leszek; Nowak, Jacek; Nessler, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, assay levels of natriuretic peptides are used in everyday clinical practice. The most commonly used is the assay the concentration of NT-proBNP in conjunction with the longest half-life (120 minutes) and its stability. According to the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology determination of NT-proBNP were used in the diagnosis of acute and chronic heart failure, risk stratification in acute coronary syndromes, pulmonary embolism and in assessing the overall risk of cardiovascular patients prior to surgery. In addition, there are works whose authors have demonstrated the usefulness of NT-proBNP determination in valvular, atrial fibrillation, and syncope.

  4. The new European Competence Centre for Moor and Climate - A European initiative for practical peat bog and climate protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, Geerd; Tänzer, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    The new European Competence Centre for Moor and Climate (EFMK) is an initiative by different local communities, environmental protection NGOs, agricultural services, and partners from the peat and other industries in Lower Saxony (Germany). The Centre aims to integrate practical peat bog conservation with a focus on green house gas emission after drainage and after water logging activities. Together with our partners we want to break new ground to protect the remaining bogs in the region. Sphagnum mosses will be produced in paludiculture on-site in cooperation with the local peat industry to provide economic and ecologic alternatives for peat products used in horticulture business. Land-use changes are needed in the region and will be stimulated in cooperation with agricultural services via compensation money transfers from environmental protection funds. On a global scale the ideas of Carbon Credit System have to be discussed to protect the peat bogs for climate protection issues. Environmental education is an important pillar of the EFMK. The local society is invited to explore the unique ecosystem and to participate in peat bog protection activities. Future generations will be taught to understand that the health of our peat bogs is interrelated with the health of the local and global climate. Besides extracurricular classes for schools the centre will provide infrastructure for Master and PhD students, as well for senior researchers for applied research in the surrounding moor. International partners in the scientific and practical fields of peat bog ecology, renaturation, green house gas emissions from peat bogs, and environmental policy are invited to participate in the European Competence Center for Moor and Climate.

  5. Resource use and costs of exenatide bid or insulin in clinical practice: the European CHOICE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiskinen, Urpo; Matthaei, Stephan; Reaney, Matthew; Mathieu, Chantal; Ostenson, Claes-Göran; Krarup, Thure; Theodorakis, Michael; Kiljański, Jacek; Salaun-Martin, Carole; Sapin, Hélène; Guerci, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    CHOICE (CHanges to treatment and Outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating InjeCtablE therapy) assessed patterns of exenatide bid and initial insulin therapy usage in clinical practice in six European countries and evaluated outcomes during the study. CHOICE was a 24-month, prospective, noninterventional observational study. Clinical and resource use data were collected at initiation of first injectable therapy (exenatide bid or insulin) and at regular intervals for 24 months. Costs were evaluated from the national health care system perspective at 2009 prices. A total of 2515 patients were recruited. At the 24-month analysis, significant treatment change had occurred during the study in 42.2% of 1114 eligible patients in the exenatide bid cohort and 36.0% of 1274 eligible patients in the insulin cohort. Improvements in glycemic control were observed over the course of the study in both cohorts (P bid cohort (P bid cohort and €3265.5 in the insulin cohort (€1791.9 versus €2465.5 due to costs other than those of injectable therapy). When baseline direct cost and patients' and disease characteristics were controlled for, mean direct costs differed by country (P bid, compared with insulin, therapy was compensated for by lower mean costs of other health service utilization. Costs associated with exenatide bid or insulin initiation varied across countries, highlighting the need to avoid generalization of resource use and cost implications of a particular therapy when estimated in specific country settings.

  6. Reporting heterogeneity in self-assessed health among elderly Europeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Self-assessed health (SAH) is a frequently used measure of individuals’ health status. It is also prone to reporting heterogeneity. To control for reporting heterogeneity objective measures of true health need to be included in an analysis. The topic becomes even more complex for cross-country comparisons, as many key variables tend to vary strongly across countries, influenced by cultural and institutional differences. This study aims at exploring the key drivers for reporting heterogeneity in SAH in an international context. To this end, country specific effects are accounted for and the objective health measure is concretized, distinguishing effects of mental and physical health conditions. Methods We use panel data from the SHARE-project which provides a rich dataset on the elderly European population. To obtain distinct indicators for physical and mental health conditions two indices are constructed. Finally, to identify potential reporting heterogeneity in SAH a generalized ordered probit model is estimated. Results We find evidence that in addition to health behaviour, health care utilization, mental and physical health condition as well as country characteristics affect reporting behaviour. We conclude that observed and unobserved heterogeneity play an important role when analysing SAH and have to be taken into account. PMID:23036352

  7. Reporting heterogeneity in self-assessed health among elderly Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfarr, Christian; Schmid, Andreas; Schneider, Udo

    2012-10-05

    Self-assessed health (SAH) is a frequently used measure of individuals' health status. It is also prone to reporting heterogeneity. To control for reporting heterogeneity objective measures of true health need to be included in an analysis. The topic becomes even more complex for cross-country comparisons, as many key variables tend to vary strongly across countries, influenced by cultural and institutional differences. This study aims at exploring the key drivers for reporting heterogeneity in SAH in an international context. To this end, country specific effects are accounted for and the objective health measure is concretized, distinguishing effects of mental and physical health conditions. We use panel data from the SHARE-project which provides a rich dataset on the elderly European population. To obtain distinct indicators for physical and mental health conditions two indices are constructed. Finally, to identify potential reporting heterogeneity in SAH a generalized ordered probit model is estimated. We find evidence that in addition to health behaviour, health care utilization, mental and physical health condition as well as country characteristics affect reporting behaviour. We conclude that observed and unobserved heterogeneity play an important role when analysing SAH and have to be taken into account.

  8. Comparison of vibrational comfort assessment criteria for design of timber floors among the European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Binsheng; Rasmussen, Birgit; Jorissen, André

    2013-01-01

    As part of the research work carried out by the Working Group 3 of COST Action FP0702, the need for vibrational comfort design for buildings and current regulations for comfort assessment of structural vibrations of timber floors in Europe have been summarised. Also the design practices of timber...... floors with respect to vibrational serviceability criteria, including those for fundamental frequency, unit point load deflection and unit impulse velocity, in up to thirteen European countries have been gathered and their differences been further assessed by analysing flooring systems constructed...... with three types of joists, i.e. solid timber joists, engineered I-joists and metal web joists. The unit point load deflection criterion is the most crucial one for structural design of timber floors with various types of joists and usually dominates the whole design. Finland tends to be the strictest...

  9. Assessment Practices of Secondary Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joshua A.; Austin, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey assessment and grading practices employed by secondary music teachers throughout the southwestern region of the United States. Three main research questions guided the study: (1) What types of school district frameworks and classroom contexts are secondary music teachers operating within? (2) Which specific…

  10. Student Teachers' Perceptions towards Teaching Practice Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chireshe, R.; Chireshe, E.

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the perceptions of student teachers towards teaching practice assessment. Participants N=180:90 males, 90 females were randomly drawn from three primary school teachers' colleges in Masvingo Educational Region of Zimbabwe. A questionnaire was used to gather data from the respondents. A chi-square test was used to analyse the…

  11. Assessment of dementia in ethnic minority patients in Europe: a European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Vogel, Asmus; Riepe, Matthias W

    2011-01-01

    In most European countries the ethnic minority migrant populations are currently reaching an age where dementia becomes an increasingly important issue. There is no European consensus on good clinical practice with these patient groups, who often have special needs and expectations with regard to...

  12. Practical considerations in voltage stability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with some of the most important practical issues related to voltage stability assessment of large practical systems. A brief discussion of the practical aspects of voltage stability problem and prevention of voltage instability is given first, followed by descriptions of different analytical techniques and tools for voltage stability analysis. Presentations of analytical tools is focused on the VSTAB program which incorporates the modal analysis, continuation power flow, and shortest distance to instability techniques, Finally, an example case study of a practical large system is presented. The case study illustrates how modal analysis is used to determine the most effective load shedding scheme for preventing voltage instability. (author) 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Roadside Infrastructure for Safer European Roads (RISER) D06: European Best Practice for Roadside Design: Guidelines for Roadside Infrastructure on New and Existing Roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, R.; Fagerlind, H.; Martinez, A.V.; Amenguel, A.; Naing, C.; Hill, J.; Hoschopf, H.; Dupré, G.; Bisson, O.; Kelkka, M.; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Garcia, J.

    2006-01-01

    The European Commission Directorate General for Transportation and Energy (DGTREN) sponsored a research project to investigate the best practice guidelines for roadside infrastructure. The RISER consortium has compiled the following document which is a synthesis of existing practice in Europe with

  14. Medical research in emergency research in the European Union member states: tensions between theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanje, Erwin J O; Maas, Andrew I R; Menon, David K; Kesecioglu, Jozef

    2014-04-01

    In almost all of the European Union member states, prior consent by a legal representative is used as a substitute for informed patient consent for non-urgent medical research. Deferred (patient and/or proxy) consent is accepted as a substitute in acute emergency research in approximately half of the member states. In 12 European Union member states emergency research is not mentioned in national law. Medical research in the European Union is covered by the Clinical Trial Directive 2001/20/EC. A proposal for a regulation by the European Commission is currently being examined by the European Parliament and the Council and will replace Directive 2001/20/EC. Deferred patient and/or proxy consent is allowed in the proposed regulation, but does not fit completely in the practice of emergency research. For example, deferred consent is only possible when legal representatives are not available. This criterion will delay inclusion of patients in acute life-threatening conditions in short time frames. As the regulation shall be binding in its entirety in all member states, emergency research in acute situations is still not possible as it should be.

  15. CLUSTER POLICY AS THE BASIS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF INNOVATIVE PROCESSES IN RUSSIAN AND EUROPEAN PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Nikolaevna Akhunzhanova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the experience of successful development of innovative territorial clusters. It describes the experience of cluster policy implementation within the framework of innovative standards in European countries. The article indicates the best practices of the cluster policies in the following countries: the Belgium case shows the key importance of financing of selected cluster projects and the development of large innovative hubs; the Finland case, where the significant role belongs to the national and regional centers that are unions of business representatives, state and regional authorities, universities and institutes; the Hungary case, where cluster policies are a framework concept for the entire economic policy of the country. The article also analyzes the implementation of Russian cluster policy and reveals the similarities and differences regarding European cluster policies. The purpose of the article is to analyze the experience of cluster policy implementation in European countries, and to identify similar and different points regarding the cluster policy in Russia. Methodology: general scientific and special methods were used: analysis and synthesis, comparison and generalization, system analysis. Results: recommendations for the Russian economy to strengthen cluster processes within the framework of innovative environment were proposed. Practical implementation: the article will be useful for the researches in the field of regional economy, cluster policy, and practitioners working in management and regional cluster development. The article is written with the support of the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union.

  16. Asthma control and differences in management practices across seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire, PA; Rabe, KF; Soriano, JB; Maier, WC

    Failure to follow asthma management guidelines may result in poor asthma control for many patients. The Asthma Insights and Reality in Europe (AIRE) survey, a multi-national survey assessing the level of asthma control from the patients perspective in seven Western European countries, previously

  17. Development of archetypes for non-ranking classification and comparison of European National Health Technology Assessment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nicola; Pichler, Franz; Wang, Tina; Patel, Sundip; Salek, Sam

    2013-12-01

    European countries are increasingly utilising health technology assessment (HTA) to inform reimbursement decision-making. However, the current European HTA environment is very diverse, and projects are already underway to initiate a more efficient and aligned HTA practice within Europe. This study aims to identify a non-ranking method for classifying the diversity of European HTA agencies process and the organisational architecture of the national regulatory review to reimbursement systems. Using a previously developed mapping methodology, this research created process maps to describe national processes for regulatory review to reimbursement for 33 European jurisdictions. These process maps enabled the creation of 2 HTA taxonomic sets. The confluence of the two taxonomic sets was subsequently cross-referenced to identify 10 HTA archetype groups. HTA is a young, rapidly evolving field and it can be argued that optimal practices for performing HTA are yet to emerge. Therefore, a non-ranking classification approach could objectively characterise and compare the diversity observed in the current European HTA environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Corporate Governance Disclosure Practices and Their Determinant Factors in European Emerging Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxandra-Adriana Mateescu

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the corporate governance voluntary and non-voluntary disclosure practices of the listed companies from four European emerging countries, namely Estonia, Poland, Hungary and Romania. The study also identifies how compliant are the companies from these countries with their national corporate governance recommendations, including the compulsory corporate governance information, but also how willing they are to disclose voluntary corporate governance information. Finally, ...

  19. Health impact assessment in a network of European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ison, Erica

    2013-10-01

    The methodology of health impact assessment (HIA) was introduced as one of four core themes for Phase IV (2003-2008) of the World Health Organization European Healthy Cities Network (WHO-EHCN). Four objectives for HIA were set at the beginning of the phase. We report on the results of the evaluation of introducing and implementing this methodology in cities from countries across Europe with widely differing economies and sociopolitical contexts. Two main sources of data were used: a general questionnaire designed for the Phase IV evaluation and the annual reporting template for 2007-2008. Sources of bias included the proportion of non-responders and the requirement to communicate in English. Main barriers to the introduction and implementation of HIA were a lack of skill, knowledge and experience of HIA, the newness of the concept, the lack of a legal basis for implementation and a lack of political support. Main facilitating factors were political support, training in HIA, collaboration with an academic/public health institution or local health agency, a pre-existing culture of intersectoral working, a supportive national policy context, access to WHO materials about or expertise in HIA and membership of the WHO-EHCN, HIA Sub-Network or a National Network. The majority of respondents did not feel that they had had the resources, knowledge or experience to achieve all of the objectives set for HIA in Phase IV. The cities that appear to have been most successful at introducing and implementing HIA had pre-existing experience of HIA, came from a country with a history of applying HIA, were HIA Sub-Network members or had made a commitment to implementing HIA during successive years of Phase IV. Although HIA was recognised as an important component of Healthy Cities' work, the experience in the WHO-EHCN underscores the need for political buy-in, capacity building and adequate resourcing for the introduction and implementation of HIA to be successful.

  20. Water Consumption in European Children: Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziki, Krystallia; Renders, Carry M; Seidell, Jaap C

    2017-05-31

    Background : High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children's dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children's choices of beverages is still unclear. Objectives : To study the associations: (1) of both fruit juices and soft drinks consumption with water consumption of children and (2) The associations between parenting practices towards fruit juices and soft drinks and water consumption of children. Design : Cross-sectional data from 6 to 8 year old children from seven European communities ( n = 1187) were collected. Associations among fruit juices, soft drinks, the respective parenting practices and the child's water consumption were assessed by parental questionnaires. Results : The consumption of water was inversely associated with that of soft drinks but not with the consumption of fruit juices. The child's water intake was favorably influenced when stricter parenting practices towards soft drinks were adopted (e.g., less parental allowance, low home availability and high parental self-efficacy in managing intake). There was less influence observed of parenting practices towards fruit juices. Fruit juices were consumed more often than soft drinks. Conclusions : Low consumption of soft drinks-and not of fruit juices-was associated with high water consumption in children in the current study. Moreover, parenting practices towards both fruit juices and soft drinks were associated with the water intake of the children, irrespective of their socio-economic status.

  1. Application of biomarkers to assess the condition of European Marine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagger, Josephine A., E-mail: j.hagger@exeter.ac.u [School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS (United Kingdom); Galloway, Tamara S. [School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS (United Kingdom); Langston, William J. [Marine Biological Association, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, Devon (United Kingdom); Jones, Malcolm B. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    A series of European Marine Sites has been designated as Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) in England. The aim of this study was to develop a practical methodology to assess the condition of SACs by applying a suite of biomarkers. Biomarkers were applied to the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and the shore crab Carcinus maenas from the Fal and Helford SAC (Cornwall). Individual biomarkers provided useful diagnostic information on the activity of certain classes of contaminants and an integrated Biomarker Response Index (BRI) was used to achieve a more holistic understanding of the condition of the SAC. The BRI indicated that the general health of both organisms was impacted in the upper part of the SAC (Fal Estuary) which correlated well with known chemical hotspots and sources of contamination. The BRI allows a pragmatic way to prioritise SAC sites that may require further investigative studies. - A suite of biomarkers was successfully used to create a Biomarker Response Index to assess the health of aquatic organisms from European Marine Sites.

  2. A practical approach to programmatic assessment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, A A; Dijkstra, J

    2017-12-01

    Assessment of complex tasks integrating several competencies calls for a programmatic design approach. As single instruments do not provide the information required to reach a robust judgment of integral performance, 73 guidelines for programmatic assessment design were developed. When simultaneously applying these interrelated guidelines, it is challenging to keep a clear overview of all assessment activities. The goal of this study was to provide practical support for applying a programmatic approach to assessment design, not bound to any specific educational paradigm. The guidelines were first applied in a postgraduate medical training setting, and a process analysis was conducted. This resulted in the identification of four steps for programmatic assessment design: evaluation, contextualisation, prioritisation and justification. Firstly, the (re)design process starts with sufficiently detailing the assessment environment and formulating the principal purpose. Key stakeholders with sufficient (assessment) expertise need to be involved in the analysis of strengths and weaknesses and identification of developmental needs. Central governance is essential to balance efforts and stakes with the principal purpose and decide on prioritisation of design decisions and selection of relevant guidelines. Finally, justification of assessment design decisions, quality assurance and external accountability close the loop, to ensure sound underpinning and continuous improvement of the assessment programme.

  3. From planning learning paths to assessment: Innovations to the practical benefits of Learning Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Moghnieh, Ayman; Navarrete, Toni; Blat, Josep; Santos, Patricia; Pérez-Sanagustín, Mar

    2008-01-01

    Hernandez-Leo, D., Moghnieh, A., Navarrete, T., Blat, J., Gilabert, S., Santos, P., & Perez-Sanagustin, M. (2008). From planning learning paths to assessment: Innovations to the practical benefits of Learning Design. In European LAMS Conference 2008 (pp. 139-140). June, 25-27, 2008, Cádiz, Spain.

  4. African American and European American Mothers’ Beliefs about Negative Emotions and Emotion Socialization Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Mothers’ beliefs about their children’s negative emotions and their emotion socialization practices were examined. Design Sixty-five African American and 137 European American mothers of 5-year-old children reported their beliefs and typical responses to children’s negative emotions, and mothers’ emotion teaching practices were observed. Results African American mothers reported that the display of negative emotions was less acceptable than European American mothers, and African American mothers of boys perceived the most negative social consequences for the display of negative emotions. African American mothers reported fewer supportive responses to children’s negative emotions than European Americans and more nonsupportive responses to children’s anger. African American mothers of boys also reported more nonsupportive responses to submissive negative emotions than African American mothers of girls. However, no differences were found by ethnicity or child gender in observed teaching about emotions. Group differences in mothers’ responses to negative emotions were explained, in part, by mothers’ beliefs about emotions. Conclusions Differences in beliefs and practices may reflect African American mothers’ efforts to protect their children from discrimination. PMID:22639552

  5. Overview of eutrophication indicators to assess environmental status within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João G.; Andersen, Jesper H.; Borja, Angel; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Camp, Jordi; Cardoso da Silva, Margarida; Garcés, Esther; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Humborg, Christoph; Ignatiades, Lydia; Lancelot, Christiane; Menesguen, Alain; Tett, Paul; Hoepffner, Nicolas; Claussen, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    In 2009, following approval of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission (EC) created task groups to develop guidance for eleven quality descriptors that form the basis for evaluating ecosystem function. The objective was to provide European countries with practical guidelines for implementing the MSFD, and to produce a Commission Decision that encapsulated key points of the work in a legal framework. This paper presents a review of work carried out by the eutrophication task group, and reports our main findings to the scientific community. On the basis of an operational, management-oriented definition, we discuss the main methodologies that could be used for coastal and marine eutrophication assessment. Emphasis is placed on integrated approaches that account for physico-chemical and biological components, and combine both pelagic and benthic symptoms of eutrophication, in keeping with the holistic nature of the MSFD. We highlight general features that any marine eutrophication model should possess, rather than making specific recommendations. European seas range from highly eutrophic systems such as the Baltic to nutrient-poor environments such as the Aegean Sea. From a physical perspective, marine waters range from high energy environments of the north east Atlantic to the permanent vertical stratification of the Black Sea. This review aimed to encapsulate that variability, recognizing that meaningful guidance should be flexible enough to accommodate the widely differing characteristics of European seas, and that this information is potentially relevant in marine ecosystems worldwide. Given the spatial extent of the MSFD, innovative approaches are required to allow meaningful monitoring and assessment. Consequently, substantial logistic and financial challenges will drive research in areas such as remote sensing of harmful algal blooms, in situ sensor development, and mathematical models. Our review takes into

  6. Open innovation in the European space sector: Existing practices, constraints and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Burg, Elco; Giannopapa, Christina; Reymen, Isabelle M. M. J.

    2017-12-01

    To enhance innovative output and societal spillover of the European space sector, the open innovation approach is becoming popular. Yet, open innovation, referring to innovation practices that cross borders of individual firms, faces constraints. To explore these constraints and identify opportunities, this study performs interviews with government/agency officials and space technology entrepreneurs. The interviews highlight three topic areas with constraints and opportunities: 1) mainly one-directional knowledge flows (from outside the space sector to inside), 2) knowledge and property management, and 3) the role of small- and medium sized companies. These results bear important implications for innovation practices in the space sector.

  7. Inspiring Lecturers: Sharing E-Learning Practice through European Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, Sarah; Godsk, Mikkel; Andersen, Majbrit Vandsø

    2009-01-01

    Sharing best practice in e-learning, when undertaken as an active process, can provide valuable insights, with a real capacity to inspire. This has been our experience in collecting European university e-learning case studies. How this was achieved is the focus of this paper, which discusses...... a consistent approach to transferring knowledge that might be followed and developed by others. We will outline a methodology for sharing best practices of e-learning. We will explain how these cases, rather like short stories, were identified, gathered and communicated by the EUNIS ELearning Task Force...

  8. Assessment and pedagogical practices of teachers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Quevedo Toro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation should become a dynamic process of school life in any educational institution with the primary purpose to understand and assess their practical and academic, social and pedagogical relations, educational discourse, actions and decisions conducive to transform reality and praxis pedagogical. In this sense, the Pedagogical Project Bread teacher training has allowed reconceptualize and evaluative and educational recontextualise light of qualitative practices, integrated, personal and social, exceeding the quantitative conception, before qualifying and only rote knowledge . The project constitutes the optimal space for future teachers articulate evaluative theory and practice related to pedagogy and his knowledge of this discipline. He then conceives of evaluation as the opportunity to learn to understand and understanding to transform our educational and institutional realities.

  9. Current European Practice in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Associated AnaemiaJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Jürgen; Bager, Palle; Befrits, Ragnar

    Aim: Iron deficiency (ID), a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), can trigger hospitalization and increase morbidity. Intravenous (I.V.) iron is the recommended treatment for IBD-associated anemia. This study evaluated current European practice in diagnosis and treatment of IBD...... demographics, blood tests, Hb-levels and iron parameters at diagnosis, and anemia therapies within twelve months prior to the survey. Results: 116 gastroenterologists (105 hospital-, 11 office-based) reported 575 cases of IBD-associated anemia. Anemia and iron status were mainly assessed by hemoglobin (Hb; 77...... as the preferred route for iron therapy, current practice continues to rely on oral iron preparations in most iron-treated patients with IBD, even when severely anemic. Insufficient replacement of iron or monitoring of iron status is indicated by the frequency of severe anemia in this cohort of 575 patients...

  10. Is the European Patent Office's approach to assessing obviousness of antibody inventions consistent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Antibodies can be highly effective in the diagnosis and/or treatment of a wide range of diseases, including certain cancers, viral infections and inflammatory diseases. The development of any new therapeutic antibody is very time consuming, requires significant resources and only a small percentage of initial candidates ever make it onto the market. Patent protection therefore plays a key role in allowing companies to obtain a good return on this investment. However, in Europe, the bar for assessing the inventiveness (obviousness) of antibodies is currently set particularly high, so there is a significant risk that new antibodies may be denied patent protection despite having beneficial properties. This article looks at the rationale behind the European Patent Office's (EPO) current approach to assessing the patentability of antibodies, contrasting it with US practice as well as the EPO's assessment of obviousness in the chemical field. It also explores whether a recent decision by an EPO Appeal Board may help to bring about a change in this practice.

  11. Rationale and methods of the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Daily Practice (EURIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The EURIKA study aims to assess the status of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD across Europe. Specifically, it will determine the degree of control of cardiovascular risk factors in current clinical practice in relation to the European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention. It will also assess physicians' knowledge and attitudes about CVD prevention as well as the barriers impeding effective risk factor management in clinical practice. Methods/Design Cross-sectional study conducted simultaneously in 12 countries across Europe. The study has two components: firstly at the physician level, assessing eight hundred and nine primary care and specialist physicians with a daily practice in CVD prevention. A physician specific questionnaire captures information regarding physician demographics, practice settings, cardiovascular prevention beliefs and management. Secondly at the patient level, including 7641 patients aged 50 years or older, free of clinical CVD and with at least one classical risk factor, enrolled by the participating physicians. A patient-specific questionnaire captures information from clinical records and patient interview regarding sociodemographic data, CVD risk factors, and current medications. Finally, each patient provides a fasting blood sample, which is sent to a central laboratory for measuring serum lipids, apolipoproteins, hemoglobin-A1c, and inflammatory biomarkers. Discussion Primary prevention of CVD is an extremely important clinical issue, with preventable circulatory diseases remaining the leading cause of major disease burden. The EURIKA study will provide key information to assess effectiveness of and attitudes toward primary prevention of CVD in Europe. A transnational study creates opportunities for benchmarking good clinical practice across countries and improving outcomes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00882336.

  12. Harmonisation of food categorisation systems for dietary exposure assessments among European children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Neve, Melissa; Sioen, Isabelle; Boon, Polly

    2010-01-01

    Within the European project called EXPOCHI (Individual Food Consumption Data and Exposure Assessment Studies for Children), 14 different European individual food consumption databases of children were used to conduct harmonised dietary exposure assessments for lead, chromium, selenium and food co...... coded and in level of detail provided about the consumed foods. The work done and the problems encountered in this project can be of interest for future projects in which food consumption data will be collected on a pan-European level and used for common exposure assessments....

  13. European clinical guidelines for Tourette Syndrome and other tic disorders. Part I : assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cath, Danielle C.; Hedderly, Tammy; Ludolph, Andrea G.; Stern, Jeremy S.; Murphy, Tara; Hartmann, Andreas; Czernecki, Virginie; Robertson, Mary May; Martino, Davide; Munchau, A.; Rizzo, R.

    A working group of the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome (ESSTS) has developed the first European assessment guidelines of Tourette Syndrome (TS). The available literature including national guidelines was thoroughly screened and extensively discussed in the expert group of ESSTS

  14. A Digital European Self-Assessment Tool for Student Teachers of Foreign Languages: The EPOSTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirici, Ismail Hakki; Hergüner, Sinem

    2015-01-01

    The acronym "EPOSTL" stands for the "European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages", which is a digital self-assessment tool for students in foreign language teacher training programs across Europe. It builds on insights from the "Common European Framework of Reference" ("CEFR") and the "European…

  15. Hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline endorsement of the familial risk-colorectal cancer: European Society for Medical Oncology Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Elena M; Mangu, Pamela B; Gruber, Stephen B; Hamilton, Stanley R; Kalady, Matthew F; Lau, Michelle Wan Yee; Lu, Karen H; Roach, Nancy; Limburg, Paul J

    2015-01-10

    To provide recommendations on prevention, screening, genetics, treatment, and management for people at risk for hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) syndromes. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing clinical practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations. The Familial Risk-Colorectal Cancer: European Society for Medical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline published in 2013 on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Guidelines Working Group in Annals of Oncology was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists, with content and recommendations reviewed by an ASCO endorsement panel. The ASCO endorsement panel determined that the recommendations of the ESMO guidelines are clear, thorough, and based on the most relevant scientific evidence. The ASCO panel endorsed the ESMO guidelines and added a few qualifying statements. Approximately 5% to 6% of patient cases of CRC are associated with germline mutations that confer an inherited predisposition for cancer. The possibility of a hereditary cancer syndrome should be assessed for every patient at the time of CRC diagnosis. A diagnosis of Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, or another genetic syndrome can influence clinical management for patients with CRC and their family members. Screening for hereditary cancer syndromes in patients with CRC should include review of personal and family histories and testing of tumors for DNA mismatch repair deficiency and/or microsatellite instability. Formal genetic evaluation is recommended for individuals who meet defined criteria. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  16. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Syndromes: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Endorsement of the Familial Risk–Colorectal Cancer: European Society for Medical Oncology Clinical Practice Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Elena M.; Mangu, Pamela B.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Kalady, Matthew F.; Lau, Michelle Wan Yee; Lu, Karen H.; Roach, Nancy; Limburg, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To provide recommendations on prevention, screening, genetics, treatment, and management for people at risk for hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) syndromes. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing clinical practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations. Methods The Familial Risk–Colorectal Cancer: European Society for Medical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline published in 2013 on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Guidelines Working Group in Annals of Oncology was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists, with content and recommendations reviewed by an ASCO endorsement panel. Results The ASCO endorsement panel determined that the recommendations of the ESMO guidelines are clear, thorough, and based on the most relevant scientific evidence. The ASCO panel endorsed the ESMO guidelines and added a few qualifying statements. Recommendations Approximately 5% to 6% of patient cases of CRC are associated with germline mutations that confer an inherited predisposition for cancer. The possibility of a hereditary cancer syndrome should be assessed for every patient at the time of CRC diagnosis. A diagnosis of Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, or another genetic syndrome can influence clinical management for patients with CRC and their family members. Screening for hereditary cancer syndromes in patients with CRC should include review of personal and family histories and testing of tumors for DNA mismatch repair deficiency and/or microsatellite instability. Formal genetic evaluation is recommended for individuals who meet defined criteria. PMID:25452455

  17. SAME SEX UNIONS OF LIFE IN THE PRACTICE OF THE EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Krešić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In several cases the the European Court of Justice (ECJ interpreted the provisions of the Agreement on the European Community in terms of homosexual rights. The practice of the ECJ in the last five years (2008-2013 shows the tendency to expand the rights of homosexual persons. The paper brings the analysis of four decision of the ECJ in the cases where it decided on the issue of discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation. In the first two verdicts, the Court refused to compare marriage and common-law marriage to the same-sex union of life, thus limiting same-sex partners to achieve certain rights. In other two cases the Court made step forward and compared marriage and same-sex union of life but only if both, marriage and same-sex union of life are regulated by national law.

  18. SAME SEX UNIONS OF LIFE IN THE PRACTICE OF THE EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Krešić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In several cases the the European Court of Justice (ECJ interpreted the provisions of the Agreement on the European Community in terms of homosexual rights. The practice of the ECJ in the last five years (2008-2013 shows the tendency to expand the rights of homosexual persons. The paper brings the analysis of four decision of the ECJ in the cases where it decided on the issue of discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation. In the first two verdicts, the Court refused to compare marriage and common-law marriage to the same-sex union of life, thus limiting same-sex partners to achieve certain rights. In other two cases the Court made step forward and compared marriage and same-sex union of life but only if both, marriage and same-sex union of life are regulated by national law

  19. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework Directive: Recommendations for more efficient assessment and management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Werner; Dulio, Valeria; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Allan, Ian; Altenburger, Rolf; Brinkmann, Markus; Bunke, Dirk; Burgess, Robert M; Cousins, Ian; Escher, Beate I; Hernández, Félix J; Hewitt, L Mark; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Kase, Robert; Klauer, Bernd; Lindim, Claudia; Herráez, David López; Miège, Cécil; Munthe, John; O'Toole, Simon; Posthuma, Leo; Rüdel, Heinz; Schäfer, Ralf B; Sengl, Manfred; Smedes, Foppe; van de Meent, Dik; van den Brink, Paul J; van Gils, Jos; van Wezel, Annemarie P; Vethaak, A Dick; Vermeirssen, Etienne; von der Ohe, Peter C; Vrana, Branislav

    2017-01-15

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protecting it from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for the protection and sustainable use of European freshwater resources. The practical implementation of the WFD with regard to chemical pollution has faced some challenges. In support of the upcoming WFD review in 2019 the research project SOLUTIONS and the European monitoring network NORMAN has analyzed these challenges, evaluated the state-of-the-art of the science and suggested possible solutions. We give 10 recommendations to improve monitoring and to strengthen comprehensive prioritization, to foster consistent assessment and to support solution-oriented management of surface waters. The integration of effect-based tools, the application of passive sampling for bioaccumulative chemicals and an integrated strategy for prioritization of contaminants, accounting for knowledge gaps, are seen as important approaches to advance monitoring. Including all relevant chemical contaminants in more holistic "chemical status" assessment, using effect-based trigger values to address priority mixtures of chemicals, to better consider historical burdens accumulated in sediments and to use models to fill data gaps are recommended for a consistent assessment of contamination. Solution-oriented management should apply a tiered approach in investigative monitoring to identify toxicity drivers, strengthen consistent legislative frameworks and apply solutions-oriented approaches that explore risk reduction scenarios before and along with risk assessment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. A European union and Canadian review of public health nursing preparation and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Ann; Aarts, Clara; Koskinen, Liisa; Campbell, Barbara; Chassé, France

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the preparation and role of the public health nurse (PHN) across European Union (EU) countries (Finland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) and Canadian provinces (Alberta, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island). A literature review including relevant peer reviewed articles from 2000 on, in conjunction, with critical debate was undertaken. The results were considered in relation to the three essential areas of PHN practice, outlined in the World Health Organization (Moving on from Munich: A reference guide to the implementation of the declaration on nurses and midwives: A force for health, 2001b) recommendations, family oriented care, public health action, and policy making. The major challenge the review revealed across a variety of international education and practice environments was the lack of consistent preparation for and engagement with leadership and policy making in practice. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Sela, Erika; Blaha, Ludek; Braunbeck, Thomas; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; García-Franco, Mauricio; Guinea, Joaquin; Klüver, Nils; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanneberger, Katrin; Tobor-Kapłon, Marysia; Witters, Hilda; Belanger, Scott; Benfenati, Emilio; Creton, Stuart; Cronin, Mark T D; Eggen, Rik I L; Embry, Michelle; Ekman, Drew; Gourmelon, Anne; Halder, Marlies; Hardy, Barry; Hartung, Thomas; Hubesch, Bruno; Jungmann, Dirk; Lampi, Mark A; Lee, Lucy; Léonard, Marc; Küster, Eberhard; Lillicrap, Adam; Luckenbach, Till; Murk, Albertinka J; Navas, José M; Peijnenburg, Willie; Repetto, Guillermo; Salinas, Edward; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Spielmann, Horst; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Whale, Graham; Wheeler, James R; Winter, Matthew J

    2013-12-01

    Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory testing. Hence, there is a strong demand for replacement, reduction and refinement strategies and methods. However, until now alternative approaches have only rarely been used in regulatory settings. This review provides an overview on current regulations of chemicals and the requirements for animal tests in environmental hazard and risk assessment. It aims to highlight the potential areas for alternative approaches in environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Perspectives and limitations of alternative approaches to animal tests using vertebrates in environmental toxicology, i.e. mainly fish and amphibians, are discussed. Free access to existing (proprietary) animal test data, availability of validated alternative methods and a practical implementation of conceptual approaches such as the Adverse Outcome Pathways and Integrated Testing Strategies were identified as major requirements towards the successful development and implementation of alternative approaches. Although this article focusses on European regulations, its considerations and conclusions are of global relevance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Human Capital Questionnaire: Assessment of European nurses' perceptions as indicators of human capital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Romeo, Marina; Berger, Rita

    2013-06-01

    Healthcare accreditation models generally include indicators related to healthcare employees' perceptions (e.g. satisfaction, career development, and health safety). During the accreditation process, organizations are asked to demonstrate the methods with which assessments are made. However, none of the models provide standardized systems for the assessment of employees. In this study, we analyzed the psychometric properties of an instrument for the assessment of nurses' perceptions as indicators of human capital quality in healthcare organizations. The Human Capital Questionnaire was applied to a sample of 902 nurses in four European countries (Spain, Portugal, Poland, and the UK). Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: satisfaction with leadership, identification and commitment, satisfaction with participation, staff well-being, career development opportunities, and motivation. The results showed the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, which when applied to healthcare organizations, provide a better understanding of nurses' perceptions, and is a parsimonious instrument for assessment and organizational accreditation. From a practical point of view, improving the quality of human capital, by analyzing nurses and other healthcare employees' perceptions, is related to workforce empowerment. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. How to Implement a Geriatric Assessment in Your Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Schroder; Alibhai, Shabbir M.H.; Wildiers, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a disease that mostly affects older adults. Other health conditions, changes in functional status, and use of multiple medications change the risks and benefits of cancer treatment for older adults. Several international organizations, such as the International Society of Geriatric Oncology, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, recommend the conduct of a geriatric assessment (GA) for older adults with cancer to help select the most appropriate treatment and identify any underlying undetected medical, functional, and psychosocial issues that can interfere with treatment. The aim of this review is to describe what a GA is and how to implement it in daily clinical practice for older adults with cancer in the oncology setting. We provide an overview of commonly used tools. Key considerations in performing the GA include the resources available (staff, space, and time), patient population (who will be assessed), what GA tools to use, and clinical follow-up (who will be responsible for using the GA results for developing care plans and who will provide follow-up care). Important challenges in implementing GA in clinical practice include not having easy and timely access to geriatric expertise, patient burden of the additional hospital visits, and establishing collaboration between the GA team and oncologists regarding expectations of the population referred for GA and expected outcomes of the GA. Finally, we provide some possible interventions for problems identified during the GA. PMID:25187477

  4. CONGRESS OF EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF CARDIOLOGY IN PARIS: WHAT PRACTICAL PHYSICIAN SHOULD TAKE FOR THE NOTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main events of the Congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC held in Paris, (August 27-31, 2011 are highlighted. The results of recently completed randomized controlled studies, pharmacoepidemiological studies, additional analysis of a number of previously completed studies, new clinical ESC guidelines, as well as results of debates on controversial issues in cardiology , assessment of clinical trials data and therapy compliance are presented.

  5. The influence of early feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake among preschool children in 4 European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Jones, Louise; Oliveira, Andreia; Moschonis, George; Betoko, Aisha; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, Pedro; Manios, Yannis; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Emmett, Pauline; Charles, Marie Aline

    2013-09-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake in children remains below recommendations in many countries. The long-term effects of early parental feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake are not clearly established. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether early feeding practices influence later fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children. The study used data from 4 European cohorts: the British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), the French Etude des Déterminants pre et postnatals de la santé et du développement de l'Enfant study, the Portuguese Generation XXI Birth Cohort, and the Greek EuroPrevall study. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed in each cohort by food-frequency questionnaire. Associations between early feeding practices, such as breastfeeding and timing of complementary feeding, and fruit and/or vegetable intake in 2-4-y-old children were tested by using logistic regressions, separately in each cohort, after adjustment for infant's age and sex and maternal age, educational level, smoking during pregnancy, and maternal fruit and vegetable intake. Large differences in early feeding practices were highlighted across the 4 European cohorts with longer breastfeeding duration in the Generation XXI Birth Cohort and earlier introduction to complementary foods in ALSPAC. Longer breastfeeding duration was consistently related to higher fruit and vegetable intake in young children, whereas the associations with age of introduction to fruit and vegetable intake were weaker and less consistent across the cohorts. Mothers' fruit and vegetable intake (available in 3 of the cohorts) did not substantially attenuate the relation with breastfeeding duration. The concordant positive association between breastfeeding duration and fruit and vegetable intake in different cultural contexts favors an independent specific effect.

  6. Safety assessment of smoke flavouring primary products by the European Food Safety Authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theobald, A.; Arcella, D.; Carere, A.; Croera, C.; Engel, K.H.; Gott, D.; Gurtler, R.; Meier, D.; Pratt, I.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Simon, R.; Walker, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarises the safety assessments of eleven smoke flavouring primary products evaluated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Data on chemical composition, content of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and results of genotoxicity tests and subchronic toxicity studies are presented and

  7. Bibliometric assessment of European Research Council Grantees – Comparative evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Grøngaard, Pernille Hamburger; Isaksson, Eva; Koivula, Leena; Arévalo, Javier; Warnan, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Since their creation in 2007, European Research Council (ERC) Starting, Consolidator and Advanced grants have increasingly become a measure of prestige for universities. The number of ERC grantees a university gets per year can now appear as a proxy to its research excellence. As universities are putting a lot of effort to best support their applicants for ERC grants, they are looking for ways to (i) pre-select the researchers who have the best chances to have a successful application and (ii...

  8. Toward a more professional and practical medical education: a novel Central European approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexel, Heinz; Vonbank, Alexander; Fraunberger, Peter; Riesen, Walter F; Saely, Christoph H

    2015-01-01

    We here present an innovative curriculum for a complete medical education that conforms to the current European Bologna system of academic training. The curriculum aims at raising doctors who are excellently prepared for clinical work over as short a time as 5 years; it provides a comprehensive, yet shorter than usual, education that strongly pronounces the importance of increasing the students' practical clinical competences and rigorously excludes superfluous contents. The curriculum encompasses 52 modules, 32 at the bachelor's and 20 at the master's level. Already at the level of the bachelor degree, full employability is given; the students finish the master's course as medical doctors optimally prepared to manage patients at the level of postgraduate medical education. The structure of the curriculum is modular; each modular component is essential for medical education and contains an average of five European Credit Transfer System credits, amounting to 150 hours of education. Depending on the subspecialty, the courses include lectures, seminars, practical laboratory training, and clinical training at varying quantities. In addition to attendance times, sufficient time slots are prepared for self-study in lectures, seminars, and practical work. With our curriculum, we provide an easily applicable backbone for a modern course of medicine that can be installed also at smaller academic institutions.

  9. The European Construction Social Partners: Gender Equality in Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Elsebet Frydendal

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the social partners' role in a gender quality agenda in construction at skilled operative level. It draws on a survey of the European construction social partners that investigated the presence of women in skilled trades and the policies, collective agreements and practices...... that play a role in women's integration. The responses indicate that the construction industry still displays inertia and conservatism, and that the social partners coroborate rather than counter this. They express a "discourse" of gender equality, but this does not automatically lead to equal opportunity...

  10. Collaborative Assessment Tool (CAT) - Assessing scientific practices in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Paul

    2017-01-01

    An important learning goal of Projects and Practices in Physics (P3) , the transformed introductory mechanics course at Michigan State University, is the development of scientific practices. The design team, as part of the P3 course construction, made clear attempts to assess learning goals that can often be perceived as being a part of the hidden curriculum or considered difficult to assess (e.g., learning to work productively in a group) by developing a collaborative assessment tool (CAT). The CAT is a formative assessment tool that provides students with a numerical grade for how they participated in their learning group on a weekly basis while also providing feedback in the form of written commentary and suggestions on how they might improve at a particular collaborative practice. In this presentation, we demonstrate the CAT tool from two perspectives: 1) how the CAT tool is used within the P3 context and 2) how the formative feedback has affected changes in student interactions in class. We will present the case studies of 3 students who had differing reactions to the feedback they received. We will explore the role the feedback had in their interactions over a four-week period from an in-class perspective and a reflected perspective through interviews and observations. The analysis will also be presented from a tutor and group perspective, which will highlight the affordances the CAT can have in creating a productive learning group. The research on the CAT shows promise in encouraging growth in students' collaborative skills, but this research is still in its infancy and needs to be expanded to include different contexts.

  11. Convergence of Croatian Financial and Budget Regulations to the Framework and Practices of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana MALETIĆ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As of 2004 intensive preparatory activities for the accession of the Republic of Croatia into the European Union have started. Significant changes have been taking place in legislation, institutional and administrative respect. The so called “silent reform“ is changing the appearance and the way of work of state administration. Institutions acquire the rules and way of work of the European Union through the usage of pre-accession programmes. General opinion moves in the direction of successfulness, competitiveness, attainment of results and added values. Financial regulations regarding stipulation of budget processes have been changing through the introduction of the following elements: strategic planning, multi-annual budget framework, fiscal discipline, internal audit as well as financial management and control system based on clearly set work processes and procedures. This document provides the description of the most significant changes regarding financial management and budget regulations in the Republic of Croatia which have taken place in the course of adapting (developing the system to the European practices and rules.

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EUROPEAN CORN BORER FEEDING ACTIVITY AND NITROGEN LEAF CONTENT UNDER DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most destructive maize pest in Croatia is European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (ECB. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, different maize genotypes and nitrogen leaf content on ECB feeding activity. The experiment was set up in Osijek, Croatia under field conditions during 2012-2013 vegetation season. Experiment treatments were as follows: three irrigation levels (A1 - control, A2 from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3 from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1 - 0, B2 - 100 and B3 - 200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1 - OSSK 596; C2 - OSSK 617; C3 - OSSK 602 and C4 - OSSK 552. Ear weight, number of larvae in stem and shank, tunnel length and nitrogen leaf content were evaluated. Genotype C1 was the most susceptible for following the tested variables of ECB feeding: tunnel length (TL, larvae in stalk (LS and total number of larvae (TNL at P<0.05 probability level. By raising the level of irrigation, European corn borer feeding activity was reduced while by raising the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. These results suggest that good production practices can significantly affect the susceptibility of maize to European corn borer.

  13. Enteral Feeding Practices in Infants With Congenital Heart Disease Across European PICUs: A European Society of Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tume, Lyvonne N; Balmaks, Reinis; da Cruz, Eduardo; Latten, Lynne; Verbruggen, Sascha; Valla, Frédéric V

    2018-02-01

    To describe enteral feeding practices in pre and postoperative infants with congenital heart disease in European PICUs. Cross-sectional electronic survey. European PICUs that admit infants with congenital heart disease pre- and postoperatively. One senior PICU physician or designated person per unit. None. Fifty-nine PICUs from 18 European countries responded to the survey. PICU physicians were involved in the nutritional care of children with congenital heart disease in most (76%) PICUs, but less than 60% of units had a dedicated dietician. Infants with congenital heart disease were routinely fed preoperatively in only 63% of the PICUs, due to ongoing concerns around prostaglandin E1 infusion, the presence of umbilical venous and/or arterial catheters, and the use of vasoactive drugs. In three quarters of the PICUs (76%), infants were routinely fed during the first 24 hours postoperatively. Units cited, the most common feeding method, both pre and postoperatively, was intermittent bolus feeds via the gastric route. Importantly, 69% of European PICUs still did not have written guidelines for feeding, but this varied for pre and postoperative patients. Wide variations in practices exist in the nutritional care between European PICUs, which reflects the absence of local protocols and scientific society-endorsed guidelines. This is likely to contribute to suboptimal energy delivery in this particularly vulnerable group.

  14. Comparison of methods used in European countries to assess buildings' condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilhena, A.; Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; De Brito, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of methods used in European countries to assess buildings’ condition. The following methods were compared: a Portuguese method to assess buildings condition, an English housing health and safety rating system, a French method to assess buildings that may be

  15. Obsolescence Risk Assessment Process Best Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Rojo, F. J.; Roy, R.; Kelly, S.

    2012-05-01

    A component becomes obsolete when it is no longer available from the original manufacturer to the original specification. In long-lifecycle projects, obsolescence has become a major problem as it prevents the maintenance of the system. This is the reason why obsolescence management is now an essential part of the product support activities in sectors such as defence, aerospace, nuclear and railway; where systems need to be supported for several decades. The obsolescence risk assessment for the bill of materials (BoM) is a paramount activity in order to manage obsolescence proactively and cost-effectively. This is the reason why it was necessary to undertake a benchmarking study to develop best practice in this process. A total of 22 obsolescence experts from 13 different organisations/projects from across UK and USA have participated in this study. Their current processes and experience have been taken into account in the development of the best practice process for obsolescence risk assessment. The key factors that have to be analysed in the risk assessment process for each component in the BoM are: number of manufacturers, years to end of life, stock available, consumption rate and operational impact criticality. For the very high risk components, a more detailed analysis is required to inform the decisions regarding the most suitable mitigation strategies. On the contrary, for the low risk components, a fully proactive approach is neither appropriate nor cost effective. Therefore, it is advised for these components that obsolescence issues are dealt with reactively. This process has been validated using case studies with several experts from industry and is currently being implemented by the UK Ministry of Defence as technical guidance within the JSP 886 Volume 7 Part 8.13 standards.

  16. Recommendations for a trans-European dietary assessment method in children between 4 and 14 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L. F.; Lioret, S.; Brants, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The main objective of European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL)-child Project is to define and evaluate a trans-European methodology for undertaking national representative dietary surveys among children in the age group of 4-14 years. In the process of identifying...... the best dietary assessment methodologies, experts were brought together at a workshop. The paper presents the discussion of the best available method and the final recommendations for a trans-European dietary assessment method among 4- to 14-year-old children. Subjects/Methods: The starting point...... was to investigate whether the method (two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs)) suggested for the adults in European Food Consumption Survey Method (EFCOSUM) would be usable for children in the age group between 4 and 14 years. However, all available dietary assessment methods were included...

  17. Scientific Ocean Drilling to Assess Submarine Geohazards along European Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, M. V.; Camerlenghi, A.; Kopf, A.; Morgan, J. K.; Ocean DrillingSeismic Hazard, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Submarine geohazards are some of the most devastating natural events in terms of lives lost and economic impact. Earthquakes pose a big threat to society and infrastructure, but the understanding of their episodic generation is incomplete. Tsunamis are known for their potential of striking coastlines world-wide. Other geohazards originating below the sea surface are equally dangerous for undersea structures and the coastal population: submarine landslides and volcanic islands collapse with little warning and devastating consequences. The European scientific community has a strong focus on geohazards along European and nearby continental margins, especially given their high population densities, and long historic and prehistoric record of hazardous events. For example, the Mediterranean is surrounded by very densely-populated coastline and is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving up 30% of global tourism. In addition, its seafloor is criss-crossed by hydrocarbon pipelines and telecommunication cables. However, the governing processes and recurrence intervals of geohazards are still poorly understood. Examples include, but are not limited to, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions along the active tectonic margins of the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, landslides on both active and passive margins, and tsunamites and seismites in the sedimentary record that suggest a long history of similar events. The development of geophysical networks, drilling, sampling and long-term monitoring are crucial to the understanding of earthquake, landslide, and tsunami processes, and to mitigate the associated risks in densely populated and industrialized regions such as Europe. Scientific drilling, particularly in the submarine setting, offers a unique tool to obtain drill core samples, borehole measurements and long-term observations. Hence, it is a critical technology to investigate past, present, and possible future influences of hazardous processes in this area. The

  18. Pediatric biobanking: a pilot qualitative survey of practices, rules and researcher opinions in ten European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvaterra, Elena; Giorda, Roberto; Bassi, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    and data handling, and return of results as faced in 10 European countries. Because of the lack of comparative analyses of these topics, a pilot study was designed. Following a qualitative methodology, a questionnaire draft mostly including open-ended queries was developed, tested, and sent by e...... such as decision making, privacy protection, minor recontact, and research withdrawal by focusing on theoretical or empirical perspectives. Our research attempted to analyze such issues in a comprehensive manner by exploring practices, rules, and researcher opinions regarding proxy consent, minor assent, specimens......-mail to a selected group of researchers dealing with pediatric biobanking (n=57). Returned questionnaires (n=31) highlighted that the collection, storage, distribution, and use of biospecimens and data from children were widely practiced in the contacted laboratories. In most cases, pediatric biobanking...

  19. The Production of a Framework of Competences for Pharmacy Practice in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the PHAR-QA (quality assurance in European pharmacy education and training project is the production of a European framework for a quality assurance system based on competences for pharmacy practice. The PHAR-QA framework will be European, consultative and will encompass the various aspects of pharmacy practice. In this review, we describe the methodology to be used in the project and the first stage in the development of this framework. Using the proposals for competences produced by our previous PHARMINE (Pharmacy education in Europe project, together with those of other sources, three university professors of pharmacy (Authors 2 through 4 produced a list of three major competency domains that reflect the activities of practitioners: Patient Care Competences, Personal Competences and Management and Organizational Structure Competences. Each domain was subdivided into nine, nine and eight competencies, respectively, for a total of 27 major competencies that were further subdivided into an average of five supporting competences per major competence, giving a total of 140 proposals for competences for pharmacy practice. The 27 and 140 proposals were ranked by an expert panel of seven university professors of pharmacy (Authors 5 through 11. The panel also commented on the proposed competences. On the basis of the ranks and comments, a list of 68 proposals for competences was produced. This list was then examined by the expert panel and a new version based on their comments produced. The latter process was repeated twice based on Delphi methodology. This review presents this process and the 68 proposals. We invite the pharmacy community to participate in the second stage of the elaboration of the PHAR-QA competence framework for pharmacy practice by ranking the proposals and adding comments. It is anticipated that this survey will stimulate a productive discussion on pharmacy education and practice by the various stakeholders

  20. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), 2016. Dietary exposure assessment to pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Chronic and acute dietary exposure to pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) was estimated in the European population via the consumption of plant-derived foods. This resulted in highest estimates of mean chronic dietary exposure of 34.5–48.4 ng/kg body weight (bw) per day in ‘Toddlers’ (LB–UB) and 154......–214 ng/kg bw per day in the highly exposed population (LB–UB, also in ‘Toddlers’). Following a rather conservative scenario, the highest estimates of acute mean exposure and 95th percentile exposure were calculated for ‘Toddlers’, with mean exposure up to 311 ng/kg bw per day and 95th percentile exposure...... consumers. Ad hoc exposure scenarios for food supplements via consumption of pollen-based supplements showed chronic exposure to PAs that ranged between 0.7 and 12 ng/kg bw per day (minimum LB–maximum UB), while acute exposure was between 2.8 and 44 ng/kg bw per day (minimum LB–maximum UB), in both cases...

  1. Toward a more professional and practical medical education: a novel Central European approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drexel H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heinz Drexel,1–4,* Alexander Vonbank,1–3,* Peter Fraunberger,3,5 Walter F Riesen,3 Christoph H Saely1–3 1Vorarlberg Institute for Vascular Investigation and Treatment, 2Department of Medicine and Cardiology, Academic Teaching Hospital Feldkirch, Feldkirch, Austria; 3Private University of the Principality of Liechtenstein, Triesen, Liechtenstein; 4Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5Medical Central Laboratories, Feldkirch, Austria  *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: We here present an innovative curriculum for a complete medical education that conforms to the current European Bologna system of academic training. The curriculum aims at raising doctors who are excellently prepared for clinical work over as short a time as 5 years; it provides a comprehensive, yet shorter than usual, education that strongly pronounces the importance of increasing the students’ practical clinical competences and rigorously excludes superfluous contents. The curriculum encompasses 52 modules, 32 at the bachelor’s and 20 at the master’s level. Already at the level of the bachelor degree, full employability is given; the students finish the master’s course as medical doctors optimally prepared to manage patients at the level of postgraduate medical education. The structure of the curriculum is modular; each modular component is essential for medical education and contains an average of five European Credit Transfer System credits, amounting to 150 hours of education. Depending on the subspecialty, the courses include lectures, seminars, practical laboratory training, and clinical training at varying quantities. In addition to attendance times, sufficient time slots are prepared for self-study in lectures, seminars, and practical work. With our curriculum, we provide an easily applicable backbone for a modern course of medicine that can be installed also at smaller academic institutions. Keywords: Bologna

  2. Self-assessment: Practice or Representation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli S. Fidalgo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on a socio-discursive interactional perspective (Bronckart, 1997, this paper presents data analysis of a research which by using a selfassessment instrument, aimed, firstly, at investigating the representations (Silva, 1999 presented by a teacher about assessment matters, and, secondly, at showing that assessment instruments are context-bound. Knowing that, in practice, these instruments are many times designed by one person for a large number of students, I analyzed students’ and teachers’ validation (Habermas, 1985 of tasks proposed by another teacher, and looked at their representation of aspects that compose the learning-teaching of English. Initial results show that no matter how carefully the instrument is designed (by others, it may pose difficulties for some learners, inasmuch as the assessment moment is part and parcel of the teaching-learning process for both teachers and learners, and not a separate aspect to be used in a staccato style. If schools seek instruments which will allow children to reflect upon their own learning, thus becoming more capable of regulating this learning (Perrenoud, 1998, careful look into the design of such instruments will be needed.

  3. Social vulnerability assessment: a growing practice in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, S.; McC arthy, S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper builds upon work on social vulnerability from the CapHaz-Net consortium, an ongoing research project funded by the European Commission in its 7th Framework Programme. The project focuses on the social dimensions of natural hazards, as well as on regional practices of risk prevention and management, and aims at improving the resilience of European societies to natural hazards, paying particular attention to social capacity building. The topic of social vulnerability is one of seven themes being addressed in the project. There are various rationales for examining the relevance of social vulnerability to natural hazards. Vulnerability assessment has now been accepted as a requirement for the effective development of emergency management capability, and assessment of social vulnerability has been recognised as being integral to understanding the risk to natural hazards. The aim of our research was to examine social vulnerability, how it might be understood in the context of natural hazards in Europe, and how social vulnerability can be addressed to increase social capacity. The work comprised a review of research on social vulnerability to different natural hazards within Europe and included concepts and definitions of social vulnerability (and related concepts), the purpose of vulnerability assessment and who decides who is vulnerable, different approaches to assessing or measuring social vulnerability (such as the use of 'classical' quantitative vulnerability indicators and qualitative community-based approaches, along with the advantages and disadvantages of both), conceptual frameworks for assessing social vulnerability and three case studies of social vulnerability studies within Europe: flash floods in the Italian Alps, fluvial flooding in Germany and heat waves in Spain. The review reveals variable application of social vulnerability analysis across Europe and there are indications why this might be the case. Reasons could range from the scale of

  4. The Lisbon earthquake and its aftershocks in European Enlightenment thinking and planning practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meyer, Dirk

    2010-05-01

    From the Old Testament to Hollywood B-movies, from Sodom and Gomorrah to Los Angeles, the city is the topos of cataclysm. The first city-wide catastrophe that would have a major impact on modern European thinking was the earthquake and tsunami that, in 1755, reduced Lisbon to ruins, and killed about one tenth of its population. This paper will look at the contemporary representations of that catastrophe and at its impact on European Enlightenment thinking and urban planning practices. For Voltaire and Kant the Lisbon disaster had a major impact on the development of there philosophical and esthetical concepts. It strenghtend Rousseau in his anti-urban thinking. For many others it gave way to that modern concept that later will be coined by Paul Valéry in his opening sentence of La crise de l'esprit: "we civilizations now know that we are mortal." I will argue more in detail how, contrary to the rebuilding after the fire of London, where both proposed and realised plans hardly represented a radical new way of conceiving a city plan, the Lisbon reconstruction under the direction of the King's Prime Minister Pombal, can be understood as the start of urban planning as a modern practice — as opposed to earlier, architect-directed Renaissance and Baroque planning. On a smaller scale we will look at the implementation, in the aftermath of the earthquake. of new anti-seismic building techniques in Lisbon's new constructions.

  5. Victims‘ rights: The European court of human rights' practice and legislation in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with rights and position of victims in international documents, with special reference to the standards created by the European Court of Human Rights through its practice. This paper aims to provide brief analysis of some of the most important international documents, which set forth basic rights for victims, including: right to participate in the criminal proceedings, right to protection and the right to compensation. The paper intends to analyze these key right (standards, principles through relevant case law of the European Court of Human Rights, given that the wording of the relevant documents does not determine what entails the realization of a specific standard in real life. The main purpose of the article is to examine the compliance of regulations and practices in Serbia with international standards on the status and the rights of victims, from which some recommendations for improvement might arise. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179044: Razvoj metodologije evidentiranja kriminaliteta kao osnova efikasnih mera za njegovo suzbijanje i prevenciju

  6. Water Consumption in European Children: Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystallia Mantziki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children’s dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children’s choices of beverages is still unclear. Objectives: To study the associations: (1 of both fruit juices and soft drinks consumption with water consumption of children and (2 The associations between parenting practices towards fruit juices and soft drinks and water consumption of children. Design: Cross-sectional data from 6 to 8 year old children from seven European communities (n = 1187 were collected. Associations among fruit juices, soft drinks, the respective parenting practices and the child’s water consumption were assessed by parental questionnaires. Results: The consumption of water was inversely associated with that of soft drinks but not with the consumption of fruit juices. The child’s water intake was favorably influenced when stricter parenting practices towards soft drinks were adopted (e.g., less parental allowance, low home availability and high parental self-efficacy in managing intake. There was less influence observed of parenting practices towards fruit juices. Fruit juices were consumed more often than soft drinks. Conclusions: Low consumption of soft drinks—and not of fruit juices—was associated with high water consumption in children in the current study. Moreover, parenting practices towards both fruit juices and soft drinks were associated with the water intake of the children, irrespective of their socio-economic status.

  7. Some Aspects of International Children Abduction - Theoretical and Practical Approach from the Perspective of the European Law and Judicial Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lupşan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyday life revealed even in the media by presenting cases of international abduction of minors, on the one hand, and on the other hand, the existence of cases increasingly complex from the national/ EU practice, to which we should add the insufficient analysis in the doctrine of the topic in representing some evidence to support the elaboration of this paper. Through its international and / or European regulations (Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, which is supplemented by Regulation (EC no. 2201/2003 of 27 November 2003 concerning jurisdiction, the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and in matters of parental responsibility, (prevailing the latter and national ones (Law no. 63/2014 amending and supplementing Law no. 369/2004 on the application of the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction which Romania adhered to by the Law no. 100/199, the legislator sought to ensure the prompt return of children abducted in the Member State of origin, the objective being the same: discouraging underage child abduction by a parent or by third parties, usually relatives and, in case of committing an act of international abduction of minors, ensuring the best interests of the child through the cooperation of the competent authorities in the field. The structure includes sections that address theoretical issues (e.g. the notion of international abduction of minors, regulations, procedure for solving the request, the competent authorities and practical aspects, without neglecting the interpretation given by the Court of Justice of the European Union of some texts from the Regulation.

  8. Colposcopy training and assessment across the member countries of the European Federation for Colposcopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, E L; Redman, C W E; Arbyn, M; Dollery, E; Petry, K U; Nieminen, P; Myerson, N; Leeson, S C

    2015-05-01

    Colposcopy training and assessment is not uniform across Europe with individual countries determining their own required standards and regulations. In light of the significant changes in colposcopic practice that have occurred over the past decade and the expansion of the European Federation for Colposcopy (EFC) membership, a study was conducted firstly, to assess the current requirements for training in each of the member countries and secondly, to review an EFC-approved core training curriculum for colposcopy. A questionnaire survey of the EFC representatives from all member countries investigating their country's current practices/requirements with regard to training, assessment and accreditation for colposcopy. A two-round Delphi consultation with representation from the full, associate and three potential member countries was conducted using a 5-point Likert scale for scoring opinions. The results were analysed with respect to each country's population size and World Bank economic classification. For the questionnaire survey, responses were received from 31/34 countries invited to participate. Training programmes were reported to be in place in 21 of the 31 countries but only 17 of the 21 countries had a committee overseeing the training programme. An assessment was part of the training programme in 20 countries with multiple choice questions and portfolios the most common assessment tools. Countries with a population size less than 2 million have a statistically significant lower probability of having a structured training/assessment programme, 1/5 compared to 20/26 for a populations greater than 2 million, p=0.013. For the Delphi study, responses were received from 34/39 countries invited to participate. Of the 51 competencies previously identified only 2 did not receive full support: 'perform bacterial swabs' and 'provide data to national body'. There was no significant difference in the responses given by member, associate member or potential member

  9. Nutritional assessment and therapy in COPD: a European Respiratory Society statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schols, Annemie M; Ferreira, Ivone M; Franssen, Frits M; Gosker, Harry R; Janssens, Wim; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Pison, Christophe; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen; Slinde, Frode; Steiner, Michael C; Tkacova, Ruzena; Singh, Sally J

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition and metabolism have been the topic of extensive scientific research in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but clinical awareness of the impact dietary habits, nutritional status and nutritional interventions may have on COPD incidence, progression and outcome is limited. A multidisciplinary Task Force was created by the European Respiratory Society to deliver a summary of the evidence and description of current practice in nutritional assessment and therapy in COPD, and to provide directions for future research. Task Force members conducted focused reviews of the literature on relevant topics, advised by a methodologist. It is well established that nutritional status, and in particular abnormal body composition, is an important independent determinant of COPD outcome. The Task Force identified different metabolic phenotypes of COPD as a basis for nutritional risk profile assessment that is useful in clinical trial design and patient counselling. Nutritional intervention is probably effective in undernourished patients and probably most when combined with an exercise programme. Providing evidence of cost-effectiveness of nutritional intervention is required to support reimbursement and thus increase access to nutritional intervention. Overall, the evidence indicates that a well-balanced diet is beneficial to all COPD patients, not only for its potential pulmonary benefits, but also for its proven benefits in metabolic and cardiovascular risk. ©ERS 2014.

  10. The European nitrogen assessment: sources, effects, and policy perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutton, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    "Presenting the first continental-scale assessment of reactive nitrogen in the environment, this book sets the related environmental problems in context by providing a multidisciplinary introduction...

  11. Payloads development for European land mobile satellites: A technical and economical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, G.; Rispoli, F.; Sassorossi, T.; Spazio, Selenia

    1990-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has defined two payloads for Mobile Communication; one payload is for pre-operational use, the European Land Mobile System (EMS), and one payload is for promoting the development of technologies for future mobile communication systems, the L-band Land Mobile Payload (LLM). A summary of the two payloads and a description of their capabilities is provided. Additionally, an economic assessment of the potential mobile communication market in Europe is provided.

  12. Indicator-based assessment of marine biological diversity – lessons from 10 case studies across the European Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Uusitalo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the environmental status of European marine waters to be assessed using biodiversity as one out of 11 descriptors, but the complexity of marine biodiversity and its large span across latitudinal and salinity gradients have been a challenge to the scientific community aiming to produce approaches for integrating information from a broad range of indicators. The Nested Environmental status Assessment Tool (NEAT, developed for the integrated assessment of the status of marine waters, was applied to ten marine ecosystems to test its applicability and compare biodiversity assessments across the four European regional seas. We evaluate the assessment results as well as the assessment designs of the ten cases, and how the assessment design, particularly the choices made regarding the area and indicator selection, affected the results. The results show that only 2 out of the 10 case study areas show more than 50 % probability of being in good status in respect of biodiversity. No strong pattern among the ecosystem components across the case study areas could be detected, but marine mammals, birds, and benthic vegetation indicators tended to indicate poor status while zooplankton indicators indicated good status when included into the assessment. The analysis shows that the assessment design, including the selection of indicators, their target values, geographical resolution and habitats to be assessed, has potentially a high impact on the result, and the assessment structure needs to be understood in order to make an informed assessment. Moreover, recommendations are provided for the best practice of using NEAT for marine status assessments.

  13. Quality assessments for cancer centers in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Anke; Rajan, A.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer centers are pressured to deliver high-quality services that can be measured and improved, which has led to an increase of assessments in many countries. A critical area of quality improvement is to improve patient outcome. An overview of existing assessments can help stakeholders

  14. Characterization and assessment of potential European and Japanese competition in photovoltaics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    This study is an assessment of the potential of European and Japanese firms to produce and market photovoltaic (PV) power systems internationally in competition with firms in the United States. It consists of three distinct parts: (1) an overview of worldwide export activity which describes the general posture of selected European countries and Japan; (2) an assessment of European competition focusing on Germany, France, and the United Kingdom; and (3) an assessment of Japanese competition. All research was conducted within the United States relying on published reports in the scientific, trade, and business press; a firm's annual reports; and telephone interviews with representatives of European and Japanese firms. European and Japanese government representatives were also contacted and government-sponsored programs evaluated. European competition is addressed in three areas: characterization of the PV industry; current and potential marketing activity; and the status of PV and related technological developments. The same areas are addressed for depicting Japanese competition except that greater emphasis is placed on past industrial experience and related semiconductor sales.

  15. BOOK REVIEW - Adrian Liviu Ivan, Teorii și practice ale integrării europene [Theories and Practices of European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Daniel STAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Teorii și practice ale integrării europene [Theories and Practices of European Integration] is a genuine contribution to understanding how the European Union’s particular character has been adjusted in more than half of century of institutional growth and development. Professor Ivan`s key argument for this book is that the European Union has been shaped as a functional project taking into consideration the diverse heritage and traditions of its Member States. The opening chapter of this book focuses on the particularities of international relations discipline after the Second World War in order to introduce the theme of European Integration Process. This chapter must be analysed in a series of contributions dedicated to the European Integration process and to the theories that made this integration possible because professor Ivan has previously published books such as: Statele Unite ale Europei [The United States of Europe], Sub zodia Statelor Unite ale Europei [Under the Sign of the United States of Europe], in which he debates the origins of the European construction and brings forward arguments to support the importance of each theoretical and functional pillar of this “Common European Project”.

  16. Assessment of collection schemes for packaging and other recyclable waste in European Union-28 Member States and capital cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyring, Nicole; Dollhofer, Marie; Weißenbacher, Jakob; Bakas, Ioannis; McKinnon, David

    2016-09-01

    The Waste Framework Directive obliged European Union Member States to set up separate collection systems to promote high quality recycling for at least paper, metal, plastic and glass by 2015. As implementation of the requirement varies across European Union Member States, the European Commission contracted BiPRO GmbH/Copenhagen Resource Institute to assess the separate collection schemes in the 28 European Union Member States, focusing on capital cities and on metal, plastic, glass (with packaging as the main source), paper/cardboard and bio-waste. The study includes an assessment of the legal framework for, and the practical implementation of, collection systems in the European Union-28 Member States and an in depth-analysis of systems applied in all capital cities. It covers collection systems that collect one or more of the five waste streams separately from residual waste/mixed municipal waste at source (including strict separation, co-mingled systems, door-to-door, bring-point collection and civic amenity sites). A scoreboard including 13 indicators is elaborated in order to measure the performance of the systems with the capture rates as key indicators to identify best performers. Best performance are by the cities of Ljubljana, Helsinki and Tallinn, leading to the key conclusion that door-to-door collection, at least for paper and bio-waste, and the implementation of pay-as-you-throw schemes results in high capture and thus high recycling rates of packaging and other municipal waste. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Mandatory Genres: The case of European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) summaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askehave, Inger; Zethsen, Karen K.

    2008-01-01

    of departure in one of the most recent mandatory genres within an EU medicinal assessment and approval context (the European Public Assessment Report [EPAR] summary) the article presents the results of an empirical study of 15 EU approved, Danish EPAR summaries, testing whether the respondents believe the EPAR...

  18. The role of indicators in assessing transport policies: an application to European transport scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Sytze A.; Stead, Dominic

    1997-01-01

    Indicators play an important role in the strategic assessment of policy packages. In this paper the role of indicators in assessing transport policiesis examined. As case study, the European Common Transport Policy (CTP) is used. Its three main objectives may be summarized as

  19. Policy Formulation and Networks of Practice in European eLearning: The Emergence of a European E-Learning Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salajan, Florin D.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the emergence of a European E-Learning Area (EELA) as a consequence of three factors that can be observed in the e-learning developments over the past decade. The first factor consists of the carving of a policy sector in e-learning via formal instruments such as the eLearning Programme, the Lifelong Learning Programme and…

  20. Environmental impact assessment: theory and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wathern, Peter

    1988-01-01

    ... projects. Enshrined in legislation in the USA, Canada, Australia, the Netherlands, Japan and, latterly, in the European Community, EIA is an integral part of environmental management. The 'science' and 'art' of EIA are inextricably linked, but the distinction between them is useful and is reflected in the organization of the book. An introductory chapter p...

  1. Ethical issues in neonatal intensive care and physicians' practices: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttini, Marina; Casotto, Veronica; Orzalesi, Marcello

    2006-07-01

    An international project (EURONIC) was carried out to explore the end-of-life decision-making process in a large, representative sample of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in eight western European countries: France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Spain and Sweden. Structured questionnaires were used to record data on NICU organization and policies, and to survey staff views and practices regarding ethical decision-making. One hundred and twenty-two NICUs were recruited by census or random sampling (response rate 86%); 1235 physicians and 3115 nurses completed the staff questionnaire (response rates 89 and 85%, respectively). This paper focuses on the physicians' answers. In all countries but Italy, most physicians reported having been involved at least once in setting limits to intensive care because of a baby's incurable condition and/or poor neurological prognosis. Adopted strategies varied between countries. Practices such as the continuation of current treatment without intensifying it and the withholding of emergency manoeuvres appeared widespread. In contrast, the frequency of doctors reporting withdrawal of mechanical ventilation was highest in the Netherlands (93%), Sweden (91%) and the Great Britain (88%), intermediate in France and Germany, and lowest in Spain and Italy (34 and 21%, respectively). Ethically problematic clinical cases are approached differently in the various countries. The findings of this study may provide an opportunity for physicians to review their practices critically, in light of how other colleagues proceed, and foster an open discussion about these difficult issues.

  2. Impact of quality assurance program: providing practice assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporito, R A; Feldman, C A; Stewart, D C; Echoldt, H; Buchanan, R N

    1994-05-01

    Participation in a self-administered quality assessment (SAQA) program led to changes in New Jersey dentists' perceptions of practice quality. Ninety-four percent indicated they discovered practice deficiencies. This study suggests that using a self-administered quality assessment program, such as the SAQA program, can lead to a better understanding of a practice's strengths and weaknesses.

  3. Objectively assessing nursing practices: a curricular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, A; McCall, J M

    1996-04-01

    In preparation for the changing needs of undergraduate nursing students undertaking a Project 2000 degree, it was necessary to rethink the nursing skills programme. After studying the literature a nursing skills laboratory was designed which provided both an institutional and a domestic setting. A progressive programme was developed, to help the students learn nursing practices, which was based on the Objective Structured Clinical Evaluation (OSCE). A small pilot study was set up using second and third-year students from the traditional nursing studies degree. A number of stations were set up comprising various nursing scenarios. The students who were being assessed rotated through these. Other students acted as patients, examiners and some volunteered to be novices being taught by the more senior students. A set of marking criteria was drawn up for each station to enable each student to be assessed objectively. One of the stations was filmed to provide the students with personal feedback. By the end of the session the students had rotated through each of the stations and received the marked criteria as feedback. At the end of the session a focused group interview took place with all the students and the two lecturers involved in setting up the project. Students were positive and felt the process had potential for future development as a means of integration and consolidation of skills prior to clinical experience. The early introduction of filming to the programme was though to be of benefit by reducing stress levels through regular use. Students felt that the role of teaching the 'novice' helped them focus on their knowledge and performance. This process is resource intensive in human and non-human terms but enables small groups of students to learn in a realistic but safe, non-threatening environment and encourages them to take responsibility for their own learning.

  4. Study tour: welcome to 11 european cities. Exchanges of good practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson-Pejovic, D.; Schilken, P.; Vallar, J.P.

    2001-11-01

    On-site visits, information, meetings with players engaged in practical actions and exchanges of experience: eleven European cities organize visits of about forty sites or installations which include: energy efficient and high environmental quality buildings and districts, cogeneration and tri-generation installations, new technologies such as the fuel cell or the Stirling engine, bike-stations or tram-train stations within the scope of innovative mobility policies, low energy consumption equipment, renewable energy installations, solar buildings, hydro-electric or photovoltaic power stations, wind farms.This document presents a typical two day's visit for the following cities: Amersfoort/Utrecht, Barcelona, Frankfurt, Freiburg, Grenoble, Hannover, Heidelberg, Lausanne, London, Montpellier, Saarbrucken. (J.S.)

  5. The practice of career development in the international human resource management of the European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berber Nemanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The function very close to the training in the management of human resources is certainly the human resource development. Specifically, the employees acquire new knowledge, abilities and skills during the training process, but also gain new experiences through various business tasks during their working life, developing themselves both, in private life and in the professional sense. Human resource development is seen as the development of the expertise of people through organizational development and training of employees in order of improvement of the performances. In this paper authors explored the practice of carrier development in European countries. Research was based on data from international project, CRANET, in the period from 2008 to 2010. The authors presented data about the usage of techniques for evaluation of career development and investigated obtained results.

  6. Biodiversity in marine ecosystems – European developments towards robust assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Stiina Heiskanen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of marine ecosystems and their services are dependent on marine biodiversity, which is threatened worldwide. Biodiversity protection is a major target of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, requiring assessment of the status of biodiversity on the level of species, habitats, and ecosystems including genetic diversity and the role of biodiversity in food web functioning and structure. This paper provides a summary of the development of new indicators and refinement of existing ones in order to address some of the observed gaps in indicator availability for marine biodiversity assessments considering genetic, species, habitat, and ecosystem levels. Promising new indicators are available addressing genetic diversity of microbial and benthic communities. Novel indicators to assess biodiversity and food webs associated with habitats formed by keystone species (such as macroalgae as well as to map benthic habitats (such as biogenic reefs using high resolution habitat characterization were developed. We also discuss the advances made on indicators for detecting impacts of non-native invasive species and assessing the structure and functioning of marine food-webs. The latter are based on indicators showing the effects of fishing on trophic level and size distribution of fish and elasmobranch communities well as phytoplankton and zooplankton community structure as food web indicators. New and refined indicators are ranked based on quality criteria. Their applicability for various EU and global biodiversity assessments and the need for further development of new indicators and refinement of the existing ones is discussed.

  7. European Good Laboratory and Clinical Practices: their relevance to clinical pathology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, N J

    1991-10-01

    The requirements for Good Laboratory (GLP) and Good Clinical Practices (CGP) were established as a matter of urgency by the United States in the early 1970s. These were in response to gross misconduct and, in many instances, fraud. Over the next 15 years, a plethora of regulatory principles, guidelines, and regulations was produced by many countries of the world, culminating in single standards for European, Japanese, and United States authorities. Although with regard to GLP this has basically become a worldwide recognized standard within the preclinical (toxicology) studies, in the veterinary, chemical, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries, the GCPs are now seeing a rebirth. Within a clinical trials environment, there is most certainly a requirement for compliance with GCP, especially with regard to the harmonization of data within the European Community. The goal of this article is to cover the following aspects: Why should we have good practices? Why should laboratory data be audited? Why is there a need for a QA unit or function? What is the QA operational approach? How does a laboratory audit take place within laboratories? In discussing the laboratories and their subsequent data audits, the pitfalls and benefits are addressed and an examination of the data from the sponsor's viewpoint is compared with that produced by the laboratory. The types of laboratories present in a clinical environment are examined. They obviously comprise clinical pathology, microbiology, and analytical as well as ancillary hospital areas such as X-ray and cardiology. These laboratories may also be in the private sector, the National Health Service, contract laboratories, universities, or the general practitioner population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Modelling soil erosion at European scale: the importance of management practices and the future climate and land use scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Meusburger, Katrin; Poesen, Jean; Lugato, Emanuele; Montanarella, Luca; Alewell, Christine; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2017-04-01

    The implementation of RUSLE2015 for modelling soil loss by water erosion at European scale has introduced important aspects related to management practices. The policy measurements such as reduced tillage, crop residues, cover crops, grass margins, stone walls and contouring have been incorporated in the RUSLE2015 modelling platform. The recent policy interventions introduced in Good Agricultural Environmental Conditions of Common Agricultural Policy have reduced the rate of soil loss in the EU by an average of 9.5% overall, and by 20% for arable lands (NATURE, 526, 195). However, further economic and political action should rebrand the value of soil as part of ecosystem services, increase the income of rural land owners, involve young farmers and organize regional services for licensing land use changes (Land Degradation and Development, 27 (6): 1547-1551). RUSLE2015 is combining the future policy scenarios and land use changes introduced by predictions of LUISA Territorial Modelling Platform. Latest developments in RUSLE2015 allow also incorporating the climate change scenarios and the forthcoming intensification of rainfall in North and Central Europe contrary to mixed trends in Mediterranean basin. The rainfall erosivity predictions estimate a mean increase by 18% in European Union by 2050. Recently, a module of CENTURY model was coupled with the RUSLE2015 for estimating the effect of erosion in current carbon balance in European agricultural lands (Global Change Biology, 22(5), 1976-1984; 2016). Finally, the monthly erosivity datasets (Science of the Total Environment, 579: 1298-1315) introduce a dynamic component in RUSLE2015 and it is a step towards spatio-temporal soil erosion mapping at continental scale. The monthly mapping of rainfall erosivity permits to identify the months and the areas with highest risk of soil loss where conservation measures should apply in different seasons of the year. In the future, the soil erosion-modelling platform will

  9. Key Steps in Conducting Systematic Reviews for Underpinning Clinical Practice Guidelines: Methodology of the European Association of Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Thomas; Omar, Muhammad Imran; Maclennan, Steven; Hernández, Virginia; Canfield, Steven; Yuan, Yuhong; Bruins, Max; Marconi, Lorenzo; Van Poppel, Hein; N'Dow, James; Sylvester, Richard

    2017-09-13

    The findings of systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) are used for clinical decision making. The European Association of Urology has committed increasing resources into the development of high quality clinical guidelines based on such SRs and MAs. In this paper, we have summarised the process of conducting SRs for underpinning clinical practice guidelines under the auspices of the European Association of Urology Guidelines Office. The process involves explicit methods and the findings should be reproducible. When conducting a SR, the essential first step is to formulate a clear and answerable research question. An extensive literature search lays the foundation for evidence synthesis. Data are extracted independently by two reviewers and any disagreements are resolved by discussion or arbitration by a third reviewer. In SRs, data for particular outcomes in individual randomised controlled trials may be combined statistically in a meta-analysis to increase power when the studies are similar enough. Biases in studies included in a SR/MA can lead to either an over estimation or an under estimation of true intervention effect size, resulting in heterogeneity in outcome between studies. A number of different tools are available such as Cochrane Risk of Bias assessment tool for randomised controlled trials. In circumstances where there is too much heterogeneity, or when a review has included nonrandomised comparative studies, it is more appropriate to conduct a narrative synthesis. The GRADE tool for assessing quality of evidence strives to be a structured and transparent system, which can be applied to all evidence, regardless of quality. A SR not only identifies, evaluates, and summarises the best available evidence, but also the gaps to be targeted by future studies. SRs and MAs are integral in developing sound clinical practice guidelines and recommendations. Clinical practice guidelines should be evidence based, and systematic reviews and meta

  10. [European Association of Urology guidelines on assessment and nonsurgical management of urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, M G; Bosch, R J L; Burkhard, F C; Cruz, F; Madden, T B; Nambiar, A K; Neisius, A; de Ridder, D J M K; Tubaro, A; Turner, W H; Pickard, R S

    2013-04-01

    The previous European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on urinary incontinence comprised a summary of sections of the 2009 International Consultation on Incontinence. A decision was made in 2010 to rewrite these guidelines based on an independent systematic review carried out by the EAU guidelines panel, using a sustainable methodology. We present a short version of the full guidelines on assessment, diagnosis, and nonsurgical treatment of urinary incontinence, with the aim of increasing their dissemination. Evidence appraisal included a pragmatic review of existing systematic reviews and independent new literature searches, based on Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome questions. Appraisal of papers was carried out by an international panel of experts, who also collaborated on a series of consensus discussions, to develop concise structured evidence summaries and action-based recommendations using a modified Oxford system. The full version of the guidelines is available online (http://www.uroweb.org/guidelines/online-guidelines/). The guidelines include algorithms that refer the reader back to the supporting evidence, and they are more immediately useable in daily clinical practice. These new guidelines present an up-to-date summary of the available evidence, together with clear clinical algorithms and action-based recommendations based on the best available evidence. Where such evidence does not exist, they present a consensus of expert opinion. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Best practices in academic assessment in higher education: A case in formative and shared assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel López Pastor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false CA X-NONE X-NONE The aim of this article is three-fold: (a to present an example of best practices in formative assessment in university instruction, offering three different methods of learning and assessment to pass a subject; (b to analyze differences in academic performance depending on method of learning and assessment chosen; (c to consider professors´ and students´ evaluation of these assessment methods, as well as analyze the workload these methods suppose for both students and professors. The design is based on a single case study. The study analyzes the results obtained in a third- year course at the University of Valladolid (Spain that participated in an ECTS pilot program. Data was collected during academic year 2009-10. Total number of registered students was 77. This paper describes the procedure to develop a formative assessment system and collect data, as well as the main techniques to obtain and analyze data. Findings indicate that there are important differences in student academic performance depending on the learning and assessment method employed in an academic course. Courses are using formative and on going assessment result in significantly higher student academic performance than courses using other learning and assessment methods. Lastly, empirical data suggest that the workload is in line with the ECTS European Credit Transfer System, and is no excessive for the professor. However, students´ subjective perception is that this method involves a heavier workload. These findings may be important, given the current process of convergence towards the new Degrees and ECTS credit system, and the need to adapt these degrees and credits to students’ real workload.  

  12. Good practice in health care for migrants: views and experiences of care professionals in 16 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankunas Mindaugas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health services across Europe provide health care for migrant patients every day. However, little systematic research has explored the views and experiences of health care professionals in different European countries. The aim of this study was to assess the difficulties professionals experience in their service when providing such care and what they consider constitutes good practice to overcome these problems or limit their negative impact on the quality of care. Methods Structured interviews with open questions and case vignettes were conducted with health care professionals working in areas with high proportion of migrant populations in 16 countries. In each country, professionals in nine primary care practices, three accident and emergency hospital departments, and three community mental health services (total sample = 240 were interviewed about their views and experiences in providing care for migrant patients, i.e. from first generation immigrant populations. Answers were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results Eight types of problems and seven components of good practice were identified representing all statements in the interviews. The eight problems were: language barriers, difficulties in arranging care for migrants without health care coverage, social deprivation and traumatic experiences, lack of familiarity with the health care system, cultural differences, different understandings of illness and treatment, negative attitudes among staff and patients, and lack of access to medical history. The components of good practice to overcome these problems or limit their impact were: organisational flexibility with sufficient time and resources, good interpreting services, working with families and social services, cultural awareness of staff, educational programmes and information material for migrants, positive and stable relationships with staff, and clear guidelines on the care entitlements of different

  13. Good practice in health care for migrants: views and experiences of care professionals in 16 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Stefan; Sandhu, Sima; Dias, Sónia; Gaddini, Andrea; Greacen, Tim; Ioannidis, Elisabeth; Kluge, Ulrike; Krasnik, Allan; Lamkaddem, Majda; Lorant, Vincent; Riera, Rosa Puigpinósi; Sarvary, Attila; Soares, Joaquim J F; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Strassmayr, Christa; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Welbel, Marta; Bogic, Marija

    2011-03-25

    Health services across Europe provide health care for migrant patients every day. However, little systematic research has explored the views and experiences of health care professionals in different European countries. The aim of this study was to assess the difficulties professionals experience in their service when providing such care and what they consider constitutes good practice to overcome these problems or limit their negative impact on the quality of care. Structured interviews with open questions and case vignettes were conducted with health care professionals working in areas with high proportion of migrant populations in 16 countries. In each country, professionals in nine primary care practices, three accident and emergency hospital departments, and three community mental health services (total sample = 240) were interviewed about their views and experiences in providing care for migrant patients, i.e. from first generation immigrant populations. Answers were analysed using thematic content analysis. Eight types of problems and seven components of good practice were identified representing all statements in the interviews. The eight problems were: language barriers, difficulties in arranging care for migrants without health care coverage, social deprivation and traumatic experiences, lack of familiarity with the health care system, cultural differences, different understandings of illness and treatment, negative attitudes among staff and patients, and lack of access to medical history. The components of good practice to overcome these problems or limit their impact were: organisational flexibility with sufficient time and resources, good interpreting services, working with families and social services, cultural awareness of staff, educational programmes and information material for migrants, positive and stable relationships with staff, and clear guidelines on the care entitlements of different migrant groups. Problems and good care components were

  14. Assessment of environmental correlates of physical activity: development of a European questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oja Pekka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the influence of the physical environment on physical activity is rapidly expanding and different measures of environmental perceptions have been developed, mostly in the US and Australia. The purpose of this paper is to (i provide a literature review of measures of environmental perceptions recently used in European studies and (ii develop a questionnaire for population monitoring purposes in the European countries. Methods This study was done within the framework of the EU-funded project 'Instruments for Assessing Levels of Physical Activity and Fitness (ALPHA', which aims to propose standardised instruments for physical activity and fitness monitoring across Europe. Quantitative studies published from 1990 up to November 2007 were systematically searched in Pubmed, Web of Science, TRIS and Geobase. In addition a survey was conducted among members of the European network for the promotion of Health-Enhancing Physical Activity (HEPA Europe and European members of the International Physical Activity and Environment Network (IPEN to identify published or ongoing studies. Studies were included if they were conducted among European general adult population (18+y and used a questionnaire to assess perceptions of the physical environment. A consensus meeting with an international expert group was organised to discuss the development of a European environmental questionnaire. Results The literature search resulted in 23 European studies, 15 published and 8 unpublished. In these studies, 13 different environmental questionnaires were used. Most of these studies used adapted versions of questionnaires that were developed outside Europe and that focused only on the walkability construct: The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS, the abbreviated version of the NEWS (ANEWS and the Neighborhood Quality of Life Study (NQLS questionnaire have been most commonly used. Based on the results of the literature review and

  15. Duties and training of dental nurses: how do Irish practices conform to European standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, C D; O'Byrne, M T; McConnell, R J; Neville, K

    2008-06-01

    The dental nurse is a key member of the dental team, having an important role in the delivery of oral healthcare. Despite this, there is considerable variation throughout Europe in relation to the level of training, permitted duties, and statutory registration of dental nurses. The purpose of this paper is to describe the opinions and attitudes of dental nurses to their roles and suitability of training in one European member state, Ireland, where statutory registration has recently been introduced. A postal questionnaire was sent to 150 dental practitioners selected from the Irish Register of Dentists. The dentists were asked to distribute questionnaire to dental nurse(s) working in their practice. Information sought from the dental nurses included their employment setting, the nature of their employment, their level of training, additional qualifications held, their views on the key duties and responsibilities of a dental nurse, and the appropriate duration and content of a dental nurse training programme. Replies were received from 96 dental nurses (response rate = 64%). Fifty-five percent of respondents (n = 53) were employed in private practice, 39% (n = 37) were employed in the Health Board Dental Service, and 6% (n = 6) were employed in a dental hospital. Two thirds of respondents (n = 62) had been employed as dental nurses for more than five years. Eighty-six percent of respondents (n = 83) were in full-time employment. Seventy-three percent of respondents (n = 70) held a recognised dental nurse qualification. Sixty-five percent of respondents (n = 70) who held a dental nurse qualification felt that the appropriate duration of a dental nurse training programme was one year or less. Thirty-two percent of respondents (n = 30) had completed additional training in practice management, administration or computer skills. Ninety-five percent of respondents (n = 91) were interested in attending continuing education courses. Eighty-five percent of respondents (n

  16. Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young European children: Comparing a pan-European approach with a national exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, P.E.; Te Biesebeek, J.D.; van Klaveren, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term dietary exposures to lead in young children were calculated by combining food consumption data of 11 European countries categorised using harmonised broad food categories with occurrence data on lead from different Member States (pan-European approach). The results of the assessment...... in children living in the Netherlands were compared with a long-term lead intake assessment in the same group using Dutch lead concentration data and linking the consumption and concentration data at the highest possible level of detail. Exposures obtained with the pan-European approach were higher than...... the national exposure calculations. For both assessments cereals contributed most to the exposure. The lower dietary exposure in the national study was due to the use of lower lead concentrations and a more optimal linkage of food consumption and concentration data. When a pan-European approach, using...

  17. Classroom Assessment Practices of English Language Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir-Yilmazer, Meryem; Özkan, Yonca

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of students is an essential part of instruction in both teaching and learning. With the recognition of alternative assessment methods, classroom assessment has gained attention focusing on learning of students. However, high-stakes testing turns classroom assessment into teachers' high stakes decisions, ignoring the development of…

  18. How clinical practitioners assess frailty in their daily practice: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyère, Olivier; Buckinx, Fanny; Beaudart, Charlotte; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Bauer, Juergen; Cederholm, Tommy; Cherubini, Antonio; Cooper, Cyrus; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso Jose; Landi, Francesco; Maggi, Stefania; Rizzoli, René; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Sieber, Cornel; Vellas, Bruno; Cesari, Matteo

    2017-08-02

    Various operational definitions have been proposed to assess the frailty condition among older individuals. Our objective was to assess how practitioners measure the geriatric syndrome of frailty in their daily routine. An online survey was sent to national geriatric societies affiliated to the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) and to members of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO). A total of 388 clinicians from 44 countries answered to the survey. Most of them were medical doctors (93%), and their primary field of practice was geriatrics (83%). Two hundred and five clinicians (52.8%) always assessed frailty in their daily practice, 38.1% reported to "sometimes" measure it, and 9.1% never assess it. A substantial proportion of clinicians (64.9%) diagnose frailty using more than one instrument. The most widely used tool was the gait speed test, adopted by 43.8% of the clinicians, followed by clinical frailty scale (34.3%), the SPPB test (30.2%), the frailty phenotype (26.8%) and the frailty index (16.8%). A variety of tools is used to assess frailty of older patients in clinical practice highlighting the need for standardisation and guidelines.

  19. What can be learned from practical cases of green economy? - studies from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Kati; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils

    2016-01-01

    The transition to green economies has been mediated by concrete cases and experiments in a variety of different industrial and social sectors. What is lacking, is research that would synthesize key findings and “lessons learned” across a variety of cases. In this study, we explore ten cases...... of green economy of different sectors and approaches from five European countries and identify factors that have had critical importance for the success or failure of the cases. Our paper reveals similarities across small and large scale cases and different approaches for implementing green economy. We...... identified critical factors related to economic viability, public funding, technological development, impact assessments, public policies and regulation, social capital, leadership and coordination as well as public acceptability and image. According to our results, transition to green economies requires...

  20. Impact assessment of the European biofuel directive on land use and biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmann, F.; Verburg, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the potential impact of the EUs biofuel directive on European land use and biodiversity. In a spatially explicit analysis, it is determined which ecologically valuable land use types are likely to be directly replaced by biofuel crops. In addition, it is

  1. Assessing European capacity for geological storage of carbon dioxide-the EU GeoCapacity project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vangkilde-Pedersen, T.; Anthonsen, K.L.; Smith, N.; Kirk, K.; Neele, F.; Meer, B. van der; Le Gallo, Y. le; Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Wojcicki, A.; Nindre, Y.-M. le; Hendriks, C.; Dalhoff, F.; Peter Christensen, N.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the GeoCapacity project is GIS mapping of CO2 point sources, infrastructure and geological storage in Europe. The main objective is to assess the European capacity for geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers, oil and gas structures and coal beds. Other priorities are further

  2. Evaluating European imports of Asian aquaculture products using statistically supported life cycle assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksson, Patrik John Gustav

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to evaluate the environmental sustainability of European imports of farmed aquatic food products from Asia, using life cycle assessment (LCA). Farming of Asian tiger prawn, whiteleg shrimp, freshwater prawn, tilapia and pangasius catfish in Bangladesh, China, Thailand and Vietnam

  3. Assessment of the dynamics in nitrogen and carbon sequestration of European forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Salm, van der C.; Reinds, G.J.; Dise, N.B.; Gundersen, P.; Erisman, J.W.; Posch, M.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the major result of a research project that focused on the assessment of the dynamics in nitrogen and carbon sequestration of European forest soils by estimation of the: (i) retention or release of nitrogen species for selected Intensive Monitoring plots by comparing the input,

  4. Assessing the risks of aquatic species invasions via European inland waterways: from concepts to environmental indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, Vadim E; Alexandrov, Boris; Arbaciauskas, Kestutis; Binimelis, Rosa; Copp, Gordon H; Grabowski, Michal; Lucy, Frances; Leuven, Rob S E W; Nehring, Stefan; Paunović, Momir; Semenchenko, Vitaliy; Son, Mikhail O

    2009-01-01

    Over the past century, the potential for aquatic species to expand their ranges in Europe has been enhanced both as a result of the construction of new canals and because of increased international trade. A complex network of inland waterways now connects some previously isolated catchments in southern (Caspian, Azov, Black, Mediterranean seas) and northern (Baltic, North, Wadden, White seas) Europe, and these waterways act as corridors for nonnative species invasions. We have developed a conceptual risk assessment model for invasive alien species introductions via European inland waterways, with specific protocols that focus on the development of environmental indicators within the socioeconomic context of the driving forces-pressures-state-impact-response framework. The risk assessment protocols and water quality indicators on alien species were tested for selected ecosystems within 3 main European invasion corridors, and these can be recommended for application as part of the Common Implementation Strategy of the European Commission Water Framework Directive, which aims to provide a holistic risk-based management of European river basins. The conceptual structure of the online Risk Assessment Toolkit for aquatic invasive alien species is provided and includes 3 main interlinked components: online risk assessment protocols, an early warning system, and an information transmitter for risk communication to end users.

  5. The assessment of efforts to return to work in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijzer, Anna; Groothoff, Johan W.; de Boer, Wout E. L.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Background: Assessment of efforts to promote return-to-work (RTW) includes all efforts (vocational and non-vocational) designed to improve the work ability of the sick-listed employee and increase the chance to return to work. Aim of the study was to investigate whether in 13 European countries

  6. Quality of Life Experienced by Human Capital: An Assessment of European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Paulo; Migueis, Vera L.; Camanho, Ana S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an assessment of urban quality of life (QoL) of European cities from the perspective of qualified human resources. The competitiveness of cities relies increasingly in their capacity to attract highly educated workers, as they are important assets for firms when choosing a location. Qualified human resources, on the…

  7. Exposure assessment for a nested case-control study of lung cancer among European asphalt workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agostini, M.; Ferro, G.; Olsson, A.; Burstyn, I.; de Vocht, F.; Hansen, J.; Funch Lassen, C.; Johansen, C.; Kjaerheim, K.; Langard, S.; Stucker, I.; Ahrens, W.; Behrens, T.; Lindbohm, M-J.; Heikkila, P.; Heederik, D.; Portengen, L.; Shaham, J.; Boffetta, P.; Kromhout, H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Development of a method for retrospective assessment of exposure to bitumen fume, bitumen condensate, organic vapour, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and co-exposures to known or suspected lung carcinogens for a nested case-control study of lung cancer mortality among European asphalt

  8. European experience on application of site-specific ecological risk assessment in terrestrial ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the current state of the development toward a common European framework for site-specific ecological risk assessment (SS-ERA) Although common progression has been slow in the past two years, earlier activities were very promising. Results are presented of a 2001 workshop to

  9. Cardiovascular prevention guidelines in daily practice: a comparison of EUROASPIRE I, II, and III surveys in eight European countries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kotseva, Kornelia

    2009-03-14

    The first and second EUROASPIRE surveys showed high rates of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease. The third EUROASPIRE survey was done in 2006-07 in 22 countries to see whether preventive cardiology had improved and if the Joint European Societies\\' recommendations on cardiovascular disease prevention are being followed in clinical practice.

  10. Modelling the effect of support practices (P-factor) on the reduction of soil erosion by water at European Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagos, P.; Borrelli, P.; Meusburger, K.; van der Zanden, E.H.; Poesen, J.; Alewell, C.

    2015-01-01

    The USLE/RUSLE support practice factor (P-factor) is rarely taken into account in soil erosion risk modelling at sub-continental scale, as it is difficult to estimate for large areas. This study attempts to model the P-factor in the European Union. For this, it considers the latest policy

  11. Effective and Legitimate? Learning from the Lessons of 10 Years of Practice with the European Arrest Warrant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the European Arrest Warrant (EAW) and the issues which have emerged in its first 10 years of practice. After a first section explaining the choice for the principle of mutual recognition as expression of effectiveness and subsidiarity in judicial cooperation in criminal matters,

  12. Guidance on current good radiopharmacy practice for the small-scale preparation of radiopharmaceuticals using automated modules : a European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, Joel; Ballinger, James R.; Behe, Martin; Decristoforo, Clemens; Elsinga, Philip H.; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Mindt, Thomas L.; Peitl, Petra Kolenc; Todde, Sergio C.; Koziorowski, Jacek

    This document is meant to complement Part B of the EANM Guidelines on current good radiopharmacy practice (cGRPP) in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals' issued by the Radiopharmacy Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, covering small-scale in-house preparation of

  13. Improving Initial Assessment: Guide to Good Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knasel, Eddy; Meed, John; Rossetti, Anna; Read, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    This guide is aimed at anyone in work-based training who is responsible for learners during their first few weeks. Readers will (1) understand the value and purpose of initial assessment in key skills and Skills for Life; (2) become familiar with a range of techniques for the initial assessment; (3) plan an initial assessment system that is…

  14. Student Culture and Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giron, Tilia

    2012-01-01

    Constructivism maintains that instruction is more meaningful when it is relevant, social and interactive. Formative assessment has been empirically demonstrated as being an effective form of instruction and assessment for learners (Black & Wiliam, 1998a, 1998b). Since assessment orients instruction and learning, combining student culture with…

  15. A European survey on current practices in epilepsy monitoring units and implications for patients' safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubboli, Guido; Beniczky, Sandor; Claus, Steven; Canevini, Maria Paola; Kahane, Philippe; Stefan, Hermann; van Emde Boas, Walter; Velis, Demetrios; Reus, Elise; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Trinka, Eugen; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to survey current practices in European epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs) with emphasis on safety issues. A 37-item questionnaire investigating characteristics and organization of EMUs, including measures for prevention and management of seizure-related serious adverse events (SAEs), was distributed to all identified European EMUs plus one located in Israel (N=150). Forty-eight (32%) EMUs, located in 18 countries, completed the questionnaire. Epilepsy monitoring unit beds are 1-2 in 43%, 3-4 in 34%, and 5-6 in 19% of EMUs; staff physicians are 1-2 in 32%, 3-4 in 34%, and 5-6 in 19% of EMUs. Personnel operating in EMUs include epileptologists (in 69% of EMUs), clinical neurophysiologists trained in epilepsy (in 46% of EMUs), child neurologists (in 35% of EMUs), neurology and clinical neurophysiology residents (in 46% and in 8% of EMUs, respectively), and neurologists not trained in epilepsy (in 27% of EMUs). In 20% of EMUs, patients' observation is only intermittent or during the daytime and primarily carried out by neurophysiology technicians and/or nurses (in 71% of EMUs) or by patients' relatives (in 40% of EMUs). Automatic detection systems for seizures are used in 15%, for body movements in 8%, for oxygen desaturation in 33%, and for ECG abnormalities in 17% of EMUs. Protocols for management of acute seizures are lacking in 27%, of status epilepticus in 21%, and of postictal psychoses in 87% of EMUs. Injury prevention consists of bed protections in 96% of EMUs, whereas antisuffocation pillows are employed in 21%, and environmental protections in monitoring rooms and in bathrooms are implemented in 38% and in 25% of EMUs, respectively. The most common SAEs were status epilepticus reported by 79%, injuries by 73%, and postictal psychoses by 67% of EMUs. All EMUs have faced different types of SAEs. Wide variation in practice patterns and lack of protocols and of precautions to ensure patients' safety might promote the occurrence and severity of

  16. The European general practice research network presents the translations of its comprehensive definition of multimorbidity in family medicine in ten European languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Reste, Jean Yves; Nabbe, Patrice; Rivet, Charles; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Doerr, Christa; Czachowski, Slawomir; Lingner, Heidrun; Argyriadou, Stella; Lazic, Djurdjica; Assenova, Radost; Hasaganic, Melida; Munoz, Miquel Angel; Thulesius, Hans; Le Floch, Bernard; Derriennic, Jeremy; Sowinska, Agnieska; Van Marwijk, Harm; Lietard, Claire; Van Royen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Multimorbidity, according to the World Health Organization, exists when there are two or more chronic conditions in one patient. This definition seems inaccurate for the holistic approach to Family Medicine (FM) and long-term care. To avoid this pitfall the European General Practitioners Research Network (EGPRN) designed a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity using a systematic literature review. To translate that English definition into European languages and to validate the semantic, conceptual and cultural homogeneity of the translations for further research. Forward translation of the EGPRN's definition of multimorbidity followed by a Delphi consensus procedure assessment, a backward translation and a cultural check with all teams to ensure the homogeneity of the translations in their national context. Consensus was defined as 70% of the scores being higher than 6. Delphi rounds were repeated in each country until a consensus was reached. 229 European medical expert FPs participated in the study. Ten consensual translations of the EGPRN comprehensive definition of multimorbidity were achieved. A comprehensive definition of multimorbidity is now available in English and ten European languages for further collaborative research in FM and long-term care.

  17. The European General Practice Research Network Presents the Translations of Its Comprehensive Definition of Multimorbidity in Family Medicine in Ten European Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Reste, Jean Yves; Nabbe, Patrice; Rivet, Charles; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Doerr, Christa; Czachowski, Slawomir; Lingner, Heidrun; Argyriadou, Stella; Lazic, Djurdjica; Assenova, Radost; Hasaganic, Melida; Munoz, Miquel Angel; Thulesius, Hans; Le Floch, Bernard; Derriennic, Jeremy; Sowinska, Agnieska; Van Marwijk, Harm; Lietard, Claire; Van Royen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity, according to the World Health Organization, exists when there are two or more chronic conditions in one patient. This definition seems inaccurate for the holistic approach to Family Medicine (FM) and long-term care. To avoid this pitfall the European General Practitioners Research Network (EGPRN) designed a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity using a systematic literature review. Objective To translate that English definition into European languages and to validate the semantic, conceptual and cultural homogeneity of the translations for further research. Method Forward translation of the EGPRN’s definition of multimorbidity followed by a Delphi consensus procedure assessment, a backward translation and a cultural check with all teams to ensure the homogeneity of the translations in their national context. Consensus was defined as 70% of the scores being higher than 6. Delphi rounds were repeated in each country until a consensus was reached Results 229 European medical expert FPs participated in the study. Ten consensual translations of the EGPRN comprehensive definition of multimorbidity were achieved. Conclusion A comprehensive definition of multimorbidity is now available in English and ten European languages for further collaborative research in FM and long-term care. PMID:25607642

  18. Cognitive Assessment Practices: A Survey of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Dixon, Shauna G.

    2014-01-01

    The present article describes an exploratory study regarding the preferred cognitive assessment practices of current school psychologists. Three hundred and twenty-three school psychologists participated in the survey. The results suggest that the majority of school psychologists endorsed that they base their assessment practices on an underlying…

  19. A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION’S CIVIL SOCIETY DISCOURSE AND SOCIAL PLATFORM OF EUROPEAN NGOs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KUTAY, RIZA ACAR

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation engages in a critical analysis of the involvement of the Brussels- based European NGOs in European governance. It conducts a survey on the European Commission’s relevant initiatives after the 1990s and interrogates the implications of these initiatives on one of the prominent...... European NGO network, the Social Platform of European NGOs. The common understanding conceives of these organizations as conducive to democratization of EU governance within the scope of participatory democracy. However, I endeavour to argue that the Commission has had an aim to make use of the civil...... in Europe. With respect to this goal, it has encouraged the Social Platform to act like its interlocutor vis-à-vis the NGO community organised both at national and European level. Deriving from the Foucaultian concept of governmentality, I inquiry into the effects of this discourse on the Social Platform...

  20. Implications of teacher educators' practices in assessment for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents findings on teacher educators' practices in assessment and their implications for student learning in Tanzania. Research on classroom assessment has been dichotomizing assessment and teaching-learning processes instead of viewing assessment as an integral part of the teachinglearning process.

  1. Assessment Quality and Practices in Secondary PE in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghouts, Lars B.; Slingerland, Menno; Haerens, Leen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Assessment can have various functions, and is an important impetus for student learning. For assessment to be effective, it should be aligned with curriculum goals and of sufficient quality. Although it has been suggested that assessment quality in physical education (PE) is suboptimal, research into actual assessment practices has…

  2. [Spanish adaptation of the 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo-Bordonada, M Á; Armario, P; Lobos Bejarano, J M; Pedro-Botet, J; Villar Alvarez, F; Elosua, R; Brotons Cuixart, C; Cortés, O; Serrano, B; Cammafort Babkowski, M; Gil Núñez, A; Pérez, A; Maiques, A; de Santiago Nocito, A; Castro, A; Alegría, E; Baeza, C; Herranz, M; Sans, S; Campos, P

    The VI European Guidelines for Cardiovascular Prevention recommend combining population and high-risk strategies with lifestyle changes as a cornerstone of prevention, and propose the SCORE function to quantify cardiovascular risk. The guidelines highlight disease specific interventions, and conditions as women, young people and ethnic minorities. Screening for subclinical atherosclerosis with noninvasive imaging techniques is not recommended. The guidelines distinguish four risk levels (very high, high, moderate and low) with therapeutic objectives for lipid control according to risk. Diabetes mellitus confers a high risk, except for subjects with type 2 diabetes with less than arterial hypertension will depend on the blood pressure level and the cardiovascular risk, taking into account the lesion of target organs. The guidelines don't recommend antiplatelet drugs in primary prevention because of the increased bleeding risk. The low adherence to the medication requires simplified therapeutic regimes and to identify and combat its causes. The guidelines highlight the responsibility of health professionals to take an active role in advocating evidence-based interventions at the population level, and propose effective interventions, at individual and population level, to promote a healthy diet, the practice of physical activity, the cessation of smoking and the protection against alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  3. The application of quality guidelines of the European Society of Endodontology in dental practice in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowik, Joanna; Jurczak, Anna; Zarow, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the application of endodontic quality guidelines of the European Society of Endodontology by Polish dentists: endodontists, other specialists, and dental general practitioners (DGPs). A survey was done in 2008 among 544 dentists who attended hands-on sessions and lectures. The following data were collected: gender, professional experience, type of practice, specialization, and number of root fillings per week. Questions concerned the use of the rubber dam, electronic apex locator, radiographs, magnification by loupes or microscopes, nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary system, warm gutta-percha, and treatment completed during no more than 2 visits. 3 response options were available: often, occasionally, never. In the group we had 36.6% endodontists, 11.2% other specialists, and 52.2% DGPs. 95.9% of endodontists, 98.4% of other specialists, and 30.9% of DGPs (p magnification, and NiTi rotary instruments was similar in the groups (p = NS). Dental general practitioners applied an electronic apex locator and completed the treatment during no more than 2 visits more often than endodontists and other specialists (p endodontic quality guidelines is not widespread among Polish dentists. Dentists who graduated more recently (DGPs) follow the guidelines more closely.

  4. Spanish adaptation of the 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo-Bordonada, M Á; Armario, P; Lobos Bejarano, J M; Pedro-Botet, J; Villar Alvarez, F; Elosua, R; Brotons Cuixart, C; Cortés, O; Serrano, B; Camafort Babkowski, M; Gil Núñez, A; Pérez, A; Maiques, A; de Santiago Nocito, A; Castro, A; Alegría, E; Baeza, C; Herranz, M; Sans, S; Campos, P

    The VI European Guidelines for Cardiovascular Prevention recommend combining population and high-risk strategies with lifestyle changes as a cornerstone of prevention, and propose the SCORE function to quantify cardiovascular risk. The guidelines highlight disease specific interventions, and conditions as women, young people and ethnic minorities. Screening for subclinical atherosclerosis with noninvasive imaging techniques is not recommended. The guidelines distinguish four risk levels (very high, high, moderate and low) with therapeutic objectives for lipid control according to risk. Diabetes mellitus confers a high risk, except for subjects with type 2 diabetes with less than <10 years of evolution, without other risk factors or complications, or type 1 diabetes of short evolution without complications. The decision to start pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension will depend on the blood pressure level and the cardiovascular risk, taking into account the lesion of target organs. The guidelines don't recommend antiplatelet drugs in primary prevention because of the increased bleeding risk. The low adherence to the medication requires simplified therapeutic regimes and to identify and combat its causes. The guidelines highlight the responsibility of health professionals to take an active role in advocating evidence-based interventions at the population level, and propose effective interventions, at individual and population level, to promote a healthy diet, the practice of physical activity, the cessation of smoking and the protection against alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  5. [Spanish adaptation of the 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Armario, Pedro; Lobos Bejarano, José María; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; Elosua, Roberto; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Cortés, Olga; Serrano, Benilde; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Gil Núñez, Antonio; Pérez, Antonio; Maiques, Antonio; de Santiago Nocito, Ana; de Castro, Almudena; Alegría, Eduardo; Baeza, Ciro; Herranz, María; Sans, Susana; Campos, Pilar

    The VI European Guidelines for Cardiovascular Prevention recommend combining population and high-risk strategies with lifestyle changes as a cornerstone of prevention, and propose the SCORE function to quantify cardiovascular risk. The guidelines highlight disease specific interventions, and conditions as women, young people and ethnic minorities. Screening for subclinical atherosclerosis with noninvasive imaging techniques is not recommended. The guidelines distinguish four risk levels (very high, high, moderate and low) with therapeutic objectives for lipid control according to risk. Diabetes mellitus confers a high risk, except for subjects with type 2 diabetes with less than <10 years of evolution, without other risk factors or complications, or type 1 diabetes of short evolution without complications. The decision to start pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension will depend on the blood pressure level and the cardiovascular risk, taking into account the lesion of target organs. The guidelines don't recommend antiplatelet drugs in primary prevention because of the increased bleeding risk. The low adherence to the medication requires simplified therapeutic regimes and to identify and combat its causes. The guidelines highlight the responsibility of health professionals to take an active role in advocating evidence-based interventions at the population level, and propose effective interventions, at individual and population level, to promote a healthy diet, the practice of physical activity, the cessation of smoking and the protection against alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  6. Research practices and assessment of research misconduct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartgerink, C.H.J.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the responsible conduct of research, questionable research practices, and research misconduct. Responsible conduct of research is often defined in terms of a set of abstract, normative principles, professional standards, and ethics in doing research. In order to accommodate

  7. Assessing Graduate Teaching Assistants' Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jennifer; Powell, Darcey N.; Rouamba, Nathalie H.

    2016-01-01

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) play a crucial role in North American colleges. At a mid-Atlantic, land grant institution, GTAs instruct 34,000 undergraduates per semester. Given this scope, GTAs exert a powerful influence on undergraduate learning, yet little is known about their teaching beliefs in relation to their classroom practices. This…

  8. ASSESSMENT OF FOOD SAFETY PRACTICES AMONG CASSAVA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philips Olusola

    processing from four Local Government Areas where there is concentration of cassava production and processing activities in the ... Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) News line on the 16th. September, 2012 reported of a family of five ..... oppose food safety practices and regulations [16]. Efforts geared towards training, re-.

  9. A PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Ponce Gutiérrez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychological Capital has to do with individual psychological resources available to people in an organization which are useful for dealing with adversity. In this work, a practice with an intervention program to develop psychological capital is evaluated. The effect of practice in a sample of students in a Venezuelan public university (N = 15 were studied. Research and theory support the relationship of Psychological Capital components of hope, self-efficacy, optimism and resilience, with positive results in organizations both individually and organizational scope. Hence exploring the feature of malleability in CapPsi and therefore its developed capability it is interesting. There have been proven intervention models to develop CapPsi showing positive results. Practice to develop CapPsi (PCP shown in this paper is based on these initial models. Through an experimental design with pre- and post-test the effects of PCP on CapPsi levels is evaluated. Preliminary results support the hypothesis that through a concentrated training with a short practice, you can develop and improve levels of CapPsi.

  10. Feedback from the European Bioanalysis Forum: focus workshop on current analysis of immunogenicity: best practices and regulatory hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joanne; Cowen, Simon; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Egging, David; Emrich, Thomas; Golob, Michaela; Kramer, Daniel; McNally, Jim; Munday, James; Nelson, Robert; Pedras-Vasconcelos, João A; Piironen, Timo; Sickert, Denise; Skibeli, Venke; Fjording, Marianne Scheel; Timmerman, Philip

    2018-02-01

    European Bioanalysis Forum Workshop, Lisbon, Portugal, September 2016: At the recent European Bioanalysis Forum Focus Workshop, 'current analysis of immunogenicity: best practices and regulatory hurdles', several important challenges facing the bioanalytical community in relation to immunogenicity assays were discussed through a mixture of presentations and panel sessions. The main areas of focus were the evolving regulatory landscape, challenges of assay interferences from either drug or target, cut-point setting and whether alternative assays can be used to replace neutralizing antibody assays. This workshop report captures discussions and potential solutions and/or recommendations made by the speakers and delegates.

  11. Assessment Gone Wild: Practice What You Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of learning has become very important for government, universities and accrediting agencies. In this article, two variables are examined, leadership and teamwork, in the context of a survey used by one mid-south university for assessment purposes. This survey demonstrates the problems that arise when the sequential steps of the research…

  12. Teachers' Views of Their Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atjonen, Päivi

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this research was to analyse teachers' views of pupil assessment. The theoretical framework was based on existing literature on advances and challenges of pupil assessment in regard to support for learning, fairness, educational partnership, feedback, and favourable methods. The data were gathered by means of a questionnaire…

  13. Best practice guidelines in the psychosocial management of HPV-related head and neck cancer: recommendations from the European Head and Neck Cancer Society's Make Sense Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M; Licitra, L; Vermorken, J B; Bernier, J; Parmar, S; Golusinski, W; Castellsagué, X; Leemans, C R

    2016-10-01

    Over the past three decades, oral human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with an increase in the incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in several countries. Specialist oncologists in head and neck cancer are observing a wider range of demographics, sexual behaviours, and survival outcomes with their patients. Additionally, there are fewer smokers, consumers of alcohol, or people of lower socioeconomic status than in previous decades. In order to support patients, the European Head and Neck Society's Make Sense Campaign aims to promote best practice in the management of head and neck cancer through the delivery of counselling, psychological assessment, support with the patient experience following HPV-related cancer diagnosis, sexual impact (in terms of communication, behaviour and prevention), facilitating access to educational resources about HPV in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and OPSCC, and early referral if necessary. New concerns about psychosocial distress and unmet psychosocial needs following diagnosis, therefore, exist throughout the disease and treatment periods. Oncologists treating patients with HPV-related head and neck cancer must integrate new parameters focused on infection risk transmission and sexual topics. The development and dissemination of best practice guidelines through The European Head and Neck Cancer Society Make Sense Campaign will help healthcare professionals to be more confident and resourceful in supporting patients with HPV-related head and neck cancer. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Assessment of continuous pain in newborns admitted to NICUs in 18 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Eriksson, Mats; Boyle, Elaine M; Avila-Alvarez, Alejandro; Andersen, Randi Dovland; Sarafidis, Kosmas; Polkki, Tarja; Matos, Cristina; Lago, Paola; Papadouri, Thalia; Attard-Montalto, Simon; Ilmoja, Mari-Liis; Simons, Sinno; Tameliene, Rasa; van Overmeire, Bart; Berger, Angelika; Dobrzanska, Anna; Schroth, Michael; Bergqvist, Lena; Courtois, Emilie; Rousseau, Jessica; Carbajal, Ricardo

    2017-08-01

    Continuous pain occurs routinely, even after invasive procedures, or inflammation and surgery, but clinical practices associated with assessments of continuous pain remain unknown. A prospective cohort study in 243 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) from 18 European countries recorded the frequency of pain assessments, use of mechanical ventilation, sedation, analgesia or neuromuscular blockade for each neonate for up to 28 days after NICU admission. Only 2113 of 6648 (31.8%) of neonates received assessments of continuous pain, occurring variably among tracheal ventilation (TrV, 46.0%), noninvasive ventilation (NiV, 35.0%) and no ventilation (NoV, 20.1%) groups (p neonates (TrV: 14.0%, NiV: 10.7%, NoV: 7.6%; p sedatives-hypnotics, general anaesthetics (O-SH-GA) (all p neonates. NICU clinical practices should consider including routine assessments of continuous pain in newborns. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Towards a sampling strategy for the assessment of forest condition at European level: combining country estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglini, Davide; Fattorini, Lorenzo; Barbati, Anna; Bottalico, Francesca; Corona, Piermaria; Ferretti, Marco; Chirici, Gherardo

    2013-04-01

    A correct characterization of the status and trend of forest condition is essential to support reporting processes at national and international level. An international forest condition monitoring has been implemented in Europe since 1987 under the auspices of the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests). The monitoring is based on harmonized methodologies, with individual countries being responsible for its implementation. Due to inconsistencies and problems in sampling design, however, the ICP Forests network is not able to produce reliable quantitative estimates of forest condition at European and sometimes at country level. This paper proposes (1) a set of requirements for status and change assessment and (2) a harmonized sampling strategy able to provide unbiased and consistent estimators of forest condition parameters and of their changes at both country and European level. Under the assumption that a common definition of forest holds among European countries, monitoring objectives, parameters of concern and accuracy indexes are stated. On the basis of fixed-area plot sampling performed independently in each country, an unbiased and consistent estimator of forest defoliation indexes is obtained at both country and European level, together with conservative estimators of their sampling variance and power in the detection of changes. The strategy adopts a probabilistic sampling scheme based on fixed-area plots selected by means of systematic or stratified schemes. Operative guidelines for its application are provided.

  16. Trade sustainability impact assessment - transformation and modelling: roles of the European Union and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Neimane

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper as a theoretical perspective based on a literature study addresses trade sustainability impact assessments. They are defined and designed to enhance free trade agreements and conducted either by regional organizations or individual states. The paper includes sections on the historical background of the different generations of the impact assessments (sustainability impact assessment, human rights impact assessment used in the context of international trade, its impact on human rights and relation to environmental refugees, as well as, the influence of the European Union and Switzerland as the international players in shaping these assessments. The conclusion reached in this paper is that although diverse assessment tools are available, there is a need to encourage their greater adoption and use, based upon a holistic approach. The paper highlights the need for the use of theoretical models of trade sustainability impact assessment

  17. Assessment of goods and services, vulnerability, and conservation status of European seabed biotopes: a stepping stone towards ecosystem-based marine spatial management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SALOMIDI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of ecosystem-based marine spatial management is to maintain marine ecosystems in a healthy, productive and resilient condition; hence, they can sustainably provide the needed goods and services for human welfare. However, the increasing pressures upon the marine realm threaten marine ecosystems, especially seabed biotopes, and thus a well-planned approach of managing use of marine space is essential to achieve sustainability. The relative value of seabed biotopes, evaluated on the basis of goods and services, is an important starting point for the spatial management of marine areas. Herein, 56 types of European seabed biotopes and their related goods, services, sensitivity issues, and conservation status were compiled, the latter referring to management and protection tools which currently apply for these biotopes at European or international level. Fishing activities, especially by benthic trawls, and marine pollution are the main threats to European seabed biotopes. Increased seawater turbidity, dredged sediment disposal, coastal constructions, biological invasions, mining, extraction of raw materials, shipping-related activities, tourism, hydrocarbon exploration, and even some practices of scientific research, also exert substantial pressure. Although some first steps have been taken to protect the European sea beds through international agreements and European and national legislation, a finer scale of classification and assessment of marine biotopes is considered crucial in shaping sound priorities and management guidelines towards the effective conservation and sustainability of European marine resources.

  18. European American and African American Mothers' Emotion Socialization Practices Relate Differently to their Children's Academic and Social-Emotional Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; Leerkes, Esther M; Perry, Nicole B; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-08-01

    The current study examines whether the relation between mothers' responses to their children's negative emotions and teachers' reports of children's academic performance and social-emotional competence are similar or different for European American and African American families. Two hundred mothers (137 European American, 63 African American) reported on their responses to their 5-year-old children's negative emotions and 150 kindergarten teachers reported on these children's current academic standing and skillfulness with peers. Problem-focused responses to children's negative emotions, which have traditionally been considered a supportive response, were positively associated with children's school competence for European American children, but expressive encouragement, another response considered supportive, was negatively associated with children's competence for African American children. The findings highlight the need to examine parental socialization practices from a culturally-specific lens.

  19. European EADV network on assessment of severity and burden of Pruritus (PruNet): first meeting on outcome tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ständer, S; Zeidler, C; Riepe, C; Steinke, S; Fritz, F; Bruland, P; Soto-Rey, I; Storck, M; Agner, T; Augustin, M; Blome, C; Dalgard, F; Evers, A W M; Garcovich, S; Gonçalo, M; Lambert, J; Legat, F J; Leslie, T; Misery, L; Raap, U; Reich, A; Şavk, E; Streit, M; Serra-Baldrich, E; Szepietowski, J; Wallengren, J; Weisshaar, E; Dugas, M

    2016-07-01

    Chronic pruritus is a frequently occurring symptom of various dermatoses that causes a high burden and impaired quality of life. An effective anti pruritic therapy is important for the patient, but its effectiveness is difficult to evaluate. Diverse methods and interpretations of pruritic metrics are utilized in clinical trials and the daily clinical practice in different countries, resulting in difficulties comparing collected data. We founded a European Network on Assessment of Severity and Burden of Pruritus (PruNet) that is supported by the EADV. PruNet consists of 28 experts from 15 EU countries (21 dermatologists, 5 medical informaticists, 2 psychologists) and aims to unify the assessment of itch in routine dermatological care. Following a preliminary survey, a consensus conference was held in order to agree upon the prioritization of patient-reported outcome tools. Through utilizing the Delphi method, it was agreed that tools for measuring itch intensity (ex. the visual analogue scale) and quality of life (ex. ItchyQoL) are of primary importance and should urgently be foremost validated. The validation and harmonization of standards are needed for the improvement of quality care for patients suffering from pruritic dermatoses. This summer, the first validation studies in several EADV member countries already began. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. Practical Application of Functional Behavioral Assessment in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoster, Timothy P.

    2000-01-01

    This article highlights the necessary components of a functional behavioral assessment, a decision making framework concerning the selection of assessment and intervention procedures to be used at school, and a description of one practical functional behavioral assessment tool, the Initial Line of Inquiry, that has been employed by school-based…

  1. Assessment, Student Learning and Classroom Practice: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amua-Sekyi, Ekua Tekyiwa

    2016-01-01

    Assessment in its various forms has always been a central part of educational practice. Evidence gleaned from the empirical literature suggests that assessment, especially high stakes external assessment has effect on how teachers teach and consequently, how students learn. Through focus group discussions, this paper draws upon the experiences of…

  2. Supporting Classroom Assessment Practice: Lessons from a Small High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David; Ort, Suzanna Wichterle; Schmidt, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Assessment, particularly formative assessment, is critical to knowing how a student is performing academically and how best to support that student. Teachers, especially new teachers, need ongoing support in developing and using both summative and formative assessments as an integral part of their instructional practice. Written collaboratively by…

  3. Occurrence of cyclic imines in European commercial seafood and consumers risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Miles, Christopher O.; de la Iglesia, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    ) have not been linked yet to human poisoning and are not regulated in the European Union (EU), although the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requires more data to perform conclusive risk assessment for consumers. Several commercial samples of bivalves including raw and processed samples from eight......-desmethylspirolide C (SPX-1) were found at low concentrations (0.1–12 µg/kg PnTX-G and 26–66 µg/kg SPX-1), while gymnodimines and pteriatoxins were not detected in commercial (raw and processed) samples. In summary, SPX-1 (n: 47) and PnTX-G (n: 96) were detected in 9.4% and 4.2% of the samples, respectively...... indicate that it is unlikely that a potential health risk exists through the seafood diet for CIs in the EU. However, further information about CIs is necessary in order to perform a conclusive risk assessment....

  4. Issues related to adapting assessment practices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    mathematics education with reference to Vygotsky's theory of social cognition. Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 15:65-86. Workshop A Project 5. 1999. Assessment in OBE. Catholic University of Leuven,. University of the Free State, Vista University.Bloemfontein. 9 June 1999. Workshop B Project 6 2000.

  5. Prior learning assessment and quality assurance practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Prior Learning) in higher education to assess RPL candidates for admission into programmes of study met with a lot of criticism from faculty academics. Lecturers viewed the possibility of admitting large numbers of under-qualified adult learners, as a threat to the institution's reputation, or an erosion of academic standards.

  6. Enhancing teaching and assessment practices in affective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to find the extent to which social studies tutors in the teacher training colleges (TTC) of Ghana teach in the affective domain and assess the affective objectives of teaching. A sample of thirty-five (35) social studies tutors, purposively selected from twenty-six TTC in all the ten (10) regions of ...

  7. A socio-economic impact assessment of the European launcher sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Luca del; Scatteia, Luigi

    2017-08-01

    In a context where the economic strains are challenging European policies as well as the very fabric of governmental contributions to public life, innovation and efficacy of public policy in research are called upon to support growth in Europe and to sustain employment and entrepreneurial capacities. Governments need evidence that the investments in space, while providing strategic tools to implement sovereign policies, create jobs and build the competitive European economy of the future. This is particularly true when the decisions at stake have a potential bearing on the future of the European space sector for at least the next 30 years, as it has been the case for the ESA Council at ministerial level meeting in December 2014. On that occasion, Ministers took the decision to start the development of a new Ariane 6 launcher and Vega evolutions having a critical bearing on the Member States' strategic industrial capabilities and on the sustainability of the European guaranteed access to space. Given the importance of the subject, and following similar studies undertaken in the past for e.g. the Ariane 1-4 programme, the Agency has requested an independent consulting team to perform a dedicated study to assess ex-post the direct, indirect and induced socio-economic impacts of the Ariane 5 programme (mid-term evaluation) and of the Vega programme (early evaluation) globally, at European level, and within the economies and industries of each ESA Member State. This paper presents the assessment of the socio-economic impacts allowing the evaluation of the return on public investments in launchers through ESA in a wider perspective, going beyond the purely economic terms. The scope of the assessment covered in total approximately 25 ESA programmatic and activity lines and 30,000 commitments from 1986 to end 2012. In the framework of the study, the economic impact of the European launcher programmes is measured through a GDP impact defined as the straight economic

  8. Marine and coastal ecosystem services on the science–policy–practice nexus: challenges and opportunities from 11 European case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drakou, Evangelia G.; Kermagoret, Charlène; Liquete, Camino

    2018-01-01

    We compared and contrasted 11 European case studies to identify challenges and opportunities toward the operationalization of marine and coastal ecosystem service (MCES) assessments in Europe. This work is the output of a panel convened by the Marine Working Group of the Ecosystem Services Partne...

  9. Good practice in health care for migrants: views and experiences of care professionals in 16 European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Sandhu, S.; Dias, S.; Gaddini, A.; Greacen, T.; Ioannidis, E.; Kluge, U.; Krasnik, A.; Lamkaddem, M.; Lorant, V.; Puigpinósi Riera, R.; Sarvary, A.; Soares, J.J.F.; Stankunas, M.; Straßmayr, C.; Wahlbeck, K.; Welbel, M.; Bogic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Health services across Europe provide health care for migrant patients every day. However, little systematic research has explored the views and experiences of health care professionals in different European countries. The aim of this study was to assess the difficulties professionals

  10. Assessment of forest fire impacts and emissions in the European Union based on the European forest fire information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo Barbosa; Andrea Camia; Jan Kucera; Giorgio Libertá; Ilaria Palumbo; Jesus San-Miguel-Ayanz; Guido Schmuck

    2009-01-01

    An analysis on the number of forest fires and burned area distribution as retrieved by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) database is presented. On average, from 2000 to 2005 about...

  11. IncobotulinumtoxinA use in aesthetic indications in daily practice: a European multicenter, noninterventional, retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavicic T

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tatjana Pavicic,1 Welf Prager,2 Markus Klöppel,3 Simon Ravichandran,4 Olivier Galatoire5 1Private Practice, Munich, Germany; 2Dr. Prager & Partner, Derma-Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; 3Private Practice Clinic of Esthetic Surgery, MediCenter Munich-Solln, Munich, Germany; 4Clinetix Rejuvenation, Glasgow, Scotland, UK; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Adolphe Rothschild Ophthalmological Foundation, Paris, France Purpose: To characterize utilization patterns and treatment satisfaction with incobotulinumtoxinA for aesthetic indications and assess adherence to the Summary of Product Characteristics. Patients and methods: Data were collected retrospectively from physicians in Germany, France, and the UK regarding patients (n=638 treated with incobotulinumtoxinA for aesthetic indications. Data on indication, treatment interval, dose injected, physician and patient satisfaction, and adverse drug reactions were recorded according to routine daily practice. Results: Most patients (76.0% received incobotulinumtoxinA for glabellar frown lines (GFL and were given doses of ≤20 U. The majority of treatment intervals were 5 months or longer. Overall, 64.1% of patients were treated for off-label indications, sometimes in combination with treatment for GFL. The most frequently treated off-label indications were horizontal forehead lines (38.6% and/or crow's feet (CF; 31.7%; for CF, >95% of injected doses were ≤24 U. In Germany, a smaller proportion of patients were given incobotulinumtoxinA treatment for CF (27.6%, compared with France (40.4% and the UK (33.2%, although country-specific differences were less prominent when treatment cycle data for CF were examined. Treatment satisfaction among physicians and patients (overall, and for GFL specifically was very high, with excellent tolerability and only one mild adverse drug reaction reported. Conclusion: In daily practice, incobotulinumtoxinA is mainly used for GFL; however, its use for CF and horizontal forehead

  12. Obsolescence Risk Assessment Process Best Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Rojo, Francisco Javier; Roy, Rajkumar; Kelly, S.

    2013-01-01

    A component becomes obsolete when it is no longer available from the original manufacturer to the original specification. In long-lifecycle projects, obsolescence has become a major problem as it prevents the maintenance of the system. This is the reason why obsolescence management is now an essential part of the product support activities in sectors such as defence, aerospace, nuclear and railway; where systems need to be supported for several decades. The obsolescence risk assessment for th...

  13. CERTAIN ASSESSMENTS RELATED TO THE IMPORTANCE OF EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE EUROPEAN LAW SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca, GHERGHINA; Ana-Maria, GHERGHINA

    2013-01-01

    Being so intensely debated in the contemporary world, the human rights issues is acquiring a well defined contour through the human rights protection systems. The role of these systems is to establish a series of fundamental rights and freedoms, so that they can no longer be violated. The main systems of promotion and protection of human rights are: the Inter-American system of human rights protection, the African system and the European system. Two years before the European Convention on Hum...

  14. Do gender-dyads have different communication patterns?: a comparative study in Western-European general practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Dulmen, S. van; Messerli-Rohrbach, V.; Bensing, J.

    2002-01-01

    From the viewpoint of quality of care, doctor-patient communication has become more and more important. Gender is an important factor in communication. Besides, cultural norms and values are likely to influence doctor-patient communication as well. This study examined (1) whether or not communication patterns of gender-dyads in general practice consultations differ across and between Western-European countries, and (2) if so, whether these differences continue to exist when controlling for pa...

  15. Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practices related to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practices related to the treatment and prevention of lymphatic filariasis among the adult residents of Bokkos local government area of Plateau state, Nigeria.

  16. Frenchay dysarthria assessment (FDA-2) in Parkinson's disease: cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the European Portuguese version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rita; Guimarães, Isabel; Santos, Helena; Loureiro, Rita; Domingos, Josefa; de Abreu, Daisy; Gonçalves, Nilza; Pinto, Serge; Ferreira, Joaquim

    2017-01-01

    Hypokinetic dysarthria is a common symptom in those with Parkinson's disease (PD); there is currently no standardized or validated tool for assessing speech in this population. To translate into European Portuguese (EP) the FDA-2 and perform a cultural adaptation followed by an evaluation of its psychometric properties in PD in a sample of people with PD in different stages of disease progression. Translation, back-translation, experts' analysis, pre-test and final version test were performed. The EP version of the FDA-2 was administered to 80 people with PD (PwP) with dysarthria, feasibility and acceptability, reliability (internal consistency and inter-rater reliability) and validity (face and convergent) were measured. Overall, the EP-FDA-2 proved to be similar to the original demonstrating the same conceptual meanings, semantics, idiomatic and score equivalences. It has good feasibility (missing data dysarthria in PD in clinical practice as in the research field.

  17. Conscientious objection to sexual and reproductive health services: international human rights standards and European law and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampas, Christina; Andión-Ibañez, Ximena

    2012-06-01

    The practice of conscientious objection often arises in the area of individuals refusing to fulfil compulsory military service requirements and is based on the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion as protected by national, international and regional human rights law. The practice of conscientious objection also arises in the field of health care, when individual health care providers or institutions refuse to provide certain health services based on religious, moral or philosophical objections. The use of conscientious objection by health care providers to reproductive health care services, including abortion, contraceptive prescriptions, and prenatal tests, among other services is a growing phenomena throughout Europe. However, despite recent progress from the European Court of Human Rights on this issue (RR v. Poland, 2011), countries and international and regional bodies generally have failed to comprehensively and effectively regulate this practice, denying many women reproductive health care services they are legally entitled to receive. The Italian Ministry of Health reported that in 2008 nearly 70% of gynaecologists in Italy refuse to perform abortions on moral grounds. It found that between 2003 and 2007 the number of gynaecologists invoking conscientious objection in their refusal to perform an abortion rose from 58.7 percent to 69.2 percent. Italy is not alone in Europe, for example, the practice is prevalent in Poland, Slovakia, and is growing in the United Kingdom. This article outlines the international and regional human rights obligations and medical standards on this issue, and highlights some of the main gaps in these standards. It illustrates how European countries regulate or fail to regulate conscientious objection and how these regulations are working in practice, including examples of jurisprudence from national level courts and cases before the European Court of Human Rights. Finally, the article will provide recommendations

  18. Bilingual Language Assessment: Contemporary versus Recommended Practice in American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Graciela; Friberg, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify current practices of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the United States for bilingual language assessment and compare them to American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) best practice guidelines and mandates of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA,…

  19. Towards best practice in the actuarial assessment of claims for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper begins to record best practice in the actuarial assessment of claims for maintenance against deceased estates in South Africa. Although this is a small field of actuarial practice, it is in the public interest that generally accepted standards be agreed upon. The paper applies an actuarial quality framework to identify ...

  20. An assessment of radiation protection practices in radiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiation protection practices are essential in ensuring that the detrimental effects of exposure to ionising radiation are minimised. Equipment quality assurance, personnel training and staff dose monitoring have been highlighted as important practices in medical radiation protection. The study was aimed at assessing ...

  1. Fair and Equitable Assessment Practices for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shelleyann; Webber, Charles F.; Lupart, Judy L.; Aitken, Nola; Scott, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on promoting fairness and equity in student assessment practices. The researchers used questionnaires and interviews and the study encompassed a total of 3312 individuals representing a range of stakeholders. The paper is presented in two parts: fairness and discrimination, and challenging policy and practice. Five key…

  2. An Exploratory Assessment of Quality Assurance Practices in Higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality Assurance Practices of Public Higher Institutions of Learning in Ghana has been assessed with the aim of classifying the level of the practice as Excellent, High, Above Average, Ordinary or Poor. A conceptual framework that combined both quantitative and qualitative techniques in a heuristic approach was adopted.

  3. Investigating the Dynamics of Formative Assessment: Relationships between Teacher Knowledge, Assessment Practice and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Joan; Osmundson, Ellen; Dai, Yunyun; Ringstaff, Cathy; Timms, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study of elementary school science examines questions central to policy, practice and research on formative assessment: What is the quality of teachers' content-pedagogical and assessment knowledge? What is the relationship between teacher knowledge and assessment practice? What is the relationship between teacher knowledge,…

  4. Beliefs, Practices, and Reflection: Exploring a Science Teacher's Classroom Assessment through the Assessment Triangle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Edward G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Assessment Practices Framework and how I used it to study a high school Chemistry teacher as she designed, implemented, and learned from a chemistry lab report. The framework consists of exploring three teacher-centered components of classroom assessment (assessment beliefs, practices, and reflection) and analyzing…

  5. Irrational prescribing of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines in general practice: testing the feasibility of an educational intervention among physicians in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionis, Christos; Petelos, Elena; Shea, Sue; Bagiartaki, Georgia; Tsiligianni, Ioanna G; Kamekis, Apostolos; Tsiantou, Vasiliki; Papadakaki, Maria; Tatsioni, Athina; Moschandreas, Joanna; Saridaki, Aristoula; Bertsias, Antonios; Faresjö, Tomas; Faresjö, Ashild; Martinez, Luc; Agius, Dominic; Uncu, Yesim; Samoutis, George; Vlcek, Jiri; Abasaeed, Abobakr; Merkouris, Bodossakis

    2014-02-17

    Irrational prescribing of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines in general practice is common in Southern Europe. Recent findings from a research project funded by the European Commission (FP7), the "OTC SOCIOMED", conducted in seven European countries, indicate that physicians in countries in the Mediterranean Europe region prescribe medicines to a higher degree in comparison to physicians in other participating European countries. In light of these findings, a feasibility study has been designed to explore the acceptance of a pilot educational intervention targeting physicians in general practice in various settings in the Mediterranean Europe region. This feasibility study utilized an educational intervention was designed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It took place in geographically-defined primary care areas in Cyprus, France, Greece, Malta, and Turkey. General Practitioners (GPs) were recruited in each country and randomly assigned into two study groups in each of the participating countries. The intervention included a one-day intensive training programme, a poster presentation, and regular visits of trained professionals to the workplaces of participants. Reminder messages and email messages were, also, sent to participants over a 4-week period. A pre- and post-test evaluation study design with quantitative and qualitative data was employed. The primary outcome of this feasibility pilot intervention was to reduce GPs' intention to provide medicines following the educational intervention, and its secondary outcomes included a reduction of prescribed medicines following the intervention, as well as an assessment of its practicality and acceptance by the participating GPs. Median intention scores in the intervention groups were reduced, following the educational intervention, in comparison to the control group. Descriptive analysis of related questions indicated a high overall acceptance and perceived practicality of the intervention programme by GPs

  6. Life Cycle Assessment - Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin; Rasmussen, Freja Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    of the building tends to dominate environmental impacts, though as buildings become increasingly energy efficient, life cycle impacts shift towards other stages. LCA of built environments has been a useful supplement to mass-based urban environmental assessments, highlighting the importance of embodied...... environmental impacts in imported goods and showing interesting trade-offs between dense urban living and the greater purchasing power of wealthy urbanites. LCAs of human settlements also face difficult challenges; the long use stage (often decades) introduces high uncertainty regarding the end-of-life stage...

  7. Guidance on current good radiopharmacy practice for the small-scale preparation of radiopharmaceuticals using automated modules: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Joel; Ballinger, James R; Behe, Martin; Decristoforo, Clemens; Elsinga, Philip H; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Mindt, Thomas L; Kolenc Peitl, Petra; Todde, Sergio C; Koziorowski, Jacek

    2014-08-01

    This document is meant to complement Part B of the EANM 'Guidelines on current good radiopharmacy practice (cGRPP) in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals' issued by the Radiopharmacy Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, covering small-scale in-house preparation of radiopharmaceuticals with automated modules. The aim is to provide more detailed and practice-oriented guidance to those who are involved in the small-scale preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, which are not intended for commercial purposes or distribution. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. How will 2014 European Society of Cardiology Congress influence our daily practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, M Birhan

    2014-12-01

    European Cardiology Congress which was held in Barcelona in this year; was a meeting with striking results of the presented scientific studies. Herein, a brief overview of congress highlights is presented.

  9. Perspectives on Academic Writing in European Higher Education: Genres, Practices, and Competences

    OpenAIRE

    Kruse Otto

    2013-01-01

    Academic writing in European higher education is a little explored field hidden behind fifty major language and fifty national educational systems of which it is part. The article aims at developing a perspective for studying the diversity of writing in Europe and finding a shared language for analyzing student writing. The article recaps baselines theories for the teaching of writing and reports on three important European writing traditions. The main part of the paper is devoted to three fo...

  10. RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF THE ANGLE OF PRACTICE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    GEORGETA MODIGA

    2012-01-01

    European Court affirms the idea that democracy is not about majority rule opinion, but also implies a respect for minorities, tolerance of isolated events or eccentric approach requiring individual-community relationship from a liberal perspective. Meanwhile, the European Court's view, freedom of expression serves a dual goal: that of the fulfilment of each individual, thus representing an aspect of the general principle of individual autonomy in relation to society, at the same time, freedom...

  11. [Assessment of suicidal behaviour in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Viktor; Osváth, Péter; Ruzsics, István; Nagy, Tünde; Kovács, László; Varga, József; Fekete, Sándor; Kovács, Attila

    2006-02-12

    To assess the prevalence of suicidal behavior (wish to die, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts) and to determine the characteristics of suicide attempters in primary care, including screening for major mental disorders. A Hungarian urban general practitioner's district with 1248 inhabitants was screened for suicidal behavior as well as for major mental disorders. All the patients (n=382) who visited their general practitioner within a two-week period were asked to participate. 277 patients completed the Prime-MD questionnaire, an easy-to-use diagnostic instrument developed for general practitioners to recognize the most common psychiatric disorders, like depressive (major depressive disorder, minor depressive disorder), anxiety (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder), somatoform, eating and alcohol related disorders. Detailed data about suicidal thoughts and attempts were also collected by the structured questions of MINI-Plus diagnostic interview. Prevalence of suicide attempts in primary care was 2.9%. 9% of the patients had either suicidal thoughts or suicide attempts in the previous month. Suicidal patients were more ready to use psychotropic drugs, they assessed their health status more poorly, and had more mental symptoms than the control group (non-suicidal patients). 60% of suicidal patients and 11.5% of the investigated population had a current depressive episode. Beside depressive symptoms, anxiety disorders and alcohol problems were also more common among suicidal patients. The rate of previous psychiatric treatments was also higher in suicidal patients, who generally visited their general practitioners less frequently than non-suicidal patients. According to multivariate logistic regression, suicidal patients are more ready to take antidepressants, they tend to have more previous psychiatric treatments and suicidal attempts, and they visit their general practitioners less frequently and have a current depressive episode. Suicidal behavior and

  12. Optimizing stormwater treatment practices a handbook of assessment and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing Stormwater Treatment Practices: A Handbook of Assessment and Maintenance provides the information necessary for developing and operating an effective maintenance program for stormwater treatment. The book offers instructions on how to measure the level of performance of stormwater treatment practices directly and bases proposed maintenance schedules on actual performance and historical maintenance efforts and costs. The inspection methods, which are proven in the field and have been implemented successfully, are necessary as regulatory agencies are demanding evaluations of the performance of stormwater treatment practices. The authors have developed a three-tiered approach that offers readers a standard protocol for how to determine the effectiveness of stormwater treatment practices currently in place. This book also: Provides a standard protocol for how to determine the effectiveness of stormwater treatment practices Assists readers with identifying which assessment techniques to use for stormwa...

  13. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentsen Niclas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor.

  14. How to assess the emergence of the European Pirate Parties. Towards a research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Uszkai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the emergence of the pirate movements in the European Union. Our goal is to sketch the steps towards a research agenda for this grassroots political movement which gained momentum since 2009. To attain our goal we showed the re-signification of the concept of piracy in the debate around intellectual property and its institutional settlement. Afterwards we analysed the big political themes of several European Pirate Parties and their struggle to follow the preferences of the median voter. We concluded with a set of hypotheses of which the most important is that the pirates will inscribe neither to the left nor to the right part of the political spectrum.

  15. Assessing clinical practice of student nurses: Views of teachers, mentors and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminen, Kristiina; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele

    2014-08-01

    Assessment received by students affects the way that they conduct their studies and shapes their interests in clinical placements. It is therefore important that mentors and teachers have high quality assessment strategies to ensure the competence of nursing students. The objective of this study is to describe the views and experiences of nursing students, nursing teachers, and mentors on the final assessment of nursing students in clinical practice. The study also investigates respondents' views on using a standardized national or European scheme for clinical assessment in the future. Descriptive survey design with a questionnaire. Implemented in five Finnish universities of applied sciences and in five partner hospitals. Nursing students (n=276), nursing teachers (n=108) and mentors (n=225). A questionnaire was used to collect data. Survey data were analyzed by using SPSS version 19. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to characterize the data. Nursing students felt that they had spent enough time with their mentors during their clinical practice period to ensure that the mentors could assess their behavior. Mentors also evaluated that they had spent enough time with the students. Students and mentors both indicated occasional difficulties with the language used in the competence assessment document. Most of the nursing students and mentors shared the view that it is always necessary for a teacher to be involved in the final assessment discussion. The study highlights the importance of assessment skills of mentors and the important role of the teachers. Findings from this study indicate that nursing students' clinical practice assessment already includes many good practices, but we still have some difficulties in ensuring effective measures of competence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Health technology assessment of medical devices: What is different? An overview of three European projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Mayer, Julia; Lauterberg, Jörg; Hunger, Theresa; Arvandi, Marjan; Conrads-Frank, Annette; Nachtnebel, Anna; Wild, Claudia; Siebert, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    With the growing use and importance of health technology assessment (HTA) in decision making during recent years, health technology assessors, decision makers and stakeholders are confronted with methodological challenges due to specific characteristics of health technologies (e. g., pharmaceuticals, diagnostic tests, screening programs), their developmental environment, and their regulation process. Being aware of the necessity to use HTA as a policy instrument for sustainable health care systems in a regulatory environment of decentralized Conformité Européenne (CE) marking, the European Union (EU) is increasingly supporting the development of methods for the assessment of medical devices (MD) on different levels: within the scope of European research projects and within joint assessment activities of the member states of the European network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA). First, this article describes three projects: MedtecHTA-Methods for Health Technology Assessment of Medical Devices, a European Perspective Work Package 3 (WP3), Comparative Effectiveness of Medical Devices led by the University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology (UMIT). Second, we discuss the experiences of the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Health Technology Assessment (LBI HTA) with the joint production of rapid assessments of medical devices by several European HTA agencies within EUnetHTA. Third, a brief outline is given of the framework of joint methodological guideline elaboration by the EUnetHTA partner organizations because a guideline for therapeutic MD is also being developed here. We will describe aims, methods and some preliminary results of MedtecHTA and EUnetHTA Joint Action 2 Work Package 5 Strand B (WP5B) applying the HTA Core Model for Rapid Assessment for national adaptation and reporting, and give an overview of the development process of methodological guidelines within WP 7 of EUnetHTA Joint Action 2. Based on a literature review in Medtec

  17. Estimating Cardiovascular Risk in Spain by the European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Antonio Jesús; Masana, Luis; Soriguer, Federico; Goday, Albert; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Gaztambide, Sonia; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Valdés, Sergio; Gomis, Ramón; Ortega, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    There are no nationwide, population-based studies in Spain assessing overall cardiovascular risk. We aimed to describe cardiovascular risk and achievement of treatment goals following the 2012 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention strategy. We also investigated clinical characteristics (non-classical risk factors) associated with moderate risk. Participants (n=2310, 58% women) aged 40 to 65 years from a national population-based study (Di@bet.es Study) were identified. First, a priori high/very-high risk individuals were identified. Next, total cardiovascular risk (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation equation including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) was used to assess risk of a priori non-high risk individuals. Variables independently associated with moderate versus low-risk were investigated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Age-and-sex standardized (direct method) percentages of high/very-high, moderate, and low-risk were 22.8%, 43.5%, and 33.7%, respectively. Most men were at moderate (56.2%), while 55.4% of women were at low risk. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (< 70,<100, < 115 mg/dL) and blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) goals for very-high, high and moderate risk were met in 15%, 26% and 46%, and 77%, 68% and 85% of the individuals, respectively. Body mass index, high triglycerides concentrations, diastolic blood pressure, and low Mediterranean diet adherence (in women) were independently associated with moderate (versus low) risk. Cardiovascular risk in Spain is mainly moderate in men and low in women. Achievement of treatment goals in high-risk individuals should be improved. The prevalence of non-classical cardiovascular risk factors is elevated in subjects at moderate risk, an important aspect to consider in a population-based strategy to decrease cardiovascular disease in the most prevalent group. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Zinc status, psychological and nutritional assessment in old people recruited in five European countries: Zincage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, Fiorella; Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Gagliardi, Cristina; Dedoussis, George; Herbein, George; Fulop, Tamas; Monti, Daniela; Rink, Lothar; Jajte, Jolanta; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    The paper shows the results on the relationship between zinc status, psychological dimensions (cognitive functions, mood, perceived stress) and nutritional aspects in European healthy old subjects recruited for ZINCAGE Project (supported by the European Commission in the Sixth Framework Programme). The old healthy subjects were recruited in Italy, Greece, Germany, France, Poland taking into account the different dietary habits between Northern and Southern European Countries and the pivotal role played by zinc for psychological functions. Measures of the cognitive status, mood and perceived stress level were obtained at baseline, using the "Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)"; the "Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS - 15 items)" and the "Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)", respectively. Nutritional status was assessed using "Frequency Food Questionnaire". The sample included 853 old subjects, classified in 4 groups of age: 60-69-years-old (n = 359); 70-74-years-old (n = 225); 75-79-years-old (n = 153); 80-84-years-old (n = 116). Subjects were studied on the basis of plasma zinc, in which zinc cognitive decline, whereas 76% presented a low GDS value indicating no depression. However, all psychological variables were related to plasma zinc values and nutritional assessment. In particular, a relationship between marginal zinc deficiency and impaired psychological dimensions occurred in Greece than in other European countries due to low intake and less variety of foods rich of zinc. This phenomenon was independent by the age, suggesting that a correct zinc intake from a wide range of foods may be useful to maintain a satisfactory plasma zinc levels as well as psychological status in elderly with subsequent achievement of healthy ageing.

  19. Integrated chemical and biological assessment of contaminant impacts in selected European coastal and offshore marine areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylland, Ketil; Robinson, Craig D; Burgeot, Thierry; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Lang, Thomas; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Thain, John E; Vethaak, A Dick; Gubbins, Mattew J

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports a full assessment of results from ICON, an international workshop on marine integrated contaminant monitoring, encompassing different matrices (sediment, fish, mussels, gastropods), areas (Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, Wadden Sea, Seine estuary and the western Mediterranean) and endpoints (chemical analyses, biological effects). ICON has demonstrated the use of a framework for integrated contaminant assessment on European coastal and offshore areas. The assessment showed that chemical contamination did not always correspond with biological effects, indicating that both are required. The framework can be used to develop assessments for EU directives. If a 95% target were to be used as a regional indicator of MSFD GES, Iceland and offshore North Sea would achieve the target using the ICON dataset, but inshore North Sea, Baltic and Spanish Mediterranean regions would fail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Urban ecosystem health assessment: perspectives and Chinese practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meirong; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Gengyuan; Xu, Linyu; Zhang, Lixiao; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-11-06

    The concept of ecosystem health is a way to assess the holistic operations and development potential of urban ecosystems. Accelerated by the practical need for integrated ecosystem management, assessment of urban ecosystem health has been greatly developed and extensively applied in urban planning and management. Development is aimed at comprehensively evaluating the performance of urban ecosystems, identifying the limiting factors, and providing suggestions for urban regulation. The time has come for reviewing and establishing an instructional framework for urban ecosystem health assessment to shed light on certain essential issues of urban ecosystem health. Based on literature reviews and series of practice, a holistic framework of urban ecosystem health assessment is proposed. The framework covers the essential elements of urban ecosystem health and integrates three dimensions: theoretical foundation, assessment method, and practical application. Concrete assessment methods are also established, focusing on both external performance and internal metabolic processes. The practice of urban ecosystem health assessment in China is illustrated to briefly demonstrate the application of the established framework and methods. Some prospects are discussed for urban ecosystem health assessment and its application in urban planning and management.

  1. Assessment of food safety practices among cassava processors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food safety assessment is an effective means of discovering knowledge and data gaps that limit effective risk analysis and at the same time providing information to develop public policies on food safety management. The study assessed the cassava food safety practices among cassava processors in selected rural ...

  2. Violence Risk Assessment Practices in Denmark: A Multidisciplinary National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Louise Hjort

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With a quadrupling of forensic psychiatric patients in Denmark over the past 20 years, focus on violence risk assessment practices across the country has increased. However, information is lacking regarding Danish risk assessment practice across professional disciplines and clinical settings; little is known about how violence risk assessments are conducted, which instruments are used for what purposes, and how mental health professionals rate their utility and costs. As part of a global survey exploring the application of violence risk assessment across 44 countries, the current study investigated Danish practice across several professional disciplines and settings in which forensic and high-risk mental health patients are assessed and treated. In total, 125 mental health professionals across the country completed the survey. The five instruments that respondents reported most commonly using for risk assessment, risk management planning and risk monitoring were Broset, HCR-20, the START, the PCL-R, and the PCL:SV. Whereas the HCR-20 was rated highest in usefulness for risk assessment, the START was rated most useful for risk management and risk monitoring. No significant differences in utility were observed across professional groups. Unstructured clinical judgments were reported to be faster but more expensive to conduct than using a risk assessment instrument. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  3. An analysis of ESL teacher educators' current assessment practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment is not an end in itself but a vehicle for educational improvement, and should be a fundamental and integral part of any curriculum based on student learning outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and identify any shortcomings in the current assessment practices of English Second Language teacher ...

  4. Assessment Practices and Training Needs of Early Childhood Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rashida; Luckner, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment plays a critical role in the planning and delivery of quality services for young children and their families. The purpose of this study was to identify the current assessment practices and training needs of early childhood professionals. A large sample of early childhood professionals responded to a comprehensive survey. The most…

  5. Learning Potential Assessment: Theoretical, Methodological and Practical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, J. H. M., Ed.; Sijtsma, K., Ed.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M., Ed.

    The first part of this volume is concerned with theoretical and conceptual issues concerning learning potential assessment. The second part deals with methodological and measurement issues in learning potential assessment, and the third part is devoted to research projects and practical applications of learning potential tests. The following…

  6. Bilingual School Psychologists' Assessment Practices with English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryon, Elisabeth C.; Rogers, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored bilingual school psychologists' assessment practices with students identified as English language learners (ELL). One thousand bilingual National Association of School Psychologist members were recruited nationwide, and 276 participated. Among those conducting language proficiency assessments of ELLs, many (58%) use…

  7. Towards an understanding of assessment practices of primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to explore the assessment practices of primary school science teachers in Tanzania. The findings of the study revealed that teachers rely heavily on the traditional methods of assessment. Techniques that are commonly used by teachers include tests and quizzes, classroom exercises and homework.

  8. EFL Teachers' Formal Assessment Practices Based on Exam Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliçkaya, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    This study reports initial findings from a small-scale qualitative study aimed at gaining insights into English language teachers' assessment practices in Turkey by examining the formal exam papers. Based on the technique of content analysis, formal exam papers were analyzed in terms of assessment items, language skills tested as well as the…

  9. Community of assessment practice or interests: The case of EAP writing assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Al-Maamari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting, disseminating and applying assessment standards are part of university academic programmes of study. Nowadays, assessment is increasingly viewed from a social practice perspective, and so doing entails exploring how the quality of assessment is shaped by interaction and co-participation with different communities of practice. Therefore, based on this perspective, the study reported here aimed to examine the assessment policies and practices of laboratory report writing of first year students in credit-bearing, English for Special Purposes programmes at a university in the Sultanate of Oman. Interviews of programme administrators and the instructors plus institutional and programme documents were examined to investigate these assessment policies and practices. The programme administrators were asked about how they planned the written assessment in their programmes, and the instructors were asked about their experiences of these assessments. The data were then analysed thematically using community of practice framework, namely in relation to (1 a shared repertoire of communal resources, (2 mutual engagement, and (3 a sense of joint enterprise. It was found that instead of community of practice, there were (subcommunities of practices wherein interaction, negotiation and communication amongst members and non-members were punctuated by control, power and autonomy, all working with the aim of narrowing the range between the personal goals of the academic and the communal goals of the institution. The overarching conclusion is that in their assessment practices, the two instructional programmes exhibited varying degrees of community of practice based on the above three attributes.

  10. A Critical Assessment of a Eurosceptic Party Group on European Integration: A Case Study of the European Conservatives and Reformists Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbaba Sertan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores Euroscepticism and the way it is utilized within the politics of Europe, analyzed upon evidence from a Eurosceptic Euro-party located in the European Parliament, namely the European Conservatives and Reformists Group (ECR. The aim of this article is to clarify that the selected party> disproves the argument of EU- criticism being an unfavourable condition, and, more importantly, its contribution to the political contestation in the EU. For such an assessment, a survey of the party> manifesto, party working documents, as well as the discourses of the Member of the European Parliament (MEPs will be analyzed, and the concept of Euroscepticism will be once again in the centre of this analysis. This argument is evaluated based on the transnational-level analysis of the aforementioned party, focusing primarily on three specific issues-the democratic deficit, the issue of sovereignty! and anti-immigration rhetoric.

  11. An Assessment of the Results of European Parliament Elections in Greece and European Union Under the Shadow of Economic Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanourgiakis, John; Kanoupakis, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    On January 1, 1981, Greece became the tenth member of the European Economic Community and, 20 years later, on January 1, 2001, joined the euro area. In May of 2010 and February of 2012, Greece signed the first and the second economic adjustment programs and adopted austerity policies throughout the public sector in order to avoid the economic collapse, affecting residents' income and health status. We studied the questionnaires of polls conducted in Greece before the elections of the European Parliament (May 25, 2014) and the "Europeans 2014" Eurobarometer's survey in March of 2014. The responses of Greek voters from the Greek polls were alarming, pointing out their declining personal economic situation and Greece's national economic situation, with a sense that the country was heading in the wrong direction, declaring themselves unsatisfied and insecure. The responses of Greek voters from the "Europeans 2014" survey were even more alarming. Health was the first priority for the voters. As the Greek polls and the Eurobarometer's survey forecasted, but more significantly as the results of the Euro-elections showed, Greek voters preferred to put their hopes in something new. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Environmental risk assessment for the serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine: Case study using the European risk assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Ken D; Coors, Anja; Escher, Beate I; Fenner, Kathrin; Garric, Jeanne; Gust, Marion; Knacker, Thomas; Küster, Anette; Kussatz, Carola; Metcalfe, Chris D; Monteiro, Sara; Moon, Thomas W; Mennigen, Jan A; Parrott, Joanne; Péry, Alexandre R R; Ramil, Maria; Roennefahrt, Ines; Tarazona, José V; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Ternes, Thomas A; Trudeau, Vance L; Boucard, Tatiana; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Servos, Mark R

    2010-07-01

    The serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine was selected for an environmental risk assessment, using the most recent European guideline (EMEA 2006) within the European Union (EU)-funded Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals (ERAPharm) project due to its environmental persistence, acute toxicity to nontarget organisms, and unique pharmacokinetics associated with a readily ionizable compound. As a widely prescribed psychotropic drug, fluoxetine is frequently detected in surface waters adjacent to urban areas because municipal wastewater effluents are the primary route of entry to aquatic environments. In Phase I of the assessment, the initial predicted environmental concentration of fluoxetine in surface water (initial PEC(SW)) reached or exceeded the action limit of 10 ng/L, when using both a default market penetration factor and prescription data for Sweden, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Consequently, a Phase II risk assessment was conducted in which green algae were identified as the most sensitive species with a NOEC of terrestrial compartment due to a lack of data on effects of fluoxetine on soil organisms. The need for a separate risk assessment for the main metabolite of fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, was not conducted because of a lack of fate and effect studies. Based on published data, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine appeared to have a low to moderate bioaccumulation potential, which should be confirmed in formal studies according to OECD guidelines. Exposure assessments for fluoxetine according to the current framework rely heavily on K(OC) and K(OW) values. This approach is problematic, because fluoxetine is predominantly a cationic substance at environmental pH values. Consequently, the fate of fluoxetine (and other ionic substances) cannot be predicted using partition coefficients established for nonionic compounds. Further, published estimates for partition coefficients of fluoxetine vary, resulting in considerable uncertainties in both the

  13. The Functional Foods Dossier: Building Solid Health Claims. How to prepare the scientific dossier for health claims of European functional food. Practical Industrial guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Korver, O.; Kühn, M.C.; Richardson, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    This practical book explains to the industry manager all the special aspects related to the preparation of the scientific dossier for health claims of European functional foods (science, legislation, communication, product development).

  14. Self-Care Practices for Common Colds by Primary Care Patients: Study Protocol of a European Multicenter Survey—The COCO Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weltermann, Birgitta M; Gerasimovska-Kitanovska, Biljana; Thielmann, Anika; Chambe, Juliette; Lingner, Heidrun; Pirrotta, Enzo; Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Tekiner, Selda; Czachowski, Slawomir; Edirne, Tamer; Zielinski, Andrzej; Yikilkan, Hülya; Koskela, Tuomas; Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando; Hoffman, Robert D; Petek Šter, Marija; Guede Fernández, Clara; Uludağ, Ayşegül; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Mevsim, Vildan; Kreitmayer Pestic, Sanda

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-care for common colds is frequent, yet little is known about the spectrum, regional differences, and potential risks of self-care practices in patients from various European regions. Methods/Design...

  15. Best practices in performing flow cytometry in a regulated environment: feedback from experience within the European Bioanalysis Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    der Strate, Barry van; Longdin, Robin; Geerlings, Marie; Bachmayer, Nora; Cavallin, Maria; Litwin, Virginia; Patel, Minesh; Passe-Coutrin, Wilfried; Schoelch, Corinna; Companjen, Arjen; Fjording, Marianne Scheel

    2017-08-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful tool that can be used for the support of (pre)clinical studies. Although various white papers are available that describe the set-up and validation of the instrumentation (the flow cytometer) and validation of flow cytometry methods, to date no guidelines exist that address the requirements for performing flow cytometry in a regulated environment. In this manuscript, the European Bioanalysis Forum presents additional practice guidance on the use of flow cytometry in the support of drug development programs and addresses areas that are not covered in the previous publications. The concepts presented here are based on the consensus of discussions in the European Bioanalysis Forum Topic Team 32, in meetings in Barcelona, Limelette and multiple telephone conferences.

  16. Radiation protection of patients in diagnostic radiology: Status of practice in five Eastern-European countries, based on IAEA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera, E-mail: ociraj@vinca.rs [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, M.P.Alasa 12-14, Vinca (Serbia); Beganovic, Adnan, E-mail: adnanbeg@gmail.com [University of Sarajevo, Institute of Radiology, Bolnicka 25, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Faj, Dario, E-mail: dariofaj@mefos.hr [University Hospital Osijek, Josipa Huttlera 4, Osijek (Croatia); Gershan, Vesna, E-mail: vgersan@gmail.com [University of Skoplje, Institute of Radiology, Vodnjanska 17, Skopje, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Ivanovic, Sonja, E-mail: sonjaivanovic@t-com.me [Clinical Centre of Montenegro, Ljubljanska bb, Podgorica (Montenegro); Videnovic, Ivan R., E-mail: I.Videnovic@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, Vienna (Austria); Rehani, Madan M., E-mail: M.M.Rehani@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-08-15

    The purpose of this work was to investigate status of imaging technology and practice in five countries in Eastern-European region and evaluate the impact of IAEA projects on radiation protection of patients. Information collected using standardized IAEA protocol included status of technology, practices and patient dose levels in interventional procedure, radiography, mammography and computed tomography (CT). In spite of increased number of digital units, single phase generators or units older than 30 year are still in use. Examples of obsolete practice such as using fluoroscopy for positioning, photofluorography, chest fluoroscopy and soft-beam technique for chest radiography are also in use. Modern multi-slice CT or digital mammography units are available; however, there is lack of adequate radiation protection and medical physics support in hospitals. Information on patient doses in interventional procedures, conventional radiography, mammography and CT was collected to have baseline data and corrective measures were proposed with appropriate follow up actions taken.

  17. Assessment Training: A Precondition for Teachers' Competencies and Use of Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloi-Keaikitse, Setlhomo

    2016-01-01

    Student assessment, particularly at classroom level, remains an integral part of teaching and learning and is a driving force for the implementation of educational policies and practices in many countries. Nevertheless, problems associated with teachers' classroom assessment practices continue to exist in schools and research shows that teachers…

  18. Pan-European Coastal Erosion and Accretion: translating incomplete data and information for coastal reslience assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heteren, Sytze; Moses, Cherith; van der Ven, Tamara

    2017-04-01

    EMODnet has changed the face of the European marine data landscape and is developing tools to connect national data and information resources to make them easily available for multiple users, for multiple purposes. Building on the results of EUROSION, an EU-project completed some ten years ago, EMODnet-Geology has been compiling coastal erosion and sedimentation data and information for all European shorelines. Coverage is being expanded, and data and information are being updated. Challenges faced during this compilation phase are posed by a) differences between parameters used as indicators of shoreline migration, b) restricted access to third-party data, and c) data gaps. There are many indicators of coastal behaviour, with inherent incompatibilities and variations between low-lying sediment and cliffed rock shorelines. Regionally, low data availability and limited access result in poor coverage. With Sentinel data expected to become increasingly available, it is time to invest in automated methods to derive coastal-erosion data from satellite monitoring. Even so, consistency of data and derived information on coastal erosion and accretion does not necessarily translate into usability in pan-European coastal-zone management. Indicators of shoreline change need to be assessed and weighted regionally in light of other parameters in order to be of value in assessing coastal resilience or vulnerability. There is no single way to portray coastal vulnerability for all of Europe in a meaningful way. A common legend, however attractive intuitively, results in data products that work well for one region but show insufficient or excessive detail elsewhere. For decision making, uniform products are often not very helpful. The ability to zoom in on different spatial levels is not a solution either. It is better to compile and visualize vulnerability studies with different legends, and to provide each map with a confidence assessment and other relevant metadata.

  19. A review of the organization, regulation, and financing practices of postgraduate education in clinical nursing in 12 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, Elina; Vallimies-Patomäki, Marjukka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate information of postgraduate education in clinical nursing in the EU member states. Data were collected via a structured electronic questionnaire and the questionnaire was sent to the government chief nurses in 26 EU countries in May 2013. Response rate was 46% (n=12). In total, 42 domains of specialization were identified. The most common domains were intensive care, mental health, operating room, emergency care, and pediatrics. Specialization programs were organized by university in two of the respondent countries, as residency program in one country, and as a mix of them in four countries. Regulation practices varied remarkably between the countries: scope of practice, subjects, entry requirements, length of education, description of the minimum competence requirements, and education standards related to the specialization programs were most often regulated by act, decree or other regulation. In some of the countries, no registration was required beyond the initial registration, whereas in some others, registration practices varied depending on the specialization program. New information was gathered on the regulation practices of postgraduate education in clinical nursing in the European Region concerning title provision, entry requirements, and financing practices. The awarded title on specialization programs depended on the level of postgraduate education, and the title might vary between the domains. General clinical experience was included in the entry requirements in seven countries. The government was mainly responsible for financing the postgraduate education in four countries, employer in three countries, and in the rest of the countries, there was a combination of different financiers. The importance of knowledge exchange on postgraduate education across the European countries needs to be acknowledged. Information provided by this study on international regulation practices provides useful information for the policy

  20. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-11-28

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  1. Curriculum structure, content, learning and assessment in European undergraduate dental education - update 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manogue, M

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents an updated statement on behalf of the Association for Dental Education in Europe (ADEE) in relation to proposals for undergraduate Curriculum Structure, Content, Learning, Assessment and Student \\/ Staff Exchange for dental education in Europe. A task force was constituted to consider these issues and the two previous, related publications produced by the Association (Plasschaert et al 2006 and 2007) were revised. The broad European dental community was circulated and contributed to the revisions. The paper was approved at the General Assembly of ADEE, held in Amsterdam in August 2010 and will be updated again in 2015.

  2. A pan-European quantitative assessment of soil loss by wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasqualle; Lugato, Emanuele; Panagos, Panos

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion by wind is a serious environmental problem often low perceived but resulting in severe soil degradation forms. On the long-term a considerable part of topsoil - rich in nutrient and organic matters - could be removed compromising the agricultural productivity and inducing an increased use of fertilizers. Field scale studies and observations proven that wind erosion is a serious problem in many European sites. The state-of-the-art suggests a scenario where wind erosion locally affects the temperate climate areas of the northern European countries, as well as the semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean region. However, observations, field measurements and modelling assessments are extremely limited and unequally distributed across Europe. It implies a lack of knowledge about where and when wind erosion occurs, limiting policy actions aimed at mitigating land degradation. To gain a better understanding about soil degradation process, the Soil Resource Assessment working group of the Joint Research Centre carried out the first pan-European assessments of wind-erodible fraction of soil (EF) (Geoderma, 232, 471-478, 2014) and land susceptibility to wind erosion (Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2318). Today's challenge is to integrate the insights archived by these pan-European assessments, local experiments and field-scale models into a new generation of regional-scale wind erosion models. A GIS version of the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) was developed with the aim to i) move a step forward into the aforementioned challenges, and ii) evaluate the soil loss potential due to wind erosion in the agricoltural land of the EU. The model scheme was designed to describe daily soil loss potential, combining spatiotemporal conditions of soil erodibility, crust factor, soil moisture content, vegetation coverage and wind erosivity at 1 km2 resolution. The average soil loss predicted by GIS-RWEQ in the EU arable land ranges from 0 to 39.9 Mg ha-1 yr

  3. Continental level landslide susceptibility assessment in the context of the European Union's Soil Thematic Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, A.; Van Den Eeckhaut, M.; Reichenbach, P.; Hervás, J.; Malet, J.; Guzzetti, F.

    2011-12-01

    In the context of the European Union's Soil Thematic Strategy, and the formulation of a draft of a European framework directive devoted to the sustainable protection of soil, landslides are recognized as one of the eight soil threats requiring harmonized spatial hazard assessments over the EU territory. The general framework for the harmonized assessment of soil threats (namely erosion, organic matter decline, salinisation, compaction, landslides, contamination, sealing and loss of biodiversity) consists of a nested geographical approach based on "Tiers", where a semi-quantitative, low-resolution (1:1 million) evaluation ("Tier 1") using already available pan-European datasets should enable the delineation of priority areas requiring more detailed quantitative inventory-based assessments with additional data ("Tier 2"). In this contribution, we present the elaboration of a continental level "Tier 1" generic landslide susceptibility model based on a heuristic, spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) approach exploiting the most important conditioning factors for landslides being slope gradient, lithology and land cover. Additionally, extensive landslide locations available at regional and national levels were collected, harmonized and standardized over the EU territory to obtain a signal for input parameter specification and model calibration, evaluation and classification. Since the analyzed area is highly complex in terms of climatic, physiographic and seismotectonic conditions controlling landslide occurrences, a terrain differentiation based on climatic and geomorphologic criteria is proposed to delineate distinct zones to which specific predictor class weights have been allocated through the SMCE approach for susceptibility evaluation. The heuristic indexing scheme is cross-validated with multivariate statistical evaluations in representative areas for which detailed inventory information is available. The resulting pan-European susceptibility estimate

  4. "European Islam" in practice-in the Bosnian city of Sarajevo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, M; Bartels, E.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    The current debate about Islam in Western Europe is predominantly theoretical by nature and fails to adequately reflect on the experience of and knowledge about inherently European Muslim societies. Consequently, the debate lacks a sound empirical foundation and has started to live a life on its

  5. Translating Theory Into Practice: Implementing a Program of Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Karen E; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Fitzhenry, Kristen; Boscardin, Christy

    2018-03-01

    A program of assessment addresses challenges in learner assessment using a centrally planned, coordinated approach that emphasizes assessment for learning. This report describes the steps taken to implement a program of assessment framework within a medical school. A literature review on best practices in assessment highlighted six principles that guided implementation of the program of assessment in 2016-2017: (1) a centrally coordinated plan for assessment aligns with and supports a curricular vision; (2) multiple assessment tools used longitudinally generate multiple data points; (3) learners require ready access to information-rich feedback to promote reflection and informed self-assessment; (4) mentoring is essential to facilitate effective data use for reflection and learning planning; (5) the program of assessment fosters self-regulated learning behaviors; and (6) expert groups make summative decisions about grades and readiness for advancement. Implementation incorporated stakeholder engagement, use of multiple assessment tools, design of a coaching program, and creation of a learner performance dashboard. The assessment team monitors adherence to principles defining the program of assessment and gathers and responds to regular feedback from key stakeholders, including faculty, staff, and students. Next steps include systematically collecting evidence for validity of individual assessments and the program overall. Iterative review of student performance data informs curricular improvements. The program of assessment also highlights technology needs that will be addressed with information technology experts. The outcome ultimately will entail showing evidence of validity that the program produces physicians who engage in lifelong learning and provide high-quality patient care.

  6. [Suicide risk assessment tools for adults in general medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, Pierre-Antoine; David, Michel

    2015-06-01

    It is estimated that almost half of suicide victims have consulted a general practitioner during the month preceding their act. The implementation of a suicide risk assessment tool validated in primary care is therefore needed in general medical practice. To review the suicide risk assessment tools for adults, to discuss their validity, and to suggest a pertinent tool which could be used in primary care. Research into scientific databases (keywords: psychiatric status rating scales; tools; questionnaires; risk assessment; suicide; attempted suicide; suicidal ideation; primary care; family practice; general practice) and into French and English language primary care journals. Review of publications and recommendations from health promotion and suicide prevention organizations, and from general practice and psychiatry learned societies. Two categories of suicide risk assessment tools have been found. On one hand, questionnaires aim at predicting suicidal behaviours (or their recurrence) using a risk score. They are interesting in research but of limited value in clinical practice because of their low specificity and individual predictive power. On the other hand, semi-directive interviews unable clinicians to explore the three dimensions of suicidality (levels of risk, urgency and danger), thus knowing to what extent the patient is suicidal and to adopt the appropriate preventive care strategy. Their use in clinical routine is highly recommended. The Grille d'estimation de la dangerosité d'un passage à l'acte suicidaire is the only interview to have been validated in primary care so far. It could be a pertinent tool in general practice. Preventing suicide in primary care requires the assessment of suicide risk using a semi-directive interview. We suggest a qualitative study to be carried out in general practice on the Grille d'estimation de la dangerosité d'un passage à l'acte suicidaire. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. A practice-theory approach of homeowners’ energy retrofits in four European areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartiaux, Franise Bartiaux; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Fonseca, Paula

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether and how energy retrofitting of owner-occupied dwellings can be understood within the framework of social practice theories. Practice theories help to shift the focus towards more collective approaches and practices, rather than towards individuals. In addressing this...

  8. The European General Practice Research Network presents a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity in family medicine and long term care, following a systematic review of relevant literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Reste, Jean Yves; Nabbe, Patrice; Manceau, Benedicte; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Doerr, Christa; Lingner, Heidrun; Czachowski, Slawomir; Munoz, Miguel; Argyriadou, Stella; Claveria, Ana; Le Floch, Bernard; Barais, Marie; Bower, Peter; Van Marwijk, Harm; Van Royen, Paul; Lietard, Claire

    2013-05-01

    Multimorbidity is a new concept encompassing all the medical conditions of an individual patient. The concept links into the European definition of family medicine and its core competencies. However, the definition of multimorbidity and its subsequent operationalization are still unclear. The European General Practice Research Network wanted to produce a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity. Systematic review of literature involving eight European General Practice Research Network national teams. The databases searched were PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane (1990-2010). Only articles containing descriptions of multimorbidity criteria were selected for inclusion. The multinational team undertook a methodic data extraction, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The team identified 416 documents, selected 68 abstracts, included 54 articles, and found 132 definitions with 1631 different criteria. These criteria were aggregated into 11 themes that led to the following definition: Multimorbidity is defined as any combination of chronic disease with at least one other disease (acute or chronic) or biopsychosocial factor (associated or not) or somatic risk factor. Any biopsychosocial factor, any risk factor, the social network, the burden of diseases, the health care consumption, and the patient's coping strategies may function as modifiers (of the effects of multimorbidity). Multimorbidity may modify the health outcomes and lead to an increased disability or a decreased quality of life or frailty. This study has produced a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity. The resulting improvements in the management of multimorbidity, and its usefulness in long term care and in family medicine, will have to be assessed in future studies. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling the effect of support practices (P-factor) on the reduction of soil erosion by water at European scale

    OpenAIRE

    Panagos, Panos; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; van der Zanden, Emma H; Poesen, Jean; Alewell, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The USLE/RUSLE support practice factor (P-factor) is rarely taken into account in soil erosion risk modelling at sub-continental scale, as it is difficult to estimate for large areas. This study attempts to model the P-factor in the European Union. For this, it considers the latest policy developments in the Common Agricultural Policy, and applies the rules set by Member States for contour farming over a certain slope. The impact of stone walls and grass margins is also modelled using the mor...

  10. Common practices in assessing conditions of concrete bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsharqawi Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bridge condition assessment is an essential step in bridge management. To ensure safety and serviceability of bridge infrastructure, accurate condition assessment is needed to provide basis for bridge Maintenance, Repair, and Replacement (MRR decisions. In Canada and the United States, visual inspection is the common practice to evaluate a bridge condition. Meanwhile, this practice is limited to detect surface defects and external flaws. For subsurface defects, Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT&E technologies are being used to supplement visual inspection. This paper reviews the common practices in assessing concrete bridges’ conditions and discusses the limitations of available condition assessment models. Further, this research studies six NDT&E techniques and establishes a set of selection criteria which is utilized to compare each technique in terms of providing the best inspection results. Based on the comparison, it is found that Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR appears to be the most appropriate NDT&E techniques for inspection of concrete bridges. Thus, this paper recommends integrating GPR technology with the dominant visual inspection practice in order to establish a more accurate overall bridge condition rating system where surface and subsurface defects are assessed.

  11. Public health nutrition practice in Canada: a situational assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ann; Chenhall, Cathy; Traynor, Marie; Scythes, Cindy; Bellman, Jane

    2008-08-01

    Renewed focus on public health has brought about considerable interest in workforce development among public health nutrition professionals in Canada. The present article describes a situational assessment of public health nutrition practice in Canada that will be used to guide future workforce development efforts. A situational assessment is a planning approach that considers strengths and opportunities as well as needs and challenges, and emphasizes stakeholder participation. This situational assessment consisted of four components: a systematic review of literature on public health nutrition workforce issues; key informant interviews; a PEEST (political, economic, environmental, social, technological) factor analysis; and a consensus meeting. Information gathered from these sources identified key nutrition and health concerns of the population; the need to define public health nutrition practice, roles and functions; demand for increased training, education and leadership opportunities; inconsistent qualification requirements across the country; and the desire for a common vision among practitioners. Findings of the situational assessment were used to create a three-year public health nutrition workforce development strategy. Specific objectives of the strategy are to define public health nutrition practice in Canada, develop competencies, collaborate with other disciplines, and begin to establish a new professional group or leadership structure to promote and enhance public health nutrition practice. The process of conducting the situational assessment not only provided valuable information for planning purposes, but also served as an effective mechanism for engaging stakeholders and building consensus.

  12. The assessment of learning in engineering education practice and policy

    CERN Document Server

    Heywood, John

    2016-01-01

    Explores how we judge engineering education in order to effectively redesign courses and programs that will prepare new engineers for various professional and academic careers This book considers the functions of assessment and its measurement in engineering education. Chapters two through three discuss efforts toward alternative curriculum in engineering and advanced level exams for university entry in engineering science. Chapter four reviews investigations of what engineers do at work and their implications assessment. Chapter five records the development of competency based assessment and considers its implications for the engineering curriculum. Chapter six discusses the impact of the accrediting authorities on assessment, outcomes based assessment, taxonomies and assessment in mastery and personalized systems of instruction. Chapters seven through eight consider student variability (e.g. intellectual development, emotional intelligence) and reflective practice. Questio s are raised about the assessment...

  13. Food and feed chemical contaminants in the European Union: Regulatory, scientific, and technical issues concerning chemical contaminants occurrence, risk assessment, and risk management in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Marco; Silano, Vittorio

    2017-07-03

    A priority of the European Union is the control of risks possibly associated with chemical contaminants in food and undesirable substances in feed. Following an initial chapter describing the main contaminants detected in food and undesirable substances in feed in the EU, their main sources and the factors which affect their occurrence, the present review focuses on the "continous call for data" procedure that is a very effective system in place at EFSA to make possible the exposure assessment of specific contaminants and undesirable substances. Risk assessment of contaminants in food atances in feed is carried currently in the European Union by the CONTAM Panel of EFSA according to well defined methodologies and in collaboration with competent international organizations and with Member States.

  14. Are Lead Exposures a Risk in European Fresh Waters? A Regulatory Assessment Accounting for Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Adam; Wilson, Iain; Merrington, Graham; Chowdhury, M Jasim

    2018-01-01

    An indicative compliance assessment of the Europe-wide bioavailable lead Environmental Quality Standard of 1.2 µg L-1 (EQS) was undertaken against regulatory freshwater monitoring data from six European member states and FOREGS database. Bio-met, a user-friendly tool based upon Biotic Ligand Models (BLMs) was used to account for bioavailability, along with the current European Water Framework Directive lead dissolved organic carbon correction approach. The outputs from both approaches were compared to the BLM. Of the 9054 freshwater samples assessed only 0.6% exceeded the EQS of 1.2 µg L-1 after accounting for bioavailability. The data showed that ambient background concentrations of lead across Europe are unlikely to influence general compliance with the EQS, although there may be isolated local issues. The waters showing the greatest sensitivity to potential lead exposures are characterized by relatively low DOC (< 0.5 mg L-1), regardless of the pH and calcium concentrations.

  15. Good Practices for Object-Based Accuracy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Radoux; Patrick Bogaert

    2017-01-01

    Thematic accuracy assessment of a map is a necessary condition for the comparison of research results and the appropriate use of geographic data analysis. Good practices of accuracy assessment already exist, but Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) is based on a partition of the spatial area of interest into polygons, which leads to specific issues. In this study, additional guidelines for the validation of object-based maps are provided. These guidelines include recommendations ab...

  16. Spatial variation in lake benthic macroinvertebrate ecological assessment: a synthesis of European case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.

    2012-01-01

    local invertebrate assemblages. In this issue we provide a contribution towards the understanding of basic sources of spatial variation of invertebrate assemblages in different European lake habitat types and their relationship with major human pressures. All papers have an obvious applied objective...... Baltic, Atlantic, and Mediterranean). The goal of the papers was to assess the main environmental factors and how they affected benthic macroinvertebrate variation at different ecological scales and thus better our basic understanding of how changes in these environmental variables can be tracked using......This paper summarizes eight case studies that were analysed as part of the research theme ``lake benthic macroinvertebrates'' forming part of the EU-funded WISER project ``Water bodies in Europe: Integrative Systems to assess Ecological status and Recovery''. The relationships between lake benthic...

  17. Assessing the Sustainability of Credit Growth: The case of Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coudert, Virginie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Credit growth rates as high as 30% or 50% a year were observed in some Central Eastern European countries (CEECs in 2006-2007, such as the Baltic States, Bulgaria or Romania. This strong credit growth could have been due to the catching-up process but could also have been excessive, paving the way to the credit crunch that followed the crisis in 2008-2009. We try to assess the excessiveness of credit by applying a number of methods. First, we consider the gap between current credit and its long-term trend and we find some signs of credit booms, in several CEECs in 2005-2007. Second, we assess the "normal" growth of credit with regard to fundamentals through econometric estimations. Credit growth is also shown to have been excessive in several countries just before the 2008-2009 financial crisis.

  18. Institutional context effects on managerial practices in a European multinational company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Liberman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of institutional contexts on managerial practices within a multinational company. Questionnaires measuring actual and ideal managerial practices were completed in four different subsidiaries of the same MNC. Results show that the practices of subsidiaries operating in countries with a higher degree of institutional labor-market regulation were less formalized and directive than in those subsidiaries located in countries with a lower degree of labor-market regulation. It was also found that the degrees of acceptance of these practices differed significantly across institutional contexts: in less restrictive institutional contexts formal and directive practices were more desirable than in more restrictive institutional contexts. It is argued that there is an inverse relationship between the flexibility of subsidiaries’ institutional contexts and the flexibility of their practices (formality and directiveness. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed.

  19. Health literacy assessment and patient satisfaction in surgical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komenaka, Ian K; Nodora, Jesse N; Machado, Lorenzo; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Klemens, Anne E; Martinez, Maria Elena; Bouton, Marcia E; Wilhelmson, Krista L; Weiss, Barry D

    2014-03-01

    Individuals with limited health literacy have barriers to patient-physician communication. Problems in communication are known to contribute to malpractice litigation. Concern exists, however, about the feasibility and patient acceptance of a health literacy assessment. This study was performed to determine the feasibility of health literacy assessment in surgical practice and its effect on patient satisfaction. Every patient seen in a Breast Surgery Clinic during a 2-year period was asked to undergo a health literacy assessment with the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) as part of the routine history and physical examination. During the year before routine NVS assessments and during the 2-year study period, all patients were asked to rate their "overall satisfaction with clinic visit" on a 5-point scale. A total of 2,026 of 2,097 patients (96.6%) seen during the study were eligible for the health literacy assessment. Of those, no patients refused assessment, and only one patient was missed. Therefore, 2,025 of 2,026 eligible patients (99.9%) underwent the assessment. The average time for NVS assessment was 2:02 minutes. Only 19% of patients had adequate health literacy. Patient satisfaction ratings were slightly greater during the first year of the health literacy assessment (3.8 vs 3.7, P = .049) compared with the year prior to health literacy assessment and greater during the second year of health literacy assessment (4.1 vs 3.7, P < .0001). Routine health literacy assessment is feasible in surgical practice and results in no decrease in patient satisfaction. In fact, satisfaction was greater during the years when health literacy assessments were performed. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Empowering European communities to improve natural resource management for human well-being: the OPPLA web portal & communities of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, M.; Brown, C.; Pérez-Soba, M.; Rounsevell, M.; Verweij, P.; Delbaere, B.; Cojocaru, G.; Saarikoski, H.; Harrison, P.; Zellmer, K.

    2014-12-01

    The ecosystem services concept is seen by many as a useful paradigm to support decision-making at the complex interface between science, policy and practice. However, to be successful, it requires a strong willingness for collaboration and joint understanding. In support of this aspiration, OPPLA is being developed as a web portal to enable European communities to better manage ecosystems for human well-being and livelihoods. OPPLA will provide access to a variety of online resources such as tools, case studies, lessons learned, videos, manuals and training and educational materials. It will also provide expert forums and spaces for discussions between researchers, practitioners and decision makers. Hence a critical aspect of the success of OPPLA is the co-evolution of communities of practice. An example of a community of practice is the recently launched Ecosystem Services Community - Scotland (ESCom-Scotland; escomscotland.wordpress.com). ESCom-Scotland aims to support better management of Scotland's natural resources by helping to establish a community of practice between individuals and groups involved in the science, policy and practice behind sustainable ecosystem management. It aspires to encourage the sharing of ideas, increase collaboration and to initiate a support network for those engaging with the ecosystem services concept and it will use the OPPLA resources to support these activities. OPPLA is currently at the developmental stage and was instigated by two large European Commission funded research projects: OPERAs (www.operas-project.eu) and OpenNESS (www.openness-project.eu), with a combined budget of ca. €24m. These projects aim to improve understanding of how ecosystem services contribute to human well-being in different social-ecological systems. Research will establish whether, how and under what conditions the ecosystem services concept can move beyond the academic domain towards practical implementation in support of sustainable ecosystem

  1. The Training in Educational Assessment practices of Special Education Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier J. Maquilón Sánchez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Admitting the importance of evaluation in the culture of quality, and especially in the field of education, 233 teachers have taken part in this research. They work to help children with especial educational needs, in Murcia (Spain.We asked them about their level of real execution of practical assessment of learning, teaching and programs, and the level of importance that they give to this evaluation. In this study we analyzed the differences found in variables as gender, type of the school (specific/ordinary, speciality (therapeutic pedagogy/audition and language, administrative situation (official/supply teacher and years of experience. In general, they gave more importance to evaluation than their real practice shows, and it concerned more the evaluation of learning and less that of teaching. The comparison between variables is allowed to make an x-ray about commitment to practical systematized assessment.

  2. Clinical Vignettes Improve Performance in Anatomy Practical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikah, December S. K.; Finn, Gabrielle M.; Swamy, Meenakshi; White, Pamela M.; McLachlan, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Although medical curricula now adopt an integrated teaching approach, this is not adequately reflected in assessment of anatomy knowledge and skills. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of the addition of clinical vignette to item stems on students' performance in anatomy practical examinations. In this study, 129 undergraduate medical…

  3. Assessment of Non-Sterile Pharmaceutical Compounding Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the practices of non-sterile pharmaceutical compounding in selected 42 community and 3 hospital pharmacies in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 01 April, 2016 to 15 May, 2016. The study revealed that the most commonly prescribed and compounded non-sterile ...

  4. Students' Assessment Of Farm Practical Programme In Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluates students' assessment of farm practical programme in selected universities of southwestern Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting 180 students from 6 selected universities in the study area. Frequency counts, percentages, chi-square, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and ...

  5. The assessment of female students' perceptions, practices and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to assess perceptions, practices and challenges of female students in cooperative learning (one- in- five) at Mettu College of Teacher Education. To achieve this objective, descriptive case study research method was employed. The subjects of the study were 80 (22 low achievers,34 ...

  6. Comparative assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding cervical cancer and its screening among female clinical nursing students in Southern Nigeria. Methodology: Comparative cross-sectional study was undertaken over a period of 7months (April to November 2013). There were 100 ...

  7. Best Practices for Competency Development and Assessment in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo Duarte, Sara; Learreta Ramos, Begoña; Ruiz Rosillo, María Auxiliadora; Alperstedt, Cristiane; Hazé, Emmanuël

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to present the results of a study aimed at determining, classifying and evaluating practices of interest for general competency development and assessment in undergraduate programmes. The study encompassed the following phases: (1) focus group in order to establish a starting point regarding competency…

  8. Assessment of sharps waste management practices in a referral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sharps waste is part of infectious waste generated in health facilities, management of which is critical. This study aimed at assessing the sharps waste management practices in a referral hospital. The study was conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Data on sharps waste containers ...

  9. Assessment of Teaching and Learning Styles in Practical Motor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess teaching and learning styles in practical motor vehicle mechanics work at technical college level in Niger State. Two research questions ... A descriptive survey research design was employed for the study. The study was ... The instrument was face and content validated by three Lecturers.

  10. Assessment of Perceived Corrupt Practices in Marketing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This study assessed the corrupt practices in marketing of agricultural produce among women marketers in. Ogbomoso Agricultural Zone of Oyo State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of respondents for the study; while structured interview schedule was employed to obtain data from fifty ...

  11. Assessment of Perceived Corrupt Practices in Marketing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the corrupt practices in marketing of agricultural produce among women marketers in Ogbomoso Agricultural Zone of Oyo State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of respondents for the study; while structured interview schedule was employed to obtain data from fifty ...

  12. Assessment of management practices for ungulates in old Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the habitat management practices was investigated for four months to identify the various management strategies and threats affecting ungulates in Old Oyo National Park. The methods used for the study are observation techniques and questionnaire administration and data were analyzed descriptively.

  13. Educators' conceptions and practice of classroom assessment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    any efforts to change educators' pedagogical practices, whether by mandate or through professional ... When the system emphasi- ses content, conformity, and high-stakes summative assessment, as it did in ... manner and ensure that learners integrate and apply knowledge and skills". (Department of Education 2002a:18).

  14. Assessing Preschool Teachers' Practices to Promote Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagideli, Fahretdin Hasan; Saraç, Seda; Ader, Engin

    2015-01-01

    Recent research reveals that in preschool years, through pedagogical interventions, preschool teachers can and should promote self-regulated learning. The main aim of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to assess preschool teachers' practices to promote self-regulated learning. A pool of 50 items was recruited through literature…

  15. Review Article: The roles of assessment in curriculum practice and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment is indispensable component of curriculum practice. In systems of education, one of the prime considerations of administrators, teachers, and students alike are the outcomes of learning, what ability students can demonstrate because of increase in their knowledge and changes in understanding because of ...

  16. Assessment of farmers awareness and practice of health safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The broad objective of the study was to assess farmers' awareness and practice of health safety measures in the use of agrochemicals in Niger state , Nigeria. The specific objectives were to describe the socio-economic and demographic features of the farmers, identify the common agrochemicals being used by the farmers ...

  17. Appraisal of assessment practices among primary school teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study appraises assessment practices of the primary school teachers in the areas under study. A survey research design was used to select 18 primary schools for the study. The stratified sampling and simple random sampling techniques were used to obtain 250 primary school teachers from the 18 selected schools ...

  18. Assessing knowledge, attitude and practice of vital registration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the key issues that have kept the sub-Saharan African countries in the state of underdevelopment is the unavailability of accurate statistical data for social and economic planning purposes. This study utilizes the data collected in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Southwest Nigeria to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of ...

  19. An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices and quality of routinely collected data in Machakos County Kenya. D.M. Kavoo, S.H. Ali, A.B. Kihara, R.J. Kosgei, H Tweya, W Kizito, Omondi Ogutu, C.N. Tauta ...

  20. Assessment of best practice of software development in developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Software development in most developing nations such as Nigeria were categorised as non standard while these nations still request for software from developed nations. These call for the assessment of the best practice and the way forward. ICT firms that specialized in software development were involved using ...

  1. Assessment of pesticide use and application practices in tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, pesticides are poisons and can affect human health and contaminate the environment. This paper reports on the findings of an assessment of pesticide use, application and practices in Kaliluni, Kathiani district in Kenya. The dominant activity in the area is intensive irrigated tomato farming for local and other ...

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Neurobiology and Current Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ryan A.; Robins, Diana L.; Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    This study reviews recent research related to the neurobiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) an provides an empirical analysis of current assessment practices. Data were collected through a survey of 117 school psychologists. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS), and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale…

  3. Self-assessment, reflection on practice and critical thinking in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles-González, José; Solano-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-10-01

    In accordance with the principles of the European Higher Education Area, the aim of this study was to contribute to the implementation of self-assessment through the application of reflection on learning and critical thinking. The theoretical framework employed was Habermas's critical theory and emancipatory interest as a preliminary step to generate educational transformations. The methodological contribution is the design a student self-assessment document that promotes reflection on action and critical thinking. The development of assessment through peer evaluation and other intermediate solutions until achieving self-assessment entails a shift in the educational and scientific paradigm, but also involves the implementation in practice of democratic and ethical principles, values and premises in society. Self-assessment is a novel concept for students, and obliges them to reinterpret their role. Due to the diversity of students' principles, values, motivations, interests and aspirations, this reinterpretation of their role can have a positive outcome, stimulating an active and critical attitude towards group work and self-assessment; or, on the contrary, can generate a stance characterised by disinterest, passivity and lack of critical thinking. The forms of assessment adopted in a given educational system reflect ways of thinking related to ideologies, values, ethical principles and educational paradigms: in order to render implementation of effective self-assessment feasible, it is necessary to undertake structural and regulatory reforms. Students have little experience of reflection on practice or critical thinking. Massification and cultural and structural factors determine the form of assessment. In this context, it would seem advisable to move towards self-assessment gradually and cautiously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Teaching and Assessing Racquet Games Using "Play Practice"--Part 2: Integrating Assessment into Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mars, Hans; Harvey, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    One of the central functions of teaching is formal assessment. However, formal assessment in school physical education often consists of attributing final grades to students at the conclusion of a unit (i.e., summative assessment). Moreover, grades have often been based on effort, attendance, and dress. Practical and authentic assessment…

  5. Personal Understanding of Assessment and the Link to Assessment Practice: The Perspectives of Higher Education Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Nicola; Sadler, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The study investigates how higher education staff understand assessment, and the relationship between these understandings and their assessment practices. Nine individuals attended a workshop that guided them through the creation of a concept map about assessment, which was subsequently discussed in one-to-one semi-structured interviews. We found…

  6. Is Online Patchwork Text Assessment a Panacea for Assessment Practices in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Penney; Taylor, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Although assessment is acknowledged as being of central importance to the student learning experience, assessment practices have been consistently highlighted as one of the weakest features by the Quality Assurance Agency and identified by many as a crisis within higher education. This paper explores the use of Patchwork Text Assessment within a…

  7. Conceptual and practical challenges in the assessment of physician competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Cynthia R; Kuper, Ayelet; Hodges, Brian; Ellaway, Rachel

    2015-03-01

    Abstract The shift to using outcomes-based competency frameworks in medical education in many countries around the world requires educators to find ways to assess multiple competencies. Contemporary medical educators recognize that a competent trainee not only needs sound biomedical knowledge and technical skills, they also need to be able to communicate, collaborate and behave in a professional manner. This paper discusses methodological challenges of assessment with a particular focus on the CanMEDS Roles. The paper argues that the psychometric measures that have been the mainstay of assessment practices for the past half-century, while still valuable and necessary, are not sufficient for a competency-oriented assessment environment. New assessment approaches, particularly ones from the social sciences, are required to be able to assess non-Medical Expert (Intrinsic) roles that are situated and context-bound. Realist and ethnographic methods in particular afford ways to address the challenges of this new assessment. The paper considers the theoretical and practical bases for tools that can more effectively assess non-Medical Expert (Intrinsic) roles.

  8. Managing the Marine Environment, Conceptual Models and Assessment Considerations for the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual models summarize, visualize and explain actual or predicted situations and how they might be tackled. In recent years, Pressure-State-Response (P-S-R frameworks have been central to conceptualizing marine ecosystem issues and then translating those to stakeholders, environmental managers and researchers. Society is concerned about the risks to the natural and human system posed by those Pressures (thus needing risk assessment and then needs to act to minimize or compensate those risks (as risk management. This research relates this to the DPSIR (Drivers-Pressure-State(change-Impact-Response hierarchical framework using standardized terminology/definitions and lists of impacting Activities and Pressures affecting ecosystem components, incorporating the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD legal decision components. This uses the example of fishing activity and the pressure of trawling from abrasion on the seabed and its effects on particular components. The mechanisms of Pressure acting on State changes are highlighted here as an additional refinement to DPSIR. The approach moves from conceptual models to actual assessments including: assessment methodologies (interactive matrices, ecosystem modeling, Bayesian Belief Networks, Bow-tie approach, some assessment tools data availability, confidence, scaling, cumulative effects and multiple simultaneous Pressures, which more often occur in multi-use and multi-user areas. In defining and describing the DPSIR Conceptual Framework we consider its use in re-world ecosystems affected by multiple pressures or multiple mechanisms of single pressures, and show how it facilitates management and assessment issues with particular relevance to the MSFD.

  9. Theory versus practice in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobos, Víctor, E-mail: vlobosg@gmail.com [CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Research Group on Strategic Approaches to Environment and Sustainability (SENSU), 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, San Crescente 551, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Partidario, Maria [CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Research Group on Strategic Approaches to Environment and Sustainability (SENSU), 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    Could the theory of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) be ahead of its time and decoupled from its practice? This paper evolved in search for this leading research question. Over the years the discourse on SEA experienced a gradual shift from the technocratic and rationalist thinking that supported its origin to more strategic approaches and integrated concepts, suggested since the mid 1990's. In this paper we share the results of our analysis of international thinking and practical experience with SEA. Results reveal that SEA practice changes very slowly when compared to advanced thinking supporting the noted shift. Current SEA practice shows to be still predominantly rooted in the logic of projects' environmental impact assessment (EIA). It is strongly bound to legal and regulatory requirements, and the motivation for its application persists being the delivery of environmental (or final) reports to meet legal obligations. Even though advanced SEA theoretical thinking claim its potential to help decisions to look forward, change mind-sets and the rationale of decision-making to meet sustainability challenges and enhance societal values, we note a weak relationship between the theoretical development of SEA and its practice. Why is this happening? Which factors explain this apparent inertia, resistance to change, in the SEA practice? Results appear to demonstrate the influence of assumptions, understandings, concepts, and beliefs in the use of SEA, which in turn suggest the political sensitivity of the instrument. - Highlights: • Theoretical thinking in SEA is ahead of its time. • SEA international practice reveals inertia to move out of project’ EIA comfort zone. • World current SEA practice show similar understandings of 30 years ago. • 100 world reports and survey of practitioners supported world review. • SEA great challenge is to change paradigms into new scientific complexity theories.

  10. Assessment and monitoring practices of Australian fitness professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Jason A; Wiesner, Glen H; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Harvey, Jack T; Craike, Melinda J; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2017-07-14

    Assessment and monitoring of client health and fitness is a key part of fitness professionals' practices. However, little is known about prevalence of this practice. This study describes the assessment/monitoring practices of a large sample of Australian fitness professionals. Cross-sectional. In 2014, 1206 fitness professionals completed an online survey. Respondents reported their frequency (4 point-scale: [1] 'never' to [4] 'always') of assessment/monitoring of eight health and fitness constructs (e.g. body composition, aerobic fitness). This was classified as: (i) 'high' ('always' assessing/monitoring ≥5 constructs); (ii) 'medium' (1-4 constructs); (iii) 'low' (0 constructs). Classifications are reported by demographic and fitness industry characteristics. The odds of being classified as a 'high assessor/monitor' according to social ecological correlates were examined using a multiple-factor logistic regression model. Mean age of respondents was 39.3 (±11.6) years and 71.6% were female. A total of 15.8% (95% CI: 13.7%-17.9%) were classified as a 'high' assessor/monitor. Constructs with the largest proportion of being 'always' assessed were body composition (47.7%; 95% CI: 45.0%-50.1%) and aerobic fitness (42.5%; 95% CI: 39.6%-45.3%). Those with the lowest proportion of being 'always' assessed were balance (24.0%; 95% CI: 24.7%-26.5%) and mental health (20.2%; 95% CI: 18.1%-29.6%). A perceived lack of client interest and fitness professionals not considering assessing their responsibility were associated with lower odds of being classified as a 'high assessor/monitor'. Most fitness professionals do not routinely assess/monitor client fitness and health. Key factors limiting client health assessment and monitoring include a perceived lack of client interest and professionals not considering this their role. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. A quality assessment of the MARS crop yield forecasting system for the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Marijn; Bareuth, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Timely information on crop production forecasts can become of increasing importance as commodity markets are more and more interconnected. Impacts across large crop production areas due to (e.g.) extreme weather and pest outbreaks can create ripple effects that may affect food prices and availability elsewhere. The MARS Unit (Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS), DG Joint Research Centre, European Commission, has been providing forecasts of European crop production levels since 1993. The operational crop production forecasting is carried out with the MARS Crop Yield Forecasting System (M-CYFS). The M-CYFS is used to monitor crop growth development, evaluate short-term effects of anomalous meteorological events, and provide monthly forecasts of crop yield at national and European Union level. The crop production forecasts are published in the so-called MARS bulletins. Forecasting crop yield over large areas in the operational context requires quality benchmarks. Here we present an analysis of the accuracy and skill of past crop yield forecasts of the main crops (e.g. soft wheat, grain maize), throughout the growing season, and specifically for the final forecast before harvest. Two simple benchmarks to assess the skill of the forecasts were defined as comparing the forecasts to 1) a forecast equal to the average yield and 2) a forecast using a linear trend established through the crop yield time-series. These reveal a variability in performance as a function of crop and Member State. In terms of production, the yield forecasts of 67% of the EU-28 soft wheat production and 80% of the EU-28 maize production have been forecast superior to both benchmarks during the 1993-2013 period. In a changing and increasingly variable climate crop yield forecasts can become increasingly valuable - provided they are used wisely. We end our presentation by discussing research activities that could contribute to this goal.

  12. Risk assessment of pesticides and other stressors in bees: Principles, data gaps and perspectives from the European Food Safety Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rortais, Agnès; Arnold, Gérard; Dorne, Jean-Lou; More, Simon J; Sperandio, Giorgio; Streissl, Franz; Szentes, Csaba; Verdonck, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Current approaches to risk assessment in bees do not take into account co-exposures from multiple stressors. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is deploying resources and efforts to move towards a holistic risk assessment approach of multiple stressors in bees. This paper describes the general principles of pesticide risk assessment in bees, including recent developments at EFSA dealing with risk assessment of single and multiple pesticide residues and biological hazards. The EFSA Guidance Document on the risk assessment of plant protection products in bees highlights the need for the inclusion of an uncertainty analysis, other routes of exposures and multiple stressors such as chemical mixtures and biological agents. The EFSA risk assessment on the survival, spread and establishment of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, an invasive alien species, is provided with potential insights for other bee pests such as the Asian hornet, Vespa velutina. Furthermore, data gaps are identified at each step of the risk assessment, and recommendations are made for future research that could be supported under the framework of Horizon 2020. Finally, the recent work conducted at EFSA is presented, under the overarching MUST-B project ("EU efforts towards the development of a holistic approach for the risk assessment on MUltiple STressors in Bees") comprising a toolbox for harmonised data collection under field conditions and a mechanistic model to assess effects from pesticides and other stressors such as biological agents and beekeeping management practices, at the colony level and in a spatially complex landscape. Future perspectives at EFSA include the development of a data model to collate high quality data to calibrate and validate the model to be used as a regulatory tool. Finally, the evidence collected within the framework of MUST-B will support EFSA's activities on the development of a holistic approach to the risk assessment of multiple stressors in bees. In

  13. The role of alcohol in the management of hypertension in patients in European primary health care practices - a survey in the largest European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Prieto, Jose Angel Arbesu; Beier, Markus; Duhot, Didier; Rossi, Alessandro; Schulte, Bernd; Zarco, José; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Bachmann, Michael; Grimm, Carsten; Kraus, Ludwig; Manthey, Jakob; Scafato, Emanuele; Gual, Antoni

    2016-09-08

    Even though addressing lifestyle problems is a major recommendation in most guidelines for the treatment of hypertension (HTN), alcohol problems are not routinely addressed in the management of hypertension in primary health care. Internet based survey of 3081 primary care physicians, recruited via the mailing lists of associations for general practitioners (GPs) in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Clinical practice, attitudes, knowledge, education and training were assessed. Logistic regression to predict screening, brief intervention and treatment for alcohol dependence in the management of hypertension were assessed. Overall, about one third of the interviewed GPs reported sufficient screening in cases with HTN (34.0 %, 95 % confidence interval (CI):32.1-35.8 %). One out of five GPs screened and delivered brief interventions in HTN patients with hazardous consumption (22.2 %, 95 % CI: 20.6-23.8 %) and about one in 13 GPs provided treatment for HTN patients with alcohol dependence other than advice or brief intervention (7.8 %, 95 % CI: 6.8-8.9 %). Post-graduate training and belief in their effectiveness predicted interventions. There were marked differences between countries. While current interventions were overall low, marked differences between countries indicate that current practices could be improved. Education and post-graduate training seems to be key in improving clinical practice of including interventions for problematic alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence in primary health care.

  14. Self-Assessment in Librarianship: Current Practices and Future Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Dymarz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this qualitative study set out to investigate self-assessment practices within the library profession. The researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of nine librarians coming from a range of library settings and possessing a diversity of library experience. Interviews were then transcribed and coded in NVIVO to identify emergent themes. This paper details some of the results of that study, highlighting motivations, limitations, and strategies with regard to self-assessment. The findings present a summary of a range of approaches to the practice of assessment as reported by the interviewees. One area of possible growth for our profession, as highlighted by the findings, is in the development of peer networks as a support for the individual practice of self-assessment. While the results of this small case study cannot be generalized, the authors hope these preliminary findings can open up the conversation around self-assessment both for individual librarians and for those librarians and managers working to shape their workplace culture.

  15. Good Practices for Object-Based Accuracy Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Radoux

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thematic accuracy assessment of a map is a necessary condition for the comparison of research results and the appropriate use of geographic data analysis. Good practices of accuracy assessment already exist, but Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA is based on a partition of the spatial area of interest into polygons, which leads to specific issues. In this study, additional guidelines for the validation of object-based maps are provided. These guidelines include recommendations about sampling design, response design and analysis, as well as the evaluation of structural and positional quality. Different types of GEOBIA applications are considered with their specific issues. In particular, accuracy assessment could either focus on the count of spatial entities or on the area of the map that is correctly classified. Two practical examples are given at the end of the manuscript.

  16. GOOD PRACTICE IN CROATIAN SOCIAL POLICY – RECCOMENDATIONS FOR THE COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Mahmutefendić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social policy has the ideal of cohesion and inclusiveness of all citizens, but it has to “play” an active role in creating opportunities for them. It encopmasses in itself primarily a balance between economic efficiency and social solidarity distribution, and strives towards a consensual social model in which the government and the opposition generally agree on the fundamental priorities of society. Starting from July 1st, 2013, Croatia has been a member of the European Union. What experiences can that country bring to European Union? In spite of the differences between the European countries becoming more and more expressed and bigger, there is a common element: a conscience that social justice and social reconciliation could contribute to an economical development and that are not just an expense; but the opposite: an economical development that must contribute to social reconciliation. In the process of the preparation for this work and during the process of its realization, I used the methods of reading a lot of literature, including professional books, professional journals and legislation literature. Social policy has been for years one of my major fields of interest, so some facts I knew already. My research goal is to examine the development so far of the social policy in Croatia, to detect the most important conditions which are necessary to develop high-quality social policies, to discover which are strong sides, and which are weak sides of the Croatian social policy, and therefore what is important to strongly develop, and what is redundant and/or old-fashioned, to throw away or neglect.

  17. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS, persistent organic pollutants (POPs, noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts, occupational exposures (N=33, outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27. Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners

  18. European Values and Practices in Post-Communist Public Administration: The Baltic States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karin Hilmer; Johannsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    European countries were necessary in order to ‘return to Europe’. The reconstructions in the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) have been remarkable successes. They have become members of EU and NATO and, with determination, have fought off several deep economic recessions without endangering...... democracy. Public administrations have undergone complete changes in their legal environment and deep structural reorganisation, combined with a high degree of turnover among staff. This has turned previous Soviet administrations into capable modern administrations. The question highlighted in this chapter...

  19. Practical experience in post-mortem tissue donation in consideration of the European tissue law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbe, Thomas; Braun, Christian; Wulff, Birgit; Schröder, Ann Sophie; Püschel, Klaus; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Parzeller, Markus

    2010-03-01

    In consequence of the European guidelines of safety and quality standards for the donation, retrieval, storing and distribution of human tissues and cells the purpose of tissue transplantation was implemented into German legislation in May 2007. The law came into effect on August 1st 2007 considering of the European rules. The Institutes for Legal Medicine of the University of Frankfurt/Main and the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf developed a model for tissue retrieval. The Institute of Legal Medicine (I.f.R.) at the University Medical Center Hamburg cooperates with the German Institute of Cell and Tissue Replacement (Deutsches Institut für Zell--und Gewebeersatz DIZG). Potential post-mortem tissue donors (PMTD) among the deceased are selected by standardized sets of defined criteria. The procedure is guided by the intended exclusion criteria of the tissue regulation draft (German Transplant Law TPG GewV) in accordance with the European Guideline (2006/17/EC). Following the identification of the donor and subsequent removal of tissue, the retrieved samples were sent to the DIZG, a non-profit tissue bank according to the tissue regulation. Here the final processing into transplantable tissue grafts takes place, which then results in the allocation of tissue to hospitals in Germany and other European countries. The Center of Legal Medicine at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Medical Center Frankfurt/Main cooperates since 2000 with Tutogen, a pharmaceutical company. Harvesting of musculoskeletal tissues follows corresponding regulations. To verify the outcome of PMTD at the I.f.R. Hamburg, two-statistic analysis over 12 and 4 months have been implemented. Our results have shown an increasing number of potential appropriate PMTD within the second inquiry interval but a relatively small and unvaryingly rate of successful post-mortem tissue retrievals similar to the first examination period. Thus, the aim of the model developed by the I.f.R. is to

  20. The validity of dietary assessment in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, P; Barnett, J; Margetts, B; Kinmonth, A L; Gabbay, J; Thompson, R; Warm, D; Warwick, H; Wooton, S

    1999-03-01

    To validate a range of dietary assessment instruments in general practice. Using a randomised block design, brief assessment instruments and more complex conventional dietary assessment tools were compared with an accepted "relative" standard--a seven day weighed dietary record. The standard was checked using biomarkers, and by performing test-retest reliability in additional subjects (n = 29). Agreement with weighed record. Percentage agreement with weighed record, rank correlation from scatter plot, rank correlation from Bland-Altman plot. Reliability of the weighed record. Practice nurse treatment room in a single suburban general practice. Patients with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (n = 61) or age/sex stratified general population group (n = 50). Brief self completion dietary assessment tools based on food groups caten during a week show reasonable agreement with the relative standard. For % energy from fat and saturated fat, non-starch polysaccharide, grams of fruit and vegetables and starchy foods consumed the range of agreement with the standard was: median % difference -6% to 12%, rank correlation 0.5 to 0.6. This agreement is of a similar order to the reliability of the weighed record, as good as or better than test standard agreement for more time consuming instruments, and compares favourably with research instruments validated in other settings. Under-reporting of energy intake was common (40%) and more likely if subjects were obese (body mass idex (BMI) > or = 30 60% under-reported; BMI < 30 29%, p < 0.001). Under-reporting of absolute energy intake is common, particularly among obese patients. Simple self assessment tools based on food groups, designed for practice nurse dietary assessment, show acceptable agreement with a standard, and suggest such tools are sufficiently accurate for clinical work, research, and possibly population dietary monitoring.

  1. The assessment of eating behaviour in children who are obese: a psychological approach. A position paper from the European childhood obesity group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braet, Caroline; O'Malley, Grace; Weghuber, Daniel; Vania, Andrea; Erhardt, Eva; Nowicka, Paulina; Mazur, Artur; Frelut, Marie Laure; Ardelt-Gattinger, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces health professionals to the different psychological models thought to influence eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are obese and to propose a method of assessing these behaviours in practice. Clinical researchers from the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) adopted an evidence-based approach to examine the literature concerning the assessment of eating behaviour in children who are obese. Studies published in English were filtered out of the medical and psychological literature from 1960 to the present, and the resulting bibliography was searched for relevant articles. Key themes from the current evidence were compiled and classified according to the underpinning psychological models. Based on the current evidence and the authors' combined clinical experience, a three-staged approach to assessment was agreed by consensus. Valid and reliable tools for assessing and monitoring each of the three identified models (Dietary Restraint Theory, Emotional Eating and the Diathesis-Stress Model) are suggested for use in clinical practice, and the ECOG three-staged approach to assessing eating behaviours in the absence of hunger is described. This paper presents practical guidance on how to assess eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are clinically obese and suggests a focus for future research.

  2. The Assessment of Eating Behaviour in Children Who Are Obese: A Psychological Approach. A Position Paper from the European Childhood Obesity Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Braet

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper introduces health professionals to the different psychological models thought to influence eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are obese and to propose a method of assessing these behaviours in practice. Methods: Clinical researchers from the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG adopted an evidence-based approach to examine the literature concerning the assessment of eating behaviour in children who are obese. Studies published in English were filtered out of the medical and psychological literature from 1960 to the present, and the resulting bibliography was searched for relevant articles. Key themes from the current evidence were compiled and classified according to the underpinning psychological models. Based on the current evidence and the authors' combined clinical experience, a three-staged approach to assessment was agreed by consensus. Results: Valid and reliable tools for assessing and monitoring each of the three identified models (Dietary Restraint Theory, Emotional Eating and the Diathesis-Stress Model are suggested for use in clinical practice, and the ECOG three-staged approach to assessing eating behaviours in the absence of hunger is described. Conclusions: This paper presents practical guidance on how to assess eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are clinically obese and suggests a focus for future research.

  3. The Assessment of Eating Behaviour in Children Who Are Obese: A Psychological Approach. A Position Paper from the European Childhood Obesity Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braet, Caroline; O'Malley, Grace; Weghuber, Daniel; Vania, Andrea; Erhardt, Éva; Nowicka, Paulina; Mazur, Artur; Frelut, Marie Laure; Ardelt-Gattinger, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper introduces health professionals to the different psychological models thought to influence eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are obese and to propose a method of assessing these behaviours in practice. Methods Clinical researchers from the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) adopted an evidence-based approach to examine the literature concerning the assessment of eating behaviour in children who are obese. Studies published in English were filtered out of the medical and psychological literature from 1960 to the present, and the resulting bibliography was searched for relevant articles. Key themes from the current evidence were compiled and classified according to the underpinning psychological models. Based on the current evidence and the authors' combined clinical experience, a three-staged approach to assessment was agreed by consensus. Results Valid and reliable tools for assessing and monitoring each of the three identified models (Dietary Restraint Theory, Emotional Eating and the Diathesis-Stress Model) are suggested for use in clinical practice, and the ECOG three-staged approach to assessing eating behaviours in the absence of hunger is described. Conclusions This paper presents practical guidance on how to assess eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are clinically obese and suggests a focus for future research. PMID:24820848

  4. The role of health impact assessment in Phase V of the Healthy Cities European Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Jean; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola; Christie, Derek

    2015-06-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a prospective decision-making aid tool that aims to improve the quality of policies, programmes or projects through recommendations that promote health. It identifies how and through which pathways a decision can impact a wide range of health determinants and seeks to define the distribution of effects within populations, thereby raising the issue of equity. HIA was introduced to the WHO European Healthy Cities Network as one of its four core themes during the Phase IV (2004-08). Here we present an evaluation of the use of HIA during Phase V (2009-13), where HIA was linked with the overarching theme of health and health equity in all local policies and a requirement regarding capacity building. The evaluation was based on 10 case studies contributed by 9 Healthy Cities in five countries (France, Hungary, Italy, Spain and the UK). A Realist Evaluation framework was used to collect and aggregate data obtained through three methods: an HIA factors analysis, a case-study template analysis using Nvivo software and a detailed questionnaire. The main conclusion is that HIA significantly helps promote Health in All Policies (HiAP) and sustainability in Healthy Cities. It is recommended that all Healthy City candidates to Phase VI (2014-18) of the WHO Healthy Cities European Network effectively adopt HIA and HiAP. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Freshwater vulnerability under high end climate change. A pan-European assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, A G; Papadimitriou, L V; Grillakis, M G; Tsanis, I K; Wyser, K; Betts, R A

    2018-02-01

    As freshwater availability is crucial for securing a sustainable, lower‑carbon future, there is a critical connection between water management and climate policies. Under a rapidly changing climate, it is more important than ever to estimate the degree of future water security. This is a challenging task as it depends on many different variables: the degree of warming and its consequent effects on hydrological resources, the water demand by different sectors, and the possible ameliorations or deteriorations of the effects due to climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. A simple and transparent conceptual framework has been developed to assess the European vulnerability to freshwater stress under the present hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions, in comparison to projections of future vulnerability for different degrees of global warming (1.5°C, 2°C and 4°C), under the high-rate warming scenario (RCP8.5). Different levels of adaptation to climate change are considered in the framework, by employing various relevant pathways of socioeconomic development. A spatially detailed pan-European map of vulnerability to freshwater shortage has been developed at the local administrative level, making this approach extremely useful for supporting regional level policymaking and implementation and strategic planning against future freshwater stress. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The European Ionosonde Service: current status, performance assessment and development needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagouri, Ioanna; Belehaki, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The European Ionosonde Service (EIS) is a federated service belonging to the Expert Service Center Ionospheric Weather (I-ESC) of the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme - Space Weather segment of ESA. EIS operates since 2014 and releases a set of products to characterize the bottomside and topside ionosphere over Europe. EIS is based on a set of prediction models driven by data from ground based DPS4 and DPS4D ionosondes and supportive data from GNSS satellites and the ACE spacecraft. The service monitors the critical frequency foF2 and the bottomside electron density, extrapolates the electron density profile up to the height of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) at European middle and high latitudes. EIS releases maps for nowcasting, forecasting and long-term planning purposes and provides estimates for forthcoming disturbances mainly triggered by geo-effective Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). The performance of models implemented by EIS has been validated and based on these results, it was possible to issue together with the products, quality metrics characterizing the product's reliability. The EIS products meet the requirements of various SSA service domains, especially the transionospheric radio link and the spacecraft operations. In this contribution we present an assessment of the EIS performance and an outlook for improving existing products and developing new ones.

  7. Assessment of HIV molecular surveillance capacity in the European Union, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Patrick; Pharris, Anastasia; Leitmeyer, Katrin; De Angelis, Stefania; Wensing, Annemarie; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J; Broberg, Eeva

    2017-12-01

    IntroductionExpanding access to HIV antiretroviral treatment is expected to decrease HIV incidence and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) mortality. However, this may also result in increased HIV drug resistance (DR). Better monitoring and surveillance of HIV DR is required to inform treatment regimens and maintain the long term effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs. As there is currently no formal European Union (EU)-wide collection of HIV DR data, this study aimed to assess the current HIV molecular surveillance capacity in EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries in order to inform the planning of HIV DR monitoring at EU level. Methods: Thirty EU/EEA countries were invited to participate in a survey on HIV molecular surveillance capacity, which also included laboratory aspects. Results: Among 21 responding countries, 13 reported using HIV sequence data (subtype and/or DR) for surveillance purposes at national level. Of those, nine stated that clinical, epidemiological and sequence data were routinely linked for analysis. Discussion/conclusion: We identified similarities between existing HIV molecular surveillance systems, but also found important challenges including human resources, data ownership and legal issues that would need to be addressed.Information on capacities should allow better planning of the phased introduction of HIV DR surveillance at EU/EEA level.

  8. Survey of self-assessed preparedness for clinical practice in one Croatian medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Sarah M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Croatian higher education system is in the process of reforming its medical curricula to comply with European Union standards. We conducted a survey of students enrolled at the University of Zagreb (Croatia asking them to rate their perception of preparedness for clinical practice prior to initiation of the reform process. The purpose of the survey was to identify self-perceived deficiencies in education and to establish a reference point for the later assessment of ongoing educational reform. Findings One-hundred and forty seven (N = 147 graduates reported the levels of perceived preparedness on 30 items grouped into 8 educational domains. Main domains were: understanding science, practical skills/patient management, holistic care, prevention, interpersonal skills, confidence/coping skills, collaboration, and self-directed learning. For each item, graduates self assessed their preparedness on a scale ranging from 1 to 4, with 1 = "Very inadequate", 2 = "Somewhat inadequate", 3 = "Somewhat adequate", and 4 = "Very adequate". In 7 out of 8 domains the achieved median score was ≥ 3. Students expressed low confidence (defined when ≥ 25% of respondents supplied a rating for the survey question as: "very inadequate" or "somewhat inadequate" with interpersonal skills (discussing terminal disease, counseling distraught patients, balancing professional and personal life, and in performing certain basic semi-invasive or invasive procedures. Conclusion Zagreb medical graduates identified several deficiencies within educational domains required for standard clinical practice. Ongoing educational efforts need to be directed towards the correction of these deficiencies in order to achieve standards required by the European Union.

  9. Can causality assessment fulfill the new European definition of adverse drug reaction? A review of methods used in spontaneous reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolo, Annamaria; Scavone, Cristina; Sessa, Maurizio; di Mauro, Gabriella; Cimmaruta, Daniela; Orlando, Valentina; Rossi, Francesco; Sportiello, Liberata; Capuano, Annalisa

    2017-09-01

    Causality assessment is a fundamental biomedical technique for the signal detection performed by Pharmacovigilance centers in a Spontaneous reporting system. Moreover, it is a crucial and important practice for detecting preventable adverse drug reactions. Among different methods for causality assessment, algorithms (such as the Naranjo, or Begaud Methods) seem for their operational procedure and easier applicability one of the most commonly used methods. With the upcoming of the new European Pharmacovigilance legislation including in the definition of the adverse event also effects resulting from abuse, misuse and medication error, all well-known preventable causes of ADRs, there was an emerging need to evaluate whether algorithms could fulfill this new definition. In this review, twenty-two algorithmic methods were identified and none of them seemed to fulfill perfectly the new criteria of adverse event although some of them come close. In fact, several issues were arisen in applying causality assessment algorithms to these new definitions as for example the impossibility to answer the rechallenge question in case of medication error or AEFI (Adverse Event Following Immunization). Moreover, the exact conditions at which events occurred, as for example dosage or mode of administration should be considered to better assess causality in conditions of abuse/overdose, or misuse as well as in conditions of lack of expected efficacy reports for biotechnological drugs and adverse event occurring after mixing of vaccines. Therefore, this review highlights the need of updating algorithmic methods to allow a perfect applicability in all possible clinical scenarios accordingly or not with the terms of marketing authorization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF THE ANGLE OF PRACTICE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGETA MODIGA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available European Court affirms the idea that democracy is not about majority rule opinion, but also implies a respect for minorities, tolerance of isolated events or eccentric approach requiring individual-community relationship from a liberal perspective. Meanwhile, the European Court's view, freedom of expression serves a dual goal: that of the fulfilment of each individual, thus representing an aspect of the general principle of individual autonomy in relation to society, at the same time, freedom of expression has a significant function instrumental, providing an extremely useful tool to ensure proper functioning of an open and pluralistic societies, and particularly a representative democracy. As will be seen in the paper, this second explanation seems to weigh heavier, causing it increased protection that the Strasbourg court to release a discussion of issues that are of public interest. Objectives approach refers to the extremely wide range of manifestations of law, including material and technical means used for its exercise, analysis of forms of limitations on freedom of expression, whether measures which restrict freedom of expression, margins of discretion available national authorities to restrict freedom of expression that has a variable extent depending on the message content of the right holder and the value of the state a legitimate claim to justify the need for interference.

  11. Protection of the right to privacy in the practice of the European Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenov Marijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The right to privacy is a fundamental human right and an essential component of the protection of human autonomy and freedom. The development of science and information systems creates various opportunities for interferences with physical and moral integrity of a person. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the precise content of the right to privacy. The European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms guarantees this right under Article 8. The European Court of Human Rights did not precisely define the content of the right to privacy and thereby the applicants could bring different aspects of life into the scope of respect for private life. According to the Court, the concept of privacy and private life includes the following areas of human life: the right to establish and maintain relationships with other human beings, protection of the physical and moral integrity of persons, protection of personal data, change of personal name, various issues related to sexual orientation and transgender. The subject of this paper is referring to previously mentioned spheres of human life in the light of interpretation of Article 8 of the Convention.

  12. European audit of current practice in diagnosis and treatment of childhood growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Bernasconi, Sergio; Clayton, Peter E

    2002-01-01

    The present survey among members of the ESPE on current practice in diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) is of great clinical relevance and importance in the light of the recently published guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of GHD by the Growth Hormone Research...... Society. We have found much conformity but also numerous discrepancies between the recommendations of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the current practice in Europe....

  13. Assessment of general education teachers' Tier 1 classroom practices: contemporary science, practice, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Jimerson, Shane R

    2013-12-01

    Progress monitoring is a type of formative assessment. Most work on progress monitoring in elementary school settings has been focused on students. However, teachers also can benefit from frequent evaluations. Research addressing teacher progress monitoring is critically important given the recent national focus on teacher evaluation and effectiveness. This special topic section of School Psychology Quarterly is the first to showcase the current research on measuring Tier 1 instructional and behavioral management practices used by prekindergarten and elementary school teachers in general education settings. The three studies included in the special section describe the development and validation efforts of several teacher observational and self-report measures of instruction and/or behavioral management. These studies provide evidence for the utility of such assessments for documenting the use of classroom practices, and these assessment results may be leveraged in innovative coaching models to promote best practice. These articles also offer insight and ideas for the next generation of teacher practice assessment for the field. Finally, the special topic is capped by a commentary synthesizing the current work and offers "big ideas" for future measurement development, policy, and professional development initiatives. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Setting good practices to assess the efficiency of iron fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Melgar, Juan Carlos; Alvarez-Fernández, Ana; Sanz, Manuel; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2011-05-01

    The most prevalent nutritional disorder in fruit tree crops growing in calcareous soils is Fe deficiency chlorosis. Iron-deficient, chlorotic tree orchards require Fe-fertilization, since chlorosis causes decreases in tree vegetative growth as well as fruit yield and quality losses. When assessing the effectiveness of Fe-fertilizers, it is necessary to use sound practices based in the state-of-the art knowledge on the physiology and biochemistry of Fe deficiency. This review provides an overview on how to carry out the assessment of the efficiency of Fe-fertilizers, discussing common errors found in the literature, outlining adequate procedures and giving real examples of practical studies carried out in our laboratory in the past decade. The review focuses on: i) the design of Fe-fertilization experiments, discussing several issues such as the convenience of using controlled conditions or field experiments, whether fertilizer assessment experiments should mimic usual fertilization practices, as well as aspects regarding product formulations, dosages, control references and number of replicates; ii) the assessment of chlorosis recovery upon Fe-fertilization by monitoring leaf chlorophyll, and iii) the analysis of the plant responses upon Fe-fertilization, discussing the phases of leaf chlorosis recovery and the control of other leaf nutritional parameters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Nephrologists' perceptions regarding dialysis withdrawal and palliative care in Europe: lessons from a European Renal Best Practice survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Biesen, Wim; van de Luijtgaarden, Moniek W M; Brown, Edwina A; Michel, Jean-Pierre; van Munster, Barbara C; Jager, Kitty J; van der Veer, Sabine N

    2015-12-01

    There is a variation in dialysis withdrawal rates, but reasons for this variation across European countries are largely unknown. We therefore surveyed nephrologists' perceptions of factors concerning dialysis withdrawal and palliative care and explored relationships between these perceptions and reports of whether withdrawal actually occurred in practice. We developed a 33-item electronic survey, disseminated via an email blast to all European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) members. In our data analyses, we distinguished those respondents who reported occurrence from those reporting no dialysis withdrawal in their unit. With multilevel logistic regression, we investigated the association between respondents' characteristics and perceptions and whether they reported occurrence of dialysis withdrawal or not. Five hundred and twenty-eight nephrologists from 45 countries completed the questionnaire; 42% reported occurrence of withdrawal in their unit in the past year, and 56% perceived that stopping life-prolonging treatment in terminally ill patients was allowed. Few respondents reported presence in their unit of protocols on withdrawal decision making (7%) or palliative care (10%) or the common involvement of a geriatrician in withdrawal decisions (10%). The majority stated that palliative care had not been part of their core curriculum (74%) and that they had not recently attended continuous medical education sessions on this topic (73%). Respondents from Eastern and Southern Europe had a 42 and 40% lower probability, respectively, of reporting withdrawal compared with those from North European countries. Working in a public centre [odds ratio (OR), 2.41; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.36-4.25] and respondents' perception that stopping life-prolonging treatment in terminally ill patients was allowed (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.23-3.12), that withdrawal decisions were commonly shared between doctor and patient (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1

  16. Teaching and Assessing Professionalism in Medical Learners and Practicing Physicians*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement), good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.). Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.). Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual’s career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a “professionalism portfolio,” the totality of which represents a picture of the individual’s professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts. PMID:25973263

  17. Teaching and Assessing Professionalism in Medical Learners and Practicing Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Mueller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement, good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.. Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.. Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual’s career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a “professionalism portfolio,” the totality of which represents a picture of the individual’s professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts.

  18. The Graduating European Dentist: Contemporaneous Methods of Teaching, Learning and Assessment in Dental Undergraduate Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J C; Walmsley, A D; Paganelli, C; McLoughlin, J; Szep, S; Kavadella, A; Manzanares Cespedes, M C; Davies, J R; DeLap, E; Levy, G; Gallagher, J; Roger-Leroi, V; Cowpe, J G

    2017-12-01

    It is often the case that good teachers just "intuitively" know how to teach. Whilst that may be true, there is now a greater need to understand the various processes that underpin both the ways in which a curriculum is delivered, and the way in which the students engage with learning; curricula need to be designed to meet the changing needs of our new graduates, providing new, and robust learning opportunities, and be communicated effectively to both staff and students. The aim of this document is to draw together robust and contemporaneous methods of teaching, learning and assessment that help to overcome some of the more traditional barriers within dental undergraduate programmes. The methods have been chosen to map specifically to The Graduating European Dentist, and should be considered in parallel with the benchmarking process that educators and institutions employ locally. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. International online survey to assess current practice in equine anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfender, F D; Doherr, M G; Driessen, B; Hartnack, S; Johnston, G M; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R

    2015-01-01

    Multicentre Confidential Enquiries into Perioperative Equine Fatalities (CEPEF) have not been conducted since the initial CEPEF Phases 1-3, 20 years ago. To collect data on current practice in equine anaesthesia and to recruit participants for CEPEF-4. Online questionnaire survey. An online questionnaire was prepared and the link distributed internationally to veterinarians possibly performing equine anaesthesia, using emails, posters, flyers and an editorial. The questionnaire included 52 closed, semiclosed and open questions divided into 8 subgroups: demographic data, anaesthetist, anaesthesia management (preoperative, technical equipment, monitoring, drugs, recovery), areas of improvements and risks and motivation for participation in CEPEF-4. Descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests for comparison of categorical variables were performed. A total of 199 questionnaires were completed by veterinarians from 14 different countries. Of the respondents, 43% worked in private hospitals, 36% in private practices and 21% in university teaching hospitals. In 40 institutions (23%) there was at least one diplomate of the European or American colleges of veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia on staff. Individual respondents reported routinely employ the following anaesthesia monitoring modalities: electrocardiography (80%), invasive arterial blood pressures (70%), pulse oximetry (60%), capnography (55%), arterial blood gases (47%), composition of inspired and expired gases (45%) and body temperature (35%). Drugs administered frequently or routinely as part of a standard protocol were: acepromazine (44%), xylazine (68%), butorphanol (59%), ketamine (96%), diazepam (83%), isoflurane (76%), dobutamine (46%), and, as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, phenylbutazone (73%) or flunixin meglumine (66%). Recovery was routinely assisted by 40%. The main factors perceived by the respondents to affect outcome of equine anaesthesia were the preoperative health status of the

  20. Occurrence of cyclic imines in European commercial seafood and consumers risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Miles, Christopher O; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; Verbeke, Wim; Samdal, Ingunn A; Sandvik, Morten; Barbosa, Vera; Tediosi, Alice; Madorran, Eneko; Granby, Kit; Kotterman, Michiel; Calis, Tanja; Diogene, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Cyclic imines constitute a quite recently discovered group of marine biotoxins that act on neural receptors and that bioaccumulate in seafood. They are grouped together due to the imino group functioning as their common pharmacore, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines (CIs) have not been linked yet to human poisoning and are not regulated in the European Union (EU), although the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requires more data to perform conclusive risk assessment for consumers. Several commercial samples of bivalves including raw and processed samples from eight countries (Italy, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Ireland, Norway, The Netherlands and Denmark) were obtained over 2 years. Emerging cyclic imine concentrations in all the samples were analysed on a LC-3200QTRAP and LC-HRMS QExactive mass spectrometer. In shellfish, two CIs, pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) and 13-desmethylspirolide C (SPX-1) were found at low concentrations (0.1-12µg/kg PnTX-G and 26-66µg/kg SPX-1), while gymnodimines and pteriatoxins were not detected in commercial (raw and processed) samples. In summary, SPX-1 (n: 47) and PnTX-G (n: 96) were detected in 9.4% and 4.2% of the samples, respectively, at concentrations higher than the limit of quantification (LOQ), and in 7.3% and 31.2% of the samples at concentrations lower than the LOQ (25µg/kg for SPX-1 and 3µg/kg for PnTX-G), respectively. For the detected cyclic imines, the average exposure and the 95th percentile were calculated. The results obtained indicate that it is unlikely that a potential health risk exists through the seafood diet for CIs in the EU. However, further information about CIs is necessary in order to perform a conclusive risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Customer satisfaction survey to improve the European cystic fibrosis external quality assessment scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwouts, Sarah; Dequeker, Elisabeth

    2011-08-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis European Network, coordinated from within the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, is the provider of the European cystic fibrosis external quality assessment (EQA) scheme. The network aimed to seek feedback from laboratories that participated in the cystic fibrosis scheme in order to improve services offered. In this study we analysed responses to an on-line customer satisfaction survey conducted between September and November 2009. The survey was sent to 213 laboratories that participated in the cystic fibrosis EQA scheme of 2008; 69 laboratories (32%) responded. Scores for importance and satisfaction were obtained from a five-point Likert scale for 24 attributes. A score of one corresponded to very dissatisfied/very unimportant and five corresponded to very satisfied/very important. Means were calculated and placed in a two-dimensional grid (importance-satisfaction analysis). Means were subtracted from each other to obtain gap values (gap-analysis). No attribute had a mean score below 3.63. The overall mean of satisfaction was 4.35. Opportunities for improvement enclosed clarity, usefulness and completeness of the general report and individual comments, and user-friendliness of the electronic datasheet. This type of customer satisfaction survey was a valuable instrument to identify opportunities to improve the cystic fibrosis EQA scheme. It should be conducted on a regular basis to reveal new opportunities in the future and to assess effectiveness of actions taken. Moreover, it could be a model for other EQA providers seeking feedback from participants. Overall, the customer satisfaction survey provided a powerful quality of care improvement tool.

  2. Reporting quality of abstracts presented at the European Association of Urology meeting: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sio, Marco; Yakoubi, Rachid; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Damiano, Rocco; Balsamo, Raffaele; Di Palma, Camine; Cantiello, Francesco; Azzarito, Giuseppina; Mirone, Vicenzo; Tubaro, Andrea; Autorino, Riccardo

    2012-11-01

    We assessed the reporting quality of randomized and nonrandomized, controlled trials presented in abstract form at the European Association of Urology annual meeting in a 10-year period and determined the impact on subsequent publication. Abstracts presented at the European Association of Urology annual meetings in 1998, 1999, 2008 and 2009 were retrieved and included in analysis. Two 2-year meeting periods were considered, including 1) 1998 and 1999, and 2) 2008 and 2009. Two standardized forms were constructed based on the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) and STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) guidelines, each including 15 and 16 items for randomized and nonrandomized, controlled trials, respectively. Reporting quality was assessed by measuring the proportion of items respected by authors when preparing the abstract, defined as the score ratio. Subsequent full-length publication within 2 years after the meeting was also determined by a PubMed® search. Differences between the 2 periods were analyzed by the chi-square and simple t tests. Predictors of subsequent full-length publication were evaluated by multiple logistic regression using meeting period, topic, country of origin, design, multi-institutional study and the proportion of reported items (score ratio). A total of 3,139 abstracts were included in analysis, of which 375 (11.9%) were randomized, controlled trials. Overall oncology represented the main topic (49.2% of all abstracts). The score ratio (proportion of adequately reported items in each abstract) was better for period 1 than 2 for randomized, controlled trials (63% vs 57%) but better for period 2 than 1 for nonrandomized, controlled trials (55.4% vs 53.2%, each p European Association of Urology meeting abstracts did not improve in a decade. Nevertheless, this factor did not impact subsequent full-length publication. Ultimately, the reporting quality of abstracts remains to be improved

  3. Residential traffic noise exposure assessment: application and evaluation of European Environmental Noise Directive maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Charlotta; Nilsson, Mats E; Stenkvist, Dag; Bellander, Tom; Pershagen, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Digital noise maps produced according to the European Environmental Noise Directive (END) could provide valuable exposure information in noise and health research. However, their usefulness in epidemiological studies has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to apply and evaluate Swedish END maps for assessments of residential traffic noise exposure. END maps from three Swedish cities were used to assess residential traffic noise exposure for a population sample of 2496 men and women included in a national Environmental Health Survey. For each subject, we assessed noise levels manually and automatically at three geographical points, using survey data to locate dwellings within buildings. Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) was used to assess agreement between the noise estimates. To evaluate the maps, we compared the observed and predicted proportions of annoyed residents as a function of noise exposure using survey data and already established exposure-response relationships. The root mean square deviation (r.m.s.) was used to assess the precision of observed estimates. The agreement between the noise estimates ranged from κ=0.4 to 0.8. Generally, there was a high correspondence between observed and predicted exposure-response relationships for noise annoyance, regardless of method and if data on dwelling location within building were used. The best precision was, however, found when we manually corrected the noise level according to the location of the dwelling within buildings (r.m.s.=0.029). Noise maps based on the END appear useful for assessing residential traffic noise exposure, particularly if combined with survey data on dwelling location.

  4. Vaccination in European salmonid aquaculture: a review of practices and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, C M; Lillehaug, A

    1995-01-01

    Disease control by vaccination is widely used in European salmonid aquaculture against vibriosis (Vibrio anguillarum), cold-water vibriosis (Vibrio salmonicida), yersiniosis or enteric redmouth disease (Yersinia ruckeri) and furunculosis (Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida). The vaccines against the Vibrio spp. and Y. ruckeri have proven effective especially when administered by injection. Furunculosis vaccines have been less successful and have relied on combination with potent adjuvants to achieve acceptable protection. Application of modern molecular techniques to furunculosis research has delivered a crop of experimental vaccines that incorporate purified virulence factors and have shown increased protection during challenge. Gene technology has also been used to create a defined, nonreverting mutation in a strain of A. salmonicida, which has enhanced the feasibility of attenuated live vaccines. The development of experimental subunit vaccines against the viral infections and the continued advances in the field of immunostimulants, adjuvants and antigen carriers provide considerable promise for the future development of commercial vaccines for use in salmonid aquaculture.

  5. The European practice database (EPD): results of the study in thte North-East of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieron, A; Elseviers, M; De Vos, J Y; Favaretto, A; Geatti, S; Harrington, M

    2005-01-01

    The survey, realized in 2002-03 in the North-East of Italy, describes renal care in dialysis services. A questionnaire, structured at European level, was sent to all dialysis centres by mail. The questionnaire was returned from 21 centres (61.8%) and related satellite units. Results show nonhomogeneity in renal care. Some important results were: low use of peritoneal dialysis (18%), compared to the rest of Europe, elevated presence of older people on haemodialysis, reduced percentage of patients on transplantation waiting list, diffused use of isolation for HCV positive patients, high use of AV fistulae (84%), low employment of renal technicians, absence of renal dieticians and social workers and nurses performing prevalently direct care. Data can be used for different goals: benchmarking activities, selection of deeper research topics and development of more oriented continuous education activities.

  6. Assessing preschool teachers’ practices to promote self-regulated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahretdin Hasan Adagideli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research reveals that in preschool years, through pedagogical interventions, preschool teachers can and should promote self-regulated learning. The main aim of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to assess preschool teachers’ practices to promote self-regulated learning. A pool of 50 items was recruited through literature review. Items, then, were formulated as statements, to which the teachers could respond on a Likert-scale. In line with the expert and teacher opinions, twenty statements were removed from the original pool and some statements were reformulated. The latest version of the scale consisted of 21 statements. The participants were preschool teacher (N=169 from Istanbul. Empirical testing at item and scale level showed that T-SRL is a reliable and a valid instrument to assess preschool teachers’ classroom practices promoting self-regulated learning of their children at the age of 3-6.

  7. An Environmental Risk Assessment for Human-Use Trimethoprim in European Surface Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg Oliver Straub

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An environmental risk assessment (ERA for the aquatic compartment in Europe from human use was developed for the old antibiotic Trimethoprim (TMP, comparing exposure and effects. The exposure assessment is based on European risk assessment default values on one hand and is refined with documented human use figures in Western Europe from IMS Health and measured removal in wastewater treatment on the other. The resulting predicted environmental concentrations (PECs are compared with measured environmental concentrations (MECs from Europe, based on a large dataset incorporating more than 1800 single MECs. On the effects side, available chronic ecotoxicity data from the literature were complemented by additional, new chronic results for fish and other organisms. Based on these data, chronic-based deterministic predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs were derived as well as two different probabilistic PNEC ranges. The ERA compares surface water PECs and MECs with aquatic PNECs for TMP. Based on all the risk characterization ratios (PEC÷PNEC as well as MEC÷PNEC and risk graphs, there is no significant risk to surface waters.

  8. Current assessment practice, personality measurement, and rorschach usage by psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musewicz, John; Marczyk, Geoffrey; Knauss, Linda; York, David

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we investigated current personality assessment practice and attitudes toward Rorschach (Exner, 2003) usage by 215 psychologists. We administered an Internet survey to members of the Society for Personality Assessment (SPA) and the American Psychological Association. Results were similar to those of past surveys, but the importance of using tests with strong psychometric properties was greater in this study. The majority of respondents reported using the Rorschach and supporting efforts to standardize and psychometrically validate the test. However, SPA members agreed more strongly than non-SPA members that the Rorschach is an effective test. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  9. Assessment of Electrical Safety Beliefs and Practices: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Boubaker, S.; Mekni, S.; Jerbi, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the electrical safety beliefs and practices in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, have been assessed. Based on legislative recommendations and rules applied in Saudi Arabia, on official statistics regarding the electricity-caused accidents and on the analysis of more than 200 photos captured in Hail (related to electrical safety), a questionnaire composed of 36 questions (10 for the respondents information, 16 for the home safety culture and 10 for the electrical devices purchasing cul...

  10. Joint United States-European Union Theoretical and Practical Course on Molecular Approaches for In Situ Biogradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suflita, Joseph M.; Duncan, Kathleen E.

    2010-08-14

    The Joint United States - European Union Theoretical and Practical Course on Molecular Approaches for in situ Biodegradation was held May 24 through June 7 at The University of Oklahoma. Twenty-four graduate and postgraduate students from both the United States and the European Union attended the course. Nine states and ten European countries were represented. Students were assigned living quarters and laboratory partners to maximize interactions between US and EU participants as well as to mix people with different technical backgrounds together. The students used the latest methods in molecular biology to characterize beneficial microorganisms and genes involved in the biodegradation of pollutants at a nearby landfill as well as an active hydrocarbon-producing site, part of which is undergoing bioremediation. Seminars by distinguished scientists were organized to expose the students to the breadth of the environmental field, including field assay and engineering applications, laboratory scale bioreactors, microbiology, genetics, regulation, pathway analysis, design of recombinant bacteria, and application of the associated techniques to the field. Lectures were given by various OU faculty on the principles behind the techniques to be used in the laboratory. These lectures included troubleshooting hints and encouraged questions and comments from the audience. The laboratory experiments covered chemical, microbiological, and molecular genetic analyses of soils; bioavailability of contaminants; enrichment cultures; gene probing; PCR amplification of known genes and gene families; identification of microbes based traditional and nontraditional approaches, nutritional capabilities, and 16S rRNA sequence; mRNA detection; and enzyme assays. Field trips were made to the USGS landfill field sampling site, and to the Tall Grass Prairie Preserve, a Nature Conservancy site which also featured long-term studies of bioremediation of crude oil and brine spills by one of the

  11. A Consensus Model: Shifting assessment practices in dietetics tertiary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Rachel; Kellett, Jane; Dart, Janeane; Knight-Agarwal, Cathy; Mete, Rebecca; Ash, Susan; Palermo, Claire

    2018-02-21

    The aim of this research was to evaluate a Consensus Model for competency-based assessment. An evaluative case study was used to allow a holistic examination of a constructivist-interpretivist programmatic model of assessment. Using a modified Delphi process, the competence of all 29 students enrolled in their final year of a Master of Nutrition and Dietetics course was assessed by a panel (with expertise in competency-based assessment; industry and academic representation) from a course e-portfolio (that included the judgements of student performance made by worksite educators) and a panel interview. Data were triangulated with assessments from a capstone internship. Qualitative descriptive studies with worksite educators (focus groups n = 4, n = 5, n = 8) and students (personal interviews n = 29) explored stakeholder experiences analysed using thematic analysis. Panel consensus was achieved for all cases by the third-round and corroborated by internship outcomes. For 34% of students this differed to the 'interpretations' of their performance made by their worksite educator/s. Emerging qualitative themes from stakeholder data found the model: (i) supported sustainable assessment practices; (ii) shifted the power relationship between students and worksite educators and (iii) provided a fair method to assess competence. To maximise benefits, more refinement, resources and training are required. This research questions competency-based assessment practices based on discrete placement units and supports a constructivist-interpretivist programmatic approach where evidence across a whole course of study is considered by a panel of assessors. © 2018 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  12. Everyday classroom assessment practices in science classrooms in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment practices in the upper-secondary school. Framing questions include: are teachers performing an integrated assessment of students' skills as the national curriculum mandates? If so, what do the instructional discourses look like in those situations and what are students' experiences regarding their agency on learning and assessment? We emphasize the social, cultural and historic character of assessment and sustain a situated character of learning instead of the notion that learning is "stored inside the head". Teacher led lessons in three science classrooms were video-recorded and analyzed by combining ethnographic and discourse methods of analysis. Both methods are appropriate to the theoretical foundation of our approach on learning and can give some answers to questions about how individuals interact socially, how their experience is passed on to next generations through language and how language use may reveal cultural changes in the studied context. Making the study of action in a classroom the focal point of sociocultural analysis supports the examination of assessment processes and identification of the social roles in which teachers and students are immersed. Such an approach requires observations of how teachers act in authentic teaching situations when they interact with their students in classroom making possible to observe negotiation processes, agencies when both teachers and students are involved in every-day activities. Our study showed that teachers mostly ignored students' questions and that students solved their own problems by helping each other. Teachers did not provide opportunities for students to discuss

  13. Assessment of Integrated Learning: Suggested Application of Concept Mapping to Prior Learning Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova-Gonci, Viktoria; Lamb, Monica C.

    2012-01-01

    Prior learning assessment (PLA) students enter academia with different types of concepts--some of them have been formally accepted and labeled by academia and others are informally formulated by students via independent and/or experiential learning. The critical goal of PLA practices is to assess an intricate combination of prior learning…

  14. Regulations, policies and practices concerning work stress in five European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.; Gier, E. de; Smulders, P.; Draaisma, D.

    1994-01-01

    A comparative inventory of regulations, policies and practices in The Netherlands, Sweden, UK, Germany and France with regard to the prevention of work stress was carried out. In each country data were collected by means of interviews with key informants and through exploring relevant documents and

  15. Language Policies and Practices in the Internationalisation of Higher Education on the European Margins: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cots, Josep M.; Llurda, Enric; Garrett, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Following Spolsky's definition of language policy, this introductory paper offers a brief reflection on the three main lines of research that are represented in this special issue regarding the relationship between internationalisation and language policies in higher education: management and planning, practices, and beliefs. In the first part, we…

  16. Patterns in current perioperative practice: survey of colorectal surgeons in five northern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, K; Hannemann, P; Ljungqvist, O

    2005-01-01

    no bowel preparation, epidural anaesthesia/analgesia continued for one to two days postoperatively, no nasogastric decompression tube postoperatively, intravenous fluid/saline restriction, and free oral intake from postoperative day one. 1 - 5 This survey aimed to characterise perioperative practice...

  17. Restyling museum role and activities: European best practices towards a new strategic fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Ferraro

    2011-12-01

    Adottando un approccio dì benchmarking, questo articolo si propone di colmare tale lacuna, dipanando le funzioni museali in un set articolato di attività, al fine di individuare best practices a livello di attività, nel tentativo di ricostruire il volto dei musei oggi, colti in un momento cruciale della loro lotta per la sopravvivenza.

  18. Challenges and opportunities for integrated environmental assessment : proceedings of the First Workshop of the European Forum on Integrated Environmental Assessment, Amsterdam, 12-14 March 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosen, H.; Tol, R.S.J.; Vellinga, P.

    2004-01-01

    The first workshop of the European Forum on Integrated Environmental Assessment (EFIEA) took place in Amsterdam on 12-14 March 1998. Integrated Environmental Assessment is loosely defined as policy-relevant, multi-disciplinary research into complex environmental issues. The workshop provided an

  19. Positive parenting attitudes and practices in three transitional Eastern European countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Marija; Vasic, Vladimir; Petrovic, Oliver; Santric-Milicevic, Milena

    2016-06-01

    To identify potential predictors of using only non-violent forms of discipline for children aged 2-14 years and of being against physical punishment among Roma and non-Roma parents/caregivers in Eastern European countries with similar cultural-historical backgrounds. UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data collected in 2010-2011 in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Serbia (total of 9973 respondents) were analysed using multivariate logistic regression modelling with receiver operating characteristic analysis. Approximately 27 % of the respondents practiced only non-violent child discipline. Roma children experienced only non-violent discipline less than half as often as their non-Roma counterparts. Household wealth index and child sex were significant predictors of positive parenting attitudes and practice. For Roma respondents, rural residence also contributed to being against physical punishment. Parents\\caregivers from more affluent households are more likely than those who are less affluent to be against physical punishment of children and are more likely to practice only non-violent discipline. Evidence-based interventions are required to support existing positive forms of child rearing. These should target less affluent households from Roma settlements in the studied countries.

  20. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools.

  1. TB control policies in European countries: international standards and local practice of their implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semigina, Tetyana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ukraine belongs to countries with high level of tuberculosis (TB incidence. Despite measures implemented by the state and non-governmental organizations (NGOs, the situation with the spread of TB stays alarming.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of legal acts, international standards, national reports and other official documents related to TB control was carried out for such countries as the UK, the Netherlands, Moldova, Romania, and Ukraine.RESULTS: All the European countries under consideration are running the DOTS approach (DOTS - Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course, recommended by the WHO. The Netherlands and the UK have been using this approach for a long time (since 1970; and in the Netherlands resources are mobilized by the government and NGOs working both on the national and international levels. In Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine DOTS approach is not widely used and is implemented mostly in an adapted form.All the selected countries have national plans for TB control with clearly defined goals and ways to achieve them. However, while implementing TB control policy local features are taken into account: in the UK national policy is adjusted for implementation at the local level, in Moldova there are some local programs of TB control. The UK has introduce case managers for each patient with TB, Romania has the special managers to implement the national TB control program.Ukraine is characterized with fragmentary funding of TB control, lack of coordination mechanisms for the NGOs using international funds, which endangers the overall achievement of the policy goal. Ukraine's legislation contains provisions that interfere with implementation of current strategies to strengthen the health system in general and to improve TB control in particular. Currently, such local features as population mobility, poor coordination of TB control, inadequate attention to spread of TB among HIV-infected, drug resistance inhibit the

  2. Rotation therapy for maniacs, melancholics and idiots: theory, practice and perception in European medical and literary case histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Sheila

    2018-03-01

    This article examines the development and use of rotation therapy in the emerging field of psychiatry at the beginning of the 19th century, and the cross-fertilization between British, Irish, German, French and other European proponents of 'Cox's Swing'. Its short-lived popularity is linked to prevalent Enlightenment thought, to the development of an industrial and technological society, to the modern medical theories of irritability, and to the new practice of 'moral management' of the mentally ill. Case studies documenting the use of the Swing are considered from these perspectives, and are compared with contemporary public reactions in the form of publications in newspapers and of a literary text by German Romantic author Ludwig Achim von Arnim.

  3. Incorporating Self and Peer Assessment in Reflective Teaching Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ratminingsih

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available More currently literature reviews suggests the use of authentic assessment, which aims to involve students to be more responsible with their learning. This article reports the findings of a descriptive study on student teachers’ perception on the use of self and peer assessment to give evaluation on planning the lesson and teaching performance in Reflective Teaching Class. There were 100 samples taken randomly from 234 students in a survey using questionnaire and 15 students participating in the focus group discussion (FGD. The finding from the questionnaire shows that they had a very positive perception toward the use of self and peer assessment. Additionally, from the FGD, they conveyed by practicing doing self assessment, they could learn to see self performance deeply, strengths and weaknesses. From peer-assessment, they could learn collaboratively from feedback given by peers how to make a better lesson plan and perform a more effective teaching. Hence, self and peer assessment is considered beneficial for preparing the real teaching practicum and future career development. However, there are some problems challenged them, such as feeling subjectivity in assessing both self or peers, embarrassed and less confidence, and time constraints to make evaluation and reflection in the classroom

  4. Reflective practice: assessment of assignments in English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskiené

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The construct alternative assessment has been widely used in higher education. It is often defined as any type of assessment of learners who provide a response to an assignment. The key features of alternative assessment are active participation of learners in self-evaluation of their performance, and the development of reflective thinking through reflective thinking (Schön, 1983. The success of alternative assessment in language teaching is predetermined by student’s performance and demonstrates learner’s language proficiency in contemporary communicative classrooms. This paper aims at researching the influence of students’ evaluations of various assignments for their linguistic development in English for Specific Purposes (ESP. The study uses learners’ assessment of different assignments and learners’ in-course and post-course written reflections on benefits to language mastery. Learners’ assignments included were contributions to portfolios (dossiers, such as essays and summaries, oral presentations, short impromptu talks, creative tasks, tests, and self-assessment notes (reflections on activities in learning ESP. Findings were obtained for two streams of the project participants. Results showed that self-assessment was beneficial for learners’ linguistic development. The context of learners’ reflections reveals that the attitudes to various assignments are affected by success or failure in students’ performance. Reflective practice might help teachers develop ways of dealing with previously identified difficulties and improve the quality of teaching.

  5. Remote Monitoring of Chronic Diseases: A Landscape Assessment of Policies in Four European Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rojahn

    Full Text Available Remote monitoring (RM is defined as the surveillance of device-transmitted outpatient data. RM is expected to enable better management of chronic diseases. The objective of this research was to identify public policies concerning RM in four European countries.Searches of the medical literature, the Internet, and Ministry of Health websites for the United Kingdom (UK, Germany, Italy, and Spain were performed in order to identify RM policies for chronic diseases, including end stage renal disease (ESRD, chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD, diabetes, heart failure, and hypertension. Searches were first performed in Q1 2014 and updated in Q4 2015. In addition, in depth interviews were conducted with payers/policymakers in each country. Information was obtained on existing policies, disease areas and RM services covered and level of reimbursement, other incentives such as quality indicators, past/current assessments of RM technologies, diseases perceived to benefit most from RM, and concerns about RM.Policies on RM and/or telemedicine were identified in all four countries. Pilot projects (mostly in diabetes, COPD, and/or heart failure existed or were planned in most countries. Perceived value of RM was moderate to high, with the highest rating given for heart failure. Interviewees expressed concerns about sharing of medical information, and the need for capital investment. Patients recently discharged from hospital, and patients living remotely, or with serious and/or complicated diseases, were believed to be the most likely to benefit from RM. Formal reimbursement is scarce, but more commonly available for patients with heart failure.In the four European countries surveyed, RM has attracted considerable interest for its potential to increase the efficiency of healthcare for chronic diseases. Although rare at this moment, incentives to use RM technology are likely to increase in the near future as the body of evidence of clinical and

  6. Assessing Forest Classification in a Landscape-Level Framework: An Example from Central European Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonín Kusbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional land classifications developed on the basis of what was once prevailing expert knowledge have since largely become obsolete. We assessed expert knowledge based landscape-level units delineated in central European temperate forests: Natural Forest Areas (NFA and Forest Vegetation Zones (FVZ. Our focus was determining to what degree these units reflect vegetation-environmental relationships. After considering as many as 49,000 plots with vegetation and 25,000 plots with environmental data within a territory of the Czech Republic, we analyzed 11,885 plots. We used multivariate statistics to discriminate between the landscape-level units. While NFAs performed extremely well, FVZ results were less successful. Classification of the environment provided better results than classification of vegetation for both the Hercynicum and Carpaticum phytogeographic part of the Czech Republic. Taking into account significance of the environment in our analysis, a delimitation of FVZs and similar vegetation-driven structures worldwide via explicit a priori stratification by tree species without consideration of environmental limits would not be supported by our analysis. We suggest not relying only on vegetation in classification analyses, but also including the significant environmental factors for direct classification of FVZ and units in particular in altered vegetation composition setting such as the central European forests. We propose a novel interpretation of FVZ via appropriate vegetation stratification throughout the environment used in conjunction with the zonal concept. Understanding of coarse-scaled vegetation-environmental relationships is not only fundamental in forest ecology and forest management, but is also essential for improving lower classification levels. Valuable expert knowledge should be combined with formal quantification, which is consistent with recent calls for advanced multidisciplinary ecological classifications in Europe

  7. Management of Lyme Disease in European Children: a Review for Practical Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Matteo; Loy, Anna; Castagnola, Elio

    2017-08-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne zoonosis transmitted through a bite of a tick carrying a spirochete belonging to Borrelia species. In the last 20 years, the reported incidence of Lyme disease is increased by three times in Europe. Clinically, the illness develops through a primary stage with a typical skin rash (erythema marginatum), then a secondary stage with possible neurologic or cardiac involvement. The last stage (chronic Lyme disease) is mainly represented by arthritis or late neurological complications but nowadays is rarely seen due to precocious antibiotic use. The diagnosis of Lyme disease is essentially based on history in agreement with tick exposure (living/recent traveling in endemic area or tick bite) and clinical findings compatible with the disease. At present, no laboratory diagnostic tool available can neither establish nor exclude the diagnosis of Lyme disease. The management of Lyme disease should comprise a prophylactic administration of antibiotic in selected population (patients exposed to a tick bite in endemic regions) in which the typical signs of Lyme disease are not yet appeared; conversely, patients with current signs of Lyme disease should undergo a standard therapeutic course. First-line therapy should be oral tetracycline or oral penicillin/cephalosporin (in pediatric populations, beta-lactamic drugs are preferred). In severe courses, intravenous route should be preferred. The aim of this review is to provide an updated guide to the management of pediatric Lyme patients, from prophylaxis to first- and second-line therapy in European setting.

  8. Multisource feedback to assess pediatric practice: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah Al Alawi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The assessment and maintenance of competence for pediatricians has recently received increased attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate further the use of multisource feedback for assessing pediatricians in practice. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted using the electronic databases EMBASE, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, PUBMED, and CINAHL for English-language articles. Results: 762 articles were identified with the initial search and 756 articles were excluded for a total of six studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Internal consistency reliability was reported in five studies with α > 0.95 for both subscales and full scales. Generalizability was also reported in two studies with Ep2 generally > 0.78. These adequate Ep2 coefficients were achieved with different numbers of raters. Evidence for content, criterion-related (e.g., Pearson’s r and construct validity (e.g., principal component factor analysis was reported in all 6 studies. Conclusion: Multisource feedback is a feasible, reliable, and valid method to assess pediatricians in practice. The results indicate that multisource feedback system can be used to assess key competencies such as communication skills, interpersonal skills, collegiality, and medical expertise. Further implementation of multisource feedback is desirable.

  9. Solid waste conversion to energy: Current European and U.S. practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, H.; Dunn, J. J., Jr.

    The book provides an introduction to the background and technology of resource recovery from municipal solid wastes, as practiced in the United States and Europe. Quantity and composition of wastes in the United States and Europe are analyzed, and recovery of materials from waste in Europe is studied. Examples of waste-to-energy conversion and use technologies are discussed. Decision making for waste-to-energy system planning and implementation is considered, and marketing recovered products are outlined.

  10. Assessment of zoonotic potential of four European swine influenza viruses in the ferret model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina; P. Fabrizio, Thomas; Yoon, Sun-Woo

    herds and enhanced focus on risk assessment of these new viruses. In this study, four European swine influenza viruses were assessed for their zoonotic potential. Of the four viruses, two were enzootic viruses of subtype H1N2 (with avian-like H1) and H3N2 and two were new reassortants, one with avian......-like H1 and human-like N2 and one with pandemic H1 and swine-like N2. All viruses replicated to high viral titers in nasal wash- and nasal turbinate samples from inoculated ferrets and transmitted efficiently by direct contact. Only the H3N2 virus transmitted to naïve ferrets via respiratory droplets....... Growth kinetics using human bronchial cells showed that all four viruses were able to replicate to high titers. Further, the viruses revealed preferential binding to the α2,6-silalylated glycans and investigation of the antiviral susceptibility of the viruses revealed that they were all sensitive...

  11. An Assessment of European Spruce Bark Beetle Infestation Using WorldView-2 Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filchev, L.

    2012-05-01

    During the past three decades the spectral responses of declining forest health due to pest infestations as well as various methods for detection of trees' health status have been extensively studied. A set of narrow-band and broad-band Vegetation Indices (VIs) have been developed to assess the changes in the vegetation reflectance. The main objective of the study is to assess the damages caused by European Spruce Bark Beetle (Ips typographus L.) infestation in 'Bistrishko Branishte' UNESCO Man And Biosphere (MAB) reserve using WorldView-2 satellite data. The analysis was performed on Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest using the VIs indicative for forest stress: NDVI, SR, EVI, ARVI, CRI, CSc, and ARI. By applying density slice on the VIs, the main regions for stressed vegetation have been delineat ed. The CSc has been found to perform better in detecting the pattern of stressed spruce trees compared to ARI. The area affected by Ips typographus was determined by CSc index to 5.97% (0.373 km2) of the study area.

  12. Environmental Impact Assessment--methodology with special emphasis on European pork production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckmann, K; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J

    2012-09-30

    One of the most discussed topics worldwide is climate change, upon which livestock production is known to have a great environmental impact. There are different methods to measure these environmental impacts, some of which are mentioned in this review. It especially focuses on the method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), because it is widely used, of high relevance and good quality. This review highlights a sample of the few published European LCA studies on pork production. These assessments result in an average global warming potential of 3.6 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork, ranging from 2.6 to 6.3 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork. Additionally, it illustrates the main limitations of the methodology itself (e.g. data intensiveness, different allocation techniques) and its application in pork production (e.g. limited data availability, use of multiple functional units, varying system boundaries). The missing comparability of various studies arising from a vague standard still represents the main problem in LCA. Therefore, a new standardisation and the development of a more exhaustive database would generate a future trend. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A survey of the potential impact of the European Union Physical Agents Directive (EU PAD) on electromagnetic fields (EMF) on MRI research practice in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Nicola M R; Morris, Clive J

    2008-08-01

    To assess concerns that the European Union Physical Agents Directive (EU PAD) on Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) could seriously restrict the use of MRI for research, diagnosis, and treatment, this study was conducted to examine the impact of the EU PAD on research practice, following a previous survey that assessed its impact on clinical practice. Data were collected through an online survey. E-mail invitations were sent to every UK grant-holder funded by Cancer Research UK, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), Medical Research Council (MRC), and the Wellcome Trust in the last three years, who use MRI technology. A total of 70% of researchers responding to the survey reported that some of their MR research is conducted with at least one researcher in the scanner room during operation. Of those researchers in the scanner room, more than three-quarters are within 1 m of the scanner, for any scanner strength, and would therefore exceed the limits set in the Directive. Over half of these researchers also reach into the magnet bore, while at least one in five researchers spend over an hour in the scanner room during operation. The results suggest the EU PAD could have a very prohibitive impact on research practice. The current exposure limits would prohibit interventional MRI, limit the provision of patient care, and restrict researchers from reaching into the magnet bore to position and check equipment or to provide technical support. The use of new, more powerful high-field scanners will be particularly restricted. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology-European Institute of Radiotherapy (ESTRO-EIR) report on 3D CT-based in-room image guidance systems: a practical and technical review and guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine; Rasch, Coen; McNair, Helen

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has provided many technological advances in radiotherapy. The European Institute of Radiotherapy (EIR) was established by the European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) to provide current consensus statement with evidence-based and pragmatic guidelines on topics...... of practical relevance for radiation oncology. This report focuses primarily on 3D CT-based in-room image guidance (3DCT-IGRT) systems. It will provide an overview and current standing of 3DCT-IGRT systems addressing the rationale, objectives, principles, applications, and process pathways, both clinical...... demonstrates a wide variability based on local practices. This report whilst comprehensive is not exhaustive as this area of development remains a very active field for research and development. However, it should serve as a practical guide and framework for all professional groups within the field, focussed...

  15. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Cletus Uche; Abonyi, Livinus Chibuzo; Njoku, Jerome; Irurhe, Nicholas Kayode; Olowu, Oluwabola

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Results: Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Conclusion: Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation. PMID:24665152

  17. Learning for resilience in the European Court of Human Rights: adjudication as an adaptive governance practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P. West

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Managing for social-ecological resilience requires ongoing learning. In the context of nonlinear dynamics, surprise, and uncertainty, resilience scholars have proposed adaptive management, in which policies and management actions are treated as experiments, as one way of encouraging learning. However, the implementation of adaptive management has been problematic. The legal system has been identified as an impediment to adaptive management, with its apparent prioritization of certainty over flexibility, emphasis on checks and balances, protection of individual rights over public interests, and its search for "transcendent justice" over "contingent truth." However, although adaptive management may encourage learning for ecological resilience, it is only one aspect of the institutional change needed to foster learning for social-ecological resilience. The mechanisms, including law, that provide for pursuit and protection of evolving ideas of justice and equity are critical for guiding human understanding of and interaction with the material environment. A broader agenda for learning within and about social-ecological resilience that focuses on the interaction between ideas of justice and equity with ecosystem dynamics is captured in the concept of adaptive governance. We have built on recent literature that has elaborated on the role of law in governance of social-ecological systems by analyzing environmental cases in the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR. We find that the ECtHR contributes to adaptive governance by supporting multiple ways of knowing the environment, enhancing polycentricity, and encouraging adaptive management and policy making by member states in the context of public participation. We have argued that the environmental case law of the ECtHR constitutes an important site of learning for governance of social-ecological systems, because it situates knowledge and experience of environmental change in the context of discussions

  18. Do pressure ulcer risk assessment scales improve clinical practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kottner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Jan Kottner1, Katrin Balzer21Department of Nursing Science, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; 2Nursing Research Group, Institute for Social Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, GermanyAbstract: Standardized assessment instruments are deemed important for estimating pressure ulcer risk. Today, more than 40 so-called pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are available but still there is an ongoing debate about their usefulness. From a measurement point of view pressure ulcer (PU risk assessment scales have serious limitations. Empirical evidence supporting the validity of PU risk assessment scale scores is weak and obtained scores contain varying amounts of measurement error. The concept of pressure ulcer risk is strongly related to the general health status and severity of illness. A clinical impact due do the application of these scales could also not be demonstrated. It is questionable whether completion of standardized pressure ulcer risk scales in clinical practice is really needed.Keywords: Braden pressure ulcer, prevention, risk assessment, nursing assessment, predictive value, clinical effectiveness, review

  19. Current practices in the management of malignant pleural effusions: a survey among members of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarci, Marco; Caruana, Edward; Bertolaccini, Luca; Bedetti, Benedetta; Brunelli, Alessandro; Varela, Gonzalo; Papagiannopoulos, Kostas; Kuzdzal, Jaroslaw; Massard, Gilbert; Ruffini, Enrico; Falcoz, Pierre Emmanuel; Opitz, Isabelle; Batirel, Hasan; Toker, Alper; Rocco, Gaetano

    2017-03-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) commonly complicates advanced malignancy and their exact management is still undefined. We undertook a survey to determine the current practice among members of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS). A cross-sectional survey focused on the current practice of management of MPE was developed by the authors. The questions were outlined after a review of the literature and circulated in an Internet-based survey format. Computed tomography (125, 92%) and chest X-ray (106, 78%) are the most common imaging modalities performed in the initial evaluation. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for washout and pleurodesis (93, 68%) was reported as the preferred approach to patients with uncomplicated MPE. Sixty-one (45%) of the responding colleagues routinely use large bore chest tubes for draining malignant effusions. Forty-nine (35%) surgeons would not apply suction to the drainage system, whilst 50 (37%) would use -2 kPa or less. Talc (124, 91%) is the most commonly used sclerosing agent for pleurodesis in the context of malignant pleural effusion. The practice of 76 (56%) of the respondents is not informed by any clinical guidelines, whilst 60 (44%) reported adhering to the 2010 British Thoracic Society Pleural Disease Guideline. Seventy-one (52%) declared that the guidance was in need of updating or revision. This survey demonstrates the lacking adoption of the existing clinical guidance in this field, as well as the need for more contemporary guidelines for a better-informed practice. The ESTS Working Group on the management of MPE has been established for this purpose.

  20. Assessment practices of Iowa science teachers from a constructivist perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris Freedman, Robin Lee

    How do students learn? What can they do? When assessments evolve out of instruction as is expected in inquiry and constructivist based classrooms, one can derive definitive results. It was the purpose of this study to describe the assessment environment found in the Iowa SS&C compared to those in other Iowa science classrooms. Science instruction in classrooms of Iowa SS&C teachers is based on NSES, Constructivist theory, and an STS approach. In Iowa SS&C classrooms the primary focus is to make science personal and relevant to students. Iowa science teachers were surveyed. Survey results revealed that the two groups of teachers had different perceptions regarding their grading philosophies and in the use of traditional and non-traditional assessments. The two groups were similar in their ability to identify appropriate uses for assessments and the use of a variety of assessments that make up a student's grade. Several methods were used to gain understanding of how the two teacher groups were different, i.e., in-depth interviews, a collection of assessment artifacts, and a student survey of a sub-sample of teachers. Artifact analysis revealed that the Iowa SS&C teachers used more application items, were more familiar and more likely to use non-traditional assessments, and used more assessments of higher order thinking skills than other Iowa science teachers. Student perspectives regarding assessments were surveyed. Students who completed the survey felt competent to assess themselves. Iowa SS&C students perceived that they have an active role in establishing the classroom assessment environment, share and listen to each others' ideas, and have a voice in how and by what means they are assessed. Synthesis of interview data revealed an assessment environment that reflected NSES philosophy and the STS approach. The assessment environment according to Iowa SS&C teachers was defined by teacher beliefs and practices, how teachers engage students, and internal and external

  1. Infant Communicative Development Assessed with the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Short Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frota, Sónia; Butler, Joseph; Correia, Susana; Severino, Cátia; Vicente, Selene; Vigário, Marina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories short forms, the first published instruments for the assessment of language development in EP-learning infants and toddlers. Normative data from the EP population are presented, focusing on developmental trends for vocabulary learning, production…

  2. A quantitative assessment of policy options for no net loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, C.J.E.; van Teeffelen, A.J.A.; Tucker, G.; Verburg, P.H.

    2016-01-01

    The Biodiversity Strategy of the European Union includes a target to "ensure no-net-loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services by 2020". Many policy options can be envisioned to achieve such a no-net-loss target, mainly acting on land use and land management. To assess the effectiveness of such

  3. For better and for worse : The relationship between union dissolution and self-assessed health in European Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monden, C.W.S.; Uunk, W.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the association between union dissolution and self-assessed health in European panel data. Previous studies suggest that this association might be negative, yet it is unclear to what extent this reflects causation (an effect of union dissolution of health) and/or selection (an effect

  4. Assessment of the Maturity of eGoverment Building Blocks for Public Administrations in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoosel, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a maturity assessment of a set of generic building blocks for public administrations in the EU. In the European e-SENS project, various generic building blocks are developed, such as eID, eSignature, eDelivery and eDocument building blocks. They should be used by

  5. An Assessment of the Quality of Life in the European Union Based on the Social Indicators Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Marco; Canova, Luciano

    2008-01-01

    This article carries out a multidimensional analysis of welfare based on the social indicators approach aimed at assessing the quality of life in the 25 member countries of the European Union. It begins with description of the social indicators approach and provides some specifications on its most controversial points. It then specifies the…

  6. Innovative Soil Management Practices (SMP) Assessment in Europe and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão, Lúcia

    2017-04-01

    The growing world population poses a major challenge to global agricultural food and feed production through the pressure to increase agricultural outputs either by increasing the land area dedicated to agriculture or by productivity increases. Whether in developed or developing regions, agricultural intensification based on conventional approaches has resulted in severe environmental impacts and innovative soil management practices are needed to halter ongoing soil degradation and promote sustainable land management capable to produce more from less. The iSQAPER project - Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience - aims to develop a Soil Quality app (SQAPP) linking soil and agricultural management practices to soil quality indicators. This easy friendly tool will provide a direct and convenient way to advise farmers and other suitable actors in this area, regarding the best management practices to be adopted in very specific and local conditions. In this particular study from iSQAPER, we aimed to identify the most promising innovative soil management practices (SMP) currently used and its geographical distribution along different pedo-climatic regions in Europe (Boreal, Atlantic, Mediterranean Temperate, Mediterranean Semi-Arid, Southern Sub-Continental and Northern Sub-Continental) and China (Middle Temperate, Warm temperate and Central Asia Tropical). So far we have identified 155 farms where innovative SMP's are used, distributed along 4 study site regions located in China (Qiyang, Suining, Zhifanggou and Gongzhuling) and 10 study site regions located in Europe (The Netherlands, France, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Slovenia, Hungary, Romania, Poland and Estonia) and covering the major pedo-climatic regions. From this identification we concluded that the most used innovative SMP's in the study site regions in Europe are Manuring & Composting (14%), Min-till (14%), Crop rotation (12

  7. Reversing the gaze: constructing European race discourse as modern witchcraft practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkinson, James W

    2004-01-01

    In keeping with the challenge of (African American) historian of religions Charles Long to develop a mode of postcolonial encounter that is a process of mutual hermeneusis, I am proposing in this article to think "race" in terms of "indigenous ritual." At the very least it is an effort to relativize the western scientific paradigm and the universalizing humanities discourses that have nestled close to that paradigm. It is not an attempt to repudiate such an episteme but, rather-to borrow a jazz term-to "swing" it, to put it in antiphonal and improvisational circulation. More specifically, this article will trace a thought experiment, probing the historical emergence of white supremacist practice as a kind of modernist embodiment of "witchcraft discourse," which functions-in the institutional grammar it has left on deposit in contemporary social practice and the "intention to consume" (the substance of others) that it "rationalizes"-very much like the "primitive superstitions" it seeks to name and repudiate in positing its own rationalizing superiority. In such an enterprise, witchcraft, I am arguing, can be "good to think with" as a mode of communicative action, signifying with a kind of "boomerang effect" in the intercultural space of rupture between the West and the rest.

  8. Assessing Idaho Rural Family Physician Scope of Practice Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, David; Baker, Ed; MacKenzie, Lisa; Kinney, Logan; Epperly, Ted

    2015-01-01

    An important consideration determining health outcomes is to have an adequate supply of physicians to address the health needs of the community. The purpose of this investigation was to assess scope of practice factors for Idaho rural family physicians in 2012 and to compare these results to findings from a 2007 study. The target population in this study was rural family physicians in Idaho counties with populations of fewer than 50,000. Identical surveys and methods were utilized in both 2007 and 2012. The physician survey was mailed to 252 rural physicians and was returned by 89 for a response rate of 35.3%. Parametric and nonparametric statistical analyses were conducted to analyze the 2012 results and to assess changes in scope of practice across the time periods. The percentage of rural family physicians in Idaho in 2012 who provided prenatal care, vaginal deliveries, and nursing home care was significantly lower than the results from the 2007 survey. Female physicians were more likely to provide prenatal care and vaginal deliveries than males in 2012. Male physicians were more likely to provide emergency room coverage and esophagogastroduodenoscopy or colonoscopy services than females in 2012. Younger physicians were found to be more likely to provide inpatient admissions and mental health services in 2012 than older physicians. Employed physicians were more likely to provide cesarean delivery, other operating room services and emergency room coverage in 2012 than nonemployed physicians. Further research is needed to assess the root causes of these changes. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  9. Advanced Practice Nursing Competency Assessment Instrument (APNCAI): clinimetric validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Fullana, Pedro; Morales-Asencio, Jose Miguel; Sesé-Abad, Albert; Fernández-Domínguez, Juan Carlos; De Pedro-Gómez, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and clinimetric validation of the Advanced Practice Nursing Competency Assessment Instrument (APNCAI) through several evidence sources about reliability and validity in the Spanish context. Design and setting APNCAI development was based on a multisequential and systematic process: literature review, instrument content consensus through qualitative Delphi method approach (a panel of 51 Advanced Practice in Nursing –APN– experts was selected) and the clinimetric validation process based on a sample of 600 nurses from the Balearic Islands public healthcare setting. Methods An initial step for tool's content development process based on Delphi method approach of expert consensus was implemented. A subsequent phase of tool validation started from the analysis of APN core competencies latent measurement model, including exploratory and confirmatory techniques. Reliability evidence for each latent factor was also obtained. Items' scores were submitted to descriptive analysis, plus univariate and multivariate normality tests. Results An eight-factor competency assessment latent model obtained adequate fit, and it was composed by ‘Research and Evidence-Based Practice’, ‘Clinical and Professional Leadership’, ‘Interprofessional Relationship and Mentoring’, ‘Professional Autonomy’, ‘Quality Management’, ‘Care Management’, ‘Professional Teaching and Education’ and ‘Health Promotion’. Conclusions Adequate empirical evidence of reliability and validity for APNCAI makes it useful for application in healthcare policy programmes for APN competency assessment in Spain. PMID:28235968

  10. Combining ISO/IEC 17025:2005 and European Commission Decision 2002/657 audit requirements: a practical way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jack F

    2012-08-01

    Laboratories involved in the analyses of veterinary drug residues are under increasing pressure to demonstrate that they produce meaningful and reliable data. Quality assurance and quality control systems are implemented in laboratories to provide evidence of this and these are subject to external assessment to ensure that they are effective. Audits to ISO/IEC 17025:2005, an internationally accepted standard, and subsequent accreditation provide laboratories and their customers with a degree of assurance that the laboratories are operating in control and the data they report can be relied on. However, national or regional authorities may place additional requirements on laboratories to ensure quality data are reported. For example, in the European Union, all official control laboratories involved in veterinary drug residue analyses must also meet the requirements of European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC which sets performance criteria for analytical methods used in this area and these are subject to additional audits by national or regional authorities. All audits place considerable time and resource demands on laboratories and this paper discusses the burden audits place on laboratories and describes a UK initiative to combine these audits to the benefit of both the regulatory authority and the laboratory. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Assessment of Clinical Practices for Crushing Medication in Geriatric Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodil, M; Nghiem, D; Colas, M; Bourry, S; Poisson-Salomon, A-S; Rezigue, H; Trivalle, C

    2017-01-01

    To assess the modification of the form of medication and evaluate staff observance of good clinical practices. One-day assessment of clinical practices. 17 geriatrics units in the 3 Teaching Hospitals of Paris-Sud (APHP), France. Elderly in-patients with difficulties swallowing capsules and tablets. Assessment of target-patient prescriptions and direct observation of nurses' medical rounds. 155/526 in-patients (29.5%) were unable to swallow tablets or capsules: 98 (40.3%) in long-term care, 46 patients (23.8%) in the rehabilitation unit and 11 (12.2%) in the acute care unit (p = .005). In thirty-nine (27.3%) of the 143 prescriptions studied all tablets were safe to crush and all capsules were safe to open. In 104 cases, at least one medication could not be safely modified, including 26 cases (18.2%) in which none of the prescribed drugs were safe to crush or open. In 48.2% of the 110 medications that were crushed, crushing was forbidden, and presented a potential threat in 12.7% of cases or a reduced efficacy in 8.2% of cases. Crushing methods were rarely appropriate: no specific protective equipment was used (81.8%), crushing equipment was shared between patients without cleaning (95.1%), medications were spilled or lost (69.9%). The method of administration was appropriate (water, jellified water) in 25% of the cases, questionable (soup, coffee, compote, juice, cream) in 55% of the cases and unacceptable (laxative) in 21% of the cases. Management of drug prescriptions in patients with swallowing difficulties is not optimal, and may even have iatrogenic effects. In this study, 12.7% of the modifications of the drug form could have been harmful. Doctors, pharmacists and nurses need to reevaluate their practices.

  12. Institutional Quality of the Business Environment: Some European Practices in a Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary economic literature, we can find plenty of theoretical and empirical approaches which seek to highlight the most appropriate factorial variables that are associated with the institutional quality of the business environment. This study presents, in a summarised version, the institutional logic of transaction costs that was substantiated within a scientific research project. In essence, the economic performances of the business environment are circumscribed by the institutions that facilitate or constrain the entrepreneurial initiatives and the economic activity in general. In terms of empirical analysis, the comparative approach of the EU business environments illustrates various exemples of (good or bad practices with respect to the institutional quality of the business environment. By selecting certain relevant institutional variables, the original character of this research resides in developing an indicator – The Institutional Quality of the Business Environment (hereafter IQBE which offers a dynamic perspective upon the business environments that characterise both Romania and other EU countries.

  13. Creating scientists teaching and assessing science practice for the NGSS

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Teach students to reason like scientists. This practical new book provides a clear framework for helping students develop scientific thinking so they are not just memorizing content but are becoming engaged in the real work scientists do. You'll learn how to teach students to analyse scientific testing, to understand if something caused something else, and to understand the value of evidence. The book offers ideas for lesson plans and assessments and also features reproducible tools and handouts that you can use in the classroom immediately.

  14. Outline of restorative neurology: definition, clinical practice, assessment, intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Milan R

    2012-06-01

    Rather than focusing on the deficits and lost function caused by upper motor neuron lesions or disorders, it is more advantageous to elucidate, in each individual, the specific neural functions that remain available, and then, to build upon them by designing a treatment protocol to optimize their effectiveness and thus improve recovery. The practice of Restorative Neurology is based on detailed assessment of the individual patient, the use of neurophysiological methods to elucidate and characterize subclinical function and the application of interventions that modify neural activity to improve clinical function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Brent Spar abandonment - Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    Possible methods of abandoning or re-using the Brent Spar storage and tanker offloading facility following its decommissioning in 1991 are discussed. The report assesses six of the thirteen possible methods, including horizontal dismantling and onshore disposal, vertical dismantling and onshore disposal, in-field disposal, deep water disposal, refurbishment and re-use, and continued maintenance, in order to determine the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO). The BPEO covers technical feasibility risks to health and safety of the work force, environmental impacts, public acceptability and costs. (UK)

  16. An assessment of long term ecosystem research activities across European socio-ecological gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metzger, M.J.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Eupen, van M.; Mirtl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Integration of European long term ecosystem research (LTER) would provide important support for the management of the pan-European environment and ecosystems, as well as international policy commitments. This does require appropriate coverage of Europe and standardised frameworks and research

  17. Variation in internal medicine residency clinic practices: assessing practice environments and quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenovic, Jeanette; Shea, Judy A; Duffy, F Daniel; Lynn, Lorna A; Holmboe, Eric S; Lipner, Rebecca S

    2008-07-01

    Few studies have systematically and rigorously examined the quality of care provided in educational practice sites. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the patient population cared for by trainees in internal medicine residency clinics; (2) assess the quality of preventive cardiology care provided to these patients; (3) characterize the practice-based systems that currently exist in internal medicine residency clinics; and (4) examine the relationships between quality, practice-based systems, and features of the program: size, type of program, and presence of an electronic medical record. This is a cross-sectional observational study. This study was conducted in 15 Internal Medicine residency programs (23 sites) throughout the USA. The participants included site champions at residency programs and 709 residents. Abstracted charts provided data about patient demographics, coronary heart disease risk factors, processes of care, and clinical outcomes. Patients completed surveys regarding satisfaction. Site teams completed a practice systems survey. Chart abstraction of 4,783 patients showed substantial variability across sites. On average, patients had between 3 and 4 of the 9 potential risk factors for coronary heart disease, and approximately 21% had at least 1 important barrier of care. Patients received an average of 57% (range, 30-77%) of the appropriate interventions. Reported satisfaction with care was high. Sites with an electronic medical record showed better overall information management (81% vs 27%) and better modes of communication (79% vs 43%). This study has provided insight into the current state of practice in residency sites including aspects of the practice environment and quality of preventive cardiology care delivered. Substantial heterogeneity among the training sites exists. Continuous measurement of the quality of care provided and a better understanding of the training environment in which this care is delivered are important

  18. Nuclear cardiology practice and associated radiation doses in Europe: results of the IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Study (INCAPS) for the 27 European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Oliver; Burchert, Wolfgang [University Hospital of the Ruhr University, Institute of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Heart and Diabetes Center North Rhine-Westphalia Bochum, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Pascual, Thomas N.B.; Kashyap, Ravi; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana [International Atomic Energy Agency, Section of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Human Health, Vienna (Austria); Mercuri, Mathew [Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Acampa, Wanda [National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Flotats, Albert [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Kitsiou, Anastasia [Sismanoglio Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Athens (Greece); Knuuti, Juhani [University of Turku, and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Underwood, S.R. [Imperial College London, National Heart and Lung Institute, London (United Kingdom); Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospitals, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Vitola, Joao V. [Quanta Diagnostico and Terapia, Curitiba (Brazil); Mahmarian, John J. [Houston Methodist DeBakey Heart and Vascular Center, Department of Cardiology, Houston, TX (United States); Karthikeyan, Ganesan [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Cardiology, New Delhi (India); Better, Nathan [Royal Melbourne Hospital and University of Melbourne, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Melbourne (Australia); Rehani, Madan M. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Radiation Protection of Patients Unit, Vienna (Austria); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Einstein, Andrew J. [Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Collaboration: for the INCAPS Investigators Group

    2016-04-15

    Nuclear cardiology is widely used to diagnose coronary artery disease and to guide patient management, but data on current practices, radiation dose-related best practices, and radiation doses are scarce. To address these issues, the IAEA conducted a worldwide study of nuclear cardiology practice. We present the European subanalysis. In March 2013, the IAEA invited laboratories across the world to document all SPECT and PET studies performed in one week. The data included age, gender, weight, radiopharmaceuticals, injected activities, camera type, positioning, hardware and software. Radiation effective dose was calculated for each patient. A quality score was defined for each laboratory as the number followed of eight predefined best practices with a bearing on radiation exposure (range of quality score 0 - 8). The participating European countries were assigned to regions (North, East, South, and West). Comparisons were performed between the four European regions and between Europe and the rest-of-the-world (RoW). Data on 2,381 European patients undergoing nuclear cardiology procedures in 102 laboratories in 27 countries were collected. A cardiac SPECT study was performed in 97.9 % of the patients, and a PET study in 2.1 %. The average effective dose of SPECT was 8.0 ± 3.4 mSv (RoW 11.4 ± 4.3 mSv; P < 0.001) and of PET was 2.6 ± 1.5 mSv (RoW 3.8 ± 2.5 mSv; P < 0.001). The mean effective doses of SPECT and PET differed between European regions (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). The mean quality score was 6.2 ± 1.2, which was higher than the RoW score (5.0 ± 1.1; P < 0.001). Adherence to best practices did not differ significantly among the European regions (range 6 to 6.4; P = 0.73). Of the best practices, stress-only imaging and weight-adjusted dosing were the least commonly used. In Europe, the mean effective dose from nuclear cardiology is lower and the average quality score is higher than in the RoW. There is regional variation in effective dose in

  19. European network for Health Technology Assessment Joint Action (EUnetHTA JA): a process evaluation performed by questionnaires and documentary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford Guegan, Eleanor; Cook, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    The European network for Health Technology Assessment Joint Action (EUnetHTA JA) project's overarching objective was to 'establish an effective and sustainable HTA [Health technology assessment] collaboration in Europe that brings added value at the regional, national and European level'. Specific objectives were to develop a strategy and business model for sustainable European collaboration on HTA, develop HTA tools and methods and promote good practice in HTA methods and processes. We describe activities performed on behalf of the National Institute for Health Research HTA programme; evaluating the project processes and developing a data set for a registry of planned clinical studies of relevance to public funders. Annual self-completion online questionnaires were sent to project participants and external stakeholders to identify their views about the project processes. Documentary review was undertaken at the project end on the final technical reports from the work packages to examine whether or not their deliverables had been achieved. The project's impact was assessed by whether or not the deliverables were produced, the objectives met and additional 'added value' generated. The project's effectiveness was evaluated by its processes, communication, administration, workings of individual work packages and involvement of external stakeholders. A two-stage Delphi exercise was undertaken to identify the data elements that should be included in a registry of planned clinical studies of relevance to public funders. The data set was validated by an efficacy testing exercise. High response rates were achieved for the questionnaires sent to project participants and this was attributed to the evidence-based strategy implemented. Response rates to questionnaires sent to external stakeholders were disappointingly lower. Most of the high-level objectives were achieved, although applying the developed tools in practice will be implemented in the European network for Health

  20. [New standardized texts in Brazilian Portuguese to assess reading speed--comparison with four European languages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, André; Velasco e Cruz, Antonio Augusto; Schallenmüller, Sonia Jecov; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    To develop standardized texts in Brazilian Portuguese to assess reading speed and compare performances among four European languages. 10 texts were designed by a linguistic expert at the level of a sixth grade reading material (reading ages 10-12 years) and were matched for length and syntactic complexity, according to the syntactic prediction locality theory of Gibson. Normally sighted native speaking volunteers aged 18-35 years read each text aloud at random. The reading speed was on average 1100 +/- 167 (standard deviation) characters per minute. Only small differences were found between the measured reading speeds of the 10 texts, and these differences were not statistically significant in groups of at least 6 texts. The mean reading speed in age-matched volunteers in Finnish was: 1263 +/- 142; French: 1214 +/- 152; English: 1234 +/- 147; and German: 1126 +/- 105. The authors developed a set of standardized, homogeneous, and comparable texts in Brazilian Portuguese. These texts will be a valuable tool to measure reading speed for repeated measurements and in international studies in the field of reading and low vision research.

  1. A spatial assessment model for European eel (Anguilla anguilla in a delta, The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van De Wolfshaar K.E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the poor status of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla population, good assessments are essential to optimise recovery measures. Quantifying eel stock size is challenging given the fractal nature of the distribution of eels, particularly in The Netherlands with its dense interconnected network of drainage ditches, rivers and lakes. Dynamic demographic models as used by others are inappropriate in this delta with a demand for regional information on stock size. We therefore estimated the standing eel stock biomass for all freshwater water bodies, using fish monitoring data collected under the Water Framework Directive and a static GIS approach. Density data were extrapolated to total biomass estimates using GIS data concerning water type, surface area and bank length, and biological parameters obtained from biological data. The analysis yielded density and biomass estimates of the total eel and silver eel stock, with most silver eel biomass being confined to a few coastal regions. The main conclusion is that over half of the Dutch eel biomass is found in the small, regionally managed waters, revealing a crude underestimation of the eel biomass in the 2009 Dutch Eel Management Plan. The silver eel biomass estimate presented here is two to three times higher than previous estimates. Providing spatial information on eel biomass will aid in prioritising management measures to reduce anthropogenic mortality.

  2. Using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis to assess climate variability for the European wind industry

    CERN Document Server

    Bett, Philip E; Clark, Robin T

    2014-01-01

    We characterise the long-term variability of European near-surface wind speeds using 140 years of data from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR), and consider the potential of such long-baseline climate data sets for wind energy applications. The low resolution of the 20CR would severely restrict its use on its own for wind farm site-screening. We therefore perform a simple statistical calibration to link it to the higher-resolution ERA-Interim data set (ERAI), such that the adjusted 20CR data has the same wind speed distribution at each location as ERAI during their common period. Using this corrected 20CR data set, wind speeds and variability are characterised in terms of the long-term mean, standard deviation, and corresponding trends. Many regions of interest show extremely weak trends on century timescales, but contain large multidecadal variability. Variations in the form of the wind speed distribution are assessed in terms of its deciles; we find that the commonly-used Weibull distribution often pro...

  3. Assessment of the pharmaceutical market in Poland after accession to the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willert, Patricia L

    2007-12-01

    The Republic of Poland joined the European Union (EU) on 1 May 2004. The EU accession brought new opportunities to the Polish health care system and the pharmaceutical market. However, there are still barriers to overcome such as bureaucracy, lack of transparency in pricing and reimbursement, decision-making processes, the short period of data exclusivity, respect for intellectual property rights, favorisation of local companies and low health care investment. Additionally, drug costs outpace overall economic development, a trend which is universally valid for almost all EU countries and which forms one of the most serious factors in health care expenditure. A systematic cost-effective assessment, the so-called fourth hurdle (after quality, efficacy and safety), of prescription drugs seems a necessity in most EU countries. The Polish Ministry of Health has defined aims for the future health care system in the National Drug Policy 2004-2008, including health economical criteria and instruments. However, it is to be expected that for some time there will be more a reimbursement hurdle instead of a fourth hurdle in controlling drug expenditure. This review focuses on the Polish pharmaceutical market with special consideration of the history of the Polish health care system. It will highlight the present situation of the Polish health care system after EU accession and provide an outlook to its possible future.

  4. A large-scale assessment of European rabbit damage to agriculture in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Rouco, Carlos; Olivero, Jesús; Márquez, Ana Luz; Fa, John E; Vargas, Juan Mario; Villafuerte, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    Numerous small and medium-sized mammal pests cause widespread and economically significant damage to crops all over the globe. However, most research on pest species has focused on accounts of the level of damage. There are fewer studies concentrating on the description of crop damage caused by pests at large geographical scales, or on analysis of the ecological and anthropogenic factors correlated with these observed patterns. We investigated the relationship between agricultural damage by the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and environmental and anthropogenic variables throughout Spain. Rabbit damage was mainly concentrated within the central-southern regions of Spain. We found that rabbit damage increased significantly between the early 2000s and 2013. Greater losses were typical of those areas where farming dominated and natural vegetation was scarce, where main railways and highways were present, and where environmental conditions were generally favourable for rabbit populations to proliferate. From our analysis, we suggest that roads and railway lines act as potential corridors along which rabbits can spread. The recent increase in Spain of such infrastructure may explain the rise in rabbit damage reported in this study. Our approach is valuable as a method for assessing drivers of wildlife pest damage at large spatial scales, and can be used to propose methods to reduce human - wildlife conflict. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Towards a Western European “Social Movement Society”? An Assessment: 1981–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Quaranta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some social movements scholars argue that contemporary democracies are becoming “social movements societies”: citizens are often mobilized to make claims; protest actions are progressively becoming part of institutional politics; and protest has diffused to new constituents. In other words, participants in protest activities are more difficult to be identified. This article aims to provide an updated assessment of the “social movement society” thesis in Western Europe, with a focus on the expansion, institutionalization, and, in particular, to the diffusion of political protest to new groups. Using the European Values Study, which spans from 1981 to 2009, it is found that in Western Europe forms of protest are more popular than in the past, that a partial institutionalization has occurred, and that traditionally disengaged individuals protest more compared to the past. However, the process of “normalization” of the political protester has yet to be completed, given that differences in the levels of engagement still exist among social groups.

  6. Assessment of European Union transition scenarios with a special focus on the issue of carbon leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Alain [MEEDDAT - ASSESSECO (France); Vielle, Marc [Economics and Environmental Management Laboratory - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology at Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Toulouse School of Economics (LERNA) (France)

    2009-07-01

    This paper uses the model GEMINI-E3 to simulate and assess the transition scenario to 2020 framed by the European Union in its 'Energy-Climate' Directive, and it raises several issues in this connection. After a brief description of the model, the paper presents the results of the scenarios, mainly the values of the major indicators of carbon price - both in the ETS and in non-ETS sectors - and the welfare cost of the EU policy under the various configurations considered. While it is independent of the scenario in the ETS sector, in the non-ETS sector the value of carbon is very sensitive to the provisions of the Directive and in particular the option of resorting to the flexibility mechanisms. The welfare cost also varies significantly according to scenarios, and its value for the entire EU is more than double in the scenario closest to the Directive as compared to the least-cost one. The paper also addresses the very sensitive issue of carbon leakage and argues in favor of a new concept of ''net leakage.'' The analysis shows that while carbon leakage may affect some specific sectors, at the aggregate level it does not represent a real concern, with a magnitude of at most a few percent of GHG abatement by Annex B countries. (author)

  7. Techno-economic assessment of biofuel production in the European Union. Working paper 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toro Chacon, F.A.

    2004-07-01

    Various environmentally negative effects reflected in an increase in air pollution, global warming, climate change, acid rain and ozone layer depletion among others have motivated researchers, scientists together with industry and government partnerships to search, develop and find alternatives and solutions to reduce adverse impacts in the short, middle and long term. Among the different choices in place, important efforts are aimed at finding feasible alternative fuels for transportation that could replace traditional fossil fuels, which are considered to contribute considerably to the estimated contamination levels. In regard to the short and middle term options, biofuels seem to have an important role in the European Union with increasing production levels during the last years. Moreover, at the end of 2003, a Directive for the Promotion of Alternative Fuels for Transportation was adopted in Europe and initial substitution targets for all EU-member states were established for 2005 and 2010. The purpose of this techno-economic assessment is to highlight the various technological possibilities and economic aspects involved in the production of biofuel in Europe. (orig.)

  8. Nuclear cardiology practice and associated radiation doses in Europe: results of the IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Study (INCAPS) for the 27 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Oliver; Pascual, Thomas N B; Mercuri, Mathew; Acampa, Wanda; Burchert, Wolfgang; Flotats, Albert; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Kitsiou, Anastasia; Knuuti, Juhani; Underwood, S Richard; Vitola, João V; Mahmarian, John J; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Better, Nathan; Rehani, Madan M; Kashyap, Ravi; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Einstein, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear cardiology is widely used to diagnose coronary artery disease and to guide patient management, but data on current practices, radiation dose-related best practices, and radiation doses are scarce. To address these issues, the IAEA conducted a worldwide study of nuclear cardiology practice. We present the European subanalysis. In March 2013, the IAEA invited laboratories across the world to document all SPECT and PET studies performed in one week. The data included age, gender, weight, radiopharmaceuticals, injected activities, camera type, positioning, hardware and software. Radiation effective dose was calculated for each patient. A quality score was defined for each laboratory as the number followed of eight predefined best practices with a bearing on radiation exposure (range of quality score 0 - 8). The participating European countries were assigned to regions (North, East, South, and West). Comparisons were performed between the four European regions and between Europe and the rest-of-the-world (RoW). Data on 2,381 European patients undergoing nuclear cardiology procedures in 102 laboratories in 27 countries were collected. A cardiac SPECT study was performed in 97.9 % of the patients, and a PET study in 2.1 %. The average effective dose of SPECT was 8.0 ± 3.4 mSv (RoW 11.4 ± 4.3 mSv; P cardiology is lower and the average quality score is higher than in the RoW. There is regional variation in effective dose in relation to the best practice quality score. A possible reason for the differences between Europe and the RoW could be the safety culture fostered by actions under the Euratom directives and the implementation of diagnostic reference levels. Stress-only imaging and weight-adjusted activity might be targets for optimization of European nuclear cardiology practice.

  9. Health economics and European Renal Best Practice--is it time to bring health economics into evidence-based guideline production in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Maria C; Vanholder, Raymond; Oberbauer, Rainer; Zoccali, Carmine; Van Biesen, Wim

    2014-11-01

    Medical management of patients with kidney disease is complex and resource intensive. In times of limited health care budgets, economic evaluations have become more important over the past few years in identifying interventions with a beneficial cost-effectiveness to maximize the benefits served from the available resources. However, integrating evidence from health-economic evaluations into clinical practice guidelines remains a challenge. European Renal Best Practice (ERBP), the official guideline body of the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) herewith presents some lines of thought that need consideration in the discussion on incorporating health-economic considerations into clinical guideline development. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of hypertension in central and eastern European countries: self-reported practice of primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Tomasz; Windak, Adam; Jozwiak, Jacek; Oleszczyk, Marek; Seifert, Bohumil; Kersnik, Janko; Kryj-Radziszewska, Elzbieta

    2012-08-01

    To describe self-reported hypertension treatment among primary care physicians in central and eastern Europe and to investigate international differences. A cross-sectional survey of primary care physicians with a questionnaire translated into various languages was carried out in nine central and eastern European countries. Three thousand physicians were randomly selected from the national registers. Eight hundred and sixty-seven invited primary care physicians responded. For the patients with hypertension and low cardiovascular risk, 49% of physicians reported a treatment goal of less than 140/90 mmHg (69% in Slovenia, 20% in Latvia, P hypertension and diabetes mellitus, blood pressure (BP) targets of less than 130/80 mmHg and less than 120/80 mmHg were reported by 47 and 48% of physicians, respectively, and significant differences between countries were revealed. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were the most common declared drugs used on a daily basis (over 90% of physicians in all countries). Various international differences were observed among the use of diuretics, β-blockers and drugs from other classes. An immediate initiation of pharmacotherapy was declared by 24% of physicians at a SBP level of at least 180 mmHg and 20% at DBP level of at least 110 mmHg. In hypertension treatment, some decisions made by primary care physicians from central and eastern European countries are still done without any supporting evidence from clinical trials. They have declared lower treatment goals and the initiation of pharmacotherapy at lower BP levels than recommended in international guidelines. An innovative approach to continuous medical education should be introduced and the efforts to implement guidelines in everyday practice ought to continue.

  11. Reliability of a new test battery for fitness assessment of the European Astronaut corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Nora; Thieschäfer, Lutz; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Damann, Volker; Mester, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    To optimise health for space missions, European astronauts follow specific conditioning programs before, during and after their flights. To evaluate the effectiveness of these programs, the European Space Agency conducts an Astronaut Fitness Assessment (AFA), but the test-retest reliability of elements within it remains unexamined. The reliability study described here presents a scientific basis for implementing the AFA, but also highlights challenges faced by operational teams supporting humans in such unique environments, especially with respect to health and fitness monitoring of crew members travelling not only into space, but also across the world. The AFA tests assessed parameters known to be affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity: aerobic capacity (VO2max), muscular strength (one repetition max, 1 RM) and power (vertical jumps), core stability, flexibility and balance. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC3.1), standard error of measurement and coefficient of variation were used to assess relative and absolute test-retest reliability. Squat and bench 1 RM (ICC3.1 = 0.94-0.99), hip flexion (ICC3.1 = 0.99) and left and right handgrip strength (ICC3.1 = 0.95 and 0.97), showed the highest test-retest reliability, followed by VO2max (ICC3.1 = 0.91), core strength (ICC3.1 = 0.78-0.89), hip extension (ICC3.1 = 0.63), the countermeasure (ICC3.1 = 0.76) and squat (ICC3.1 = 0.63) jumps, and single right- and left-leg jump height (ICC3.1 = 0.51 and 0.14). For balance, relative reliability ranged from ICC3.1 = 0.78 for path length (two legs, head tilted back, eyes open) to ICC3.1 = 0.04 for average rotation velocity (one leg, eyes closed). In a small sample (n = 8) of young, healthy individuals, the AFA battery of tests demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability for most parameters except some balance and single-leg jump tasks. These findings suggest that, for the application with astronauts, most AFA tests appear appropriate to

  12. Environmental assessment of microwaves and the effect of European energy efficiency and waste management legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-03-15

    More than 130 million microwaves are affected by European Union (EU) legislation which is aimed at reducing the consumption of electricity in the standby mode ('Standby Regulation') and at more sustainable management of end-of-life electrical and electronic waste ('WEEE Directive'). While legislation focuses on these two life cycle stages, there is little information on the environmental impacts of the entire life cycle of microwaves. To address this gap, this paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment of microwaves and assesses the environmental implications of the Standby Regulation and the WEEE Directive at the EU level. The impacts are first considered at the level of individual appliances and then at the EU level, with the aim of evaluating the potential environmental implications of the full implementation of the above two EU regulations by 2020. The effects of the electricity decarbonisation and the expected increase in the number of microwaves in use have also been considered. The results suggest that implementation of the EU regulation by 2020 will reduce the environmental impacts considered by 4%-9% compared to the current situation. The majority of these reductions is due to the Standby Regulation, with the contribution of the WEEE Directive being small (~0.3%). However, the expected decarbonisation of electricity will result in much higher reductions (6%-24%) for most impact categories. The results also show that the materials used to manufacture the microwaves, the manufacturing process and end-of-life disposal are environmental hot-spots for several impacts, including depletion of abiotic elements. Therefore, efforts to reduce the environmental impacts of a future electricity mix should be combined with the development of specific eco-design regulations for microwaves that stipulate optimisation of resource consumption. Possible future trends, such as shorter lifetimes and limited availability of some resources, make the development of such

  13. An assessment of a collaborative mapping approach for exploring land use patterns for several European metropolises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar Arsanjani, Jamal; Vaz, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Until recently, land surveys and digital interpretation of remotely sensed imagery have been used to generate land use inventories. These techniques however, are often cumbersome and costly, allocating large amounts of technical and temporal costs. The technological advances of web 2.0 have brought a wide array of technological achievements, stimulating the participatory role in collaborative and crowd sourced mapping products. This has been fostered by GPS-enabled devices, and accessible tools that enable visual interpretation of high resolution satellite images/air photos provided in collaborative mapping projects. Such technologies offer an integrative approach to geography by means of promoting public participation and allowing accurate assessment and classification of land use as well as geographical features. OpenStreetMap (OSM) has supported the evolution of such techniques, contributing to the existence of a large inventory of spatial land use information. This paper explores the introduction of this novel participatory phenomenon for land use classification in Europe's metropolitan regions. We adopt a positivistic approach to assess comparatively the accuracy of these contributions of OSM for land use classifications in seven large European metropolitan regions. Thematic accuracy and degree of completeness of OSM data was compared to available Global Monitoring for Environment and Security Urban Atlas (GMESUA) datasets for the chosen metropolises. We further extend our findings of land use within a novel framework for geography, justifying that volunteered geographic information (VGI) sources are of great benefit for land use mapping depending on location and degree of VGI dynamism and offer a great alternative to traditional mapping techniques for metropolitan regions throughout Europe. Evaluation of several land use types at the local level suggests that a number of OSM classes (such as anthropogenic land use, agricultural and some natural environment

  14. Life cycle assessment of rice straw utilization practices in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soam, Shveta; Borjesson, Pal; Sharma, Pankaj K; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Kumar, Ravindra

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to find potential utilization practice of rice straw in India from an environmental perspective. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted for four most realistic utilization practices of straw including: (1) incorporation into the field as fertilizer (2) animal fodder (3) electricity (4) biogas. The results show that processing of 1 ton straw to electricity and biogas resulted in net reduction of 1471 and 1023kg CO2 eq., 15.0 and 3.4kg SO2 eq. and 6.7 and 7.1kg C2H6 eq. emissions in global warming, acidification and photochemical oxidation creation potential respectively. Electricity production from straw replaces the coal based electricity and resulted in benefits in most of the environmental impacts whereas use as an animal fodder resulted in eutrophication benefits. The burning of straw is a harmful practice of managing straw in India which can be avoided by utilizing straw for bioenergy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Construction of knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire for assessing plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (Pplagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.

  16. Construction of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire for Assessing Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (Pplagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission. PMID:23304676

  17. Pan-European Seismic Risk Assessment: A proof of concept using the Earthquake Loss Estimation Routine (ELER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbane, Christina; Hancilar, Ufuk; Silva, Vitor; Ehrlich, Daniele; De Groeve, Tom

    2016-04-01

    One of the key objectives of the new EU civil protection mechanism is an enhanced understanding of risks the EU is facing. Developing a European perspective may create significant opportunities of successfully combining resources for the common objective of preventing and mitigating shared risks. Risk assessments and mapping represent the first step in these preventive efforts. The EU is facing an increasing number of natural disasters. Among them earthquakes are the second deadliest after extreme temperatures. A better-shared understanding of where seismic risk lies in the EU is useful to identify which regions are most at risk and where more detailed seismic risk assessments are needed. In that scope, seismic risk assessment models at a pan-European level have a great potential in obtaining an overview of the expected economic and human losses using a homogeneous quantitative approach and harmonized datasets. This study strives to demonstrate the feasibility of performing a probabilistic seismic risk assessment at a pan-European level with an open access methodology and using open datasets available across the EU. It aims also at highlighting the challenges and needs in datasets and the information gaps for a consistent seismic risk assessment at the pan-European level. The study constitutes a "proof of concept" that can complement the information provided by Member States in their National Risk Assessments. Its main contribution lies in pooling open-access data from different sources in a homogeneous format, which could serve as baseline data for performing more in depth risk assessments in Europe.

  18. Practicability of passenger vehicle driving emission tests according to new European Union procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pielecha Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article compares driving test data using the latest legislative proposals applicable to passenger cars. Several measurements were performed on the same test route in accordance with the RDE test guidelines, which requires a number of criteria to be met. These criteria include: the length of the measuring segments, their overall test time share, and the dynamic characteristics of the drive. A mobile device for reading the EOBD System information was used to record the engine and vehicle operating parameters during tests. This allowed for the monitoring of parameters such as: load value, engine speed and vehicle velocity. The obtained results were then analyzed for their compatibility with the RDE procedure requirements. Despite the same research route, the obtained results were not the same. The analysis also uses the two-dimensional operating time share characteristics expressed in vehicle velocity and acceleration co-ordinates. As a result it was possible to compare the dynamic properties, share of operating time and, consequently, to check the validity of conducted drive tests in terms of their practicability and emission values.

  19. Beno Gutenberg contribution to seismic hazard assessment and recent progress in the European-Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panza, Giuliano F.; Romanelli, Fabio

    2001-10-01

    The fundamental work of Beno Gutenberg has inspired and guided an appreciable part of research in modern seismology, both from the experimental and the theoretical point of view. Among the several topics of seismology that have benefited from the fundamental contribution of Gutenberg, we consider particularly relevant the description of the asthenospheric low-velocity channel, the definition of the surface waves magnitude and the Gutenberg-Richter law, since they are pivotal tools for seismic hazard assessment. The quite revolutionary model for the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in the European area predicts the existence of almost aseismic lithospheric roots. These roots are located in correspondence of most of the orogenic belts and interrupt the asthenosphere low velocity channel that has been identified by Beno Gutenberg in 1948. The model of the European upper mantle, proposed for the first time in 1979 and subsequently refined, has stimulated a considerable amount of research, which has nicely confirmed the major innovative features of the early model. At present, the subduction of the lithosphere at continent-continent collisions, supported not only by seismological data, is a widely accepted concept within the community of Earth scientists, even if it contradicts one of the basic dogmas of the original formulation of plate tectonics. The proposed model for the Alpine-Apennines area supplies a new and unifying framework for the interpretation of the Quaternary magmatism, at present generally accepted by petrologists and geochemists. The theoretical basis for the Gutenberg's surface-wave magnitude calibration function has been supplied by the use of complete synthetic seismograms, and thus it has been possible to formulate the theoretical MS depth correction. The introduction of the depth correction for MS enables the computation of surface wave magnitude for all earthquakes, regardless of their focal depth. This is especially important for the

  20. Assessing spatial and temporal population dynamics of cryptic species: an example with the European pond turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Anthony; Barbraud, Christophe; Rosecchi, Elisabeth; Germain, Christophe; Cheylan, Marc

    2010-06-01

    Within the current context of biodiversity loss a number of biodiversity indicators have been developed to help measure the state of nature and how it is changing. However, most indicators are derived from bird populations. Reptiles and amphibians could be useful ecosystem indicators, but this requires obtaining precise and unbiased population parameters. This is a particularly challenging task for these two groups of species, because individuals are extremely difficult to detect for various reasons. We illustrate the use of a sampling and analytical method that explicitly takes into account imperfect detection to assess the population dynamics of a reptile species and its temporal and spatial variation. European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) were sampled at two different locations during a 10-year study. The two sites differed by their water management regimes and number of livestock. At each site and for each sex, the data were modeled using a robust design capture-mark-recapture framework to obtain and compare estimates of survival, temporary emigration, time-specific abundance, density, and population growth rate, while taking into account effects of individual heterogeneity, trap-response, and time on capture probabilities. Temporary emigration was higher in males (0.344 +/- 0.046) (mean +/- SE) than in females (0.228 +/- 0.071), did not differ between sites for each sex, and was mainly Markovian. Apparent adult survival was higher in females (0.966 +/- 0.031) than in males (0.864 +/- 0.024), and was negatively related to the proportion of individuals with repaired shell fractures in the population. Average density was 63.7 +/- 6.6 turtles/km2 but was higher for females (39.2 +/- 14.0 females/km2) than for males (23.5 +/- 5.7 males/km2). The population sizes of males and females decreased where long periods of artificial drought and the highest density of livestock occurred. This research highlights differences in demographic parameters according to sex and

  1. Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Susan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%, HCV (6.5%, and HIV (2.6% infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted. Methods We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines. Results Among the general population sample (n = 500, the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85% of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60 reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60, 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53% of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe

  2. Corporate social responsibility in coal industry (practices of russian and european companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. В. Пономаренко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is built on interaction between companies and the society which is especially important for major companies that exploit natural resources and play the role of city-forming socially significant entities. Various interpretations of the notion of social responsibility define the varying levels of influence companies have on the society, different levels of contribution of companies in the said process and the degree and level of implementation of CSR. The relations between social responsibility and economic results and the effects of implementing CSR policies are often not obvious.This study offers an assessment of present-day state of corporate social responsibility policies in coal companies of Russia and Poland and formulates proposals on implementing social responsibility projects with consideration of state-of-the-art CSR concepts.The results of the study are as follows: the achieved level of social responsibility in coal companies of Russia and Poland has been assessed; it is proven that most companies in the coal industry are at the level of fragmentary application of CSR concepts; an analysis has been carried out of tools available in the area of social responsibility of coal companies.

  3. Updated European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of non-vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heidbuchel, Hein; Verhamme, Peter; Alings, Marco; Antz, Matthias; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Hacke, Werner; Oldgren, Jonas; Sinnaeve, Peter; Camm, A John; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2015-01-01

    ...[Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M, Antz M, Hacke W, Oldgren J, et al. European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Europace 2013;15:625-51...

  4. Practical implications of pre-employment nurse assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthy, James E; Ramon, Cheree; Gonzalez, Ronald; Biddle, Dan A

    2013-01-01

    Hiring nurses is a difficult task that can have serious repercussions for medical facilities. If nurses without proper skills are hired, patients can suffer from insufficient quality of care and potentially life-threatening conditions. Nurse applicants' technical knowledge is extremely important to avoid negative outcomes; however, there are soft skills that factor into their success, such as bedside manner, personality, communication, and decision making. In order for medical facilities to select and maintain high-performing nurse staff, hiring managers must incorporate evaluations for these types of skills in their hiring process. The current study focused on using content/criterion-related validation design to create assessments by which nurse applicants can be evaluated for both technical knowledge/skills and soft skills. The study included participation of more than 876 nursing staff members. To rank applicants on divergent skills, 3 assessment types were investigated, resulting in the creation of an assessment with 3 components. The clinical, situational, and behavioral components that were created measure applicants' job knowledge, interpersonal competency in medical facility-related situations, and aspects of personality and behavior, respectively. Results indicate that using the assessment can predict 45% of a nurse applicant's future job performance. Practical implications include hiring and maintaining a higher quality of nurses and decreased hiring costs.

  5. A practical approach to nutritional screening and assessment in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Puneeta; Raman, Maitreyi; Mourtzakis, Marina; Merli, Manuela

    2017-03-01

    Malnutrition is one of the most common complications of cirrhosis, associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. As a potentially modifiable condition, it is of particular importance to identify malnourished patients so that nutritional therapy can be instituted. Nutrition screening and assessment are infrequently performed in patients with cirrhosis. The reasons for this are multifactorial, including the absence of a validated "rapid" screening tool, multiple definitions of what constitutes malnutrition, and challenges with interpreting body composition and laboratory results in the setting of volume overload and liver dysfunction. This article summarizes the clinically relevant evidence and presents key issues, tools, and clinical options that are applicable to patients with cirrhosis. The definition, etiology, and clinically relevant outcomes associated with malnutrition are reviewed. Rapid nutritional screening is differentiated from more detailed nutritional assessment. Nutritional assessment in special populations, including women and the obese, and the role of inflammation are discussed. Multicenter studies using a common nutritional screening/assessment strategy are the next steps to fast-track adoption and implementation of nutrition-related evaluations into routine clinical practice. (Hepatology 2017;65:1044-1057). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  6. Professional Controversies between Teachers about Their Summative Assessment Practices: A Tool for Building Assessment Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottier Lopez, Lucie; Pasquini, Raphaël

    2017-01-01

    This article describes two collaborative research projects whose common goal was to explore the potential role of professional controversies in building teachers' summative assessment capacity. In the first project, upper primary teachers were encouraged to compare their practices through a form of social moderation, without prior instructor input…

  7. The complexity of managing COPD exacerbations: a grounded theory study of European general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risør, Mette Bech; Spigt, Mark; Iversen, R; Godycki-Cwirko, M; Francis, N; Altiner, A; Andreeva, E; Kung, K; Melbye, H

    2013-12-05

    To understand the concerns and challenges faced by general practitioners (GPs) and respiratory physicians about primary care management of acute exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 21 focus group discussions (FGDs) were performed in seven countries with a Grounded Theory approach. Each country performed three rounds of FGDs. Primary and secondary care in Norway, Germany, Wales, Poland, Russia, The Netherlands, China (Hong Kong). 142 GPs and respiratory physicians were chosen to include urban and rural GPs as well as hospital-based and out patient-clinic respiratory physicians. Management of acute COPD exacerbations is dealt with within a scope of concerns. These concerns range from 'dealing with comorbidity' through 'having difficult patients' to 'confronting a hopeless disease'. The first concern displays medical uncertainty regarding diagnosis, medication and hospitalisation. These clinical processes become blurred by comorbidity and the social context of the patient. The second concern shows how patients receive the label 'difficult' exactly because they need complex attention, but even more because they are time consuming, do not take responsibility and are non-compliant. The third concern relates to the emotional reactions by the physicians when confronted with 'a hopeless disease' due to the fact that most of the patients do not improve and the treatment slows down the process at best. GPs and respiratory physicians balance these concerns with medical knowledge and practical, situational knowledge, trying to encompass the complexity of a medical condition. Knowing the patient is essential when dealing with comorbidities as well as with difficult relations in the consultations on exacerbations. This study suggests that it is crucial to improve the collaboration between primary and secondary care, in terms of, for example, shared consultations and defined work tasks, which may enhance shared knowledge of patients

  8. The complexity of managing COPD exacerbations: a grounded theory study of European general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risør, Mette Bech; Spigt, Mark; Iversen, R; Godycki-Cwirko, M; Francis, N; Altiner, A; Andreeva, E; Kung, K; Melbye, H

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To understand the concerns and challenges faced by general practitioners (GPs) and respiratory physicians about primary care management of acute exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Design 21 focus group discussions (FGDs) were performed in seven countries with a Grounded Theory approach. Each country performed three rounds of FGDs. Setting Primary and secondary care in Norway, Germany, Wales, Poland, Russia, The Netherlands, China (Hong Kong). Participants 142 GPs and respiratory physicians were chosen to include urban and rural GPs as well as hospital-based and out patient-clinic respiratory physicians. Results Management of acute COPD exacerbations is dealt with within a scope of concerns. These concerns range from ‘dealing with comorbidity’ through ‘having difficult patients’ to ‘confronting a hopeless disease’. The first concern displays medical uncertainty regarding diagnosis, medication and hospitalisation. These clinical processes become blurred by comorbidity and the social context of the patient. The second concern shows how patients receive the label ‘difficult’ exactly because they need complex attention, but even more because they are time consuming, do not take responsibility and are non-compliant. The third concern relates to the emotional reactions by the physicians when confronted with ‘a hopeless disease’ due to the fact that most of the patients do not improve and the treatment slows down the process at best. GPs and respiratory physicians balance these concerns with medical knowledge and practical, situational knowledge, trying to encompass the complexity of a medical condition. Conclusions Knowing the patient is essential when dealing with comorbidities as well as with difficult relations in the consultations on exacerbations. This study suggests that it is crucial to improve the collaboration between primary and secondary care, in terms of, for example, shared consultations

  9. The European General Practice Research Network Presents the Translations of Its Comprehensive Definition of Multimorbidity in Family Medicine in Ten European Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Reste, J.Y.; Nabbe, P.; Rivet, C.; Lygidakis, C.; Doerr, C.; Czachowski, S.; Lingner, H.; Argyriadou, S.; Lazic, D.; Assenova, R.; Hasaganic, M.; Munoz, M.A.; Thulesius, H.; Le Floch, B.; Derriennic, J.; Sowinska, A.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Lietard, C.; van Royen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multimorbidity, according to the World Health Organization, exists when there are two or more chronic conditions in one patient. This definition seems inaccurate for the holistic approach to Family Medicine (FM) and long-term care. To avoid this pitfall the European General Practitioners

  10. Socioeconomic impact assessment in ex ante evaluations: a case study on the rural development programs of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidueira, Pablo; Díaz-Puente, José M; Rivera, María

    2014-08-01

    Ex ante impact assessment has become a fundamental tool for effective program management, and thus, a compulsory task when establishing a new program in the European Union (EU). This article aims to analyze benefits from ex ante impact assessment, methodologies followed, and difficulties encountered. This is done through the case study on the rural development programs (RDPs) in the EU. Results regarding methodologies are then contrasted with the international context in order to provide solid insights to evaluators and program managing authorities facing ex ante impact assessment. All European RDPs from the period 2007 through 2013 (a total of 88) and their corresponding available ex ante evaluations (a total of 70) were analyzed focusing on the socioeconomic impact assessment. Only 46.6% of the regions provide quantified impact estimations on socioeconomic impacts in spite of it being a compulsory task demanded by the European Commission (EC). Recommended methods by the EC are mostly used, but there is a lack of mixed method approaches since qualitative methods are used in substitution of quantitative ones. Two main difficulties argued were the complexity of program impacts and the lack of needed program information. Qualitative approaches on their own have been found as not suitable for ex ante impact assessment, while quantitative approaches-such as microsimulation models-provide a good approximation to actual impacts. However, time and budgetary constraints make that quantitative and mixed methods should be mainly applied on the most relevant impacts for the program success. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Assessment practices of Irish speech and language therapists in the evaluation of voice disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Ciarán

    2017-04-01

    It is commonly accepted that the evaluation of voice disorders ought to include extensive perceptual, psychometric, and instrumental measurements. This serves to encapsulate the wide-reaching effects of such a disorder, from the physical impairment in voice production to the psycho-social impact of having a dysphonic voice. In spite of this, no international gold standard exists by which voice disorders should be evaluated, and so speech and language therapists (SLTs) are often tasked with developing an assessment battery for use in their own clinics. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the evaluation of voice disorders by Irish SLTs on a national scale is suitably comprehensive, with particular reference to the guidelines published by the European Laryngological Society. A total of 49 SLTs working in a variety of settings responded anonymously to an electronic survey regarding their assessment practices. Results indicate that therapists are comprehensive in non-instrumental evaluation of voice, but lack both access to and training in instrumental assessment techniques.

  12. Zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies assessment in daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Hala; Ibrahim, Fidaa; Sobngwi, Eugène; Gautier, Jean François; Boudou, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) is specifically expressed in the pancreatic β-cell and is more restricted in its tissue distribution than other auto-antigens as glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD 65 ) and insulinoma-associated antigen-2 (IA2). ZnT8 autoantibodies (ZnT8A) assessment allows identifying rapid progression to clinical onset of the disease. We evaluated the prevalence of ZnT8A in adults of different ethnic and phenotypic groups and analyzed its potential utility as additional marker of autoimmunity in daily practice. ZnT8A, GADA and IA2A were assessed using enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) in 160 controls and 216 diabetic subjects. 105 were of type 1 diabetes (T1D), 17 had Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults (LADA), 38 were type 2 diabetic (T2D) and 56 had ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD). 82 patients were newly diagnosed cases. ZnT8A were detected in 1% of controls and were not found in any of our 38 T2D subjects or 56 KPD subjects. In contrast, ZnT8A were detected in 18% of LADA subjects and in 38% of T1D subjects. A slight difference of percentage of ZnT8A positivity was found among our T1D ethnic groups. ZnT8A were positive in 41% of patients positive for GADA and 67% of patients positive for IA2A. The percentage of stratification achieved 91% when GADA, IA2A and ZnT8A were assessed simultaneously. Results obtained for ZnT8A measurement using ELISA were consistent with previous data. Such investigation could improve the risk stratification and would be integrated in our daily practice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. European drought under climate change and an assessment of the uncertainties in projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, R. M. S.; Osborn, T.; Conway, D.; Warren, R.; Hankin, R.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme weather/climate events have significant environmental and societal impacts, and anthropogenic climate change has and will continue to alter their characteristics (IPCC, 2011). Drought is one of the most damaging natural hazards through its effects on agricultural, hydrological, ecological and socio-economic systems. Climate change is stimulating demand, from public and private sector decision-makers and also other stakeholders, for better understanding of potential future drought patterns which could facilitate disaster risk management. There remain considerable levels of uncertainty in climate change projections, particularly in relation to extreme events. Our incomplete understanding of the behaviour of the climate system has led to the development of various emission scenarios, carbon cycle models and global climate models (GCMs). Uncertainties arise also from the different types and definitions of drought. This study examines climate change-induced changes in European drought characteristics, and illustrates the robustness of these projections by quantifying the effects of using different emission scenarios, carbon cycle models and GCMs. This is achieved by using the multi-institutional modular "Community Integrated Assessment System (CIAS)" (Warren et al., 2008), a flexible integrated assessment system for modelling climate change. Simulations generated by the simple climate model MAGICC6.0 are assessed. These include ten C4MIP carbon cycle models and eighteen CMIP3 GCMs under five IPCC SRES emission scenarios, four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios, and three mitigation scenarios with CO2-equivalent levels stabilising at 550 ppm, 500 ppm and 450 ppm. Using an ensemble of 2160 future precipitation scenarios, we present an analysis on both short (3-month) and long (12-month) meteorological droughts based on the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) for the baseline period (1951-2000) and two future periods of 2001-2050 and 2051

  14. Principles for the risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms and their food products in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Jaime; Gomes, Ana R; Olaru, Irina

    2013-10-01

    Genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs) are involved in the production of a variety of food and feed. The release and consumption of these products can raise questions about health and environmental safety. Therefore, the European Union has different legislative instruments in place in order to ensure the safety of such products. A key requirement is to conduct a scientific risk assessment as a prerequisite for the product to be placed on the market. This risk assessment is performed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), through its Scientific Panels. The EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms has published complete and comprehensive guidance for the risk assessment of GMMs and their products for food and/or feed use, in which the strategy and the criteria to conduct the assessment are explained, as well as the scientific data to be provided in applications for regulated products. This Guidance follows the main risk assessment principles developed by various international organisations (Codex Alimentarius, 2003; OECD, 2010). The assessment considers two aspects: the characterisation of the GMM and the possible effects of its modification with respect to safety, and the safety of the product itself. Due to the existing diversity of GMMs and their products, a categorisation is recommended to optimise the assessment and to determine the extent of the required data. The assessment starts with a comprehensive characterisation of the GMM, covering the recipient/parental organism, the donor(s) of the genetic material, the genetic modification, and the final GMM and its phenotype. Evaluation of the composition, potential toxicity and/or allergenicity, nutritional value and environmental impact of the product constitute further cornerstones of the process. The outcome of the assessment is reflected in a scientific opinion which indicates whether the product raises any safety issues. This opinion is taken into account by the different European regulatory

  15. Public Values and Stakeholder Involvement - A new framework for Performance Assessment? The European Project RISCOM-II. Work Package 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden); Chataignier, Stephane [Electricite de France (France); Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie [BMD Research (Sweden)] [and others

    2002-11-01

    RISCOM-II is a project within the fifth framework programme of the European Commission. It is based on a widely recognised need for more transparent decision processes in nuclear waste management. The objective of the RISCOM-II project is to share the knowledge of the context of radioactive waste management in various European countries and to see to what extent it is possible to apply more widely the RISCOM Model in order to improve the acceptability of radioactive waste management. Thus, the project aims to promote the development of processes involving transparency, as well as means involving greater participation of the public. Key topics studied in the RISCOM-II Project are issues in risk assessment to better understand how factual elements relate to value-laden issues and how stakeholder concerns can be addressed, as well as organizational issues affecting transparency in Europe. A range of public participation processes are analysed, some will be selected for testing and hearings are evaluated with respect to transparency. There are five participating countries: Sweden, the United Kingdom, Finland, the Czech Republic, and France, which are represented by various organizations: safety or radiation protection authorities, operators involved in nuclear wastes and the production of nuclear power, research institutes or organizations, and consultants. Work Package No 1(WP-1), Public values and performance assessment, emphasises the importance of value-laden issues involved in nuclear waste management. The expert dominance in the field has so far tended to avoid values or deal with them in seemingly factual frameworks. The objectives of (WP-1) are thus: 1. to identify value-laden issues raised by performance assessment, trying to understand how factual and technical elements relate to value-laden issues 2. to find value judgements of stakeholders, and explore if and how they could be addressed in performance assessment 3. to initiate open debate about risk and

  16. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd, E-mail: suzie@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad [Radiation Safety & Health Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, N. A. H. Abd. [Faculty of Science & Mathematics, Sultan Idris of Education Universit, 35900, Tanjong Malim, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H{sub 0}) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)

  17. Protection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Policy protection goals are set up in most countries to minimise harm to the environment, humans and animals caused by human activities. Decisions on whether to approve new agricultural products, like pesticides or genetically modified (GM) crops, take into account these policy protection goals. To support decision-making, applications for approval of commercial uses of GM crops usually comprise an environmental risk assessment (ERA). These risk assessments are analytical tools, based on science, that follow a conceptual model that includes a problem formulation step where policy protection goals are considered. However, in most countries, risk assessors face major problems in that policy protection goals set in the legislation are stated in very broad terms and are too ambiguous to be directly applicable in ERAs. This means that risk assessors often have to interpret policy protection goals without clear guidance on what effects would be considered harmful. In this paper we propose a practical approach that may help risk assessors to translate policy protection goals into unambiguous (i.e., operational) protection goals and to establish relevant assessment endpoints and risk hypotheses that can be used in ERAs. Examples are provided to show how this approach can be applied to two areas of environmental concern relevant to the ERAs of GM crops.

  18. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad; Rahman, N. A. H. Abd.

    2016-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H₀) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304).

  19. Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) is a generic risk assessment approach applied by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leuschner, R. G. K.; Robinson, T. P.; Hugas, M.

    2010-01-01

    Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) is a generic risk assessment approach applied by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to notified biological agents aiming at simplifying risk assessments across different scientific Panels and Units. The aim of this review is to outline the implementation...... and value of the QPS assessment for EFSA and to explain its principles such as the unambiguous identity of a taxonomic unit, the body of knowledge including potential safety concerns and how these considerations lead to a list of biological agents recommended for QPS which EFSA keeps updated through...

  20. The european flood alert system EFAS – Part 2: Statistical skill assessment of probabilistic and deterministic operational forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Bartholmes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005 the European Flood Alert System (EFAS has been producing probabilistic hydrological forecasts in pre-operational mode at the Joint Research Centre (JRC of the European Commission. EFAS aims at increasing preparedness for floods in trans-national European river basins by providing medium-range deterministic and probabilistic flood forecasting information, from 3 to 10 days in advance, to national hydro-meteorological services.

    This paper is Part 2 of a study presenting the development and skill assessment of EFAS. In Part 1, the scientific approach adopted in the development of the system has been presented, as well as its basic principles and forecast products. In the present article, two years of existing operational EFAS forecasts are statistically assessed and the skill of EFAS forecasts is analysed with several skill scores. The analysis is based on the comparison of threshold exceedances between proxy-observed and forecasted discharges. Skill is assessed both with and without taking into account the persistence of the forecasted signal during consecutive forecasts.

    Skill assessment approaches are mostly adopted from meteorology and the analysis also compares probabilistic and deterministic aspects of EFAS. Furthermore, the utility of different skill scores is discussed and their strengths and shortcomings illustrated. The analysis shows the benefit of incorporating past forecasts in the probability analysis, for medium-range forecasts, which effectively increases the skill of the forecasts.

  1. Microbial biodiversity assessment of the European Space Agency's ExoMars 2016 mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Kaisa; Rettberg, Petra; Pukall, Rüdiger; Auerbach, Anna; Wink, Lisa; Barczyk, Simon; Perras, Alexandra; Mahnert, Alexander; Margheritis, Diana; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2017-10-25

    The ExoMars 2016 mission, consisting of the Trace Gas Orbiter and the Schiaparelli lander, was launched on March 14 2016 from Baikonur, Kazakhstan and reached its destination in October 2016. The Schiaparelli lander was subject to strict requirements for microbial cleanliness according to the obligatory planetary protection policy. To reach the required cleanliness, the ExoMars 2016 flight hardware was assembled in a newly built, biocontrolled cleanroom complex at Thales Alenia Space in Turin, Italy. In this study, we performed microbiological surveys of the cleanroom facilities and the spacecraft hardware before and during the assembly, integration and testing (AIT) activities. Besides the European Space Agency (ESA) standard bioburden assay, that served as a proxy for the microbiological contamination in general, we performed various alternative cultivation assays and utilised molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR and next generation sequencing, to assess the absolute and relative abundance and broadest diversity of microorganisms and their signatures in the cleanroom and on the spacecraft hardware. Our results show that the bioburden, detected microbial contamination and microbial diversity decreased continuously after the cleanroom was decontaminated with more effective cleaning agents and during the ongoing AIT. The studied cleanrooms and change room were occupied by very distinct microbial communities: Overall, the change room harboured a higher number and diversity of microorganisms, including Propionibacterium, which was found to be significantly increased in the change room. In particular, the so called alternative cultivation assays proved important in detecting a broader cultivable diversity than covered by the standard bioburden assay and thus completed the picture on the cleanroom microbiota. During the whole project, the bioburden stayed at acceptable level and did not raise any concern for the ExoMars 2016 mission. The cleanroom complex at

  2. European Bluetongue Serotype 8: Disease Threat Assessment for U.S. Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Barbara S; Reister-Hendricks, Lindsey M; Podell, Brendan K; Breitenbach, Jonathan E; McVey, D Scott; van Rijn, Piet A; Bowen, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an orbivirus transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.) that can result in moderate to high morbidity and mortality primarily in sheep and white-tailed deer. Although only 5 serotypes of BTV are considered endemic to the United States, as many as 11 incursive serotypes have been detected in livestock and wildlife in the past 16 years. Introductions of serotypes, with unknown virulence and disease risk, are constant threats to US agriculture. One potential incursive serotype of particular concern is the European strain of BTV-8, which was introduced into Northern Europe in 2006 and caused unprecedented livestock disease and mortality during the 2006-2007 vector seasons. To assess disease risk of BTV-8 in a common white-faced American sheep breed, eight Polled Dorset yearlings were experimentally infected and monitored for clinical signs. Viremia and viral tissue distribution were detected and quantified by real-time qRT-PCR. Overall, clinical disease was moderate with no mortality. Viremia reached as high as 9.7 log10 particles/mL and persisted at 5 logs or higher through the end of the study (28 days). Virus distribution in tissues was extensive with the highest mean titers at the peak of viremia (day 8) in the kidney (8.38 log10 particles/mg) and pancreas (8.37 log10 particles/mg). Virus persisted in tissues of some sheep at 8 logs or higher by day 28. Results of this study suggest that should BTV-8 emerge in the United States, clinical disease in this common sheep breed would likely be similar in form, duration, and severity to what is typically observed in severe outbreaks of endemic serotypes, not the extraordinary disease levels seen in Northern Europe. In addition, a majority of exposed sheep would be expected to survive and act as significant BTV-8 reservoirs with high titer viremias for subsequent transmission to other livestock and wildlife populations.

  3. Automotive clusters in the European Union: Incidence, experience and best practices; Los clusters de automocion en la Union Europea: incidencia, trayectoria y mejores paracticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaez Aller, R.; Longas Garcia, J. C.; Ullibarri Arce, M.; Bilbao Ubillos, J.; Camino Beldarrain, V.; Intxaurburu Clemente, G.

    2010-07-01

    This paper has been developed to improve the comprehension of the concept of cluster. It has also been intended to describe the use of that concept as a basis for developing industrial and regional policies in the European Union to promote the competitiveness of the automotive industry. In addition, the paper points out those policies that could be considered as best practice ones in relation to cluster initiatives. The information on which this paper is based comes from a survey of 51 automotive cluster initiatives in the European Union. (Author) 25 refs.

  4. Mass Casualty Chemical Incident Operational Framework, Assessment and Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hibbard, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Emergency response agencies in most US communities are organized, sized, and equipped to manage those emergencies normally expected. Hospitals in particular do not typically have significant excess capacity to handle massive numbers of casualties, as hospital space is an expensive luxury if not needed. Unfortunately this means that in the event of a mass casualty chemical incident the emergency response system will be overwhelmed. This document provides a self-assessment means for emergency managers to examine their response system and identify shortfalls. It also includes lessons from a detailed analysis of five communities: Baltimore, Boise, Houston, Nassau County, and New Orleans. These lessons provide a list of potential critical decisions to allow for pre-planning and a library of best practices that may be helpful in reducing casualties in the event of an incident.

  5. Needs assessment for business strategies of anesthesiology groups' practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurlock, Corey; Dexter, Franklin; Reich, David L; Galati, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Progress has been made in understanding strategic decision making influencing anesthesia groups' operating room business practices. However, there has been little analysis of the remaining gaps in our knowledge. We performed a needs assessment to identify unsolved problems in anesthesia business strategy based on Porter's Five Forces Analysis. The methodology was a narrative literature review. We found little previous investigation for 2 of the 5 forces (threat of new entrants and bargaining power of suppliers), modest understanding for 1 force (threat of substitute products or services), and substantial understanding for 2 forces (bargaining power of customers and jockeying for position among current competitors). Additional research in strategic decisions influencing anesthesia groups should focus on the threat of new entrants, bargaining power of suppliers, and the threat of substitute products or services.

  6. Interaction of Theory and Practice to Assess External Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Laura C; Trujillo, Mathew D

    2016-01-18

    Variations in local context bedevil the assessment of external validity: the ability to generalize about effects of treatments. For evaluation, the challenges of assessing external validity are intimately tied to the translation and spread of evidence-based interventions. This makes external validity a question for decision makers, who need to determine whether to endorse, fund, or adopt interventions that were found to be effective and how to ensure high quality once they spread. To present the rationale for using theory to assess external validity and the value of more systematic interaction of theory and practice. We review advances in external validity, program theory, practitioner expertise, and local adaptation. Examples are provided for program theory, its adaptation to diverse contexts, and generalizing to contexts that have not yet been studied. The often critical role of practitioner experience is illustrated in these examples. Work is described that the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation is supporting to study treatment variation and context more systematically. Researchers and developers generally see a limited range of contexts in which the intervention is implemented. Individual practitioners see a different and often a wider range of contexts, albeit not a systematic sample. Organized and taken together, however, practitioner experiences can inform external validity by challenging the developers and researchers to consider a wider range of contexts. Researchers have developed a variety of ways to adapt interventions in light of such challenges. In systematic programs of inquiry, as opposed to individual studies, the problems of context can be better addressed. Evaluators have advocated an interaction of theory and practice for many years, but the process can be made more systematic and useful. Systematic interaction can set priorities for assessment of external validity by examining the prevalence and importance of context features and treatment

  7. Assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems profile and sustainability in developed and developing European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanescu, Dumitrita; Cailean Gavrilescu, Daniela; Teodosiu, Carmen; Fiore, Silvia

    2018-03-01

    The assessment of waste management systems for electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) from developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) and developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria), is discussed covering the period 2007-2014. The WEEE management systems profiles are depicted by indicators correlated to WEEE life cycle stages: collection, transportation and treatment. The sustainability of national WEEE management systems in terms of greenhouse gas emissions is presented, together with the greenhouse gas efficiency indicator that underlines the efficiency of WEEE treatment options. In the countries comparisons, the key elements are: robust versus fragile economies, the overall waste management performance and the existence/development of suitable management practices on WEEE. Over the life cycle perspective, developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) manage one order of magnitude higher quantities of WEEE compared to developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria). Although prevention and reduction measures are encouraged, all WEEE quantities were larger in 2013, than in 2007. In 2007-2014, developed economies exceed the annual European collection target of 4 kg WEEE/capita, while collection is still difficult in developing countries. If collection rates are estimated in relationship with products placed on market, than similar values are registered in Sweden and Bulgaria, followed by Germany and Italy and lastly Romania. WEEE transportation shows different patterns among countries, with Italy as the greatest exporter (in 2014), while Sweden treats the WEEE nationally. WEEE reuse is a common practice in Germany, Sweden (from 2009) and Bulgaria (from 2011). By 2014, recycling was the most preferred WEEE treatment option, with the same kind of rates performance, over 80%, irrespective of the country, with efforts in each of the countries in developing special collection points, recycling facilities and support instruments. The national total and the

  8. Health impact assessment of waste management facilities in three European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Policies on waste disposal in Europe are heterogeneous and rapidly changing, with potential health implications that are largely unknown. We conducted a health impact assessment of landfilling and incineration in three European countries: Italy, Slovakia and England. Methods A total of 49 (Italy), 2 (Slovakia), and 11 (England) incinerators were operating in 2001 while for landfills the figures were 619, 121 and 232, respectively. The study population consisted of residents living within 3 km of an incinerator and 2 km of a landfill. Excess risk estimates from epidemiological studies were used, combined with air pollution dispersion modelling for particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). For incinerators, we estimated attributable cancer incidence and years of life lost (YoLL), while for landfills we estimated attributable cases of congenital anomalies and low birth weight infants. Results About 1,000,000, 16,000, and 1,200,000 subjects lived close to incinerators in Italy, Slovakia and England, respectively. The additional contribution to NO2 levels within a 3 km radius was 0.23, 0.15, and 0.14 μg/m3, respectively. Lower values were found for PM10. Assuming that the incinerators continue to operate until 2020, we are moderately confident that the annual number of cancer cases due to exposure in 2001-2020 will reach 11, 0, and 7 in 2020 and then decline to 0 in the three countries in 2050. We are moderately confident that by 2050, the attributable impact on the 2001 cohort of residents will be 3,621 (Italy), 37 (Slovakia) and 3,966 (England) YoLL. The total exposed population to landfills was 1,350,000, 329,000, and 1,425,000 subjects, respectively. We are moderately confident that the annual additional cases of congenital anomalies up to 2030 will be approximately 2, 2, and 3 whereas there will be 42, 13, and 59 additional low-birth weight newborns, respectively. Conclusions The current health impacts of landfilling and incineration can be

  9. Health impact assessment of waste management facilities in three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preiss Philipp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policies on waste disposal in Europe are heterogeneous and rapidly changing, with potential health implications that are largely unknown. We conducted a health impact assessment of landfilling and incineration in three European countries: Italy, Slovakia and England. Methods A total of 49 (Italy, 2 (Slovakia, and 11 (England incinerators were operating in 2001 while for landfills the figures were 619, 121 and 232, respectively. The study population consisted of residents living within 3 km of an incinerator and 2 km of a landfill. Excess risk estimates from epidemiological studies were used, combined with air pollution dispersion modelling for particulate matter (PM10 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. For incinerators, we estimated attributable cancer incidence and years of life lost (YoLL, while for landfills we estimated attributable cases of congenital anomalies and low birth weight infants. Results About 1,000,000, 16,000, and 1,200,000 subjects lived close to incinerators in Italy, Slovakia and England, respectively. The additional contribution to NO2 levels within a 3 km radius was 0.23, 0.15, and 0.14 μg/m3, respectively. Lower values were found for PM10. Assuming that the incinerators continue to operate until 2020, we are moderately confident that the annual number of cancer cases due to exposure in 2001-2020 will reach 11, 0, and 7 in 2020 and then decline to 0 in the three countries in 2050. We are moderately confident that by 2050, the attributable impact on the 2001 cohort of residents will be 3,621 (Italy, 37 (Slovakia and 3,966 (England YoLL. The total exposed population to landfills was 1,350,000, 329,000, and 1,425,000 subjects, respectively. We are moderately confident that the annual additional cases of congenital anomalies up to 2030 will be approximately 2, 2, and 3 whereas there will be 42, 13, and 59 additional low-birth weight newborns, respectively. Conclusions The current health impacts of landfilling and

  10. Fast-PPP assessment in European and equatorial region near the solar cycle maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira-Garcia, Adria; Juan, José Miguel; Sanz, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    The Fast Precise Point Positioning (Fast-PPP) is a technique to provide quick high-accuracy navigation with ambiguity fixing capability, thanks to an accurate modelling of the ionosphere. Indeed, once the availability of real-time precise satellite orbits and clocks is granted to users, the next challenge is the accuracy of real-time ionospheric corrections. Several steps had been taken by gAGE/UPC to develop such global system for precise navigation. First Wide-Area Real-Time Kinematics (WARTK) feasibility studies enabled precise relative continental navigation using a few tens of reference stations. Later multi-frequency and multi-constellation assessments in different ionospheric scenarios, including maximum solar-cycle conditions, were focussed on user-domain performance. Recently, a mature evolution of the technique consists on a dual service scheme; a global Precise Point Positioning (PPP) service, together with a continental enhancement to shorten convergence. A end to end performance assessment of the Fast-PPP technique is presented in this work, focussed in Europe and in the equatorial region of South East Asia (SEA), both near the solar cycle maximum. The accuracy of the Central Processing Facility (CPF) real-time precise satellite orbits and clocks is respectively, 4 centimetres and 0.2 nanoseconds, in line with the accuracy of the International GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centres. This global PPP service is enhanced by the Fast-PPP by adding the capability of global undifferenced ambiguity fixing thanks to the fractional part of the ambiguities determination. The core of the Fast-PPP is the capability to compute real-time ionospheric determinations with accuracies at the level or better than 1 Total Electron Content Unit (TECU), improving the widely-accepted Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM), with declared accuracies of 2-8 TECU. This large improvement in the modelling accuracy is achieved thanks to a two-layer description of the ionosphere combined with

  11. Management effectiveness and land cover change in dynamic cultural landscapes-assessing a central European biosphere reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohnesorge, B.; Plieninger, Tobias; Hostert, P.

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas are a central pillar of efforts to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services, but their contribution to the conservation and management of European cultural landscapes that have complex spatial-temporal dynamics is unclear. The conservation strategy of biosphere reserves aims...... to assess the effectiveness of Central European reserves in meeting their land cover related management goals. Based on digital biotope maps, we defined and assessed land cover change processes that were relevant to the reserve management's goals over a period of 13 years. We then compared these changes...... 85% across all zones-differences in land cover changes can be more prominent across zones inside the reserve than between the areas inside and outside of it. The reserve as a whole performed better than the surrounding reference area when using land cover related management goals as a benchmark...

  12. Energy: actions for the public. Good european practices; Energie: actions vers le grand public. Bonnes pratiques europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Many actions and programs are implemented in european towns relative to the energy control and the environmental quality in urban areas. They are often different in function of political, environmental, historical or cultural factors. The knowledge and the dissemination of these european experiences appear as an asset for the french energy policy. In this framework, the actions of the people awareness are fundamental. This document presents the subject approach and the obtained results for eight experiences of european towns. (A.L.B.)

  13. Imaginary Worlds: The European Network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA Recommendations for Health Economic Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Langley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA guidelines for health economic evaluations represent a consolidated view of non-binding recommendations for assessments of the relative effectiveness of pharmaceuticals or other health technologies. EUnetHTA views itself as the scientific and technological backbone of the development of health technology assessment in the European Union and among its member states and other partners. Unfortunately, the standards for health technology assessment proposed by EUnetHTA do not meet the standards of normal science. They do not support credible claims for the clinical and comparative cost-effectiveness of pharmaceuticals. In rejecting the standards of normal science the guidelines put to one side the opportunity not only to re-assess and replicate clinical and cost-effectiveness claims but to provide meaningful feedback on claims assessment to health care decision makers. The purpose of this review is to make the case that, in failing to support standards for experimentation, EUnetHTA is advocating its partners support the creation of modeled or simulated imaginary or false worlds. While EUnetHTA is not alone in recommending the construction of imaginary worlds to support formulary decisions, there is still the opportunity to revisit these recommendations and decide whether or not to encourage a scientifically rigorous approach to health technology assessments - to abandon a commitment to intelligent design in favor of natural selection.  Conflict of Interest None   Type: Commentary  

  14. What tools are available to identify patients with palliative care needs in primary care: a systematic literature review and survey of European practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Elke Arnoldina Theodora; Murray, Scott A; Engels, Yvonne; Campbell, Christine

    2013-12-01

    It can be difficult to identify when a palliative care approach should be started both in malignant, and particularly, in non-malignant disease, ideally to run alongside disease-modifying care. A structured method or tool may be useful to help general practitioners (GPs) identify patients for early palliative care and trigger assessment and care planning. To document what tools for identification of patients with palliative care needs are available in the published literature and to ascertain how GPs in Europe currently identify patients for palliative care. A systematic literature search using PubMed and Embase, and a questionnaire survey among key informants in 14 European countries requesting data on methods used to identify patients with palliative care needs. The literature search identified four tools. The questionnaire survey identified a further three in current use and found that in current practice identification is largely based on a GP's own clinical judgement and information received from the hospital: tools are rarely used. Although several identification tools have been developed, none of these have been validated or widely implemented in Europe. Further collaborative international development, implementation and evaluation of such tools are recommended.

  15. An assessment of the quality of life in the European Union based on the social indicators approach

    OpenAIRE

    Grasso, Marco; Canova, Luciano

    2007-01-01

    This article carries out a multidimensional analysis of welfare based on the social indicators approach aimed at assessing the quality of life in the 25 member countries of the European Union. It begins with description of the social indicators approach and provides some specifications on its most controversial points. It then specifies the principles on which the social indicators were selected, describes the indicators chosen, and details the methodology employed in the empirical analysis. ...

  16. European practices of providing of efficiency of self-organizations institutions of population in the context of public services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Serohina

    2017-06-01

    level of financing carried out by persons with appropriate competence and qualifications. The example of Portugal discloses the status of self-organization institutions as public benefit organizations, which provides them of advantages, particularly in competition with private sector organizations. However, in the light of practical implementation of the principle of subsidiarity and other elements of decentralization is appropriate to introduce European experience in the domestic soil in the context of attracting self-organization institutions in the scope of public services delivery. The results of the study formulated the main components of a mechanism to ensure effectiveness of the self-organizations institutions in the provision of public services: subsidies of statutory activities; delegation of services; regulatory support; recognition of the status of self-organization institutions as public benefit organizations; limitation of agreements terms.

  17. Direct access and patient/client self-referral to physiotherapy: a review of contemporary practice within the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, T J; Stokes, E K

    2013-12-01

    Direct access refers to service users being able to refer themselves to physiotherapy without a third-party referral. It represents a model of practice supported globally by the profession, growing research evidence and health policy in some health systems. To the authors' knowledge, no research has been reported to ascertain the extent to which direct access is available within the physiotherapy profession within the European Union (EU). To survey member organisations of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT); establish the number of member states within the EU where it is possible for individuals seeking physiotherapy services to self-refer; describe the legislative/regulatory and reimbursement contexts in which physiotherapy services are delivered; examine if physiotherapy practice is different in member states where direct access is permitted compared with member states where direct access is not permitted; and to describe the barriers and facilitators to direct access perceived by member organisations of the WCPT. Cross-sectional, online survey using a purposive sample. Member organisations of the WCPT in the EU. Direct access is not available in all member states of the EU, despite the majority having legislation to regulate the profession, and entry-level education programmes that produce graduates with the requisite competencies. Key barriers perceived are those that can influence policy development, including the views of the medical profession and politicians. Support of service users and politicians, as well as professional autonomy, are seen as key facilitators. These results represent the first report of a comprehensive mapping of direct access to physiotherapy and contexts within the EU. In over half of member states, service users can self-refer to physiotherapists. These results provide insights to further individuals' understanding about the similarities and differences in working practices and service delivery factors, such as

  18. Police Enforcement Policy and Programmes on European Roads (PEPPER). Workpackage WP4 `Good Practices in Traffic Enforcement', Working paper 24: Good practice in data and data collection for monitoring and evaluating traffic law enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van Bernhoft, I.M. Erke, A. Ewert, U. Kallberg, V.-P. & Skladana, P.

    2007-01-01

    This working paper describes the good practice requirements regarding data and data collection for monitoring and evaluating Traffic Law Enforcement (TLE). The aim is at, eventually, individual police forces/countries put the identified ’good practice’ data into a European TLE monitoring database

  19. Assessing Clinical Microbiology Practice Guidelines: American Society for MicrobiologyAd HocCommittee on Evidence-Based Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachamkin, Irving; Kirn, Thomas J; Westblade, Lars F; Humphries, Romney

    2017-11-01

    As part of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Evidence-Based Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines Committee of the Professional Practice Committee, an ad hoc committee was formed in 2014 to assess guidelines published by the committee using an assessment tool, Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation II (AGREE II). The AGREE II assessment helps reviewers determine whether published guidelines are robust, transparent, and clear in presenting practice recommendations in a standardized manner. Identifying strengths and weaknesses of practice guidelines by ad hoc assessments helps with improving future guidelines through the participation of key stakeholders. This minireview describes the development of the ad hoc committee and results from their review of several ASM best practices guidelines and a non-ASM practice guideline from the Emergency Nurses Association. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. SINTAP: draft of a unified European failure assessment procedure. An introduction; SINTAP: Entwurf einer vereinheitlichten europaeischen Fehlerbewertungsprozedur. Eine Einfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbst, U.; Kocak, M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung; Wiesner, C. [The Welding Institute (TWI), Cambridge (United Kingdom). Structural Integrity Dept.; Hodulak, L. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Fracture mechanics based flaw assessment concepts are increasingly used in industrial regulations and standards. A considerable number of different guidelines and procedures are available which are partly based on each other but also exhibit significant differences. At this background, the EU sponsored SINTAP, an interdisciplinary Brite Euram project. SINTAP stands for 'Structural Integrity Assessment Procedures for European Industry'. From 1996 to 1999 seventeen organisations from nine European countries participated in the project the aim of which was to unify the available procedures. The present report is an introduction into the content, the structure and the scientific background of the procedure which was generated within SINTAP. (orig.) [German] Bruchmechanische Bewertungskonzepte werden international in zunehmendem Masse Bestandteil industrieller Regelwerke und Fachbereichsstandards. Bereits heute existiert eine Vielzahl derartiger Vorschriften und Rechnerprogramme, die teilweise aufeinander aufbauen, teilweise aber auch signifikante Unterschiede aufweisen. Vor diesem Hintergrund wurde durch die EU von 1996 bis 1999 SINTAP, ein interdisziplinaeres Brite-Euram-Projekt gefoerdert, dessen Ziel in einer Vereinheitlichung der vorhandenen Ansaetze bestand, und an dem siebzehn Institutionen aus neun europaeischen Laendern beteiligt waren. SINTAP steht fuer 'Structural Integrity Assessment Procedures for European Industry'. Der vorliegende Bericht ist eine Einfuehrung in Inhalt, Struktur und wissenschaftlichen Hintergrund der im Ergebnis des Projektes entstandenen SINTAP-Prozedur. (orig.)