WorldWideScience

Sample records for european power sector

  1. Rents in the European power sector due to carbon trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Cruciani, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) has imposed a price on the allowances for CO 2 emissions of electricity companies. Integrating this allowance price into the price of electricity earns a rent for companies who have received these allowances for free. During Phase I, 2005-2007, rents corresponding to the aggregate value of allocated allowances amounted to roughly EUR 13 billion per year. However, due to the specific price-setting mechanism in electricity markets true rents were considerably higher. This is due to the fact that companies also that have not received any allowances gain additional infra-marginal rents to the extent that their variable costs are below the new market price after inclusion of the allowance price. Producers with low carbon emissions and low marginal costs thus also benefit substantially from carbon pricing. This paper develops a methodology to determine the specific interaction of the imposition of such a CO 2 constraint and the price-setting mechanism in the electricity sector under the assumption of marginal cost pricing in a liberalized European electricity market. The article thus provides an empirical estimate of the true total rents of power producers during Phase I of the EU-ETS (2005-2007). The EU ETS generated in Phase I additional rents in excess of EUR 19 billion per year for electricity producers. These transfers are distributed very unevenly between different electricity producers. In a second step, the paper assesses the impact of switching from free allocation to an auctioning of allowances in 2013. We show that such a switch to auctioning will continue to create additional infra-marginal rents for certain producers and will leave the electricity sector as a whole better off than before the introduction of the EU ETS. (author)

  2. Impact of the economic recession on the European power sector's CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Declercq, Bruno; Delarue, Erik; D'haeseleer, William

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the economic recession on CO 2 emissions in the European power sector, during the years 2008 and 2009. Three main determinants of the power sector's emissions are identified: the demand for electricity, the CO 2 price, and fuel prices. A counterfactual scenario has been set up for each of these, i.e., what these parameters would have been if not affected by the recession. A simulation model of the European power sector is then employed, comparing a historical reference simulation (taking the parameters as actually occurred) with the counterfactual scenarios. The lower electricity demand (due to the recession) is shown to have by far the largest impact, accounting for an emission reduction of about 175 Mton. The lower CO 2 price (due to the recession) resulted in an increase in emissions by about 30 Mton. The impact of fuel prices is more difficult to retrieve; an indicative reduction of about 17 Mton is obtained, mainly as a consequence of the low gas prices in 2009. The simulated combined impact of the parameters results in an emission reduction of about 150 Mton in the European power sector over the years 2008 and 2009 as a consequence of the recession. - Research highlights: → CO 2 emissions are simulated for the European power sector. → Emissions reduced drastically because of the economic recession in 2008 and 2009. → Lower electricity demand had highest impact and accounts for reduction of about 175 Mton. → Impact of different CO 2 and fuel prices on emissions is more limited.

  3. Liberalising European electricity markets: opportunities and risks for a sustainable power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringel, M.

    2003-01-01

    The process of liberalising European electricity markets, encompassing a wide range of restructuring activities, has mainly been spurred by the attempt to increase the economic efficiency of the whole sector. This process might be used to trigger a development towards a sustainable power sector by increasing the use of renewable energy sources and enhancing energy efficiency on the supply and demand side. However, by taking a closer look at the current trends of the European electricity markets, it becomes obvious that the liberalisation not only implies opportunities but also risks for the creation of a sustainable power sector. Many of these risks are due to market distortions and imperfections caused by the delay in creating a fully functional single European market. Thus, in the short-term, the market liberalisation tends to constitute more risks than opportunities without government actions to prevent these risks. In the long run, though, the efficiency gains of the sector and the appearance of new market factors are likely to bring forth the opportunities of liberalisation and actively foster a transformation towards a sustainable electricity sector. (author)

  4. Renewable energy and CCS in German and European power sector decarbonization scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludig, Sylvie

    2013-11-06

    system costs are lower when transmission and storage are available. Restrictions on transmission expansion induce high amounts of storage since high local shares of solar PV lead to large output variations. In contrast, a highly interconnected European power grid allows for optimized renewable power generation siting in regions with highest potentials, which requires large-scale transmission expansions but limits total power system costs. Results from a detailed study for Germany show that the level of power demand is strongly relevant for the realization of high renewable shares and ambitious decarbonization targets. A broad technology portfolio allows to hedge against the failure to meet efficiency goals for electricity demand. CCS is necessary to reach ambitious government targets if power demand is not sufficiently decreased by efficiency measures, as is offshore wind energy. Even in case of decreasing demand, at least one of both technologies needs to be available. The choice of transmission expansion corridors is strongly influenced by technology availability: in scenarios without offshore wind energy, north-south interconnections, which are crucial in all other scenarios, only play a minor role. The studies in this thesis show that a large-scale decarbonization of the German and European power sectors is achievable through large shares of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation. CCS is not a prerequisite for successful CO{sub 2} emission strategies, but allows reaching mitigation targets at a lower cost. A portfolio of renewable energy integration options is essential to manage temporal and spatial fluctuations; the optimal technology mix is determined by the underlying power system.

  5. Trading in the rain. Rainfall and European power sector emissions. Research note no. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Analysts often say that temperature and rainfall have an impact on the price of CO 2 , as they influence the conditions of electric power supply and demand. Rainfall mainly affects the capacity of hydropower production, the third largest source of electricity in Europe and by far the leading source of renewable energy. The variability of hydroelectric volumes is indeed usually offset by other, higher-emitting sources of electricity, which has repercussions on the European allowances trading market. In 2005, rainfall was unusually low in several European countries: in the Iberian peninsula and in France, drought is believed to have brought about a rise of approximately 15 Mt CO 2 in power sector emissions. In contrast, hydrological conditions were particularly good in the Nordic countries, allowing them to reduce CO 2 emissions in the region as a whole through hydropower-based exports. The additional allowances demand would therefore have been 'only' about 9 Mt CO 2 . To make the interaction with the CO 2 market easier to understand, an indicator of rainfall in Europe must include this compensating phenomenon resulting from the heterogeneity of the climatic conditions and volumes produced in Europe

  6. European power struggles. Can the EU's decarbonisation agenda break the state-company axis in the power sector?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattich, T; Ydersbond, IM; Scholten, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Europe’s power system is still marked by a distinct national component, and despite some regions with strongly integrated power systems, electricity supply today still has a largely national basis. Policies to decarbonise the power sector may fundamentally alter this situation, because power

  7. A decomposition analysis of the driving factors of CO_2 (Carbon dioxide) emissions from the power sector in the European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmellos, M.; Kopidou, D.; Diakoulaki, D.

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to investigate the driving factors of CO_2 emissions from electricity generation in all European Union countries (EU-28) during the period 2000–2012. Particular emphasis is placed on the assessment of any potential association between the examined driving factors and major climate and energy policies implemented during the examined period. In addition, the analysis distinguishes two subperiods, namely 2000–2007 and 2007–2012 in order to detect the impact of the economic crisis on each distinct driving factor and, consequently, on the total level of CO_2 emissions from the power sector. The model developed to analyse the changes in CO_2 emissions from the power sector across EU-28, is based on LMDI-I method and takes into account five driving factors: level of activity, electricity intensity, electricity trade, efficiency of electricity generation and fuel mix. The obtained results show that in times of economic growth the main factor counterbalancing the activity effect was in most countries the decreasing electricity intensity, while the contribution of all other factors becomes apparent later, despite the economic crisis and in view of the Kyoto targets. - Highlights: • LMDI is used to identify driving forces of CO_2 emissions from EU's power sector. • Declining electricity intensity was the main restrictive factor before 2007. • Fuel shifts contributed to emissions fall mostly after 2007, despite the crisis. • Trade effect is notable and indicates growing carbon leakage in the power sector.

  8. Sectoral panorama: the electric power sector in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2003-10-01

    This study takes stock on the main european markets to help the electric power companies in their decisions and investments. The first part presents the electric power sector structure in Europe. The second part is devoted to the market evolution for the different european markets (german, french, british, italian and spanish) with an analysis of the retail prices, the competition and the evolution perspectives. The third part presents the highlights in the electric power sector between 2001 and the middle of 2003. The enterprises management and strategies are presented in the fourth part. In the last part the document analyzes the financial performances of the sector and the electric power companies. (A.L.B.)

  9. The CO2 emissions of the European power sector: economic drivers and the climate-energy policies' contribution. Working Paper No. 2014 - 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghmans, Nicolas; Cheze, Benoit; Alberola, Emilie; Chevallier, Julien

    2014-10-01

    In the frame of the ongoing debate on the 2030 energy and climate policies in the European Union, this article provides the first assessment of the effectiveness of European energy and climate policies on the CO 2 emissions reductions. This ex-post analysis deals with the CO 2 emissions of the electricity sector covered by the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) during its phases I and II (2005-2012). We analyze the contribution of different variables (including climate and energy policies, energy prices, economic activity and technical features of plants) in the evolution of CO 2 emissions from electricity production plants in Europe. The empirical results allow drawing a number of conclusions regarding the causes of the downward trend in the carbon emissions generated by power production covered by the EU ETS between 2005 and 2012. First, we show that the increased use of renewable energy in electricity production has played a dominant role in the fall in CO 2 emissions in the power sector. Second, the analysis confirms that the economic downturn has played a significant role, although not a dominant one. Third, price substitution effects between coal and gas also seem to have affected carbon emissions. Last but not least, we identify that the price of carbon has also pushed down power CO 2 emissions. (authors)

  10. European Competition Law in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, P.

    2001-09-01

    The first part gives an overview on the implementation of the Electricity Directive 96/92 in the member states of the European Union and on the still missing preconditions for a single market in the electricity sector. The second part deals with the main elements of the European merger control (market definition, market domination), the decisions in the electricity sector and analyses the impact of the Electricity Directive 96/92 EG on future merger decisions in this sector. The third part examines the role of the articles 81 and 82 EGV to secure competition in the electricity market. (author)

  11. Public Sector and Europeanization Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica Matei

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasises the role of the market-type mechanisms within the activity of the organisations from the public sector. The end of the 20th century was defined by the effects of the public sector reform. The public sector is placed within the cultural and political environment of each country and the reforms have aimed to redefine the structures of the state organisations in the economy and the relationships such as market-government, government-bureaucracy, government- citizens, bureaucracy-citizens, civil servants-politicians-citizens. The public sector reform, achieved at the managerial systems, organisational structures and regulations levels is accompanied by specific and structural reforms. Accepting the market-type mechanisms instead of bureaucratic mechanisms, meaning not the simple provision of public services but the creation of some governmental “actors”, functioning completely on commercial bases, supporting the development of the partnerships between the public and private sector, introducing privatisation is achieved in view of creating “the facilitating state”. We discuss about “facilities” such as citizens and society involvement in public businesses, making public administration more citizen-friendly and the state closer to the public need. The citizens’ involvement, as customers in the flow of the public service contributes to creating an organic ensemble characterised by two fundamental dimensions: level and type of influence of the customers and the private-public dichotomy. Synthesising, the relationships and market mechanisms enable to the public sector to get closer to the public needs and to create a modern administration based on efficiency, effectiveness and openness towards change.

  12. Public Sector and Europeanization Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica Matei

    2006-02-01

    Accepting the market-type mechanisms instead of bureaucratic mechanisms, meaning not the simple provision of public services but the creation of some governmental “actors”, functioning completely on commercial bases, supporting the development of the partnerships between the public and private sector, introducing privatisation is achieved in view of creating “the facilitating state”. We discuss about “facilities” such as citizens and society involvement in public businesses, making public administration more citizen-friendly and the state closer to the public need. The citizens’ involvement, as customers in the flow of the public service contributes to creating an organic ensemble characterised by two fundamental dimensions: level and type of influence of the customers and the private-public dichotomy. Synthesising, the relationships and market mechanisms enable to the public sector to get closer to the public needs and to create a modern administration based on efficiency, effectiveness and openness towards change.

  13. European scale climate information services for water use sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Donnelly, Chantal; Strömbäck, Lena; Capell, René; Ludwig, Fulco

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates a climate information service for pan-European water use sectors that are vulnerable to climate change induced hydrological changes, including risk and safety (disaster preparedness), agriculture, energy (hydropower and cooling water use for thermoelectric power) and

  14. Nuclear power: European report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, nuclear power plants were operated and/or built in eighteen European countries. Thirteen of these countries are members of EU-25. Five of the ten countries joining the European Union on May 1, 2004 operate nuclear power stations. A total of 206 power reactors with a gross power of 181,941 MWe and a net power of 172,699 MWe were in operation at the end of the year. In 2004, one nuclear power plant was commissioned in Russia (Kalinin 3), two (Kmelnitzki 2 and Rowno 4) in Ukraine. Five nuclear power plants were decommissioned in Europe in the course of 2004. As announced in 2000, the Chapelcross 1 to Chapelcross 4 plants in Britain were shut down for economic reasons. In Lithuania, the Ignalina 1 unit was disconnected from the power grid, as had been demanded by the EU Commission within the framework of the negotiations about the country's accession to the EU. As a result of ongoing technical optimization in some plants, involving increases in reactor power or generator power as well as commissioning of plants of higher capacity, nuclear generating capacity increased by approx. 1.5 GW. In late 2004, four nuclear generating units were under construction in Finland (1), Romania (1), and Russia (2). 150 nuclear power plants were operated in thirteen states of the European Union (EU-25), which is sixteen more than the year before as a consequence of the accession of new countries. They had an aggregate gross power of 137,943 MWe and a net power of 131,267 MWe, generating approx. 983 billion gross kWh of electricity in 2003, thus again contributing some 32% to the public electricity supply in the EU-25. In largest share of nuclear power in electricity generation is found in Lithuania (80%), followed by 78% in France, 57% in the Slovak Republic, 56% in Belgium, and 46% in Ukraine. In several countries not operating nuclear power plants of their own, such as Italy, Portugal, and Austria, nuclear power makes considerable contributions to public electricity supply as

  15. Regulation of the power sector

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of the Power Sector is a unified, consistent and comprehensive treatment of the theories and practicalities of regulation in modern power-supply systems. The need for generation to occur at the time of use occasioned by the impracticality of large-scale electricity storage coupled with constant and often unpredictable changes in demand make electricity-supply systems large, dynamic and complex and their regulation a daunting task. Conceptually arranged in four parts, this book addresses both traditional regulatory frameworks and also liberalized and re-regulated environments. First, an introduction gives a full characterization of power supply including engineering, economic and regulatory viewpoints. The second part presents the fundamentals of regulation and the third looks at the regulation of particular components of the power sector in detail. Advanced topics and subjects still open or subject to dispute form the content of the fourth part. In a sector where regulatory design is the key driver...

  16. The role of the European Bank in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, John

    1994-01-01

    The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development was established in 1991 and is owned by the western industrialized countries, including Canada, and the former communist countries of Europe and Central Asia. Its purpose is to assist the latter to make the transition from command to market economies in a democratic framework. In the energy sector, most of the EBRD's lending has been in the oil and gas sector in Russia, but it is open for business in other sectors and in all countries of operation. Unlike other development banks, the EBRD is prepared to finance nuclear power projects. The bank is also prepared to finance conventional power plants where these would permit the closure of obsolete or unsafe nuclear plants. In the oil and gas sector, most of the EBRD's lending has related to private sector, joint venture projects aimed at oil field rehabilitation and development. The private sector ventures supported by the Bank normally involve joint stock companies owned 50 per cent by western partners and 50 per cent by Russian state oil companies, which are being privatized or are operating according to private sector principles. (author)

  17. Actual questions in Slovak and European nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    2010-01-01

    The close cohesion of research and education underlines the development of all research areas and contributes to their sustainability. In the paper, new approaches of European Commission (DG RTD Energy) to nuclear power engineering development (focused on area fission and reactor systems) and applications also for Slovak conditions are discussed in details. Research, education and training increase not only economical factor and technical development, but imply the higher level of safety culture by design or operation of nuclear installations. The paper will be focused on the actual questions in frame of Slovak as well as European nuclear sector.

  18. Private sector participation in power sector in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, V.

    1992-01-01

    The Indian Government is currently thinking of allowing private sector to participate in power sector inviting private sector to generate electricity mainly from coal. The main motivation is resource mobilization from private sector, since the Plan funds are diverted to rural development away from power sector; and yet the massive expansion has to be financed. The paper analyzes the inherent difficulties and contradictions in the Government's proposal, such as co-existence of high cost private power and low cost public power, the potential goal-conflicts of private and public utilities and the constraints in raising finance. It suggests a different model in order to make the privatization proposition feasible. 12 refs

  19. Short Summary European Reports on Retail Sector, Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector, Food and Beverages Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is composed of European synthesis reports on retail trade, the agro-food sector, and the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. They are based on the most important findings of the European report and the 12 national reports for each sector. Section 1, "Retail Sector," deals in part 1 with the structure of retailing in the…

  20. Nuclear power and European Union enlargement challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Bilegan, C.; Pall, S.; Sandru, P.

    2000-01-01

    In the nuclear power sector, the main concern for the candidate countries entering the European Union, remains the nuclear safety. New standards and regulation will be issued for improving the general quality of life in a sound environment. For the candidate countries entering the European Union, this situation represents a real challenge. Their national legislation must be improved to meet the European standards. The conditions are different from country to country, and more difficult for those, which operate ''non west European reactor type''. The paper also present the actual status of the Romanian legislation related to nuclear power and environment. There are presented the principles, terms and responsibilities contained in this legislation. The authors discuss some aspects related to the possibilities to improve the national legislation to meet the actual European Commission or EURATOM standards. (author)

  1. Preparation for the competitive European electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mombauer, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy - alongside knowledge, creativity and capital - is one of the fundamental necessities of humankind. Modern life is indeed dependent on energy, especially electricity and natural gas, the grid-connected energies, for its power, heating, cooling and traffic. To ensure security in the supply of energy, world energy hunger must be taken into account. Competition for primary energy resources will increase and the processes for their transformation from raw materials into consumable energy will have to be made more efficient, environmentally friendly and sustainable. Research into new sources of energy has to continue. After the respectable results of the industrial sector to decouple growth and energy consumption in future the transport and building sectors will have to intensify their efforts to reduce energy use intensity

  2. Sectoral variation in consequences of intra-European labour migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    Intra-European labour migration has divergent labour market consequences across institutional settings and economic sectors. Some sectors experience increasing pressure on industrial relations and labour market segmentation while others do not experience such effects, and it remains unclear how...

  3. Power sector reforms in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans L; Sharma, Deepak

    2007-07-01

    India faces endemic electrical energy and peaking shortages. The Power Sector is plagued with mounting commercial losses due various inefficiencies, colossal commercial and technical losses and increasing subsidy burden on the states. These shortages have had a very detrimental effect on the overall economic growth of the country. In order to re-vitalise the sector and improve the techno-economic performance, the Government of India has initiated the reform process in 1991. This paper analyses the pre-reform era and identifies the key concerns which led to the initiation of the reforms. It also analyses the likely impact of the major policy and regulatory initiatives that have been undertaken since 1991 including the provisions of the new enactments which have come into force eventually in the form of The Electricity Act, 2003. This paper details out the key features of the Act and its likely impact on the Indian electricity industry in the emerging scenario. The paper also discusses major issues like power trading, role of regulator in the new regime, issue of open access, introduction of power markets and role of Appellate Tribunal for Electricity in harmonizing the orders of the various regulators.

  4. Nuclear power 2005: European report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, nuclear power plants were operated and/or built in eighteen European countries. Thirteen of these countries are members of EU-25. Five of the ten countries joining the European Union on May 1, 2004 operate nuclear power stations. A total of 204 power reactors with a gross power of 181,030 MWe and a net power of 171,8479 MWe were in operation at the end of the year. In 2005, no nuclear power plant was commissioned. Two nuclear power plants were decommissioned in Europe in the course of 2005. In Germany the Obrigheim NPP and in Sweden the Barsebaeck 2 NPP have been permanently shut down due to political decisions. As a result of ongoing technical optimization in some plants, involving increases in reactor power or generator power as well as commissioning of plants of higher capacity, nuclear generating capacity increased by approx. 1.6 GW. In late 2005, five nuclear generating units were under construction in Finland (1), Romania (1), and Russia (3). 148 nuclear power plants were operated in thirteen states of the European Union (EU-25). They had an aggregate gross power of 137,023 MWe and a net power of 130,415 MWe, generating approx. 970 billion gross kWh of electricity in 2005, thus again contributing some 31% to the public electricity supply in the EU-25. In largest share of nuclear power in electricity generation is found in France (80%), followed by 72% in Lithuania, 55% in the Slovak Republic, 55% in Belgium, and 51% in Ukraine. In several countries not operating nuclear power plants of their own, such as Italy, Portugal, and Austria, nuclear power makes considerable contributions to public electricity supply as a result of electricity imports. (All statistical data in the country report apply to 2004 unless indicated otherwise. This is the year for which sound preliminary data are currently available for the states listed.) (orig.)

  5. Indian power sector: achievements and failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen Gupta, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with the growth of India's power sector over the last 50 years since independence, touching upon some developments that followed. It also highlights the power crisis that presently faces the nation, projecting into the next decade. The role played by the Indian Institute of Science in the development of India's power sector and is now playing to help mitigate the present and future shortages is briefly described. (author)

  6. Sector 7-8 powered up

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    1. Frédéric Gicquel from the Cryogenics for Accelerators Group (AT/ACR) and Anupama Kulkarni from the Magnets and Electrical Systems Group (AT/MEL) at the CERN Control Centre during the powering-up of Sector 7-8. 2. Frédérick Bordry, leader of the Power Converter Group (AB/PO), and Roberto Saban, responsible for coordinating the LHC commissioning (TS/HDO), celebrate the end of the first powering-up of an entire LHC sector: Sector 7-8.

  7. IMPLEMENTATION OF BASEL III IN THE EUROPEAN BANKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Sbarcea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, which is part of a larger research project aimed at the expected impact of Basel III on commercial banks in Romania, I decided to analyse the implementation and transposition of the new international prudential requirements into European regulations, which are of particular interest for the Romanian banking sector. I started this analysis by highlighting the peculiarities of the European banking sector at aggregate level, but also as a cross-country survey, to later highlight the views of European regulations on prudential supervision and differences to international regulations.

  8. Trading in the rain. Rainfall and European power sector emissions. Research note no. 9; Trading in the rain. Precipitations et emissions du secteur electrique europeen. Note d'etude n.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Analysts often say that temperature and rainfall have an impact on the price of CO{sub 2}, as they influence the conditions of electric power supply and demand. Rainfall mainly affects the capacity of hydropower production, the third largest source of electricity in Europe and by far the leading source of renewable energy. The variability of hydroelectric volumes is indeed usually offset by other, higher-emitting sources of electricity, which has repercussions on the European allowances trading market. In 2005, rainfall was unusually low in several European countries: in the Iberian peninsula and in France, drought is believed to have brought about a rise of approximately 15 Mt CO{sub 2} in power sector emissions. In contrast, hydrological conditions were particularly good in the Nordic countries, allowing them to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the region as a whole through hydropower-based exports. The additional allowances demand would therefore have been 'only' about 9 Mt CO{sub 2}. To make the interaction with the CO{sub 2} market easier to understand, an indicator of rainfall in Europe must include this compensating phenomenon resulting from the heterogeneity of the climatic conditions and volumes produced in Europe.

  9. Trading in the rain. Rainfall and European power sector emissions. Research note no. 9; Trading in the rain. Precipitations et emissions du secteur electrique europeen. Note d'etude n.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Analysts often say that temperature and rainfall have an impact on the price of CO{sub 2}, as they influence the conditions of electric power supply and demand. Rainfall mainly affects the capacity of hydropower production, the third largest source of electricity in Europe and by far the leading source of renewable energy. The variability of hydroelectric volumes is indeed usually offset by other, higher-emitting sources of electricity, which has repercussions on the European allowances trading market. In 2005, rainfall was unusually low in several European countries: in the Iberian peninsula and in France, drought is believed to have brought about a rise of approximately 15 Mt CO{sub 2} in power sector emissions. In contrast, hydrological conditions were particularly good in the Nordic countries, allowing them to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the region as a whole through hydropower-based exports. The additional allowances demand would therefore have been 'only' about 9 Mt CO{sub 2}. To make the interaction with the CO{sub 2} market easier to understand, an indicator of rainfall in Europe must include this compensating phenomenon resulting from the heterogeneity of the climatic conditions and volumes produced in Europe.

  10. Liberalization of the European gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwark, B.; Finger, M.

    2006-01-01

    Natural gas is the fastest growing fossil fuel worldwide, and by 2030, natural gas will replace coal as the second largest fuel, after oil. In particular, the growing use of natural gas in electricity generation rises the demand and changes the image of gas as substitute for light oil for heating. Due to its complete supply dependency, Switzerland will be affected by the European gas market developments. A new market organization, which requires legal and entrepreneurial decisions in Switzerland, emerges from the liberalization process of the energy markets in the European Union. (author)

  11. The Harmonization of Public Sector Accounting in European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny

    accounting standards in Member States. The suitability of IPSAS for the Member States” (European Commission, 2013b). This report takes into account the Public Consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States. The European Commission (2013b, p. 8) considers that IPSASs cannot easily......The European Commission is working on several fronts to achieve the implementation of uniform and comparable accruals-based accounting practices for the European Union Member States and for all the sectors of General Government, that is, Central Government, State Government, Local Government...... and Social Security, considering that at the same time it can help ensure high quality statistics (European Commission, 2013a). In 2012 Eurostat issued a Public Consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States, later publishing the report “Towards implementing harmonised public sector...

  12. Chances of coal in European power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukaszczyk, Zygmunt; Badura, Henryk

    2017-11-01

    Poland's accession to the European Union has reduced the remnants of import barriers. Moreover, the consolidation and commercialization of the energy sector, the implementation of climate package elements and a whole host of other determinants have caused hard coal mining to begin functioning in a highly competitive market, and its negotiating position, as well as the possibility of survival, depends not only on the level of coal prices in international markets, but also on internal competition. This paper discusses the position of power coal on international markets and presents some current problems concerning the functioning of particular segments of the hard coal market in the European Union and Poland in terms of opportunities and threats that are a result of climate and energy policy.

  13. Simulators in nuclear power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathey, C.; Roux, J.

    1984-01-01

    The simulator has established itself as an indispensable tool for training nuclear power station operators. After summarizing the main advantages of this training method, the author examines different types of simulators (for training or planning) and their architecture. He then describes the mathematical models used to simulate operation of the various elements of the ''power station'' and guarantee accurate representativity of phenomena associated with the power station operating under normal and accident conditions [fr

  14. European parliament: nuclear power necessary for Eu at middle term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    In a not binding resolution adopted with a very wide majority, the european deputies, reminding that 30 % of the European electricity is supplied by the nuclear power, considered on October 24., 2007, that this energy was indispensable to cover the energy basic needs of the medium-term. The European Parliament called member states to make efforts in the field of research and development in the sector of energy, nuclear or not. The deputies also asked to the European Commission to present legislative propositions concerning the capture and the storage of CO 2 . (N.C.)

  15. The Impact of Wind Power on European Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Due to its clean burning properties, low investment costs and flexibility in production, natural gas is often put forward as the ideal partner fuel for wind power and other renewable sources of electricity generation with strongly variable output. This working paper examines three vital questions associated with this premise: 1) Is natural gas indeed the best partner fuel for wind power? 2) If so, to what extent will an increasing market share of wind power in European electricity generation affect demand for natural gas in the power sector? and 3) Considering the existing European natural gas markets, is natural gas capable of fulfilling this role of partner for renewable sources of electricity?.

  16. The electrical power sector in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gengyilmaz, Nese; Savruk, Nurettin

    1998-01-01

    In Turkey, highest priority is given to domestic resources, whenever economical. Imports are considered in case it is feasible. Diversification of resources is also taken into account. Efficient utilization of the resources and energy conservation are ensured ant supported. Measures for environmental and public health protection are taken into consideration during power generation and planing. In energy investments, foreign capital and domestic private sector are promoted along with the public sector. A rational structure in energy pricing is applied without any subsidies. Feasible interconnections and higher electric power exchanges with neighbouring countries are supported

  17. Pollutants emission in power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen, are the primary source of heat and electrical energy production and are responsible for emitting a large number and amount of pollutants into the atmosphere via exhaust gases from industry, power stations, residential heating systems and vehicles. During the combustion process, different pollutants such as CO 2 , SO X (including SO 2 and SO 3 ), NO X (including NO 2 , NO and N 2 O), fly ash, VOCs and mercury are emitted. These emissions cause big environmental and human health hazard. CO 2 , N 2 O, some VOCs, CH 4 contribute to the global greenhouse effect, adding a new dimension to the environmental degradation resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. These problems regarding emissions inventory, their impact on the environment and human health, air pollution control technologies and costs, periods of fossil fuels depletion, role of renewable and nuclear energy in the further civilization development are briefly discussed. (author)

  18. Pollutants emission in power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A. G. [Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen, are the primary source of heat and electrical energy production and are responsible for emitting a large number and amount of pollutants into the atmosphere via exhaust gases from industry, power stations, residential heating systems and vehicles. During the combustion process, different pollutants such as CO{sub 2}, SO{sub X} (including SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}), NO{sub X} (including NO{sub 2}, NO and N{sub 2}O), fly ash, VOCs and mercury are emitted. These emissions cause big environmental and human health hazard. CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, some VOCs, CH{sub 4} contribute to the global greenhouse effect, adding a new dimension to the environmental degradation resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. These problems regarding emissions inventory, their impact on the environment and human health, air pollution control technologies and costs, periods of fossil fuels depletion, role of renewable and nuclear energy in the further civilization development are briefly discussed. (author)

  19. Administrative decentralization in electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this report are discussed: the new technologies impact in the electric power sector and possible scenarios and greenhouse gases containment in post-Kyoto target, the possible sinergies at urban-territorial scale, the balance of energy environmental policies, simplifications of procedures in authorization and control activities [it

  20. Nuclear power and the private sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The world scene is sketched in which nuclear power already contributes 600 Mtce/year to world energy but where public attitudes in the developed world have become largely hostile. This is despite the proven technology of nuclear power, its safety record (Chernobyl notwithstanding) and its environmentally benign aspects. The United Kingdom government's determination to ensure a continuing role for nuclear power in a privatized electricity supply industry is seen against this background. The structure of the British nuclear power industry undoubtedly presents difficulties for privatization but solutions are available and precedents for private sector nuclear power exist in other countries. Private sector operators will be required to meet the exacting standards set by the independent licensing authority but in view of the public concern redoubled efforts and new approaches will be necessary in public persuasion. Waste disposal is another issue which may have implications for the acceptability of nuclear power in the public sector. Finally, the prospects for investment in new nuclear plant by private generation companies are examined. (U.K.)

  1. Multi-sectoral action for child safety-a European study exploring implicated sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtes, Beatrice; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Förster, Katharina; MacKay, Morag; Vincenten, Joanne; Brand, Helmut

    2017-06-01

    Injury to children in Europe, resulting in both death and disability, constitutes a significant burden on individuals, families and society. Inequalities between high and low-income countries are growing. The World Health Organisation Health 2020 strategy calls for inter-sectoral collaboration to address injury in Europe and advocates the whole of government and whole of society approaches to wicked problems. In this study we explore which sectors (e.g. health, transport, education) are relevant for four domains of child safety (intentional injury, water, road and home safety). We used the organigraph methodology, originally developed to demonstrate how organizations work, to describe the governance of child safety interventions. Members of the European Child Safety Alliance, working in the field of child safety in 24 European countries, drew organigraphs of evidence-based interventions. They included the different actors involved and the processes between them. We analyzed the organigraphs by counting the actors presented and categorizing them into sectors using a pre-defined analysis framework. We received 44 organigraphs from participants in 24 countries. Twenty-seven sectors were identified across the four domains. Nine of the 27 identified sectors were classified as 'core sectors' (education, health, home affairs, justice, media, recreation, research, social/welfare services and consumers). This study reveals the multi-sectoral nature of child safety in practice. It provides information for stakeholders working in child safety to help them implement inter-sectoral child safety interventions taking a whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach to health governance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. LIBERALISATION OF THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: PRESENT STATE AND SOME OPEN QUESTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, A.

    2007-07-01

    The liberalisation of the electricity sector started approximately 10 to 15 years ago, depending on the country. Nonetheless, there is still no general agreement on the liberalisation model this sector should follow, mainly because of the discussion of whether the liberalisation is an end in itself, or a means for -basically- lower energy prices. The complexity of the sector and the resilience of the incumbents' market power have currently placed the liberalisation process at a crossroad. In the EU, entrenched national interests are another obstacle to deal with. In this article, we first give an overview of the different liberalisation processes in the electricity sector and then summarize the pending challenges from an EU perspective. Next, we argue that the EU should focus on conditions aiming at implementing an effective liberalisation process, rather than on a formal liberalisation approach. We show how asymmetries between non-sector regulations in the European states and among companies create an uneven playing field, contrary to the European vision of an internal competitive energy market. We end the article studying the compatibility of the current European regulatory framework with the upcoming challenges in the energy sector. (auth)

  3. Strategies of development of European power producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddebaut, D.

    2007-12-01

    This economical study answers the following questions: what is the dynamics of European power markets? What is the relative competitiveness of the different power production means? What are the determining factors of electricity wholesale prices? Who are the operators the most threatened by the rise of wholesale prices? To what extend power producers are impacted by the CO 2 constrain? Who are the most efficient producers? The analysis is based on 18 of the most representative groups of the European electric utilities. The first volume of the study presents the strategic perspectives of European power producers: dynamics and basic characteristics of European power markets, strategic options of European operators, typology and financial results of European power producers, scenarios of market reorganization according to Eurostaf (possible mega-mergers in the future, competition). Volume 2 makes a detailed analysis of the positioning and perspectives of the 18 selected groups: key figures, sourcing strategies, production means management, Eurostaf's diagnosis. (J.S.)

  4. Three Target Sectors for a European Investment Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janin, Lionel; Douillard, Pierre

    2014-11-01

    While the president of the European Commission is getting ready to present the 'Juncker package' announced in July 2014, to revive activity in Europe through investment, what are the sectors in which these investments may be concentrated? The overall analysis of investment gaps in the euro zone has confirmed the requirement for a European macro-economic revival effort that involves investment, public or private, undertaken very quickly, even though this diagnosis varies depending on the country. The drivers of a European investment strategy are fiscal, regulatory and financial and are based on the selection of projects for the future. This third 'Note d'analyse' addresses the topic of investment potential in three key sectors: transport, energy and the digital sector, for which the amount of additional investment could reach euro 120 billion per year and thus, over three years, be higher than the forecasts in the Juncker plan. This maximalist amount mainly corresponds to the implementation of an ambitious energy-climate policy. Given current budgetary constraints, carefully selecting the desired investments, for which their social utility must be validated, is imperative: socioeconomic evaluation is the appropriate approach, particularly for taking into account the environmental externalities that now justify significant investments in the ecological transition. (authors)

  5. Issues related to gas use by European power utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonchere, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Gas-fired combined cycle frequently appears as a least-cost option for newly built power plants. Moreover, this option also brings obvious environmental benefits. But, power utilities, facing unavoidable long term uncertainties about electricity demand are not at ease with long term commitments such a a take-or-pay formula or a price indexation not reflecting the market place in the power generation industry. Due to the flexibilities in the management of existing power plants (deferred closures, etc...) or even on the demand side (load shifting, peak clipping, etc...), early decision making is not compulsory. Therefore, a gas breakthrough in the power sector interfuel competition will require a mutual understanding of constraints and flexibilities faced by partners: gas sellers and power utilities. A fair rent sharing between them would certainly be a prerequisite to a large but possibly temporary access of natural gas to the European power sector. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  6. The role of the European Bank in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.

    1993-01-01

    The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development was established in 1991 to assist central and eastern European countries in making the transition from command economies to market economies. The Bank provides loans, equity investments, guarantees, advice, and technical cooperation to qualified applicants through its merchant banking and development banking operations. In the energy sector, the Bank recognizes that the energy resources of eastern Europe are enormous but so are the problems associated with their development. Since its foundation, most of the Bank's energy-related lending has been in the oil and gas sector in Russia and the Baltic countries. The Bank has approved eight projects in that sector with total capital costs of ca US$1.7 billion. Major problem areas to be overcome include uneconomic domestic pricing, high energy intensity and pollution, inadequate legal frameworks, inappropriate tax structures, and institutional complexity. Canadian firms have been actively involed in Bank-financed projects in the Russian oil and gas sector, and two such projects are briefly described. They comprise joint ventures with Russian enterprises or associations and include rehabilitation of Siberian oil fields and drilling new wells in the Komi (Arctic) region. A common feature of these projects is that they were well under way before the Bank got involved, but the Bank brings the benefits of additional financing and providing moral support and expertise which can be useful in overcoming administrative and regulatory difficulties

  7. The Europeanization of regulation of the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrijsen, S.A.C.M.; Nauta, T.

    2010-01-01

    The main question of this article is how the ongoing Europeanization of regulation relates to the restrictive manner in which the Dutch legislator interprets the principle of legality with respect to the qualification of the independent regulating authorities. To answer this question, research focuses first of all on which demands are imposed by European law on the constitutional position and qualification of the national regulating authorities that implement the energy directives. Anticipating the consequences of the third generation of energy directives for the position of the national authorities, attention is subsequently paid to the question whether any tension exists between European requirements for the regulation of the energy sector and the manner in which the national legislator interprets the principle of legality. [nl

  8. Financial structure in the Indian power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstairs, Jamie; Ehrhardt, David

    1995-01-01

    In India, the private power initiative of 1991 has offered on solution to the financing problem - the private financing of generation against long-term power purchase agreements. However, this approach encounters a major problem, the financial weakness of the purchasing agents, the state electricity boards, that play a dominant role in most state's power sectors. At present the SEBs are mostly loss making; even the best performers realize returns on assets well below the cost of capital that they now face. The situation is likely to become worse as costs rise, further weakening the ability of the SEBs to sign credible long-term purchase contracts. The private sector has responded by trying to reduce its exposure to SEBs through obtaining guarantees from state and central governments. There are a number of responses to this problem. The SEBs could try to become financially stronger through both cost reduction and increased revenues from higher tariffs and better collection. However, to make the SEBs and EDs into credible long-term power purchasers, power sector reform and regulation is needed. As these actions will take time, other responses could be investigated such as reducing the role of state power utilities by, for example, giving private generators direct access to industrial consumers. The long-term solution requires more profitable SEBs, if these bodies are to continue to play a dominant role in state-level electricity provision. Profitable SEBs will have access to finance from a range of domestic and international sources. The article finishes with consideration of the factors that will affect the optimal capital structure for SEBs. (author)

  9. Indian power sector: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, C.V.J.; Lal, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    In India population and economic growth is expected to create serious power shortages triggering the need for new power generation capacity. The situation is worsened on account of stagnant conditions prevailing in the country during the past few years. The opening of economy to the global market is expected to usher in an increased economic growth bringing in its wake greater demand for power. It will, thus, be seen that to cater these requirements the power sector industry in the country will have to grow at a much faster rate in the near future. However, to have a correct perspective of the emerging scenario, it might be worthwhile to have a look at the past patterns of development. (author). 9 refs., 5 tabs

  10. The single European energy market: the electricity supply sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The completion of the Internal Market in the Community by the end of 1992 has become a key objective and the focal point of the revival of the European Community. Within this overall objective, the development of the Single European Energy Market, the Internal Energy market, is a major element. The energy objectives for the Community, adopted in 1986 by the Council of Ministers and relating to targets in the energy sector to be achieved by 1995, contain what are effectively the aims of the Internal Energy Market. This is in a reference to the need for greater integration, free from barriers to trade, of the Internal Energy Market with a view to improving security of supply, reducing costs and improving economic competitiveness. In the light of these aims, the Commission drew up, in 1988, an inventory of potential obstacles to the achievement of the Internal Energy Market. This was accepted by the Council, together with a list of suggested priority areas of work, and has formed the basis of the Commission's efforts to move forward as quickly as possible in the development of the Internal Energy Market, in all branches of the energy sector. The impact on the electricity sector, in particular, is considered here. (author)

  11. The future of Croatian power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelcic, A.; Slipac, G.; Zeljko, M.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives two among many possible scenarios of the power sector development in Croatia for the period between 2001 and 2030. This article observes the long period until 2030. It is understandable that the reliability of the results of the analysis for the entire period is not consistent. For the first ten years of the planning period the results can be taken with great reliability, while for the period until 2010 and onward there are only outlines of the problems rather than proposals for final solutions. The expected technological development will also contribute especially in the light of the general apprehension about consequences of pollution and the obligations overtaken at the Kyoto Conference on Environment. One of the most important issues is the safety of power sector. With the increased use of gas for electricity generation as well as in the other consumption sectors, it is essential to ensure several supply lines and enlarge storage facilities. Of course, there is also a question of diversification of sources after 2010. The study uses the coal plants for working design only, but other sources can serve the same purpose. (e.g., nuclear plants). In the next 4-5 years many presumptions of development in that period will become more transparent, so it is not necessary to bring final conclusions in this moment

  12. A European nuclear sector to face future energy challenges?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legee, F.; Thais, F.

    2010-01-01

    Very early Europe chose the way of nuclear energy to produce electricity but progressively different countries followed different policies and now the nuclear landscape of the European Union is various: some countries are full-fledged, some stopped their program a long ago and others are in a phase-out period. The stakes of the climatic change and a framed strategy of the European Union have led to a renewal of the nuclear option. Great-Britain has already launched a program of new power plants. Poland, Bulgaria, Slovenia and Hungary want to develop nuclear energy to be less dependant on Russian oil and gas exports. In other countries like Germany, Austria, Sweden we can notice a positive change in favour of nuclear power of their public opinion. A recent OECD study shows that nuclear power stays largely competitive in Europe despite rising construction costs. The harmonization of the nuclear safety regulations throughout Europe appears clearly as an objective of the European Union. As for the management of radioactive wastes the European Union favors the disposal in deep geological layers, but as for the options: direct storage or reprocessing, a common European policy is out of reach at the moment. (A.C.)

  13. Sustainability in the Power Sector. 2010 Update. The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, T.; Ten Kate, A.; Racz, K.

    2010-11-15

    This 2010 series of power company and thematic fact sheets aims to raise public awareness about sustainability issues in the electricity sector and to improve the sustainability of power companies operating in the Netherlands. The fact sheet series investigates the companies' performance on incorporating renewable energy sources into their fuel mix for both generation and supply of electricity, and on their investments and future plans with respect to energy sources at both the Dutch and European level. The 2010 fact sheet series is the annual update that is going into its fourth year, and builds on the work from previous years (available at www.somo.nl), but includes a slightly different range of companies due to a number of recent and pending mergers and acquisitions among power companies with operations in the Netherlands.

  14. 'Nuclearelectrica' and restructuring the electric power sector in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metes, Mircea

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the first steps of the energy market development in Romania and the impact of this process on 'Nuclearelectrica' company which operates the Cernavoda NPP. The main directions of the power sector liberalization in the European Union are being implemented in Romania. 'Nuclearelectrica' attempts to comply with both economic and safety requirements for nuclear plant operation. So far, the evolution of power market proved the competitiveness of Cernavoda Unit 1 with the existing power producers in Romania. It is stressed that although the 'Hydroelectrica' company sells the MWh at a lower price it cannot cope with top demands higher than 2400 MW. Economical aspects are analyzed and the conclusion is drawn that the situation of 'Nuclearelectrica' company will be significantly changed after the commissioning of Cernavoda Unit 2. (author)

  15. Privatisation electric power sector in Pakistan: some important issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, A.; Weiss, J.

    1998-01-01

    This discussion paper highlights important issues relating to the privatisation of Pakistan's electric power sector. Salient features of the electric power sector in Pakistan, factors affecting the economic performance of this sector, the partial privatisation policy adopted by Pakistan, ongoing private power projects, and current privatisation policy are examined. The arguments for competition are raised, and alternative policy reforms the are considered

  16. Estimation of European Union residential sector space cooling potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubcionis, Mindaugas; Carlsson, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Data on European residential space cooling demands are scarce and often of poor quality. This can be concluded from a review of the Comprehensive Assessments on the energy efficiency potential in the heating and cooling sector performed by European Union Member States under Art. 14 of the Energy Efficiency Directive. This article estimates the potential space cooling demands in the residential sector of the EU and the resulting impact on electricity generation and supply systems using the United States as a proxy. A georeferenced approach was used to establish the potential residential space cooling demand in NUTS-3 regions of EU. The total potential space cooling demand of the EU was estimated to be 292 TW h for the residential sector in an average year. The additional electrical capacity needed was estimated to 79 GW. With proper energy system development strategies, e.g. matching capacity of solar PV with cooling demand, or introduction of district cooling, the stresses on electricity system from increasing cooling demand can be mitigated. The estimated potential of space cooling demand, identified in this paper for all EU Members States, could be used while preparing the next iteration of EU MS Comprehensive Assessments or other energy related studies. - Highlights: • An estimation of EU space cooling demand potential in residential sector is presented. • An estimate of space cooling demand potential is based on using USA data as a proxy. • Significant cooling demand increase can be expected. • Cooling demand increase would lead to increased stress in energy supply systems. • Proper policies and strategies might measurably decrease the impact on energy systems.

  17. The European Community programmes in the sector of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamantaras, K.; Ferrero, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    The wind technology market has known a considerable evolution over the last decade. From the early eighties - when there were only a few kilowatts of the research prototype wind turbines installed - the total installed capacity within the European Community has reached nowadays more than 765 MW in commercial machines. This expansion has been brought about with the aid of important R and D energy technology programmes run by national governments, and by the Commission of European Communities with its research, development, demonstration and market development programmes, such as the JOULE, demonstration and THERMIE programmes. This paper presents the activities of the Community demonstration and THERMIE programmes in the wind energy sector from 1983 to 1992. Reference is also made to the Community programmes JOULE II and ALTENER. (au)

  18. Future demand scenarios of Bangladesh power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Md. Alam Hossain; Boie, Wulf; Denich, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Data on the future electricity demand is an essential requirement for planning the expansion of a power system. The purpose of this study is to provide a general overview of electricity consumption in Bangladesh, forecast sector-wise electricity demand up to 2035 considering the base year 2005, and compare the results with official projections. The Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model with three scenarios, namely low gross domestic product (GDP) growth, average GDP growth and high GDP growth, is applied in this study. In the low to high GDP growth scenarios, the extent of industrial restructuring and technical advancement is gradually increased. The findings have significant implications with respect to energy conservation and economic development. The study also compares the projected per capita electricity consumption in Bangladesh with the historical growth in several other developing countries. Such an evaluation can create awareness among the planners of power system expansion in Bangladesh to meet the high future demand.

  19. Status of power sector restructuring in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachiauskas, A.

    1999-01-01

    Lithuanian electricity sector comprises joint stock company Lietuvos Energija, which is responsible for supplying the country with electric energy, the Ignalina NPP state enterprise, which generates more then three fourth of the entire electricity of Lithuania, CHPs run By municipalities of Kaunas and Vilnius, and a few power plants, owned by industrial enterprises, as well as private small hydro power plants. Joint stock company Lietuvos Energija is a vertically integrated monopoly, which has inherited drawbacks inherent in planned - administrational economy and is therefore now being restructured into a modern and effective structure capable of operating within market economy conditions. The main goals of restructuring would meet electricity economy requirements: clearly un bundle electricity generation costs from electricity transmission and distribution costs; create internal and external electricity market conditions by gradual transition to wholesale and retail electricity trade; create conditions for third party access; create favourable conditions for competition; provide a possibility to integrate with Baltic electricity market in progress

  20. Economic issues relating to power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.K.N.; Mohan, Rakesh

    1998-01-01

    Financial distress alongside high rates of growth, stagnant organizations coexistent with upgraded technologies, richly endowed regions marked by low levels of electricity consumption and the long wait for private power in face of mounting shortfalls are among the contradictions marking the power sector. Decades of public financing support could shore up the rates of growth but forms of past intervention failed to address critical institutional and regulatory issues. Key areas that need intervention have now been identified, although several are yet to be tackled. This paper discusses the more important of the problem areas holding up significant economic gains that could be realized through cost reductions, the needed levels of investments, operation of market forces and targeting of resources to promote equitable growth. The slow pace of progress is a matter for concern. Effectiveness of many of the policy initiatives of government is also dependent on providing well thought out policy supports. (author)

  1. Emissions of mercury from the power sector in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zysk, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Pluta, M. [AGH University of Science & Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Energy & Fuels

    2011-01-15

    Poland belongs to the European Union countries with the highest mercury emissions. This is mainly related to coal combustion. This paper presents estimates of mercury emissions from power sector in Poland. In this work, the bottom-up approach was applied and over 160 emission point sources were analysed. For each, the characteristics of the whole technological chain starting from fuel quality, boiler type as well as emission controls were taken into account. Our results show that emissions of mercury from brown coal power plants in 2005 were nearly four times greater than those of hard coal power plants. These estimates differ significantly from national statistics and some possible reasons are discussed. For the first time total mercury emissions from the Polish power sector were differentiated into its main atmospheric forms: gaseous elemental (GEM), reactive gaseous (RGM) and particulate-bound mercury. Information on emission source location and the likely vertical distribution of mercury emissions, which can be used in modelling of atmospheric dispersion of mercury is also provided.

  2. Emissions of mercury from the power sector in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśk, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Pluta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Poland belongs to the European Union countries with the highest mercury emissions. This is mainly related to coal combustion. This paper presents estimates of mercury emissions from power sector in Poland. In this work, the bottom-up approach was applied and over 160 emission point sources were analysed. For each, the characteristics of the whole technological chain starting from fuel quality, boiler type as well as emission controls were taken into account. Our results show that emissions of mercury from brown coal power plants in 2005 were nearly four times greater than those of hard coal power plants. These estimates differ significantly from national statistics and some possible reasons are discussed. For the first time total mercury emissions from the Polish power sector were differentiated into its main atmospheric forms: gaseous elemental (GEM), reactive gaseous (RGM) and particulate-bound mercury. Information on emission source location and the likely vertical distribution of mercury emissions, which can be used in modelling of atmospheric dispersion of mercury is also provided.

  3. Liberalization of power generation sector in the Croatian electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viskovic, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    The electricity market liberalization and the restructuring of power utilities eventually leads to the establishment of a single electricity market in Europe, which is especially important for efficiency gains in electricity generation coupled with increased security of supply, economic competitiveness and fulfillment of environmental requirements. The European electricity market Directives as well as the Energy Community Treaty for South East Europe (legislative Menu) have remarkable impact on the restructuring of the Croatian power sector and the development of electricity generation. The Croatian model of restructuring includes legal un bundling (in the ownership of one holding company - Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (HEP)). The operation of HEP Group and its subsidiaries in the conditions of partially opened electricity market in an important element that shapes the interactions of competitive activities and regulated activities in the environment influenced by exogenous factors a thirteen percent electricity are controlled by the Energy Market Operator (MO), the Transmission System Operator (TSO) and the Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA). The introduction of eligible procedures and newly created operative procedures for power system operation, are creating completely new conditions for competition in the power generation sector, where almost all power plants are owned by HEP. New generating capacities in Croatia can be built through tendering and licensing procedures carried out by the Regulator. Electricity prices are still regulated by the Government (below the cost reflective level), there is a small share of industrial consumers and the annual electricity production is 12 TWh, with relatively large share of hydro plants. All these have implications on the development of the power generation sector in Croatia as well as on electricity market operation. The subject matter of this paper is an impact of power system restructuring and electricity market opening on the

  4. Power sector reform in Maharashtra, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totare, Ninad P.; Pandit, Shubha

    2010-01-01

    In early 1990 the power sector in India required an initial set of reforms due to the scarcity of financial resources and its deteriorating technical and commercial efficiency. The Indian power sector is now going through a second stage of reforms in which restructuring of electric supply utilities has taken place. The Maharashtra State Electricity Board (MSEB) initiated reforms in 2005 by dividing the state electricity board into four separate companies. In this paper, the situations that led to the reform of the MSEB and the scope of the work required for an action plan initiated by the state electricity distribution company in the context of the proposed Key Performance Index are discussed. The post-reform status of the distribution company is analyzed with selected key parameters. The study also analyzes the electricity supply model implemented and the effect of a multi-year tariff plan as one of the key milestones of the tariff structure. The various new projects implemented by the distribution company to improve consumer services and the reform experiences of the other states are discussed, along with the future scope of the present reform process. (author)

  5. Simulating conditions for combined heat and power in the Swedish district heating sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutsson, David

    2005-01-01

    The most important issues in the European energy sector today are how to increase competitiveness on the energy markets, reduce both CO2 emissions and dependence on imported fuels. These issues are also important aspects of Swedish energy policy. In Sweden, the district heating (DH) sector has commonly been used to achieve Swedish energy policy goals. However, the ongoing integration and deregulation of the energy markets in Europe now means that the Swedish DH sector can also play an important role in achieving international targets. This thesis investigates the extent to which the Swedish DH sector can contribute to compliance with current energy policy targets, both international and Swedish. The study consisted of simulations of the Swedish DH sector response to various policy instruments in a model that takes the local features of virtually all Swedish DH systems into account. The findings show, for example, that there is great potential for combined heat and power (CHP) generation in the Swedish DH sector. By exporting this CHP electricity to other European countries with less effective and fossil dependent power generation plants, the CO2 emissions from the European energy sector could be substantially reduced. This would also result in increased security of supply and competitiveness in the EU, since fuel use would be more effective. In Sweden, increased CHP generation would also be a way of maintaining an effective national security of supply of power

  6. Photovoltaic power in France, a declining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, V.

    2012-01-01

    Figures from 2011 show an exceptional year in terms of grid connection and a poor year for business because the moratory on photovoltaic power decided end 2010 gave its full effect. The grid connections realized in 2011 resulted from installations decided before the moratory. The situation shows some inconsistencies: the household sector was not concerned by the moratory and nevertheless the drop of sales was sharp and even if the purchase price of the photovoltaic electricity was reduced from 0.58 to 0.35 euro/kWh it stays high when compared to 0.18 euro/kWh in Germany or 0.20 euro/kWh in Italy. The depressed nature of the market seems to go on in 2012. (A.C.)

  7. Efficiency in the European agricultural sector: environment and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Victor; Madaleno, Mara; Macedo, Pedro; Robaina, Margarita; Marques, Carlos

    2018-04-22

    This article intends to compute agriculture technical efficiency scores of 27 European countries during the period 2005-2012, using both data envelopment analysis (DEA) and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) with a generalized cross-entropy (GCE) approach, for comparison purposes. Afterwards, by using the scores as dependent variable, we apply quantile regressions using a set of possible influencing variables within the agricultural sector able to explain technical efficiency scores. Results allow us to conclude that although DEA and SFA are quite distinguishable methodologies, and despite attained results are different in terms of technical efficiency scores, both are able to identify analogously the worst and better countries. They also suggest that it is important to include resources productivity and subsidies in determining technical efficiency due to its positive and significant exerted influence.

  8. Manufacturing preparations for the European Vacuum Vessel Sector for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Lawrence; Arbogast, Jean François; Bayon, Angel; Bianchi, Aldo; Caixas, Joan; Facca, Aldo; Fachin, Gianbattista; Fernández, José; Giraud, Benoit; Losasso, Marcello; Löwer, Thorsten; Micó, Gonzalo; Pacheco, Jose Miguel; Paoletti, Roberto; Sanguinetti, Gian Paolo; Stamos, Vassilis; Tacconelli, Massimiliano; Trentea, Alexandru; Utin, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    The contract for the seven European Sectors of the ITER Vacuum Vessel, which has very tight tolerances and high density of welding, was placed at the end of 2010 with AMW, a consortium of three companies. The start-up of the engineering, including R and D, design and analysis activities of this large and complex contract, one of the largest placed by F4E, the European Domestic Agency for ITER, is described. The statutory and regulatory requirements of ITER Organization and the French Nuclear Safety regulations have made the design development subject to rigorous controls. AMW was able to make use of the previous extensive R and D and prototype work carried out during the past 9 years, especially in relation to advanced welding and inspection techniques. The paper describes the manufacturing methodology with the focus on controlling distortion with predictions by analysis, avoiding use of welded-on jigs, and making use of low heat input narrow-gap welding with electron beam welding as far as possible and narrow-gap TIG when not. Further R and D and more than ten significant mock-ups are described. All these preparations will help to assure the successful manufacture of this critical path item of ITER.

  9. Th european market of the electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the CRE (commission of the Electric power Control) progress report concerning the first july 2000 to the 30 june 2001. Three main subjects are discussed, illustrated by economic data and graphs: the electric power european market, the french market control and the CRE. A special interest is given to the deregulation of the market and its consequences. (A.L.B.)

  10. Impact of carbon constraint on the European electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankeviciute, Loreta

    2010-01-01

    Two sets of factors will be decisive for the future evolution of European electricity sector: on the one hand, the necessity of new wave of investments for the renewal and the expansion of production capacities and, on the other hand, the emergency and the reinforcement of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) constraints imposed by European policies and directives. The general idea of thesis is that European Emissions Trading system (ETS) is the instrument that can facilitate the decarbonization of European electricity system. However, the necessary conditions ought to be brought together in the context of liberalisation in terms of risk management, market architecture and setting up of the complementary public policy instruments, in order for the carbon price signal to be effective. The purpose of the thesis is to provide details on these conditions and to examine the potentials scenarios for the evolution of European electricity production mix under the carbon constraint. The introduction of liberalisation in the electricity industry conditions significantly the investment choice. The analysis of theoretical market model allows demonstrating organisational inadequacy for developing an optimal technological mix and for adapting to long-term issues due to the extreme difficulty of interpreting the price signals. Indeed, the logic of a market and a concurrence disadvantages the investments in capital-intensive technologies, even though some of them less polluting like renewable energies, nuclear, hydraulic and thermal technologies integrating carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). In face of numerous uncertainties, the role of long-term risk management becomes therefore crucial. The employment of transaction cost theory allows studying the combinations of vertical arrangements that remain necessary in order to manage the risk and to facilitate the investments (e.g. vertical integration). The introduction of ETS overlaps with the market risks inherent to liberalisation

  11. Development of the Mexican electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escofet, A.

    1981-06-01

    In 1980 Mexico had a population of 68 million, mostly concentrated in a few cities with many other areas being practically unpopulated. The country is semi-industrialized, and in order to achieve better standards of living, economic growth will have to continue at about 7.5 percent or more, particularly if the population continues to increase at 2.9 percent per year. The total installed electrical capacity at the end of 1980 was 14 600 MW; the per capita consumption of electricity was 910 KWh. The present government has as a goal an 8 percent annual growth rate in gross domestic product until 1995, resulting in forecast of a 12.5 percent growth rate in the electric sector to about 410 TWh per year. Hydroelectric power could be used to produce 80 TWh a year by 2000 if capacity were quadrupled. The use of coal for the production of electricity is beginning, and it is planned to generate 40 TWh a year from this source by 2000. Geothermal power should yield 20 TWh by then. A goal has been set of 20 000 MW of installed nuclear capacity by the end of the century; this would produce about 130 TWh, leaving some 280 TWh to be generated by oil or gas. The planned nuclear program must include the development of a strong Mexican nuclear industry, so that in 20 years 80 percent of the nuclear plant components could be locally produced. Ultimately it is hoped that Mexico will have the capability of installing, with its own resources, five or six large nuclear plants per year

  12. Private sector participation in power sector in transition economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purica, I.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the problems related to the private participation in the infrastructure projects developed mainly in the transient economies. The comparatively larger risk volatility of this economies is counterbalanced by the expected high return rates of these projects. In these circumstances the paper presents the possibility to use the World Bank Group support for enhancing the private sector investments. After a description of the type of support able to be given, some examples are presented related to an energy project in Pakistan and to two others in China. There is also given a synthesis concerning the potential places in Romania were such projects may be achievable. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 2 refs

  13. Gas and coal competition in the EU Power Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2014-06-01

    Despite its many assets, a confluence of factors - including flat electricity demand, rising use of renewable energy sources, falling wholesale electricity market prices, high gas prices relative to coal and low CO 2 prices - has eroded the competitiveness of natural gas in the EU power sector. The share of natural gas in the EU electricity mix has decreased from 23% in 2010 to 20.5% in 2012. By contrast, coal-fired power stations have been operating at high loads, increasing coal demand by the sector. This thorough analysis by CEDIGAZ of gas, coal and CO 2 dynamics in the context of rising renewables is indispensable to understand what is at stake in the EU power sector and how it will affect future European gas demand. Main findings of the report: - Coal is likely to retain its cost advantage into the coming decade: The relationship between coal, gas and CO 2 prices is a key determinant of the competition between gas and coal in the power sector and will remain the main driver of fuel switching. A supply glut on the international coal market (partly because of an inflow of US coal displaced by shale gas) has led to a sharp decline in coal prices while gas prices, still linked to oil prices to a significant degree, have increased by 42% since 2010. At the same time, CO 2 prices have collapsed, reinforcing coal competitiveness. Our analysis of future trends in coal, gas and CO 2 prices suggests that coal competitive advantage may well persist into the coming decade. - But coal renaissance may still be short-lived: Regulations on emissions of local pollutants, i.e. the Large Plant Combustion Directive (LCPD) and the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) that will succeed it in 2016, will lead to the retirement of old, inefficient coal-fired power plants. Moreover, the rapid development of renewables, which so far had only impacted gas-fired power plants is starting to take its toll on hard coal plants' profitability. This trend is reinforced by regulation at EU or

  14. The Indian power sector - Role of appellate tribunal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans; Sharma, Deepak

    2010-09-15

    India's electricity-supply industry mainly owned and operated by the public sector has been facing endemic energy and peaking shortages with huge commercial losses. Power sector reforms initiated in 1990s culminated with enactment of The Electricity Act, 2003 is briefly discussed here. Appellate Tribunal for Electricity - a unique feature of the Act - constituted to redress grievances of stakeholders has set ground rules for the power sector having harmonizing effect on the various power sector issues and have reduced the element of uncertainty which was prevalent hitherto fore as revealed by the several case studies this paper presents.

  15. Transforming the Nigerian power sector for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatugel Usman, Zubairu; Abbasoglu, Serkan; Tekbiyik Ersoy, Neyre; Fahrioglu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria has been plagued with acute power shortages due to poor performance of its power sector. Several policies and reforms have been implemented by the government to address the poor performance of the power generation, transmission and distribution sectors of the electricity industry. Also various strategies were employed by the government which includes encouraging private sector participation, diversification of the energy generation sources and promoting energy efficiency for sustainable development. In addition the government has spent billions of dollars since 2001 in the construction of new power generation facilities, transmission lines and distribution centers to boost the power supply. It has deregulated the generation and distribution sectors to encourage private sector participation and empowers the Energy Commission of Nigeria to embark on programs and strategies that can boost energy generation from renewable sources. This paper examined the country's energy sources and the power sector reforms adopted by the government. The paper also outlined some recommendations based on reforms implemented by other countries with similar resources to Nigeria which yielded positive results. - Highlights: • Available resources for power generation in Nigeria. • Power sector challenges, policies and reforms. • Implications of the reforms implemented. • Recommendations for improving the sector's performance.

  16. The situation of European power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The requirement for energy worldwide is going to rise dramatically in the next few years and decades. Despite all developments of renewable energy sources, and despite the expansion of nuclear power in some industrialized countries and emerging countries, coal will turn out to be the key source of energy in the 21st century. Europe as a whole has a lot to offer which strengthens its position with respect to present and future requirements to be met in the construction of new power plants as well as in electricity and power supplies. As regards nuclear power in Germany, if it is to be given another chance, we must seek a dialog, pointing out that - nuclear power offers advantages in ensuring energy supply in Germany, given the development in the world energy markets; - nuclear power makes an important contribution to climate protection; - Germany's energy supply must be adapted to the global situation; - nuclear power offers opportunities in education, training, research and development; - nuclear power is contributing massively to our economic prosperity. The future viability of European power supply will not depend on the debate about nuclear power in Germany. The debate will be decided chiefly by the world market and on a European level. (orig.)

  17. Nuclear power and European Union enlargement challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, Teodor; Bilegan, Constantin

    2001-01-01

    From 1991 through 1996 the European Union signed the Association Agreements with ten East European countries (EE10), namely: Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Romania. In the period 1994-1996 European Union received membership applications from all ten countries. The paper analyzes the approach of complying the requirements and regulations for European Union accession in the field of the Romanian nuclear power based on the CANDU technology. In this process, the real challenge is represented by the preparation and implementation of new regulations aiming to improve the general business environment by introducing International Accounting Standards simplification of bankruptcy laws, reform of taxation procedures and secureness of financial instruments. A new stand-by agreement with the International Monetary Fund and World Bank was set out in late April 1999 for an one-year loan of 475 million dollars. (authors)

  18. Power Sector Reform in the Baltic States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency is active in different ways to support and promote an environmentally friendly development of the energy sector in the Baltic Sea Region. The Agency is of the opinion that it is of greatest importance to use the market forces in the work to introduce a more rational use of both production resources and the electricity network installations that in a longer perspective contribute to a more efficient and environmentally adapted electricity system in the Baltic Sea Region. In the present report it is fairly evident that in recent years certain important progress has been made in the work on integration of the electricity markets of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. However, it also points out that important measures remains to be implemented. The report puts focus on areas that may need further studies or widened studies that include more countries in the Baltic Sea Region. One of the aims of the report is to form a basis also when it comes to evaluate the needs to replace electricity production that will be phased out when the two nuclear reactors in the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant will be closed down. What possibilities are there to use alternative energy sources that will not increase the emissions of green house gases and what possibilities will there be to implement such projects as climate projects in line with the mechanism of Joint Implementation under the Kyoto Protocol? The report also touches upon such aspects. The development of the electricity market in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania has been in the focus ever since these countries reached independence from the former Soviet Union. In later years thus certain important steps to establish a common and joint electricity markets has been achieved. The development is very rapid - from three separate markets dominated by the three national power monopolies to a more or less open market allowing for trade with electricity over the borders. To start with it will be possible for greater

  19. Power Sector Reform in the Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency is active in different ways to support and promote an environmentally friendly development of the energy sector in the Baltic Sea Region. The Agency is of the opinion that it is of greatest importance to use the market forces in the work to introduce a more rational use of both production resources and the electricity network installations that in a longer perspective contribute to a more efficient and environmentally adapted electricity system in the Baltic Sea Region. In the present report it is fairly evident that in recent years certain important progress has been made in the work on integration of the electricity markets of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. However, it also points out that important measures remains to be implemented. The report puts focus on areas that may need further studies or widened studies that include more countries in the Baltic Sea Region. One of the aims of the report is to form a basis also when it comes to evaluate the needs to replace electricity production that will be phased out when the two nuclear reactors in the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant will be closed down. What possibilities are there to use alternative energy sources that will not increase the emissions of green house gases and what possibilities will there be to implement such projects as climate projects in line with the mechanism of Joint Implementation under the Kyoto Protocol? The report also touches upon such aspects. The development of the electricity market in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania has been in the focus ever since these countries reached independence from the former Soviet Union. In later years thus certain important steps to establish a common and joint electricity markets has been achieved. The development is very rapid - from three separate markets dominated by the three national power monopolies to a more or less open market allowing for trade with electricity over the borders. To start with it will be possible for greater

  20. Panorama 2015 - Gas and Coal Competition in the EU Power Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    Never have the fossil-fueled thermal European power sector, and natural gas in this sector, seen such a crisis. EON's recent announcement of its future withdrawal from fossil-fueled thermal power generation illustrates the difficulties faced by producers in Germany. But the whole European power sector is in deep crisis, and natural gas is its first victim. Faced with a flat electricity demand in Europe, the rapid development of renewable energies, and competition from coal, natural gas is losing market share and its consumption is in decline. In 2013, total gas consumption in the European Union (EU) fell for the third year running. Projections for 2014 are no better, consumption is forecast to decline by approximately 10%, greatly affected by the mild winter of 2013/2014 compared with the previous one which was particularly cold over a long period. The milder temperatures impact the need for heating, therefore consumption in the residential/services sectors and also the demand for electricity. The International Energy Agency (IEA) is now predicting that European consumption will not get back to its 2010 level until 2032. (author)

  1. Sustainability in the Power Sector. 2010 Update. Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, T.; Ten Kate, A.; Racz, K.

    2010-11-15

    This 2010 series of power company and thematic fact sheets aims to raise public awareness about sustainability issues in the electricity sector and to improve the sustainability of power companies operating in the Netherlands. The fact sheet series investigates the companies' performance on incorporating renewable energy sources into their fuel mix for both generation and supply of electricity, and on their investments and future plans with respect to energy sources at both the Dutch and European level. The 2010 fact sheet series is the annual update that is going into its fourth year, and builds on the work from previous years (available at www.somo.nl), but includes a slightly different range of companies due to a number of recent and pending mergers and acquisitions among power companies with operations in the Netherlands. For the first time this year, Essent is fully incorporated in the RWE company profile. SPE, a company covered for the first time, is included in the company profile of its owner EdF. The Vattenfall and Nuon fact sheets were drafted and reviewed separately, and combined into one company profile afterwards. In total, the 2010 series consist of ten company fact sheets; Delta, Dong Energy, E.ON, EdF, SPE, Eneco, Enel, Gdf Suez/Electrabel, Iberdrola, Nuon/Vattenfall and RWE. The company fact sheets form the basis of three separate reports, covering companies active in (1) The Netherlands, (2) Belgium, and an overview of (3) the largest European companies. This report is the version for Belgium, and covers the following companies, all active on the Belgian market: EdF, GDF Suez/Electrabel, RWE, SPE, Vattenfall/Nuon.

  2. Sustainability in the Power Sector. 2010 Update. Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, T.; Ten Kate, A.; Racz, K.

    2010-11-15

    This 2010 series of power company and thematic fact sheets aims to raise public awareness about sustainability issues in the electricity sector and to improve the sustainability of power companies operating in the Netherlands. The fact sheet series investigates the companies' performance on incorporating renewable energy sources into their fuel mix for both generation and supply of electricity, and on their investments and future plans with respect to energy sources at both the Dutch and European level. The 2010 fact sheet series is the annual update that is going into its fourth year, and builds on the work from previous years (available at www.somo.nl), but includes a slightly different range of companies due to a number of recent and pending mergers and acquisitions among power companies with operations in the Netherlands. For the first time this year, Essent is fully incorporated in the RWE company profile. SPE, a company covered for the first time, is included in the company profile of its owner EdF. The Vattenfall and Nuon fact sheets were drafted and reviewed separately, and combined into one company profile afterwards. In total, the 2010 series consist of ten company fact sheets; Delta, Dong Energy, E.ON, EdF, SPE, Eneco, Enel, Gdf Suez/Electrabel, Iberdrola, Nuon/Vattenfall and RWE. The company fact sheets form the basis of three separate reports, covering companies active in (1) The Netherlands, (2) Belgium, and an overview of (3) the largest European companies. This report is the version for Europe, and covers the following companies, all among the largest electricity companies in Europe: EdF, Enel, E.ON, GDF Suez/Electrabel, Iberdrola, RWE, Vattenfall/Nuon.

  3. Institutionalizing cross-border cooperatives on European level in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulusma, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The third energy package proposes the establishment of an Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) and the establishment of a European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSOE) and a European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas (ENTSOG). This legislative initiative is a response to the need to further liberalise the energy sector and to create one single energy market. The proposals wish to remedy the lack of regulatory oversight for cross border issues and the existence of a regulatory gap on cross-border issues. This article addresses these proposals and places them in a historical context. The proposals indicate that the European legislator to some degree intends to institutionalize cross border cooperation of regulators and of transmission system operators. So far cross-border cooperation mostly has been brought about on a voluntary basis and not on the basis of European law. Also this cooperation takes place on a voluntary basis and largely outside the scope of the European Commission. If the proposals are excepted they will result in new forms of cooperation in the energy sector. The Agency will be a community body with legal personality that, besides having an advisory role, will in some circumstances be able to take binding decisions. Therefore it will entail more than voluntary cooperation and be a step closer to the establishment of a European regulator. With the creation of ENTSOG and ENTSOE cooperation between transmission system operators will for the first time be obligatory and take place on the basis of European legislation. It will therefore be a new phenomenon. Nevertheless, it is not always clear from the proposals what the result in practice will be nor how the new organizations will relate to each other, to the Commission and to the national regulators and transmission system operators. Currently, the main question is whether the proposals will be adopted by the Council and the European

  4. Qualification Needs, Approaches and Strategies in the Second-Hand Sector A European Good Practice Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arold, Heike

    2008-01-01

    Against the background of changing consumer behaviour and environmental policies, a growing second-hand sector is expected. In order to ensure quality and professionalism within companies operating in this sector, it is necessary to develop a unified Europe-wide and sector-specific qualification which is geared to real working processes and requirements. This good practice report describes the training and qualification structures in the European second-hand sector. In addition, occupational ...

  5. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Vögele, S.; Rübbelke, D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power

  6. Contagion effects of the global financial crisis in us and European real economy sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenourgios Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the contagion effects of the Global Financial Crisis (2007-2009 from the financial sector to the real economy by examining nine sectors of US and developed European region. We provide a regional analysis by testing stock market contagion on the aggregate level and the sector level, on the global level and the domestic/regional level. Results show evidence of global contagion in US and developed European aggregate stock market indices and all US sector indices, implying the limited benefits of portfolio diversification. On the other hand, most of the European regional sectors seem to be immune to the adverse effects of the crisis. Finally, all non-financial sectors of both geographical areas seem to be unaffected by their domestic financial systems. These findings have important implications for policy makers, investors and international organizations.

  7. Institutional determinants of power sector reform in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Kafait; Arentsen, Maarten J.; Lovett, Jon C.

    2017-01-01

    The electricity supply sector in Pakistan has performed poorly in recent years. Reforms were introduced in the mid-1990s to improve the sector, but progressed slowly with no significant impacts on pre-reform performance. This study uses new institutional economics as a theoretical basis to elucidate reasons for the failure of power sector reforms in Pakistan to make improvements. Interviews with 23 experts using Q-methodology generated 215 statements that were used as a Q concourse. Of these, 51 statements were selected for the Q sample and ranked by 34 respondents depending on their importance. Analysis revealed four important discourses on the determinants of power sector reform failure in Pakistan. These included weak governance structure, country and sectoral endowments, inefficient regulator and unspecified political institutions or unfriendly political contexts. The study recommends establishment of institutions that support a market based power supply sector and improvements to the contractual arrangements between stakeholders to reduce opportunistic behaviour. - Highlights: • This study utilizes New Institutional Approach to study power sector reforms in Pakistan. • Work of Douglass North and Oliver Williamson help create analytical frame. • Q methodology helps overcome data limitations. • Results reveal institutional aspects as important for poor performance of reforms. • Study suggests policy recommendations to improve institutional environment and governance of power sector in Pakistan.

  8. The First Steps Towards Harmonizing Public Sector Accounting for European Union Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the process that led the European Commission to the decision to develop European Public Sector Accounting Standards (EPSAS) for harmonizing public sector accounting practices within the European Union. The paper finds that there was limited scope in terms of stakeholder...... participation in the public consultation that served as a basis for the decision. In addition, the decision to adopt EPSAS for EU member states raises questions on the relationship between regional and global governance in the area of public sector accounting....

  9. Evaluation of the energy efficiency evolution in the European road freight transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzzenenti, F.; Basosi, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate energy efficiency in the European freight transport sector over three decades, according to a variety of indicators, methodologies and databases. The aim is, on the one hand, of determining major drawbacks in energy efficiency metrics, on the other hand, identifying a possible trend in the sector. The present analysis shows that energy efficiency evaluation is generally subject to misinterpretation and distortion with regard to the methods and data source adopted. Two different indicators (energy intensity and fuel economy) were initially taken into account to select the most suitable for evaluating vehicles' efficiency. Fuel economy was then adopted and measured according to two different methodologies (top-down and bottom-up). We then considered all the possible sources of distortion (data sources employed, methods of data detection, speed of detection, power enhancement, size factor) with the aim of accomplishing a sound estimation. Fuel economy was eventually divided with the maximum power available (adjusted fuel economy), to account for the power shift of vehicles, that represents a further efficiency improvement.

  10. Power sector reform in India: current issues and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anoop

    2006-01-01

    Power sector reforms in India were initiated at a juncture when the sector was plagued with commercial losses and burgeoning subsidy burden. Investment in the sector was not able to keep pace with growing demand for electricity. This paper takes stock of pre-reform situation in Indian power sector and identifies key concerns that led to initiation of the process of reform. The paper discusses major policy and regulatory changes undertaken since the early 1990s. The paper also illustrates changes in the market structure as we move along the reform process. We also discuss some of the major provisions of the recently enacted Electricity Act 2003 that aims to replace the prevailing acts which govern the functioning of the power sector in the country. In this context, we discuss two issues arising out of it, namely open access and multi-year tariff that we think would have a significant bearing on the performance of the sector in the near future. The paper also evaluates the reform process in the light of some of the regulatory changes undertaken. Finally, the paper briefly discusses the issues involved in introduction of competition in the power sector primarily through development of a market for bulk power

  11. The economics of transition in the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The power sector carries a considerably great burden of the CO2 emission reductions required to address climate change, a feature common to many scenarios of emissions abatement. These reductions will only be possible if existing plants are replaced with more efficient and less-emitting types of plants over the coming decades. This report identifies the investments needed in the power sector, and their related risk factors.

  12. Indian power industry: role of private sector in future progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dua, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    This document discusses about the current scenario of power sectors in the country. It deals with the present power policy to encourage the private sector investment. Recommendations of the long-term pricing policy are laid down to meet the financial resources and energy demands. In general the reforms should be guided by the objective of introducing competition wherever possible, so as to minimise the cost to the consumer and improve the quality and services

  13. Open innovation in the European space sector : existing practices, constraints and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Burg, E.; Giannopapa, C.G.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    To enhance innovative output and societal spillover of the European space sector, the open innovation approach is becoming popular. Yet, open innovation, referring to innovation practices that cross borders of individual firms, faces constraints. To explore these constraints and identify

  14. Evaluation of Economic Merger Control Techniques Applied to the European Electricity Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandezande, Leen; Meeus, Leonardo; Delvaux, Bram; Van Calster, Geert; Belmans, Ronnie

    2006-01-01

    With European electricity markets not yet functioning on a competitive basis and consolidation increasing, the European Commission has said it intends to more intensively apply competition law in the electricity sector. Yet economic techniques and theories used in EC merger control fail to take sufficiently into account some specific features of electricity markets. The authors offer suggestions to enhance their reliability and applicability in the electricity sector. (author)

  15. The electric power sector in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingimarsson, J.

    1992-01-01

    In Iceland the government must give permission for the building of a power station etc. but in practise the power plant administrators determine the tariffs. The structure of electric power supply mirrors a strong engagement on the part of the state and the local authorities. Almost all the power plants and distribution systems are state owned or owned by both the state and the local authorities, and so constitute a monopoly, producing 93% of the total amount of electricity supply. Government policy in this field, the Icelandic electric power distribution system and the setting of electricity prices are briefly described. It is claimed that there would be economical advantages in restructuring the distribution network and that the government favours an increase in possibilities for competition and making legislative changes. This will mean that in the future the market will play a more important role and that power plant administrators must review their duties regarding consumer satisfaction, tariffs etc. (AB)

  16. Financial Integration Through Benchmarks: The European Banking Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Moerman (Gerard); R.J. Mahieu (Ronald); C.G. Koedijk (Kees)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractEuropean banking regulation has been harmonized to a high degree over the last few decades. Nevertheless, the European banking industry remains fragmented as shown by the relatively high market shares of banks in their home countries. In this paper we concentrate on the integration

  17. Training in the Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector. Report for the FORCE Programme. European Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, Felix; And Others

    Trends in training for employment in the motor vehicle repair and sales sectors in the 12 European Community (EC) countries were identified through a review of 12 national reports that were prepared by 16 research teams involved in an EC study on continuing training in the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. Special attention was paid to the…

  18. Interest organizations across economic sectors : explaining interest group density in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan J.; Braun, Caelesta; Chalmers, Adam W.; Destrooper, Tine; Lowery, David; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union on the

  19. Interest organizations across economic sectors: explaining interest group density in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan; Braun, Caelesta; Chalmers, Adam; De Strooper, Tine; Lowery, David; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union on the

  20. Innovation in the European energy sector and regulatory responses to it : Guest editorial note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, T.; Butenko, Anna; Heldeweg, Michiel

    2018-01-01

    The European energy sector is an important economic sector that is also traditionally highly regulated. With the increasing tempo in which innovations in technology and markets occur, catalysed inter alia by the energy transition and accompanied by new formats of innovation (disruptive and

  1. Innovation in the European energy sector and regulatory responses to it : Guest editorial note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas; Butenko, Anna; Heldeweg, Michiel

    2018-01-01

    The European energy sector is an important economic sector that is also traditionally highly regulated. With the increasing tempo in which innovations in technology and markets occur, catalysed inter alia by the energy transition and accompanied by new formats of innovation (disruptive and

  2. African Financial Sectors and the European Debt Crisis : Will Trouble Blow across the Sahara?

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    The exposure of African financial sectors to global risks, including the likely fall-out of the on-going European debt crisis, continues to be limited. African financial sectors have received much recognition for their steady growth performance and resilience during and after the 2008 global financial crisis. Many of the transmission channels for global risks and financial contagion to fin...

  3. Liberalisation of the Venezuelan power sector: what is stalling it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, P. Ventura [Av. Sanz, calle Convento II, edif. E, apto. 8D, El Marques Caracas (Venezuela)

    2005-07-01

    For the past eight years, Venezuelan power sector has been attempting to be liberalised. The first step was made in 1996 through the 'Decree 1558'. The second step in 1999 was legally stronger and better received by players of the different sectors; however, it did not show any sign of progress after five years. At the same time, the need for investments is increasing and the expectation of demand's growth is also rising. Hence, the intention of this research paper is to identify the factors that are constraining the liberalisation in the Venezuelan power sector. This paper concludes that the lack of consensus of the government about the nature of the reform, the popular fear of losses, the lack of regulation and the lack of autonomy in its formal structure, and the nonliberalisation of the gas market are just some of the most significant reasons that are constraining the liberalisation in the Venezuelan power sector. (Author)

  4. Decarbonizing the European electricity sector. Modeling and policy analysis for electricity and CO_2 infrastructure networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oei, Pao-Yu Charly Robin

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation uses three models to analyze different decarbonization strategies for combating global climate change: The cost minimizing mixed-integer model CCTS-Mod examines the economics of Carbon Capture, Transport, and Storage (CCTS) for the electricity and industry sector; the welfare maximizing quadratically constrained model ELMOD focuses on different trajectories for renewable energy sources (RES) and transmission grid expansions; and the equilibrium model ELCO combines the insights of the individual sectors to a combined CCTS and electricity investment and dispatch model. Modeling results show that an investment in CCTS is beneficial for the iron and steel sector once the CO_2 certificate price exceeds 50 Euros/t CO_2. The threshold is 75 Euros/t CO_2 for the cement industry and 100 Euros/t CO_2 for the electricity sector. Additional revenues from using CO_2 for enhanced oil recovery (CO_2-EOR) lead to an earlier adoption of CCTS in the North Sea region. The lack of economies of scale results in increasing CO_2 storage costs of more than 30%, while transport costs even double. Research from the last years, however, indicates that CCTS is unlikely to play an important role in decarbonizing the electricity sector. The identified reasons for this are incumbents' resistance to structural change, wrong technology choices, over-optimistic cost estimates, a premature focus on energy projects instead of industry, and the underestimation of transport and storage issues. Keeping global temperature rise below 2 C therefore implies the phase-out of fossilfueled power plants and, in particular, of CO_2-intensive coal power plants. The low CO_2 price established by the European Emissions Trading Scheme is insufficient to induce a fuel switch in the medium term. Therefore, supplementary national measures are necessary to reduce coal-based power generation; i.a. feed-in tariffs for RES, minimum CO_2 prices, or emissions performance standards. Analyses for Germany show

  5. New institutional analysis of European electric power reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Yannick

    2002-01-01

    This research thesis reports a comparative analysis of reforms of the electric power sector implemented in European countries. In the first part, the authors proposes a presentation of the theoretical framework adopted for this analysis which is notably based on the New Institutional Economy approach. He also proposes an approach to the electric power industry based on the Transaction Cost Theory, and presents an overview of the various European reforms in the field of electricity, and of still unresolved problems which emerged after the creation of different power markets. The next part addresses an assessment of the attractive and desirable characters of reforms which have been implemented in the United Kingdom, in Germany and in Spain, with an attempt to identify winners and losers, and to classify these reforms. In the third part, the author defines a framework for the analysis of the feasibility of reforms which combine institutional and industrial dimensions, notably by reference to Noll and Williamson works. In the last part, the author sheds a new light on the concept of credibility. He introduces the conventional arbitrage of the Transaction Cost Theory between commitment stability and flexibility to generate uncertainty. He notably shows that the main problem in centralised institutional environments, is to guarantee the stability of commitments in front of opportunism, whereas in decentralised institutional environments, the main problem is to produce flexibility to manage uncertainty [fr

  6. Siemens IT solutions for power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunter, P.

    2004-01-01

    The cost reduction, flexibility and revenue increase, potential exploitation, productivity increase, and business opportunities exploitation - that is all what can be required in the races for the promonent positioning on the electricity power market. These requirements can be realized by the sophisticated IT solutions hand-tailored to the special requirements of the electric power producers and tradesmen. This approach makes it possible to achieve greater profit. Our solutions 'PROFIT Solutions', that are symbiosis of the most progressive information technologies and the power plant techniques of the company Siemens, satisfy submitted specifications in substantial measure. The system solutions 'PROFIT Solutions' comprise three solution groups: process, operation a business. The solutions of the group 'IT Process Solutions' increase flexibility and manoeuvrability of equipment, improve the efficiency and contribute to more economical operation of the power generation. Solutions 'IT Process Solutions' simplify and shorten the period of power cycles and conduce to higher labour productivity. Solutions group 'IT Process Solutions' approaches equipment to the market - supports the profit strategies, helps quickly and expertly to determine and predict hazards. The extension PROFIT Cockpit means the nuance to the solutions world 'PROFIT Solutions'. The survey about the whole installation is within reach at the simple touch of a button. It is possible to compile the total system part by part from single solutions 'PROFIT Solutions'. As a matter of fact all single parts can be interconnected with already existing solutions. Routines 'PROFIT Solutions' cooperate with all modern control systems. (author)

  7. Cleaning power and abrasivity of European toothpastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülknitz, P

    1997-11-01

    For 41 toothpastes available to European consumers in 1995, the cleaning efficacy was evaluated in comparison with abrasivity on dentin (RDA value). For cleaning power assessment, a modified pellicle cleaning ratio (PCR) measurement method was developed. The method is characterized by a five-day tea-staining procedure on bovine front teeth slabs on a rotating wheel, standardized brushing of the slabs in a V8 cross-brushing machine, and brightness measurement by a chromametric technique. All tested products were in accordance with the new DIN/ISO standard 11,609 for toothpastes in terms of dentin abrasivity. Not a single product exceeded an RDA value of 200. The majority of toothpastes (80%) had an RDA value below 100. Only three products surpassed the reference in cleaning power. Most products (73%) had a cleaning power (PCR value) between 20 and 80. The correlation between cleaning power and dentin abrasion was low (r = 0.66), which can be explained with the different influence on dentin and stains by factors like abrasive type, particle surface and size, as well as the chemical influence of other toothpaste ingredients. Some major trends could be shown on the basis of abrasive types. The ratio PCR to RDA was rather good in most silica-based toothpastes. A lower ratio was found in some products containing calcium carbonate or aluminum trihydrate as the only abrasive. The addition of other abrasives, such as polishing alumina, showed improved cleaning power. Some active ingredients, especially sequenstrants such as sodium tripolyphosphate or AHBP, also improve the PCR/RDA ratio by stain-dissolving action without being abrasive. The data for some special anti-stain products did not differ significantly from standard products. Compared with data measured in 1988, a general trend toward reduced abrasivity without loss of cleaning efficacy could be noticed on the European toothpaste market. This may be mostly due to the increased use of high-performance abrasives such

  8. ROMANIA’S NEGOTIATIONS WITH EUROPEAN UNION REGARDING AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard IONESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of negotiations considering the agricultural and alimentary sectors results, from the one hand from their importance in Romanian economy, from the fact that, on the results of negotiations held with EU officials depends the re-launching capacity of these sectors, of Romanian agro-alimentary market,the amendment of their contribution to general economic increase, durable rural development and population life standard improvement generally and specially to the one in rural medium. But, on the other hand, these negotiations importance is also generated by the fact that the Romania’s agriculture structural problems are hard to solve, the disequilibrium from agricultural sector are bigger compare to the ones of other states and their rectifying is more difficult.

  9. The liberalization of the European gas sector and the strategic positioning of firms: A dynamic approach for corporate competence building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avadikyan, A.; Amesse, F.; Cohendet, P.; Heraud, J-A.

    2002-01-01

    A framework to explain how competitive changes occurring in one sector can affect both the dynamics of required competencies and the frontiers with adjacent sectors is proposed. When applied to the natural gas sector, the results provide a better understanding of how competencies in the sector evolve according to the new market structure and the strategic movements engaged in by the different players. The proposed framework combines the two approaches -- evolution and strategy -- to show that a firm's competencies define both membership in a specific sector and its distinctiveness from its competitors. To define the strategic positioning process the concept of core competencies is introduced, i.e. competencies developed by firms through their specific history which, when combined in a specific manner with new competencies could give them sustainable competitive advantage. Finally, the authors explain the concept of dynamic capabilities, which rely on a set of organizational and strategic processes needed to integrate, develop and create new competencies in order to initiate, or to adapt to market changes. The final conclusion is that the recent liberalization of the European gas and power sectors weakened institutional entry barriers, a phenomenon which compelled operators traditionally protected by regional or national monopolies to compete with other potential actors. With specific reference to the gas, power and oil industries it is stated that if they had relatively clear frontiers in the past, these frontiers have now become increasingly permeable. However, this weakening of institutional barriers has a beneficial consequence: it allows companies to deploy strategies to take advantage of new growth and rent appropriation opportunities. Examples of adaptation by European oil companies, power companies and natural gas firms are used to illustrate the principles embodied in the proposed framework. 18 refs., 1 fig

  10. Application of safety and reliability approaches in the power sector: Inside-sectoral overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor

    2010-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the state-of-the-art and state-of-practice on the applications of safety and reliability approaches in the Power Sector. The nature and composition of this industrial sector including the characteristics of major hazards are summarized. The present situation with regard...... to a number of key technical aspects involved in the use of safety and reliability approaches in the power sector is discussed. Based on this review a Technology Maturity Matrix is synthesized. Barriers to the wider use of risk and reliability methods in the design and operation of power installations...... are identified and possible ways of overcoming these barriers are suggested. Key issues and priorities for research are identified....

  11. Private Sector Participation in the Indian Power Sector and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhide, Shashanka; Malik, Payal; Nair, S.K.N.; Blanc, Aymeric; Jaitley, Monica; Acharya, Nandini

    2010-08-01

    In September 2005, AFD's Research Department launched a Research Program on Public Private Partnerships with an approach combining economic analysis (contractual incentives, financing of investment, etc.) with a sociological and political approach to regulatory issues. Various case studies have been conducted in different sectors (water and sanitation, power, transport) and countries. This study falls within the above research framework since India - like most major developing countries - has attempted to introduce market forces in its electric power systems. At the same time, growing concern over global climate change has put the spotlight on the need for India to control its emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). India is currently the world's sixth biggest producer of GHG emissions, but is the second biggest if one considers the rate of augmentation of its emissions. Half of India's total GHG emissions are produced by its power sector, and 70 per cent of electricity is generated by thermal power plants, mainly from coal. Climate change mitigation in the power sector is thus a strategic issue for AFD in India. This study is structured so as to examine the intersection of these two crucial challenges in India by exploring the links between private participation in the power sector in India and the reduction of GHG emissions

  12. The offshore trend: Structural changes in the wind power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markard, Jochen; Petersen, Regula

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the wind power sector has begun to move offshore, i.e. to use space and good wind speeds on the open sea for large scale electricity generation. Offshore wind power, however, is not just technologically challenging but also a capital intensive and risky business that requires particular financial and organizational resources not all potential investors might have. We therefore address the question, what impact offshore wind power may have on ownership and organizational structures in the wind power sector. We compare on- and offshore wind park ownership in Denmark, the UK and Germany. The analysis shows that offshore wind power in all three countries is dominated by large firms, many of which are from the electricity sector. In Denmark and the UK, also investors from the gas and oil industry play an important role in the offshore wind business. This development represents a major shift for countries such as Germany and Denmark, in which the wind power sector has grown and matured on the basis of investments by individuals, farmers, cooperatives and independent project developers. The structural changes by which offshore wind power is accompanied have consequences for turbine manufacturers, project developers, investors, associations and policy makers in the field.

  13. Effectiveness of Regulatory Structure in the Power Sector of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Afia Malik

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to study the regulatory environment in the electricity sector of Pakistan. NEPRA, a regulatory authority was formed in 1997 to protect consumer interests in the area of electricity provision, and to ensure an efficient and competitive environment for the electricity generators and distributors, but it has so far not been able to achieve anything. The power sector (dominated by WAPDA and KESC) is still affected by institutional and organisational weaknesses, with ineff...

  14. Direct external investment in the Brazilian electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Junior, Helder Queiroz; Silveira, Joyce Perin; Losekann, Luciano Dias

    1999-01-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to identify the foreign investors participants of Brazilian privatization in the electric power sector and to analyze their strategies

  15. Representativeness of the European social partner organisations: Catering sector - Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the respective national and supranational actors (i.e. trade unions and employer organisations) in the field of industrial relations in the contract catering sector in the Netherlands. In order to determine their relative importance in the

  16. Growing like mushrooms? Sectoral evidence from four large European economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldi, C.; Sapio, S.

    This paper follows a stream of literature on the empirics of sectoral growth rates, originated by Castaldi and Dosi (Income levels and income growth. Some new cross-country evidence and some interpretative puzzles. LEM Working Paper 2004-18, Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy, 2004)

  17. Growing like mushrooms? Sectoral evidence from four large European economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldi, C.; Sapio, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper follows a stream of literature on the empirics of sectoral growth rates, originated by Castaldi and Dosi (Income levels and income growth. Some new cross-country evidence and some interpretative puzzles. LEM Working Paper 2004-18, Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy, 2004)

  18. International Rivalry In The Energy Sector: The Eastern European Market Of Atomic Energy In Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Borovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the post-bipolar world nuclear power has become one of the areas of competition and rivalry betweenRussiaand the West. The comprehensive analysis of theoretical publications allows us to consider international competition as an abstract, depoliticized contest of states and other international actors (including companies for some limited (mainly economic benefits. International rivalry is more a political process, necessarily involving some rival pairs of states (or groups of states that compete with each other not only to get some benefits, but to expand their territory or power. The competition and rivalry betweenRussiaand the West in the sphere of nuclear power are especially apparent in the Eastern European region where the American, European and Japanese corporations, with the support of the Western foreign ministries and EU institutions, try to achieve two main goals. The first goal is to win the contracts to build new power units, especially in tenders where Rosatom participates. The second goal is to become suppliers of nuclear fuel for multiple Russian- or Soviet-made VVER-type reactors, which are functioning or will be run in a number of countries in the region (Slovakia,CzechRepublic,Hungary,Bulgaria, andUkraine. Such activities can involve high risks. The West’s efforts to curb the dominant position of "Rosatom" inEastern Europeare formally associated with the need to create a "competitive market" of nuclear services in the region and to ensure the European energy security. It is also noteworthy that the expansion of Rosatom (and its predecessors to foreign markets, including Eastern Europe, is actively supported by the Russian state which in the second half of the 1990s – after a failed attempt of following in the footsteps of the West – joined in the rivalry, mostly imposed by the U.S. and their allies. As shown by the analysis,Russiaand the West, primarily theUnited States, are involved in the nuclear power sector to

  19. European Short-term Electricity Market Designs under High Penetration of Wind Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaves Avila, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The EU has ambitious policies for decarbonization of the electricity sector. Due to recent technological developments, wind power already represents a significant share of the generation mix in some European countries. As a result, short-term electricity markets and balancing arrangements must be

  20. Credit risk management in the power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.

    2002-01-01

    Deregulation of the electric power industry has the potential to put power businesses at market risk particularly when the value of an asset or liability will change with market movements. Market risk gives rise to credit risk where a contract cannot be fulfilled. This presentation describes how credit risks can be identified and measured. Most practitioners use some variant of value-at-risk (VAR) technology for measuring market risk. Under this approach, risk is determined by the volatility implied by the market. Volatility of electricity prices and natural gas prices has increased significantly in Alberta in recent years. The consequence is an increase in both market and credit risk. The author described the difference between the two risks and their significance. An overview of credit risk management with derivatives, an over-the counter contract, was also presented. The author also discusses issue of protection buyers in the event of a failed contract. 9 figs

  1. Lobbying in the European union – regulation and public sector economics perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dvořáková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lobbying has become an inseparable companion of the decision-making process and firms but also other social actors (non-governmental organizations, individuals, private and civil sector are forced to reflect this fact, if they want to promote their interests effectively and if they want to avoid regulation that would harm their interests. The paper analyses the regulation of lobbying in European institutions and focuses on two major institutions which are under pressure of the lobbyists, the European Commission and the European Parliament. The paper discusses and presents the both ways of regulation which occur in the European institutions- the concept of self-regulation and the binding Code of Conduct under the Rules of Procedure in the European Parliament.The paper contains also possible economic consequences of lobbying based on the Public Sector Economics perspective and the methodology of the principal-agent relationship.

  2. European Human Resources Observatory for the Nuclear Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flore, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Institute for Energy and Transport provides support to European Union policies and technology innovation to ensure sustainable, safe, secure and efficient energy production, distribution and use and to foster sustainable and efficient transport in Europe. Briefly outlined are the organization, bottom-up approach and top-down approach

  3. Employability and the psychological contract in European ICT sector SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholarios, D.; van der Heijden, B.I.J.M.; van der Schoot, E.; Bozionelos, N.; Epitropaki, O.; Knauth, P.; Marzec, I.; Mikkelsen, A.; van der Heijde, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the employability of information and communication technology (ICT) professionals from the perspective of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The first stage of analysis, based on over 100 interviews with managers of ICT supplier companies in seven European countries

  4. Energy policy and European utilities' strategy: Lessons from the liberalisation and privatisation of the energy sector in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haar, Laura N., E-mail: laura.n.haar@mbs.ac.u [University of Manchester, Manchester Business School, Booth Street West, Manchester M15 6PB (United Kingdom); Marinescu, Nicolae, E-mail: marinescu@unitbv.r [Transylvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Economic Sciences, 29 Eroilor Bd, Brasov 500 036 (Romania)

    2011-05-15

    In the context of energy sector reforms pursued by Romanian government since 1990s, we compare and contrast the market outcomes of European utilities' investment with the host government policy objectives. We begin with energy market reform in Romania and review governments' efforts to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and to gradually withdraw from the distribution and supply segments of electricity market. Subsequently, we illustrate the scope European utilities have had, market policy and design notwithstanding, for consolidating market power through regional dominance. We examine the extent to which these utilities have sought to enhance their positions through horizontal and vertical integration, counter to the EU plans for a competitive market structure. We find that the investments of European incumbents have not been resoundingly successful: although market entrance may have been justified on long-term strategic grounds, in the immediate term, segments acquired through competitive auctions have yielded modest regulated returns. Finally, we discuss the extent to which policy makers have achieved their goals. Although the short-term benefits of a competitive market structure have reached some consumers, a renewed interest in promoting 'national champions' reflect frustration with market mechanisms as a means of ensuring long-term strategic investments in the sector. - Research highlights: {yields} We analyze the European Utilities activities in Romania after market liberalization. {yields} We find government efforts to reform energy sector attracted foreign direct investment. {yields} We find utilities consolidated market power horizontally in Central European region. {yields} The short-term benefits of competitive forces contrast the weak returns by utilities. {yields} To encourage further investment, government should not promote national champions.

  5. Energy policy and European utilities' strategy: Lessons from the liberalisation and privatisation of the energy sector in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haar, Laura N.; Marinescu, Nicolae

    2011-01-01

    In the context of energy sector reforms pursued by Romanian government since 1990s, we compare and contrast the market outcomes of European utilities' investment with the host government policy objectives. We begin with energy market reform in Romania and review governments' efforts to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and to gradually withdraw from the distribution and supply segments of electricity market. Subsequently, we illustrate the scope European utilities have had, market policy and design notwithstanding, for consolidating market power through regional dominance. We examine the extent to which these utilities have sought to enhance their positions through horizontal and vertical integration, counter to the EU plans for a competitive market structure. We find that the investments of European incumbents have not been resoundingly successful: although market entrance may have been justified on long-term strategic grounds, in the immediate term, segments acquired through competitive auctions have yielded modest regulated returns. Finally, we discuss the extent to which policy makers have achieved their goals. Although the short-term benefits of a competitive market structure have reached some consumers, a renewed interest in promoting 'national champions' reflect frustration with market mechanisms as a means of ensuring long-term strategic investments in the sector. - Research highlights: → We analyze the European Utilities activities in Romania after market liberalization. → We find government efforts to reform energy sector attracted foreign direct investment. → We find utilities consolidated market power horizontally in Central European region. → The short-term benefits of competitive forces contrast the weak returns by utilities. → To encourage further investment, government should not promote national champions.

  6. The transport sectors potential contribution to the flexibility in the power sector required by large-scale wind power integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2007-01-01

    -scale integration of renewable energy in the power system – in specific wind power. In the plan, 20 % of the road transport is based on electricity and 20 % on bio- fuels. This, together with other initiatives allows for up to 55-60 % wind power penetration in the power system. A fleet of 0.5 mio electrical...... vehicles in Denmark in 2030 connected to the grid 50 % of the time represents an aggregated flexible power capacity of 1- 1.5 GW and an energy capacity of 10-150 GWh.......In 2006, the Danish Society of Engineers developed a visionary plan for the Danish energy system in 2030. The paper presents and qualifies selected part of the analyses, illustrating the transport sectors potential to contribute to the flexibility in the power sector, necessary for large...

  7. Decarbonizing Europe's power sector by 2050 — Analyzing the economic implications of alternative decarbonization pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jägemann, Cosima; Fürsch, Michaela; Hagspiel, Simeon; Nagl, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The European Union aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80–95% in 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The transition towards a low-carbon economy implies the almost complete decarbonization of Europe's power sector, which could be achieved along various pathways. In this paper, we evaluate the economic implications of alternative energy policies for Europe's power sector by applying a linear dynamic electricity system optimization model in over 36 scenarios. We find that the costs of decarbonizing Europe's power sector by 2050 vary between 139 and 633 bn € 2010 , which corresponds to an increase of between 11% and 44% compared to the total system costs when no CO 2 reduction targets are implemented. In line with economic theory, the decarbonization of Europe's power sector is achieved at minimal costs under a stand-alone CO 2 reduction target, which ensures competition between all low-carbon technologies. If, however, renewable energies are exempted from competition via supplementary renewable energy (RES-E) targets or if investments in new nuclear and CCS power plants are politically restricted, the costs of decarbonization significantly rise. Moreover, we find that the excess costs of supplementary RES-E targets depend on the acceptance of alternative low carbon technologies. For example, given a complete nuclear phase-out in Europe by 2050 and politically implemented restrictions on the application of CCS to conventional power plants, supplementary RES-E targets are redundant. While in such a scenario the overall costs of decarbonization are comparatively high, the excess costs of supplementary RES-E targets are close to zero. - Highlights: • We evaluate the economic implications of alternative energy policies for Europe's power sector. • Total decarbonization costs vary between 139 and 633 billion € 2010 up to 2050. • Decarbonization at minimal costs is ensured by competition between all low carbon technologies. • Excess costs of supplementary

  8. Natural gas demand in the European household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Odd Bjarte; Asche, Frank; Tveteras, Ragnar

    2005-08-01

    This paper analyzes the residential natural gas demand per capita in 12 European countries using a dynamic log linear demand model, which allows for country-specific elasticity estimates in the short- and long-run. The explanatory variables included lagged demand per capita, heating degree days index, real prices of natural gas, light fuel oil, electricity, and real private income per capita. The short-run own-price and income elasticity tend to be very inelastic, but with greater long-run responsiveness. By splitting the data set in two time periods, an increase in the own-price elasticities were detected for the European residential natural gas demand market as a whole. We have provided support for employing a heterogeneous estimator such as the shrinkage estimator. But the empirical results also motivate a further scrutiny of its properties. (Author)

  9. A Sectoral Approach to Training in the Printing Industry and the Hospital Sector. Synthesis Report of a Study in Five European Countries. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, John

    The development of sectoral training systems in two economic sectors--the printing industry and the sector of health care in hospitals--was examined in a study that entailed parallel research projects in five European countries: Belgium, Latvia, The Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom. The study was based on the assumption that the…

  10. Power sector restructuring in West Africa. The issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkson, J.

    1997-01-01

    At independence, most countries in the West Africa sub-region adopted a development strategy which was spearheaded by the public sector. The aims at presenting discussions on some of the major issues on initiating the reform process and issues associated with the transition period. Section 2 looks at the energy resources for power development in the region and section 3 discusses some unsustainable trends in the sector. Section 4 presents the issues and discusses them, and finally, section 5 presents the conclusion and some policy implications. The discussions in the paper stress the point that reforming the power sector in the countries in the region is not simply a question of implementing consultants' recommendations, but rather a process that must be thought through, and also involves bringing all the shareholders along and putting the regulatory system and institution in place to ensure acceptability and implementatibility of the proposed changes. Governments in the region have a responsibility to build the capacity necessary to initiate and manage the reform process in the power sector, and understanding the issues involved will help to adopt the right approach to reforming the sector. (ARW) 11 refs

  11. The impact of the EU ETS on the sectoral innovation system for power generation technologies - findings for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Rogge, K.; Hoffmann, V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of early changes in the sectoral innovation system for power generation technologies which have been triggered by the European Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Based on a broad definition of the sector, our research analyses the impact of the EU ETS on the four building blocks knowledge and technologies, actors and networks, institutions and demand by combining two streams of literature, namely systems of innovation and environmental economics. Our analysis is...

  12. European preparations for the ITER VV sectors manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Lawrence; Arbogast, Jean-Francois; Bayon, Angel; Galvan, Stefano; Giraud, Benoit; Ioki, Kimihiro; Losasso, Marcello; Mico, Gonzalo; Stamos, Vassilis; Trentea, Alexandru; Utin, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    For the benefit of the bidders for the Call-for-Tender for the 7 sectors of the ITER Vacuum Vessel, launched in early 2010, a large amount of relevant technical information was included to ensure a rapid start to successful manufacture programme, without the need for a full-scale prototype, which would cause an unacceptable delay to the ITER schedule. The methodology of the logical structures of the specification and the additional planned mock-ups are described and the results from nearly a decade of R and D and manufacturing studies carried out inside the EU under the auspices of EFDA and F4E are also summarised. The work covers the evolution of novel manufacturing schemes and technologies, including a modular special local machining centre for making holes in the shell of the vessel with weld preparation included. New results from the combined studies by three parties, and using a round-robin trial system on the UT inspection of single-sided welds, including the successful control of the root side are described. A full-scale, partial prototype has demonstrated the successful construction segments using jigs to control the distortion from conventional welding, from the inner shell to the outer shell, and then the joining of the segments to form a part sector. The paper also summarises the results from the prototype segment, manufactured without jigs and using only EB welds. In order to be able to achieve the required as-welded tight tolerances, two specialised computational techniques have been developed, using SYSWELD and ANSYS codes and calibrated with the mock-ups in order to efficiently predict welding distortions. Based on this successful practical and theoretical work, computer models of the complete poloidal segments or sectors, including jigs, were can now generated and used to investigate many welding sequences in order to optimise the construction and achieve all the tolerances.

  13. CO{sub 2} abatement policies in the power sector under an oligopolistic gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecking, Harald

    2014-09-15

    The paper at hand examines the power system costs when a coal tax or a fixed bonus for renewables is combined with CO{sub 2} emissions trading. It explicitly accounts for the interaction between the power and the gas market and identifies three cost effects: First, a tax and a subsidy both cause deviations from the cost-efficient power market equilibrium. Second, these policies also impact the power sector's gas demand function as well as the gas market equilibrium and therefore have a feedback effect on power generation quantities indirectly via the gas price. Thirdly, by altering gas prices, a tax or a subsidy also indirectly affects the total costs of gas purchase by the power sector. However, the direction of the change in the gas price, and therefore the overall effect on power system costs, remains ambiguous. In a numerical analysis of the European power and gas market, I find using a simulation model integrating both markets that a coal tax affects gas prices ambiguously whereas a fixed bonus for renewables decreases gas prices. Furthermore, a coal tax increases power system costs, whereas a fixed bonus can decrease these costs because of the negative effect on the gas price. Lastly, the more market power that gas suppliers have, the stronger the outlined effects will be.

  14. CO2 abatement policies in the power sector under an oligopolistic gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecking, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The paper at hand examines the power system costs when a coal tax or a fixed bonus for renewables is combined with CO 2 emissions trading. It explicitly accounts for the interaction between the power and the gas market and identifies three cost effects: First, a tax and a subsidy both cause deviations from the cost-efficient power market equilibrium. Second, these policies also impact the power sector's gas demand function as well as the gas market equilibrium and therefore have a feedback effect on power generation quantities indirectly via the gas price. Thirdly, by altering gas prices, a tax or a subsidy also indirectly affects the total costs of gas purchase by the power sector. However, the direction of the change in the gas price, and therefore the overall effect on power system costs, remains ambiguous. In a numerical analysis of the European power and gas market, I find using a simulation model integrating both markets that a coal tax affects gas prices ambiguously whereas a fixed bonus for renewables decreases gas prices. Furthermore, a coal tax increases power system costs, whereas a fixed bonus can decrease these costs because of the negative effect on the gas price. Lastly, the more market power that gas suppliers have, the stronger the outlined effects will be.

  15. Restructuring of the power sector in Romania - options and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leca, A. [University Politechnica, Bucharest (Romania)

    1999-07-01

    Discusses the Romanian energy sector covering the situation under the Communist government and attempts at restructuring since the fall of Communism. Following the fall of Communism 1989, the power sector remained in State ownership and suffered problems such as a lack of a national energy strategy, a weak institutional framework, and the persistence of monopolistic relationships between suppliers and consumers. In 1997 a new government began a programme of energy reform aiming to, for example, improve energy efficiency, set up an institutional framework, reduce environmental impacts and re-evaluate generation capacities of existing plants and those under construction but political problems have slowed the process down. The paper suggests that privatisation is becoming the only solution to problems in the power sector caused by the deterioration of the economic and social situation in Romania. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Exploring the public-private sector wage gap in European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Christofides, Louis N.; Michael, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the public-private sector pay gap for 27 European countries, using the 2008 EU SILC. The coefficients of conditional (on personal and job characteristics) public sector controls give a first impression on wage differences, while decompositions into explained and unexplained components (also accounting for selectivity) allow for a more complete analysis, which helps to identify possible causes of the gap. Regional patterns exist. Separate subsample decompositions based on age, educ...

  17. Discussion on China's Power Sector Reforms and Where to Next?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2016-01-01

    the SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats). The research results show that, after a series of reform actions, China's Power sector has shifted from an absolute monopoly to a relative monopoly. This paper conducts four strategic recommendations for the acceleration of China...

  18. TAXATION OF FINANCIAL SECTOR AFTER THE CRISIS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Eugenia-Ramona

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxation of financial sector is an important issue of the actual fiscal policy, especially after the economic crisis impact. By taxing the financial sector, it is intended taxation of financial transactions, and financial activities. European Union supports the taxation of the financial system and makes proposals in this regard. This paper tries to reveal the major aspects concerning the taxation of financial sector, both theoretical and empirical aspects. It will analyze the reasons which justify the application of such taxes, but also difficulties involved in practice. Another major objective of this paper is to examine the role of taxation in the financial sector as important regulatory instrument. This subject is debated in European Commission papers and by many economists. There are underlined the necessity of such tax, the impact and the economic efficiency. Our purpose is to identify if this kind of tax is good for our economy and what can be the impact from budgetary point of view. For finding this answers the paper realize a complex analysis of the types of taxes applied on financial sector in countries which already adopted this kind of taxes, like United Kingdom, Austria, Hungary, Cyprus. We believe that the financial sector should be charged, because was responsible in great measure the economic crisis impact. A potential tax applied to financial sector is considered as an important source of budget revenues. This article tries to explore the possible tax measures for financial sector according to the major principle of public finance –equity and efficiency. Special attention will be given to the need to implement financial sector taxation in Romania. In the years before the crisis banks and entire financial sector in Romania recorded significant profits. For this reason such tax is justified given that this sector is exempt from VAT. Applying such a tax would reduce the budget deficit and on the long term will

  19. A model for predicting Inactivity in the European Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themistokles Lazarides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The paper will addresses the issue of inactivity and will try to detect its causes using econometric models. The Banking sector of Europe has been under transformation or restructuring for almost half a century. Design/methodology/approach – Probit models and descriptive statistics have been used to create a system that predicts inactivity. The data was collected from Bankscope. Findings – The results of the econometric models show that from the six groups of indicators, four have been found to be statistically important (performance, size, ownership, corporate governance. These findings are consistent with the theory. Research limitations/implications – The limitation is that Bankscope does not provide any longitudinal data regarding ownership, management structure and there are some many missing values before 2007 for some of the financial ratios and data. Originality/value – The paper's value and innovation is that it has given a systemic approach to find indicators of inactivity.

  20. Financing the UK power sector: Is the money available?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, William; McCarthy, Rory; Gross, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The UK power generation sector faces a major new round of investment: the coincidence of asset retiring and ambitious goals for decarbonisation is not unique, but is particularly acute in the UK. The UK government has put in place a raft of new policies that seek to promote new, low carbon investment and ensure security of supply. The traditional channel for financing the sector has been through large utility companies, but this now looks challenging for various reasons. The UK therefore offers an interesting case study on several counts; the scale of the challenge, effectiveness of new policies, and the availability of alternative finance. We find that the link between the finance sector and the electricity sector is not ‘broken’, but the flow of money to the sector is threatened by the current weakness of the utilities’ business model. This paper compares estimates of the scale of investment required in the UK with historical investment rates. It summarises contemporary finance industry views of conditions and trends, and potential policy interventions that might be needed to bridge the investment gap. The potential for channelling institutional investor funds directly into energy assets is reviewed. - Highlights: • Power investment need to scale up compared to historical trends, but is achievable. • Traditionally, low-cost finance has been through bonds and shares of large utilities. • Utilities are suffering high debt, reduced demand, and suppressed prices. • Policy interventions to scale-up investment are reviewed.

  1. Restructuring of the Bulgaria power sector - changes and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, K.

    1999-01-01

    On the base of the analysis made by KEMA Consulting GmbH, Germany in 1998 - 1999 according to the project 'Aid for the development of the power authority in Bulgaria' some of the possibilities and risks for the new organization are discussed. Currently the National Electric Company is a monopolist in the electricity production sector. The government policy is aimed to efficiency improvement, creation a competition where possible, expanding of the private sector. The reconstruction is based on the model of 'the single customer'. Disadvantages are: insufficient competition, centralized planning and inappropriate risk distribution, necessity of a comprehensive regulatory control. The advantages of the method are: smooth transition to the new structures, separation of the monopole and competition functions, clear predictability of the purchases, competition of new capacities. The recommendations include urgent developing of system rules, conclusion of short-term agreements for power purchase, preparation for introduction of open access and development of the Government Agency for Power Regulation

  2. HVDC Transmission an Outlook and Significance for Pakistani Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad; Wang, Zhixin; Wang, Jinjian; Baloach, Mazhar H.; Longxin, Bao; Hua, Qing

    2018-04-01

    Recently a paradigm shift in the power sector is observed, i.e., countries across the globe have deviated their attention to distributed generation rather than conventional centralized bulk generation. Owing to the above narrative, distributed energy resources e.g., wind and PV have gained the adequate attention of governments and researchers courtesy to their eco-friendly nature. On the contrary, the increased infiltration of distributed generation to the power system has introduced many technical and economical glitches such as long-distance transmission, transmission lines efficiency, control capability and cost etc. To mitigate these complications, the utility of high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission has emerged as a possible solution. In this context, this paper includes a brief discussion on the fundamentals HVDC and its significance in Pakistani power sector. Furthermore, the potential of distributed energy resources for Pakistan is also the subject matter of this paper, so that significance of HVDC transmission can effectively be deliberated.

  3. Gas and coal competition in the EU power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    According to a new report by CEDIGAZ, the International Centre for Natural Gas Information, gas has lost its attractiveness against coal in the EU power sector. Its demand by the sector decreased by one third during the past three years and its prospects are very weak in this decade. The Association warns that un-profitability of combined cycle gas turbines (CCGTs) and the retirement of old coal plants due to stringent air regulation may lead to the closure of one third of the current fleet and poses a serious security of supply issue that has to be addressed urgently

  4. Asymmetric regulation measures in the European gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastres, C.

    2003-01-01

    Like most of the privatized utilities, the gas market needs to be regulated in order for the positive benefits of competition to fully develop. In addition to the issues of eligibility and access, the regulators have had to deal with several other obstacles, and among other things have raised questions concerning the supply of gas. Asymmetric regulation (release gas and market share reduction measures) is one of the possible responses, making it possible to facilitate access to both resources and consumers. The British regulator was the first to introduce this type of regulation during the 1990's. More recently, Spain and Italy have also adopted it. Although we can find a number of similarities in the causes justifying the use of such regulation, the results obtained vary from one country to another. It appears that they are dependent upon a number of variables including: the existence of national production, the structure of the gas market and finally the level of penetration and growth of gas in various business sectors. (authors)

  5. Power sector development in Malaysia and energy concerned policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husin, Z.A. (Tenaga Nasional Berhad, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Connaught Bridge Power Station)

    1994-03-01

    Discusses privatisation of the Malaysian electric power industry, the role of natural gas and coal in the power sector, and intra-ASEAN power development. At present Malaysia has only one coal-fired power plant - the Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz (SSAA) power station in Kapar - consisting of 2 x 300 MW units. Expansion of the plant by the addition of 2 x 500 MW units is in the final stage of contract awards. Apart from this there are no immediate plans for other coal-fired power plants in Peninsular Malaysia. A number of small capacity coal-fired units are being planned for Sabah and Sarawak, where the bulk of Malaysia's coal resources are located.

  6. The market of natural gas for the power plant sector under the obligation of CO{sub 2} reduction. A model supported analysis of the European energy market; Der Erdgasmarkt fuer den Kraftwerkssektor unter CO{sub 2}-Minderungsverpflichtungen. Eine modellgestuetzte Analyse des europaeischen Energiemarktes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlwitz, Holger

    2007-02-12

    The contribution under consideration describes the development of a certificate market model for natural gas, electricity and carbon dioxide for the analysis of the significance of the natural gas market for power stations under the obligation of the reduction of carbon dioxide. The author of this contribution develops the integrated PERSEUS EEM model. Thus, strategic questions in the European energy sector can be analyzed quantitatively by means of the multi periodical linear optimization. Russia, Algeria and Norway dominate in the offer of natural gas in Europe. The use of gas-fired power stations is the most important strategy for the reduction of the emissions of carbon dioxide. The comparison of the generation of current from natural gas for the scenario EuETS with the scenario NoETS shows a higher generation of electricity from natural gas in the scenario EuETS. Within the time period of consideration, France, Great Britain, Poland and Czech Republic are the largest supplier of CO{sub 2} emission trading in the scenario EuETS. With this model, substantial fundamental connections of the markets for natural gas, electricity and CO{sub 2} certificate could be analyzed simultaneously for the first time.

  7. Methodological and Technical Aspects of Power Sector Liberalisation of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, B.; Viksna, I.; Zeltinsh, N.

    2001-01-01

    A successful liberalisation of energy markets is taking place in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), that is why it is important to investigate the methodological and technical aspects as well as the effect of this process upon the development of energy supply in the North European region. Energy supply to the Baltic countries is characterised by the fact that energy resources there are mainly supplied from the CIS, where there is a rather difficult prognostic energy market with sharp price fluctuations (sometimes supplies are completely cut). At the same time, by using the CIS energy resources, the development of the energy sector may significantly influence the total North European energy supplies. Energy saving measures and energy-efficient technologies in the following years will greatly influence energy market and energy consumption. This is an actual problem for such countries as Latvia, where the main part of its energy carriers is imported from neighbouring countries.(author)

  8. SOLAR POWER PLANTS IN THE EU. AN ENVIRONMENTALLY-FRIENDLY ENGINE FOR THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea SAVEANU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We establish that the European Union is facing severe ecological problems, by analysing the ecological footprint of selected member states. Many of these problems are related to carbon and carbon equivalent emissions, some of which are generated by fossil fuel power plants. It is then shown that the European Union has potential in the solar power renewable energy sector. Finally, we calculate roughly how much land would be necessary in order to replace fossil fuel power plants, as well as nuclear plants, which are largely seen as environmentally dangerous. It is concluded that developing this alternative energy sector would help improve the ecological sustainability of the Union, by diminishing a significant part of its carbon footprint.

  9. Optimal policy for mitigating emissions in the European transport sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Sylvain; Piera, Patrizio; Sennai, Mesfun; Igor, Staritsky; Berien, Elbersen; Tijs, Lammens; Florian, Kraxner

    2017-04-01

    A geographic explicit techno-economic model, BeWhere (www.iiasa.ac.at/bewhere), has been developed at the European scale (Europe 28, the Balkans countries, Turkey, Moldavia and Ukraine) at a 40km grid size, to assess the potential of bioenergy from non-food feedstock. Based on the minimization of the supply chain from feedstock collection to the final energy product distribution, the model identifies the optimal bioenergy production plants in terms of spatial location, technology and capacity. The feedstock of interests are woody biomass (divided into eight types from conifers and non-conifers) and five different crop residuals. For each type of feedstock, one or multiple technologies can be applied for either heat, electricity or biofuel production. The model is run for different policy tools such as carbon cost, biofuel support, or subsidies, and the optimal mix of technologies and biomass needed is optimized to reach a production cost competitive against the actual reference system which is fossil fuel based. From this approach, the optimal mix of policy tools that can be applied country wide in Europe will be identified. The preliminary results show that high carbon tax and biofuel support contribute to the development of large scale biofuel production based on woody biomass plants mainly located in the northern part of Europe. Finally the highest emission reduction is reached with low biofuel support and high carbon tax evenly distributed in Europe.

  10. The challenge of a greener European construction sector: Views on technology-driven (eco)innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jofre, Sergio

    , particular emphasis is given to the description and discussion of technology-driven eco-innovation initiatives such us nanotechnologies for a greener construction. Although the scope of this report covers the European construction sector, most data presented is at an EU scale. In this context, particular...

  11. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kovats, A.; Meyer, S. de; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and

  12. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kováts, A.; De Meyer, S.; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and

  13. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector : A perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, Ines; Dias, Sonia F.; Degomme, Olivier; Devillé, Walter; Kennedy, Patricia; Kováts, András; De Meyer, Sara; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and

  14. Incorporating the catering sector in nutrition policies of WHO European Region: is there a good recipe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, Carl; Roberfroid, Dominique; Huybregts, Lieven; Van Camp, John; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2009-03-01

    To review how countries of the WHO European Region address issues related to the catering sector in their nutrition policy plans. Documentary analysis of national nutrition policy documents from the policy database of the WHO Regional Office for Europe by a multidisciplinary research team. Recurring themes were identified and related information extracted in an analysis matrix. Case studies were performed for realistic evaluation. Fifty-three member states of the WHO European Region in September 2007. The catering sector is a formally acknowledged stakeholder in national nutrition policies in about two-thirds of countries of the European region. Strategies developed for the catering sector are directed mainly towards labelling of foods and prepared meals, training of health and catering staff, and advertising. Half of the countries reviewed propose dialogue structures with the catering sector for the implementation of the policy. However, important policy fields remain poorly developed, such as strategies for stimulating and monitoring actual implementation of policies. Others are simply lacking, such as strategies to ensure affordability of healthy out-of-home eating or to enhance accountability of stakeholders. It is also striking that strategies for the private sector are rarely developed. Important policy issues are still embryonic. As evidence is accumulating on the impact of out-of-home eating on the increase of overweight, member states are advised to urgently develop operational frameworks and instruments for participatory planning and evaluation of stakeholders in public health nutrition policy.

  15. AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROMANIAN FISHERY SECTOR IN THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the fishery sector represents one of the European Union’s priorities due to the positive impact it has on food security and to its potential to ensure nutritious and quality food at an affordable price as compared to other animal-origin resources. The Community policy in the fishery sector focuses on reducing the Community market dependence on imports and on the sustainable development of business in this domain. Romania aligned with the Community policies and, therefore, important funds were allocated to the national fishery sector. The diversified natural resources, the possibility to use friendly technologies, the qualified staff, the tradition in the domain, and the existence of a number of niche markets all represent motivations for the development of the Romanian fishery sector. The present paper proposes an analysis of the Romanian fishery production and of the European financing effects on the specialized companies. Despite the fact that there have been important resources allocated to the sector and there is a slight positive evolution, the absorption of funds was difficult. The results of the investment may be observed after a long period of time, this is why Romania is still dependent on fishery product imports. Aquaculture represents the main segment towards which the European funds were directed, including in our country, thus providing the greatest part of the income and employment in the domain.

  16. European Climate Change Programme. Working Group II. Impacts and Adaptation. Urban Planning and Construction. Sectoral Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    Adaptation is a new policy area for the European Climate Change Policy. The Impacts and Adaptation Workgroup has been set up as part of European Climate Change Programme (ECCP II). The main objective of the workgroup is to explore options to improve Europe's resilience to climate change impacts, to encourage the integration of climate change adaptation into other policy areas at the European, national, regional and local level and to define the role of EU-wide policies complementing action by Member States. The aim of this initial programme of work is to identify good practice in the development of adaptation policy and foster learning from different sectoral experiences and explore a possible EU role in adaptation policies. The Commission has led a series of 10 sectoral meetings looking at adaptation issues for different sectors. One of these meetings looked at the impacts on urban planning and infrastructure in particular. This report summarises the state of play in the urban planning sector in relation to adaptation to climate change on the basis of the information gathered at the stakeholder meeting. Some of the other stakeholder meetings, such as the meeting on human health, have a strong connection with the urban planning agenda. Therefore, some actions in the sector report on adaptation and human health relate to urban planning and infrastructure considerations

  17. Technology Development Prospects for the Indian Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Indian power sector will face numerous challenges over the next four decades. More than one third of India's population currently do not have access to electricity. Urgent action is needed to overcome this problem of energy poverty. At the same time rapid economic growth is projected to increase electricity demand by fivefold to sixfold between now and 2050. Massive investments will be needed to meet this increased demand, but this will also create unique opportunities to transform the power sector towards a low-carbon future. This Information Paper presents in more detail the analysis for India published in Energy Technology Perspectives 2010. The paper investigates the best way of achieving deep CO2 emission cuts in the Indian power system while allowing the Indian economy to continue growing and meeting the challenge of alleviating energy poverty. It does so from a techno-economic perspective - building on detailed resource and technology data for India - and identifies the key power sector technologies needed for India to realise such a transition.

  18. The European Union and Iranian Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    On 14 July 2015, after 12 years of repeated crises around the nuclear issue and the ambitions of Iran in that regard, an agreement was finally signed between Tehran and the members of the UN Security Council plus Germany. Restriction on the enrichment of uranium and the production of plutonium, a strengthening of the inspection regime, the lifting of sanctions against Iran from 2016 onwards, maintaining the arms embargo - these are, broadly speaking, the outlines of this agreement. It will become clear over time how it is to be applied. Above and beyond these aspects, it is probably in the negotiation process that led to the agreement that the greatest lessons are to be learned, at least for the European Union. After reminding us of the context and the role played by economic and financial sanctions, Jean-Francois Drevet goes more precisely into the analysis of the new role the Union has assumed in this diplomatic territory, showing the extent to which 'soft power', as seen in this negotiation, could apply to other conflicts, beginning with those in the Middle East. (author)

  19. East European nuclear power plant review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Steve

    1993-01-01

    Western public opinion regards East European nuclear power plants as inefficient and dangerous. However the plants achieve consistently good operating performances. The load factors achieved by each type of plant by country in 1991 are tabulated. These are shown to be good, especially the Hungarian plant. Load factors seem to be dependent on the type of plant rather than where they were installed. WWER 213s worked better than the WWER 320s. This was because of long shutdowns to try and bring the safety standards up to acceptable levels. RBMK performances were depressed because of a 30% derating by safety authorities on 8 out of the 15 units operating. Overall the picture in Eastern Europe is encouraging with improvements in safety related indicators such as break-down frequency whilst the plants still achieve respectable load factors. The performance of the WWER 320s is particularly encouraging. Good load factors from this type of plant in Russia, the Ukraine and Bulgaria may allow older unsafe plant to be phased out. (UK)

  20. Issuing certifications of conformity to 'green' power. International approaches and European perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truffer, B.; Markard, J.

    1999-01-01

    The deregulation of the power markets results in an increasing challenge to individual power generators and distributors to place their products in the market. To do so, they need to actively and credibly describe the advantages of their offers to customers. In the sector of the nascent market for power generated from renewable energy sources, independent product certification is an important factor of support. The article analyses international trends in certification procedures for green power with a view to the future of European labelling. (orig.) [de

  1. Nuclear power. A key contributor to a decarbonised European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-12-15

    The European energy sector is currently facing a new set of challenges in the light of the COP21 Paris agreement, the Energy Union initiative and new market design projections. Nuclear energy sector understands the post COP21 constellation as a unique opportunity for all low carbon technologies which will be basic for transition towards COP21 commitments. A new policy outlook for Europe is needed in order to provide low carbon capacity, lead to the modernisation of technical processes and contribute to the prosperity of Europeans. The benefits of nuclear are highlighted for a low carbon future and for the security of supply and recommend actions for supporting new investments.

  2. Prices vs. quantities. Incentives for renewable power generation. Numerical analysis for the European power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagl, Stephan

    2013-02-15

    In recent years, many countries have implemented policies to incentivize renewable power generation. This paper outlines the effects of weather uncertainty on investment and operation decisions of electricity producers under a feed-in tariff and renewable quota obligation. Furthermore, this paper tries to quantify the sectoral welfare and investments risks under the different policies. For this purpose, a spatial stochastic equilibrium model is introduced for the European electricity market. The numerical analysis suggests that including the electricity market price in renewable policies (wholesale price + x) reduces the loss of sectoral welfare due to a renewable policy by 11-20 %. Moreover, investors face an only slightly higher risk than under fixed price compensations. However, electricity producers face a substantially larger investment risk when introducing a renewable quota obligation without the option of banking and borrowing of green certificates. Given the scenario results, an integration of the hourly market price in renewable support mechanisms is mandatory to keep the financial burden to electricity consumers at a minimum. Additionally, following the discussion of a European renewable quota after 2020, the analysis indicates the importance of an appropriate banking and borrowing mechanism in light of stochastic wind and solar generation.

  3. Close to the wind. A European strategy for the (top)sectors in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    The formation of a new government in the Netherlands in 2010 caused a change of wind. The government opted for topsectors to boost the competitiveness of the Dutch economy, by designing a comprehensive policy agenda for the top nine sectors, which were identified as Water, Food, Horticulture, High Tech, Life Sciences, Chemistry, Energy, Logistics and the Creative Industry. The two main questions in this request for advice are: (1) What are the visible trends and developments in European research and innovation policy and what impact will they have on the Netherlands?; (2) How can the Netherlands best respond to changing policy context at European level to ensure that European research priorities and Dutch priorities keep matching? The advice of the Council starts with an overview of key developments and trends that are relevant to Dutch and European research and innovation policy. It does so against the background of a number of important challenges such as the economic crisis, globalisation and a paucity of private investment. The new European 'Innovation Union' policy aims to tackle these challenges and to enhance the competitiveness of Europe in relation to emerging economies as those of the BRIC countries. In this context, the EU believes that research and innovation can be used not only as a means of tackling major social challenges but also as a way out of the downward spiral of the economic crisis. New to this European policy is the added emphasis on knowledge utilisation and innovation. This shift may alter the desirable approach of the Netherlands to European policy. The Council then analyses the basic principles for the Dutch position in Europe and sets out the opportunities and threats of various policies under the Innovation Union for the top (and other) sectors. From this analysis, the Council draws conclusions about the relationship between the use of Dutch and European policy to strengthen Dutch and European sectors. Recommendations are (1

  4. Water Use in the US Electric Power Sector: Energy Systems ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation reviews the water demands of long-range electricity scenarios. It addresses questions such as: What are the aggregate water requirements of the U.S. electric power sector? How could water requirements evolve under different long-range regional generation mixes? It also looks at research addressing the electricity generation water demand from a life cycle perspective, such as water use for the fuel cycle (natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) and water use for the materials/equipment/manufacturing of new power plants. The presentation is part of panel session on the Water-Energy Nexus at the World Energy Engineering Congress

  5. Power, Governance and Boundary Spanning Leadership in Public Sector Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    the fact that analysis of boundary spanning leadership and power relations is an essential, significant, and critical tool in questioning different forms of management in public sector organizations. The aim of the workshop is to investigate, elucidate and discuss management across organizational units...... on the practice that evolves on the boundaries that span occupational groups, departments and organizations. The workshop takes it’s starting point in an interdisciplinary Scandinavian research project which deals with the question of how power processes can promote, or hinder, boundary spanning leadership...

  6. Application of combined heat and power in Malaysia Industrial Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaredah Hashim; Faridah Mohd Taha

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia is still working on continuing its economic growth especially in the industrial sector in order to achieve vision 2020. The rapid industrialization process has caused increment in the energy demand, which simultaneously increases carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Energy efficient technologies are strongly needed for reducing the energy requirement and to avoid the depleting of energy resources. This project focused on the application of integrated resource planning (IRP) in industrial sector using Combined Heat and Power (CHP), as a strategy for Demand Side Management (DSM). This approach is another way for meeting near and future energy requirement in Malaysia's industrial sector. Two scenarios which are Business As Usual (BAU) and CHP were developed using End Use Model EUM), to forecast the energy demand and CO 2 emission in Malaysia's industries. The effectiveness of the proposed method is then simulated using Long Range Energy Alternative Planning System (LEAP) software and Comparative Model for Projects of Engineering Economics and Energy Environmental Development (COMPEED) analysis. Evaluations were based on the potential of energy saving and CO 2 reduction. Scope of research was limited to pulp and paper industrial sub sector. The research data were extracted from Energy Audit Reports conducted by Malaysia Energy Center (PTM). An engineering calculation was demonstrated. Two designs of CHP applications for the pulp and paper industrial sector are according to heating and electricity sizing. It was found that the most energy efficient and CO 2 reduction for Malaysia's industrial sector is the CHP based on heating requirement. The method was found to be able of save fuel and GHG emission compared to the reference case. (author)

  7. European Climate Change Programme. Working Group II. Impacts and Adaptation. Water Management. Sectoral Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    Adaptation is a new policy area for the European climate change policy. The Impacts and Adaptation Workgroup has been set up as part of European Climate Change Programme (ECCP II). The main objective of the workgroup is to explore options to improve Europe's resilience to Climate Change Impacts, to encourage the integration of climate change adaptation into other policy areas at the European, national and regional level and to define the role of EU-wide policies complementing action by Member States. The aim of this initial programme of work is to identify good practice in the development of adaptation policy and foster learning from different sectoral experiences and explore a possible EU role in adaptation policies. The Commission has led a series of 10 sectoral meetings looking at adaptation issues for different sectors. One of these meetings looked at the impacts on the water cycle and water resources management and prediction of extreme events in particular. This report summarises the state of play in the Water Resources sector in relation to adaptation to climate change on the basis of the information gathered at the stakeholder meeting on 11 April, 2006

  8. Financing of private power development and power sector reform in emerging nations: an essential nexus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, Reinier

    1995-01-01

    This article attempts to demonstrate and illustrate important relationships between the concept of the independent economic regulator and the evolution of emerging nation electric power sectors from patterns of government dominance that have undermined both their efficiency and their receptivity to substantial private sector involvement. It re-emphasizes the important relationships between industry structure, competition, market mechanisms and regulation; and the important distinctions between the different roles government can and should play in the power sector in different stages of evolution -as owner, manager, regulator and political policy maker. It seeks to put content and meaning into the concept of the independent regulator in the broader context of power sector reform. It distills from the experience of those countries with developed regulatory systems a series of practical guidelines or principles that may be helpful in the design and implementation of regulatory regimes for electricity and other infrastructural industries in emerging nations in the process of transformation from government dominated monopolies. (author)

  9. Acquits communautaire in quality management in the energy sector -Central and Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristikj, Julija

    1997-01-01

    Energy is considered as one of the main infrastructure components, and efficient energy sectors are corner stones for the economic growth of the Central and Eastern European Countries on their way towards gaining EU membership. Therefore, energy is considered as one of the main directions of action within the PHARE Programme with trans-European dimensions. Five years ago started the implementation of the PHARE Multi-country Energy Programme, the efforts of which have been oriented to three main strategic axes: energy policy, energy supply, as well as energy efficiency and environment. (author)

  10. System Dynamics Modelling of the Power Sector in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deenapanray Prakash N. K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A system dynamics model has been developed for the power sector of Mauritius, which captures a range of complex interactions between the economic, social and environmental aspects of the national economy, with deeper emphasis on the role of energy in these interactions. The model has been validated by replicating the historical trends of key development indicators, and its results were compared to the projections of the national utility company. The validation process shows that the model provides a faithful representation of the actual electricity sector of Mauritius, and can be easily adapted to the use of different assumptions. This paper describes the main characteristics of the model and its results as compared to electricity demand projections carried out by the Central Electricity Board to 2022. The results suggest that further analysis could be done to test alternative low carbon investment scenarios.

  11. Qualification Needs, Approaches and Strategies in the Second-Hand Sector. A European Good-Practice Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arold, Heike; Koring, Claudia; Windelband, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Against the background of changing consumer behaviour and environmental policies, a growing second-hand sector is expected. In order to ensure quality and professionalism within companies operating in this sector, it is necessary to develop a unified Europewide and sector-specific qualification which is geared to real working processes and requirements. This good practice report describes the training and qualification structures in the European second-hand sector. In addition, occupational a...

  12. Energy saver A-sector power test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.; Flora, R.; Tool, G.; Wolff, D.

    1982-01-01

    The superconducting magnets and associated cryogenic components in A-sector represent the initial phase of installation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator, designed to accelerate proton beams to energies of 1 TeV. Installation of the magnets, comprising one-eighth of the ring, was completed in December, 1981. Cooldown and power tests took place in the first half of 1982, concurrent with main ring use for 400 GeV high energy physics. The tests described in this paper involved 151 cryogenic components in the tunnel: 94 dipoles, 24 quadrupoles, 25 spool pieces, 3 feed cans, 4 turn-around boxes and 1 bypass. Refrigeration was supplied by three satellite refrigerators, the Central Helium Liquefier, and two compressor buildings. The magnets were powered by a single power supply

  13. The impact of the EU ETS on the sectoral innovation system for power generation technologies. Findings for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Karoline [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) (Switzerland). Dept. of Management, Technology, and Economics; Hoffmann, Volker [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) (Switzerland). Dept. of Management, Technology, and Economics

    2009-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of early changes in the sectoral innovation system for power generation technologies which have been triggered by the European Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Based on a broad definition of the sector, our research analyses the impact of the EU ETS on the four building blocks 'knowledge and technologies', 'actors and networks', 'institutions' and 'demand' by combining two streams of literature, namely systems of innovation and environmental economics. Our analysis is based on 42 exploratory inter-views with German and European experts in the field of the EU ETS, the power sector and technological innovation. We find that the EU ETS mainly affects the rate and direction of the technological change of power generation technologies within the large-scale, coal-based power generation technological regime to which carbon capture technologies are added as a new technological trajectory. While this impact can be interpreted as defensive behaviour of incumbents, the observed changes should not be underestimated. We argue that the EU ETS' impact on corporate CO2 culture and routines may prepare the ground for the transition to a low carbon sectoral innovation system for power generation technologies. (orig.)

  14. 15 years of monitoring occupational exposure to respirable dust and quartz within the European industrial minerals sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilaout, Hicham; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Houba, Remko; Kromhout, Hans

    2017-07-01

    In 2000, a prospective Dust Monitoring Program (DMP) was started in which measurements of worker's exposure to respirable dust and quartz are collected in member companies from the European Industrial Minerals Association (IMA-Europe). After 15 years, the resulting IMA-DMP database allows a detailed overview of exposure levels of respirable dust and quartz over time within this industrial sector. Our aim is to describe the IMA-DMP and the current state of the corresponding database which due to continuation of the IMA-DMP is still growing. The future use of the database will also be highlighted including its utility for the industrial minerals producing sector. Exposure data are being obtained following a common protocol including a standardized sampling strategy, standardized sampling and analytical methods and a data management system. Following strict quality control procedures, exposure data are consequently added to a central database. The data comprises personal exposure measurements including auxiliary information on work and other conditions during sampling. Currently, the IMA-DMP database consists of almost 28,000 personal measurements which have been performed from 2000 until 2015 representing 29 half-yearly sampling campaigns. The exposure data have been collected from 160 different worksites owned by 35 industrial mineral companies and comes from 23 European countries and approximately 5000 workers. The IMA-DMP database provides the European minerals sector with reliable data regarding worker personal exposures to respirable dust and quartz. The database can be used as a powerful tool to address outstanding scientific issues on long-term exposure trends and exposure variability, and importantly, as a surveillance tool to evaluate exposure control measures. The database will be valuable for future epidemiological studies on respiratory health effects and will allow for estimation of quantitative exposure response relationships. Copyright © 2017 The

  15. Exploiting Synergies in European Wind and Hydrogen Sectors: A Cost-benefit Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    SHAW SUZANNE; PETEVES ESTATHIOS

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines an assessment of the perspectives for exploiting synergies between European wind and hydrogen energy sectors, where wind energy conversion to hydrogen is used as a common strategy for reducing network management costs in high wind energy penetration situations, and for production of renewable hydrogen. The attractiveness of this approach, referred to here as a ¿¿wind-hydrogen strategy¿¿, is analysed using a costbenefit approach to evaluate the final impact...

  16. Factors affecting labour productivity in the SME sector of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of labour productivity analysis in micro, small and medium enterprises of EU countries. The analysis was conducted on the basis of European Commission for Enterprise and Industry data from 2008. The results of regression analysis point that the technical equipment of work, the share of value added and value of production in revenues are the most important factors influencing the labour productivity in the SME sector.

  17. Effect of nuclear power on CO₂ emission from power plant sector in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargari, Nargess; Mastouri, Reza

    2011-01-01

    It is predicted that demand for electricity in Islamic Republic of Iran will continue to increase dramatically in the future due to the rapid pace of economic development leading to construction of new power plants. At the present time, most of electricity is generated by burning fossil fuels which result in emission of great deal of pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) such as SO₂, NOx, and CO₂. The power industry is the largest contributor to these emissions. Due to minimal emission of GHG by renewable and nuclear power plants, they are most suitable replacements for the fossil-fueled power plants. However, the nuclear power plants are more suitable than renewable power plants in providing baseload electricity. The Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, the only nuclear power plant of Iran, is expected to start operation in 2010. This paper attempts to interpret the role of Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) in CO₂ emission trend of power plant sector in Iran. In order to calculate CO₂ emissions from power plants, National CO₂ coefficients have been used. The National CO₂ emission coefficients are according to different fuels (natural gas, fuels gas, fuel oil). By operating Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant in 2010, nominal capacity of electricity generation in Iran will increase by about 1,000 MW, which increases the electricity generation by almost 7,000 MWh/year (it is calculated according to availability factor and nominal capacity of BNPP). Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant will decrease the CO₂ emission in Iran power sector, by about 3% in 2010.

  18. European pathways for Slovak research and education in the nuclear power domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    New approaches of the European Commission (DG RTD Energy) to the development of nuclear power engineering (focussed on fission and reactor systems) through various support programmes, which can be of use also in Slovak conditions, are discussed. The following topics are described in detail: Globalization of European research and education; Competency in the nuclear power domain; EU platforms for directing EURATOM research activities (SET, SNE-TP, ENEF, ENSREG); ENEN, EHRO-N, ENELA and their position in European education; Objectives of EURATOM research and professional training programmes; Focus on the creation of competencies serving the nuclear sector at the EU level (ECVET); and Towards mutual recognition of nuclear competencies new EURATOM educational programmes in the domain of fission (examples of EFTS: TRASNUSAFE, ENEN III, ENETRAP II, PETRUS II). (orig.)

  19. Challenging issues in the design and manufacturing of the European sectors of the ITER vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dans, Andres; Jucker, P.; Bayon, A.; Arbogast, J.-F.; Caixas, J.; Fernández, J.; Micó, G.; Pacheco, J.; Trentea, A.; Stamos, V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ITER Vacuum Vessel was described with its features and particularities. • Engineering and CAD design of Sector 5 is finish; the work of sectors 3 and 4 is ongoing. • Fabrication Mock Ups almost finished with an important know-how acquired. • Procurement of raw material (plates and forgings) started. • Qualification of welding, NDT and forming close to be finished. - Abstract: Fusion for Energy (F4E), the European Domestic Agency for the ITER project, has to supply seven sectors as part of the European contribution to the project. F4E signed the Procurement Agreement with ITER Organization (IO) in 2009. After a call for tender in 2010, the contract for the manufacturing of seven sectors was placed in October 2010 to a consortium of three Italian companies, Ansaldo, Mangiarotti and Walter Tosto (AMW). The first sector in the manufacturing route is Sector 5 (later will come 4, 3, 2, 9, 8, 7). This paper will cover: the status of the engineering activities, design, procurement and preparation to begin the manufacturing in 2013. Also will be presented the statutory and regulatory requirements of the French Nuclear Safety regulator and the status of the relevant R and D mock-ups to demonstrate manufacturing feasibility control of distortions (using predictions with analysis and algorithms to change in real time the manufacturing route in order to correct such distortions, inspectability and metrology). Another important aspect at this stage of the manufacturing is qualification of activities like welding, Non-destructive Examination and Hot Forming. This paper describes the status of the activities currently in process in order to meet with the challenging design, schedule and high quality requirements of the project

  20. Challenging issues in the design and manufacturing of the European sectors of the ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dans, Andres, E-mail: andresdans@gmail.com; Jucker, P.; Bayon, A.; Arbogast, J.-F.; Caixas, J.; Fernández, J.; Micó, G.; Pacheco, J.; Trentea, A.; Stamos, V.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • ITER Vacuum Vessel was described with its features and particularities. • Engineering and CAD design of Sector 5 is finish; the work of sectors 3 and 4 is ongoing. • Fabrication Mock Ups almost finished with an important know-how acquired. • Procurement of raw material (plates and forgings) started. • Qualification of welding, NDT and forming close to be finished. - Abstract: Fusion for Energy (F4E), the European Domestic Agency for the ITER project, has to supply seven sectors as part of the European contribution to the project. F4E signed the Procurement Agreement with ITER Organization (IO) in 2009. After a call for tender in 2010, the contract for the manufacturing of seven sectors was placed in October 2010 to a consortium of three Italian companies, Ansaldo, Mangiarotti and Walter Tosto (AMW). The first sector in the manufacturing route is Sector 5 (later will come 4, 3, 2, 9, 8, 7). This paper will cover: the status of the engineering activities, design, procurement and preparation to begin the manufacturing in 2013. Also will be presented the statutory and regulatory requirements of the French Nuclear Safety regulator and the status of the relevant R and D mock-ups to demonstrate manufacturing feasibility control of distortions (using predictions with analysis and algorithms to change in real time the manufacturing route in order to correct such distortions, inspectability and metrology). Another important aspect at this stage of the manufacturing is qualification of activities like welding, Non-destructive Examination and Hot Forming. This paper describes the status of the activities currently in process in order to meet with the challenging design, schedule and high quality requirements of the project.

  1. Reorganization of the power distribution sector in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossani, Rafiq

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the central issues for electricity-sector reform in India, as they grew out of the reform process that began in 1991, and within the context of the sector's organization, regulatory structure, and other institutional characteristics. The paper argues that India's current reform policies will not be sufficient to achieve reliable, efficient power because distribution reform has not been done. Undertaking distribution reform is a difficult path to tread because of the absence of global consensus on best practices and conflicting forces, both economic and political. The paper analyzes alternative institutional structures for reform in the distribution sector. The findings include that the objectives of coverage and efficiency may conflict, that economically efficient reorganization may be politically unachievable and that the small, municipally owned firm may be the best compromise. Since many Indian states are economically and politically diverse from each other, and include both large served and unserved areas, there is scope to vary the organizational structure depending on the state's situation. This paper provides a means to do so. The agenda for policymakers is to identify the situation in their respective states and choose a reorganization path that is the best compromise

  2. Nuclear power and sustainable energy supply for Europe. European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, W.

    2005-01-01

    The right energy mix is decisive. The European Commission feels that nuclear power can make an important contribution towards sustainable energy supply in Europe. Nuclear power should keep its place in the European energy mix. One important aspect in this regard is improved public acceptance through communication, transparency, and confidence building. High safety standards and a credible approach to the safe long-term management of radioactive waste are major components of this sustainable energy source. (orig./GL)

  3. Energy - dichotomies within the European Union? Outlook of the Turkish energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilli, B.

    2001-01-01

    Turkey, an alley of the West, and being in the process of rapid integration with the world economy, has started a comprehensive restructuring endeavor in the energy sector. In today's power markets where globalisation and competition plays an increasing role, supply security, economic growth and social targets must be harmonized effectively. Following topics can be considered as basic instruments in this context; restructuring of the power sector (privatization, demonopolization); removal of governmental intervention in the markets; creating a better regional/global cooperation for the deployment of new technologies; enhancing energy efficiency. (author)

  4. Demise of the standard model for power sector reform and the emergence of hybrid power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratwick, Katharine Nawaal; Eberhard, Anton

    2008-01-01

    Following earlier reforms in the power sectors of industrialized countries and emerging markets (e.g. Chile), developing countries were encouraged to unbundle their electricity industries and to introduce competition and private sector participation. This paper highlights the developments that led to how power sector reform came to be defined as a standard model and theoretical framework in its own right, and how the model was used prescriptively in many developing countries. However, we also show that, after more than 15 years of reform efforts, this new industry model has not fully taken root in most developing countries. Finally, we identify and characterize the emergence of new hybrid power markets, which pose fresh performance and investment challenges

  5. A Smart Power Electronic Multiconverter for the Residential Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel Angel; Milanes-Montero, Maria Isabel; Barrero-Gonzalez, Fermin; Miñambres-Marcos, Victor Manuel; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Gonzalez-Romera, Eva

    2017-05-26

    The future of the grid includes distributed generation and smart grid technologies. Demand Side Management (DSM) systems will also be essential to achieve a high level of reliability and robustness in power systems. To do that, expanding the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Energy Management Systems (EMS) are necessary. The trend direction is towards the creation of energy resource hubs, such as the smart community concept. This paper presents a smart multiconverter system for residential/housing sector with a Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) consisting of supercapacitor and battery, and with local photovoltaic (PV) energy source integration. The device works as a distributed energy unit located in each house of the community, receiving active power set-points provided by a smart community EMS. This central EMS is responsible for managing the active energy flows between the electricity grid, renewable energy sources, storage equipment and loads existing in the community. The proposed multiconverter is responsible for complying with the reference active power set-points with proper power quality; guaranteeing that the local PV modules operate with a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm; and extending the lifetime of the battery thanks to a cooperative operation of the HESS. A simulation model has been developed in order to show the detailed operation of the system. Finally, a prototype of the multiconverter platform has been implemented and some experimental tests have been carried out to validate it.

  6. Cyber security threats in the power sector: Need for a domain specific regulatory framework in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananda Kumar, V.; Pandey, Krishan K.; Punia, Devendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    India is poised to spend over USD 5.8 billion as part of the National Smart Grid Mission aimed to alleviate India's ailing power sector as part of its 12th Five year plan (2012–2017). The federal government sponsored Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Program (R-APDRP) is also focused on building ICT capability in the state electricity boards. Presently however, there is no power sector specific cyber security mandates or policies in India. The Stuxnet, Shamoon and Anonymous incidents have shown that cyber attacks can cause significant damage and pose a risk to National Critical Infrastructure. A lack of security planning as part of designing the Smart grids can potentially leave gaping holes in the country's power sector stability. The paper highlights key cyber security threats across the entire power sector value chain—from generation, to transmission and distribution. It is aimed at building the case for power sector specific cyber security regulations based on the experience of regulators in other critical infrastructure sectors like Banking and Telecom in India and power sector regulations internationally. - Highlights: • Cyber security in power sector is key to protecting national critical infrastructure. • Poor cyber security planning would impact the power sector in India. • A laissez-faire approach to cyber security in power sector may not yield results. • There is a need for power sector specific cyber security regulations

  7. The Water-Use Implications of a Changing Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, R.; Sanders, K.

    2016-12-01

    Changing policies, declining natural gas prices due to shale production and, growing pressure for cleaner energy sources are causing significant shifts in the fuels and technologies utilized for US electricity generation. These shifts have already impacted the volumes of water required for cooling thermal power plants, imposing consequences for watersheds that have yet to be quantified. This research investigates how these regulatory, economic, and socially-driven changes in the power sector have impacted cooling water usage across the US, which currently represents nearly half of US water withdrawals. This study uses plant-specific fuel consumption, generation, and cooling water data to assess water usage trends in the power sector from 2008 to 2014 across HUC-8 hydrologic units. Over this period, transitions from steam-cycle coal and nuclear units towards combined-cycle natural gas units and renewables, as well as transitions from once-through cooling towards wet recirculating tower and dry cooling systems resulted in large shifts in water usage. Trends towards non-traditional cooling water sources such as recycled water reduced freshwater consumption in some watersheds. Although US cooling water withdrawals and consumption increased from 2008 to 2014 largely due to electricity demand growth, the average water withdrawn and consumed per unit of electricity generated decreased and remained similar in magnitude, respectively. Changes at the watershed scale were not uniform, with some experiencing significant water use reductions and environmental benefits, especially due to coal-fired power plant retirements. Results highlight the importance of evaluating both water withdrawals and consumption at local spatial scales, as these shifts have varying consequences on water availability and quality for downstream users and ecosystems. This analysis underscores the importance of prioritizing local water security in global climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts.

  8. Prospects for the power sector in nine developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Goldman, N.; Martin, N.; Friedmann, R.

    1993-04-01

    Based on information drawn primarily from official planning documents issued by national governments and/or utilities, the authors examined the outlook for the power sector in the year 2000 in nine countries: China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, Argentina and Mexico. They found that the implicit rates of average annual growth of installed electric power capacity between 1991 and 2001 range from a low of 3.3% per year in Argentina to a high of 13.2% per year in Indonesia. In absolute terms, China and India account for the vast majority of the growth. The plans call for a shift in the generating mix towards coal in six of the countries, and continued strong reliance on coal in China and India. The use of natural gas is expected to increase substantially in a number of the countries. The historic movement away from oil continues, although some countries are maintaining dual-fuel capabilities. Plans call for considerable growth of nuclear power in South Korea and China and modest increases in India and Taiwan. The feasibility of the official plans varies among the countries. Lack of public capital is leading towards greater reliance on private sector participation in power projects in many of the countries. Environmental issues are becoming a more significant constraint than in the past, particularly in the case of large-scale hydropower projects. The financial and environmental constraints are leading to a rising interest in methods of improving the efficiency of electricity supply and end use. The scale of such activities is growing in most of the study countries.

  9. Prospects for the power sector in nine developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, S.; Goldman, N.; Martin, N.; Friedmann, R.

    1993-04-01

    Based on information drawn primarily from official planning documents issued by national governments and/or utilities, the authors examined the outlook for the power sector in the year 2000 in nine countries: China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, Argentina and Mexico. They found that the implicit rates of average annual growth of installed electric power capacity between 1991 and 2001 range from a low of 3.3% per year in Argentina to a high of 13.2% per year in Indonesia. In absolute terms, China and India account for the vast majority of the growth. The plans call for a shift in the generating mix towards coal in six of the countries, and continued strong reliance on coal in China and India. The use of natural gas is expected to increase substantially in a number of the countries. The historic movement away from oil continues, although some countries are maintaining dual-fuel capabilities. Plans call for considerable growth of nuclear power in South Korea and China and modest increases in India and Taiwan. The feasibility of the official plans varies among the countries. Lack of public capital is leading towards greater reliance on private sector participation in power projects in many of the countries. Environmental issues are becoming a more significant constraint than in the past, particularly in the case of large-scale hydropower projects. The financial and environmental constraints are leading to a rising interest in methods of improving the efficiency of electricity supply and end use. The scale of such activities is growing in most of the study countries

  10. Full power in the European tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallia, P.P.; Hugon, M.

    1987-01-01

    A new research campaign begins at Jet (Abingdon, UK). At this occasion, authors review and compare the performances of the three big Tokamaks that are currently in competition: Jet, JT60 and TFTR, insisting upon the European one. Conditions of ignition are reviewed together and energy losses are specified. Magnetic configurations used in tokamaks are shown, together with the technological responses brought these last years

  11. Comparison of development trends of Czechoslovak and European nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cibula, M.

    1988-01-01

    Statistical and prognostic data were compared characterizing the development of the power industry, electric power generation and nuclear power in the CSSR and in other European countries. The penetration of nuclear power into the power industry of the individual countries is affected especially by the economic necessity of changing the level and structure of the respective country's national economy with primary power resources and electric power. The analysis shows among others that nuclear energy has become most widely introduced in countries where electric power makes up a high proportion of the power balance and where the country only has an average amount of primary power resources. By the year 2000 nuclear power is envisaged to make up 27.5 to 32.2% of total power output which corresponds to an annual increase of 5.6% in the power output of nuclear power plants. The dependence of Czechoslovakia's increase of power output on nuclear power is greater than that of both the European capitalist and socialist countries. (Z.M.). 1 fig., 4 tabs., 5 refs

  12. Impact of Wind Power Generation on European Cross-Border Power Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    analysis is employed in order to reduce the problem dimension. Then, nonlinear relationships between forecast wind power production as well as spot price in Germany, by far the largest wind power producer in Europe, and power flows are modeled using local polynomial regression. We find that both forecast...... wind power production and spot price in Germany have substantial nonlinear effects on power transmission on a European scale.......A statistical analysis is performed in order to investigate the relationship between wind power production and cross-border power transmission in Europe. A dataset including physical hourly cross-border power exchanges between European countries as dependent variables is used. Principal component...

  13. 2015 Plan. Project 2: the electric power sector and the Brazilian economy: insertion and forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This project shows the economic and the energetic view of the Brazilian electric power sector, mentioning the actual conjuncture; the economy evolution; some sector forecasts; demographical aspects; international price of petroleum and National Energetic Matrix. (C.G.C.)

  14. The development of market power in the Polish power generation sector: A 10-year perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiński, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines how and to which extent consolidation in the Polish power generation sector has affected the potential for market power over the last 10 years. Although this sector has been undergoing liberalisation (privatisation, introduction of TPA regulations and competition etc.), the consolidation efforts shown by Polish governments have resulted in a significant increase in concentration of both installed capacity and production. The methodology applied in this study includes typical ex-post structural and behavioural measures employed to estimate potential for market power, namely: concentration ratios (for the largest and the three largest suppliers), the Herfindahl–Hirschman Index, entropy, Supply Margin Assessment, the Residual Supply Index and the Lerner Index. Furthermore, an analysis based on the Gini coefficient was employed to obtain an insight into inequalities. The results of this study show that governmental decisions led to a significant increase in the potential to exercise market power held by key power generation companies. Of key importance was the 2007 consolidation, resulting in an increase in the HHI to 1374 (in terms of installed capacity) and 1945 (in terms of electricity production). This consolidation resulted in the creation of the first Pivotal Supplier in the Polish power generation sector in 2008. - Highlights: ► Market power analysis based on structural and behavioural indices was carried out for the Polish power sector. ► Governmental policy resulted in significant increase in concentration of both installed capacity and generation. ► Increase in the Lerner Index of brown coal-based generation and decrease of the hard coal-based one were observed.

  15. Wind power within European grid codes: Evolution, status and outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrana, Til Kristian; Flynn, Damian; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio

    2018-01-01

    Grid codes are technical specifications that define the requirements for any facility connected to electricity grids. Wind power plants are increasingly facing system stability support requirements similar to conventional power stations, which is to some extent unavoidable, as the share of wind...... power in the generation mix is growing. The adaptation process of grid codes for wind power plants is not yet complete, and grid codes are expected to evolve further in the future. ENTSO-E is the umbrella organization for European TSOs, seen by many as a leader in terms of requirements sophistication...... is largely based on the definitions and provisions set out by ENTSO-E. The main European grid code requirements are outlined here, including also HVDC connections and DC-connected power park modules. The focus is on requirements that are considered particularly relevant for large wind power plants...

  16. Cultural Economy. The economic impact of the cultural sector from a European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Colombo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Culture is playing an increasingly important role in the economic development of industrialised countries. Thus, the management of large cultural events and the relationship between cultural management and cultural policies will be key elements in the development of the so-called cultural economy. This article looks at the concept of cultural economy, in terms of the appearance of the idea and the different European methodological positions. The case of the Berlin International Film Festival is taken as an example to show the importance of cultural management with regard to economic development of the sector. This case study also allows for the analysis of the increasingly complex forms of cultural management adopted, as well as their effects on the regulation of the cultural market and their links to other basic economic sectors in urban development.

  17. Hydroclimatic risks and uncertainty in the global power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidden, Matthew; Byers, Edward; Greve, Peter; Kahil, Taher; Parkinson, Simon; Raptis, Catherine; Rogelj, Joeri; Satoh, Yusuke; van Vliet, Michelle; Wada, Yoshide; Krey, Volker; Langan, Simon; Riahi, Keywan

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 80% of the world's electricity supply depends on reliable water resources. Thermoelectric and hydropower plants have been impacted by low flows and floods in recent years, notably in the US, Brazil, France, and China, amongst other countries. The dependence on reliable flows imputes a large vulnerability to the electricity supply system due to hydrological variability and the impacts of climate change. Using an updated dataset of global electricity capacity with global climate and hydrological data from the ISI-MIP project, we present an overview analysis of power sector vulnerability to hydroclimatic risks, including low river flows and peak flows. We show how electricity generation in individual countries and transboundary river basins can be impacted, helping decision-makers identify key at-risk geographical regions. Furthermore, our use of a multi-model ensemble of climate and hydrological models allows us to quantify the uncertainty of projected impacts, such that basin-level risks and uncertainty can be compared.

  18. The European renewable energy target for 2030 – An impact assessment of the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopf, Brigitte; Nahmmacher, Paul; Schmid, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The European Union set binding targets for the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) and the share of renewable energy (RE) in final energy consumption by 2020. The European Council agreed to continue with this strategy through to 2030 by setting a RE target of 27% in addition to a GHG reduction target of 40%. We provide a detailed sectoral impact assessment by analyzing the implications for the electricity sector in terms of economic costs and the regional distribution of investments and shares of electricity generated from renewable energy sources (RES-E). According to the Impact Analysis by the European Commission the 27% RE target corresponds to a RES-E share of 49%. Our model-based sensitivity analysis on underlying technological and institutional assumptions shows that the cost-effective RES-E share varies between 43% and 56%. Secondly, we quantify the economic costs of these variants and those which would be incurred with higher shares. The long-term additional costs for higher RES-E shares would be less than 1% of total system costs. The third aspect relates to the regional distribution of EU-wide efforts for upscaling renewables. We point out that delivering high RES-E shares in a cost-effective manner involves considerably different efforts by the Member States. -- Highlights: •A renewable (RES) target of 27% is the cost-effective share for 40% GHG reduction. •For the electricity sector the RES-E share varies between 43% and 56%. •Long-term costs for higher RES-E shares are less than 1% of total system costs. •There are large differences in RES deployment and costs between Member States. •A lack of a governance mechanism makes the EU-wide RES target difficult to achieve

  19. Decarbonizing the European electricity sector. Modeling and policy analysis for electricity and CO{sub 2} infrastructure networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, Pao-Yu Charly Robin

    2016-03-03

    This dissertation uses three models to analyze different decarbonization strategies for combating global climate change: The cost minimizing mixed-integer model CCTS-Mod examines the economics of Carbon Capture, Transport, and Storage (CCTS) for the electricity and industry sector; the welfare maximizing quadratically constrained model ELMOD focuses on different trajectories for renewable energy sources (RES) and transmission grid expansions; and the equilibrium model ELCO combines the insights of the individual sectors to a combined CCTS and electricity investment and dispatch model. Modeling results show that an investment in CCTS is beneficial for the iron and steel sector once the CO{sub 2} certificate price exceeds 50 Euros/t CO{sub 2}. The threshold is 75 Euros/t CO{sub 2} for the cement industry and 100 Euros/t CO{sub 2} for the electricity sector. Additional revenues from using CO{sub 2} for enhanced oil recovery (CO{sub 2}-EOR) lead to an earlier adoption of CCTS in the North Sea region. The lack of economies of scale results in increasing CO{sub 2} storage costs of more than 30%, while transport costs even double. Research from the last years, however, indicates that CCTS is unlikely to play an important role in decarbonizing the electricity sector. The identified reasons for this are incumbents' resistance to structural change, wrong technology choices, over-optimistic cost estimates, a premature focus on energy projects instead of industry, and the underestimation of transport and storage issues. Keeping global temperature rise below 2 C therefore implies the phase-out of fossilfueled power plants and, in particular, of CO{sub 2}-intensive coal power plants. The low CO{sub 2} price established by the European Emissions Trading Scheme is insufficient to induce a fuel switch in the medium term. Therefore, supplementary national measures are necessary to reduce coal-based power generation; i.a. feed-in tariffs for RES, minimum CO{sub 2} prices, or

  20. On the Pricing of Step-Up Bonds in the European Telecom Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, David; Mortensen, Allan

    This paper investigates the pricing of step-up bonds, i.e. corporatebonds with provisions stating that the coupon payments increase as thecredit rating level of the issuer declines. To assess the risk-neutral ratingtransition probabilities necessary to price these bonds, we introduce...... a newcalibration method within the reduced-form rating-based model of Jarrow,Lando, and Turnbull (1997). We also treat split ratings and adjust forrating outlook. Step-up bonds have been issued in large amounts in theEuropean telecom sector, and we find that, through most of the sample,step-up bonds issued...

  1. European wood pellet market integration - A study of the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Olle; Hillring, Bengt; Vinterbaeck, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The integration of European energy markets is a key goal of EU energy policy, and has also been the focal point of many scientific studies in recent years. International markets for coal, oil, natural gas and electricity have previously been investigated in order to determine the extent of the respective markets. This study enhances this field of research to bioenergy markets. Price series data and time series econometrics are used to determine whether residential sector wood pellet markets of Austria, Germany and Sweden are integrated. The results of the econometric tests show that the German and Austrian markets can be considered to be integrated, whereas the Swedish market is separate from the other two countries. Although increased internationalization of wood pellet markets is likely to contribute to European price convergence and market integration, this process is far from completed. (author)

  2. Analysis of the renewable energy sector in Spain at the European level comparative; Analisis del sector de las energias renovables en Espana. Estudio comparativo a nivel europeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, F. J.

    2011-07-01

    The energy sector, in particular renewable energy, represents a strategic sector for the Spanish and European industry. Policy decisions to its regulation or deregulation is critical. Regulatory frameworks mark a way to contrast their effectiveness and efficiency. However, it is necessary to deepen the theoretical foundations as the natural capital or the limits to growth, to place in a framework more accurately. This article presents specific data on the economic, fiscal, labor and environmental conditions to date has involved the promotion of this sector and its international impact. (Author)

  3. Access to Power: Governance and Development in the Pakistani Electrical Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ijlal

    This dissertation explores governance in Pakistan through a study of the state-run electrical power sector. At both the micro and macro level, the Pakistani power sector provides a lens into the heart of the Pakistani state and its governance institutions. This ethnographic and historical study offers an in-depth look at state operations in a developing country, situates the current Pakistani power crisis in a larger context of continuity through periods of dictatorship and democracy, and suggests how efforts to make state service delivery more responsive to citizens might be reconceived. A historical review of the Pakistani power sector establishes first and foremost that the current crisis is the product of longer-term processes for which the policy solutions currently being proposed (with the support of international donors and multilateral lenders) are inadequate. Depoliticized attempts at power sector reform have little to offer in light of the pervasively informal and negotiated nature of the fragmented Pakistani state. The institutions of power sector governance are mutually constituted by the formal rules and the informal---personal relationships, language, violence, money, and power. These rules of the game are as relevant to relations within and between public sector organizations as they are to the engagement of citizens with their state. The same rules apply at the margins of the state---informal squatter settlements---as at the core, though the resources brought to bear and the resultant outcomes are different. The internal incoherence of this state underscores the limitations of formal rules in determining outcomes, and the poor prospects for reform efforts that focus exclusively on the formal aspects of governance. To proactively engage with the question of political will leads away from top-down policy perspectives and counter to the depoliticizing tendencies that currently shape policy reforms. Instead, an energized and informed local participation

  4. The impact of the EU ETS on the sectoral innovation system for power generation technologies - Findings for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, Karoline S.; Hoffmann, Volker H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of early changes in the sectoral innovation system for power generation technologies which have been triggered by the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS). Based on a broad definition of the sector, our research analyses the impact of the EU ETS on the four building blocks 'knowledge and technologies', 'actors and networks', 'institutions', and 'demand' by combining two streams of literature, namely systems of innovation and environmental economics. Our analysis for Germany is based on 42 exploratory interviews with experts in the field of the EU ETS, the power sector, and technological innovation. We find that the EU ETS mainly affects the rate and direction of technological change of power generation technologies within the large-scale, coal-based power generation technological regime, to which carbon capture technologies are added as a new technological trajectory. While this impact can be interpreted as the defensive behaviour of incumbents, the observed changes should not be underestimated. We argue that the EU ETS' impact on corporate CO 2 culture and routines may prepare the ground for the transition to a low-carbon sectoral innovation system for power generation technologies.

  5. Mobility and power in networked European space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper seeks to contribute to debates about how urban, social and critical theory can conceptualise the socio-technologies of connection, resilience, mobility, and collapse in contemporary urban space. The paper offers a theoretical frame for conceptualising this New Urban Condition, focusing...... on themes of mobility, power, flow, network and scale. The analysis suggests the importance of close atention to the knowledge claims which are deployed in multi-level struggles to assert smooth futures in face of dysfunction....

  6. Impact of renewables deployment on the CO2 price and the CO2 emissions in the European electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bergh, Kenneth; Delarue, Erik; D'haeseleer, William

    2013-01-01

    As of 2005, electricity generators in Europe operate under the European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS). At the same time, European Member States have launched support mechanisms to stimulate the deployment of renewable electricity sources (RES-E). RES-E injections displace CO 2 emissions within the sectors operating under the EU ETS and they reduce the demand for European Union Allowances (EUAs), thereby reducing the EUA price. This paper presents the results of an ex post analysis to quantify the impact of RES-E deployment on the EUA price and CO 2 emissions in the Western and Southern European electricity sector during the period from 2007 to 2010, following from an operational partial equilibrium model of the electricity sector. This study shows that the CO 2 displacement from the electricity sector to other ETS sectors due to RES-E deployment can be up to more than 10% of historical CO 2 emissions in the electricity sector. The EUA price decrease caused by RES-E deployment turns out to be likely significant. - Author-Highlights: • We assessed the impact of renewables deployment in the period 2007–2010. • Impact on CO 2 emissions in the electricity sector and the CO 2 price is considered. • CO 2 emissions decreased by up to 10% of historical emissions. • CO 2 price decrease due to renewables turns out to be likely significant

  7. Powering Profits. Profits, Investments and Fuel Type Mixes in the Dutch Power Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde-Ramsing, J.; Steinweg, T.

    2007-06-01

    This report addresses the Dutch power sector, identifying the major corporate players in the market, types of fuel used to generate electricity, the profits being made, and investments in both renewable and non-renewable generation capacity. For the purposes of this report, the power sector is understood to encompass production (i.e. generation) and supply of electricity. Some discussion and figures on heat and gas, which are also essential energy services, are provided, but the focus is primarily on electricity. Section 2 of the report provides an overview of the Dutch power sector, breaking the market down into production and supply. Major players, markets shares, and recent trends and developments are given for each of these activities. Sections 3 - 7 go into detail on the five major corporate players active in the Dutch power sector: ENECO, Essent, Nuon, Electrabel, and E.ON Energie. For each company, information is provided on profits and earnings, the fuel mix used to generate and supply electricity, the CO2 emissions associated with these activities, installed capacity in the Netherlands, and recent investments in renewable and non-renewable generation capacity in the Netherlands. For the Dutch companies, ENECO, Essent and Nuon, additional information on the ownership structure of the company, shareholders and dividends paid and received is given. A section on RWE (Section 8) is also included in the study because, although RWE is not currently active in generating electricity in the Netherlands, RWE Energy does currently supply electricity generated by producers in the Netherlands. In addition, RWE Power is currently planning to invest significantly in power generation capacity in the Netherlands. The final section of the report compares the companies activities in the Netherlands and draws conclusions based on the companies' respective performance

  8. Employment impacts of CDM projects in China's power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Can; Zhang, Weishi; Cai, Wenjia; Xie, Xi

    2013-01-01

    There are continuous debates around the question of whether CDM really contributes to sustainable development (SD) in host countries. Employment impact is an essential indicator of SD. Based on an input-out approach this research builds a quantitative assessment model to evaluate the employment impacts of CDM. Both direct and indirect jobs creation and job losses of CDM projects in the power sector registered by the end of 2011 are calculated by project types and power grids where the project is located. Results of this study show that, although the above mentioned CDM projects causes about 99,000 net direct job losses, they also create about 3.08 million indirect jobs, resulting in the gross employment of CDM to be about 2.98 million. Thereof, hydro projects induce both direct and indirect job losses, which comes to approximately 0.89 million. Solar projects have the most potential since they own the highest indirect jobs created by one GWh generation, about 104 jobs/GWh. - Highlights: • An input–output model was built for assessment of CDM projects' employment impact; • CDM projects create direct and indirect jobs while cause some losses in short. • Significant indirect job gains of CDM projects were found; • Solar projects cause 104 jobs/GWh in average, ranking as the highest contributor

  9. Institutional framework of the Chinese power sector. Background and overview paper on the status quo and reforms of the Chinese power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, E.J.W.

    2001-10-01

    The Chinese power sector is currently undergoing significant structural changes. This report describes the current developments of the institutional framework of the Chinese power sector and the emerging Chinese electricity market. It is intended as a background information paper for foreign consultants and others that grapple with the complicated and fast changing structure of the Chinese power sector. The scope of this report is limited to grid-connected power. The paper starts with a brief introduction to the structure of the Chinese Government and then describes the main changes that have occurred in the Chinese power sector since 1978. Early power sector reforms consisted of decentralisation of decision making power to lower government levels, deregulation of investment and price control, and corporatization of the operational and business parts of the state electricity activities. The increasing inefficiencies of an ever more complicated and bureaucratic government, the non-transparency of policies, regulations and pricing, and the confused ownership and management structure of utility assets called for further reforms. In 1997 an episode of further institutional and market reforms was initiated aiming to achieve a fully competitive wholesale power market by 2010. The reforms started with the further separation of government and business functions that were previously combined in the same government units. Most notably the State Power Corporation (SP) was established while the former Ministry Of Electric Power (MOEP) was dissolved. The government responsibilities of MOEP were turned over to the State Economic and Trade Commission (SETC). Near-term power sector reforms will concentrate on consolidating network functions in State Power Corporation or its branches and subsidiary corporations, while separating generation from transmission and distribution activities. A competitive power generation market will be established based on the single buyer concept. The

  10. Impacts of Renewable Energy Quota System on China's Future Power Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Weiming; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy; Zhang, Xiliang

    2014-01-01

    As the biggest carbon emitting sector which produces 44% of current national carbon emission in China, the coal-dominated power sector has a tremendous potential for CO2 mitigation in the next two decades. Renewable energy quota system is currently discussed as a potential future policy instrument for the power sector, which requires certain fraction of renewable energy in total power generation for each province and grid zone. The quantitative studies on renewable energy quota for China are ...

  11. A carbon floor price for the electric power sector: which consequences? Policy Brief nr 2015-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotignon, Raphael; Solier, Boris; Perthuis, Christian de

    2015-11-01

    As France envisages to introduce a carbon floor price (raised from 8 to 30 euros) for the electricity sector like it has been the case in the UK since 2013, such a measure would not result in CO_2 emission reductions, but in emission transfers between actors. The authors comments and analyse the possible consequences of such a measure. By using the ZEPHYR model, they discuss the consequences on the European ETS and on the western European electric power market. They notably briefly comment the impact of a price of 30 euros per CO_2 ton on the emissions by the electricity sector in France, Germany, the UK and Poland, and more particularly of French emissions in 2013 and 2014

  12. Exploiting synergies in European wind and hydrogen sectors: A cost-benefit assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Suzanne; Peteves, Estathios

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines an assessment of the perspectives for exploiting synergies between European wind and hydrogen energy sectors, where wind energy conversion to hydrogen is used as a common strategy for reducing network management costs in high wind energy penetration situations, and for production of renewable hydrogen. The attractiveness of this approach, referred to here as a 'wind-hydrogen strategy', is analysed using a cost-benefit approach to evaluate the final impact at the level of the end-consumer when this strategy is implemented. The analysis is conducted for four scenarios, based on different levels of: wind energy penetration in the electricity network area, hydrogen energy price, and environmental taxation on fuels. The effect of technological learning on the outcome is also analysed for the period up to 2050. The results of the analysis indicate that the relative value of the wind energy in the electricity market compared to the hydrogen market is a deciding factor in the attractiveness of the strategy; here the wind energy penetration in the network is a key consideration. Finally, in order to exploit learning effects from linking European wind and hydrogen sectors, action would need to be taken in the short term. (author)

  13. Influence of Atlantic SST anomalies on the atmospheric circulation in the Atlantic-European sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kestenare

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of observational data suggest that Sea Surface Temperature (SST anomalies in the Atlantic Ocean have a significant influence on the atmospheric circulation in the Atlantic-European sector in early winter and in spring. After reviewing this work and showing that the spring signal is part of a global air-sea interaction, we analyze for comparison an ensemble of simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model in T42 resolution forced by the observed distribution of SST and sea ice, and a simulation with the ECHAM4/OPA8 coupled model in T30 resolution. In the two cases, a significant influence of the Atlantic on the atmosphere is detected in the Atlantic-European sector. In the forced mode, ECHAM4 responds to SST anomalies from early spring to late summer, and also in early winter. The forcing involves SST anomalies not only in the tropical Atlantic, but also in the whole tropical band, suggesting a strong ENSO influence. The modeled signal resembles that seen in the observations in spring, but not in early winter. In the coupled mode, the Atlantic SST only has a significant influence on the atmosphere in summer. Although the SST anomaly is confined to the Atlantic, the summer signal shows some similarity with that seen in the forced simulations. However, there is no counterpart in the observations.

  14. European clearinghouse on nuclear power plants operational experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranguelova, Vesselina; Bruynooghe, Christiane; Noel, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Learning from operational experience and applying this knowledge promptly and intelligently is one of the ways to improve the safety of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Recent reviews of the effectiveness of Operational Experience Feedback (OEF) systems have pointed to the need for further improvement, with importance being placed on tailoring the information to the needs of the regulators. In 2007, at the request of a number of nuclear safety regulatory authorities in Europe, the Institute for Energy of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (EC JRC) initiated a project on Nuclear Power Plant operational experience feedback, which adopts an integrated approach to the research needed to strengthen the European capabilities for assessment of NPP operational events and to promote the development of tools and mechanisms for the improved application of the lessons learned. Consequently, a so-called ''European Clearinghouse'' on NPP OEF was established, which includes scientific officers from the EC JRC, a number of European nuclear safety regulatory authorities and some of their Technical Support Organizations (TSOs). The paper discusses the activities implemented in 2008 within the framework of the European Clearinghouse on NPP OEF (hereinafter called the European NPP Clearinghouse) and provides an overview of the main conclusions drawn from the safety studies performed. Outlook of the activities carried out in 2009 are given. (orig.)

  15. Project management techniques used in the European Vacuum Vessel sectors procurement for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losasso, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.losasso@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Ortiz de Zuniga, Maria; Jones, Lawrence; Bayon, Angel; Arbogast, Jean-Francois; Caixas, Joan; Fernandez, Jose; Galvan, Stefano; Jover, Teresa [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Ioki, Kimihiro [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Lewczanin, Michal; Mico, Gonzalo; Pacheco, Jose Miguel [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Preble, Joseph [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Stamos, Vassilis; Trentea, Alexandru [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer File name contains the directory tree structure with a string of three-letter acronyms, thereby enabling parent directory location when confronted with orphan files. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The management of the procurement procedure was carried out in an efficient and timely manner, achieving precisely the contract placement date foreseen at the start of the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contract start-up has been effectively implemented and a flexible project management system has been put in place for an efficient monitoring of the contract. - Abstract: The contract for the seven European Sectors of the ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) was placed at the end of 2010 with a consortium of three Italian companies. The task of placing and the initial take-off of this large and complex contract, one of the largest placed by F4E, the European Domestic Agency for ITER, is described. A stringent quality controlled system with a bespoke Vacuum Vessel Project Lifecycle Management system to control the information flow, based on ENOVIA SmarTeam, was developed to handle the storage and approval of Documentation including links to the F4E Vacuum Vessel system and ITER International Organization System interfaces. The VV Sector design and manufacturing schedule is based on Primavera software, which is cost loaded thus allowing F4E to carry out performance measurement with respect to its payments and commitments. This schedule is then integrated into the overall Vacuum Vessel schedule, which includes ancillary activities such as instruments, preliminary design and analysis. The VV Sector Risk Management included three separate risk analyses from F4E and the bidders, utilizing two different methodologies. These efforts will lead to an efficient and effective implementation of this contract, vital to the success of the ITER machine, since the Vacuum Vessel is the biggest single work package of Europe's contribution to ITER and

  16. Environmental regulation and competitiveness: Empirical evidence on the Porter Hypothesis from European manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubashkina, Yana; Galeotti, Marzio; Verdolini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the “weak” and “strong” versions of Porter Hypothesis (PH) focusing on the manufacturing sectors of 17 European countries between 1997 and 2009. The hypothesis that well-crafted and well-enforced regulation would benefit both the environment and the firm was originally proposed by Porter (1991) and Porter and van der Linde (1995). To date, the literature has analyzed the impact of environmental regulation on innovation and on productivity mostly in separate analyses and focusing on the USA. The few existing contributions on Europe study the effect of environmental regulation either on green innovation or on performance indicators such as exports. We instead look at overall innovation and productivity impacts. First, focusing on overall innovative activity allows us to account for potential opportunity costs of induced innovations. Second, productivity impacts are arguably the most relevant indicators for the “strong” PH. As a proxy of environmental policy stringency we use pollution abatement and control expenditures (PACE), one of the few sectoral level indicators available. We remedy upon its main drawback, namely potential endogeneity, by adopting an instrumental variable estimation approach. We find evidence of a positive impact of environmental regulation on the output of innovation activity, as proxied by patents, thus providing support in favor of the “weak” PH. This result is in line with most of the literature. On the other front, we find no evidence in favor of the “strong” PH, as productivity appears to be unaffected by the degree of pollution control and abatement efforts. -- Highlights: •Weak and strong Porter Hypothesis. •Panel of manufacturing sectors of 17 European countries between 1997 and 2009. •Look at overall innovation and productivity impacts. •Pollution abatement & control expenditures proxy of environmental policy stringency. •Account for potential endogeneity of PACE by adopting

  17. The European Community case for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrault, J.C.; Nordwall, J.H. de; Viseur, R.; Vivante, C.; Graziani, G.; Rinaldini, C.; Zanantoni, C.

    1977-01-01

    Making conservative assumptions on the development of energy demand, the major requirements in terms of annual and cumulative uranium, separative work, reprocessing capacity and fossile fuel are reviewed for a reference case assuming the use of conventional, LWR, FBR power stations and recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors. A very long-term view is taken to show how the long-term future is affected by decisions taken in the medium-term future. A saturation of the demand is assumed in the long term, both because this assumption seems to be reasonable and because it helps making the scenario simpler and our arguments clearer. Four main conclusions are drawn: (1) Even assuming that conventional power stations are used in the long term only to cover peak-load demand, the number of conventional stations and the fossil-fuel consumption will be quite large. (2) Supplying enough uranium and enrichment capacity will pose formidable problems, particularly in view of the large increase in the demand in the last decades of our century. (3) Fast breeder reactors should be used to considerably reduce such demands. In any case, the availability of large reprocessing capacity is a must. (4) From the analysis of the sensitivity of the results to FBR breeding ratio and to the out-of-pile time (due to cooling and reprocessing), the conclusion is drawn that both are very important, the latter being more important in the short term, the former in the long term. The achievement of an advanced reprocessing technology must be considered as a primary development goal. (author)

  18. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 2: Power quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gerdes, G.

    2001-01-01

    The present report describes the work done in the power quality subtask of the European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Developments project funded by the EU SMT program. The objective of the power quality subtask has been to make recommendations andprovide background for new standards...... for measurement and testing of wind turbine power quality. The focus in the work has been to support the ongoing standardisation work in IEC with a new standard IEC61400-21 for measurement and assessment of powerquality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines. The work has also been based on the power...... quality measuremnet procedure in the Measnet cooperation of European test stations for wind turbines. The first working item of the project has been toverify the state of the art of the measurement procedures by analyses and comparisons of the measurements and data processing software of the participating...

  19. Modelling the rebound effect with network theory: An insight into the European freight transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Basosi, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a two pronged approach to the study of the rebound effect, with the aim of assessing the magnitude of the effect in the European freight transport sector and proposing a new modelling framework based on network theory. The (direct) rebound effect is assessed with: 1) an econometric regression; 2) a model based on network theory and statistical mechanics. According to the econometric model the European road freight transport sector undergone a negative rebound between of −74% between 1998 and 2007 and −146% between 1998 and 2011. The network analysis delivers an estimation of network rebound ranging between −29.37% and −7.25. Overall, these results indicate that energy efficiency in Europe, between 1998 and 2011, succeed in reducing the energy consumptions amid an increasing demand for transports. Results on rebound estimation depend on the decision of using GDP as an exogenous variable, an assumption that leaves questions open about the causality chain between growth and transports. Furthermore, the network analysis highlights a structural change –a migration of production factors offshore, that might partially explain this negative effect. In this view, rebound effect analysis on a local or regional scale is becoming more and more uncertain in a globally interconnected economic context. - Highlights: • An evaluation of direct rebound effect in the freight transports with an econometric model is performed. • A new concept of rebound effect based on network theory is presented and implemented. • A comparative analysis of the two different approaches is developed. • Both models indicate that the there was a negative rebound effect in European freight transports. • Network theory proved to be a promising approach to energy systems and rebound effect modelling.

  20. Point Climat no. 17 'The role of the forestry sector in reducing European emissions: the European Commission starts with a tally'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellassen, Valentin; Deheza, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: On March 12 2012, after two years of consultations and reviews, the European Commission published a decision proposal regarding the inclusion of the land use and forestry sector in European climate policy. The aim of this proposal is to impose accounting rules that are consistent with the decisions of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and to harmonise them between Member States. Meanwhile, the issue of economic incentives aimed at guaranteeing the sector's contribution to climate mitigation is postponed until a later date

  1. Wind power and a liberalised North European electricity exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, L H; Morthorst, P E; Skytte, K [and others

    1999-03-01

    Conditions for wind power on a liberalised North European electrical power market are addressed in the paper. Results are presented from a recently completed study carried out by Risoe National Laboratory in collaboration with the Danish electric utilities Eltra, Elsam and Elkraft. A main result from the study is, that the market will be able to provide the necessary power regulation, that will be required year 2005 as consequence of the expected wind power capacity extension, according to the Danish energy plan, Energy21. The averege sales price on the market for the wind-generated electricity is less than the average spot market price, due to provision of power regulation to balance the unpredictability of the wind power. This reduction in the market value of wind power has been calculated to 10-20 DKK/MWh of 1.3-2.7 EUR/MWh. (au)

  2. Health sector solidarity: a core European value but with broadly varying content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Although the concept of solidarity sits at the center of many European health sector debates, the specific groups eligible for coverage, the financing arrangements, and the range of services and benefits that, together, compose the operational content of solidarity have all changed considerably over time. In prior economic periods, solidarity covered considerably fewer services or groups of the population than it does today. As economic and political circumstances changed, the content of solidarity changed with them. Recent examples of these shifts are illustrated through a discussion of health reforms in Netherlands, Germany and also Israel (although not in Europe, the Israeli health system is similar in structure to European social health insurance systems). This article suggests that changed economic circumstances in Europe since the onset of the 2008 financial crisis may lead to re-configuring the scope and content of services covered by solidarity in many European health systems. A key issue for policymakers will be protecting vulnerable populations as this re-design occurs.

  3. Market Barriers to Increased Efficiency in the European On-road Freight Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarnink, S.; Faber, J.; Den Boer, E.

    2012-10-15

    There are numerous technical and operational measures available to improve the fuel efficiency of truck fleets, but many of these measures are currently not universally implemented. Even cost-effective measures (i.e., measures which can be implemented with net fuel savings that outweigh the initial technology costs and potentially at a net profit) are often not adopted. The main barrier is the lack of information on the fuel savings of individual technical measures for trucks and especially trailers. While many transport companies and all original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are aware that certain technologies exist, few respondents believe that these technologies are cost-effective. As a result of this belief, the supply of fuel-saving technologies from OEMs is limited. This report aims to better understand the reasons for the limited adoption of cost-effective fuel-saving technologies and to inform the policy-making process in the European Union and abroad, and specifically to provide input to the European Commission's strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from HDVs. The primary goal of the study is to identify the barriers to the implementation of technologies that improve fuel efficiency in the European road freight transport sector. For this report, the existence and importance of barriers were analyzed through surveys of and interviews with transport companies, OEMs, shippers and logistics service providers.

  4. The development strategies of the european electric power companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddebaud, D.

    2005-01-01

    This study takes stock on the european market of the electric power and of its development perspectives. It details the strategy and the place of the main operators and shows their forces and weaknesses. It provides a comparison of the financial performances of 28 companies (growth, margins, profitability, debt and war chest). (A.L.B.)

  5. The European Power System. Decarbonization and Cost Reduction: Lost in Transmissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite

    2012-01-01

    Europe's energy policy is commonly defined by three axes of equal importance: security of supplies, competitiveness and sustainable development. The European Commission is mandated to develop the policy tools that allow the implementation of this common policy. Early on, challenges arose from the trade-offs to be made not only between these three pillars but also between a common European policy and national approaches. The European Commission has always had to struggle in attempting to keep a balanced line. Over the past twenty years, the EU has been engaged in the liberalization of the electricity and gas sector. For a long time, liberalization was the main objective of European energy policy. Liberalization of the electricity sector was supposed to bring many benefits. Foremost, these included the more efficient allocation of generation and transmission capacities, and the enhancement of the competitiveness of the European economy as a whole, through lower energy costs. The trading of electricity output between countries was part of this strategy. Interconnections are vital to facilitating electricity trade between Member States. It is in this context that interest in cross-border interconnections has increased. However, new constraints have emerged and have put climate change at the top of European agenda. In December 2008, as part of the fight against climate change, the European Union adopted its Energy and Climate package endorsing three objectives for 2020: i) a 20% increase in energy efficiency, ii) a 20% reduction in GHG emissions (compared to 1990), and iii) a 20% share of renewable energy sources in final energy consumption. A direct consequence of the later objective is that renewable energy sources (RES) in electricity generation are expected to expand from 20.3% of electricity output in 2010, to around 33%, in order to meet the objective set by the European Commission. Hydroelectric power has limited additional potential due to geographical

  6. Simulating the Impacts of Climate Extremes Across Sectors: The Case of the 2003 European Heat Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, J.; Zhao, F.; Reyer, C.; Breuer, L.; Coll, M.; Deryng, D.; Eddy, T.; Elliott, J. W.; Francois, L. M.; Friend, A. D.; Gerten, D.; Gosling, S.; Gudmundsson, L.; Huber, V.; Kim, H.; Lotze, H. K.; Orth, R.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Tittensor, D.; Vautard, R.; van Vliet, M. T. H.; Wada, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Increased occurrence of extreme climate or weather events is one of the most damaging consequences of global climate change today and in the future. Estimating the impacts of such extreme events across different human and natural systems is crucial for quantifying overall risks from climate change. Are current models fit for this task? Here we use the 2003 European heat wave and drought (EHW) as a historical analogue for comparable events in the future, and evaluate how accurately its impacts are reproduced by a multi-sectoral "super-ensemble" of state-of-the-art impacts models. Our study combines, for the first time, impacts on agriculture, freshwater resources, terrestrial and marine ecosystems, energy, and human health in a consistent multi-model framework. We identify key impacts of the 2003 EHW reported in the literature and/or recorded in publicly available databases, and examine how closely the models reproduce those impacts, applying the same measure of impact magnitude across different sectors. Preliminary results are mixed: While the EHW's impacts on water resources (streamflow) are reproduced well by most global hydrological models, not all crop and natural vegetation models reproduce the magnitude of impacts on agriculture and ecosystem productivity, respectively, and their performance varies by country or region. A hydropower capacity model matches reported hydropower generation anomalies only in some countries, and estimates of heat-related excess mortality from a set of statistical models are consistent with literature reports only for some of the cities investigated. We present a synthesis of simulated and observed impacts across sectors, and reflect on potential improvements in modeling and analyzing cross-sectoral impacts.

  7. The European Community care for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrault, J.C.; Nordwall, J.H. de; Viseur, R.; Vivante, C.; Graziani, G.; Rinaldini, C.; Zanantoni, C.

    1977-01-01

    In recent times a large number of studies have investigated the various policies which can be followed to satisfy a given electric energy demand. Installation policies concerning conventional stations and several types of nuclear stations have been analyzed from the point of view of consumptions, expenditures, investments etc. The exercise is usually repeated for several demand-growth curves. Sometimes an optimization of the power station installation policy based on minimizing consumption of a type of fuel or expenditures is made. In the study presented here a different attitude is taken, in the sense that it is assumed that the energy demand growth will be large enough to justify the growth of nuclear energy production; this will be limited by a number of technological constraints, namely: 1- The Uranium delivery rate. This rate (tons/year) is assumed to increase from 1985 by 10% per annum and to reach a saturation level after a given number of years. 2- Availability of reprocessing capacity. It is assumed to increase with a given doubling time after 1985. 3- Development of reprocessing technology, which is represented here by the out-of-pile time of the fuel. 4-Availability and technology of fast reactors, represented by the year of first installlation and by their physical characteristics. All the values defining the above-mentioned constraints are varied parametrically and their effects on the penetration of thermal and fast reactors and on the consequent consumptions and expenditures are assessed. A few considerations on the demand of conventional energy resulting from such constraints and from various hypotheses on the total demand are made, to show that a considerable production of conventional energy must be foreseen in the next few decades

  8. Exploring carbon futures in the EU power sector : Using Exploratory System Dynamics Modelling and Analysis to explore policy regimes under deep uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, E.; Pruyt, E.; Hamarat, C.

    2013-01-01

    The European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in combination with other renewable electricity (RES-E) support schemes such as (premium) feed-in tariffs or tradable green certificates do not guarantee a carbon neutral power sector in 2050. This paper shows that many plausible futures of high carbon

  9. Nuclear position in power generation sector - under the pressure of anti-global warming and power market reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Taizo

    2005-01-01

    The future structure surrounding fuel choice in power generation sector should be understood how to evaluate actual and potential merit and demerit both in economic and environmental aspects on nuclear power generation. That is i.e. nuclear can be understood as superior power source without GHGs and on the other hand, as unfavorable power source which might cause some critical dangers due to its hazardous radioactive nuclear waste. On this specific characteristic, this theme on fuel choice surrounding nuclear in power generation sector could be understood as a highly cultural problem as much as economic and political one. For instance, we can observe quite opposite direction with each other on nuclear power development in European countries like France and Finland on one hand and Germany and Sweden on the other hand. Looking at Asian countries, we also observe the very reality of high economic growth with rapid growth of electricity demand like China. What on earth, is it really possible without nuclear power source for such gigantic countries. I will develop my personal idea on nuclear power source based on Japanese experience towards successfully managing nuclear power technologies in the world, consisting of developing countries with growing economies and of advanced ones with rather matured nuclear technology under the pressure of environmentally restricted world order. My basic view point to discuss nuclear power problem has, conclusionally speaking, several aspects; The first one is in the relation with deregulation or liberalization of electricity market, which has been undergoing among such developed countries as OECD member countries i.e. USA, EU, Japan and other countries. Deregulation or liberalization of electricity market seems to be the inevitable process towards more matured market economy among developed countries group, and that process inevitably forces management of power companies towards more near sighted attitude if those companies are

  10. Mergers and acquisitions in the European electricity sector. Cases and patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codognet, M.K.; Glachant, J.M.; Leveque, F.; Plagnet, M.A.

    2002-08-01

    This report surveys 96 mergers and acquisitions of electric power companies in the European Union from January 1998 to August 2002. Cases are described in part 1 and patterns in part 2. The companies in concern are: E.ON (Germany), Powergen (UK), RWE (Germany), National Power (UK), Innogy (UK), Electricite de France (EdF), Edison (Italy), EnBW (Germany), Electricidade de Portugal (EdP), Suez (France), Endesa (Spain), Enel (Italy), Vattenfall (Sweden), Bewag (Germany), Hafslund ASA (Norway), FORTUM (Finland), STATKRAFT (Norway), British Energy (UK), Scottish and Southern Energy (UK), National Grid Transco (UK), Centrica (UK), Sydvest Energi (Denmark), Essent (Netherlands) and Nuon (Netherlands). (J.S.)

  11. Power sector development in a common Baltic electricity market. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    In the years to come the Baltic electricity sector is expected to go through major changes. up till recently the sector has been characterised by vertically integrated monopolies, but at present the electricity sectors in the Baltic States are undergoing reform processes to meet the requirements of the EU directives regarding liberalisation of electricity sectors. This implies a different organisation of the sector, with new roles and responsibilities, and focus on new issues such as a well-functioning electricity market, security of supply and market power. In this project long-term scenario analyses are used to clarify the challenges facing the future Baltic electricity market and to analyse the robustness of the power sector. The project examines how existing power plants will manage in a competitive market, how power prices will develop and which investments are likely to be preferred by investors, among other issues. (BA)

  12. Emerging Changes in the Worldwide Power Sector: The Assets of Thermal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moliere, Michel; Girardot, Amelie; Jones, Robert M.

    2007-07-01

    In forthcoming decades we will see major changes in the landscape of the worldwide power sector as CO2 management and incipient hydrocarbon scarcity exert their increasing influence. The power generation community must be prepared to satisfy a particularly complex and challenging set of requirements. These issues include curbing CO2 emissions, coping with surging primary energy prices, and compliance with regional and local emissions requirements such as SOx and NOx-while maintaining maximum efficiency. In this context, as confirmed by International Energy Agency forecasts, thermal power will maintain a prominent position in overall power generation since it enables the large capacity additions required in emerging countries. Thanks to their reliable assets (such as energy efficiency and environment) gas turbine-based power systems, including Gas Turbine Combined Cycles (GTCC) and Combined Heat & Power (CHP), will continue to be major contributors to worldwide power generation. However, evolving changes in the spectrum of fuels will create an additional challenge for power generation equipment manufacturers-requiring innovative technologies in fuel processing, combustion, and emission controls to address these needs. This paper reviews the factors underlining the changing power generation environment worldwide, including the increasing scarcity of conventional fuels and the growing interest in biofuels and hydrogen. Insights will be offered into various technologies needed to support the growing need for increased fuel flexibility.

  13. A socio-economic impact assessment of the European launcher sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Luca del; Scatteia, Luigi

    2017-08-01

    In a context where the economic strains are challenging European policies as well as the very fabric of governmental contributions to public life, innovation and efficacy of public policy in research are called upon to support growth in Europe and to sustain employment and entrepreneurial capacities. Governments need evidence that the investments in space, while providing strategic tools to implement sovereign policies, create jobs and build the competitive European economy of the future. This is particularly true when the decisions at stake have a potential bearing on the future of the European space sector for at least the next 30 years, as it has been the case for the ESA Council at ministerial level meeting in December 2014. On that occasion, Ministers took the decision to start the development of a new Ariane 6 launcher and Vega evolutions having a critical bearing on the Member States' strategic industrial capabilities and on the sustainability of the European guaranteed access to space. Given the importance of the subject, and following similar studies undertaken in the past for e.g. the Ariane 1-4 programme, the Agency has requested an independent consulting team to perform a dedicated study to assess ex-post the direct, indirect and induced socio-economic impacts of the Ariane 5 programme (mid-term evaluation) and of the Vega programme (early evaluation) globally, at European level, and within the economies and industries of each ESA Member State. This paper presents the assessment of the socio-economic impacts allowing the evaluation of the return on public investments in launchers through ESA in a wider perspective, going beyond the purely economic terms. The scope of the assessment covered in total approximately 25 ESA programmatic and activity lines and 30,000 commitments from 1986 to end 2012. In the framework of the study, the economic impact of the European launcher programmes is measured through a GDP impact defined as the straight economic

  14. Basel III Global Liquidity Standards: Critical Discussion and Impact onto the European Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bučková

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Together with the Basel III regulatory equity rules, two liquidity ratios have been published. Resulting from the illiquidity of some banks during the financial crisis in 2008, these ratios shall help to prevent further crisis in the European banking sector. But do they really fulfill their aim? This article presents the new liquidity ratios, the actual liquidity situation in banks and describes the consequences for banks at a simplified example. It has to be stated that implementing more detailed liquidity frameworks into the banking supervision process is necessary. The financial crisis in 2008 showed that several banks did not have adequate liquidity risk models and processes to prevent illiquidity. But the LCR and the NSFR seem to be wrong methods. Both ratios will increase. The implementation of both ratios has to be done very carefully in order to prevent this.

  15. Adequacy of operating reserves for power systems in future european wind power scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Maule, Petr

    2015-01-01

    operating reserves. To study the effects of these imbalances, anticipated wind scenarios for European power systems are modelled for 2020 and 2030. Wind power forecasts for different time scales and real-time available wind power are modelled. Based on these studies, this paper qualitatively analyzes......Wind power generation is expected to increase in Europe by large extent in future. This will increase variability and uncertainty in power systems. Imbalances caused due to uncertainty in wind power forecast can trigger frequency instability in the system. These imbalances are handled using...... the adequacy of primary and secondary reserves requirements for future European power systems. This paper also discusses the challenges due to the uncertainty in wind power forecasts and their possible solutions for wind installation scenarios for 2020 and 2030....

  16. Fossil fuel power generation within the European Research Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-10

    The report is the first in a series of three produced by the PowerClean Thematic Network that looks at and defines future requirements for research and development of fossil fuel power generation in the European Union. It makes the case for fossil fuel R & D with emphasis on the need for clean coal technologies (to increased efficiency and other CO{sub 2} capture and storage) For satisfying future energy demands of the enlarged European Union between now and 2030. The report concludes that affirmative R, D and D action is needed to support the EU power industry, working together on a Europe-wide basis, to establish the use of coal and other fossil fuels in near-zero emissions power plant. The role model would be the European Research Area, as in the Sixth Framework Programme (FP6), but with a more comprehensive range of technical objectives recognising the importance of fossil fuels. Section headings are: introduction; current energy use; future needs and requirements; the future for clean fossil fuel energy in Europe; comparison with approaches adopted elsewhere (USA Vision 21 and FutureGen programmes, Japan); and responsibilities for EU coal R, D & D. 14 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Sectoral and regional impacts of the European carbon market in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robaina Alves, Margarita; Rodriguez, Miguel; Roseta-Palma, Catarina

    2011-01-01

    Across Europe, CO 2 emission allowances represent one of the main policy instruments to comply with the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. In this paper we use microdata to address two issues regarding the impact of the European Carbon Market (EU ETS). First, we analyze the sectoral effects of the EU ETS in Portugal. The goal is to study the distributive consequences of imbalances, with the novelty of taking into account firm financial data to put values into context. We show that a large majority of installations in most sectors had surpluses and the opportunity to raise remarkable revenues in some cases. We also look at the regional impact, since the pre-existing specialization of different regions in the production of different goods and services might lead to an uneven economic impact of the allowance market. In particular, Portuguese data indicate a distribution of revenue from low income to high income regions, or rather, between installations located in those regions. We focus on the first phase of the EU ETS, using data for each one of the 244 Portuguese installations in the market as well as financial data for 80% of these installations, although we also present data for 2008 and 2009. - Research highlights: → Analysis of distributional impact of the EU ETS for Portuguese sectors and regions. → EU ETS microdata, economic data and firm financial data used to provide context. → Most installations had surpluses and in some cases may have raised notable revenues. → There seems to be an income distribution effect from low to high-income regions. → Thermoelectric generation most likely to be short, but results vary with rainfall.

  18. Sectoral and regional impacts of the European carbon market in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robaina Alves, Margarita, E-mail: mrobaina@ua.p [GOVCOPP and Department of Economics, Management and Industrial Engineering, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rodriguez, Miguel [Department of Applied Economics, University of Vigo, Facultade Empresariais e Turismo, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Roseta-Palma, Catarina, E-mail: catarina.roseta@iscte.p [Department of Economics and UNIDE, ISCTE-Lisbon University Institute, Av. Forcas Armadas, 1629-026 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    Across Europe, CO{sub 2} emission allowances represent one of the main policy instruments to comply with the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. In this paper we use microdata to address two issues regarding the impact of the European Carbon Market (EU ETS). First, we analyze the sectoral effects of the EU ETS in Portugal. The goal is to study the distributive consequences of imbalances, with the novelty of taking into account firm financial data to put values into context. We show that a large majority of installations in most sectors had surpluses and the opportunity to raise remarkable revenues in some cases. We also look at the regional impact, since the pre-existing specialization of different regions in the production of different goods and services might lead to an uneven economic impact of the allowance market. In particular, Portuguese data indicate a distribution of revenue from low income to high income regions, or rather, between installations located in those regions. We focus on the first phase of the EU ETS, using data for each one of the 244 Portuguese installations in the market as well as financial data for 80% of these installations, although we also present data for 2008 and 2009. - Research highlights: {yields} Analysis of distributional impact of the EU ETS for Portuguese sectors and regions. {yields} EU ETS microdata, economic data and firm financial data used to provide context. {yields} Most installations had surpluses and in some cases may have raised notable revenues. {yields} There seems to be an income distribution effect from low to high-income regions. {yields} Thermoelectric generation most likely to be short, but results vary with rainfall.

  19. What will become of the european nuclear power plant market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulden, O.A.

    1976-01-01

    In a forecast of the development of the future market for power plants and components in Europe a British consultant comes to the conclusion that the nuclear power programs established in various countries in 1974 are oversized in the light of the reduction in the increment of electricity consumption, which is expected to continue, if they are implemented in addition to existing and planned conventional thermal power stations, and that these programs are too costly if they are intended more or less only to substitute for other sources of energy. A streamlining process, which is deemed to be inescapable, is bound to result in a major cutback of the nuclear power station market in Europe and in a hard fight for survival among the power plant manufacturers now in the market. In the author's opinion, the only way out would be a uniform European electricity generation, transmission and distribution system with all the rationalization effects this would entail. (orig.) [de

  20. The European Union’s normative power in global politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    comparison. Both political and scholarly assessments argue that ‘we are one of the most important, if not the most important, normative powers in the world’ (Barroso in Peterson, 2008: 69) and that ‘Europe has tremendous normative power’ (Moravcsik, 2010: 18). The normative power approach set out here makes...... it possible to explain, understand, and judge the EU in global politics by rethinking the nature of power and actorness in a globalising, multilateralising and multipolarising era. The EU uses normative power in global politics but the question is whether it is more prone than other actors to do so? In areas...... which are core to the ‘European project’, it seems clear that the EU is more disposed to use normative power....

  1. European CO2 emission trends: A decomposition analysis for water and aviation transport sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoni, V.; Galmarini, S.

    2012-01-01

    A decomposition analysis is used to investigate the main factors influencing the CO 2 emissions of European transport activities for the period 2001–2008. The decomposition method developed by Sun has been used to investigate the carbon dioxide emissions intensity, the energy intensity, the structural changes and the economy activity growth effects for the water and the aviation transport sectors. The analysis is based on Eurostat data and results are presented for 14 Member States, Norway and EU27. Results indicate that economic growth has been the main factor behind the carbon dioxide emissions increase in EU27 both for water and aviation transport activities. -- Highlights: ► Decomposition analysis is used to investigate factors that influenced the energy-related CO 2 emissions of European transport. ► Economic growth has been the main factor affecting the energy-related CO 2 emissions increases. ► Investigating the CO 2 emissions drivers is the first step to define energy efficiency policies and emission reduction strategies.

  2. Production and competition in the European electric sector. 4. report from the research project 'renewable energy in the community's internal market'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjersgaard, A.

    1997-01-01

    The aim is to elucidate the dynamic interactive pricing, competition and market mechanisms that are valid for the European electric power market. The perspective in the report is to analyse the vertical flow of substance and values of energy, the interaction of the actors, and the economic relations. The first link in the vertical chain is the energy raw materials supplies: the reserves and production of fossil and nuclear fuels and the relation to globalization of electricity production. The next link is the production of electricity: the production technologies used and their positioning, the importance of large trans-national utilities in relation to technological changes. The third link is the market and the changes of the market between production, transmission, distribution and consumption of electricity, and the consequences of these changes. Two horizontal regulating sectional views are analysed: The European Union regulations of the electric power sector and the Danish regulations of power supplies. Finally, production and competition of electric power from renewable energy sources, i.e. wind power, in a future European energy market is put into perspective. (LN) 134 refs

  3. European Experience and Ukrainian Realities in the Policy of Financial Support Entrepreneurial Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Savchenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - We want to provide recommendations to bridge the gap in access to financing of the entrepreneurial sector in Ukraine based on the analysis of European experience, EBF approaches, financial funds for SMEs and the current state of the credit market in Ukraine. Design/methodology/approach - We used the general scientific methods of knowledge, conceptual tenets of the theory of market economy, abstract logical analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, historical (to determine the nature and causes of bank investment in SMEs, refine categories and terms; formalization, systems analysis (to determine factors of investment banking, institutional and legal environment; statistical, retrospective analysis. The results of surveys conducted by the EBF on the issues of support and development of SMEs are used, own research of 120 Ukrainian SMEs, which was conducted during the period from January to July 2016. The nature of the research questions was reinforced by the decision to survey only SMEs. Independent reporting (from entrepreneurs or CEOs was used to account for both business activity and the external sources of information. Findings - Policy initiatives should primarily be developed at the national level in the field of lending to SMEs based on the European experience and Ukrainian realities; it is necessary to develop an understanding of the need for access to certain types of information; SMEs are the main providers and the most valuable source of credit information. Research implications/limitations - When using the methods of calculation creditworthiness perhaps to take into account the methods for assessing the quality of management, the image of the enterprise, ISO certificates. Originality/value/contribution - Based on the cross-country comparison of the EU and Ukraine, highlight the necessity of focusing on some legal unification of SME lending procedures for the development of a culture of sustainable entrepreneurship

  4. Impacts of Renewable Energy Quota System on China's Future Power Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    As the biggest carbon emitting sector which produces 44% of current national carbon emission in China, the coal-dominated power sector has a tremendous potential for CO2 mitigation in the next two decades. Renewable energy quota system is currently discussed as a potential future policy instrument...... for the power sector, which requires certain fraction of renewable energy in total power generation for each province and grid zone. The quantitative studies on renewable energy quota for China are still very limited. Based on a least-cost and technology-rich power generation and transmission expansion model...... for China, this study examines the impacts of renewable energy quota system and carbon cap policy instruments on the future Chinese power sector. Various scenarios are examined toward 2030 and their future power generation mix, capacity installations and carbon emission are discussed. This study concludes...

  5. Structural change in European power and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    After decades of stability the European power and gas industries are now undergoing fundamental changes. Made possible by policy reforms and technological developments, these changes are largely driven by commercial forces which have developed their own momentum and dynamics. New commercial risks are a key feature of the emerging market order and companies cannot protect themselves through a ''no move strategy''. This report explores the key changes and examines the emerging commercial strategies in response to the new environment. (author)

  6. The restructuring of the Brazilian electric power sector and the universal access to the electric power service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Rosana Rodrigues dos; Mercedes, Sonia Seger P.; Sauer, Ildo Luis

    1999-01-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to overview the restructuring of the Brazilian electric power sector. Tariffs are also commented

  7. Switzerland - its position within a liberalised European power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    2005-01-01

    This article takes a look at the situation in Switzerland shortly before parliamentary discussions on the liberalisation of Switzerland's electricity market. In particular the interconnection of Switzerland's electricity supply system with that of the rest of Europe is discussed. The power black-out that occurred in Italy in September 2003 is looked at. In particular, its relevance to power supply infrastructures is discussed and the fast-changing international configurations that are resulting from the liberalisation of electricity markets are looked at. Questions of international power transfer capacities and their allocation are looked at in detail in the light of the occurrences in 2003. The lessons that must be learned from the blackout are discussed and Switzerland's geographical position as an important hub of the European power transfer system are considered

  8. The impact of the new public management: Challenges for coordination and cohesion in European public sectors (review essay)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); G. Hammerschmid (Gerhard)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractNew Public Management has been around for a quarter of a century in European public sectors, yet despite the movement’s emphasis on indicators and evidence, there have been surprisingly few encompassing evaluations. In this paper, we provide an overview of academic evaluation and

  9. Decarbonising the power sector via technological change – differing contributions from heterogeneous firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Tobias S.; Schneider, Malte; Hoffmann, Volker H.

    2012-01-01

    In the power sector, technological change is a key lever to address the decarbonisation needed to avoid dangerous climate change. Policy makers aim to accelerate and redirect technological change by targeting relevant firms via climate policy, e.g., the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), and climate-relevant technology policies, e.g., feed-in tariffs. Changes in firm's behaviour, i.e., their research and development (R and D) as well as diffusion activities, are at the heart of technological change. However, firms are heterogeneous actors with varying attributes which perceive policy differently. Hence, they can be expected to react very heterogeneously to these new policies. Based on an original dataset of 201 firms, we perform a cluster analysis grouping firms along their R and D and diffusion activity changes. We then compare these clusters with regards to the characteristics of the contained firms. Our analysis results in seven clusters showing very diverse contributions to low-carbon technological change, suggesting potential for policy to become more effective. A comparison of the firms' characteristics allows us to derive indicative recommendations on how to adjust the policy mix in order to induce contributions from most firms in the power sector. - Highlights: ► Firms differ strongly regarding their contribution low-carbon technological change. ► E.g., about 40% of the surveyed firms have not changed their R and D and diffusion activities. ► These observations cast doubt upon the effectiveness of current policy. ► From the findings recommendations for making policy more effective are derived.

  10. The liberalization of the European energy market from the perspective of the Austrian regional power company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, H.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the liberalization of the European energy sector from an Austrian perspective, emphasizing its effect on a regional power company (KELAG). The energy market's changing conditions are creating new opportunities for consumers that allow them to optimize their ability to fulfill their power requirements. Decentralized solutions are now just as viable for large industrial customers as the ability to have all energy supplied through the utility network. In addition, partnerships with independent power producers (IPP's) or cooperation between the large customers in energy production can be considered. From a regional perspective, the central management concept of KELAG is the answer to an altered market situation, since this concept created tremendous potential for streamlining the management of energy production and operation of the network. The liberalization of the energy market for large industrial customers in Carinthia's electricity sector was preceded by a series of important decisions. The Verbundgesellschaft combine their generating facilities. In the future the power plants of Draukraft in Carinthia will be supervised and controlled remotely from KELAG's central control unit in Klagenfurt, as a result of which the central control unit becomes the primary energy control for Carinthia. (author)

  11. Europe's Constitutional Court : The Role of the European Court of Justice in the Intertwined Separation of Powers and Division of Powers in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knook, A.D.L.

    2009-01-01

    This book examines the Role of the European Court of Justice in the Intertwined Separation of Powers and Division of Powers of the European Union. This constitutional role is examined from five different angles. Chapters II and III examine the role of the Court of Justice in the Separation of Powers

  12. Economic analysis of the expected environmental impact of the Single European Market through the transport, waste and energy sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brutscher, S.

    1993-01-01

    Similarly to other studies the present dissertation presupposes that the Single European Market will lead to an increase in transport waste quantities, and energy consumption and consequently to greater environmental pollution. Of central importance here is the concept of ''expletive costs'' introduced in this paper which describes that damage to the natural and human environment which is not compensated. It forms out that the sectors of transport, waste, and energy alone will most probably send the expletive costs of the Single European Market into astronomic dimensions. In view of the interdependencies of these three sectors it seems doubtful whether the economic benefit to be expected from the establishment of the Single European Market can justify the additional environmental damage thus caused. (HP) [de

  13. The contribution of the industry sector to the construction of a European area of safety and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiss, W.; Parker, G.; Glibert, M.

    2010-01-01

    The European Atomic Forum (FORATOM) is a trade association representing the European nuclear industry. Its main purpose is to promote the use of nuclear energy in Europe by representing the interests of this important and multi-faceted industrial sector. The European nuclear industry recognized that with the deregulation of the electricity market, diversity of national regulations could seriously distort competition. Therefore harmonizing regulatory practices is the best way of ensuring that the industry can evolve within a stable legal framework. In order to pool resources, the licensees launched mid 2005 ENISS (European Nuclear Installation Safety Standard Initiative) under the umbrella of FORATOM. The EU institutions have in recent years acknowledged nuclear energy as a key component of Europe's energy mix. Major European survey shows public acceptance of nuclear energy is on the increase. Support for discussion and debate on nuclear energy has been supported over the past few years by the European Union through the establishment of the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) and the European Nuclear Energy Forum (ENEF). FORATOM and ENISS have been a keen supporter and participant of the ENEF process. The European Nuclear Industry considers that the existing arrangements for ensuring nuclear safety in the EU under the guidance of international nuclear organisations, conventions and under the control of the national safety authorities have delivered excellent safety records. However, the industry has a role to play in the further harmonization processes and is therefore willing to contribute to the dialogue with all possible stakeholders. (author)

  14. Strategic Role of Financial Institutions in Sustainable Development of Indian Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, V K

    2007-07-01

    Paper focuses on appraisal of Indian power sector, its achievements and inadequacies, measures and initiatives taken by Government of India (GOI) and blueprint for the development of power sector in next five years i.e. XI Plan (2007-2012); the role played by various Financial Institutions, Banks, Bilateral/Multilateral agencies etc. with focus on role of Power Finance Corporation (PFC) in development and financing of Indian Power sector and in Institutional development of State power utilities by facilitating in their reform and restructuring process and improving their financial health; role played by PFC in implementation of various policies and programmes of GOI; its competitive edge in Indian financial sector and growth strategies for enriching the stakeholders' value and acting as a significant partner in the development of power sector and growth of the nation. The paper provides information on capacity addition planned along with matching transmission and distribution system in the next five years to achieve GOI's 'Mission 2012: Power for All'; estimated funds required; funds that can be generated both in the form of Debt and Equity; the funding gap; proposed measures to meet overall funding requirement for sustainable development of the power sector. (auth)

  15. Strategic Role of Financial Institutions in Sustainable Development of Indian Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, V.K.

    2007-07-01

    Paper focuses on appraisal of Indian power sector, its achievements and inadequacies, measures and initiatives taken by Government of India (GOI) and blueprint for the development of power sector in next five years i.e. XI Plan (2007-2012); the role played by various Financial Institutions, Banks, Bilateral/Multilateral agencies etc. with focus on role of Power Finance Corporation (PFC) in development and financing of Indian Power sector and in Institutional development of State power utilities by facilitating in their reform and restructuring process and improving their financial health; role played by PFC in implementation of various policies and programmes of GOI; its competitive edge in Indian financial sector and growth strategies for enriching the stakeholders' value and acting as a significant partner in the development of power sector and growth of the nation. The paper provides information on capacity addition planned along with matching transmission and distribution system in the next five years to achieve GOI's 'Mission 2012: Power for All'; estimated funds required; funds that can be generated both in the form of Debt and Equity; the funding gap; proposed measures to meet overall funding requirement for sustainable development of the power sector. (auth)

  16. The impact of CO{sub 2} emissions trading on the European transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaageson, Per

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this report is to analyse how a common European scheme for CO{sub 2} emissions trading covering all sectors of society would affect the transport sector. Transport externalities other than CO{sub 2} are assumed to be internalised by kilometer charging. This means road fuels will no longer be subject to taxation. The European Union's commitment under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol can be reached at a marginal abatement cost around 65 Euro per tonne of CO{sub 2} in a case where emissions trading replaces all current taxes on fossil fuels. In a case where emissions trading is supplementary to today's energy and carbon taxes, the current average taxation (45-50 Euro per tonne CO{sub 2}) and the shadow price of the emission permits (33 Euro per tonne) would together give a total marginal abatement cost around 80 Euro per tonne Of CO{sub 2}. Having to buy emission permits would significantly raise the cost of fuel and electricity used in rail, aviation and short sea shipping, as these modes are currently not taxed at all. The resulting long-term (2025) improvement in specific energy efficiency is estimated at around 25 per cent compared to trend for rail and 20 and 40 per cent respectively for aviation and sea transport. A combination of CO{sub 2} emissions trading and km charging would moderately raise the variable cost of driving a gasoline car. The cost of using diesel vehicles would rise considerably in most Member States. Annual mileage per car would therefore decline somewhat. The fuel, however, would become cheaper than today (especially gasoline) and this would reduce the incentive to buy fuel-efficient vehicles. The reform would thus hamper the introduction of new, more efficient, technologies that might be needed for meeting more long-term commitments. Emissions trading would not encourage the introduction of biofuels in road transport. The incremental cost of producing ethanol or RME is much too high and cannot be expected to fall to the

  17. From welfare states to welfare sectors: Explaining sectoral differences in occupational pensions with economic and political power of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiß, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Studies analysing welfare have previously focused on countries as units. In the course of pension cuts and the increasing importance of occupational welfare, our traditional understanding of a homogeneous welfare state is being challenged. In this article, I distinguish between both economic individual power (employee skills) and political collective power (trade unions), and their relation with different occupational pensions. A combined analysis by both factors is not common, where employee skills and power resources are traditionally treated as separate, rival explanations of public welfare. Combining the 'method of difference' with the 'method of agreement', the article first presents the within-country variety of occupational pensions in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and Denmark. Occupational pensions in the same economic sectors across countries are then used as the units of analysis in order to illustrate the plausible determinants of economic individual power and political collective power.

  18. European Clearinghouse for Nuclear Power Plants Operational Experience Feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Ramos, M.; Noel, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the European Union, in order to support the Community activities on operational experience, a centralized regional network on nuclear power plants operational experience feedback (European Clearinghouse on Operational Experience Feedback for Nuclear Power Plants) was established in 2008 at the EC JRC-IE, Petten (The Netherlands) on request of nuclear Safety Authorities of several Member States. Its main goal is to improve the communication and information sharing on OEF, to promote regional collaboration on analyses of operational experience and dissemination of the lessons learned. The enlarged EU Clearinghouse was launched in April 2010, and it is currently gathering the Regulatory Authorities of Finland, Hungary, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Romania, Slovenia, Switzerland, Bulgaria, Czec Republic, France, Germany, Slovak Republic, and Spain (these last six countries as observers). The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the IAEA, the EC Directorates General of the JRC and ENER are also part of the network. Recently, collaboration between some European Technical Support Organizations (such IRSN and GRS) and the EU Clearinghouse has been initiated. This paper explains in detail the objectives and organization of the EU Clearinghouse, as well as the most relevant activities carried out, like research work in trend analysis of events ocurred in NPP, topical reports on particular events, dissemination of the results, quarterly reports on events reported publicly and operational experience support to the members of the EU Clearinghouse. (Author)

  19. 78 FR 39533 - Power Sector Carbon Pollution Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Sector Carbon Pollution Standards Executive Order 13647--Establishing the White House Council on Native... speeding the transition to more sustainable sources of energy. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, June 25, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-15941 Filed 6-28-13; 11:15 am...

  20. The development of market power in the Spanish power generation sector: Perspectives after market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarreta, Aitor; Nasirov, Shahriyar; Silva, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the market power problem in the Spanish power generation sector and examines how and to which extent the market has developed in terms of market power concerns after the market liberalization reforms. The methodology applied in this study includes typical ex-post structural and behavioral measures employed to estimate potential for market power, namely: concentration ratios (CR) (for the largest and the three largest suppliers), the Herfindahl–Hirschman Index (HHI), Entropy, Pivotal Supply Index, the Residual Supply Index and Residual Demand Elasticity (RDE). The results are presented for the two largest Spanish generating companies (Endesa and Iberdrola) acting in the Iberian Electricity Market (MIBEL), and in the Spanish Day-ahead electricity market. The results show evidence that these companies have behaved much more competitively in recent periods than in the beginning of the market liberalization. In addition, the paper discusses important structural and regulatory changes through market liberalization processes in the Spanish Day-ahead electricity market. - Highlights: •Competition and regulation in the Spanish electricity market. •The methodology applied in this study: ex-post structural and behavioral measures. •Key dominant companies behaved more competitively in recent periods. •Important structural and regulatory changes in the Spanish electricity market.

  1. The Italian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The energy sector in Italy, as in Europe and in many other areas of the world, is undergoing rapid and profound changes. The 1986 ratification of the European Single Act was intended to create a European internal market, where circulation of people, capital, goods, and services would reach the highest possible liberalization. In 1988, in the document The Energy Internal Market, the European Union (EU) commission stressed the need for creation of an internal energy market--free of obstacles--to increase security of supply, to reduce costs, and to strengthen the competitiveness of the European economic system. In 1990, the Community Council adopted directives to implement the EU energy sector. This article describes Italy's role as part of the EU energy sector. It covers the following topics: the Italian energy sector; electricity vs gas transportation; project finance; recent developments advance Italian power industry; specifying powerplant components -- Italian stype; buyers' guide to Italian equipment, services

  2. Evaluation of the impact of power sector reforms on the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electrical power industry in Nigeria has been in a deplorable state for many years. Large, medium and small scale industries suffer adverse effects due to poor services from power utility, which results in dire consequences on the nation's economy. This paper analyzes the economic effects of the power sector reforms ...

  3. Sustainable development outlooks of the Estonian energy sector for convergence with the European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laur, Anton; Tenno, Koidu; Soosaar, Sulev

    2002-01-01

    The article presents an overview of a research conducted in the Estonian Inst. of Economics and the Estonian Energy Research Inst. with the objectives to: analyse the dynamics of the main Estonian energy use indicators over the last 8-10 years with the background of general macroeconomics developments; compare these indicators with the respective energy indicators in the European Union Member States and Candidate Countries; evaluate Estonia's potential to catch up by the energy use efficiency (GDP energy intensity) of the average level of EU countries, modelling our possible development scenarios of GDP and TPES. The research results indicates several positive development tendencies (e.g. reduction of TPES and CO 2 emissions with the background of economic growth) in the Estonian energy sector, as well as convergence with the EU countries in terms of GDP energy intensity. Unfortunately, the model analysis results demonstrate that it takes a lot of time for Estonia to reach the current EU level - even under the most favourable GDP and TPES development conditions, 25-30 years. The primary reason is the very low level of our GDP per capita compared to the EU countries. (author)

  4. The European forest sector: past and future carbon budget and fluxes under different management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli, Roberto; Grassi, Giacomo; Kurz, Werner A.; Fiorese, Giulia; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    The comprehensive analysis of carbon stocks and fluxes of managed European forests is a prerequisite to quantify their role in biomass production and climate change mitigation. We applied the Carbon Budget Model (CBM) to 26 European countries, parameterized with country information on the historical forest age structure, management practices, harvest regimes and the main natural disturbances. We modeled the C stocks for the five forest pools plus harvested wood products (HWPs) and the fluxes among these pools from 2000 to 2030. The aim is to quantify, using a consistent modeling framework for all 26 countries, the main C fluxes as affected by land-use changes, natural disturbances and forest management and to assess the impact of specific harvest and afforestation scenarios after 2012 on the mitigation potential of the EU forest sector. Substitution effects and the possible impacts of climate are not included in this analysis. Results show that for the historical period from 2000 to 2012 the net primary productivity (NPP) of the forest pools at the EU level is on average equal to 639 Tg C yr-1. The losses are dominated by heterotrophic respiration (409 Tg C yr-1) and removals (110 Tg C yr-1), with direct fire emissions being only 1 Tg C yr-1, leading to a net carbon stock change (i.e., sink) of 110 Tg C yr-1. Fellings also transferred 28 Tg C yr-1 of harvest residues from biomass to dead organic matter pools. The average annual net sector exchange (NSE) of the forest system, i.e., the carbon stock changes in the forest pools including HWP, equals a sink of 122 Tg C yr-1 (i.e., about 19 % of the NPP) for the historical period, and in 2030 it reaches 126, 101 and 151 Tg C yr-1, assuming constant, increasing (+20 %) and decreasing (-20 %) scenarios, respectively, of both harvest and afforestation rates compared to the historical period. Under the constant harvest rate scenario, our findings show an incipient aging process of the forests existing in 1990: although NPP

  5. The prospects for hard coal as a fuel for the Polish power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, Jacek; KudeLko, Mariusz

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the prospects for the development of the Polish hard coal sector from the perspective of the power sector. The most important issues determining the mid- and long-term future for domestic coal production are: (1) the development of the economy, hence the demand for electricity, (2) regulations (mostly environmental) affecting the power sector, (3) the competitiveness of coal-based technologies, and (4) the costs of domestic coal production. Since the range of issues and relations being considered is very broad, a specific method needs to be employed for the quantitative analysis. The tool applied in this study is the partial equilibrium model POWER-POL, in which both the coal and the power sectors are incorporated. The model focuses on energy-economy-environmental issues without capturing detailed macroeconomic links. The model was run under six scenario assumptions. The results show that the domestic coal sector should maintain its position as a key supplier of primary energy for the Polish power sector. However, the environmental regulations to which the domestic power sector has to conform will decrease the share of coal in the fuel-mix. Since the investment processes in this sector are usually long-term, the effects of changes will be noticeable from 2015 onwards. - Research highlights: →Application of the partial equilibrium model POWER-POL for a quantitative analysis. →Coal will maintain its dominant position in the Polish heat and electricity production fuel-mix at least up to 2020. →Attractiveness of domestic hard coal supplies will depend on the environmental regulations (mostly on the EU level) and development in the world coal market. →The first nuclear power plant will be put into operation in 2020.

  6. Environmental Issues in the Power Sector : Long-Term Impacts and Policy Options for Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study of the long-term environmental impacts and policy options for power sector development in Karnataka, is one of a series undertaken by the Bank, in cooperation with the Government of India and state governments. It is a follow-up to the broader study Environmental Issues in the Power Sector (EIPS) (ESMAP/World Bank 1998), and the general methodology developed for EIPS, is used fo...

  7. Challenges of attracting private capital investments in the Russian power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, Peter; Sagodi, Attila

    2010-09-15

    The level of investment required by the Russian power sector by 2020 are expected to be in the range of USD 500-550 billion. It is of vital importance that Russia outlines an appropriate regulatory regime for its energy market that attracts foreign investors and combats corruption. The most important challenges determining the long term development of the country's power sector are skills development, regulatory effectiveness, corporate governance, and assurance regarding private investments.

  8. The European power plant infrastructure-Presentation of the Chalmers energy infrastructure database with applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaerstad, Jan; Johnsson, Filip

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a newly established database of the European power plant infrastructure (power plants, fuel infrastructure, fuel resources and CO 2 storage options) for the EU25 member states (MS) and applies the database in a general discussion of the European power plant and natural gas infrastructure as well as in a simple simulation analysis of British and German power generation up to the year 2050 with respect to phase-out of existing generation capacity, fuel mix and fuel dependency. The results are discussed with respect to age structure of the current production plants, CO 2 emissions, natural gas dependency and CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) under stringent CO 2 emission constraints. The analysis of the information from the power plant database, which includes planned projects, shows large variations in power plant infrastructure between the MS and a clear shift to natural gas-fuelled power plants during the last decade. The data indicates that this shift may continue in the short-term up to 2010 since the majority of planned plants are natural gas fired. The gas plants are, however, geographically concentrated to southern and northwest Europe. The data also shows large activities in the upstream gas sector to accommodate the ongoing shift to gas with pipelines, liquefaction plants and regasification terminals being built and gas fields being prepared for production. At the same time, utilities are integrating upwards in the fuel chain in order to secure supply while oil and gas companies are moving downwards the fuel chain to secure access to markets. However, it is not yet possible to state whether the ongoing shift to natural gas will continue in the medium term, i.e. after 2010, since this will depend on a number of factors as specified below. Recently there have also been announcements for construction of a number of new coal plants. The results of the simulations for the German and British power sector show that combination of a relatively low

  9. China's power sector reforms - where to next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    With the fastest growing energy demand in the world, China is now the largest electricity consumer after the United States. How can the government best assure affordable and environmentally sustainable electricity supply in the future? The Chinese government has initiated electricity sector reforms to overhaul an antiquated system and attain new energy security and environmental objectives. How China proceeds with these reforms will have lasting consequences, both locally and globally. Assessing the current state of electricity regulation in China, this report draws on experience elsewhere to explore how better to develop and communicate strategy, how to moderate growth in demand through increased efficiency, how to integrate environmental goals into planning and operation, how to ensure sufficient supply when and where it is needed, and how to handle institutional and governance challenges. In this respect, electricity sector reform in other countries offers valuable lessons as to how China might proceed.

  10. The Power of Partnerships: A Private-Sector Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Niebur, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The world food crisis, exacerbated by accelerating climate change and the global financial crisis, requires that agricultural scientists solve ever more complex problems. Public–private partnerships will play a more critical role in developing agricultural technologies for developing nations to improve farm productivity and alleviate global hunger. In order to make public–private partnerships work, we must move from the ‘sector mentality’ and focus on combinatorial solutions resolving the mos...

  11. Market Power and Unites States Sectoral Textile Imports

    OpenAIRE

    S Shahnawaz

    2004-01-01

    This paper estimates US textiles import elasticities with 20 of its largest textiles exporters by utilizing cointegration methodology. The soon-to-be-implemented abolition of quotas on textiles makes the study of these import elasticities especially relevant to many developing countries particularly to those that have a significant textiles component in their exports. The study uses disaggregated data (4 digit ISIC) to separately consider seven textiles sub-sectors and calculates income and p...

  12. Energy efficiency and restructuring of the Brazilian power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto [State University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    Since the early nineties Brazil has initiated a program of reforms in its electric sector which includes utility privatization, de-verticalization. The main objectives were to promote a market-oriented energy industry attractive to private investments. This has led to the loss of sponsorship for the public-interest programs formerly undertaken by the state utilities. In particular, of significant concern are the programs for promotion of energy efficiency, renewable energy technologies, rural electrification and environmental protection. In the midst of the privatization effort, the National Agency for Electrical Energy ANEEL was created (end of 1997). One of the tasks of the regulatory agency is to provide funds and incentives to energy conservation. In this paper we review the role of ANEEL in promoting energy efficiency investments in the context of a market-oriented sector, its limitations and prospects. [Spanish] Desde principios de los anos noventa Brasil ha iniciado un programa de reformas en su sector electrico que incluye la privatizacion del servicio electrico y la desverticalizacion. Los objetivos principales eran promover una industria de la energia orientada comercialmente de la energia electrica, atractiva a las inversiones privadas. Esto ha conducido a la perdida de patrocinio de los programas de interes publico emprendidos antes por las empresas electricas del estado. En particular, de preocupacion significativa estan los programas para la promocion del rendimiento energetico, de las tecnologias de la energia renovable, de la Electrificacion rural y de la proteccion del medio ambiente. En medio del esfuerzo de la privatizacion, la agencia nacional para la energia electrica ANEEL fue creada (finales de 1997). Una de las tareas de la agencia reguladora es proporcionar fondos e incentivos a la conservacion de energia. En este trabajo repasamos el papel de ANEEL en promover inversiones del rendimiento energetico en el contexto de un sector orientado

  13. Power without manpower: Forecasting labour demand for Estonian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meriküll, Jaanika; Eamets, Raul; Humal, Katrin; Espenberg, Kerly

    2012-01-01

    As energy demand and prices continue to grow, oil shale might help mitigate the energy crisis—it can widely be found all over the world but so far has not been widely used. Estonia is unique in the world for producing a large majority of energy out of oil shale and has been set as an example in numerous papers covering oil shale deposits, technology etc. This paper is the first to analyse oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts of the labour demand for the Estonian energy sector in 2010–2020. The contribution of the paper is twofold. First, the paper provides a valuable insight into oil shale energy related workforce, enabling to take into consideration the educational needs in countries where oil shale industry might be set up. Second, methodology-wise, the paper relates labour demand and supply to different scenarios of energy production capacities. The results illustrate problems related to aging of the workforce in energy production. If the existing trends continue in educational attainment in Estonia, there will be a serious shortage of high-skilled engineering and manufacturing specialists. Our method provides a simple yet reliable enough way to check for such problems early enough. - Highlights: ► This paper analyses oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts. ► This is the first study to investigate the workforce related to oil shale energy production. ► The main workforce-related problem in the sector is ageing of the workforce. ► Workers immigrating to the sector during the Soviet times are at the retirement age. ► There will be a serious shortage of engineers for energy sector in the near future.

  14. Aboriginal groups taking leadership positions in power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2009-09-15

    First Nations and Metis communities are now initiating and managing projects in the Canadian energy sector. Federal and provincial governments are now developing training programs to ensure that Aboriginal communities develop the skills needed to successfully manage energy projects. The Supreme Court of Canada has issued a number of rulings ensuring that companies and government agencies have a duty to consult with Aboriginal people when Crown decisions impact Treaty or Aboriginal rights. The Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure has now set up a unit to provide advice and guidance to facilitate partnership opportunities with First Nations and Metis communities. Major companies in Ontario have also developed consultation policies that focus on relationship building, internal education, and promoting business and workforce development. The Pic River First Nation group now owns a minority interest in the Wawatay generating station. A 23 MW facility is fully owned by the First Nations group. The province of Ontario has made a provision for up to $250 million to serve as loan guarantees for First Nations groups. It was concluded that the Electricity Sector Council (ESC) has developed an Aboriginal participation engagement project designed to increase Aboriginal awareness of opportunities within the electricity and renewable energy sector. 3 figs.

  15. European Crises of Legally-constituted Public Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2017-01-01

    . The dual (trans-)national re-constitution of Western Europe in the years immediately after the Second World War, which the European integration process was an integrated part of, successfully remedied this development. However, over the last decades, Europe has experienced a ‘turn to governance’, which......The ‘turn to corporatism’ in the interwar period implied an erosion of the fragile institutionalisation of legally-constituted public power due to its suspension of the legal infrastructure of society and the concomitant breakdown of the distinction between the public and private realms of society...

  16. Examining market power in the European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egging, R.G.; Gabriel, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a mixed complementarity equilibrium model for the European natural gas market. This model has producers as Cournot players with conjectured supply functions relative to their rivals. As such, these producers can withhold production to increase downstream prices for greater profits. The other players are taken to be perfectly competitive and are combined with extensive pipeline, seasonal, and other data reflecting the current state of the market. Four market scenarios are run to analyze the extent of market power by these producers as well as the importance of pipeline and storage capacity. (author)

  17. Examining market power in the European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egging, Rudolf G.; Gabriel, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a mixed complementarity equilibrium model for the European natural gas market. This model has producers as Cournot players with conjectured supply functions relative to their rivals. As such, these producers can withhold production to increase downstream prices for greater profits. The other players are taken to be perfectly competitive and are combined with extensive pipeline, seasonal, and other data reflecting the current state of the market. Four market scenarios are run to analyze the extent of market power by these producers as well as the importance of pipeline and storage capacity

  18. The independent power production and the reorganization of the electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The transformation of the electric power production and distribution sector is in progress thanks to the progressive opening of markets and to the emergence of a new kind of actor: the independent producer. After the USA, the UK, and most of the emerging countries, the continental Europe is actively preparing its mutation. The historical actors try to protect their positions on their own national markets and at the same time to develop their international position. The newcomers (oil companies, independent power producers, collective service companies) have adopted a radically offensive strategy based on an international development and a skimming of the market. This study takes stock of the degree of liberalization of the different markets and analyzes their structuring elements and dynamism. An analytical presentation of the main actors of the electric power market is performed in order to evaluate their forces and feeblenesses in front of this mutation. Finally, it tries to answer the following questions: which are the most promising zones for the newcomers, and which companies will win this new deal? (J.S.)

  19. Carbon mitigation in the electric power sector under cap-and-trade and renewables policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delarue, Erik; Van den Bergh, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, CO_2 emissions from the electric power sector and energy intensive industries are capped under a cap-and-trade system (i.e., the EU ETS). When other indirect measures are taken to impact emissions in a specific sector under the cap (such as a push for renewables in the electric power sector), this has implications on the overall allowance price, and on CO_2 emissions both from this specific sector and the other sectors under the cap. The central contribution of this paper is the derivation of impact curves, which describe these interactions, i.e., the impact on allowance price and the shift of emissions across sectors. From a set of detailed simulations of the electric power system operation, a so-called “emission plane” is obtained, from which impact curves can be derived. Focus is on interactions between CO_2 abatement through fuel switching and measures affecting the residual electricity demand (such as deployment of renewables) in the electric power sector, as well as on interactions with other sectors, both in a short-term framework. A case study for Central-Western Europe is presented. The analysis reveals a substantial impact of renewables on CO_2 emissions, and hence on emissions shifts across sectors and/or on the CO_2 price. - Highlights: •CO_2 cap-and-trade interacts with policies targeting one specific sector under cap. •Interaction creates emission displacement and/or impacts CO_2 price. •The central contribution is the derivation of impact curves from the emission plane. •The method is applied to a case study of Central-Western Europe. •The analysis reveals a large impact of renewables on CO_2 displacement and/or price.

  20. Renewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sectors of European Union member states: a panel data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Hélde Araujo; De Melo Faria, Alexandre Magno; Fuinhas, José Alberto; Marques, António Cardoso

    2017-08-01

    In the last two decades, there has been a rich debate about the environmental degradation that results from exposure to solid urban waste. Growing public concern with environmental issues has led to the implementation of various strategic plans for waste management in several developed countries, especially in the European Union. In this paper, the relationships were assessed between economic growth, renewable energy extraction and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the waste sector. The Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis was analysed for the member states of the European Union, in the presence of electricity generation, landfill and GHG emissions for the period 1995 to 2012. The results revealed that there is no inverted-U-shaped relationship between income and GHG emissions in European Union countries. The renewable fuel extracted from waste contributes to a reduction in GHG, and although the electricity produced also increases emissions somewhat, they would be far greater if the waste-based generation of renewable energy did not take place. The waste sector needs to strengthen its political, economic, institutional and social communication instruments to meet its aims for mitigating the levels of pollutants generated by European economies. To achieve the objectives of the Horizon 2020 programme, currently in force in the countries of the European Union, it will be necessary to increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix.

  1. European standards and approaches to EMC in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardsley, D.J.; Dillingham, S.R.; McMinn, K. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1995-04-01

    Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) arising from a wide range of sources can threaten nuclear power plant operation. The need for measures to mitigate its effects have long been recognised although there are difference in approaches worldwide. The US industry approaches the problem by comprehensive site surveys defining an envelope of emissions for the environmental whilst the UK nuclear industry defined many years ago generic levels which cover power station environments. Moves to standardisation within the European community have led to slight changes in UK approach, in particular how large systems can be tested. The tests undertaken on UK nuclear plant include tests for immunity to conducted as well as radiated interference. Similar tests are also performed elsewhere in Europe but are not, to the authors` knowledge, commonly undertaken in the USA. Currently work is proceeding on draft international standards under the auspices of the IEC.

  2. The European Constitution: sovereignty, legitimacy and constituent power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Larsen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of Hannah Arendt’s and Carl Schmitt’s writings on the constituent power, this article sets out to develop an interpretative framework which would aid the understanding of the legitimation crisis of European integration initiated by the EU constitutional failure of 2004. The question raised in this essay is whether the successful establishment of democratic constitutional legitimacy is conditional upon the existence of a federal state. From the perspective of the constituent power, two opposing answers are given based on two rivalling notions of the ultimate meaning of constitutional politics: freedom and security. The article concludes that even though the EU as a case remains undecided, it seems likely that democracy and constitutional politics have parted ways in the EU both in the Arendtian and in the Schmittian sense. If that is the case, the constitutional crisis is a serious problem for the future of democracy in the EU.

  3. 2nd European Conference on Green Power Marketing 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report summarises the information presented at the European Conference on Green Power Marketing held in 2002 in St. Moritz, Switzerland. It takes a look at the market chances of ecologically produced electricity for use in Switzerland and for export. The opinions of experts from the areas of research, business, politics, marketing and non-governmental organisations that were presented at the meeting are summarised. International perspectives and trends are discussed and strategies and management issues are examined. Product and price policies are discussed, as are instruments for the communication of 'Green Power' issues. Also, issues concerning customer needs, renewable energy sources, climate change and sustainability are dealt with and the situation in Australia is looked at

  4. Large scale integration of intermittent renewable energy sources in the Greek power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voumvoulakis, Emmanouil; Asimakopoulou, Georgia; Danchev, Svetoslav; Maniatis, George; Tsakanikas, Aggelos

    2012-01-01

    As a member of the European Union, Greece has committed to achieve ambitious targets for the penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) in gross electricity consumption by 2020. Large scale integration of RES requires a suitable mixture of compatible generation units, in order to deal with the intermittency of wind velocity and solar irradiation. The scope of this paper is to examine the impact of large scale integration of intermittent energy sources, required to meet the 2020 RES target, on the generation expansion plan, the fuel mix and the spinning reserve requirements of the Greek electricity system. We perform hourly simulation of the intermittent RES generation to estimate residual load curves on a monthly basis, which are then inputted in a WASP-IV model of the Greek power system. We find that the decarbonisation effort, with the rapid entry of RES and the abolishment of the grandfathering of CO 2 allowances, will radically transform the Greek electricity sector over the next 10 years, which has wide-reaching policy implications. - Highlights: ► Greece needs 8.8 to 9.3 GW additional RES installations by 2020. ► RES capacity credit varies between 12.2% and 15.3%, depending on interconnections. ► Without institutional changes, the reserve requirements will be more than double. ► New CCGT installed capacity will probably exceed the cost-efficient level. ► Competitive pressures should be introduced in segments other than day-ahead market.

  5. Sierra Leone : Power Sector Recovery Strategy, Phase I

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Power Planning Associates has been appointed by the World Bank to prepare a strategy for the recovery of the National Power Authority (NPA). This Preliminary Report presents the findings of the audit and proposes potential counter measures to improve NPA s technical and financial performance. These counter measures are presented at the end of each section of the report and are summarised...

  6. Hybrid Pricing in a Coupled European Power Market with More Wind Power

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørndal, Endre; Bjørndal, Mette; Cai, Hong; Panos, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    In the European market, the promotion of wind power leads to more network congestion. Zonal pricing (market coupling), which does not take the physical characteristics of transmission into account, is the most commonly used method to relieve congestion in Europe. Zonal pricing fails to provide adequate locational price signals regarding the energy resource scarcity and thus creates a large amount of unscheduled cross-border flows originating from wind-generated power, making the interconne...

  7. Innovation policy for directing technical change in the power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalbers, Rob; Shestalova, Victoria; Kocsis, Viktória

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses policy instruments for redirecting technical change within the electricity sector to mitigate climate change. First, we unravel the mechanism behind directed technical change, explaining why markets may underprovide innovations in expensive renewable technologies in comparison to innovations in energy-efficient fossil-fuel generators. Subsequently, we characterize technical change in electricity generation technologies, stressing the heterogeneity of knowledge spillovers both within and between clean electricity generation technologies. We argue that there exists a rationale for a portfolio approach to innovation in the electricity sector, i.e., optimal innovation policies are neither fully generic nor fully specific; and they need to be adapted, in response to new information learned by the government. The existing innovation literature does not, however, provide a clear-cut answer for designing such a policy. We compare policy instruments and argue that public R and D support to clean technologies, either in the form of subsidies or prizes, seems to be the prime candidate for implementing non-generic innovation policy. - Highlights: • We analyze policies for spurring innovations in renewable electricity technologies. • The analysis unravels why research markets underprovide such innovations. • We conclude that non-generic R and D subsidies and prizes are the most suitable policies

  8. Why European Entrepreneurs in the Water and Waste Management Sector Are Willing to Go beyond Environmental Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Rabadán

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability in the water sector in Europe is a major concern, and compliance with the current legislation alone does not seem to be enough to face major challenges like climate change or population growth and concentration. The greatest potential for improvement appears when companies decide to take a step forward and go beyond environmental legislation. This study focuses on the environmental responsibility (ER of European small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the water and waste management sector and analyzes the drivers that lead these firms to the adoption of more sustainable practices. Our results show that up to 40% of European SMEs within this industry display environmental responsibility. Market pull has a low incidence in encouraging ER, while values and the strategic decisions of entrepreneurs seem decisive. Policy makers should prioritize subsidies over fiscal incentives because they show greater potential to promote the adoption of environmental responsibility among these firms.

  9. Purchasing Power and Purchasing Strategies - Insights From the Humanitarian Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pazirandeh, Ala

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, we discuss how buyers practice purchasing strategies in an asymmetric power situation favoring suppliers, and how their purchasing strategies practiced impact their purchasing power and buyer-supplier relationships. Organizations enter exchange relationships to access required resources not produced internally, and are exposed to uncertainty from not being able to fully control or predict flow of resources. Consequently they become dependent on their partners. Their leve...

  10. Energy - an overview of issues in power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, Y.S.; Anil Kumar, B.

    1998-01-01

    Economic growth is critically dependent on energy which is a key input in all forms of products. With the ecological and environmental concerns for sustainable use of energy, much emphasis is being laid on demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation and alternative sources of energy. This is being witnessed in the long term trends of energy - gross domestic product (GDP) elasticity, which has declined due to changing technology especially for the industrial sector whose share is comparatively reducing in the overall energy consumption. This paper examines mainly the issues involved in meeting the growing demand for electricity, most important form of energy. These issues have been classified as Technical, Financial, Institutional, Policy, Political and International. Each issue is not mutually exclusive of the other and therefore calls for an integrated and holistic approach while addressing them. (author)

  11. Safe ageing management of nuclear power plants: An European synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandemange, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Ageing of nuclear power plants means evolution of material or equipment properties on one side, and evolution of personnel skill and procedure adequacy on the other side, both of which, after a certain time, may not be compatible with the required safety provisions, or with an economic operation of the plant. Repair or replacement of components, as well as change in service conditions for a better compatibility with component reduced capabilities can be used to mitigate ageing effects. The paper summarises the results of a study conducted in this field with the support of the European Commission. It presents: the synthesis of the work done under international auspices, and in the European context; the comparison of ageing management approaches used in several European countries with international recommendations; the summary of the various potential phenomena and their governing parameters, the methods of in-service ageing identification and possible mitigation methods; illustrative ageing management practices, taking material ageing aspects as examples. Concerning the first topic, the European report identifies 56 OECD and IAEA reports on ageing management issues, 35 being summarised in an appendix to the report. It also identifies numerous European and international studies covering topics of interest to ageing and Plant Life management. ageing management approaches have been considered from the regulatory point of view and from the utilities management point of view. Contributors to the study have identified a general consensus in Europe, with no limited time operating authorisation, the safety being a utility responsibility under continuous surveillance by the regulatory authority. Practical ageing management methods include: periodic safety reviews (PSR), a ten years periodicity being a common practice, completed by continuous ageing management taking into account safety and industrial anticipation needs; the implementation of life-time management programmes

  12. Siemens IT solutions for power sector. PROFIT solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunter, P.

    2004-01-01

    The cost reduction, flexibility and revenue increase, potential exploitation, productivity increase, and business opportunities exploitation - that is all what can be required in the races for the promonent positioning on the electricity power market. These requirements can be realized by the sophisticated IT solutions hand-tailored to the special requirements of the electric power producers and tradesmen. This approach makes it possible to achieve greater profit. Our solutions 'PROFIT Solutions', that are symbiosis of the most progressive information technologies and the power plant techniques of the company Siemens, satisfy submitted specifications in substantial measure. The system solutions 'PROFIT Solutions' comprise three solution groups: process, operation a business. The solutions of the group 'IT Process Solutions' increase flexibility and manoeuvrability of equipment, improve the efficiency and contribute to more economical operation of the power generation. Solutions 'IT Process Solutions' simplify and shorten the period of power cycles and conduce to higher labour productivity. Solutions group 'IT Process Solutions' approaches equipment to the market - supports the profit strategies, helps quickly and expertly to determine and predict hazards. The extension PROFIT Cockpit means the nuance to the solutions world 'PROFIT Solutions'. The survey about the whole installation is within reach at the simple touch of a button. It is possible to compile the total system part by part from single solutions 'PROFIT Solutions'. As a matter of fact all single parts can be interconnected with already existing solutions. Routines 'PROFIT Solutions' cooperate with all modern control systems. (author)

  13. Designing effective power sector reform: A road map for the republic of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdgelashvili, Lado

    Around the world, network utilities (i.e., electricity, natural gas, railway, telecommunications, and water supply industries) are undergoing major structural transformation. A new wave of market liberalization, together with rapid technological changes, has challenged the previously dominant monopoly organization of these industries. A global trend toward deregulation and restructuring is evident in countries at different levels of social and economic development. The challenges of transition from a monopolistic to an open market competitive structure are numerous. Understanding these problems and finding solutions are essential to successful restructuring. In developing countries and economies in transition (i.e., the Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union), government-owned utilities are often considered to be highly inefficient. The dominant power sector restructuring strategies seek to promote economic efficiency through a gradual introduction of competition into the power sector. Five components of power sector reform are commonly proposed by the World Bank and others for these countries: commercialization, privatization, establishment of an independent regulatory agency, unbundling and gradual introduction of competition in generation and retail markets. The Republic of Georgia, like many economies in transition (e.g., Hungary, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan) has followed this reform model. However, outcomes of the reform have not been as promised. The acute economic problems facing Georgia after it regained independence have compounded problems in the power sector. A review of Georgia's utility reforms reveals that the country has undertaken electricity industry restructuring without giving substantial consideration to the problems that these reforms might have created within the industry or society. The main task of this dissertation is to find the restructuring model, which can best serve economic, social and environmental goals under circumstances similar

  14. British Energy - nuclear power in the private sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, R.

    1997-01-01

    The first four months of the operation of British Energy as a privatised nuclear utility are briefly reviewed. Operational and financial performance have been good as exemplified by the figures for power output and financial return. Freedom from government control means that the options open to the company are much wider but the need to meet the expectations of shareholders is a major consideration. Added to this, the competitive nature of the electricity industry means that the cost reduction is important, though this cannot be at the expense of safety. Shareholder expectations make the funding of new nuclear power stations unrealistic at present. Increasingly, however, markets are opening up in the maintenance of existing plant and the decommissioning of older plant. The British Energy Group also has considerable expertise in the design, operation and management of power stations and of acting in a competitive energy market that could be exported. British Energy's International Division is in place to develop this potential. (UK)

  15. European experiences as guidelines for public, private and civil sector role redefinition in spatial policy formulation process in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksić Milica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The period of post-socialist transition in Serbia brings more complex actors environment compared to socialistic period, while institutional arrangements are not enough developed to actively involve different groups of actors in spatial policy formulation process. In order to gather certain knowledge as guidelines for redefining institutional practices in Serbia, institutional framework of Serbia was compared in this paper with institutional framework of three developed European countries, especially in relation to the roles of public, private and civil sector in spatial policy formulation process. The European countries selected for the analysis are United Kingdom, Netherlands and Germany because of diverse national administrative traditions, so different institutional arrangements could be researched. By comparing institutional framework in Serbia with the ones in developed European countries following questions are researched: which actors are missing in Serbia, what are the ways institutional arrangements for different groups inclusion into spatial policy formulation process are formed, what are the differences between the roles of certain groups of actors in decision-making process. Current roles of actors in spatial policy formulation process in Serbia are reviewed and possible directions for public, private and civil sector role redefinition in Serbia are discussed in accordance with experiences of developed European countries.

  16. Version 2.0 of the European Gas Model. Changes and their impact on the German gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmert, David; Petrov, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    In January 2015 ACER, the European Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators, presented an updated version of its target model for the inner-European natural gas market, also referred to as version 2.0 of the Gas Target Model. During 2014 the existing model, originally developed by the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) and launched in 2011, had been analysed, revised and updated in preparation of the new version. While it has few surprises to offer, the new Gas Target Model contains specifies and goes into greater detail on many elements of the original model. Some of the new content is highly relevant to the German gas sector, not least the deliberations on the current key issues, which are security of supply and the ability of the gas markets to function.

  17. Energy efficiency, carbon emissions, and measures towards their improvement in the food and beverage sector for six European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, Steven; Schmitt, Bastian; Chester-Jones, Mae; Sturm, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Basic and detailed audits of small and medium sized food and beverage enterprises were conducted in six European Union countries to determine product specific energy consumption and measures to reduce energy use and carbon emissions. Collected results showed that the companies’ products had similar specific energy consumption as prior studies, but due to no standard metrics, the range was rather large. Auditors primarily recommended energy savings measures (process optimization and heat recovery), due to their low payback periods. Lower carbon energy sources were also recommended (solar thermal and combined heat/power), but often at higher costs, supported through government incentive programs. Through these measures, energy savings of up to 45% and carbon to 30% (∼30,000 t CO_2 equivalent in the audited companies) were possible, dependent on the type, size of company, and fuel choice. Typically, very small companies and those using coal showed the greatest margin for improvement, though it varied greatly depending on the type of product produced and the installed heating and cooling equipment. Auditors noted significant barriers toward the implementation of measures, e.g. companies found the costs too high, did not know of efficient technologies and their performance, or did not have managerial support to implement efficiency measures. - Highlights: • The Food and Beverage sector in Europe was assessed for carbon reduction potential. • Significant emission reductions can be achieved by energy efficiency and renewables. • The Bakery and Meat branches can reduce energy consumption by 30–40%. • Small and coal burning companies have the greatest potential for emission reduction. • Financial barriers remain the hardest obstacle to realize reduction potential.

  18. Evolving Role of the Power Sector Regulator: A Clean Energy Regulators Initiative Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinaman, O.; Miller, M.; Bazilian, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper seeks to briefly characterize the evolving role of power sector regulation. Given current global dynamics, regulation of the power sector is undergoing dramatic changes. This transformation is being driven by various factors including technological advances and cost reductions in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and demand management; increasing air pollution and climate change concerns; and persistent pressure for ensuring sustainable economic development and increased access to energy services by the poor. These issues add to the already complex task of power sector regulation, of which the fundamental remit remains to objectively and transparently ensure least-cost service delivery at high quality. While no single regulatory task is trivial to undertake, it is the prioritization and harmonization of a multitude of objectives that exemplifies the essential challenge of power sector regulation. Evolving regulatory roles can be understood through the concept of existing objectives and an additional layer of emerging objectives. Following this categorization, we describe seven existing objectives of power sector regulators and nine emerging objectives, highlighting key challenges and outlining interdependencies. This essay serves as a preliminary installment in the Clean Energy Regulatory Initiative (CERI) series, and aims to lay the groundwork for subsequent reports and case studies that will explore these topics in more depth.

  19. CROSS COMPLIANCE AND COMPETITIVENESS OF THE EUROPEAN BEEF AND PIG SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    de Roest, Kees; Jongeneel, Roelof A.; Dillen, Koen; Winsten, Jonathan R.

    2008-01-01

    Beef and pig production are important sectors affected by the cross-compliance policy. Full compliance with SMRs and GAECs generates costs and benefits which may have an impact on the competitiveness of these sectors on the world market. Compliance with the Nitrate Directive, animal identification and registration requirements and animal welfare standards can give rise to non-negligible cost of production increases at individual farm level and at sector level. Additional costs can be relevant...

  20. Demand-side management (DSM) in the context of China's on-going power sector reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sufang; Jiao, Yiqian; Chen, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    As an approach to manage power demand-side resources, DSM plays an important role in electric power system. Though DSM was introduced into China in the early 1990s, its benefits have been underutilized. Using literature study, interview methods and three data sources, this paper examines the likely impacts of China's on-going power sector reform on its DSM. It finds that the major constraints to DSM in China are the insufficient and improper market-based DSM mechanism, grid companies’ low motivations for DSM due to their traditional business model, the underdeveloped energy service industry, and electricity end-users’ low motivation for DSM. China's on-going power sector reform will change power transmission and distribution pricing and grid companies’ business model and introduce competition into retail-side. Drawing on these findings, it is concluded that the likely impacts of the new reform on DSM are: governments may attach more importance to DSM; grid companies may have more motivations for DSM investment; electricity end-users’ motivations for DSM may be both enhanced and dampened; electricity retailers’ motivations for DSM may be dampened; demand response application may be enhanced, and more DSM business models may be developed. Finally, policy implications are provided. - Highlights: • Mechanism of and constraints to DSM in China are examined. • China’s on-going power sector reform is overviewed. • DSM is likely to be enhanced under China's on-going power sector reform. • Policy implications are provided.

  1. Bonneville Power Administration`s Commercial Sector Conservation Market.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordan, Frederick M. [Pacific Energy Associates, Inc. (United States)

    1992-11-10

    Bonneville has, as part of its resource plan, accepted targets for commercial conservation which are quite ambitious. To meet these targets, Bonneville will need to acquire as much cost-effective conservation as possible over the next twelve years. With this in mind, this document explores the relative importance of different commercial market segments and the types of assistance each market needs to install as many cost-effective conservation measures in as many buildings as possible. This document reviews Bonneville`s marketing environment and position, and suggests goals for commercial sector conservation marketing at Bonneville. Then it presents a broad market segmentation and series of additional demographic analyses. These analyses assess what groups of consumers Bonneville must reach to achieve most of the commercial conservation potential and what is needed to reach them. A final section reviews the success of Bonneville programs at reaching various markets. The market segmentation identifies different types of consumers and opportunities which would require distinct program approaches. Four large market segments are identified that have distinct program needs. Then four ``building life-cycle events`` are identified which provide important conservation opportunities and also require distinct program services. This creates a matrix of 16 cells which delineate distinct needs for program marketing. Each of the four key market segments manages at least 20% of the Region`s commercial floorspace.

  2. REALIZATION OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS IN POWER GENERATION SECTOR AND DETERMINATION OF CAPITAL INVESTMENT SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Nagornov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains information on the basic directions of an investment activity in the power generation sector of the Republic of Belarus and importance of the realization of planned actions at the present moment. The main sources for financing modernization of basic production funds of the Belarusian power generation system have been analyzed in the paper. The paper describes general problems and difficulties that the power industry is facing while realizing investment projects. The most important problem is a formation of sources for complete project financing due to sharp price rise for imported power resources. The paper considers various approaches to provision of the required sources for financing investment activity in the power sector. The paper shows the need for a tariff policy reform, which is to be aimed, first of all, at the reduction of the cross subsidizing in power tariffs.

  3. Power-Controlled CDMA Cell Sectorization with Multiuser Detection: A Comprehensive Analysis on Uplink and Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Yener

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the joint optimization problem of cell sectorization, transmit power control and multiuser detection for a CDMA cell. Given the number of sectors and user locations, the cell is appropriately sectorized such that the total transmit power, as well as the receiver filters, is optimized. We formulate the corresponding joint optimization problems for both the uplink and the downlink and observe that in general, the resulting optimum transmit and receive beamwidth values for the directional antennas at the base station are different. We present the optimum solution under a general setting with arbitrary signature sets, multipath channels, realistic directional antenna responses and identify its complexity. We propose a low-complexity sectorization algorithm that performs near optimum and compare its performance with that of optimum solution. The results suggest that by intelligently combining adaptive cell sectorization, power control, and linear multiuser detection, we are able to increase the user capacity of the cell. Numerical results also indicate robustness of optimum sectorization against Gaussian channel estimation error.

  4. Power-Controlled CDMA Cell Sectorization with Multiuser Detection: A Comprehensive Analysis on Uplink and Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Changyoon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the joint optimization problem of cell sectorization, transmit power control and multiuser detection for a CDMA cell. Given the number of sectors and user locations, the cell is appropriately sectorized such that the total transmit power, as well as the receiver filters, is optimized. We formulate the corresponding joint optimization problems for both the uplink and the downlink and observe that in general, the resulting optimum transmit and receive beamwidth values for the directional antennas at the base station are different. We present the optimum solution under a general setting with arbitrary signature sets, multipath channels, realistic directional antenna responses and identify its complexity. We propose a low-complexity sectorization algorithm that performs near optimum and compare its performance with that of optimum solution. The results suggest that by intelligently combining adaptive cell sectorization, power control, and linear multiuser detection, we are able to increase the user capacity of the cell. Numerical results also indicate robustness of optimum sectorization against Gaussian channel estimation error.

  5. Portal in the power sector - it is vision or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornak, L.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the presentation is to introduce the portal solutions, to describe the types, characteristic features and abilities of the portal and to define required attributes of the portal in the power segment. The author will try to answer the questions whether such portal exists at the present time, what is needed in order to implement the portal and how to do the portal maintenance and management

  6. STIMULATING THE ATTRACTION OF INVESTMENTS IN THE PROCESSING SECTOR – A NECESSITY IN THE CONTEXT OF EUROPEAN MILK MARKET LIBERALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana GRODEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A main challenge for the players on the world dairy market is to efficiently respond to the changes of the local markets characteristics, in the context of an increasingly fierce competition for the raw milk obtained on the farms. From the analysis, it results that the performance of the Romanian milk sector is seriously affected by the excessive fragmentation of supply, which reveals the subsistence and semi-subsistence phenomenon that persists in the milk sector, as the main factor that constrains competitiveness growth. In reference to the volume of investments in the dairy processing sector, it results that this had a slow growth rate in the investigated period, the share in total investments in the food sector ranging from 7.8% (2000 to 16.9% (2011. The investments in agriculture in total investments accounted for 4.9% in the year 2012. In order to adapt to the competition on the European Single Market, the Romanian sector has to receive support through investments, in the conditions in which there is a favourable global conjuncture for the consumption of dairy products, in which their prices are expected to raise on the basis of the increasing demand of the development regions.

  7. How can nuclear phaseout and climate protection be combined? Sustainable power supply in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallentin, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear phaseout and the resulting energy turnaround will bring about changes in the power supply systems, especially if climate protection goals are to be reached. The author presents the example of a housing development in Germany which mirrors the private households sector. It is shown that the only way to achieve sustainable power supply is by consequently enhancing efficiency and by decarbonizing heat and power supply. The next two decades will be decisive.

  8. Planning Energy Sector Development in Croatian Agricultural Sector Following Guidelines of the European Energy Policy 20-20-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirac, M.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.

    2009-01-01

    Energy system planning is among the most important tasks of any society. A stable energy system is a foundation for economic growth, growing living standard and general prosperity of the society. Agriculture represents an important factor in overall Croatian economy; therefore, planning of the agriculture's energy system is a major task. To foresee the trend of consumption and to ensure reasonable economic energy supply in accordance with this trend is a process which should be continuously optimised so that the planned scenario could reflect actual situation. The agriculture, thanks to natural resources, land features and climate advantages represents a major economic sector. This activity has significant impact on food industry, trade, tourism, transport, chemical industry, etc. The relevance of agriculture is also visible in the present number of employees, future potential for employment and foreign trade balance. According to numerous parameters, agricultural activities in Croatia lag behind the EU countries. Great potential can be achieved by implementation of measures for energy intensity reduction and productivity increase.(author).

  9. Benchmark of European strategies of development of gas production and valorisation sectors. European inventory and synthetic sheets per country - Intermediate report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, Guillaume

    2014-10-01

    After a European inventory and a discussion of the evolution of the number of methanization installations, of the evolution of biogas production, and of the situation and main economic levers in European countries, this report proposes sheets of data and analysis for Germany, Italy, Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Sweden. For each of these countries, the document proposes an historical overview and some key figures on various aspects (types and number of installations, biogas production and valorisation, resources and processed quantities, technologies, digestates, costs of installation and financing modes, jobs and enterprises in the sector), a comment of the national strategy (actors, strategy regarding renewable energy, climate protection and waste processing, regulatory and financial incentive measures, regulatory context and administrative management), and perspectives (maximum potential, development perspectives)

  10. Derogation clauses on wages in sectoral collective agreements in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keune, M.

    2010-01-01

    This report looks at the specific case of company-level agreements deviating from (inter)sectoral wage agreements. The possibility to deviate from pay norms set under intersectoral or sectoral agreements has received growing attention in the policy debate since the present economic and financial

  11. The many shades of Public Sector Information; Organizing PSI in a European Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, H.; Veenswijk, M.B.; Poot, J.

    2013-01-01

    The success of Google Maps suggests that free access to public sector information (PSI) contributes to a prosperous economy. While there has been considerable attention for legal and economical considerations concerning the implications of policies on public sector information (PSI), also labeled as

  12. Cross compliance and competitiveness of the European beef and pig sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, de K.; Jongeneel, R.; Dillen, K.; Winsten, J.

    2008-01-01

    Beef and pig production are important sectors affected by the cross-compliance policy. Full compliance with SMRs and GAECs generates costs and benefits which may have an impact on the competitiveness of these sectors on the world market. Compliance with the Nitrate Directive, animal identification

  13. The EEC's single market and the reconstruction of the Nordic electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, O.J.

    1992-01-01

    When the Single Market comes into operation, the author claims, vertically integrated, national and regional monopolies within the electric power sector will be abolished. The nature of the new organization of this sector is as yet unclear. The Nordic countries are beginning to prepare themselves for the new situation. The subject of the article is this prospective development and some of the problems that will arise for the Nordic countries in this respect. The various Nordic proposals and their background are described in addition to the present conditions within the Nordic electric power sector. The special problems which may arise in relation to the Nordic adaption to the Single Market, the forms of adaption that are already beginning (adaptions of regulations, legal aspects etc.) on the part of the authorities and the electric power companies' attitudes and adaptions to expected future conditions are elucidated. (AB)

  14. CO2 trade and market power in the EU electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2002-01-01

    The EU commission is planning to launch an emission trading market for greenhouse gases within near future. This to meet its obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. After a theoretical discussion on market power in such a market, wc turn to the empirical evidence which suggests that a reasonable number of sources of C02 emissions in the power sector exists for bollers larger than 25MW. Overall, together with the contestable single market for electricity, the risk of significant strategies behaviour seems negligible. Thus, the electric utility sector seems a suitable testing ground for an EU-scheme of emissions trading. In the longer run, it will be important to broaden the scope of the trading scheme as the inclusion of other sectors will further limit the risk of market power. (au)

  15. CO2 trade and market power in the EU electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G; Vesterdal, M

    2002-07-01

    The EU commission is planning to launch an emission trading market for greenhouse gases within near future. This to meet its obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. After a theoretical discussion on market power in such a market, wc turn to the empirical evidence which suggests that a reasonable number of sources of C02 emissions in the power sector exists for bollers larger than 25MW. Overall, together with the contestable single market for electricity, the risk of significant strategis behaviour seems negligible. Thus, the electric utility sector seems a suitable testing ground for an EU-scheme of emissions trading. In the longer run, it will be important to broaden the scope of the trading scheme as the inclusion of other sectors will further limit the risk of market power. (au)

  16. European wind power integration study. Periodic report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This periodic report no. 1 describes the work done in the Danish part of the European Wind Power Integration Study in the period until 1.4.1991. The R and D project was initiated January 1, 1989 upon prior establishment of registration equipment at 7 wind farms and at the Tjaereborg turbine. ELSAM and the meteorological service centre in Karup (VTC-Karup) have supplied data for the task. Wind Predictability, Potential and Benefits, Wind Farm - Grid Interface, Distribution System Strength, Wind Farm Cost and Operation, and Co-generation Wind Turbines/Other renewables were measured and modelled. The statistical distribution of the wind speed variations (changes in wind speed from one period of time to another) has been established with great certainty in the report. The wind speed variations follow a Weibull distribution, irrespective of the time intervals with which the data are considered. Duration curves and power distributions for the 7 wind farms have been estimated. Registration equipment for one-minute measurements was chosen in order to clarify the short-term variations in the wind power production. The possibility of working out production forecasts, to be applied in the daily load dispatching, were to be assessed for the total amount of wind power production in Jutland and Funen. The report has examined whether it would be possible to have only one wind measurement and then let it be `guiding` for the total wind farm production. Some simulations are to be carried out in the attempt to set up guidelines for the connection between the strength of distribution systems and the requirements which must be made to the wind farms which are to be places in the system. (EG)

  17. The transformation of the electric power sector in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, John A.; Tan, Hao

    2013-01-01

    China's industrial transformation of the past thirty years, when its GDP has been increasing by an average of 10% per year, has been underpinned by an energy industrial revolution. Electrical energy is the driver of this transformation, with China utilizing latecomer advantages in building an electrical energy generation machine of prodigious size. In terms of electrical energy generated, China's system has expanded twelve-fold in 30 years, from 280 TWh in 1980 to over 3500 TWh in 2010. In this paper we describe the principal features of this remarkable transformation, examining the official projections to 2020, the semi-official projections to 2050, and offering our own projections based on observed logistic industrial dynamics for the uptake of renewable energies as well as the continuing role to be played by fossil fuels, particularly coal. We emphasize the role to be played by China's construction of a ‘strong and smart’ electric power grid, as envisaged in the 12th Five Year Plan released in March 2011, and the complementary proposals to build a national high speed rail system. We see China as on track to phase out fossil fuels altogether in its power production system by the end of the century. We develop an argument as to why it might be expected that fossil fuel utilization will decline while renewable energy utilization might increase in China, constituting a genuine energy industrial revolution. - Highlights: ► Our interpretation of official projections to 2020. ► Our projections to 2050 using logistic industrial dynamics. ► A strong and smart national power grid. ► A national high-speed rail system.

  18. Market designs for a completely renewable power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jenny [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Altmann, Matthias [Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, Ottobrunn (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The article discusses whether the current German electricity market design is suitable for an electricity system completely based on renewable sources, and analyzes alternatives. Such a system becomes ever more likely due to the phase-out of nuclear power and the carbon reduction targets. Various existing scenarios for a completely renewable electricity system are analyzed and compared with respect to the contribution of different renewable technologies. Challenges for the market design arising from the differences between the current and a completely renewable system are identified - notably problems with cost recovery and investment incentives, an increased need for balancing and/or intraday adjustments, an increased diversity of actors, grid congestion and the continuing occurrence of market power. The current market design's ability to solve these issues is assessed with the result that all but the critical problem of investment incentives and cost recovery can be solved by adapting certain rules. A comparison with other suggested market designs reveals that some designs could ensure cost recovery and investment incentives. However, these market designs have other drawbacks. Therefore, the identification of the optimal market design for a completely renewable electricity system requires further research regarding the qualitative and quantitative effects of different changes to the current market design. The article concludes by developing concrete policy recommendations. (orig.)

  19. Carbon emission scenarios of China's power sector: Impact of controlling measures and carbon pricing mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study constructs a low-carbon path analysis model of China's power sector based on TIMES model and presents a comparative analysis of carbon emissions under Reference, Low-Carbon and Enhanced Low-Carbon scenarios, and the main difference of the three scenarios is manifested by policy selection and policy strength. The conclusions are drawn as follows: (1 The peak of carbon emission in China's power sector will range from 4.0 GtCO2 to 4.8 GtCO2, which implies an increment of 0.5–1.3 billion or 14%–35% from the 2015 levels. (2 Introducing carbon price is an effective way to inhibit coal power and promote non-fossil fuels and Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage applications (CCUS. The carbon emission reduction effects will gradually increase with carbon price. When the carbon price attains to CN¥150 t−1CO2, the CO2 emission can decrease by 36% than that without carbon price. (3 CCUS is one of important contributing factor to reduce CO2 emission in power sector. Generally speaking, the development of non-fossil fuels and energy efficiency improvement are two main drivers for carbon mitigation, but once the carbon price reaches up to CN¥106 t−1CO2, the CCUS will be required to equip with thermal power units and its contribution on carbon emission reduction will remarkably increase. When carbon price increases to CN¥150 t−1CO2 in 2050, the application of CCUS will account for 44% of total emission reduction. (4 In the scenario with carbon price of CN¥150 t−1CO2, power sector would be decarbonized significantly, and the CO2 intensity will be 0.22 kgCO2 (kW h−1, but power sector is far from the goal that achieving net zero emission. In order to realize the long-term low greenhouse gas emission development goal that proposed by the Paris Agreement, more efforts are needed to be put to further reduce the carbon emission reduction of power sector. Based on the above scenario analysis, the study proposes four recommendations

  20. Foreign powers competition in the mining sector of Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodionov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is about the issue of Mongolia cooperation with foreign companies playing an important role in its foreign policy strategy and national security. At the beginning of the 1990s, having proclaimed a “multipillar” policy strategy in relations with the world, Ulaanbaatar tends to follow it in the economic cooperation not willing to give any preference to any country. It creates a situation of competition between foreign companies backed by their states, especially such great powers as Russia, China, the USA. The most tense moment in the struggle for the influence in Mongolia is the rivalry betw een the different discourses, pretending the exclusive right to nominate the most effective model of cooperation between Mongolia and foreign states in the ore-mining industry. Among the most well-defined discourses, there are three of them. China prefers to define the discourse of “economic feasibility”. Western states, as a rule, tend to rely on the discourse of “values community”, which includes such concepts as “democracy”, “environmentally friendly”, “transparency” Russia often uses the “geopolitical” discourse. In spite of the attractiveness and relative effectiveness of the discourse selected by Russia, there are certain limits to its use.

  1. Impact of Clean Energy R&D on the U.S. Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Forecasting and Modeling Group; Mowers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Forecasting and Modeling Group; Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Forecasting and Modeling Group

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. government, along with other governments, private corporations and organizations, invests significantly in research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) activities in clean energy technologies, in part to achieve the goal of a clean, secure, and reliable energy system. While specific outcomes and breakthroughs resulting from RDD&D investment are unpredictable, it can be instructive to explore the potential impacts of clean energy RDD&D activities in the power sector and to place those impacts in the context of current and anticipated market trends. This analysis builds on and leverages analysis by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) titled “Energy CO2 Emissions Impacts of Clean Energy Technology Innovation and Policy” (DOE 2017). Similar to DOE (2017), we explore how additional improvements in cost and performance of clean energy technologies could impact the future U.S. energy system; however, unlike the economy-wide modeling used in DOE (2017) our analysis is focused solely on the electricity sector and applies a different and more highly spatially-resolved electric sector model. More specifically, we apply a scenario analysis approach to explore how assumed further advancements in clean electricity technologies would impact power sector generation mix, electricity system costs, and power sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

  2. The innovation impact of the EU Emission Trading System. Findings of company case studies in the German power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, Karoline S.; Schneider, Malte; Hoffmann, Volker H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of how the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) as the core climate policy instrument of the European Union has impacted innovation. Towards this end, we investigate the impact of the EU ETS on research, development and demonstration (RD and D), adoption, and organizational change. In doing so, we pay particular attention to the relative influences of context factors (policy mix, market factors and public acceptance) and firm characteristics (value chain position, technology portfolio, size and vision). Empirically, our qualitative analysis is based on multiple case studies with 19 power generators, technology providers and project developers in the German power sector which were conducted in 2008/09. We find that the innovation impact of the EU ETS has remained limited so far because of the scheme's initial lack of stringency and predictability and the relatively greater importance of context factors. Additionally, the impact varies significantly across technologies, firms, and innovation dimensions and is most pronounced for RD and D on carbon capture technologies and organizational changes. Our analysis suggests that the EU ETS on its own may not provide sufficient incentives for fundamental changes in corporate innovation activities at a level which ensures political long-term targets can be achieved. (author)

  3. The innovation impact of EU emission trading. Findings of company case studies in the German power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Karoline S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) (Switzerland). Dept. of Management, Technology, and Economics; Schneider, Malte; Hoffmann, Volker H. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) (Switzerland). Dept. of Management, Technology, and Economics

    2010-05-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of how the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) as the core climate policy instrument of the European Union has impacted innovation. Towards this end, we investigate the impact of the EU ETS on research, development, and demonstration (RD and D), adoption, and organizational change. In doing so, we pay particular attention to the rela-tive influences of context factors (policy mix, market factors, public acceptance) as well as firm characteristics (value chain position, technology portfolio, size, vision). Empirically, our analysis is based on multiple case studies with 19 power generators, technology providers, and project developers in the German power sector which we conducted from June 2008 until June 2009. We find that the innovation impact of the EU ETS has remained limited so far because of the scheme's initial lack in stringency and predictability and the relatively greater importance of context factors. Additionally, the impact varies tremendously across technologies, firms, and innovation dimensions, and is most pronounced for RD and D on carbon capture technologies and corporate procedural change. Our analysis suggests that the EU ETS by itself may not provide sufficient incentives for fundamental changes in corporate climate innovation activities at a level adequate for reaching political long-term targets. Based on the study's findings, we derive a set of policy and research recommendations. (orig.)

  4. Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the EU Power and Industry Sectors. An assessment of key technologies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rootzen, Johan

    2012-11-01

    In February 2011, the European Council reconfirmed the goal of reducing EU greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80 % by 2050, as compared to the levels in 1990. The power and industrial sectors currently account for almost half of the total GHG emissions in the EU. The overall objective of the work presented in this thesis is to provide a technology-based perspective on the feasibility of significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions in the EU power and industrial sectors, with the emphasis on expected turnover in the capital stock of the existing infrastructure. Three sectors of industry are included: petroleum refining; iron and steel production; and cement manufacturing. The analysis is based on a thorough description and characterization of the current industry infrastructure and of the key mitigation technologies and measures in each sector. The analysis comprises investigations of how specific factors, such as the age structure of the capital stock, technology and fuel mix, and spatial distribution of the plant stock, contribute to facilitating or hindering the shift towards less-emission-intensive production processes. The results presented here are the synthesis of the results described in the following three papers: Paper I investigates the potential for CCS in industrial applications in the EU by considering branch- and plant-specific conditions; Paper II assesses strategies for CO{sub 2} abatement in the European petroleum refining industry; and Paper III explores in a scenario analysis the limits for CO{sub 2} emission abatement within current production processes in the power and industrial sectors. Together, the three papers provide a comprehensive assessment of the roles of technologies and measures that are commercially available today, as well as those of emerging technologies that are still in their early phases of development. The results presented in Paper III show that the EU goal for emissions reductions in the sectors covered by the EU ETS, i

  5. Twenty years nuclear power sector in Bulgaria - an attempt at striking a balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shervashidze, N

    1994-12-31

    The advantages of nuclear power and the mistakes that cause the opposition against it on the example of the history of the Bulgarian nuclear power sector are considered in a polemical manner. Four WWER 440/230 and two WWER 1000 units have been put into operation in Kozloduj NPP in the period 1974 - 1993. Before 1991, however, safety operation criteria were compromised numerous times and the atmosphere of secrecy, self-complacency and the series of absurdities about the Chernobyl accident were clearly used by the opponents of nuclear energy. Now the attitude towards nuclear power is changing for the better. Much progress has been made in recovering the nuclear power sector under complicated economic and political conditions. The role of NPP as an anti-inflation factor, an element providing the national security, a stimulator of industry and infrastructure, and an ecological salvation factor, is stressed. (I.M.).

  6. Twenty years nuclear power sector in Bulgaria - an attempt at striking a balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shervashidze, N.

    1994-01-01

    The advantages of nuclear power and the mistakes that cause the opposition against it on the example of the history of the Bulgarian nuclear power sector are considered in a polemical manner. Four WWER 440/230 and two WWER 1000 units have been put into operation in Kozloduj NPP in the period 1974 - 1993. Before 1991, however, safety operation criteria were compromised numerous times and the atmosphere of secrecy, self-complacency and the series of absurdities about the Chernobyl accident were clearly used by the opponents of nuclear energy. Now the attitude towards nuclear power is changing for the better. Much progress has been made in recovering the nuclear power sector under complicated economic and political conditions. The role of NPP as an anti-inflation factor, an element providing the national security, a stimulator of industry and infrastructure, and an ecological salvation factor, is stressed. (I.M.)

  7. Education and training of experts for the nuclear power sector at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipka, J.; Slugen, V.; Miglierini, M.; Necas, V.; Hascik, J.; Pavlovic, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava has been training experts for the nuclear sector for over 40 years now. Current status and trends in nuclear education within the faculty's educational system, encompassing BSc, MSc and PhD studies, are highlighted. Dedicated training courses in the safety aspects of operation of the nuclear power installations are also organized for NPP staff. Periodical training is also provided to supervising physicists at the Jaslovske Bohunice and Mochovce nuclear power plants. Major international projects aimed at nuclear knowledge management and preservation are highlighted and the ENEN - European Nuclear Education Network project is described. (P.A.)

  8. European sail tower SPS [Solar Power Satellite] concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seboldt, W.; Leipold, M.; Hanowski, N. [Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration, Cologne (Germany). German Aerospace Center; Klimke, M. [HOPE Worldwide Deutschland, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    Based on a DLR-study in 1998/99 on behalf of ESA/ESTEC called ''System Concepts, Architectures and Technologies for Space Exploration and Utilization (SE and U)'' a new design for an Earth-orbiting Solar Power Satellite (SPS) has been developed. The design is called ''European Sail Tower SPS'' and consists mainly of deplorable sail-like structures derived from the ongoing DLR/ESA solar sail technology development activity. Such an SPS satellite features an extremely light-weight and large tower-like orbital system and could supply Europe with significant amounts of electrical power generated by photovoltaic cells and subsequently transmitted to earth via microwaves. In order to build up the sail tower, 60 units - each consisting of a pair of square-shaped sails - are moved from LEO to GEO with electric propulsion and successively assembled in GEO robotically on a central strut. Each single sail has dimensions of 150 m x 150 m and is automatically deployed, using four diagonal lightweight carbon fiber (CFRP) booms which are initially rolled up on a central hub. The electric thrusters for the transport to GEO could also be used for orbit and attitude control of the assembled tower which has a total length of about 15 km and would be mainly gravity gradient stabilized. Employing thin film solar cell technology, each sail is used as a solar array and produces an electric power in orbit of about 3.7 MW{sub e}. A microwave antenna with a diameter of 1 km transmits the power to a 10 km rectenna on the ground. The total mass of this 450 MW SPS is about 2100 tons. First estimates indicate that the costs for one kWh delivered in this way could compete with present day energy costs, if launch costs would decrease by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, mass production and large numbers of installed SPS systems must be assumed in order to lower significantly the production costs and to reduce the influence of the expensive technology

  9. The unknown story of the European carbon market: an archaeology of the electrical sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartel, Melodie; Aggeri, Franck; Caneill, Jean-Yves

    2017-01-01

    In economic literature, the creation of the European carbon market is presented as a major institutional innovation that can be viewed as a direct application of economic theory. In this article, we propose another version of how the European carbon market came about that emphasizes the active role played by companies. For a period of three years, these companies designed and tested a prototype carbon market, while being observed by European experts. Drawing on archive documents, we analyze this experimentation process and examine in detail its influence on the European carbon market. We then discuss the role of companies in the processes of institutional innovation, a process that generally remains invisible. Finally it is explained how such experiments, conducted in protected spaces, can facilitate the design and testing of new concepts

  10. The European nuclear power industry: Restructuring for combined strength and worldwide leadership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Norman, R.E.; Reich, W.J.; Hill, L.J.

    1993-06-18

    The European nuclear power industry is being restructured from an industry drawn along national lines to a European-wide industry. This, in part, reflects growth of the European Economic Community, but it also reflects changes in the international nuclear power industry. The objectives of the participants, beyond better integration of the nuclear industry in Western Europe, are to (1) obtain European leadership of the worldwide commercial nuclear power industry, (2) improve medium- and long-term safety of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (FSU) power reactors, and (3) reduce domestic concerns about nuclear power. The activities to achieve these goals include (1) formation of Nuclear Power International (a joint venture of the German and French nuclear power plant vendors for design and construction of nuclear power plants), (2) formation of a utility group to forge agreement throughout Europe on what the requirements are for the next generation of nuclear power plants, and (3) agreement by regulators in multiple European countries to harmonize regulations. This is to be achieved before the end of the decade. These changes would allow a single design of nuclear power plant to be built anywhere in Europe. The creation of European-wide rules (utility requirements, engineering standards, and national regulations) would create strong economic and political forces for other European countries (Eastern Europe and FSU) to meet these standards.

  11. The European nuclear power industry: Restructuring for combined strength and worldwide leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Norman, R.E.; Reich, W.J.; Hill, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    The European nuclear power industry is being restructured from an industry drawn along national lines to a European-wide industry. This, in part, reflects growth of the European Economic Community, but it also reflects changes in the international nuclear power industry. The objectives of the participants, beyond better integration of the nuclear industry in Western Europe, are to (1) obtain European leadership of the worldwide commercial nuclear power industry, (2) improve medium- and long-term safety of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (FSU) power reactors, and (3) reduce domestic concerns about nuclear power. The activities to achieve these goals include (1) formation of Nuclear Power International (a joint venture of the German and French nuclear power plant vendors for design and construction of nuclear power plants), (2) formation of a utility group to forge agreement throughout Europe on what the requirements are for the next generation of nuclear power plants, and (3) agreement by regulators in multiple European countries to harmonize regulations. This is to be achieved before the end of the decade. These changes would allow a single design of nuclear power plant to be built anywhere in Europe. The creation of European-wide rules (utility requirements, engineering standards, and national regulations) would create strong economic and political forces for other European countries (Eastern Europe and FSU) to meet these standards

  12. Time-zero efficiency of European power derivatives markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña, Juan Ignacio; Rodriguez, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    We study time-zero efficiency of electricity derivatives markets. By time-zero efficiency is meant a sequence of prices of derivatives contracts having the same underlying asset but different times to maturity which implies that prices comply with a set of efficiency conditions that prevent profitable time-zero arbitrage opportunities. We investigate whether statistical tests, based on the law of one price, and trading rules, based on price differentials and no-arbitrage violations, are useful for assessing time-zero efficiency. We apply tests and trading rules to daily data of three European power markets: Germany, France and Spain. In the case of the German market, after considering liquidity availability and transaction costs, results are not inconsistent with time-zero efficiency. However, in the case of the French and Spanish markets, limitations in liquidity and representativeness are challenges that prevent definite conclusions. Liquidity in French and Spanish markets should improve by using pricing and marketing incentives. These incentives should attract more participants into the electricity derivatives exchanges and should encourage them to settle OTC trades in clearinghouses. Publication of statistics on prices, volumes and open interest per type of participant should be promoted. - Highlights: •We test time-zero efficiency of derivatives power markets in Germany, France and Spain. •Prices in Germany, considering liquidity and transaction costs, are time-zero efficient. •In France and Spain, limitations in liquidity and representativeness prevent conclusions. •Liquidity in France and Spain should improve by using pricing and marketing incentives. •Incentives attract participants to exchanges and encourage them to settle OTC trades in clearinghouses.

  13. An analysis of Grenada's power sector and energy resources: a role for renewable energy technologies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesser, D.

    2004-01-01

    Presently, Grenada's power sector is fully dependent on fossil fuel imports for meeting the country's electricity demand. Electric utilities in Small Island Developing States (SIDS), in general, face high cost of electricity generation due to diseconomies of scale in production, consumption and logistical aspects. Grenada's private power monopoly is no exception and the high cost of import dependent electricity generation places an increasing burden on economic development. In light of rapid technological and economic improvement of renewable energy technologies (RETs), the country's abundant sources of renewable energy should be harnessed. Benefits are envisaged to include lower electricity cost, better environmental performance and a safer and diversified supply of energy. However, barriers for shifting power production towards meaningful contributions from RETs exist, both in government and industry. This work analyses important economic interactions between the power sector and economic development, bringing to attention the importance of power sector reform. Further, present problems of integrating RETs into the grid, ranging from technical and regulatory issues to shareholder interest are investigated. A summary and analysis of past research into renewable sources of energy (RES) underscore the potential for power production from RETs in Grenada. (author)

  14. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF THE EASTERN-EUROPEAN AUTO SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian-Ovidiu CINADE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Car-building industry territorial reconfiguration in Europe is the result of several rounds of company delocations from origin countries to emergent countries. Such rounds have been limited by the gradual opening of the national countries, as well as by changes in East European ideology and politics. Hence, about the end of the 90’s, European car-building industry shows considerable disparity, East to West. In the car-building companies’ vision, East-European car-building development potential is basically sustained by both the car low penetration rate, and the low labor cost. On the long term run, gradual valorizing of the East-european trading, with increasing labor costs, may read as a wearing thin of the competitive advantage in car-building industries, as well as problem issues of novel territory attractiveness needing permanent boosting. Country-to-country comparative analysis indicates that competitive advantage of car-building has not gone down in all of the West-European States. Competitive advantage of the West-European car-building industry increases, which can be explained, in part, by adequate strategies, as both labor costs, and cars penetration rate, go up.

  15. Towards an un-bundling in the power sector through corrective measures of structural nature?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, Frederic

    2009-10-01

    The energy sector inquiry, published in January 2007, led the European Commission towards a proposal of an ownership un-bundling. Such a structural remedy appears to be the best solution to solve two of the main issues of the electricity European market. The first is discrimination in the third access to network. The second lies in bias in the incumbent's investment choices aim at reducing market contestability. Nevertheless, the refusal of major State member leads to a compromise validated by the European Parliament in April, 2009. The fact remains that the acceptance by the German firm E.On to divest its network in order to obtain a termination of an antitrust inquiry could show that ownership un-bundling is always on the Commission agenda but now through structural remedies imposed (or negotiated) by individual decisions. After analyzing the economic determinants of the Commission's preference for un-bundling, we evaluate to what extent such program could be achieved through competition law. Implicitly, we develop a reflection about the articulation between sector specific regulation and competition policy, and by the way on its theoretical foundations. (author)

  16. Perspectives of new fossil-fuelled power plants with CO2 capture in the liberalised European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of an increasing importance of climate change mitigation and the liberalization of the European energy supply this study assesses the perspectives of power plants with Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS power plants represent one option to reduce CO 2 emissions of fossil energy based electricity production significantly. In this study the deployment of CCS power plants is investigated for the European electricity market until 2050 taking different energy and climate policy framework conditions into consideration. By applying an integrated model-based approach, structural changes of the whole energy system are incorporated, including their implications on costs and emissions. The study addresses uncertainties concerning future CCS power plant invest costs and efficiencies explicitly, and analyses the effects of changes of these parameters with respect to the perspectives of CCS power plants in Europe. Thereby, interdependencies on horizontal level related to competition of different technologies within the electricity sector are examined, but also vertical interdependencies resulting from effects between the upstream and energy demand sectors. In order to reflect the heterogeneity among the national energy systems in Europe, country specific particularities on technical aspects and energy policy are taken into account, such as potentials and costs of CO 2 storage, and national regulations on the use of nuclear power and renewable energy. The results of the analysis reveal a strong influence of the stringency of the EU greenhouse gas reduction target and the policy on the use of nuclear energy on the perspectives of CCS power plants in the European electricity market. Comparing the influence of different policy frameworks analysed in this study with the influences of the variation of the technical and economic CCS power plant parameters shows, that uncertainties concerning energy policy measures can have a stronger influence on the

  17. Latin America: market mechanisms and supply adequacy in power sector reforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, T.J. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Barroso, L.A. [PSR, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rudnick, H. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-03-15

    The process of transformation in government and operations in the power sector leads to interaction between increasing integrated markets and public agencies in charge of policy making, regulation and control. This is examined for Latin America where state and marketing power sector planning, contract auctions to assure supply adequacy in an uncertain market environment, cross-border contracts, financing challenges for generation investments, and auctions of contracts to secure supply adequacy in the second stage of power sector reform are discussed. First, the state and market in power sector planning reform and state policies in Latin America are considered. Here, present concerns; the state-market relationship (the position of regulation, globalisation, internationalisation), and state market in the energy sector (correction and adjustments) are reviewed. Case studies for Argentina and Brazil are briefly outlined. The paper then examines contract auctions to assure supply adequacy in an uncertain energy environment that are being explored to face supply problems over recent years in the Chilean electricity market, taking into account the unexpected restrictions in natural gas transfers from Argentina. Also discussed are supply adequacy mechanisms and cross-border contracts in the Central American regional electricity market including firm transmission rights and financing challenges for generation investments. The final part of the paper discusses auctions of contracts and energy call options to ensure supply adequacy in the Brazilian power sector reform. Here, first stage of power sector reform, what went wrong, the second stage of reform and the move towards energy supply auctions, energy supply auctions so far and what's next in the challenges of environmental constraints and electricity-gas integration are reviewed. The reform being proposed to the electric regulatory framework for wholesale transactions in Peru is also reviewed. Considered are bids for

  18. A Sectoral Micro-Economic Approach to Scenario Selection and Development: The Case of the Greek Power Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Flamos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating policy-relevant scenarios is instrumental for understanding and developing policy measures. These are especially relevant to the power sector. Practitioners have been working on policy-relevant scenarios for the ex-ante assessment of policy measures in a meaningful way for end-users related to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. This paper presents a method for generating such policy relevant scenarios by focusing on the actor-contingent elements of the scenarios, i.e., the developments that are within the control of system actors to change or bring about. Several scenario techniques focusing on systematic-formalized or quantitative approaches have been published on this front over the past few years. Here, we introduce a methodology that is best suited for the assessment of the expected effect of different policy measures on the involved stakeholders’ behavior as well as for the analysis of the interactions between different policy measures as reflected on their impact on the strength and direction of the provided incentives. The applicability of our methodology is demonstrated for the case of the Greek power market. It was further evaluated in view of the challenges related to the issues of generation capacity adequacy and increased fiscal deficit. The strategic implications of the proposed approach concern the demonstration of the benefits from adopting a policy assessment methodology that focus on stakeholder expectations and interactions.

  19. The consumption of electric power on the tertiary sector - an instrument for economical and social analysis and market studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villela, L.E.

    1991-04-01

    The main subjective of this thesis is to analyse the effects of the growth of the tertiary sector on the electric power demand. In order to accomplish this goal an economical and social, analysis of the tertiary sector is made to identify its dynamic, its relations with the other sectors of the economy and to describe the methodologies for measuring the overall tertiary production. Afterwards it is made an analysis of the electric power consumption evolution in the tertiary sector, in order to identify the consumption per region of the country, per consumers and tertiary subsectors. It is also analysed the product power intensify and, finally its described the present tariff system. (author)

  20. The implications of free allocation versus auctioning of EU ETS allowances for the power sector in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijm, J.P.M.; Hers, J.S.; Lise, W.

    2008-12-01

    The main objective of the present study is to analyse the implications of shifting from free allocation to auctioning of EU ETS allowances (EUAs) for the power sector in the Netherlands. In order to achieve this objective, this study has used three methodological approaches, including theoretical, empirical and model analyses of the impact of free allocations versus auctioning of EUAs on the power sector, notably in the Netherlands. In addition, as Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plays a major role in the electricity sector of the Netherlands, the present study also pays some particular attention to the implications of shifting from free allocation to EUA auctioning for the CHP sector in the Netherlands

  1. Integrating competition and planning: A mixed institutional model of the Brazilian electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajay, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade, the Brazilian electric power sector went through similar institutional changes taken place in both developing and developed countries. The main goals for such changes were to inject competition into the generation and supply links of the sector's production chain and to reduce public debt via privatization of state-owned utilities that dominated the pre-reform sector. This paper discusses why these changes took place in Brazil and explains why the results of the reform model implemented by the previous federal administration were unsatisfactory. The current federal administration has substantially altered the prior model, aiming to remedy insufficient private investment in new power stations that caused a serious power shortage in 2001. The paper addresses the main characteristics of the new model, which implements (a) public biddings of new power plants for all distribution utilities in the country, and (b) forward planning of optimal commissioning times and capacity of new plants. The paper ends with a discussion of the potential benefits and drawbacks of the new scheme and the role of the regulator in the early stage of the ongoing transition in the Brazilian electrical power industry. (author)

  2. Evaluating the CO 2 emissions reduction potential and cost of power sector re-dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel C.; Bielen, David A.; Townsend, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Prior studies of the U.S. electricity sector have recognized the potential to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by substituting generation from coal-fired units with generation from under-utilized and lower-emitting natural gas-fired units; in fact, this type of 're-dispatch' was invoked as one of the three building blocks used to set the emissions targets under the Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. Despite the existence of surplus natural gas capacity in the U.S., power system operational constraints not often considered in power sector policy analyses, such as transmission congestion, generator ramping constraints, minimum generation constraints, planned and unplanned generator outages, and ancillary service requirements, could limit the potential and increase the cost of coal-to-gas re-dispatch. Using a highly detailed power system unit commitment and dispatch model, we estimate the maximum potential for re-dispatch in the Eastern Interconnection, which accounts for the majority of coal capacity and generation in the U.S. Under our reference assumptions, we find that maximizing coal-to-gas re-dispatch yields emissions reductions of 230 million metric tons (Mt), or 13% of power sector emissions in the Eastern Interconnection, with a corresponding average abatement cost of $15-$44 per metric ton of CO2, depending on the assumed supply elasticity of natural gas.

  3. Impacts on investments, and transmission/distribution loss through power sector reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses original panel data from 86 countries between 1985 and 2006. Econometric methods were used to identify the effects of different policy devices of power sector reforms on performance indicators (installed capacity per capita, transmission and distribution loss) in the countries analyzed. The research findings suggest that reform variables such as the entry of independent power producers (IPPs), unbundling of generation and transmission, establishment of regulatory agencies, and the introduction of a wholesale spot market are the driving forces of increasing generation capacity, as well as reducing transmission and distribution loss in the respective regions. In this study, we can assume that, firstly, different electric industry's reform policies/measures have different impacts on geographically and economically diverse countries. Secondly, a country's state of economic development has a different impact on policy effects of reforms. Thirdly, coexistent with independent regulatory agencies, reform policy becomes more powerful in realizing sector performances.

  4. The impact of high temperature superconductivity on the electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolsky, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The progress and prospects for the application of high temperature superconductivity to the Electric Power Sector has been the topic of an IEA Implementing Agreement, begun in 1990. The present Task Members are Canada, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States. As a result of the Implementing Agreement, work has been done by the Operating Agent with the full participation of all the member countries. This work has facilitated the exchange of information among experts in all countries and has documented relevant assessments. Further, this work has examined the status of high amperage conductor, fault-current limiters, superconducting magnetic energy storage, cables, rotating machines, refrigeration, and studies of the power system. The Task Members find more progress toward applications than many expected five years ago and the grounds for further international collaboration to hasten the use of superconductors in the power sector, early in the 21st century

  5. Power sector reforms in Ethiopia: options for promoting local investments in rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teferra, Mengistu [Ministry of Economic Development and Co-operation, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2002-09-01

    An estimated 13% of Ethiopia's population has access to electricity. Almost all electrified centres are urban, with rural areas as well as most small rural towns largely unelectrified. Rural electrification (RE) thus remains a major challenge to the power sector of Ethiopia. The national power utility (EEPCO) has traditionally been assigned the task of electrifying rural demand centres. EEPCO has, however, concentrated on the more developed and profitable urban areas. The objective of this article is to present the findings of a study that examined whether the ongoing power sector reforms in Ethiopia can attract private investment in RE as an alternative to the sole reliance on EEPCO. Initial findings of the study indicate that private investment in RE can be enhanced with some improvement in the legal and regulatory provisions, along with extension of technical assistance from EEPCO to private investors. (Author)

  6. Nonlinear integrated resource strategic planning model and case study in China's power sector planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Jiahai; Xu, Yan; Kang, Junjie; Zhang, Xingping; Hu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we expand the IRSP (integrated resource strategic planning) model by including the external cost of TPPs (traditional power plants) and popularization cost of EPPs (efficiency power plants) with nonlinear functions. Case studies for power planning in China during 2011–2021 are conducted to show the efficacy of the model. Scenarios are compiled to compare the pathways of power planning under different policies. Results show that: 1) wind power will become competitive with technical learning, but its installation is undesirable when the external cost of coal power is not internalized; 2) the existence of popularization cost will hinder EPPs' (efficiency power plants) deployment and pure market mechanism is not enough to deliver EPPs at socially desirable scale; 3) imposition of progressive emission tax on coal power at an average of 0.15–0.20 RMB/KWh can remedy the market distortion and promote the development of wind power by a significant margin; 4) nuclear power will grow stably when its external cost is set no more than 0.187 RMB per KWh, or 87% of its internal cost. The proposed model can serve as a useful tool for decision support in the process of power planning and policy formulation for national government. - Highlights: • Improve IRSP model by adding nonlinear external and popularization cost. • The model is used to conduct China's power sector planning in 2011–2021. • Simulate the impacts of alternative energy policies on planning results. • The model can be used for joint power sector planning and policy design

  7. Impacts of Market Liberalisation on the Power Sector: Lessons Learned in Austria and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, R.; Jochem, E.

    2001-01-01

    The specific impacts of market liberalisation on the power supply industry depend on numerous factors and boundary conditions. A comparison of these impacts in Austria and Germany, two countries which both are part of the EU single market and centrally located within Western Europe, and which both have borders and important trade relationships with Central European countries, leads to important insights. The paper also covers the expected influence of the increase in the power trade volumes in the two countries, also with their Central European neighbours, and the concerns that this may lead to conflicts in the achievement of targets in energy policy, environmental policy, and climate change policy aimed for both at the national and European level.(author)

  8. Reform despite politics? The political economy of power sector reform in Fiji, 1996–2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornan, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to reform the electricity sector in developing countries have achieved mixed results, despite the implementation of similar reforms in many developed countries, and concerted effort by donors to transfer reform models. In many cases, political obstacles have prevented full and effective implementation of donor-promoted reforms. This paper examines the political economy of power sector reform in Fiji from 1996 to 2013. Reform has been pursued with political motives in a context of clientelism. Policy inconsistency and reversal is explained by the political instability of ethnic-based politics in Fiji. Modest success has been achieved in recent years despite these challenges, with Fiji now considered a model of power sector reform for other Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific. The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed. The way in which political motives have driven and shaped reform efforts also highlights the need for studies of power sector reform to direct greater attention toward political drivers behind reform. - Highlights: • This is the first study of power sector reform in Fiji or other Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Pacific. • The clientelist nature of politics in Fiji is found to have both driven and shaped reform efforts. • There has been modest success in recent years despite these obstacles, with Fiji now considered a model for other SIDS. • The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed

  9. Contesting authority: China and the new landscape of power sector governance in the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Phillip Matthew

    Two co-constructed trends threaten to complicate global efforts to manage climate change. Electric power in developing countries is becoming more coal-intensive, while the international institutions capable of assisting lower-carbon growth paths are having their authority challenged by an emergent set of institutions under China's leadership. In the last decade Chinese firms and state banks have become central players in power sector development across the developing world; China has been involved in over sixty percent of Africa's hydropower capacity and is the single largest exporter of coal power plants globally. Statistical and qualitative evidence suggests that China's growing role in these power markets has contributed to re-prioritization of the power sector in U.S. bilateral development assistance, complicated negotiation and implementation of coal power finance rules among OECD export credit agencies, and influenced where the World Bank chooses to build hydropower projects. The thesis establishes a framework for understanding responses to discord in development governance by drawing inductively on these contemporary cases. Competition between established and emerging actors increases with two variables: 1) conflicting ideological, commercial and diplomatic goals (difference in interests); and 2) the degree to which the emerging actor challenges rules and norms upheld by the established actor (contested authority). Competitive policy adjustment - one actor seeking to undermine or diminish the other's pursuit of its objectives - has been historically commonplace when an emerging actor challenged an established actor in the regime for development assistance. China's growing authority in global power sector assistance has prompted competitive policy adjustment among established donors while also enabling recipient countries to leverage donors and better direct their own development pathways. The thesis shows that although contested authority increases

  10. Employment in the research and development sector in selected countries of the European Union and the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Turczak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to determine how particular factors affect the diversity of countries in terms of the number of employees in the research and development (R&D sector compared with the number of their overall populations. Two factors are analysed in the study: the proportion of employment in the R&D sector to the total number of people employed (i.e. the factor showing the importance given to R&D in the country concerned and the proportion of the total number of people employed to the number of inhabitants aged 15 and more (i.e. the employment rate. The logarithmic method has been used to assess the impact of deviations of these factors on the deviation of employment in the R&D sector in relation to the number of inhabitants. The causal analysis has allowed for answering the question of how each factor affects the variable in the selected twenty-six countries of the European Union and the world, i.e. what are the direction and strength of the influence. The results obtained for Poland are compared with those received for other countries covered by the analysis and the final conclusions are drawn on this basis.

  11. THE RESTRUCTURING OF ROMANIAN POWER SECTOR AT THE CROSSROADS: COMPETITIVE MARKETS OR NEO-COLBERTISM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Diaconu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts made by European Commission to liberalize electricity markets and foster integration, there are still significant barriers to free competition. Until now, Romania was one of the countries that have been compliant to the European Union’s electricity directives, being ahead of several older member states in this area. However, reforms have not started to pay out, suggesting that the model of combining state-owned non-competing generators with private/privatized distributors and suppliers may not be the best model of market deregulation. As a result, Romanian authorities have started to talk about plans to restructure the sector, by re-consolidating the unbundled generation companies and the state-owned distribution companies into one national energy company, aiming to create a national champion, competitive on the regional markets. However, these proposals are based on questionable economics and their adoption will have negative effects on market competition and, thus, on consumers.

  12. On the way to becoming ''quite ordinary enterprises''. Strategic orientation of the power utilities in the European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harig, H.D.

    1996-01-01

    Competition is an indispensable prerequisite of evolution. In the sector of electricity supply it is defined, inter alia, by the choice of source of primary energy. On the other hand, opening of the European market entails new challenges. In many European countries, electric energy is converted at less expense than in Germany. The builders of capital intensive power grid systems are trying to protect themselves against their competitive chances deteriorating also by their being required to make these grid systems available to competitors not having to bear these expenses. Nuclear power plants are among the most capital intensive generating units in the power industry. However, operating them is not only a matter of the power utilities; to them, nuclear power is one tpye of primary energy out of many others. Instead, the government must indicate the direction, through its energy policy, in which future technologies are to create international competitive advantages to domestic industries. In addition, the government must provide the funds necessary in the launching phase. (orig.) [de

  13. Designing Dreams or Constructing Contradictions? European Union Multifunctional Policies and the Polish Organic Farm Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Master, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Analysts have heralded the principle of "multifunctionality" undergirding the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy "Second Pillar" support mechanisms as a "new...and strong paradigm" for agriculture (van der Ploeg and Roep 2003), with the potential to re-embed social, environmental, and ethical concerns into…

  14. Millefeuille. The emergence of a multi-layered controls system in the European food sector.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Freriks, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    More and more substances used in (the processing of) food as well as food products travel world wide and as a result the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex. It goes without saying that within a free European market, the safety of food products that reach the consumer at the end

  15. Millefeuille The emergence of a multi-layered controls system in the European food sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, Bernd M.J. van der; Freriks, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    More and more substances used in (the processing of) food as well as food products travel world wide and as a result the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex. It goes without saying that within a free European market, the safety of food products that reach the consumer at the end

  16. Training of nuclear power plant personnel in the member states of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misenta, R.; Matfield, R.S.; Volta, G.; Ancarani, A.; Lhoir, J.

    1981-01-01

    After the Three Mile Island accident the Commission of the European Communities undertook various actions in order to assess the status of the training of nuclear power plant personnel with particular attention to their training for incidents and accidents. This presentation attempts a review of the training situation in the six member states of the European Community together with some other European states, that are operating nuclear power plants. Schemes for the training of control room operators, shift leaders, major European training centres and simulator training will be described

  17. The insertion perspective of electric power independent producer in the Brazilian electric power sector; A perspectiva da insercao do produtor independente de energia eletrica no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borelli, Alessio Bento; Bermann, Celio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: mborelli@netpoint.com.br; cbermann@iee.usp.br

    1999-07-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of this work is to evaluate the electric power independent producer participation in Brazilian electric power sector.

  18. FINANCIAL REPORTING: PERFORMANCE AND FAIR VALUE THE CASE OF THE EUROPEAN BANKING SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Combes-Thuelin; Lionel Escaffre

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Regarding financial reporting, information about performances is one of the preferred items banking institutions are referring to. Therefore, quantitative and qualitative performance indicators are a significant part of annual reports. Reporting about performances raises some other issues: valuation at cost or at fair value, registration versus disclosure. In the case of the banking industry, the accounting information disclosed is all the more important as this sector...

  19. Effectiveness of state climate and energy policies in reducing power-sector CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Geoff; Saikawa, Eri

    2017-12-01

    States have historically been the primary drivers of climate change policy in the US, particularly with regard to emissions from power plants. States have implemented policies designed either to directly curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from power plants, or to encourage energy efficiency and renewable energy growth. With the federal government withdrawing from the global climate agreement, understanding which state-level policies have successfully mitigated power-plant emissions is urgent. Past research has assessed policy effectiveness using data for periods before the adoption of many policies. We assess 17 policies using the latest data on state-level power-sector CO2 emissions. We find that policies with mandatory compliance are reducing power-plant emissions, while voluntary policies are not. Electric decoupling, mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are associated with the largest reduction in emissions. Mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are also associated with a large reduction in emissions intensity.

  20. Nuclear power and growth in the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maigaard, J.

    1981-01-01

    In the form of a textbook the author reviews the European Communities energy policy since 1973. It is the authors conclusion that EEC has failed in creating an energy policy based on international cooperation. (BP)

  1. Legal analysis of systemic investment protection regulation in the European Union’s financial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocs L.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Treaty of Lisbon the European Union has an exclusive and uniform competence regarding investment agreements within its common commercial policy. Yet the political events in 2016 showed that there are still many regional differences politically and economically, especially after the so-called Brexit and negotiations with the United States of America in relation to transatlantic trade and investment. Therefore, the aim of the research is to determine the legal framework and related problems for unified investment protection within the European Union. Using descriptive, logical and deductive methodology the paper establishes a juristic base consensus for trade and investment policies, concludes that so far those policies have been systemically neglected due to regional differences in economic development and accordingly suggests to unify and protect the common investment policies by using already existing regional judicial mechanisms of member states within a unified code of conduct.

  2. The energy sector abroad. Part 12. The Czech Republic. Spider in the European natural gas web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holwerda, B.

    1998-01-01

    The natural gas industry in the Czech Republic is one of the oldest in Europe. In the past, natural gas has played a modest role in the Czech energy supply: coal and town gas from coal and lignite were the major energy sources. However, more and more use is made of natural gas, imported from Russia (Gazprom) and Norway. Besides, the Czech natural gas distribution, transportation and storage system occupies a key position in the Central-European natural gas network

  3. INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS TO EFFICIENT POLICY INTERVENTION IN THE EUROPEAN PORT SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry UBBELS

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing role of private involvement in recent port developments, most maritime trade is still largely handled in ports where investments, pricing and other managerial decisions are, to a varying extent, dependent, or at least influenced by public bodies. This paper shows that the extent and type of public intervention differs considerably between ports in the Hamburg-Le Havre range. The wide variety in ownership, financing and management of ports throughout Europe indicates that there is no level playing field at present. Because ports operate in an increasingly competitive environment (intensified by globalisation trends and the completion of the internal market, this may lead to situations of unfair competition. The European Union emphasises the importance of a more harmonised approach of port regulation by national governments (in terms of financing and pricing of infrastructure. Given the differences in (national port management styles and the low levels of transparency, the creation of a level playing field in the European port industry seems far away. This suggests the presence of a major institutional difference in European transport policy that hampers efficient policy intervention.

  4. The link between eddy-driven jet variability and weather regimes in the North Atlantic-European sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, E.; Li, C.; Grams, C. M.; Woollings, T.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the variability of the North Atlantic eddy-driven jet is key to unravelling the dynamics, predictability and climate change response of extratropical weather in the region. This study aims to 1) reconcile two perspectives on wintertime variability in the North Atlantic-European sector and 2) clarify their link to atmospheric blocking. Two common views of wintertime variability in the North Atlantic are the zonal-mean framework comprising three preferred locations of the eddy-driven jet (southern, central, northern), and the weather regime framework comprising four classical North Atlantic-European regimes (Atlantic ridge AR, zonal ZO, European/Scandinavian blocking BL, Greenland anticyclone GA). We use a k-means clustering algorithm to characterize the two-dimensional variability of the eddy-driven jet stream, defined by the lower tropospheric zonal wind in the ERA-Interim reanalysis. The first three clusters capture the central jet and northern jet, along with a new mixed jet configuration; a fourth cluster is needed to recover the southern jet. The mixed cluster represents a split or strongly tilted jet, neither of which is well described in the zonal-mean framework, and has a persistence of about one week, similar to the other clusters. Connections between the preferred jet locations and weather regimes are corroborated - southern to GA, central to ZO, and northern to AR. In addition, the new mixed cluster is found to be linked to European/Scandinavian blocking, whose relation to the eddy-driven jet was previously unclear. The results highlight the necessity of bridging from weather to climate scales for a deeper understanding of atmospheric circulation variability.

  5. Electric power and the global economy: Advances in database construction and sector representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jeffrey C.

    The electricity sector plays a crucial role in the global economy. The sector is a major consumer of fossil fuel resources, producer of greenhouse gas emissions, and an important indicator and correlate of economic development. As such, the sector is a primary target for policy-makers seeking to address these issues. The sector is also experiencing rapid technological change in generation (e.g. renewables), primary inputs (e.g. horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing), and end-use efficiency. This dissertation seeks to further our understanding of the role of the electricity sector as part of the dynamic global energy-economy, which requires significant research advances in both database construction and modeling techniques. Chapter 2 identifies useful engineering-level data and presents a novel matrix balancing method for integrating these data in global economic databases. Chapter 3 demonstrates the relationship between matrix balancing method and modeling results, and Chapter 4 presents the full construction methodology for GTAP-Power, the foremost, publicly-available global computable general equilibrium database. Chapter 5 presents an electricity-detailed computational equilibrium model that explicitly and endogenously captures capacity utilization, capacity expansion, and their interdependency - important aspects of technological substitution in the electricity sector. The individual, but interrelated, research contributions to database construction and electricity modeling in computational equilibrium are placed in the context of analyzing the US EPA Clean Power Plan (CPP) CO 2 target of 32 percent reduction of CO2 emissions in the US electricity sector from a 2005 baseline by 2030. Assuming current fuel prices, the model predicts an almost 28 percent CO2 reduction without further policy intervention. Next, a carbon tax and investment subsidies for renewable technologies to meet the CPP full targets are imposed and compared (Chapter 6). The carbon tax

  6. Quantifying the Impacts of Large Scale Integration of Renewables in Indian Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Mishra, T.; Banerjee, R.

    2017-12-01

    India's power sector is responsible for nearly 37 percent of India's greenhouse gas emissions. For a fast emerging economy like India whose population and energy consumption are poised to rise rapidly in the coming decades, renewable energy can play a vital role in decarbonizing power sector. In this context, India has targeted 33-35 percent emission intensity reduction (with respect to 2005 levels) along with large scale renewable energy targets (100GW solar, 60GW wind, and 10GW biomass energy by 2022) in INDCs submitted at Paris agreement. But large scale integration of renewable energy is a complex process which faces a number of problems like capital intensiveness, matching intermittent loads with least storage capacity and reliability. In this context, this study attempts to assess the technical feasibility of integrating renewables into Indian electricity mix by 2022 and analyze its implications on power sector operations. This study uses TIMES, a bottom up energy optimization model with unit commitment and dispatch features. We model coal and gas fired units discretely with region-wise representation of wind and solar resources. The dispatch features are used for operational analysis of power plant units under ramp rate and minimum generation constraints. The study analyzes India's electricity sector transition for the year 2022 with three scenarios. The base case scenario (no RE addition) along with INDC scenario (with 100GW solar, 60GW wind, 10GW biomass) and low RE scenario (50GW solar, 30GW wind) have been created to analyze the implications of large scale integration of variable renewable energy. The results provide us insights on trade-offs involved in achieving mitigation targets and investment decisions involved. The study also examines operational reliability and flexibility requirements of the system for integrating renewables.

  7. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  8. VUJE capabilities for participation in the development of Slovak power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with VUJE Trnava, Inc. capabilities for participation in the development of Slovak power sector. It is concluded that VUJE supports the completion of Mochovce units 3 and 4 as the most effective option; VUJE calls of the Slovak government to revive negotiations on a revision of a commitment to close V1 units Bohunice NPP in 2006 or 2008 respectively; VUJE is prepared to be an important participant in supply system for Mochovce NPP Units 3 and 4

  9. Finance considerations relating to power station construction from the viewpoint of a European banker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junker, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The energy industry in the European Community is outlined in brief in the first section. It includes a description of the structure and organization of the various companies operating power stations, featuring such keywords as centralized-decentralized and shareholding. The general considerations of the banking sector are then dealt with. From the banker's point of view, the risk factor of a loan depends on whether the load is to be used for the financing of a brand new power station based either on fossil fuels, nuclear power or alternative sources of energy or whether the load is to be used for modernization purposes. In this respect the credit rating of the borrower, including shareholders, profitability, capital investment volume in relation to company size, project risk and methods of furnishing security shall be discussed. Having dealt with these basic questions, the specific factors relating to financing for modernization purposes are examined. A distinction must be made between voluntary and mandatory modernization measures. The assessment of modernization required by law is generally based on whether the mandatory standards an be fulfilled by investing the least possible expenditure. On the other hand, the banker assesses voluntary modernization mainly in light of the resulting effects on the financial standing of the borrower. If satisfactory results are achieved from the examination of these points, the question of security must be considered when evaluating the residual exposure. All considerations culminate in the selection of the appropriate form of financing. In addition to the traditional bank loan and project financing, government support and special forms of financing are also discussed

  10. Combined heat and power in the Swedish district heating sector-impact of green certificates and CO2 trading on new investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutsson, David; Werner, Sven; Ahlgren, Erik O.

    2006-01-01

    Combined heat and power (CHP) has been identified by the EU administration as an important means of reducing CO 2 -emissions and increasing the energy efficiency. In Sweden, only about one third of the demand for district heat (DH) is supplied from CHP. This share could be significantly larger if the profitability of CHP generation increased. The objective of this study was to analyse the extent to which the profitability for investments in new CHP plants in the Swedish DH sector have changed thanks to the recently implemented trading schemes for green certificates (TGCs) and CO 2 emissions (TEPs). The analysis was carried out using a simulation model of the Swedish DH sector in which the profitability of CHP investments for all DH systems, with and without the two trading schemes applied, is compared. In addition, a comparison was made of the changes in CHP generation, CO 2 emissions, and operation costs if investments are made in the CHP plant shown to be most profitable in each system according to the model. The study shows that the profitability of investments in CHP plants increased significantly with the introductions of TGC and TEP schemes. If all DH utilities also undertook their most profitable CHP investments, the results indicate a major increase in power generation which, in turn, would reduce the CO 2 emissions from the European power sector by up to 13 Mton/year, assuming that coal condensing power is displaced

  11. Power sector reform and distributed generation in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkson, J.K.; Wohlgemuth, N.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the current liberalisation process sweeping sub-Saharan Africa, power sectors across the region are being scrutinised and restructured. A critical aspect of the reform is improving access to electricity by large segments of the population. Many in the continent are, therefore,looking a......As part of the current liberalisation process sweeping sub-Saharan Africa, power sectors across the region are being scrutinised and restructured. A critical aspect of the reform is improving access to electricity by large segments of the population. Many in the continent are, therefore......, on average, 30-40 per cent of the region's population, the authors discuss the issues involved, drawing on the experiences of other countries whether there are any apparent 'preconditions' for success. Second, the role renewable energy can play in this process and the extent to which lessons from other parts...... of the world might be transferable to the countries of sub-Saharan Africa is assessed. The paper concludes by investigating the prospects for distributed generation in power sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa, arguing that though lessons from other parts of the world will be helpful, they cannot be all...

  12. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.S.; Miller, R.W.

    1988-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

  13. Costs of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Case Study of India’s Power Generation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Gupta

    2006-01-01

    If India were to participate in any international effort towards mitigating CO2 emissions, the power sector which is one of the largest emitters of CO2 in the country would be required to play a major role. In this context the study estimates the marginal abatement costs, which correspond to the costs incurred by the power plants to reduce one unit of CO2 from the current level. The study uses an output distance function approach and its duality with the revenue function to derive these costs...

  14. Open innovation in the power & energy sector: Bringing together government policies, companies’ interests, and academic essence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greco, Marco; Locatelli, Giorgio; Lisi, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The Power and Energy (P&E) sector needs to respond to several challenges fostering investments in research and development. According to the Open Innovation (OI) paradigm, key stakeholders like utilities, vendors, laboratories, universities etc. should take advantage of external knowledge to improve their innovation performance. Several studies have demonstrated that firms adopting the OI paradigm are more likely to innovate. Despite the interest of P&E firms in enhancing their innovation capabilities, surprisingly few articles (usually case studies) described the implementation of the OI paradigm in P&E firms. This article fills the gap by identifying the key drivers that encourage a firm in the P&E sector to embrace the OI paradigm. The authors adopt a hybrid research approach collecting evidence from the literature and through a multiple case-study analysis involving seven British firms and universities operating in the P&E industry. As the drivers of OI have mutual influence, this article describes them with a fuzzy cognitive map. Finally, the authors identify appropriated policies to enhance the OI adoption and, consequently, the sustainability of innovation in the P&E sector. A salient research agenda closes the paper. - Highlights: • Stakeholders are increasingly adopting the Open Innovation (OI) paradigm. • OI can enhance firms and universities innovation performance. • Few studies analyzed the OI implementation in the Power and Energy (P&E) sector. • We identify the factors encouraging the adoption of the OI paradigm in the P&E sector. • We show benefits of OI obtained by P&E firms, universities, and associates in the UK.

  15. Power Watch - A global, open database of power plants that supports research on climate, water and air pollution impact of the global power sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, J.; Kressig, A.; Van Groenou, S.; McCormick, C.

    2017-12-01

    Challenge The lack of transparent, accessible, and centralized power sector data inhibits the ability to research the impact of the global power sector. information gaps for citizens, analysts, and decision makers worldwide create barriers to sustainable development efforts. The need for transparent, accessible, and centralized information is especially important to enhance the commitments outlined in the recently adopted Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goals. Offer Power Watch will address this challenge by creating a comprehensive, open-source platform on the world's power systems. The platform hosts data on 85% of global installed electrical capacity and for each power plant will include data points on installed capacity, fuel type, annual generation, commissioning year, with more characteristics like emissions, particulate matter, annual water demand and more added over time. Most of the data is reported from national level sources, but annual generation and other operational characteristiscs are estimated via Machine Learning modeling and remotely sensed data when not officially reported. In addition, Power Watch plans to provide a suite of tools that address specific decision maker needs, such as water risk assessments and air pollution modeling. Impact Through open data, the platform and its tools will allow reserachers to do more analysis of power sector impacts and perform energy modeling. It will help catalyze accountability for policy makers, businesses, and investors and will inform and drive the transition to a clean energy future while reaching development targets.

  16. Development of the auto gas and LPG-powered vehicle sector in Turkey: A statistical case study of the sector for Bursa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamangil, M. Ihsan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the development of LPG-powered vehicle sector in Turkey and the policies applied by the Turkish Government as well as the total fleet of LPG-powered vehicles in Bursa province, which is assumed as typical district to represent whole Turkey, are analyzed. We also tried to point out economical losses and applicational problems caused by wrong energy and environmental policies in Turkey. We aimed to focus a guiding light on the newly developing auto gas markets in different countries through the problems resulting from the fast growth of the sector and the experiences in Turkish application

  17. Panorama 2015 - Greenhouse gas emissions in the road transport sector: moving towards inclusion in the European system of CO2 allowances?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, Paula; Portenart, Philomene; Afriat, Marion; Alberola, Emilie

    2014-12-01

    In the year 2000, out of 41.8 Gt of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, almost 10% came from transports sector. In Europe, this share of transports GHG emissions rises to 21% and emissions are forecast to rise. Against this background, should the road transport sector be included in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme and thereby contribute to national GHG emission reduction targets? (authors)

  18. Case study; Paper on the energy efficiency evolution in the European road freight transport sector

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Basosi; Franco Ruzzenenti

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of WP7 is that of analyzing the energy crisis within the global economic crisis and assess to what extent fuel prices can promote the transition towards a more sustainable and efficient energy regime. This paper addresses the European freight transport system, national and cross-boarder, and assesses the evolution of its efficiency and intensity during the period 1998-2011, when oil prices globally increased, up the hike of the 2008. It will also be investigated the rebound e...

  19. Developing the European Center of Competence on VVER-Type Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraskin, Nikolay; Pironkov, Lyubomir; Kulikov, Evgeny; Glebov, Vasily

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the European educational projects CORONA and CORONA-II which are dedicated to preserving and further developing nuclear knowledge and competencies in the area of VVER-type nuclear power reactors technologies (Water-Water Energetic Reactor, WWER or VVER). The development of the European Center of Competence for…

  20. CO2 cost pass-through and windfall profits in the power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijm, Jos; Neuhoff, Karsten; Yihsu Chen

    2006-01-01

    In order to cover their CO 2 emissions, power companies receive most of the required EU ETS allowances for free. In line with economic theory, these companies pass on the costs of these allowances in the price of electricity. This article analyses the implications of the EU ETS for the power sector, notably the impact of free allocation of CO 2 emission allowances on the price of electricity and the profitability of power generation. As well as some theoretical reflections, the article presents empirical and model estimates of CO 2 cost pass-through for Germany and The Netherlands, indicating that pass-through rates vary between 60 and 100% of CO 2 costs, depending on the carbon intensity of the marginal production unit and various other market- or technology-specific factors. As a result, power companies realize substantial windfall profits, as indicated by the empirical and model estimates presented in the article. (Author)

  1. Public Benefits and Power Sector Reform. Report from an International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Lars J.; Arvidson, Anders; Eberhard, Anton (eds.)

    2003-10-01

    The Workshop on Public Benefits and Power Sector Reform was motivated by the need to address broader development goals and advance the provision of public benefits in power sector reforms. The primary objectives were: To provide a forum for a discussion among specialists, of how the provision of public benefits can be expanded as power sectors in developing countries are reformed, and review the experience (Day 1). To identify the needs for training and capacity building and institutional arrangements, as well as make recommendations for their design and implementation, for policy makers, regulators, and other professionals in developing countries (Day 2). Public benefits is a socially constructed concept that includes activities that are not adequately conceived by competitive markets. Public benefit policies and programmes include those that expand electricity access to rural areas and the urban poor, improve security of supply, promote energy efficiency and renewable energy, etc. Reforms have indeed been a threat to public benefits as traditionally delivered through electric utilities. However, in many cases public benefit programmes have also been rescued. In fewer cases, public benefit programmes have been conceived in the reform process. From experience so far it is clear that power sector reforms must be made more compatible with broader sustainable development goals. Recognising the need for broader policy integration and putting public benefits higher on the reform agenda points to the importance of reaching beyond energy ministries and power sector experts at an early stage in the reform process. Other actors, such as NGOs and academia, may also be instrumental in monitoring and assessing the impacts of reform. Public benefits can be an integral part of a reform package, or a complement to reform. It does appear that reform creates space and opportunity to achieve public benefits, but someone has to utilise that opportunity. The need to make trade

  2. Public Benefits and Power Sector Reform. Report from an International Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars J.; Arvidson, Anders; Eberhard, Anton

    2003-10-01

    The Workshop on Public Benefits and Power Sector Reform was motivated by the need to address broader development goals and advance the provision of public benefits in power sector reforms. The primary objectives were: To provide a forum for a discussion among specialists, of how the provision of public benefits can be expanded as power sectors in developing countries are reformed, and review the experience (Day 1). To identify the needs for training and capacity building and institutional arrangements, as well as make recommendations for their design and implementation, for policy makers, regulators, and other professionals in developing countries (Day 2). Public benefits is a socially constructed concept that includes activities that are not adequately conceived by competitive markets. Public benefit policies and programmes include those that expand electricity access to rural areas and the urban poor, improve security of supply, promote energy efficiency and renewable energy, etc. Reforms have indeed been a threat to public benefits as traditionally delivered through electric utilities. However, in many cases public benefit programmes have also been rescued. In fewer cases, public benefit programmes have been conceived in the reform process. From experience so far it is clear that power sector reforms must be made more compatible with broader sustainable development goals. Recognising the need for broader policy integration and putting public benefits higher on the reform agenda points to the importance of reaching beyond energy ministries and power sector experts at an early stage in the reform process. Other actors, such as NGOs and academia, may also be instrumental in monitoring and assessing the impacts of reform. Public benefits can be an integral part of a reform package, or a complement to reform. It does appear that reform creates space and opportunity to achieve public benefits, but someone has to utilise that opportunity. The need to make trade

  3. A sustainable scenario for Venezuelan power generation sector in 2050 and its costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautista, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    The present research study used the quantitative approach to analyze the present and future situation of the Venezuelan power generation sector; to achieve that, the total energy generation costs and GHG emissions of four scenarios in 2050 were estimated and compared, considering two demand groups, high and low demand. For each demand scenario, two supply matrix were considered, a generation matrix based on the existing national power generation plans and trends (these scenarios were referred as BAU) and a configuration based on the renewable energy resources available in Venezuela and without the use of either nuclear or CCS technologies, and these scenarios are referred as Sustainable Scenarios (SUS). In the first section, the present situation is presented, followed by an explanation of the applied methodology and the implemented tools. In the third and fourth sections the available recourses and the applied basic assumptions for the four of scenarios are presented and discussed, respectively, followed by the results. In this study it is shown that Venezuela has all the resources it needs to achieve sustainable development in the power generation sector. It is also proved that an energy efficiency improvement is the easiest path to reduce GHG emissions. - Highlights: ► Venezuela has enough energy resources to supply the energy require for its development. ► A sustainable scenario is posible in Venezuelan power generation sector in 2050. ► The sustainable scenario is technically possible without nuclear power or carbon capture storage technologies. ► The impact over the depleatable resources is higher under the BAU assumptions.

  4. Refurbishment priorities at the Russian coal-fired power sector for cleaner energy production case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Grammelis; N. Koukouzas; G. Skodras; E. Kakaras; A. Tumanovsky; V. Kotler [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), Ptolemaida (Greece)

    2006-11-15

    The paper reviews the current status of the coal-fired power sector in Russia, the prospects for renovation activities based on Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) and presents two case studies on potential refurbishment projects. Data were collected for 180 thermoelectric units with capacity higher than 100 MWe and the renovation needs of the power sector, among the retrofitting, repowering and reconstruction options, were estimated through a multi-criteria analysis. The most attractive system to renovate a power plant between the Supercritical Combustion (SC) and the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technologies was evaluated. The application of each of the aforementioned technologies at the Kashirskaya and Shaturskaya power plants was studied and their replication potential in the Russian coal-fired power plant park was examined. Nowadays, the installed capacity of coal-fired power plants in the Russian Federation is 29.3 GWe, while they account for about 19% of the total electricity generation in the area. The low efficiency and especially the advanced age are the determinant factors for renovation applications at the Russian units. Even in the more conservative modernization scenario, over 30% of the thermoelectric units have to be repowered or reconstructed. Concrete proposals about the profitable and reliable operation of two Russian thermoelectric units with minimized environmental effects were elaborated. A new unit of 315 MWe with supercritical steam parameters and reburning for NOx abatement is envisaged to upgrade Unit 1 of Kashirskaya power station, while new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers of the same steam generation is the most promising renovation option for the boilers of Unit 1 in Shaturskaya power station. 11 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Performance Audit in Public Sector Entities - A New Challenge for Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana TIRON TUDOR

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement provides an objective basis for evaluating how efficiently public resources are being used and how effectively public service outcomes are being achieved. It is a process used to support government selfanalysis and provide a basis for more informed and publicly defensible decision-making. In this context an important role is reserved to performance external audit performed by external audit institutions. The performance audit analyses the quality of financial administration from the point of view of the three elements of performance: economy, efficiency and effectiveness. We intend to realize a comparative study for some Eastern European countries regarding the performance audit, knowing the fact that since countries differ at the level of individual reforms, there is no single model of reform. Nonetheless, reform strategies have many points in common emphasizing the international character of public management reform. By cross-national comparisons we intend to analyze the impact of implementing the new performance audit in certain Eastern European Countries, and in Romania, focused on the external audit institutions.

  6. Supply prospects and network integration in the European natural gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, B.

    1998-01-01

    At least for the next 10-15 years, natural gas will be the fastest growing energy form in Europe, with a higher rate of growth in consumption (from a lower base) in central Europe than in western Europe. Although most of the prospective demand until 2010 is covered by signed import contracts and indigenous production, important additional gas supply capacity still has to be developed out of a plenitude of reserves within and (in the long run primarily) outside western and central Europe. The real problem is how to mobilise the reserves economically and direct them towards the European market, in competition with other markets. Europe has a sophisticated transmission system whose development has gone hand-in-hand with long-term import agreements. Among the missing links is the Interconnector, which, at the end of 1998, is due to integrate the UK and Ireland into mainland Europe. This is expected to enhance security of supply in both areas, to balance prices and maybe also to foster ideas of liberalisation. Overall, the European gas industry is in an excellent position to develop the supply of gas in an environmentally benign way. The future belongs all the more to natural gas, the fewer the mistakes that are made when it comes to matters of legal frameworks and taxation

  7. LEGAL PERSONALITY AND POWERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin FUEREA

    2010-01-01

    Based on legal personality, EU won through Treaty of Lisbon, in accordance with the system of division of competences between the Union and the Member States as provided for in the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, competences not conferred upon the Union in the Treaties remain with the Member States. When the Treaties confer on the Union a competence shared with the Member States in a specific area, the Member States shall exercise their compet...

  8. In-depth assessment of the situation of the textile and clothing sector in the EU and prospects : Task 7: synthesis report for the European textile and clothing sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.R. (Michiel)

    2012-01-01

    The in-depth assessment of the situation of the European textile and clothing sector is composed by six independent reports with a close focus on key aspects useful to understand the dynamics and the development of the textile and clothing industry, drivers of change – most notably the impact

  9. In-depth assessment of the situation of the textile and clothing sector in the EU and prospects : Task 1: survey on the situation of the European textile and clothing sector and prospects for its future development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.R. (Michiel)

    2011-01-01

    The in-depth assessment of the situation of the European textile and clothing sector is composed by six independent reports with a close focus on key aspects useful to understand the dynamics and the development of the textile and clothing industry, drivers of change – most notably the impact

  10. Self-exclusion as a harm minimization strategy: evidence for the casino sector from selected European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard

    2011-12-01

    As the international gambling market continues to expand, determining effective approaches to prevent gambling-related problems becomes increasingly important. Despite a lack of in-depth research into its benefits, self-exclusion is one such measure already in use around the world in various sectors of the gambling industry. The present study is the first of its kind to examine the effectiveness of self-exclusion schemes in the casino sector in selected European countries. A written survey yielded a sample of N = 152 (self)-excluded gamblers. In addition to this cross-section analysis, a small sub-group (n = 31) was monitored over time by means of follow-up surveys carried out 1, 6, and 12 month(s) after the exclusion agreement came into force. The results reveal that the self-excluded individuals are typically under a great deal of strain and show a relatively pronounced willingness to change. However, this largely reaches its peak at the time the decision to self-exclude is made. From a longitudinal perspective, various parameters indicate a clear improvement in psychosocial functioning; a favorable effect that also starts directly after the exclusion agreement was signed. Finally, considering theoretical and empirical findings, possibilities for optimizing (self-)exclusion schemes will be discussed.

  11. Residue Derived Fuels as an Alternative Fuel for the Hellenic Power Generation Sector and their Potential for Emissions ReductionConstantinos S. Psomopoulos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos S. Psomopoulos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Landfill Directive (1999/31 EC promotes more environmental friendly waste management options, by reducing the amount of wastes and more specific of biodegradable wastes, disposed of in landfills. The EU member states are adopting the mechanical-biological treatment process for municipal solid waste and non-hazardous industrial wastes to comply with the abovementioned Directive's targets on landfill diversion, and produce waste derived fuels such as refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel. Waste derived fuels present high calorific values depending on their synthesis and are being used both in dedicated waste-to-energy plants and as fuel substitutes in industrial processes. In this paper the refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel production and utilisation options in European Union are presented, and the possibilities in Greece based on the waste production and National Plan for Waste Management of the Ministry of Environment is attempted. The existing and ongoing studies on co-combustion and co-gasification with brown coal support the use of refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel as fuel on Hellenic Power Sector, adopting in the existing lignite power plants adequate Air Pollution Control systems. If the co-combustion or co-gasification of these alternative fuels is adopted from the Hellenic Power Sector a reduction on emissions is expected that cannot be neglected.

  12. Producer responsibility, waste minimisation and the WEEE Directive: case studies in eco-design from the European lighting sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottberg, Annika; Morris, Joe; Pollard, Simon; Mark-Herbert, Cecilia; Cook, Matthew

    2006-04-15

    The EU Directive on Waste Electrical and Electrical Equipment (WEEE) (2002/96/EC), to be implemented in stages from August 2004, attempts to tackle the growing quantity WEEE by making producers responsible for the costs of the collection and recycling of their products at the end of usable life. This is considered to give producers a financial incentive to reduce waste at source through eco-design. This link is, however, under-researched and little is known generally about the effectiveness of extended producer responsibility (EPR) and policies to promote it. This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study to address these important gaps in knowledge. Literature review was used to develop an analytical framework to explain the relationships between the drivers for eco-design and the role of policies to promote EPR. This was applied to eight case studies of firms from the European lighting sector. While quantitative data to confirm the link between EPR and eco-design were difficult to obtain, the case studies showed that EPR has had little effect on product development so far. Within the sector studied, most producers have been able to pass on incremental costs associated with EPR to customers with negligible effects on sales. This reflects perceptions in the lighting sector that, because demand for products is relatively price inelastic and the regulation affects all producers equally, EPR is unlikely to drive eco-design at least in the short run. The cases also showed that choice between individual and centrally provided waste recovery schemes rested on perceptions of relative costs and practicability. It was evident that other drivers, such as bans on hazardous substances, product declarations and supply chain pressures, were often more effective promoters of eco-design. Thus it seems a mix of policy measures is required rather than reliance on economic instruments alone.

  13. Baselines for carbon emissions in the Indian and Chinese power sectors: Implications for international carbon trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chi; Shukla, P.R.; Victor, David G.; Heller, Thomas C.; Biswas, Debashish; Nag, Tirthankar

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the dynamics of carbon emissions baselines of electricity generation in Indian states and Chinese provinces in the backdrop of ongoing electricity sector reforms in these countries. Two Indian states-Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, and three Chinese provinces-Guangdong, Liaoning and Hubei have been chosen for detailed analysis to bring out regional variations that are not captured in aggregate country studies. The study finds that fuel mix is the main driver behind the trends exhibited by the carbon baselines in these five cases. The cases confirm that opportunities exist in the Indian and Chinese electricity sectors to lower carbon intensity mainly in the substitution of other fuels for coal and, to a lesser extent, adoption of more efficient and advanced coal-fired generation technology. Overall, the findings suggest that the electricity sectors in India and China are becoming friendlier to the global environment. Disaggregated analysis, detailed and careful industry analysis is essential to establishing a power sector carbon emissions baseline as a reference for CDM crediting. However, considering all the difficulties associated with the baseline issue, our case studies demonstrate that there is merit in examining alternate approaches that rely on more aggregated baselines

  14. Unemployment, public-sector health-care spending and breast cancer mortality in the European Union: 1990-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Watkins, Johnathan A; Waqar, Mueez; Williams, Callum; Ali, Raghib; Atun, Rifat; Faiz, Omar; Zeltner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The global economic crisis has been associated with increased unemployment, reduced health-care spending and adverse health outcomes. Insights into the impact of economic variations on cancer mortality, however, remain limited. We used multivariate regression analysis to assess how changes in unemployment and public-sector expenditure on health care (PSEH) varied with female breast cancer mortality in the 27 European Union member states from 1990 to 2009. We then determined how the association with unemployment was modified by PSEH. Country-specific differences in infrastructure and demographic structure were controlled for, and 1-, 3-, 5- and 10-year lag analyses were conducted. Several robustness checks were also implemented. Unemployment was associated with an increase in breast cancer mortality [P unemployment rises (P unemployment and breast cancer mortality remained in all robustness checks. Rises in unemployment are associated with significant short- and long-term increases in breast cancer mortality, while increases in PSEH are associated with reductions in breast cancer mortality. Initiatives that bolster employment and maintain total health-care expenditure may help minimize increases in breast cancer mortality during economic crises. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a dispatch model of the European power system for coupling with a long-term foresight energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despres, Jacques

    2015-12-01

    Renewable sources of electricity production are strongly increasing in many parts of the world. The production costs are going down quickly, thus accelerating the deployment of new solar and wind electricity generation. In the long-term, these variable sources of electricity could represent a high share of the power system. However, long-term foresight energy models have difficulties describing precisely the integration challenges of Variable Renewable Energy Sources (VRES) such as wind or solar. They just do not represent the short-term technical constraints of the power sector. The objective of this paper is to show a new approach of the representation of the challenges of variability in the long-term foresight energy model POLES (Prospective Outlook on Long-term Energy Systems). We develop a short-term optimization model for the power sector operation, EUCAD (European Unit Commitment and Dispatch) and we couple it to POLES year after year. The direct coupling, with bi-directional exchanges of information, brings technical precision to the long-term coherence of energy scenarios. (author)

  16. European research and development strategy for clean power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linkohr, R.

    2006-01-01

    We need more rather than less money for research, energy research in particular, research being an important contributor to progress, in order to achieve peak performance, comply with the quest for knowledge about the structure of the world, or to be able to further improve our quality of life at far less expense of materials and energy. This latter concept is in line with European identity. If we succeed in demonstrating to the world that people can live a better life if they manage their affairs sustainably, we Europeans will have won a new trademark: a sustainable Europe which can be left to future generations. For this purpose Europeans, more than before, must perceive Europe as a space of knowledge. Science policy must be geared to Europe, not just to a national territory. Also, Europe should devote more attention to fundamental research. Some outstanding projects are needed, particularly in energy research, with the participation of industry in order to reduce materials consumption and avoid emissions. Education, too, must be given much attention. In the absence of enthusiastic young scientists, engineers, and skilled workers who know their neighboring countries and their technologies and languages from an early age, European energy policy is bound to remain fragmented. (orig.)

  17. Development of the Ukrainian power sector taking into account the environmental impact of power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyakova, E.; Krymskaya, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the following problems: Evaluation of total environmental impacts from all kinds of power plants on the whole territory of Ukraine; evaluation of environmental impacts in selected regions due to uneven power facilities distribution. Analysis of the environmental situation in Ukraine was conducted using the IMPACTS module of the ENPEP package with account to the Ukrainian energy requirements in perspective. Some recommendations concerning the development of power facilities and reduction of air emissions are also given. (author). 7 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Development of the Ukrainian power sector taking into account the environmental impact of power facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyakova, E; Krymskaya, L [Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Science, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-09-01

    This paper concentrates on the following problems: Evaluation of total environmental impacts from all kinds of power plants on the whole territory of Ukraine; evaluation of environmental impacts in selected regions due to uneven power facilities distribution. Analysis of the environmental situation in Ukraine was conducted using the IMPACTS module of the ENPEP package with account to the Ukrainian energy requirements in perspective. Some recommendations concerning the development of power facilities and reduction of air emissions are also given. (author). 7 figs, 5 tabs.

  19. A scenario analysis of investment options for the Cuban power sector using the MARKAL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Evelyn L.; Belt, Juan A.B.; Chambers, Adam; Delaquil, Pat; Goldstein, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Cuban power sector faces a need for extensive investment in new generating capacity, under a large number of uncertainties regarding future conditions, including: rate of demand growth, fluctuations in fuel prices, access to imported fuel, and access to investment capital for construction of new power plants and development of fuel import infrastructure. To identify cost effective investment strategies under these uncertainties, a supply and power sector MARKAL model was assembled, following an extensive review of available data on the Cuban power system and resource potentials. Two scenarios were assessed, a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario assuming continued moderate electricity load growth and domestic fuel production growth, and a high growth (HI) scenario assuming rapid electricity demand growth, rapid increase in domestic fuel production, and a transition to market pricing of electricity. Within these two scenarios sets, sensitivity analyses were conducted on a number of variables. The implications of least-cost investment strategies for new capacity builds, investment spending requirements, electricity prices, fuel expenditures, and carbon dioxide emissions for each scenario were assessed. Natural gas was found to be the cost effective fuel for new generation across both scenarios and most sensitivity cases, suggesting that access to natural gas, through increased domestic production and LNG import, is a clear priority for further analysis in the Cuban context.

  20. Timing-based business models for flexibility creation in the electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helms, Thorsten; Loock, Moritz; Bohnsack, René

    2016-01-01

    Energy policies in many countries push for an increase in the generation of wind and solar power. Along these developments, the balance between supply and demand becomes more challenging as the generation of wind and solar power is volatile, and flexibility of supply and demand becomes valuable. As a consequence, companies in the electric power sector develop new business models that create flexibility through activities of timing supply and demand. Based on an extensive qualitative analysis of interviews and industry research in the energy industry, the paper at hand explores the role of timing-based business models in the power sector and sheds light on the mechanisms of flexibility creation through timing. In particular we distill four ideal-type business models of flexibility creation with timing and reveal how they can be classified along two dimensions, namely costs of multiplicity and intervention costs. We put forward that these business models offer ‘coupled services’, combining resource-centered and service-centered perspectives. This complementary character has important implications for energy policy. - Highlights: •Explores timing-based business models providing flexibility in the energy industry. •Timing-based business models can be classified on two dimensions. •Timing-based business models offer ‘coupled services’. • ‘Coupled services’ couple timing as a service with supply- or demand side valuables. •Policy and managerial implications for energy market design.

  1. Economic Valuation Methods: The Perception of the Accountants of the Hydroeletric Power Sector in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracéli Cristina de S. Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify how accountants perceive the electric power companies in Brazil, regarding the use of economic valuation methods for measuring environmental impacts on hydroelectric power generation. These methods would be used in the internalisation of impacts in compliance with accounting theory criteria of recognition, measurement and disclosure of relevant economic activities. This is an exploratory study based on the conclusion regarding the collected data from a questionnaire answered by accountants, who worked in the electric power sector and were members of the Brazilian Electric Power Sector Accountants Association (ABRACONEE. The research showed that 74% of respondents were accountants or accounting analysts, 92% of them believed that companies should account for (internalise environmental impacts caused by their activities, and 75% of them believed that this task should be based on detailed and specific norms determining what should be done and when and how to do it. Despite their high level of accounting knowledge and complete familiarity with the changes determined by the Brazilian Securities Commission, respondents adopted a conservative stance in relation to the use of estimated values or those obtained in hypothetical markets. The study revealed the existence of a vast field of research that has yet to be explored by accounting in the field of environmental accounting, especially in terms of both measurement and recognition of environmental impacts caused by diverse economic activities

  2. A scenario analysis of investment options for the Cuban power sector using the MARKAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Evelyn L.; Chambers, Adam; Delaquil, Pat; Goldstein, Gary [International Resources Group, 1211 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Belt, Juan A.B. [US Agency for International Development, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20523-3800 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The Cuban power sector faces a need for extensive investment in new generating capacity, under a large number of uncertainties regarding future conditions, including: rate of demand growth, fluctuations in fuel prices, access to imported fuel, and access to investment capital for construction of new power plants and development of fuel import infrastructure. To identify cost effective investment strategies under these uncertainties, a supply and power sector MARKAL model was assembled, following an extensive review of available data on the Cuban power system and resource potentials. Two scenarios were assessed, a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario assuming continued moderate electricity load growth and domestic fuel production growth, and a high growth (HI) scenario assuming rapid electricity demand growth, rapid increase in domestic fuel production, and a transition to market pricing of electricity. Within these two scenarios sets, sensitivity analyses were conducted on a number of variables. The implications of least-cost investment strategies for new capacity builds, investment spending requirements, electricity prices, fuel expenditures, and carbon dioxide emissions for each scenario were assessed. Natural gas was found to be the cost effective fuel for new generation across both scenarios and most sensitivity cases, suggesting that access to natural gas, through increased domestic production and LNG import, is a clear priority for further analysis in the Cuban context. (author)

  3. An Investigation of Atmospheric Mercury from Power Sector in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao Thi Bich Pham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a highly toxic pollutant with a long range transport in the atmosphere resulting in both local and global concerns. Understanding of emissions is required to support an effective control strategy. In this study, atmospheric Hg emissions from power sector in Thailand in 2010 were investigated by using the bottom-up approach to improve the accuracy of the estimate by up to 50% in comparison to those provided in global inventories. The activity data of each individual source were collected and emissions factors were assessed based on local sources, well reflecting the emissions behavior of various emitters in Thailand. The atmospheric Hg emissions from power sector in 2010 amounted to 844.5 kg, in which emissions from coal and lignite power plants constituted up to 92.3% and biomass power plants constituted up to 7.4%. Spatial and temporal distribution analysis indicated high emissions in the Central and Northern regions, and from February to July. Annual trends in emissions from 2010 to 2030 were estimated and discussed.

  4. A blocked takeover in the Polish power sector: A model-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiński, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    As the President of the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection refused to approve a government initiated takeover in the Polish power sector and the Court of Competition and Consumer Protection did not make a ruling on that case, the takeover was finally prohibited. In this context, the main aim of this paper is to carry out a quantitative analysis of the impact of the takeover in question on electricity prices and quantities, consumer and producer surpluses, dead weight loss and emissions. The scope of the study covers the Polish power generation sector and the analysis was carried out for 2009. A game theory-based electricity market equilibrium model developed for Poland was applied. The model includes several country-specific conditions, such as a coal-based power generation fuel-mix, a large share of biomass co-combustion, etc. For the sake of clarity, only four scenarios are assumed. The paper concludes that the declared synergy savings did not compensate for the increase in dead weight loss and the transfer of surplus from consumers to producers caused by increased market power. - Highlights: • A takeover blocked by the President of the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection was analysed. • A game theory-based model of the Polish wholesale electricity market was applied. • The impact of the takeover on electricity prices and generation levels, surplus transfers and dead weight loss was estimated. • The results were compared with the declared synergy savings

  5. Issues in Energy Economics Led by Emerging Linkages between the Natural Gas and Power Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, Jeremy B.

    2007-01-01

    Fuel prices in 2006 continued at record levels, with uranium continuing upward unabated and coal, SO 2 emission allowances, and natural gas all softening. This softening did not continue for natural gas, however, whose prices rose, fell and rose again, first following weather influences and, by the second quarter of 2007, continuing at high levels without any support from fundamentals. This article reviews these trends and describes the remarkable increases in fuel expenses for power generation. By the end of 2005, natural gas claimed 55% of annual power sector fuel expenses, even though it was used for only 19% of electric generation. Although natural gas is enormously important to the power sector, the sector also is an important driver of the natural gas market-growing to over 28% of the market even as total use has declined. The article proceeds to discuss globalization, natural gas price risk, and technology developments. Forces of globalization are poised to affect the energy markets in new ways-new in not being only about oil. Of particular interest in the growth of intermodal traffic and its a little-understood impacts on rail traffic patterns and transportation costs, and expected rapidly expanding LNG imports toward the end of the decade. Two aspects of natural gas price risk are discussed: how understanding the use of gas in the power sector helps define price ceilings and floors for natural gas, and how the recent increase in the natural gas production after years of record drilling could alter the supply-demand balance for the better. The article cautions, however, that escalation in natural gas finding and development costs is countering the more positive developments that emerged during 2006. Regarding technology, the exploitation of unconventional natural gas was one highlight. So too was the queuing up of coal-fired power plants for the post-2010 period, a phenomenon that has come under great pressure with many consequences including increased

  6. Near real-time geomagnetic data for space weather applications in the European sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, M. G.; Hansen, T. L.

    2012-12-01

    Tromsø Geophysical Observatory (TGO) is responsible for making and maintaining long time-series of geomagnetic measurements in Norway. TGO is currently operating 3 geomagnetic observatories and 11 variometer stations from southern Norway to Svalbard . Data from these 14 locations are acquired, processed and made available for the user community in near real-time. TGO is participating in several European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA) space weather related projects where both near real-time data and derived products are provided. In addition the petroleum industry is benefiting from our real-time data services for directional drilling. Near real-time data from TGO is freely available for non-commercial purposes. TGO is exchanging data in near real-time with several institutions, enabling the presentation of near real-time geomagnetic data from more than 40 different locations in Fennoscandia and Greenland. The open exchange of non real-time geomagnetic data has been successfully going on for many years through services such as the world data center in Kyoto, SuperMAG, IMAGE and SPIDR. TGO's vision is to take this one step further and make the exchange of near real-time geomagnetic data equally available for the whole community. This presentation contains an overview of TGO, our activities and future aims. We will show how our near real-time data are presented. Our contribution to the space weather forecasting and nowcasting effort in the EU and ESA will be presented with emphasis on our real-time auroral activity index and brand new auroral activity monitor and electrojet tracker.

  7. Modelling of atmospheric transport of heavy metals emitted from Polish power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zysk, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Modelling of atmospheric transport of heavy metals emitted from Polish power sector. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the atmospheric heavy metals contamination and its deposition to ecosystems. The increasing attention to mercury pollution has been mainly driven by the growing evidence of its negative impacts on wildlife, ecosystems and particularly human health. Lead and cadmium are also toxics which are being emitted into the atmosphere by anthropogenic as well as natural sources. The harmful influence of these three heavy metals was underlined in the Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals of 1998. The Parties of this protocol (including Poland) are obligated to reduce emissions, observe the transport and the amounts of lead, mercury and cadmium in the environment. Poland is one of the biggest emitter of mercury, lead and cadmium in Europe mainly due to emission from coal combustion processes. Therefore in Poland, research efforts to study the heavy metals emission, atmospheric transport, concentration and deposition are extremely important. The objectives of this work were twofold: - The practical objective was to develop and run a model to represent the atmospheric dispersion of mercury and to implement it in the air quality modelling platform Polyphemus.- The scientific objective was to perform heavy metals dispersion studies over Europe and detailed studies of the impact of the polish power sector on the air quality regarding mercury, cadmium and lead. To meet the declared aim, a new mercury chemical model was implemented into the Polyphemus air quality system. The scientific literature was reviewed regarding mercury chemistry and mercury chemical models. It can be concluded that the chemistry of mercury is still not well known. The models also differ in the way of calculating the dry and wet deposition of mercury. The elemental gaseous mercury ambient concentrations are evenly distributed, on the contrary, high variations in the spatial gradients of

  8. Compendium of information of the Mexican power sector; 1. ed.; Compendio de Informacion del sector energetico mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo; Reinking Cejudo, Arturo [eds.] [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This first Compendium of information of the Mexican power sector was elaborated with the purpose of concentrating the most relevant information on energy in a single volume to facilitate the search and consults of people interested in this subject. In Chapter I (Reserves), the numbers of hydrocarbon of petroleum and gas reserves appear, non-conventional energies such as: coal, hydroelectricity, geothermal, uranium, at National level. All these numbers correspond to year 1997. In Chapter II (Production), the events and results of 1997 are discussed in the text and in the tables the numbers of hydrocarbon production appear, the non-conventional energies and of electricity generation, of 1996 as well as of 1997. In chapter III (Facilities), the capacity of refineries and processing plants are shown, as they can be oil, gas, petroleum-producing products of the petrochemical industry; in the same way the national electrical system is approached, which counts on with an extensive infrastructure standing out the electricity generation plants, the transmission lines and the substations, distributed all over the country. The detailed information of each type of plant is presented. The information provided in this chapter corresponds to the 31 of December of 1997, although certain details are included whose information 1996 only know. In chapter IV (Energy Consumption), appears the most relevant information on the destiny and consumption of energy. To relate this information with the data of chapter II the conventions on how the gross internal offer is conformed and the data to arrive to this last one are presented. The numbers of the National energy balance are presented for 1996, as well as the ones of self-consumption of the energy sector and the ones of transformation consumption. The numbers of foreign trade of energy to relate all these concepts to the production and offer of energy are presented. In the price and tariffs section of this chapter, the 1997 and the 1996

  9. Linking the Power and Transport Sectors—Part 2: Modelling a Sector Coupling Scenario for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robinius

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available “Linking the power and transport sectors—Part 1” describes the general principle of “sector coupling” (SC, develops a working definition intended of the concept to be of utility to the international scientific community, contains a literature review that provides an overview of relevant scientific papers on this topic and conducts a rudimentary analysis of the linking of the power and transport sectors on a worldwide, EU and German level. The aim of this follow-on paper is to outline an approach to the modelling of SC. Therefore, a study of Germany as a case study was conducted. This study assumes a high share of renewable energy sources (RES contributing to the grid and significant proportion of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs in the year 2050, along with a dedicated hydrogen pipeline grid to meet hydrogen demand. To construct a model of this nature, the model environment “METIS” (models for energy transformation and integration systems we developed will be described in more detail in this paper. Within this framework, a detailed model of the power and transport sector in Germany will be presented in this paper and the rationale behind its assumptions described. Furthermore, an intensive result analysis for the power surplus, utilization of electrolysis, hydrogen pipeline and economic considerations has been conducted to show the potential outcomes of modelling SC. It is hoped that this will serve as a basis for researchers to apply this framework in future to models and analysis with an international focus.

  10. World bank's role in the electric power sector: Policies for effective institutional, regulatory, and financial reform. World Bank policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The policy paper is based on the World Bank Industry and Energy Department's ongoing policy and research work, which (1) examines experiences of industrial countries and the Bank's borrowers in developing their power sectors, (2) analyzes issues facing these sectors, and (3) describes options for dealing with these issues in developing countries. The paper is supported by a large body of research

  11. Getting reforms done in inhospitable institutional environments: untying a Gordian Knot in India's power distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tankha, Sunil; Misal, Annasahed B.; Fuller, Boyd W.

    2010-01-01

    When grand institutional reforms based on idealized models are stalled by the poor institutional environments and difficult politics which often surround large infrastructure systems in developing countries, partial reforms whose design and implementation take into account the different interests of the key stakeholders can provide valuable and immediate benefits while moving these systems from low- towards higher-level equilibria. Strategically negotiated, experimentally partial and purposefully hybrid, these reforms are based on careful stakeholder analysis and strategic coalition building that avoid rigid positions based on idealized models. Our findings are based on a study of power sector reforms in India, where we performed a micro-level and in-depth analysis of a partial and innovative experiment which has allowed private sector participation in electricity distribution within a hostile institutional environment.

  12. Nigeria's electric power sector reform: what should form the key objectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeme, J.; Ebohon, O.J.

    2005-01-01

    Nigeria's electric power sector requires substantial reform if the country's economic development and poverty alleviation program is to be realised. This understanding is behind the reform programme recently initiated by the Nigerian government with the goal of privatising the national electric power monopoly, NEPA. Currently, the country faces serious energy crisis due to declining electricity generation from domestic power plants which are basically dilapidated, obsolete, unreliable and in an appalling state of disrepair, reflecting the poor maintenance culture in the country and gross inefficiency of the public utility provider. Building on an analysis of the major shortcomings of the current electric power company, this paper presents the central issues that should form the key objectives of the proposed reform. This include corporatization of the electric power industry, increasing access and power delivery capacity, constraining the costs of the power industry and increasing efficiency and share of renewables in energy generation, as well as minimising environmental damage. We conclude with the observation that efforts at reform will not yield the desired result if the current end-user inefficiency is not constrained. As Nigeria implements its national utility privatisation programme, it is hoped that this review will benefit policy makers and emerging managers and providers of electricity service in the country

  13. Can developing countries benefit from innovative pricing in the power sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    This study explores electricity pricing as a demand-side management (DSM) strategy, looking to the developed country experience for insights into the types of approaches currently used, their effects, and the direction in which electricity pricing is headed. The discussion should be especially useful for electric utilities in developing countries that are exploring alternatives to capacity expansion to meet current and future electric power demand. For these electric utilities, demand-side options are especially important under today's conditions in which the capital cost of new generating capacity is increasing rapidly, international funds for expanding power sectors are not expected to be sufficient for meeting projected capacity needs and environmental concerns over fossil fuel emissions have raised new questions about constructing thermal power plants. (author). 21 refs, 2 tabs

  14. China’s Energy Transition in the Power and Transport Sectors from a Substitution Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangfeng Han

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Facing heavy air pollution, China needs to transition to a clean and sustainable energy system, especially in the power and transport sectors, which contribute the highest greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The core of an energy transition is energy substitution and energy technology improvement. In this paper, we forecast the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE for power generation in 2030 in China. Cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles is also calculated in this study. The results indicate that solar photovoltaic (PV and wind power will be cost comparative in the future. New energy vehicles are more expensive than conventional vehicles due to their higher manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP. The cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles would be $96.7/ton or $114.8/ton. Gasoline prices, taxes, and vehicle insurance will be good directions for policy implementation after the ending of subsidies.

  15. Competing Air Quality and Water Conservation Co-benefits from Power Sector Decarbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, W.; Wagner, F.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Ramana, M. V.; Zhai, H.; Small, M.; Zhang, X.; Dalin, C.

    2016-12-01

    Decarbonizing the power sector can reduce fossil-based generation and associated air pollution and water use. However, power sector configurations that prioritize air quality benefits can be different from those that maximize water conservation benefits. Despite extensive work to optimize the generation mix under an air pollution or water constraint, little research has examined electricity transmission networks and the choice of which fossil fuel units to displace in order to achieve both environmental objectives simultaneously. When air pollution and water stress occur in different regions, the optimal transmission and displacement decisions still depend on priorities placed on air quality and water conservation benefits even if low-carbon generation planning is fixed. Here we use China as a test case, and develop a new optimization framework to study transmission and displacement decisions and the resulting air quality and water use impacts for six power sector decarbonization scenarios in 2030 ( 50% of national generation is low carbon). We fix low-carbon generation in each scenario (e.g. type, location, quantity) and vary technology choices and deployment patterns across scenarios. The objective is to minimize the total physical costs (transmission costs and coal power generation costs) and the estimated environmental costs. Environmental costs are estimated by multiplying effective air pollutant emissions (EMeff, emissions weighted by population density) and effective water use (Weff, water use weighted by a local water stress index) by their unit economic values, Vem and Vw. We are hence able to examine the effect of varying policy priorities by imposing different combinations of Vem and Vw. In all six scenarios, we find that increasing the priority on air quality co-benefits (higher Vem) reduces air pollution impacts (lower EMeff) at the expense of lower water conservation (higher Weff); and vice versa. Such results can largely be explained by differences

  16. Controlling Delegated Powers in the Post-Lisbon European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsma, Gijs Jan; Blom-Hansen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Most European Union rules are made by the Commission, not the Council of Ministers or the European Parliament. But although the Commission is an important rule-maker, it is not autonomous. The member states have always taken care to install committees to control the Commission (comitology). However......, the Lisbon Treaty introduced alternative control mechanisms (delegated acts) and a reform of the comitology system (implementing acts). This article investigates how the post-Lisbon control system works in daily legislative practice. It represents the first investigation of the institutional preferences...... of the Council, the Parliament and the Commission in the new system. Further, it utilizes better data than previous studies. The analysis is based on data on the control preferences of all actors before the first trilogue meeting for a large number of cases in the period 2010–13. The results indicate...

  17. Power learning or path dependency? Investigating the roots of the European Food Safety Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer-Rynning, Christilla; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    A key motive for establishing the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was restoring public confidence in the wake of multiplying food scares and the BSE crisis. Scholars, however, have paid little attention to the actual political and institutional logics that shaped this new organization. This article explores the dynamics underpinning the making of EFSA. We examine the way in which learning and power shaped its organizational architecture. It is demonstrated that the lessons drawn from the past and other models converged on the need to delegate authority to an external agency, but diverged on its mandate, concretely whether or not EFSA should assume risk management responsibilities. In this situation of competitive learning, power and procedural politics conditioned the mandate granted to EFSA. The European Commission, the European Parliament and the European Council shared a common interest in preventing the delegation of regulatory powers to an independent EU agency in food safety policy.

  18. Partnership of power and business: european approaches and conceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Serhii Andriiovych Kvitka

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the most common European scientific concept of interaction between government and business. On this basis, the analysis of the main achievements and shortcomings of theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of business as a political actor. Interest groups and pressure groups are a form of protective groups that influence the actions of the modern authorities, both in Europe and in Ukraine . In terms of pluralism, society is composed of a large num...

  19. Estimating elasticities of demand for natural gas in the European household sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, Odd Bjarte; Asche, Frank; Tveteras, Ragnar

    2005-12-15

    This paper analyzes the residential natural gas demand in 12 European countries using a dynamic loglinear demand model, which allows for country-specific elasticity estimates in the short-run and long run. The explanatory variables include a heating degree days index, real prices of natural gas, light fuel oil, electricity, and real private income per capita. Our data set is a country panel with annual observations from 1978 to 2002. Short panel data sets like this represents a challenge for econometric estimation, as standard estimators often provide implausible estimates of elasticities. The demand model is estimated using both homogeneous and heterogeneous estimators, with a particular focus on the shrinkage estimator (an empirical Bayes estimator). The shrinkage short-run own-price and income elasticity tend to be very inelastic, but with greater long-run responsiveness. We provide support for employing a heterogeneous estimator such as the shrinkage estimator. But the empirical results also motivate a further scrutiny of its properties. We also consider the problem of reporting t-statistics of shrinkage estimators in the empirical Bayes (EB) framework and the problem of using the delta method to approximate the elasticities. The delta method biases upward the t-statistics of the shrinkage elasticities. An alternative approach, the bootstrap sampling methods obtained more reliable confidence intervals. We call into question - is the traditional way of constructing confidence intervals or t-statistics of the shrinkage estimator to naive. (Author)

  20. Emissions trading and investment decisions in the power sector-a case study in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurikka, Harri; Koljonen, Tiina

    2006-01-01

    Organizations, which consider investment in or divestment of power production licences/capacity within the European Community, are exposed to the impacts of the European Union Emission allowance Trading Scheme (EU ETS). In this paper, the consequences of the EU ETS on investment decisions are explored in a country-specific setting in Finland. First, we review the general mechanisms through which the EU ETS influences size, timing and cashflows of an investment. Next, we discuss the projected changes in Finnish power producers' investment environment and examine the financial impacts due to the EU ETS on a case investment decision, a hypothetical condensing power plant (250 MW e ). The standard discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis is extended to take into account the value of two real options: the option to wait and the option to alter operating scale. In a quantitative investment appraisal, the impact of emissions trading not only depends on the expected level of allowance prices, but also on their volatility and correlation with electricity and fuel prices. The case study shows that the uncertainty regarding the allocation of emission allowances is critical in a quantitative investment appraisal of fossil fuel-fired power plants

  1. Pollution from the electric power sector in Japan and efficient pollution reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Kyohei; Yamane, Fumihiro

    2012-01-01

    Under the scheme of the Kyoto Protocol, there are plans for the efficient reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. In the electric power sector, nuclear power generation, which emits no carbon dioxide in the process of generating electricity, has come under scrutiny. However, this energy produces a new environmental issue: the disposal of radioactive waste. First, we derive shadow prices of carbon dioxide and low-level waste as marginal abatement costs in the case of the electric power sector in Japan, employing a directional output distance function. It is found that the shadow prices are US$39 per tonne for carbon dioxide and US$1531 per liter for low-level waste. Secondly, we calculate the indirect Morishima elasticity between carbon dioxide and low-level waste in order to identify their substitutability, and it is found that the substitution of low-level waste for carbon dioxide is easier than the reverse. This result suggests that, with the amount of generated electricity fixed, carbon dioxide can be substituted more easily by low-level waste when the relative price of carbon dioxide increases, for example, as a result of implementation of a carbon dioxide tax or an emissions trading system.

  2. Current status and analysis of renewable promotional policies in Indian restructured power sector - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Randhir; Sood, Yog Raj

    2011-01-01

    Restructuring has changed the traditional mission and mandates of power utilities in complex ways, and had large impacts on environmental, social, and political conditions for any particular country. At the same time, new regulatory approaches are being found for reducing environmental impacts in restructured power sectors. India has a vast supply of renewable energy resources, and it has one of the largest programs in the world for deploying renewable energy based products and systems. So this paper attempts to review the various policies and measures undertaken by Indian government for promotion of renewable energy. The aim of this paper is also to review the current policy mechanisms, especially investment- or generation-based price-driven and capacity-driven mechanisms, ranging from investment incentives for the development of renewable energy projects, feed-in tariffs, production tax incentives, tradable green certificates, and their effects upon the prospects of encouraging as well as expanding the development of renewable energy in Indian restructured power sector. This will make renewable more attractive in the Indian future electricity market. (author)

  3. The role of power exchanges for the creation of a single European electricity market: market design and market regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseleau, F.

    2004-01-01

    The electricity sector worldwide is undergoing a fundamental transformation of its institutional structure as a consequence of the complex interactions of political, economic and technological forces. The way the industry is organized is changing from vertically integrated monopolies to unbundled structures that favor market mechanisms. This process in Europe, known as the liberalization process, has had a wide impact on the European electricity industry. The focus of this dissertation is an analysis of the role of electricity power exchanges in the recently liberalized electricity markets of Europe. In the context of creating a competitive electricity market at a European level, the key questions considered are the functioning of these power exchanges with respect to electricity characteristics, market design and regulatory framework. In Europe, very little attention has been paid to the role of these new marketplaces and to the issue of market design in general. Hence the main purpose of this work was to analyze how these marketplaces facilitate the trading of electricity and the role they can play in the construction of a pan-European competitive electricity market. An analysis of power exchange requires taking into account the 'double-duality' of such institutions. One, power exchanges are both a market and an institution. As a market they facilitate the trading of electricity and determine an equilibrium price. As an institution power exchanges have their own objectives and constraints, and play a role in the market design of the overall electricity market. Two, the relationship between electricity power exchanges and liberalization is neither linear nor one way: liberalization encourages the birth of such marketplaces yet marketplaces are more than the results of such process, they are also a driving force of the liberalization process. This thesis is divided into three parts. The current situation in Europe and different existing theoretical approaches in

  4. Impacts of Federal Tax Credit Extensions on Renewable Deployment and Power Sector Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marcy, Cara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Federal tax credits for renewable energy (RE) have served as one of the primary financial incentives for RE deployment over the last two decades in the United States. In December 2015, the wind power production tax credit and solar investment tax credits were extended for five years as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2016. This report explores the impact that these tax credit extensions might have on future RE capacity deployment and power sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The analysis examines the impacts of the tax credit extensions under two distinct natural gas price futures as natural gas prices have been key factors in influencing the economic competitiveness of new RE development. The analysis finds that, in both natural gas price futures, RE tax credit extensions can spur RE capacity investments at least through the early 2020s and can help lower emissions from the U.S. electricity system. More specifically, the RE tax credit extensions are estimated to drive a net peak increase of 48-53 GW in installed RE capacity in the early 2020s -- longer term impacts are less certain. In the longer term after the tax credits ramp down, greater RE capacity is driven by a combination of assumed RE cost declines, rising fossil fuel prices, and other clean energy policies such as the Clean Power Plan. The tax credit extension-driven acceleration in RE capacity development can reduce fossil fuel-based generation and lower electric sector CO2 emissions. Cumulative emissions reductions over a 15-year period (spanning 2016-2030) as a result of the tax credit extensions are estimated to range from 540 to 1420 million metric tonnes CO2. These findings suggest that tax credit extensions can have a measurable impact on future RE deployment and electric sector CO2 emissions under a range of natural gas price futures.

  5. Case of reforms in the Indian power distribution sector: A move towards eradicating energy poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhav, Mrinal; Mehta, Shivika

    2010-09-15

    India's transmission and distribution losses are among the highest in the world. When non-technical losses such as energy theft are included in the total, losses go as high as 65% in some states and average about 35-40%. The financial loss has been estimated at 1.5% of the national GDP. These act as a major deterrent to the private as well as global investments in the sector. To address the issue of Aggregate Transmission and Commercial (AT&C) losses funding mechanism was introduced for in the form of the Accelerated Power Development Reforms Programme (APDRP).

  6. Tariffs, investments and financing of the electric power sector in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, M.I.

    1991-05-01

    An approach to the study of electricity prices in Uruguay, emphasizing the relation linking prices, investment funds and loan requirements for the electric utility is presented. The main part of the work is a survey of the evolution of electricity prices, amounts of investment, an external debt of the Uruguayan electric power sector from 1973 to 1988. There is also a prospective analysis, to determine whether the current electricity price level would be able to ensure the electric system expansion, if current trends are maintained. (author)

  7. Case of reforms in the Indian power distribution sector: A move towards eradicating energy poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhav, Mrinal; Mehta, Shivika

    2010-09-15

    India's transmission and distribution losses are among the highest in the world. When non-technical losses such as energy theft are included in the total, losses go as high as 65% in some states and average about 35-40%. The financial loss has been estimated at 1.5% of the national GDP. These act as a major deterrent to the private as well as global investments in the sector. To address the issue of Aggregate Transmission and Commercial (AT&C) losses funding mechanism was introduced for in the form of the Accelerated Power Development Reforms Programme (APDRP).

  8. Th european market of the electric power; Le marche europeen de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the CRE (commission of the Electric power Control) progress report concerning the first july 2000 to the 30 june 2001. Three main subjects are discussed, illustrated by economic data and graphs: the electric power european market, the french market control and the CRE. A special interest is given to the deregulation of the market and its consequences. (A.L.B.)

  9. Th european market of the electric power; Le marche europeen de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the CRE (commission of the Electric power Control) progress report concerning the first july 2000 to the 30 june 2001. Three main subjects are discussed, illustrated by economic data and graphs: the electric power european market, the french market control and the CRE. A special interest is given to the deregulation of the market and its consequences. (A.L.B.)

  10. Safety of nuclear power reactors in the former Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the safety of nuclear power plants in the former Eastern European countries (including the former Soviet Union). The current international design, fabrication, construction, operation, safety, regulatory standards and practices, and ways to resolve plant problems are addressed in light of experience with the Western nuclear power development programs

  11. European coal technology applied by the Danish power companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frydenberg, B. [Elsamprojekt A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The development of coal-fired power plants has shown remarkable improvements with regard to efficiency and cleaner technology, and as coal remains the most important fuel for electric power production, it is important to make use of this technological development to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Of the three available technologies: Integrated Coal Gasification and Combined Cycle, Fluid Bed Combustion and Pulverised Coal with Ultra Supercritical Steam Data, the technology chosen by I/S ELSAM is the PC-USC with power production efficiencies growing from 45% to 50%. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Self-Denial in Federalizing Power in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    Because the conflicts that led to the American Revolution mainly arose fromconstitutional issues, the history of these conflicts offers lessons for the design of the newEuropean Union constitution. One lesson is the importance of avoiding needless conflictsbetween federal and member......-state governments. In particular, forcing decisions on wheresovereignty lies may cause great conflict. Another lesson is that a federal system depends ongood will among the federal and member-state governments, and because this good will is easilydissipated, efforts should be made to nurture it. Federal exercise...

  13. Obligations to power supply and Antitrust Law of the European Community; Strombezugsverpflichtungen und EG-Kartellverbot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerch, Dirk

    2008-07-01

    In the European electricity supply industry, a change to competition-oriented national markets under development of a common European electricity market is observed for some years. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on obligations to the current power supply and on the trust prohibition in the European Community. The contribution under consideration consists of the following three chapters: (a) Discussion of fundamental questions regarding to cartel legal evaluation of obligations to power supply; (b) Conditions of the art. 81 sect. 1 EEC and application to obligations for power supply; (c) Exemption from the obligation to power supply according to art. 1 sect. 3 EEC. In particular, the regulation of the group exemption for vertical agreements of 22nd December, 1999, is considered.

  14. World Energy Scenarios 2050: Impact of the Energy Governance Models to the Future of the European Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisel, E.

    2014-01-01

    World Energy Council has explored the impact of two extreme governance models of energy sector to the global economic and climate developments. Scenario 'Jazz' describes the world, where investments in the energy markets are made by the companies on the purely economic basis. Scenario 'Symphony' describes the world, where decisions about the energy investments are made by the governments. It appears that in case of Scenario 'Jazz' we would reach lower energy prices, but it would also bring along higher and wider consumption of energy, and much higher environmental impact. In case of Scenario 'Symphony' energy prices would be somewhat higher, but environmental and energy efficiency would deliver better results, and there will be more energy-poor people around the world. It can also be observed, that resulting energy mixes of these two scenarios are very different. When Scenario 'Jazz' would leave the share of fossil fuels nearly to the current levels, then Scenario 'Symphony' supports strongly development of Solar and Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Sequestration Technologies. The modelling was also made separately for different regions of the world, the results for Europe can be observed from the report as well. This provides a fruit for thought about the role of the governments in the implementation of the EU 2030 Energy and Climate Strategy. The presentation would describe shortly the methodology of the study, clarifies the assumptions of the scenarios and highlights the main outcomes of the study in for the world and for European energy sector. (author).

  15. Independent Power Producers' view on restructuring in Ontario's electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.

    1996-01-01

    The collective views on electricity industry restructuring of the independent power producers in Ontario were summarized by IPPSO's executive director. The Society is fully in agreement with the MacDonald Committee recommendations to privatize power generation in Ontario, and is equally in favor of competitive restructuring that is now underway in Michigan, New York and Quebec, as well as farther afield in the U.S., the U.K., and elsewhere around the world. IPPSO claims that a competitive generation system comprised of current and future IPPSO members could supply the province's power requirements at a cost 20 per cent lower than the present monopolistic system of Ontario Hydro. Add to that no reduction in services to the consumers, increased revenues in the form of taxes to the province, and the prospect of restructuring becomes far less threatening than first perceived. While fully in agreement with the MacDonald Committee's recommendations, IPPSO is opposed to Ontario Hydro's own restructuring plans. Their objection is based on the assessment that the plan would not result in real competition; in reality, it would allow Hydro even greater freedom to continue investing publicly-guaranteed money on a completely dissimilar basis to its competitors

  16. Finacial Expertise, Authority and Power in the European Football 'Industry'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertbert F. Moorhouse

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to provoke discussion about two issues. Firstly, how do economic ideas, concepts, theories, principles and information enter into the discourse of the owners and controllers of Europe’s most popular sport – football – and into political discussion about the game? It stresses the role management consultants have created for themselves in the new football 'industry'. Secondly, as a specific example of the general concern, the paper considers the role of the Deloitte company in European football. Its publications – especially the Annual Reviews of Football Finance – have been very influential and the company has acted as consultants for UEFA on many of the key issues in contemporary football. The paper critically assesses the approach Deloitte has adopted to the commercialisation of football, and explores difficulties in the way it has analysed some of the key issues in European football. It suggests that some countervailing forces need to be created to limit the authority and influence Deloitte currently exercise.

  17. Nuclear power plants in Europe 1995. Report about operation, construction, and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Report about Operation, Construction, and Planning in 18 European Countries Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1995. The ''Nuclear Power Plants in Europe 1995'' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1995, 214 (1994: 215) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 177,010 (176,322) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation in seventeen countries, and 26 (30) units with 24,786 (28,086) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 240 (245) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 201,796 (204,408) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1048 TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1994; 792 TWh of this aggregate was converted in 137 units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 36%. Lithuania, with 77%, has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 75% and Belgium with 56%. The lowest percentage, only 5%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power plants are operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de

  18. Free Switzerland from fossil energy sources - Clear proposals for the building, transportation and electrical power sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, R.

    2010-10-01

    A comprehensive review of the current situation of energy resources and consumption and of the prevailing framework like climate change is given, with a focus on Switzerland. The author, a member of the Lower House of the Swiss Parliament, presents facts and figures in a simple language, illustrated by tables and diagrams, in a well structured, easy-to-read book, with detailed indications of his data sources. Starting from the limited character of fossil energy sources, 'peak-oil' and the necessary reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, the author states that nuclear energy is not the solution. Action is absolutely needed, but which policy should be adopted? A global strategy is required that includes the stabilization of the world population as a key factor. An international agreement signed by as many states as possible should create stringent commitments. The developed countries have to demonstrate that prosperity and high life standard are compatible with an economy based on renewable energy sources. This will give to the most ambitious countries a significant advantage on new markets created by renewable energy use and energy efficiency. The author goes on by describing the current status of the technologies needed. What regards the particular case of Switzerland, this country is strongly dependent on energy import - mainly fossil - and CO 2 emissions arise mainly from the building and transportation sectors. A 50% efficiency improvement until 2030 is needed in fossil energy use. Electricity use has to become more efficient as well. Electricity generation - today about 60% renewable - shall move towards 100% renewable. The next chapters discuss clear realistic proposals on how to achieve these goals in the transportation sector ('Intelligent mobility'), the building sector ('Retrofitting the buildings to get them up-to-date') and the electrical power sector ('Entirely renewable electricity'). The title of the conclusion chapter: 'Focus again on the general

  19. An analysis of power sector system losses in Bangladesh and Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhari, W.

    1995-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the analysis of power sector system losses in both the countries which are similar in nature. The design and construction of major power plants, grid substations and transmission lines are constructed on the same pattern. The generation system loss under transmission must not exceed the limit and any loss above this limit could safely be taken as pilferage or theft of energy. The author is of the opinion that socio-economic conditions prevailing in both countries. The author is not in a position to analyse or comment on the causes of non-technical system loss in Pakistan, but he feels that some of the causes could also equally be applicable. (A.B.)

  20. Benefits of coal-fired power generation with flexible CCS in a future northwest European power system with large scale wind power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wijk, Pieter Cornelis; Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; Van den Broek, Machteld|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Slot, Thijs; Stienstra, Gerard; Van der Veen, Wim; Faaij, André P C

    Coal-fired power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is projected as a cost-effective technology to decarbonize the power sector. Intermittent renewables could reduce its load factor and revenues, so flexible capture unit operation strategies (flexible CCS) have been suggested to

  1. A multi-period superstructure optimisation model for the optimal planning of China's power sector considering carbon dioxide mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongjie; Ma Linwei; Liu Pei; Zhang Lili; Li Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Power sector is the largest CO 2 emitter in China. To mitigate CO 2 emissions for the power sector is a tough task, which requires implementation of targeted carbon mitigation policies. There might be multiple forms for carbon mitigation policies and it is still unclear which one is the best for China. Applying a superstructure optimisation model for optimal planning of China's power sector built by the authors previously, which was based on real-life plants composition data of China's power sector in 2009, and could incorporate all possible actions of the power sector, including plants construction, decommission, and application of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) on coal-fuelled plants, the implementation effects of three carbon mitigation policies were studied quantitatively, achieving a conclusion that the so-called “Surplus-Punishment and Deficit-Award” carbon tax policy is the best from the viewpoint of increasing CO 2 reduction effect and also reducing the accumulated total cost. Based on this conclusion, the corresponding relationships between CO 2 reduction objectives (including the accumulated total emissions reduction by the objective year and the annual emissions reduction in the objective year) were presented in detail. This work provides both directional and quantitative suggestions for China to make carbon mitigation policies in the future. - Highlights: ► We study the best form of carbon mitigation policy for China's power sector. ► We gain quantitative relationship between CO 2 reduction goal and carbon tax policy. ► The “Surplus-Punishment and Deficit-Award” carbon tax policy is the best. ► Nuclear and renewable power and CCS can help greatly reduce CO 2 emissions of the power sector. ► Longer objective period is preferred from the viewpoint of policy making.

  2. The role of power sources in the European electricity mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonin Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing debate in Europe about energy transition enhances the necessity to evaluate the performance of the envisaged mix of power sources, in terms of production cost, CO2 emissions and security of supply. In this study, we use MIXOPTIM, a Monte-Carlo simulator of the behavior of a mix of power sources on a territory, to evaluate the performance of the present EU power mix. After a validation on the French mix, we applied it to the whole EU territory and made variational calculations around the present mix to evaluate the performance impacts induced by small changes in installed renewable power and nuclear power. According to the analyzed criteria, the study shows that a plausible way to keep an affordable MWh in Europe with minimal amount of CO2 emissions and acceptable security of supply could be to extend the life of existing Gen II nuclear reactors. All other options lead to the degradation of the mix performance, on at least one of the three criteria listed above.

  3. Results of stress tests of European nuclear power plants after the Fukushima-Daiichi accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Zoltan; Novakova, Helena

    2012-01-01

    In response to the Fukushima-Daiichi accident, the European Council laid down the requirement that a transparent and comprehensive risk assessment exercise ('stress tests') be carried out at each European nuclear power plant. The stress tests concentrated on the nuclear power plants' safety margins in the light of the lessons learned from the accident. The reviews focused on natural external events including earthquake, tsunami and extreme weather, loss of safety functions, and severe accident management. The stress test procedure comprised 3 steps: (i) The nuclear facility operators performed the stress tests and prepared proposals for safety improvements. (ii) The national regulators performed independent reviews of the stress tests and prepared national reports. (iii) The reports submitted by the national regulators were subjected to review at a European level. The article describes the scope of the stress tests and their results, verified at the European level. (orig.)

  4. Power sector scenarios for Thailand: An exploratory analysis 2002-2022

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulugetta, Yacob; Mantajit, Nathinee; Jackson, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Power sector scenarios for Thailand are constructed in this paper to represent the range of opportunities and constraints associated with divergent set of technical and policy options. They include Business-As-Usual (BAU), No-New-Coal (NNC), and Green Futures (GF) scenarios over a 20-year period (2002-2022). The results from the BAU scenario show that fossil fuels will continue to dominate electricity generation in Thailand during the study period. Similar results are obtained for the NNC option, although the dependence shifts from coal and oil towards natural gas-based power generation. This may represent a better environmental pathway but an all out shift from coal to natural gas is likely to increase Thailand's dependence on imported fuel, making it more vulnerable to unstable global oil and gas prices. The GF scenario offers a more optimistic route that allows the country to confront its energy security dilemma whilst fulfilling its environmental commitments by giving renewable energy technologies a prominent place in the country's power generation mix. Over the study period, our result showed little difference between the three scenarios in terms of financing new generation plants despite an early misgiving about the viability of an ambitious renewable energy programme. This paper also goes beyond the financial evaluation of each scenario to provide a comparison of the scenarios in terms of their greenhouse gas emissions together with the comparative costs of emissions reductions. Indeed, if such externalities are taken into account to determine 'viability', the GF scenario represents an attractive way forward for the Thai power sector

  5. Gas allocation plans based on failures scenarios: PETROBRAS-Gas and Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faertes, Denise; Vieira, Flavia; Saker, Leonardo; Heil, Luciana [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Galvao, Joao [DNV, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present gas allocation plans developed for PETROBRAS Gas and Power Sector, considering failure to supply scenarios that could occur along gas supply network. Those scenarios, as well as the associated contingency plans, were identified and validated by an experienced team, composed by engineers and operators from different PETROBRAS sectors. The key issue of concern was the anticipation of possible undesired scenarios that could imply on contract shortfalls, the evaluation of possible maneuvers, taking into account best gas delivery allocation. Different software were used for the simulation of best gas supply allocation and for the verification of delivery pressure and conditions for final consumers. The ability of being capable of dealing with undesired or crisis scenarios, based on suitable anticipation levels, is, nowadays, a highly valuable attribute to be presented by competitive corporations, for best crisis management and prompt recovery response. Those plans are being used by Gas and Power Gas Operation Control Centre and as an input for reliability modeling of gas supply chain. (author)

  6. TradeWind Deliverable 5.1: Effects of increasing wind power penetration on the power flows in European grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemström, Bettina; Uski-Joutsenvuo, Sanna; Holttinen, Hannele

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the main activities and results of Work Package 5 – Effects of increasing wind power penetration on the power flows in European grids in the TradeWind project. VTT is the leader of Work Package 5 and carries the overall responsibility of this report. The work is based on power...... flow simulations with a grid and market model developed in TradeWind Work Package 3, led by Sintef Energy Research. VTT, Sintef Energy Research and Risø have carried out the simulations of the different scenarios, analysed the results and written Chapter 4 about the impact of wind power on cross...

  7. Human networks in the European electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjot, Dominique; Kurgan-van Hentenryk, Ginette

    2004-01-01

    Behind electrical systems, we should not forget the human networks. The European case is interesting for that matter. There were major players involved, from the pioneers up to the conceivers of national and international systems. More particularly, the engineers should be considered for their technical as well as organizational performance. Attitudes must also be stressed: in Europe, electricity has constantly been developed with both nationalist and internationalist considerations, as shown by the passage from Unternehmergeschaeft to Bankgeschaeft after 1918. Neither should we forget the role played by institutions in the formation of networks: schools, holdings, cartels, and also those frontier zones formed by small countries like Belgium and Switzerland. The human networks, finally, left long term results such as: interconnection, inter-firm cooperation, technocracy, and the growing intervention of the State

  8. The power sector in the melting pot. Perspectives for the structure of the sector in eastern Norway; Kraftsektor i stoepeskjeen. Perspektiver for bransjestrukturen paa Oestlandet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Norwegian power sector is undergoing basic changes. All the energy utilities are affected. This report describes the options faced by the owners and the effects of making different choices. It (1) discusses the implications of competition and the new external conditions for publicly owned utilities, (2) analyses the profit obtainable through cooperation and changes in the structure within production, power sale and network activities, and (3) draws up the perspectives of the future structure of the power sector in eastern Norway, where many of the largest suppliers are situated. Two scenarios are discussed for the structure of the power sector in eastern Norway in 2010: (1) Regional focus. The owners have a deliberate attitude to the possibilities of a publicly owned and competitive energy supply and they want to exploit the economic potential to the benefit of the inhabitants of the region. The energy users are offered services that are competitive both on price and quality and the policy instrument is to develop regional solutions that realize the possibilities of large-scale operation and coordination within production, sales and network. (2) Industrial energy supply. Large industrial actors have won most of the auctions as the smaller distribution works were offered for sale. Both scenarios are rooted in changes that have actually occurred or are still in progress. There is no socioeconomic justification for asserting that one scenario is better than the other. The choice of action taken by the owners will first of all affect the distribution of the values managed and created by the power sector. 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Photovoltaic module with integrated power conversion and interconnection system - the European project PV-MIPS

    OpenAIRE

    Henze, N.; Engler, A.; Zacharias, P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the 6th framework program funded by the European Commission the project PV-MIPS (Photovoltaic Module with Integrated Power Conversion System) was launched in November 2004. Together with eleven European partners from Germany, Austria, Greece and the Netherlands a solar module with integrated in-verter shall be developed that can feed solar electricity directly into the grid. The challenging objective of the project is to reduce the total costs of a PV system. At the same time lifetime ...

  10. Determinants of Capital Integration among Strategic Alliance Members in the Retail Sector: Evidence from Central and Southeast European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Butigan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Survival of firms requires continuous search for new and a restructuring of the existing competitive advantages. These can come either from firms’ internal factors or from cooperation with the environment. Cooperation among firms commonly takes place through the formation of strategic alliances. However, such form of cooperation presents only one stage in the integration of business entities. In the long run, strategic alliances can cease to exist or transform into a higher form of association based on capital integration. The objective of this paper is to explore the determinants of capital integration among strategic alliance member firms in retail sectors of several Central and Southeast European countries. Overall, the obtained findings suggest that business entities engage in integration with the aim of reaching hidden knowledge and skills, accessing distribution and supply channels, and developing new products and services. Integration is also driven with the aim of risk diversification and possible better market positioning, achieving the economies of scale, and improving organization and marketing. The opportunistic behavior of partners and limited managerial control represent its strongest barriers.

  11. Development and trade competitiveness of the European wine sector: A gravity analysis of intra-EU flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Lombardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the intra-EU trade of the world׳s chief wine exporters, namely Italy, France and Spain. Using an augmented version of the gravity model we empirically assess which of the three countries have experienced growth in intra-EU market trade. Effects of transportation costs, as well as demand and supply gaps between origin and destination countries, on the size of bilateral trade flows were specifically taken into account. Estimation results highlight the differences between bulk and bottled wine, providing useful information for European producers and policy-makers involved on regulation of wine sector. As concern bulk wine, Italy and Spain show no element of growth in competitiveness, while France shows a statistically significant annual decrease. In contrast, estimates for bottled wine all show a growth tendency, albeit with a different magnitude of coefficients. Italy is the country with the highest trend, followed by Spain and France which instead has a decidedly modest growth in export values. However, analysis of pricing policies shows that France does not appear to target an increase in export volumes so much as an increase in average unit price, while Italy, and especially Spain, have a tendency to increase export volumes, also to the detriment of prices.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gases mitigation measures in the European agro-forestry sector: a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povellato, Andrea; Bosello, Francesco; Giupponi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, climate change has become an increasing concern for scientists, public opinions and policy makers. Due to the pervasive nature of its impacts for many important aspects of human life, climate change is likely to influence and be influenced by the most diverse policy or management choices. This is particularly true for those interventions affecting agriculture and forestry: they are strongly dependent on climate phenomena, but also contribute to climate evolution being sources of and sinks for greenhouse gases (GHG). This paper offers a survey of the existing literature assessing cost-effectiveness and efficiency of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies or the effects of broader economic reforms in the agricultural and forestry sectors. The focus is mainly on European countries. Different methodological approaches, research questions addressed and results are examined. The main findings are that agriculture can potentially provide emissions reduction at a competitive cost, mainly with methane abatement, while carbon sequestration seems more cost-effective with appropriate forest management measures. Afforestation, cropland management and bioenergy are less economically viable measures due to competition with other land use. Mitigation policies should be carefully designed either to balance costs with expected benefits in terms of social welfare. Regional variability is one of the main drawbacks to fully assess the cost-effectiveness of different measures. Integration of models to take into account both social welfare and spatial heterogeneity seems to be the frontier of the next model generation

  13. Potential Evaluation of Energy Supply System in Grid Power System, Commercial, and Residential Sectors by Minimizing Energy Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Takuya; Akisawa, Atushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    If the economic activity in the commercial and residential sector continues to grow, improvement in energy conversion efficiencies of energy supply systems is necessary for CO2 mitigation. In recent years, the electricity driven hot water heat pump (EDHP) and the solar photo voltaic (PV) are commercialized. The fuel cell (FC) of co-generation system (CGS) for the commercial and residential sector will be commercialized in the future. The aim is to indicate the ideal energy supply system of the users sector, which both manages the economical cost and CO2 mitigation, considering the grid power system. In the paper, cooperative Japanese energy supply systems are modeled by linear-programming. It includes the grid power system and energy systems of five commercial sectors and a residential sector. The demands of sectors are given by the objective term for 2005 to 2025. 24 hours load for each 3 annual seasons are considered. The energy systems are simulated to be minimize the total cost of energy supply, and to be mitigate the CO2 discharge. As result, the ideal energy system at 2025 is shown. The CGS capacity grows to 30% (62GW) of total power system, and the EDHP capacity is 26GW, in commercial and residential sectors.

  14. The power outage of November 4, 2006: a plea for a genuine European energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, Andre

    2006-01-01

    As a power outage affected several millions European people in November 2006, this article identifies and discusses actions to be implemented at the European level to avoid such a situation and thus strengthen energy security for all European citizen. It proposes a detailed analysis of the situation of electricity transport grids before the incident, of what happened in terms of overloads for some very high voltage lines: the de-energizing of a line over the Ems River resulted in a domino triggering off of very high voltage lines connected to different areas of Europe; a decrease of current frequency resulted in the disconnection of power plants and grid managers had to reduce consumption in emergency. The article draws some early lessons of the incident before the UCTE (Power Transport Coordination Union) inquiry, and recommends some actions regarding grid coordination, harmonisation of abilities and decisions, and performance of provisional assessments of the electricity supply/demand balance

  15. Large scale solar thermal power for the European Union{exclamation_point}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-06-01

    Southern Europe, on the edge of the sunbelt, represents the ideal location for solar thermal generated power. Last year. SAWIE reported on the THESEUS project, a proposed 50 MWe solar thermal power plant for Frangokastello, southern Crete, which was submitted for support under the European Union`s THERMIE Programme. Funding was approved for the design phase for this innovative power plant, the first large-scale SEGS-style plant on European soil, at the end of last year. However, the THERMIE Programme also provided support for another Southern European plant, proposed by Colon Solar for Huelva in Southern Spain. Whilst hurdles remain to be overcome before both plants are built and commissioned, there is an excellent chance that by the start of the new Millennium, the solar collectors from these two plants could be generating over half a million MWh of energy a year. SAWIE compares the two projects. (author)

  16. Implications of electric power sector restructuring on climate change mitigation in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasson, G; Bouille, D [Instituto de Economia Energetica, (Argentina); Redlinger, R [UNEP, (Denmark)

    2000-05-01

    The Argentine electricity industry has undergone fundamental reforms since 1992, involving large-scale privatisation, and competition in generation and wholesale power markets. In terms of climate change mitigation, these reforms have had the beneficial effect of encouraging improved generation efficiency among thermal power plants and improved end-use consumption efficiency among large industrial firms. However, the reforms have also had the negative effect (from a climate change perspective) of encouraging an ever-increasing use of natural gas combustion for electricity generation, greatly diminishing the role of hydroelectric power which had previously played an important role in the Agentine electricity sector. This report examines the current structure and regulations of the Argentine electricity system and analyses the forces at work which are influencing current technology choices, both in terms of power generation and end-use consumption. The report goes on to examine international experiences in promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies; and finally, the report considers the applicability of these various policy mechanisms within the Agentine context. (EHS)

  17. European type NPP electric power and vent systems. For safety improvement and proposal of international center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Kenichiro

    2011-01-01

    For prevention of reactor accidents of nuclear power plants, multiplicity and redundancy of emergency power would be most important. At station blackout accident, European type manually operated vent operation could minimize release amount of radioactive materials and keep safety of neighboring residents. After Fukushima Daiichi accident, nuclear power plants could not restart operation even after completion of periodical inspection. This article introduced European type emergency power and vent systems in Swiss, Sweden and Germany with state of nuclear power phaseout for reference at considering to upgrade safety and accident mitigation measures for better understanding of the public. In addition, it would be important to recover trust of nuclear technology to continue to disseminate latest information on new knowledge of accident site and decontamination technologies to domestic and overseas people. As its implementation, establishment of Fukushima international center was proposed. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Point of view regarding the antitrust policy related to the electricity and thermal power generation sector in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexe, Fl.; Ionescu, M.

    1996-01-01

    At present, generation, transmission and selling of power in Romania is actually a monopoly of RENEL (The Romanian Electricity Authority). Moreover, RENEL covers an important share of the heat required by the great district heat consumers and industry (steam). Medium and long term programs for RENEL restructuring aims at moving the power distribution and selling sectors out of RENEL and at restructuring the generation sector. The present papers focuses mainly on those issues related to power generation sector privatization meant to promote a real competition in the field of power generation. To reach this purpose new regulations are necessary to ensure the access to the power system of various consumers satisfying certain technical requirements. This regards also all the independent power producers of electricity and possibly of thermal power (for instance the cogeneration power plants with less than or close to 50 MW). At the same time new concepts such as 'contracted power' and 'transit (wiring) tax' should be implemented in the near future in the business relations. Competition in this field will lead to the development of power market and the enhancement of power investments. (author). 3 refs

  19. Integrated resource planning in the power sector and economy-wide changes in environmental emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Marpaung, Charles O.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the roles of key factors (i.e., changes in structure, fuel mix and final demand) on total economy-wide changes in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions when power sector development follows the integrated resource planning (IRP) approach instead of traditional supply-based electricity planning (TEP). It also considers the rebound effect (RE) of energy efficiency improvements in the demand side and analyzes the sensitivity of the results to variations in the values of the RE. A framework is developed to decompose the total economy-wide change in the emission of a pollutant into four major components, i.e., structural change-, fuel mix- , final demand- and joint-effects. The final demand effect is further decomposed into three categories, i.e., construction of power plants, electricity final demand and final demand related to electricity using equipments. The factor decomposition framework is then applied in the case of the power sector in Indonesia. A key finding in the case of Indonesia is that in the absence of the RE, there would be total economy-wide reductions in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions of 431, 1.6 and 1.3 million tons respectively during the planning horizon of 2006-2025 under IRP as compared to that under TEP. The decomposition analysis shows that the final demand effect would account for 38% of the total CO 2 emission reduction followed by the structural change effect (35.1%) and fuel mix effect (27.6%) while the joint effect is negligible. The study also shows that economy-wide CO 2 emission reduction due to IRP considering the RE of 45% would be 241 million tons as compared to 333 million tons when the RE is 25%

  20. Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, R.F.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report's purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science ampersand Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections

  1. Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, R.F.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1992-08-25

    Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report's purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections.

  2. Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, R.F.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1992-08-25

    Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report`s purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science & Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections.

  3. Integrated resource planning in the power sector and economy-wide changes in environmental emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Marpaung, Charles O.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the roles of key factors (i.e., changes in structure, fuel mix and final demand) on total economy-wide changes in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions when power sector development follows the integrated resource planning (IRP) approach instead of traditional supply-based electricity planning (TEP). It also considers the rebound effect (RE) of energy efficiency improvements in the demand side and analyzes the sensitivity of the results to variations in the values of the RE. A framework is developed to decompose the total economy-wide change in the emission of a pollutant into four major components, i.e., structural change-, fuel mix- , final demand- and joint-effects. The final demand effect is further decomposed into three categories, i.e., construction of power plants, electricity final demand and final demand related to electricity using equipment. The factor decomposition framework is then applied in the case of the power sector in Indonesia. A key finding in the case of Indonesia is that in the absence of the RE, there would be total economy-wide reductions in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions of 431, 1.6 and 1.3 million tons respectively during the planning horizon of 2006-2025 under IRP as compared to that under TEP. The decomposition analysis shows that the final demand effect would account for 38% of the total CO 2 emission reduction followed by the structural change effect (35.1%) and fuel mix effect (27.6%) while the joint effect is negligible. The study also shows that economy-wide CO 2 emission reduction due to IRP considering the RE of 45% would be 241 million tons as compared to 333 million tons when the RE is 25%. (Author)

  4. 2004 winter meeting: nuclear power and the continuity of supply in the enlarged European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This year's Winter Meeting organized by the Deutsches Atomforum e.V. focused on Nuclear Energy and Safety of Supply in the Enlarged European Union. Numerous participants from Germany and abroad discussed contributions from politics, industry, and science in Berlin, February 4 to 5, 2004. The general understanding was that a secure, economically viable and non-polluting supply of energy for Europe and the European Union was indispensable, and that the power industry faced major projects as a result of the foreseeable need to build new power plants, or replace decommissioned old plants, of 40,000 MW generating capacity in Germany and 200,000 MW in Europe. (orig.)

  5. Fair chance required for nuclear power. Plea of the European Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    The first Euroatom European nuclear conference was held in Brussels on November 25/26, 2004 was attended by more than 250 renowned experts, including more than 20 managers of the board from a dozen European countries. They all agreed that the construction of new nuclear power plants will depend on the public opinion, i.e. it will be a political and communication problem rather than a technical problem. A swing of public opinion is difficult as rational arguments do not apply when emotions are high. The economic efficiency of nuclear power was proved again by the new reactor constructed in Finland. (orig.)

  6. 1. European conference on local democracies and nuclear power plants. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Group of European Municipalities with Nuclear Facilities (GMF) was constituted in 1999. Its basic objectives are to keep and strengthen the relations between municipalities with the aim of consolidating a European network of municipalities with common problems; and to participate in European forums on the future of nuclear energy, contributing and helping in decision making processes. The GMF wants to become a support element to the local authorities of nuclear areas in order to foster their participation in the decision making processes, working continuously in collaboration with other agents of the nuclear sector, especially with the authorities of the European Commission, assuming that its major contribution is the knowledge of the everyday territorial reality, as a fundamental element that should be born in mind in all defined policies, whether on european or national level. It is stated that the debate on the future of nuclear energy represents a new era for the municipalities with nuclear facilities across Europe and that international cooperation will open the way for a better use of nuclear energy in Europe

  7. Fundamental properties of and transition to a fully renewable pan-European power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Andresen, Gorm; Rasmussen, Morten Grud; Rodriguez, Rolando A.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a top-down stylized model to analyse the impact of a transition to a European power system based only on wind and solar power. Wind and solar power generation is calculated from high-resolution weather data and based on the country specific electricity demand alone, we introduce...... a model of the conventional power system that facilitates simple spatio-temporal modelling of its macroscopic behaviour without direct reference to the underlying technological, economical, and political development in the system. Using this model, we find that wind and solar power generation can replace...... conventional power generation and power capacity to a large degree if power transmission across the continent is made possible....

  8. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption....... The required balancing power turns out to be 25% of the average hourly load. These numbers are in agreement with current hydro storage lakes in Scandinavia and the Alps, as well as with potential hydrogen storage in mostly North-German salt caverns....

  9. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    2011-01-01

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption....... The required balancing power turns out to be 25% of the average hourly load. These numbers are in agreement with current hydro storage lakes in Scandinavia and the Alps, as well as with potential hydrogen storage in mostly North-German salt caverns....

  10. Generating efficiency: The power of price caps in the public and private Spanish electricity sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arocena, P.; Price, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    Economic regulation of firms with market power has placed increasing emphasis on incentive-based regulation such as price caps. The move to such regulation often coincides with a change of ownership, making it difficult to separate the incentive effects. We focus on the effect of regulation alone by analysing the imposition of price cap type regulation on both publicly and privately owned Spanish electricity generators in 1988, several years before three was any change of ownership. Our initial results indicate that the publicly owned generators are generally more efficient than the private ones, but that the effect of price caps is to increase the efficiency of private sector plants faster than those in the public sector. We introduce two novelties into the analysis: we incorporate levels of CO2 and NOx emissions; and we include declared plant availability as an output. The outcome is dependent on the choice of inputs and outputs, and we argue that our measures are more appropriate than traditional measures for a system of central despatch for generators facing environmental constraints. (au) 37 refs

  11. Internalisation of external costs in the Polish power generation sector: A partial equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudelko, Mariusz

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a methodical framework, which is the basis for the economic analysis of the mid-term planning of development of the Polish energy system. The description of the partial equilibrium model and its results are demonstrated for different scenarios applied. The model predicts the generation, investment and pricing of mid-term decisions that refer to the Polish electricity and heat markets. The current structure of the Polish energy sector is characterised by interactions between the supply and demand sides of the energy sector. The supply side regards possibilities to deliver fuels from domestic and import sources and their conversion through transformation processes. Public power plants, public CHP plants, industry CHP plants and municipal heat plants represent the main producers of energy in Poland. Demand is characterised by the major energy consumers, i.e. industry and construction, transport, agriculture, trade and services, individual consumers and export. The relationships between the domestic electricity and heat markets are modelled taking into account external costs estimates. The volume and structure of energy production, electricity and heat prices, emissions, external costs and social welfare of different scenarios are presented. Results of the model demonstrate that the internalisation of external costs through the increase in energy prices implies significant improvement in social welfare

  12. Nuclear power plants in Europe 1996. Report on operation, construction and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1996. The 'Nuclear Power Plants in Europe 1996' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1996, 216 (1995: 215) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 177,916 (177,010) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation and 24 (26) units with 23,086 (24,786) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 240 (241) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 201,002 (201,796) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1067 (1048) TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1995; 802 (792) TWh of this aggregate was converted in 142 (137) units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 36%. Lithuania, with 86 (77)% has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 76 (75)% and Belgium with 56%. The lowest percentage, only 4 (5)%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power are operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de

  13. 1997: Nuclear power plants in Europe. Report on operation, construction and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1997. The '1997: Nuclear Power Plants in Europe' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1997, 216 (1996: 216) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 180, 184 (177, 916) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation and 22 (24) units with 20,054 (23,086) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 238 (240) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 200,238 (201,002) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1138 (1067) TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1996: 806 (802) TWh of this aggregate was converted in 142 (142) units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 35,4 (36,0)%. Lithuania, with 83,4 (85,6)% has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 77,4 (76,0)% and Belgium with 57,2 (55,5)%. The lowest percentage, only 4,8 (3,8)%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power is operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de

  14. Impact of the Power Sector Development on the Emission Level in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinis, A.; Tarvydas, D.

    1998-01-01

    The analyses carried out show that further necessary investments into safety improvements of the Ignalina NPP satisfy the criterion of the least cost power sector development and it should be kept in operation until the end of its technical life time. Modular CHP with diesel engines or gas turbines, or new CCGT will be the most attractive source of electricity generation if new capacities are required. The Ignalina NPP also has crucial impact on all kind of emissions in Lithuania. If this power plant is shut down, the requirement of the Kyoto Protocol for CO 2 mitigation will be violated already in 2011, even in the case of the most pessimistic economy growth and electricity export scenario. In the case of the further operation of the nuclear power plant Lithuania will be able to fulfil the requirement of the Kyoto Protocol during the whole study period. However, during temporary shut down of the nuclear plant for safety upgrade or rechannelling of reactors some reduction of electricity export will be necessary. (author)

  15. Assessment of On-Site Power Opportunities in the Industrial Sector; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify the potential for on-site power generation in the U.S. industrial sector with emphasis on nine industrial groups called the ''Industries of the Future'' (IOFs) by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through its Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), the DOE has teamed with the IOFs to develop collaborative strategies for improving productivity, global competitiveness, energy usage and environmental performance. Total purchases for electricity and steam for the IOFs are in excess of$27 billion annually. Energy-related costs are very significant for these industries. The nine industrial groups are: (1) Agriculture (SIC 1); (2) Forest products; (3) Lumber and wood products (SIC 24); (4) Paper and allied products (SIC 26); (5) Mining (SIC 11, 12, 14); (6) Glass (SIC 32); (7) Petroleum (SIC 29); (8) Chemicals (SIC 28); and (9) Metals (SIC 33)-Steel, Aluminum, Metal casting. Although not currently part of the IOF program, the food industry is included in this report because of its close relationship to the agricultural industry and its success with on-site power generation. On-site generation provides an alternative means to reduce energy costs, comply with environmental regulations, and ensure a reliable power supply. On-site generation can ease congestion in the local utility's electric grid. Electric market restructuring is exacerbating the price premium for peak electricity use and for reliability, creating considerable market interest in on-site generation

  16. Power sector reforms in Brazil and its impacts on energy efficiency and research and development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannuzzi, G.M. de

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-nineties Brazil has implemented significant changes in the country's power sector, including privatization, introduction of competition and the creation of regulatory agency. As reform started in Brazil traditional support to energy efficiency and energy research and development suffered a discontinuation, budget cuts and re-definition of roles of the public agents in charge. At the same time, new regulatory measures and the creation of a national public interest fund have helped to maintain and potentially enhance the country's effort to promote energy efficiency and investments in energy R and D. This paper analyses the impacts of these changes in the areas of energy efficiency and energy research and development and argues for an increased role of developing countries to provide solutions for a meeting energy demand requirements more suitable to their internal markets

  17. Implications of renewable energy technologies in the Bangladesh power sector. Long-term planning strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Alam Hossain

    2010-10-04

    Bangladesh is facing daunting energy challenges: Security concerns over growing fuel imports, limited domestic energy resources for power generation, and projected demands for electricity that will exceed domestic supply capabilities within a few years. By acknowledging the potential of renewable energy resources, the country could possibly meet its unprecedented energy demand, thus increasing electricity accessibility for all and enhancing energy security through their advancement. The integration of renewable energy technologies in the power sector through national energy planning would, therefore, be a step in the right direction, not only for sustainable development of the country but also as part of Bangladesh's responsibility toward the global common task of environmental protection. This study estimates the potential of renewable energy sources for power generation in Bangladesh from the viewpoint of different promising available technologies. Future long-term electricity demand in Bangladesh is projected based on three economic growth scenarios. The energy planning model LEAP is applied to forecast the energy requirements from 2005 to 2035. Different policy scenarios, e.g., accelerated renewable energy production, null coal import, CO2 emission reduction targets and carbon taxes in the power sector from 2005 to 2035 are explored. The analyses are based on a long-term energy system model of Bangladesh using the MARKAL model. Prospects for the power sector development of the country are identified, which ensure energy security and mitigate environmental impacts. The technical potential of grid-connected solar photovoltaic and wind energy are estimated at 50174 MW and 4614 MW, respectively. The potential of energy from biomass and small hydro power plants is estimated at 566 MW and 125 MW, respectively. Total electricity consumption was 18 TWh in 2005 and is projected to increase about 7 times to 132 TWh by 2035 in the low GDP growth scenario. In the

  18. Exploring the impact of reduced hydro capacity and lignite resources on the Macedonian power sector development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taseska-Gjorgievskaa Verica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reference development pathway of the Macedonian energy sector highlights the important role that lignite and hydro power play in the power sector, each accounting for 40% of total capacity in 2021. In 2030, this dominance continues, although hydro has a higher share due to the retirement of some of the existing lignite plants. Three sensitivity runs of the MARKAL-Macedonia energy system model have been undertaken to explore the importance of these technologies to the system, considering that their resource may be reduced with time: (1 Reducing the availability of lignite from domestic mines by 50% in 2030 (with limited capacity of imports, (2 Removing three large hydro options, which account for 310 MW in the business-as-usual case, and (3 Both of the above restrictions. The reduction in lignite availability is estimated to lead to additional overall system costs of 0.7%, compared to hydro restrictions at only 0.1%. With both restrictions applied, the additional costs rise to over 1%, amounting to 348 M€ over the 25 year planning horizon. In particular, costs are driven up by an increasing reliance on electricity imports. In all cases, the total electricity generation decreases, but import increases, which leads to a drop in capacity requirements. In both, the lignite and the hydro restricted cases, it is primarily gas-fired generation and imports that “fill the gap”. This highlights the importance of an increasingly diversified and efficient supply, which should be promoted through initiatives on renewables, energy efficiency, and lower carbon emissions.

  19. THE NIGERIAN GAS MASTER-PLAN, INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES, ISSUES AFFECTING POWER SECTOR: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. INGWE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian Gas Master-Plan, Investment Opportunities, Challenges, Issues Affecting Power Sector: an Analysis. The objective of this article is to contribute towards understanding of the Nigerian Gas Master Plan (NGMP/Plan and its bifurcations with key socio-economic development factors. I applied the method of discourse to bring to being some points that have hitherto been unknown about the Master-plan and its inter-relationships and bifurcations. Elaborated here are the spectacular gains that have accrued to the Latin American country, Trinidad and Tobago, from its recent development of natural gas resources. This was considered suitable and significant here for highlighting that if such spectacular achievements could be realized from Trinidad and Tobago’s relatively smaller gas deposit (15.3 tcf, probable reserves (8.4 tcf, possible reserves (6.2 tcf would be by far greater considering Nigeria’s larger natural gas reserves (184 tcf wealth as earlier stated. I show that the Plan is well designed relevant to addressing Nigeria’s current development needs generally. It presents potentials for stimulating Nigeria’s economic growth by harnessing the country’s abundant natural gas reserves. The Plan enumerates/ elaborates huge investment opportunities. Some challenges likely to be faced in the implementation/management of the Plan are already being surmounted as recent reports show that some of its key investments have been realized and the required infrastructure are being provided. Regarding the issues in the Master-plan that are likely to affect and are affecting Nigeria’s power sector development, I reckon that they are mostly positive factors due to the way the plan promises to stimulate electricity generation in our country.

  20. Natural-gas-powered thermoelectricity as a reliability factor in the Brazilian electric sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, E.; Oliveira, J.C.S. de; de Oliveira, P.R.; Alonso, P.S.R.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of natural-gas-powered thermoelectricity into the Brazilian generation sector can be considered as a very complex energy, economic, regulatory and institutional revision. Brazil is a country with very specific characteristics in electricity generation, as approximately 80% of the generating capacity is based on hydroelectricity, showing strong dependency on rain and management of water reservoirs. A low rate of investment in the Brazilian Electricity Industry in the period of 1995-2000, associated with periods of low rainfall, led to a dramatic lowering of the water stocks in the reservoirs. With this scenario and the growing supply of natural gas, both from within Brazil and imported, natural gas thermal electric plants became a good option to diversify the electrical supply system. In spite of the Brazilian Government's efforts to install such plants, the country was faced with severe electricity rationing in 2001. The objective of this work is to show the need to continue with the implementation of natural gas thermal electricity projects, in a manner that allows flexibility and guarantees greater working reliability for the entire Brazilian electricity sector. Taking into account the world trend towards renewable energy, the perspectives of usage of biofuels in the Brazilian Energy Matrix and in electrical energy generation are also analyzed. The very issue of electrical power efficiency in Brazil and its challenges and strategic proposals from the standpoint of Government Programs and results provided so far are presented. The technological constraints in order to put on stream the thermal electric plants are also analyzed. The article concludes with a positive perspective of the usage of natural gas as to be the third pillar in the Brazilian Energy Matrix for the years to come

  1. Ancillary Services for the European Grid with High Shares of Wind and Solar Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hulle, Frans; Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha

    2012-01-01

    to be better understood. This relates both to the technical capabilities of the plants for delivering specific services and to the quantification of the needs. The paper presents the approach of the European IEE project REserviceS, aiming at establishing reference guidance for the ongoing developments......With significantly increasing share of variable renewable power generation like wind and solar PV, the need in the power system for ancillary services supporting the network frequency, voltage, etc. changes. Turning this issue around, market opportunities will emerge for wind and solar PV...... technology to deliver such grid services. In the European power system, adequate market mechanisms need to be developed to ensure that there will be an efficient trading of these services. For that purpose a range of (economic) characteristics of wind (and solar) power as providers of grid services need...

  2. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2015-04-01

    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe

  3. European Union; Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation—Technical Note on Progress with Bank Restructuring and Resolution in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This article is an analysis on the restructuring banking system of the European Union. The global financial crisis created the need to restructure by immensely reflecting weaknesses in the public, households, corporate, and other financial sectors. The restructuring includes the strengthening of bank resolution tools, the activation of nonperforming loans, the maintenance of macrofinancial framework, recovery of market access, and so on. The Executive Board recommends this transition of the E...

  4. The new regulatory state: the social powers of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, S

    1999-03-01

    The understanding of the European Union poses a challenge for Sociology and its traditional conceptions of the state. In particular, the impact of the social dimension has been underestimated and undervalued. This paper explores the implications of the developing social dimension of the European Union for European social relations in the context of globalization which allegedly reduces the power of states to act effectively in the social realm. It argues for a broader conceptualization of the social dimension and for a new conception of the regulatory state. It argues that the significance of a politico-legal project social justice. It concludes with a re-consideration of the powers of the state in an era of globalization

  5. European Power Electronic conference in Aalborg, Denmark - 1000 participants discussing the future energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2007-01-01

    The European Power Electronics and Adjustable Speed Drives conference with technical sponsorship of IEEE Industrial Electronic Society has been held in Aalborg, Denmark, during the first days of September 2007 with an overwhelming success and participation. It was hosted by Aalborg University's I...

  6. Soft Power and Hard Measures: Large-Scale Assessment, Citizenship and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, David; Engel, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) with particular emphasis on the European Union's (EU's) involvement in the regional portion. Using the ICCS, the EU actively combines hard measures with soft power, allowing the EU to define and steer cross-national rankings of values of EU citizenship. The…

  7. The European Commission: nuclear power has an important role to play

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The European Commission (E.C.) thinks that nuclear power has an important role to play: first to reduce CO 2 emissions and secondly to reinforce energy self-reliance of the member states. The decision to introduce nuclear power in their energy mix belongs to every state but the E.C. has also highlighted that if adequate investment are quickly made 2 thirds of the electricity produced in the European Union in 2010 could by from low-carbon-emitting sources. Today with 148 reactors operating in 15 member countries nuclear power contributes to 1 third of the electricity produced. Another issue that is looming is the security of electricity supplying. A study has shown that the security level is worsening (particularly in winter) because of the greater part of wind energy in the energy mix as wind energy is not necessarily available when energy demand is peaking. The E.C. has proposed a new directive drawing a common standard frame for nuclear safety requirements concerning design, site selection, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Each member state will have the choice to implement stiffer regulations. The European Union must reduce its dependency on Russian gas by increasing its storing capacities, by easing gas exchanges between member states and by importing more liquefied natural gas. European member states will have to invert 1000*10 9 euros in gas and electrical power infrastructures in the next 25 years. (A.C.)

  8. Policy making, Comitology and the Balance of power in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steunenberg, Bernard; Steunenberg, B.; Koboldt, Christian; Schmidtchen, Dieter

    1996-01-01

    Using simple game theory, this paper analyzes the working properties of the different procedures laid down in the comitology decision, i.e., the European Council's decision on procedures for the exercise of implementing powers conferred on the Commission. Furthermore, it addresses the question of

  9. Improving the explanatory power of bargaining models - New evidence from European Union studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selck, TJ

    Focusing on recent studies of European Union legislative decision-making, this research note evaluates the current literature that attempts to improve the explanatory power of bargaining models by integrating game-theoretic spatial models with micro-level data gained from expert interviews or from

  10. Prospects for the African Power Sector. Scenarios and Strategies for Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    Electricity has become an indispensable prerequisite for enhancing economic activity and improving human quality of life. Agricultural and industrial production processes are made more efficient through the use of electricity. Households need electricity for many purposes, including cooking, lighting, refrigeration, study and home-based economic activity. Essential facilities, such as hospitals, require electricity for cooling, sterilisation and refrigeration. Africa currently has 147 GW of installed capacity, a level comparable to the capacity China installs in one or two years. Average per capita electricity consumption in sub-Saharan Africa (excluding South Africa) is just 153 kWh/year. This is one-fourth of the consumption in India and just 6% of the global average. Nearly 600 million people in Africa lack access to electricity. Electricity blackouts occur on a daily basis in many African countries. Faced with this situation, people and enterprises often have to rely on expensive diesel power generation to meet their electricity needs, costing some African economies between 1% and 5% of GDP annually. To meet its growing demand Africa has an urgent need to raise the level of investment in its power sector. Analysis of a range of country and regional studies suggests the continent will need to add around 250 GW of capacity between now and 2030 to meet demand growth. This will require capacity additions to double to around 7 GW a year in the short-term and to quadruple by 2030. The magnitude of the investments required is such that governments will need public-private partnerships in order to scale up investment in generation capacity. While access rates are improving in some countries, the business environment and policy framework are still not sufficiently robust to attract the level of private investment required to install the additional 250 GW by 2030. Many African countries are burdened by opaque policy frameworks and excessive red tape, while electricity

  11. The electric power market in Europe. The stakes and forecasts of the market reconfiguration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This study takes stock on the eight main european electric power markets. It provides data on the electric power sector, knowledge on the european market competition, it analyzes the european companies mastership and management, the market reconfiguration, it evaluates and compares the financial performance of the sector leaders. (A.L.B.)

  12. Coal transitions in China's power sector: A plant-level assessment of stranded assets and retirement pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Berghmans, Nicolas; Sartor, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    This paper estimates the potential scale of stranded assets in the coal power sector in China under different policy scenarios. A number of factors are putting significant pressure on the coal-power sector: a recent investment bubble in new capacity, structural slowing in electricity demand growth, upcoming moves to liberalize electricity markets and introduce a carbon market, and continued support for renewable and low-carbon sources of electricity. Stranded assets in the Chinese coal-fired power sector are estimated at 90 billion USD 2015 under the current policy trajectory (NDC-Style Scenario). This situation threatens to increase the political economy challenges of China's electricity sector transition to a low-carbon system. This situation is not unique to China: other countries will also face coal-sector stress due to the competitiveness of renewables, and therefore managing existing coal power capacities needs to move to the forefront of climate and energy policy efforts. To turn this situation around, Chinese authorities should have a strategy for a managed phase-down of coal power assets. All new construction of coal power plants should cease: recent project cancellations have been a step in the right direction. A planned retirement schedule for old coal plants that have already made a return on investment should be developed to 2030. Existing, newer coal plants should be prepared to play a role and receive revenues for balancing a high renewables system. A managed 2 deg. C-compatible climate mitigation scenario, in which old plant are retired after 30 years, both puts China's electricity sector on an accelerated pathway to decarbonization, as well as lowering the risks of stranded assets compared to the NDC-Style Scenario, by a total of 12 billion USD 2015. Banking sector exposure to stranded assets in the Managed 2 deg. C Scenario are estimated at less than 10% of the banking sector's loan loss provisions: risks of financial disruption are

  13. Research paper 2000-B-4: adjustments in the Dutch electricity producing sector in the context of the European directive 88/609/EEC: a case study on national implementation, environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Within the context of the IMPOL project several fields of European environmental policy are studied on aspects as national implementation and environmental and efficiency outcomes. For the IMPOL project a case study was done on the transformation of the Dutch electricity sector in the context of the European Directive 88/609/EEC. The indicators used in this report for environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs were chosen in line with a coordinating document (Eames, 1999). The European Directive 88/609/EEC regulates Large Combustion Plants on their SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. These emissions are relevant for air quality and for the acidification problem. In the empirical part of this report emphasis is laid on the power plants as a specific sub-group of the large combustion plants. The report starts in chapter 2 with a description of the Dutch policy on acidification and regulation that existed when 88/609/EEC was issued. This way it is clarified that the formal implementation of the European Directive was done in the Netherlands with very little effort. In section 2.4 some major information on the structure of the electricity production sector is given as well as some insights into developments. In section 2.5 details on a covenant to reduce emissions from power plants is given. The electricity sector and the government agreed upon this document as a binding agenda for change. In section 2.6 information on monitoring and enforcement is given. In chapter 3, the environmental outcomes are discussed. First the emissions of all large combustion plants are presented in time series. Within the IMPOL research-team the decision was taken to concentrate on the SO{sub 2} emissions of power plants. Therefore, secondly the SO{sub 2} emissions of the power plants and the individual power plants are presented. This opens the possibility for an analysis of the found decrease of SO{sub 2} emissions. In section 3.3 the

  14. Research paper 2000-B-4: adjustments in the Dutch electricity producing sector in the context of the European directive 88/609/EEC: a case study on national implementation, environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lulofs, K.

    2000-01-01

    Within the context of the IMPOL project several fields of European environmental policy are studied on aspects as national implementation and environmental and efficiency outcomes. For the IMPOL project a case study was done on the transformation of the Dutch electricity sector in the context of the European Directive 88/609/EEC. The indicators used in this report for environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs were chosen in line with a coordinating document (Eames, 1999). The European Directive 88/609/EEC regulates Large Combustion Plants on their SO 2 and NO x emissions. These emissions are relevant for air quality and for the acidification problem. In the empirical part of this report emphasis is laid on the power plants as a specific sub-group of the large combustion plants. The report starts in chapter 2 with a description of the Dutch policy on acidification and regulation that existed when 88/609/EEC was issued. This way it is clarified that the formal implementation of the European Directive was done in the Netherlands with very little effort. In section 2.4 some major information on the structure of the electricity production sector is given as well as some insights into developments. In section 2.5 details on a covenant to reduce emissions from power plants is given. The electricity sector and the government agreed upon this document as a binding agenda for change. In section 2.6 information on monitoring and enforcement is given. In chapter 3, the environmental outcomes are discussed. First the emissions of all large combustion plants are presented in time series. Within the IMPOL research-team the decision was taken to concentrate on the SO 2 emissions of power plants. Therefore, secondly the SO 2 emissions of the power plants and the individual power plants are presented. This opens the possibility for an analysis of the found decrease of SO 2 emissions. In section 3.3 the likely causes and their

  15. Investigation of greenhouse gas reduction potential and change in technological selection in Indian power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bansal, Narendra Kumar; Wagner, H.-J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the growing energy needs along with increasing concerns towards control of greenhouse gas emissions, most developing countries are under pressure to find alternative methods for energy conversion and policies to make these technologies economically viable. One of the instruments that have been adopted by many industrial countries is that of the carbon tax. The rate of introducing carbon taxes however, depends upon the local economic conditions and market forces. The case of Indian power sector has been examined by using MARKAL model for introduction of carbon taxes at four different trajectories. Their implications on the power generation choices have been investigated for a time span of 25 years from the year 2000. In general large hydropower plants have emerged as the first choice followed by wind energy systems. However, cheaper availability of coal in India keeps scope of use of coal based technologies for which pressurised fluidised bed combustion technology has been found to be the balanced choice among fossil technologies. There exists a potential of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by about 25% as compared to the 'business-as-usual' case in presence of high carbon tax rates

  16. Direct foreign investment in power sector in India: Enron - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhyadav, S.

    1996-01-01

    In order to develop its economy at a faster pace, India needs to make large investments in its infrastructure - electric power being one such sector - domestic as well as foreign companies - to invest in this area. In response, Enron Corporation of USA entered into an agreement with the Maharashtra State Electricity Board to establish a 2-phase power project for a capacity of 2015 MW (695 MW in Phase I and 1320 MW in Phase II). Soon after the contract, there was a change of government in the State, as a result of elections. The new government scrapped the project tariff, etc. Since India is an emerging destination for foreign investments, scrapping of the project may have an adverse repercussion on the inflow of foreign capital in future as also on the cost of this capital. However, a renegotiated settlement will go a long way to establish the credibility of Enron as a serious multinational giant and India as a sage destination for foreign investments. (author). 19 refs., 3 tabs

  17. The European Commission in the power relations of the European Union after the 2004–07 enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Ostrovskaya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available pplying a comparative perspective, this article argues that the current crisis of European Union integration cannot be resolved by member states either transferring additional competences to the EU level or strengthening the intergovernmental dimension of integration. The systemic character of the ongoing process is weakening the institutional structure, which affects both the institutions and their power relations. The European Commission (EC, once a highly independent supranational actor on the eve of the integration process in the 1950s, now faces growing competition from intergovernmental elements in the institutional balance. The theoretical approach of historical neo-institutionalism offers new, useful insights into this research area. The articles uses this theory to analyze the EC’s evolution since the time of its creation in the form of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community, focusing on the links between the gradual changes in its internal structure and its institutional position. Although the phenomenon of “path dependence” was initially present in the EC’s internal systems, the later development of its competences in the institutional balance provoked member states to limit the commission’s activities in the second half of the 1960s. First attempts were made mainly by appointing weak presidents, but the later reform of the EC’s internal structure, undertaken by Neil Kinnock in the beginning of the 21st centry, directed its further structural development as a more technocratic institution. Consequently, the EC was not able to pursue its aims effectively in preparing for its enlargement to include Central and Eastern Europe. The increased heterogeneity of the member states after the 2004–07 enlargement also weakened the EC’s position in the institutional balance, diminishing its traditional function as the “engine of integration.”

  18. The Gulf Countries' Energy Strategies. What's on the Menu for the Power Sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncourt, Maite de

    2012-09-01

    The futuristic green city of Masdar in the United Arab Emirates or the latest announcements of Saudi Arabia which might now well become the new Eldorado for solar energy companies have a clear marketing varnish. But if they are showcases of green ambitions, they nonetheless reflect the situation the Gulf States face today driven by the development driven by the development of heavy industry and petrochemicals but first and foremost by the rapid population growth (around 2% for Saudi Arabia and 3% for Kuwait; Qatar and the Emirates have higher population growth rate due to immigrants). Demand for power is rising as fast as buildings, even more so as most of the water consumed is desalinated. While their economies still largely depend on oil and gas revenues, burning increasing amounts of fuels domestically into power stations is not sustainable. These countries are facing an energy paradigm with serious implications. Faced with this challenge, the Gulf States are thinking of solutions. They are moving at different speeds towards the diversification of power generation sources and the restructuring of their power sector. Recent years have therefore evolved under the banner of reform and a strong institutional activity in most states. This comparative study intends to evaluate the energy paradigm in the GCC, and the responses given by some of the monarchies. This paper is written in the middle of the reform process, and therefore does not claim to evaluate the results of these measures. Rather it looks at the speed at which these reforms are being undertaken, the tools used and advantages across the countries, and the type of reforms that are conducted. It focuses on three specific countries: Saudi Arabia, the UAE and reports on other states to a lesser extent. The final section assesses the impact of the economic crisis and the regional political turmoil on the reform process. This paper argues that while high oil prices provide a large tax base for states

  19. Storage and balancing synergies in a fully or highly renewable pan-European power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Morten Grud; Andresen, Gorm Bruun; Greiner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Through a parametric time-series analysis of 8 years of hourly data, we quantify the storage size and balancing energy needs for highly and fully renewable European power systems for different levels and mixes of wind and solar energy. By applying a dispatch strategy that minimizes the balancing energy needs for a given storage size, the interplay between storage and balancing is quantified, providing a hard upper limit on their synergy. An efficient but relatively small storage reduces balancing energy needs significantly due to its influence on intra-day mismatches. Furthermore, we show that combined with a low-efficiency hydrogen storage and a level of balancing equal to what is today provided by storage lakes, it is sufficient to meet the European electricity demand in a fully renewable power system where the average power generation from combined wind and solar exceeds the demand by only a few percent. - Highlights: ► We model a wind and solar based European power system with storage and balancing. ► We find that storage needs peaks when average renewable generation matches load. ► We find strong synergetic effects when combining storage and balancing. ► We study the effects of a storage capable of storing 6 h average use. ► We find a realisable fully renewable scenario based on wind, solar and hydro power.

  20. Improvement of the Performance of Scheduled Stepwise Power Programme Changes within the European Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welfonder, E.; Weissbach, T.; Schulz, U.

    2008-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the electrical energy market, the technical realisation of power transactions based on energy market contracts often effects large stepwise power programme changes – especially at the change of the hour. Due to mainly economic reasons these stepwise power programme changes...... extended discussions with power plant and power system operators as well as with power plant dispatchers the described issues will be adopted into a VGB-recommendation which shall be published by VGB Powertech for Germany and Europe. Subsequently, it is intended to include the main elements of the VGB...