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Sample records for european patients alpha-amylase

  1. Salivary type alpha-amylase activity in serum and in urine of patients with lung adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrzewska, I.; Wolska, K.; Koput, A.

    1993-01-01

    Total alpha-amylase activity in sera and urine of 30 patients with lung adenocarcinoma has been tested. The results were compared with control group of 30 healthy voluntaries. The activity of pancreatic type was differentiated from salivary alpha amylase. Salivary type was inhibited selectively by Triticum aestivum. Higher levels of total and salivary type amylase were noted in patients with lung adenocarcinoma in comparison to healthy control. The increase was significant (p<0.005). Correlation was observed between the activity of salivary type amylase and the stage of adenocarcinoma. (author)

  2. The relationship between the level of salivary alpha amylase activity and pain severity in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis

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    Fatemeh Ahmadi-Motamayel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Assessment of dental pain severity is very challenging in dentistry. Previous studies have suggested that elevated salivary alpha amylase may contribute to increased physical stresses. There is a close association between salivary alpha amylase and plasma norepinephrine under stressful physical conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pain severity and salivary alpha amylase levels in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods Thirty-six patients (20 females and 16 males with severe tooth pain due to symptomatic irreversible pulpitis were selected. The visual analogue scale (VAS score was used to assess the pain severity in each patient. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected, and the level of alpha amylase activity was assessed by the spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13. Results The level of alpha amylase was significantly increased in the saliva in association with pain severity assessed by VAS. The salivary alpha amylase was also elevated with increased age and in males. Conclusions There was a significant correlation between the VAS pain scale and salivary alpha amylase level, which indicates this biomarker may be a good index for the objective assessment of pain intensity.

  3. Altered Salivary Alpha-Amylase Secretion in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

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    Zhuoni Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC frequently present with psychological disturbances as well as dysfunctions of autonomic nervous system (ANS. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA secretion is predominantly controlled by sympathetic nervous activity, while salivary fluid secretion is by parasympathetic nervous activity. Thus, it is speculated that alterations of salivary secretion may be addressed in UC populations. Methods. Thirty-five UC patients as well as 32 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Saliva samples before and after citric acid stimulation were collected from each participant, and salivary flow rate (SFR was calculated accordingly. Western blotting and quantitative PCR were applied to measure the sAA level and sAA gene (AMY1 copy number, respectively. The psychological disorders, anxiety and depression, were evaluated by the scoring system of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS for each participant. Results. We observed robustly increased prevalence of anxiety (p<0.001 as well as depression (p<0.001 in UC patients relative to controls. Interestingly, we detected elevated basal (p=0.015 and stimulated (p=0.021 sAA levels in the UC populations compared to controls. However, no differences were found for basal (p=0.643 or stimulated (p=0.402 SFR between the two study groups. Besides, AMY1 gene copy number was comparable between UC patients and controls. Conclusions. Our results reveal an overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and a normal activity of the parasympathetic nervous system in the UC population.

  4. Comparing Dental Stress in New Child Patients and Returning Patients Using Salivary Cortisol, Immunoglobulin-A and Alpha- Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaki, Sumer M; Safi, Ayman; Ouda, Soliman; Nadhreen, Alaa

    this study was aimed at comparing dental stress in children having their first dental visit to those returning for dental treatment using salivary biomarkers of stress including salivary cortisol (s-cortisol), Immunoglobulin-A (s-IgA) and alpha-amylase (s-α-amylase). Additionally, the study was aimed at monitoring the change in stress in new patients as they progressed from the waiting to the clinical areas. salivary samples were collected from 40 children who had not been to a dentist before and similar samples were collected from 40 children who were returning for completion of dental treatment. Salivary cortisol, s-IgA and s-α-amylase concentrations were obtained by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). salivary cortisol levels were higher for new patients at the waiting area compared to that at the dental chair (p=0.05). Salivary alpha-amylase significantly increased in new patients while being seated in the dental chair. Returning patients had higher s-α-amylase (p=0.001) and s-IgA (p=0.016) compared to new patients. Returning patients had the lowest level of s-cortisol when providers were faculty pediatric dentists than with students and interns (p=0.035). children coming in for their first dental visit may experience dental stress at the waiting area before being seated for dental examination. Returning children may experience higher levels of stress compared to new child patients possibly due to previous dental exposure.

  5. Gender determines cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to acute physical and psychosocial stress in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ayako; Oshita, Harumi; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Aimi; Ikeda, Rie; Ando, Tomoko; Aizawa, Saeko; Masuda, Koji; Higuma, Haruka; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2015-07-30

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by affective instability, unstable relationships, and identity disturbance. We measured salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol levels in all participants during exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and an electric stimulation stress. Seventy-two BPD patients were compared with 377 age- and gender- matched controls. The State and Trait versions of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory test (STAI-S and STAI-T, respectively), the Profile of Mood State (POMS) tests, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS) were administered to participants before electrical stimulation. Following TSST exposure, salivary cortisol levels significantly decreased in female patients and significantly increased in male patients compared with controls. POMS tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, fatigue, and confusion scores were significantly increased in BPD patients compared with controls. In contrast, vigor scores were significantly decreased in BPD patients relative to controls. Furthermore, STAI-T and STAI-S anxiety scores and BDI scores were significantly increased in BPD patient compared with controls. DACS scores were significantly increased in BPD patient compared with controls. Different stressors (e.g., psychological or physical) induced different responses in the HPA and SAM systems in female or male BPD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sex determines cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to acute physical and psychosocial stress in patients with avoidant personality disorder.

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    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Inoue, Ayako; Oshita, Harumi; Okamoto, Kana; Kawashima, Chiwa; Nakanishi, Mari; Aizawa, Saeko; Masuda, Koji; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Higuma, Haruka; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2016-08-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) has excessive and pervasive anxiety and discomfort in social situations. The aims of this study were to explore the relationship between AVPD and physical and psychological stress and psychological tests. We evaluated 93 AVPD patients and 355 nonpatient controls by salivary amylase and cortisol responses during exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and electrical stimulation stress. Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood State (POMS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were administered. Following electrical stimulation, salivary cortisol levels in female AVPD decreased significantly less than that in female's controls, but salivary cortisol levels did not show a difference between male AVPD patients and controls. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels did not show a difference between females or male AVPD patients and controls. Following TSST exposure, sAA levels did not show a difference between females or male AVPD patients and controls. Salivary cortisol levels did not show a difference between females or male AVPD patients and controls. In the AVPD patients, POMS scores were significantly higher compared with the controls. STAI, BDI, DACS scores, and CTQ significantly increased in the AVPD patients compared with the controls. LF in heart rate variability in AVPD significantly increased more compared with controls. These results suggest that heightened sympathetic reactivity in female AVPD co-occurs with attenuated salivary cortisol responses to electric stimulation stress and there is a significant difference between AVPD and controls in mood, anxiety, social cognition, and automatic nerve systems.

  7. Salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responsiveness following electrical stimulation stress in major depressive disorder patients.

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    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Aimi; Ando, Tomoko; Okamoto, Shizuko; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Tsuru, Jusen; Hanada, Hiroaki; Kodama, Kensuke; Isogawa, Koichi; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2012-03-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by chronic stress. In comparison, psychosocial stress-induced activation of salivary α-amylase (sAA) functions as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity. However, in contrast to salivary cortisol, sAA has been less extensively studied in MDD patients. The present study measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels in patients with MDD. The authors determined Profile of Mood State (POMS) and State-Trait anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores, Heart Rate Variability (HRV), and sAA and salivary cortisol levels in 88 patients with MDD and 41 healthy volunteers following the application of electrical stimulation stress. Patients with major depressive disorder were 8 points or more on Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) scores. Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Fatigue, and Confusion scores in patients with major depressive disorder were significantly increased compared to healthy controls. In contrast, Vigor scores in patients with MDD were significantly decreased compared with healthy controls. There was no difference in heart rate variability measures between MDD patients and healthy controls. The threshold of electrical stimulation applied in MDD patients was lower than that in healthy controls. SAA levels in female MDD patients were significantly elevated relative to controls both before and after electrical stimulation. Finally, there were no differences in salivary cortisol levels between major depressive patients and controls. In the present study only three time points were explored. Furthermore, the increased secretion of sAA before and after stimulation could allude to an increased responsiveness of novel and uncontrollable situations in patients with MDD. These preliminary results suggest that sAA might be a useful biological marker of MDD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Salivary type alpha-amylase activity in serum and in urine of patients with lung adenocarcinoma; Aktywnosc alfa-amylazy sliniankowej w surowicy i moczu chorych na gruczolakoraka pluca

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    Zakrzewska, I.; Wolska, K.; Koput, A. [Zaklad Laboratoryjnej Diagnostyki Klinicznej, Akademia Medyczna, Bialystok (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    Total alpha-amylase activity in sera and urine of 30 patients with lung adenocarcinoma has been tested. The results were compared with control group of 30 healthy voluntaries. The activity of pancreatic type was differentiated from salivary alpha amylase. Salivary type was inhibited selectively by Triticum aestivum. Higher levels of total and salivary type amylase were noted in patients with lung adenocarcinoma in comparison to healthy control. The increase was significant (p<0.005). Correlation was observed between the activity of salivary type amylase and the stage of adenocarcinoma. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  9. Salivary Alpha-Amylase Correlates with Subjective Heat Pain Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Amrei; Krummenacher, Peter; La Marca, Roberto; Ehlert, Ulrike; Folkers, Gerd

    2016-06-01

    Self-reports of pain are important for an adequate therapy. This is a problem with patients and infants who are restricted in providing an accurate verbal estimation of their pain. Reliable, real-time, economical, and non-invasive physiological correlates might contribute to a more comprehensive description of pain. Salivary alpha-amylase constitutes one candidate biomarker, which reflects predominantly sympathetic nervous system alterations under stressful conditions and can be measured non-invasively. The current study investigated the effects of acute heat pain on salivary alpha-amylase activity. Heat pain tolerance was measured on the non-dominant forearm. Participants completed visual analog scales on pain intensity and unpleasantness. Saliva samples were collected directly after pain induction. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. While salivary alpha-amylase levels correlated positively with intensity and unpleasantness ratings in response to acute heat pain stimuli, there was no corresponding association with pain tolerance. Salivary alpha-amylase is suggested to be an indirect physiologic correlate of subjective heat pain perception. Future studies should address the role of salivary alpha-amylase depending on the origin of pain, the concerned tissue, and other pain assessment methods. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Stress-related salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) activity in alcohol dependent patients with and without a history of childhood maltreatment.

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    Muehlhan, Markus; Höcker, Anja; Höfler, Michael; Wiedemann, Klaus; Barnow, Sven; Schäfer, Ingo

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol-dependent (AD) patients with a history of childhood maltreatment (CM) have shown a more severe clinical profile and a higher risk of relapse than those without CM. It was hypothesized that stress responsivity plays an important role in moderating the relationship between CM and AD. Surprisingly, systematic investigations about the stress responsivity in AD patients with CM are rare. This study compared physiological and subjective stress responses in AD patients with and without CM as well as in healthy controls with and without CM. A total of 130 participants performed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Physiological stress reactivity related to the noradrenergic system was assessed by salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) activity. Subjective ratings of anxiety, nervousness, distress, and mood were rated on visual analogue scales. AD patients showed significantly lower stress-related sAA activity than healthy controls (p ≤ 0.024; z ≥ 1.97). A different pattern was found in the subjective ratings. In particular, anticipatory anxiety revealed a clear effect of CM (p ≤ 0.005; z ≥ 2.43) but no difference between AD patients and healthy controls (p > 0.05). After the TSST, distress ratings differed between AD patients with CM and AD patients without CM (p ≤ 0.009; z ≥ 2.61). The discrepancy between physiological responsivity and subjective stress experiences may account for an increased inability to cope with stressful situations, which in turn might explain the enhanced risk of relapse in AD patients with a history of CM during early abstinence.

  11. Gender differences in automatic thoughts and cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to acute psychosocial stress in patients with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

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    Kanehisa, Masayuki; Kawashima, Chiwa; Nakanishi, Mari; Okamoto, Kana; Oshita, Harumi; Masuda, Koji; Takita, Fuku; Izumi, Toshihiko; Inoue, Ayako; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2017-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, and mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency. The aims of the present study were to explore the relationship between OCPD and psychological stress and psychological tests. We evaluated 63 OCPD patients and 107 healthy controls (HCs). We collected saliva samples from patients and controls before and after a social stress procedure, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), to measure the concentrations of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Profile of Mood State (POMS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale (SASS), and Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS) were administered to patients and HCs. Following TSST exposure, the salivary amylase and cortisol levels were significantly decreased in male patients compared with controls. Additionally, OCPD patients had higher CTQ, POMS, STAI, and BDI scores than HCs and exhibited significantly higher anxiety and depressive states. OCPD patients scored higher on future denial and threat prediction as per the DACS tool. According to a stepwise regression analysis, STAI, POMS, and salivary cortisol responses were independent predictors of OCPD. Our results suggested that attenuated sympathetic and parasympathetic reactivity in male OCPD patients occurs along with attenuated salivary amylase and cortisol responses to the TSST. In addition, there was a significant difference between OCPD patients and HCs in child trauma, mood, anxiety, and cognition. The finding support the modeling role of cortisol (20min) on the relationships between STAI trait and depression among OCPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of alpha-amylase in Bacillus licheniformis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rothstein, D M; Devlin, P E; Cate, R L

    1986-01-01

    In Bacillus licheniformis, alpha-amylase production varied more than 100-fold depending on the presence or absence of a catabolite-repressing carbon source in the growth medium. alpha-Amylase was produced during the growth phase and not at the onset of the stationary phase. Induction of alpha-amylase correlated with synthesis of mRNA initiating at the promoter of the alpha-amylase gene.

  13. Method for using a yeast alpha-amylase promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Johnway; Skeen, Rodney S.; Hooker, Brian S.; Anderson, Daniel B.

    2003-04-22

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of an alpha-amylase gene of a starch utilizing yeast strain Schwanniomyces castellii. The isolated alpha-amylase promoter is an inducible promoter, which can regulate strong gene expression in starch culture medium.

  14. Kinetics of alpha-amylase secretion in Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anne Laurence Santerre; Carlsen, Morten; Bang de, H.

    1999-01-01

    -chase experiments were carried out to investigate the alpha-amylase secretion kinetics in A. oryzae. No unglycosylated alpha-amylase was detected neither intracellularly nor extracellularly demonstrating that glycosylation was not the rate controlling step in the secretory pathway. The pulse chase experiments...... indicated that there are two pools of intracellular alpha-amylase: a fast secreted and a slow secreted. The secretion of those two pools were described with a kinetic model, which was fitted to the pulse chase experiments. (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 65: 76-82, 1999....

  15. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active site...

  16. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with 125 I-labeled HSMSL or 125 I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of [ 125 I]alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch

  17. No relationship between baseline salivary alpha-amylase and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Score in drug-naïve patients with short-illness-duration first episode major depressive disorder: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarmach, Joanna; Cubała, Wiesław-Jerzy; Landowski, Jerzy; Chrzanowska, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Salivary α-amylase (sAA) activity alternations are observed in major depressive disorder (MDD) being associated with depression severity and its specific psychopathological dimensions with anxiety being attributed to distress. No data is available on sAA in MDD according to Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The exploratory study examines whether and to what extent baseline sAA level is interrelated to the psychopathological features including severity of symptoms and specific psychopathological dimensions. The basal, non-stimulated sAA activity was studied in 20 non-late-life adult, treatment-naïve MDD patients with short-illness-duration and in 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls along with psychometric assessments with Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Significantly lower ( p =0.011) sAA activity was observed in MDD as compared to controls. No significant correlations were observed between sAA activity and the total HAMD-17 score as well as with regard to the specific core depression, insomnia, anxiety and somatic HAM-D psychopathological dimensions. No significant correlations were also found between sAA and STAIX-1 and STAIX-2 scores. Low baseline sAA levels in MDD with no correlations between sAA and psychopathological features including severity of symptoms and specific psychopathological dimensions was found. Key words: Salivary alpha-amylase, major depressive disorder, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression.

  18. The Effects of Curcumin on Alpha Amylase in Diabetics Rats

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    Mahmood Najafian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the therapeutic approaches to lower postprandial blood glucose is to inhibition breakdown of starch by inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes. Alpha-amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-(1, 4-D-glycosidic linkages of starch and other glucose polymers. Inhibitors of this enzyme could be used in the treatment of diabetes. Objectives Based on this purpose we examined the effect of curcumin on alpha amylase and its IC50 and Ki. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 60 rats were divided into two major groups, normal and diabetic, and each was subsequently divided into five subgroups. One of them as control group that received grape seed oil and four of them as experimental groups that received curcumin at 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg (each group include six rats. Blood glucose levels were measured every three days. Serum insulin levels were measured three times, in the first day, middle and end of the experimental period. The activity of serum alpha amylase was measured in the end of experimental period. Results The results showed that curcumin is a competitive inhibitor for alpha amylase with IC50 = 51.32 µM and Ki = 20.17 µM. In both diabetic and normal groups in all doses nearly dose dependent manner reduced blood glucose and insulin levels. In both diabetic and normal groups decreased levels of serum alpha amylase activity. Conclusions It may be concluded that curcumin is a potent inhibitor of alpha amylase and has beneficial effects in the treatment of overweight and diabetes

  19. Improvement of heterologous protein production in Aspergillus oryzae by RNA interference with alpha-amylase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Takashi; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2009-11-01

    Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 has three alpha-amylase genes (amyA, amyB, and amyC), and secretes alpha-amylase abundantly. However, large amounts of endogenous secretory proteins such as alpha-amylase can compete with heterologous protein in the secretory pathway and decrease its production yields. In this study, we examined the effects of suppression of alpha-amylase on heterologous protein production in A. oryzae, using the bovine chymosin (CHY) as a reporter heterologous protein. The three alpha-amylase genes in A. oryzae have nearly identical DNA sequences from those promoters to the coding regions. Hence we performed silencing of alpha-amylase genes by RNA interference (RNAi) in the A. oryzae CHY producing strain. The silenced strains exhibited a reduction in alpha-amylase activity and an increase in CHY production in the culture medium. This result suggests that suppression of alpha-amylase is effective in heterologous protein production in A. oryzae.

  20. Exposure-response relations of alpha-amylase sensitisation in British bakeries and flour mills

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.; Heederik, D.; Doekes, G.; Venables, K. M.; Newman, T

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the levels of exposure to fungal alpha-amylase in British bakeries and flour mills, and to describe the relation between exposure to alpha-amylase and sensitisation to fungal alpha- amylase. METHODS: 495 personal flour dust samples were taken in seven British bakeries and flour mills and analysed for alpha-amylase with an immunoassay. Workers at the sites were asked to fill out questionnaires on work related symptoms, smoking history, and work history, and they w...

  1. Factors affecting the solubility of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornelius; Hobley, Timothy John; Mollerup, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study of the solubility of recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase has been conducted. A semi-purified preparation from a bulk crystallisation was chos en that contained six isoforms with pI-values of between 5.5 and 6.1. The solubility was strongly affected by pH and could...

  2. Norepinephrine transporter blocker atomoxetine increases salivary alpha amylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, C.M.; van den Brink, R.L.; Nieuwenhuis, S.; Bosch, J.A.

    It has been suggested that central norepinephrine (NE) activity may be inferred from increases in salivary alpha-amylase (SAA), but data in favor of this proposition are limited. We administered 40mg of atomoxetine, a selective NE transporter blocker that increases central NE levels, to 24 healthy

  3. Zinc oxide nanoparticles as novel alpha-amylase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhobale, Sandip; Thite, Trupti; Laware, S. L.; Rode, C. V.; Koppikar, Soumya J.; Ghanekar, Ruchika-Kaul; Kale, S. N.

    2008-11-01

    Amylase inhibitors, also known as starch blockers, contain substances that prevent dietary starches from being absorbed by the body via inhibiting breakdown of complex sugars to simpler ones. In this sense, these materials are projected as having potential applications in diabetes control. In this context, we report on zinc oxide nanoparticles as possible alpha-amylase inhibitors. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized using soft-chemistry approach and 1-thioglycerol was used as a surfactant to yield polycrystalline nanoparticles of size ˜18 nm, stabilized in wurtzite structure. Conjugation study and structural characterization have been done using x-ray diffraction technique, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Cytotoxicity studies on human fibrosarcoma (HT-1080) and skin carcinoma (A-431) cell lines as well as mouse primary fibroblast cells demonstrate that up to a dose of 20 μg/ml, ZnO nanoparticles are nontoxic to the cells. We report for the first time the alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of ZnO nanoparticles wherein an optimum dose of 20 μg/ml was sufficient to exhibit 49% glucose inhibition at neutral pH and 35 °C temperature. This inhibitory activity was similar to that obtained with acarbose (a standard alpha-amylase inhibitor), thereby projecting ZnO nanoparticles as novel alpha-amylase inhibitors.

  4. Alpha-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidative Capacity of Some Antidiabetic Plants Used by the Traditional Healers in Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday O. Oyedemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome including diabetes mellitus (DM. The inhibition of alpha-amylase is an important therapeutic target in the regulation of postprandial increase of blood glucose in diabetic patients. The present study investigated the alpha-amylase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of selected herbal drugs used in the treatment of DM by the traditional healers in Isiala Mbano and Ikwuano regions of southeastern Nigeria. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total phenolic (TPC and flavonoid content (TFC in consonance with the TLC profiling. The results showed that methanol crude extracts from Anacardium occidentale (AO and Ceiba pentandra (CP recorded higher TPC and TFC, potent free radical scavenging, and efficient reducing power (RP as compared with other plant samples. All the plant extracts exhibited a relative alpha-amylase inhibition apart from Strophanthus hispidus (SH extract with a negative effect. We discovered a mild to weak correlation between alpha-amylase inhibition or antioxidative capacity and the total phenol or flavonoid content. At least in part, the results obtained in this work support the traditional use of certain plant species in the treatment of patients with DM.

  5. Alpha-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidative Capacity of Some Antidiabetic Plants Used by the Traditional Healers in Southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedemi, Blessing O.; Ijeh, Ifeoma I.; Ohanyerem, Princemartins E.; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome including diabetes mellitus (DM). The inhibition of alpha-amylase is an important therapeutic target in the regulation of postprandial increase of blood glucose in diabetic patients. The present study investigated the alpha-amylase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of selected herbal drugs used in the treatment of DM by the traditional healers in Isiala Mbano and Ikwuano regions of southeastern Nigeria. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) in consonance with the TLC profiling. The results showed that methanol crude extracts from Anacardium occidentale (AO) and Ceiba pentandra (CP) recorded higher TPC and TFC, potent free radical scavenging, and efficient reducing power (RP) as compared with other plant samples. All the plant extracts exhibited a relative alpha-amylase inhibition apart from Strophanthus hispidus (SH) extract with a negative effect. We discovered a mild to weak correlation between alpha-amylase inhibition or antioxidative capacity and the total phenol or flavonoid content. At least in part, the results obtained in this work support the traditional use of certain plant species in the treatment of patients with DM. PMID:28367491

  6. Characterization of a new cell-bound alpha-amylase in Bacillus subtilis 168 Marburg that is only immunologically related to the exocellular alpha-amylase.

    OpenAIRE

    Haddaoui, E; Petit-Glatron, M F; Chambert, R

    1995-01-01

    Immunoblot analysis of Bacillus subtilis cell extracts with polyclonal antibodies, raised against purified exocellular alpha-amylase, revealed one protein species of 82,000 Da. This protein was found even in cells in which the amyE gene, encoding exocellular alpha-amylase, was disrupted. Isolated from the membrane fraction, the 82,000-M(r) protein displayed an alpha-amylase activity in vitro.

  7. Barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor: structure, biophysics and protein engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Fukuda, Kenji

    2004-01-01

    Bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitors have been implicated in plant defence and regulation of endogenous alpha-amylase action. The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) inhibits the barley alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) and subtilisin-type serine proteases. BASI belongs to the Kunitz...... Ca2+-modulated kinetics of the AMY2/BASl interaction and found that the complex formation involves minimal structural changes. The modulation of the interaction by calcium ions makes it unique among the currently known binding mechanisms of proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitors....

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF ALPHA AMYLASE ON THE QUALITY OF BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA CHEREJI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the quality of bread obtained from the control sample flour (M and the quality of bread obtained from flour with addition of 3 different percentages of alpha amylase (P1-280000 U.SKB/ 100kg flour; P2-560000 U.SKB/ 100kg flour;P3-840000 U.SKB/ 100kg flour. Fungal alpha amylase was used in these concentrations in order to establish which one is the most suitable to be added in flour in order to obtain superior quality characteristics for bread: superior volume of bread, finer texture of the bread, prolonging the freshness of the bread, improving the color and flavor of the bread, improving the slicing proprieties of the bread.

  9. Alpha-amylase from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus thioreducens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsdotter, E. C. M. J.; Pusey, M. L.; Ng, M. L.; Garriott, O. K.

    2003-01-01

    Extremophiles are microorganisms that thrive in, from an anthropocentric view, extreme environments such as hot springs. The ability of survival at extreme conditions has rendered enzymes from extremophiles to be of interest in industrial applications. One approach to producing these extremozymes entails the expression of the enzyme-encoding gene in a mesophilic host such as E.coli. This method has been employed in the effort to produce an alpha-amylase from a hyperthermophile (an organism that displays optimal growth above 80 C) isolated from a hydrothermal vent at the Rainbow vent site in the Atlantic Ocean. alpha-amylases catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to produce smaller sugars and constitute a class of industrial enzymes having approximately 25% of the enzyme market. One application for thermostable alpha-amylases is the starch liquefaction process in which starch is converted into fructose and glucose syrups. The a-amylase encoding gene from the hyperthermophile Thermococcus thioreducens was cloned and sequenced, revealing high similarity with other archaeal hyperthermophilic a-amylases. The gene encoding the mature protein was expressed in E.coli. Initial characterization of this enzyme has revealed an optimal amylolytic activity between 85-90 C and around pH 5.3-6.0.

  10. Progress of pancreatitis disease biomarker alpha amylase enzyme by new nano optical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, M S; Al-Radadi, Najlaa S

    2016-12-15

    A new nano optical sensor binuclear Pd-(2-aminothiazole) (urea), Pd(atz,ur) complex was prepared and characterized for the assessment of the activity of alpha amylase enzyme in urine and serum samples for early diagnosis of Pancreatitis disease. The assessment of alpha amylase activity is carried out by the quenching of the luminescence intensity of the nano optical sensor binuclear Pd(atz,ur) complex at 457nm by the 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol (2-CNP) which produced from the reaction of the enzyme with 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-α-d-maltotrioside (CNPG3) substrate. The remarkable quenching of the luminescence intensity at 457nm of nano Pd(atz,ur) doped in sol-gel matrix by various concentrations of the 2-CNP was successfully used as an optical sensor for the assessment of α-amylase activity. The calibration plot was achieved over the concentration range 8.5×10(-6) to 1.9×10(-9)molL(-1) 2-CNP with a correlation coefficient of (0.999) and a detection limit of (7.4×10(-10)molL(-1)). The method was used satisfactorily for the assessment of the α-amylase activity over activity range (3-321U/L) in different urine and serum samples of pancreatitis patients. The assessment of the alpha amylase biomarker by the proposed method increases its sensitivity (96.88%) and specificity (94.41%) for early diagnosis of pancreatitis diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stabilization of {alpha}-amylase by using anionic surfactant during the immobilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Batal, A.I. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Atia, K.S. [Nuclear Research Center, Radioisotopes Applications Division, Abo-Zable, P.O. Box 13759, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: ks_atia@yahoo.com; Eid, M. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-10-01

    This work describes the entrapment of {alpha}-amylase into butylacrylate-acrylic acid copolymer (BuA/AAc) using {gamma} irradiation. The effect of an anionic surfactant (AOT), the reuse efficiency, and kinetic behavior of immobilized {alpha}-amylase were studied. Covering of {alpha}-amylase with bis-(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT) made the enzyme more stable than the uncovered form. The hydrolytic activity of the pre-coated immobilized {alpha}-amylase was increased below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) (10mmol/L). The results showed an increase in the relative activity with increase in the degree of hydration. The pre-coated immobilized {alpha}-amylase showed a higher k{sub cat}/K{sub m} and lower activation energy compared to the free and uncoated-immobilized preparation, respectively. The results suggest that the immobilization of {alpha}-amylase is a potentially useful approach for commercial starch hydrolysis in two-phase systems.

  12. Clinical and immunological responses to occupational exposure to alpha-amylase in the baking industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Brisman, J; Belin, L

    1991-01-01

    alpha-Amylase is a starch cleaving enzyme often used in the baking industry as a flour additive. It is usually of fungal origin, produced by Aspergillus oryzae. One previous report has shown IgE antibodies and positive skin prick test against alpha-amylase in asthmatic bakers. This paper describes four alpha-amylase sensitised index cases with occupational asthma or rhinitis and the results of a cross sectional study of 20 workers from the same factory who were also exposed to alpha-amylase p...

  13. Binding of carbohydrates and protein inhibitors to the surface of alpha-amylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozonnet, Sophie; Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Kramhoft, B.

    2005-01-01

    This review on barley alpha-amylases 1 (AMY1) and 2 (AMY2) addresses rational mutations at distal subsites to the catalytic site, polysaccharide hydrolysis, and interactions with proteinaceous inhibitors. Subsite mapping of barley alpha-amylases revealed 6 glycone and 4 aglycone substrate subsite...

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW BACILLUS-STEAROTHERMOPHILUS ISOLATE - A HIGHLY THERMOSTABLE ALPHA-AMYLASE-PRODUCING STRAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIND, RD; BUITELAAR, RM; EGGINK, G; HUIZING, HJ; DIJKHUIZEN, L

    A novel strain of Bacillus stearothermophilus was isolated from samples of a potato-processing industry. Compared to known alpha-amylases from other B. stearothermophilus strains, the isolate was found to produce a highly thermostable alpha-amylase. The half-time of inactivation of this

  15. Cloning of a yeast alpha-amylase promoter and its regulated heterologous expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR; Hooker, Brian S [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Daniel B [Pasco, WA

    2003-04-01

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of an alpha-amylase gene of a starch utilizing yeast strain Schwanniomyces castellii. The isolated alpha-amylase promoter is an inducible promoter, which can regulate strong gene expression in starch culture medium.

  16. Posttranscriptional regulation of alpha-amylase II-4 expression by gibberellin in germinating rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjo, Yohei; Asatsuma, Satoru; Itoh, Kimiko; Hori, Hidetaka; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Fujisawa, Yukiko

    2004-06-01

    Hormonal regulation of expression of alpha-amylase II-4 that lacks the gibberellin-response cis-element (GARE) in the promoter region of the gene was studied in germinating rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds. Temporal and spatial expression of alpha-amylase II-4 in the aleurone layer were essentially identical to those of alpha-amylase I-1 whose gene contains GARE, although these were distinguishable in the embryo tissues at the early stage of germination. The gibberellin-responsible expression of alpha-amylase II-4 was also similar to that of alpha-amylase I-1. However, the level of alpha-amylase II-4 mRNA was not increased by gibberellin, indicating that the transcriptional enhancement of alpha-amylase II-4 expression did not occur in the aleurone. Gibberellin stimulated the accumulation of 45Ca2+ into the intracellular secretory membrane system. In addition, several inhibitors for Ca2+ signaling, such as EGTA, neomycin, ruthenium red (RuR), and W-7 prevented the gibberellin-induced expression of alpha-amylase II-4 effectively. While the gibberellin-induced expression of alpha-amylase II-4 occurred normally in the aleurone layer of a rice dwarf mutant d1 which is defective in the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein. Based on these results, it was concluded that the posttranscriptional regulation of alpha-amylase II-4 expression by gibberellin operates in the aleurone layer of germinating rice seed, which is mediated by Ca2+ but not the G protein.

  17. N-terminal amino acid sequence of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase: comparison with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis Enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, H; Fietzek, P P; Lampen, J O

    1982-01-01

    The thermostable, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis was immunologically cross-reactive with the thermolabile, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their N-terminal amino acid sequences showed extensive homology with each other, but not with the saccharifying alpha-amylases of Bacillus subtilis.

  18. The influence of nitrogen sources on the alpha-amylase productivity of Aspergillus oryzae in continuous cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The influence of the nitrogen source on the cc-amylase productivity of Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in continuous cultivations. Both inorganic and complex nitrogen sources were investigated and glucose was used as the carbon and energy sources. For production of alpha-amylase, nitrate...... in the cc-amylase productivity. The higher alpha-amylase productivity during growth on casein hydrolysate was not caused by increased transcription of the alpha-amylase genes but was caused by a faster secretion of alpha-amylase or by a lower binding of alpha-amylase to the biomass....

  19. Liver alpha-amylase gene expression as an early obesity biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojbafan, Marzieh; Afsartala, Zohreh; Amoli, Mahsa M; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Larijani, Bagher; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a major health problem worldwide, for which preventive and therapeutic means are still needed. Alpha-amylase is a digestive enzyme whose inhibition has been targeted as a potential anti-obesity strategy. However, alpha-amylase gene expression has not been particularly attended to, and in contrast with pancreatic and salivary amylases, fewer studies have focused on liver alpha-amylase. The present study aimed at investigating the expression of alpha-amylase gene in obese and normal mice at RNA and protein level as well as acarbose effect on this gene expression in hepatocyte cell culture. Control and case groups were fed by normal mouse pellet and high-fat diet respectively, during 8 weeks. After this period, serum biochemical parameters including glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, AST, ALT and alpha-amylase were assayed. Liver alpha-amylase gene was analyzed by real time PCR, and liver enzyme was assayed with Bernfeld and ELISA methods Hepatocyte cell culture derived from both group were also treated by acarbose and alpha-amylase activity and gene expression was analyzed by above mentioned methods. All biochemical factors showed an increase in obese mice, but the increase in ALT and AST were not statistically significant. Alpha-amylase levels were also increased in obese mice, both at RNA and protein level, while a decrease was seen in obese mice derived hepatocytes after acarbose treatment. Elevated liver alpha-amylase levels may be indicative of initial stages of obesity and the use of acarbose could be considered as a treatment of obesity which could be potentially effective at multiple levels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  20. Spectroscopic study on the interaction of Bacillus subtilis {alpha}-amylase with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidyan, R., E-mail: r.omidyan@sci.ui.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, S.H. [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bordbar, A.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zaynalpour, S. [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The interaction between {alpha}-amylase from Bacillus subtilis and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has been investigated at various temperature conditions using fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic methods. Fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of {alpha}-amylase by CTAB is the result of complex formation between CTAB and {alpha}-amylase. The thermodynamic analysis on the binding interaction data shows that the interactions are strongly exothermic ({Delta}H{sup o}=-17.92 kJ mol{sup -1}) accompanied with increase in entropy ({Delta}S{sup o} between 109 to 135 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}). Thus the binding of CTAB to {alpha}-amylase is both enthalpic and entropic driven, which represent the predominate role of both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in complex formation process. The values of 2.17x10{sup -3} M{sup -1} and 1.30 have been obtained from associative binding constant (K{sub a}) and stoichiometry of binding number (n), from analysis of fluorescence data, respectively. Circular dichroism spectra showed the substantial conformational changes in secondary structure of {alpha}-amylase due to binding of CTAB, which represents the complete destruction of both secondary and tertiary structure of {alpha}-amylase by CTAB. - Research highlights: {yields} The Fluorescence quenching effect of {alpha}-amylase by CTAB is a consequence of formation {alpha}-amylase-CTAB complex. {yields} The {alpha}-helical analyzing from the CD spectra in the various concentration of CTAB shows strongly deformation of {alpha}-amylase. {yields} Thermodynamic analysis of quenching verify that the interactions are both enthalpy and entropic driven.

  1. Effect of alpha amylase on early childhood caries: a matched case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Mojarad, Farzad; Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Fazlollahifar, Samira; Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Poorolajal, Jalal; Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Department of Pathology, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: There are a few studies addressing the relationship between salivary alpha-amylase and dental caries. This study was implemented in order to investigate the effect of salivary alpha-amylase level on early childhood caries (ECC).Materials and Methods: In this matched case-control study, which was carried out from November 2011 to March 2012 in Hamadan City, the west of Iran, mean levels of salivary alpha-amylase of 84 ECC-active cases were compared to that of 84 ECC-free controls u...

  2. Chemical synthesis of a dual branched malto-decaose: A potential substrate for alpha-amylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damager, Iben; Jensen, Morten; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2005-01-01

    A convergent block strategy for general use in efficient synthesis of complex alpha-(1 -> 4)- and alpha-(1 -> 6)-malto-oligosaccharides is demonstrated with the first chemical synthesis of a malto-oligosaccharide, the decasoccharide 6,6""-bis(alpha-maltosyl)-maltohexaose, with two branch points....... Using this chemically defined branched oligosaccharide as a substrate, the cleavage pattern of seven different alpha-amylases were investigated. alpha-Amylases from human saliva, porcine pancreas, barley alpha-amylose 2 and recombinant barley alpha-amylase 1 all hydrolysed the decasaccharide selectively....... This resulted in a branched hexasaccharide and a branched tetrasoccharide. alpha-Amylases from Asperagillus oryzae, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus sp. cleaved the decasoccharide at two distinct sites, either producing two branched pentasoccharides, or a branched hexasoccharide and a branched...

  3. Estimated environmental loads of alpha-amylase from transgenic high-amylase maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolt, Jeffrey D. [Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Biosafety Institute for Genetically Modified Agricultural Products, 164 Seed Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Karaman, Sule [Biosafety Institute for Genetically Modified Agricultural Products, 164 Seed Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Environmental exposure of plants bioengineered to improve efficiencies of biofuel production is an important consideration for their adoption. High-amylase maize genetically engineered to produce thermostable alpha-amylase in seed endosperm is currently in development, and its successful adoption will entail >1000 km{sup 2} of annual production in the USA. Environmental exposure of thermostable amylase will occur in production fields from preharvest and harvest dropped grain, with minor additional contributions from stover and root biomass. Mass loadings of thermostable alpha-amylase are projected to be 16 kg km{sup -2} and represent a potential source of increased alpha-amylase activity in receiving soils. An understanding of the degradation, persistence, accumulation, and activity of thermostable alpha-amylase introduced from transgenic high-amylase maize will be necessary in order to effectively manage transgenic crop systems intended or biofeedstock production. (author)

  4. Morphology and physiology of an alpha Amylase producing strain of Aspergillus oryzae during batch cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Morten; Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    , whereas the alpha-amylase production has a sharper maximum at about pH 6. During batch cultivation with pellets the growth is described well by the cube-root law when pellet fragmentation can be neglected. The kinetic parameter k in the cube-root law is derived from the growth kinetics with no mass......, suggesting that ethanol is produced in the oxygen limited part of the biomass. A constitutive, low alpha-amylase production was observed at high glucose concentration. The specific alpha-amylase production was significantly higher for filamentous growth than for pellets and oxygen appears to be necessary...... for production of alpha-amylase. (C) 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc....

  5. Spatio-temporal profiling and degradation of alpha-amylase isozymes during barley seed germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, Sabrina; Østergaard, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Ten genes from two multigene families encode barley alpha-amylases. To gain insight into the occurrence and fate of individual isoforms during seed germination, the alpha-amylase repertoire was mapped by using a proteomics approach consisting of 2D gel electrophoresis, western blotting, and mass...... increased during germination. Assessing the fragment minimum chain length by peptide mass fingerprinting suggested that alpha-amylase 2 ( gi vertical bar 4699831) initially was cleaved just prior to domain B that protrudes from the (beta alpha)(8)-barrel between beta-strand 3 and alpha-helix 3, followed...... essentially only full-length alpha-amylase forms. While only products of the above three genes appeared by germination also of 15 other barley cultivars, the cultivars had distinct repertoires of charge and molecular mass variant forms. These patterns appeared not to be correlated with malt quality....

  6. Pilot plant production of glucose from starch with soluble. cap alpha. -amylase and immobilized glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D D; Reilly, P J; Collins, Jr, E V

    1975-01-01

    Pilot plant studies were conducted on cooking and thinning of corn starch with free ..cap alpha..-amylase and the conversion of the resulting dextrin with immobilized glucoamylase adsorbed on porous SiO/sub 2/. Feeds of intermediate DE values gave maximum yields unless the flow rate of low DE feeds was decreased. Final DE values and glucose concentrations after dextrin treated with Thermamyl 60 ..cap alpha..-amylase had been further hydrolyzed in an immobilized glucoamylase column, were slightly lower than they were when free glucoamylase was used. Similar results were obtained when dextrin, thinned with HT-1000 ..cap alpha..-amylase, was hydrolyzed at 38/sup 0/ and pH 4.4 in the immobilized glucoamylase column. Free glucoamylase yielded values of DE and glucose almost identical with dextrin thinned with Thermamyl 60 ..cap alpha..-amylase. Yields with the free glucoamylase were also slightly higher than they were with SiO/sub 2/-bound enzyme.

  7. Capillary electrophoresis as a screening tool for alpha amylase inhibitors in plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdan, Imad I.; Afifi, Fatima U.

    2010-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for screening plant extract for potential alpha amylase (AA) inhibitory activity. The method was validated against a well established UV method. Overall, the proposed method was shown able to detect plants with significant alpha amylase inhibitory activity but not those with rather clinically insignificant activities. Fifty plant species were screened using both the proposed CE method and the UV method and seven plant species were found to p...

  8. Effect of decoyinine on the regulation of alpha-amylase synthesis in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, W L; Chambliss, G H

    1987-01-01

    Decoyinine, an inhibitor of GMP synthetase, allows sporulation in Bacillus subtilis to initiate and proceed under otherwise catabolite-repressing conditions. The effect of decoyinine on alpha-amylase synthesis in B. subtilis, an event which exhibits regulatory features resembling sporulation initiation, was examined. Decoyinine did not overcome catabolite repression of alpha-amylase synthesis in a wild-type strain of B. subtilis but did cause premature and enhanced synthesis in a mutant strai...

  9. Patterns of cortisol and alpha-amylase reactivity to psychosocial stress in maltreated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielock, Alyssa S; Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma

    2017-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment can trigger enduring changes in major stress response systems, particularly in the context of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relative impact of maltreatment versus MDD on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system stress reactivity is not well understood. This study examined salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 26 maltreated (15 with current MDD) and 26 non-maltreated (17 with current MDD) women. Maltreated women showed greater anticipatory cortisol reactivity during the TSST protocol compared to non-maltreated women. Maltreated women also showed rapid deceleration in cortisol levels. Whereas non-maltreated women showed initial declines in alpha-amylase levels but rapidly increasing alpha-amylase levels during the TSST protocol, maltreated women did not exhibit changes in alpha-amylase levels during the TSST protocol. Contrary to expectation, MDD did not impact cortisol or alpha-amylase responses. The present study is limited by retrospective report of childhood maltreatment, cross-sectional design, and modest sample sizes. These findings suggest that childhood maltreatment plays a greater role driving alterations in cortisol and alpha-amylase stress reactivity than MDD. Understanding the biological embedding of maltreatment is critical for elucidating mechanisms linking these experiences to risk for negative mental and physical health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Alpha-amylase activity in wheat flour and breadmaking properties in relation to different climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakita Slađana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the influence of different climatic conditions on the activity of alpha-amylase in wheat samples and bread quality parameters. Three wheat varieties grown in three different localities in three years were chosen for this study. Commonly used methods for estimation of alpha-amylase activity in wheat grain were employed. The obtained results indicated that harvest year 2013, which was characterized with the excessive amount of rainfall, exhibited the highest level of alpha-amylase activity and the lowest values of the peak viscosity. The lowest alpha-amylase level and the highest peak viscosity and FN value were observed for samples harvested in 2012 which was characterized with the greatest number of days with an average daily temperature above 30 and 35°C. In addition, a decrease in Mixolab parameter torque C3 and specific bread loaf volume, as well as increase in the breakdown torque (C3-C4 of samples harvested in 2013 were observed, which could be attributed to rainy weather influencing increase in alpha-amylase activity. It is found that specific bread loaf volume of wheat samples is highest in 2012. Moreover, a negative correlation between alpha-amylase activity and specific bread volume for all the samples grown in three years was determined.

  11. Production and properties of alpha-amylase from Citrobacter species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebuta N. Etim-Osowo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Amylase production by Citrobacter sp. isolated from potato was optimized in batch culture studies under shake flask conditions. Effects and interactions of best sources and levels of carbon and nitrogen estimated by 4 x 5 and 4 x 4 factorial experimental arrangements were significant (P < 0.01 on amylase production. Optimal alpha-amylase yield was obtained in a medium containing sorghum flour (2.0 % w/v and a mixture of (NH42SO4 + soybean meal (1.5% w/v with an initial medium pH of 8.0. Under optimum conditions, amylase yield was maximal (0.499 U/ml after 60h incubation at room temperature (28oC ± 2oC. Characterization studies showed that the enzyme had maximum activity at 60oC, retained 100% of its original activities at 60oC for 2h, was maximally active at pH 7.0 and retained 100% of original activities at pH 9.0 for 2h. Enzyme activity was stimulated by urea, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+ but inhibited by Hg2+.

  12. Production of Alpha Amylase by Bacillus cereus in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H. Raplong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have the ability to secrete enzymes when they are grown in the presence of certain substrates. Amylases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in biotechnological studies. Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated using mannitol egg yolk polymyxin B (MYP agar a highly selective media for Bacillus cereus isolation. The isolates were tested for α-amylase production on nutrient agar supplemented with starch and in submerged fermentation. The bacteria isolated and identified (using the Microgen Bacillus identification kit were all Bacillus cereus and SB2 had the largest zone of hydrolysis of 12mm on nutrient agar supplemented with starch as well as the highest enzyme activity of 1.62U/ml. Amylase activity of 2.56U/ml was obtained after 24 hours incubation in submerged fermentation. When amylase enzyme production parameters where optimized, maximum amylase activity was obtained at a pH of 6.5, temperature of 350C, incubation time of 24 hours and 4% inoculums concentration. Bacillus cereus SB2 is a potential isolate for alpha-amylase production with soluble starch as the sole carbon source in submerged fermentation.

  13. Diurnal Salivary Alpha-amylase Dynamics among Dementia Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Granger, Douglas A.; Kim, Kyungmin; Klein, Laura C.; Almeida, David M.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study examined diurnal regulation of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) in association with daily stressors, adult day services (ADS) use, and other caregiving characteristics. Methods A sample of 165 family caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWD) completed an 8-day diary study. Caregivers provided 5 saliva samples across the 8 days. On some days, caregivers provided all or most of the care. On other days, their relative attended ADS for part of the day. A 3-level unconditional linear spline model was fit to describe the typical sAA diurnal rhythms. Predictors were then added to the unconditional model to test the hypotheses on ADS use and daily stressors. Results Daily ADS use did not have an effect on diurnal sAA regulation. However, controlling for daily ADS use, greater ADS use over the 8 days was associated with a more prominent rise between 30 minutes after wake-up and before lunch, and a more prominent decline between before lunch and late afternoon. Fewer ADS days were associated with a more flattened sAA diurnal rhythm. Additionally, greater daily care-related stressor exposures had a within-person association with lower sAA levels in the late afternoon. Care-related stressor exposures had significant within- and between-person associations with sAA diurnal slopes. Furthermore, daily positive experiences had a significant between-person association with sAA diurnal slopes. Conclusions Caring for a disabled family member may heighten the vulnerability to potential physiological conditions. Respite from care stressors from ADS use may have some biobehavioral benefits on sAA regulations. PMID:27786517

  14. Phylogenetic and Comparative Sequence Analysis of Thermostable Alpha Amylases of kingdom Archea, Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huma, Tayyaba; Maryam, Arooma; Rehman, Shahid Ur; Qamar, Muhammad Tahir Ul; Shaheen, Tayyaba; Haque, Asma; Shaheen, Bushra

    2014-01-01

    Alpha amylase family is generally defined as a group of enzymes that can hydrolyse and transglycosylase α-(1, 4) or α-(1, 6) glycosidic bonds along with the preservation of anomeric configuration. For the comparative analysis of alpha amylase family, nucleotide sequences of seven thermo stable organisms of Kingdom Archea i.e. Pyrococcus furiosus (100-105°C), Kingdom Prokaryotes i.e. Bacillus licheniformis (90-95°C), Geobacillus stearothermophilus (75°C), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (72°C), Bacillus subtilis (70°C) and Bacillus KSM K38 (55°C) and Eukaryotes i.e. Aspergillus oryzae (60°C) were selected from NCBI. Primary structure composition analysis and Conserved sequence analysis were conducted through Bio Edit tools. Results from BioEdit shown only three conserved regions of base pairs and least similarity in MSA of the above mentioned alpha amylases. In Mega 5.1 Phylogeny of thermo stable alpha amylases of Kingdom Archea, Prokaryotes and Eukaryote was handled by Neighbor-Joining (NJ) algorithm. Mega 5.1 phylogenetic results suggested that alpha amylases of thermo stable organisms i.e. Pyrococcus furiosus (100-105°C), Bacillus licheniformis (90-95°C), Geobacillus stearothermophilus (75°C) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (72°C) are more distantly related as compared to less thermo stable organisms. By keeping in mind the characteristics of most thermo stable alpha amylases novel and improved features can be introduced in less thermo stable alpha amylases so that they become more thermo tolerant and productive for industry.

  15. Alpha-Amylase Activity in Blood Increases after Pharmacological, But Not Psychological, Activation of the Adrenergic System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs M Nater

    Full Text Available Alpha-amylase in both blood and saliva has been used as a diagnostic parameter. While studies examining alpha-amylase activity in saliva have shown that it is sensitive to physiological and psychological challenge of the adrenergic system, no challenge studies have attempted to elucidate the role of the adrenergic system in alpha-amylase activity in blood. We set out to examine the impact of psychological and pharmacological challenge on alpha-amylase in blood in two separate studies.In study 1, healthy subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind paradigm using yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. In study 2, subjects were examined in a standardized rest-controlled psychosocial stress protocol. Alpha-amylase activity in blood was repeatedly measured in both studies.Results of study 1 showed that alpha-amylase in blood is subject to stronger increases after injection of yohimbine compared to placebo. In study 2, results showed that there was no significant effect of psychological stress compared to rest.Alpha-amylase in blood increases after pharmacological activation of the adrenergic pathways suggesting that sympathetic receptors are responsible for these changes. Psychological stress, however, does not seem to have an impact on alpha-amylase in blood. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying activity changes in alpha-amylase in blood in healthy individuals.

  16. Wheat IgE-mediated food allergy in European patients: alpha-amylase inhibitors, lipid transfer proteins and low-molecular-weight glutenins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorello, Elide A; Farioli, Laura; Conti, Amedeo

    2007-01-01

    for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/immunoblotting of the three Osborne's protein fractions (albumin/globulin, gliadins and glutenins) of raw and cooked wheat. Thermal sensitivity of wheat lipid transfer protein (LTP) was investigated by spectroscopic approaches. IgE cross...

  17. Long-term stability of diurnal salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase secretion patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoluda, Nadine; La Marca, Roberto; Gollwitzer, Mario; Müller, Andreas; Limm, Heribert; Marten-Mittag, Birgitt; Gündel, Harald; Angerer, Peter; Nater, Urs M

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate long-term stability and variability of diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase patterns. Diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase secretion patterns were assessed on a single workday with three waves of measurement across a total time period of 24months in 189 participants. Separate hierarchical linear models were analyzed, with and without a number of potential predictor variables (age, BMI, smoking, chronic stress, stress reactivity). While low long-term stability was found in diurnal cortisol, the stability of diurnal alpha-amylase was moderate across the time period of 24months. Several predictor variables had a positive impact on diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase secretion patterns averaged across waves. Our findings underpin the notion that long-term stability is not necessarily warranted in longitudinal studies. It is important to choose an appropriate study design when attempting to disentangle clinically and biologically relevant changes from naturally occurring variations in diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Raw starch digestion by. alpha. -amylase and glucoamylase from Chalara paradoxa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monma, Mitsura; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Kagei, Norio; Kainuma, Keiji

    1989-10-01

    Glucoamylase and {alpha}-amylase of Chalara paradoxa were separated by hydrophobic column chromatography using butyl-Toyopearl 650M. The {alpha}-amylase showed the highest activity at pH 5.5 and 45{sup 0}C, and was stable in the pH range of 5.5-6.5 and at temperatures lower than 40{sup 0}C. The glucoamylase showed the highest activity at pH 5.0 and 45{sup 0}C, and was stable in the pH range of 4.0-7.5 and at temperatures lower than 45{sup 0}C. The molecular mass of the {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase estimated by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was 80,000 and 68,000, respectively. Both glucoamylase and {alpha}-amylase could digest more effectively raw rice starch and raw corn starch than raw sago starch and raw potato starch. 2% raw rice starch in 10 ml solution was digested by more than 90% by 100 units of each amylase. When these amylases were used combined, raw corn starch was more effectively digested than they were used singly. This cooperative action in raw corn starch digestion was also observed when C. paradoxa {alpha}-amylase and R. niveus glucoamylase were combined. (orig.).

  19. Study of the solubility of a modified Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase around the isoelectric point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornilius; Hobley, Timothy John; Mollerup, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The solubility of a modified recombinant Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase (mBLA) has been studied by batch crystallization. A semi-pure preparation was chosen containing five isoforms with pI values from 6 to 7.3 (weighted average of 6.6). Small amounts (... sodium sulfate at all pH values and increased with 0.5 mol.L-1 sodium thiocyanate at pH 7 and pH 8. The effect of anions on alpha-amylase solubility followed the Hofmeister series, and only weak evidence of reversal was seen below the isoelectric point. Cations had little effect on solubility. The sign...... and magnitude of the alpha-amylase zeta potential was determined in the presence and absence of 0.1 mol.L-1 salt. Qualitatively, zeta potential correctly predicted the different salts influence on mBLA solubility....

  20. Influence of carbon source on alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    on sucrose, fructose, glycerol, mannitol and acetate. During growth on acetate there was no production of alpha -amylase, whereas addition of small amounts of glucose resulted in alpha -amylase production. A possible induction by alpha -methyl-D-glucoside during growth on glucose was also investigated......, but this compound was not found to be a better inducer of alpha -amylase production than glucose. The results strongly indicate that besides acting as a repressor via the CreA protein, glucose acts as an inducer.......The influence of the carbon source on a-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in carbon-limited chemostat cultures. The following carbon sources were investigated: maltose, maltodextrin (different chain lengths), glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, glycerol, mannitol...

  1. Traditionally used plants in diabetes therapy: phytotherapeutics as inhibitors of alpha-amylase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Funke

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia. There are many and diverse therapeutic strategies in the management of Type 2 diabetes. The inhibition of alpha-amylase activity is only one possibility to lower postprandial blood glucose levels. In our in-vitro studies we could demonstrate that different plants, mostly traditionally used in common diabetic therapy in Africa or Europe, are able to inhibit alpha-amylase, which is responsible for the breakdown of oligosaccharides into monosaccharides which are absorbed. An inhibition of alpha-amylase activity of 90% was seen with the extract of the leaves of Tamarindus indica. To quantify inhibtion rates, acarbose was used (IC50: 23.2 µM. Highest inhibition level of acarbose in our testmodel was about 85%. Additionally tests with pure polyphenolic compounds might explain the biological activity of the selected plants.

  2. Effect of radioactive isotope 32P upon alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Emanovic, D.; Simpraga, M.; Nejedli, S.; Stojevic, Z.

    1996-01-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate whether alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in blood plasma can serve as the help in establishing on early diagnosis of organic or functional damage caused by ionizing radiation in chickens. Fifty day old hybrid chickens of heavy 'Jata' breeds of both sexes, were treated by 32 P administered intramusculary as sodium orthophosphate in a single dose of 333 MBq per kilogram of body weight. Blood samples was taken from the wing vein on day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 after administration of 32 P. Alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration were determined spectrophotometrically using kits produced by 'Radonja', Sisak. Alpha amylase activity was decreased and glucose concentration was increased during investigated period. Yet, the further investigations are needed to find out whether these two parameters can be used for early diagnosis of injury in chicken organism by ionizing radiation. (author)

  3. The effect of gamma irradiation on the formation of alpha-amylase isoenzymes in germinating wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaiah, J.P.; Vakil, U.K.

    1979-01-01

    The biosynthesis of alpha-amylase during seedling growth commenced after a prolonged lag-period in wheat (cv. Vijay), irradiated at a high dose (200 krad). Also, a different requirement for exogenous gibberellins (GA) to stimulate the enzyme synthesis was noted in control and irradiated seeds. Further, the developmental patterns of three major isoenzymes of alpha-amylase (designated as α 1 , α 2 - and α 3 ) during germination were different. It was observed that α 1 -isoenzyme which appeared on the fourth day of germination of control seeds, was delayed in its development and was undetectable up to 4 days in samples irradiated with 200 krad. However, α 1 -isoenzyme appeared after 6 days or after 4 days in GA-treated samples in germinating seeds exposed to a high dose. These results suggested that two systems differing in their radiosensitivity and response to GA application were operating in germinating wheat for the synthesis of functional alpha-amylase molecules. (author)

  4. Structure based protein engineering of Bacillus stearothermophilus {alpha}-amylase: toward a new substrate specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasera, Ana Claudia [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas; Iulek, Jorge [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Delboni, Luis Fernando; Barbosa, Valma Martins Barbosa [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Structural similarity is observed in all members of {alpha}-amylase family but different products are generated during hydrolysis of starch due to different affinities for intermediate dextrins. In order to understand the structural determinants for this property and to introduce different specificity to {alpha}-amylase of Bacillus stearothermophilus we intend to solve the three dimensional structure by X-ray crystallography of the native protein by using synchrotron radiation at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Protein was over expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallization experiments were carried out by using sparse matrix Crystal Screen and Crystal Screen II from Hampton Research (Laguna Hills, CA, USA). Several condition have produced crystals with some defined characteristic: MDP seems to be important to the crystallization: the preferential pH is around 7.5 with organic buffer (HEPES); organic solvent as 2-propanol seems to be also important for the crystallization. On those condition crystals appeared as cluster of needles or small crystals with high number of nucleation. New conditions are being prepared to improve the site and quality of crystals. Data collection of native of Bacillus stearothermophilus {alpha}-amylase will e done at Protein Crystallography Station at LNLS. Crystal structure of mutated {alpha}-amylase bu site direct mutagenesis of residues suggested by the native crystal structure will be obtained. Co-crystallization of Bacillus stearothermophilus {alpha}-amylase and oligosaccharide will be carried out to identify residues involved in the binding site to plan new mutation. In another series of mutation the putative binding site residues, once identified, will be mutated to residues observed in TAKA amylase to confer different specificity to {alpha}-amylase. Based on the available TAKA amylase structure, in the primary sequence homology and in the three dimensional model of Bacillus stearothermophilus

  5. Kinetic studies of acid inactivation of alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens Bredal; Villadsen, John

    1996-01-01

    The stability of alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae has been studied at different pH. The enzyme is extremely stable at neutral pH (pH 5-8), whereas outside this pH-range a substantial loss of activity is observed. The acid-inactivation of alpha-amylase from A. oryzae was monitored on...... regains part of its activity, and the reactivation process also follows first-order kinetics. The irreversible loss of activity is found not to result from a protease contamination of the protein samples. A proposed model, where irreversibly inactivated a-amylase is formed both directly from the active...

  6. Exposure to inhalable dust, wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens in industrial and traditional bakeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, Petar; Myny, Katrien; Braeckman, Lutgart; van Sprundel, Marc; Kusters, Edouard; Doekes, Gert; Pössel, Kerstin; Droste, Jos; Vanhoorne, Michel

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize exposure to inhalable dust, wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens in industrial and traditional bakeries. The study included 70 bakeries from the northern part of Belgium. Based on the degree of automation and a clear division of individual job tasks, four bakeries were identified as industrial and the remaining 66 were identified as traditional ones. Personal, as well as stationary, samples of inhalable dust were collected during full shift periods, usually 5-7 h. The portable pumps aspirated 2 l/min through Teflon personal dust samplers (Millipore, pore size 1.0 microm) mounted in PAS-6 sampling heads. In the collected samples the inhalable dust, wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens were determined. Wheat flour allergens were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition and an antiwheat IgG4 serum pool. The alpha-amylase allergens were measured using a sandwich enzyme immunoassay with affinity-purified polyclonal rabbit IgG antibodies. In total, 440 samples (300 personal and 140 stationary) were processed. The highest inhalable dust exposure was observed in traditional bakeries among bread [geometric mean (GM) 2.10 mg/m3] and bread and pastry workers (GM 1.80 mg/m3). In industrial bakeries the highest dust exposure was measured in bread-producing workers (GM 1.06 mg/m3). Similar relations were observed for wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens. Bread baking workers in traditional bakeries had the highest exposure to both allergens (wheat flour GM 22.33 microg/m(3), alpha-amylase GM 0.61 ng/m3). The exposure to wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens in industrial bakeries was higher in bread baking workers (wheat flour GM 6.15 microg/m3, alpha-amylase GM 0.47 ng/m3) than in bread packing workers (wheat flour GM 2.79 microg/m3, alpha-amylase GM 0.15 ng/m3). The data presented suggest that, on average, exposure in the Belgium bakeries studied-industrial as well as traditional-is lower than or similar to

  7. Engineering of factors determining alpha-amylase and cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase specificity in the cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, RD; Buitelaar, RM; Dijkhuizen, L

    1998-01-01

    The starch-degrading enzymes alpha-amylase and cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) are functionally and structurally closely related, with CGTases containing two additional domains (called D and E) compared to the three domains of alpha-amylases (A, B and C). Amino acid residue 196

  8. Occurrence of serum antibodies against wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor 0.19 in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, D; Štěpánová-Honzová, S; Hospodková, M; Hoffmanová, I; Hábová, V; Halada, P; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H; Tučková, L

    2018-05-10

    The alcohol-soluble fraction of wheat gluten (gliadins) induces in genetically susceptible individuals immunologically mediated celiac disease (CLD). However, gliadins and related cereal proteins are not unique foodstuff targets of CLD patients´ immune system. Non-gluten wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor 0.19 (AAI 0.19) has been found to be capable of activating human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and inducing pro-inflammatory status in intestinal mucosa of patients with celiac disease (CLD). The possible contribution of this reactivity in incomplete remission of CLD patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD) is matter of contention. In an attempt to characterize the antigenicity of AAI 0.19 in patients with active CLD, patients on a GFD and healthy controls we developed ELISA employing wheat recombinant AAI 0.19. Using this test we revealed a significant (PCLD (12 out of 30 patients were seropositive) but also in CLD patients on a GFD (15/46), in contrast to healthy controls (2/59). Anti-AAI 0.19 IgG Ab levels were increased (PCLD (14/30) in contrast to the controls. Interestingly, the levels of anti-AAI 0.19 IgG Ab were decreased in CLD patients on a GFD (PCLD were positive either for IgA or for IgG anti-AAI 0.19 Ab. Thus, the majority of CLD patients developed a robust IgA and IgG Ab response against AAI 0.19. These findings may contribute to the broadening of the knowledge about CLD pathogenesis.

  9. Production and Partial Purification of Alpha Amylase from Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121 Using Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyangana Raul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of starch into sugars and plays a pivotal role in a variety of areas like use as digestives, for the production of ethanol and high fructose corn syrup, detergents, desiring of textiles, modified starches, hydrolysis of oil-field drilling fluids, and paper recycling. In the present work, solid state fermentation (SSF for α-amylase production has been used in lieu of submerged fermentation (SmF due to its simple technique, low capital investment, lower levels of catabolite repression, and better product recovery. Bacillus subtilis has been well known as producer of alpha amylase and was tested using solid state fermentation for 48 hours at 37°C with wheat bran as substrate. Comparison between different fermentation hours demonstrated high yield of alpha amylase after 48 hours. This alpha amylase has optimum pH and temperature at 7.1 and 40°C, respectively. With the goal to purify alpha amylase, 30–70% (NH42SO4 cut concentrated the amylase activity threefold with respect to crude fermented extract. This was verified in quantitative DNS assay method as well as in zymogram gel profile. The exact molecular weight of the amylase is yet to be determined with the aid of other protein purification techniques.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of an alpha-amylase from Pichia burtonii 15-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Saemi; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Mura, Kiyoshi; Takeuchi, Akiko; Tokue, Chiyoko; Arai, Soichi

    2007-12-01

    An alpha-amylase secreted by Pichia burtonii 15-1 isolated from a traditional starter murcha of Nepal, named Pichia burtonii alpha-amylase (PBA), was studied. The gene was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. PBA was deduced to consist of 494 amino acid residues. It shared certain degrees of amino acid sequence identity with other homologous proteins: 60% with Schwanniomyces occidentalis alpha-amylase, 58% with Saccharomycopsis sp. alpha-amylase, and 47% with Taka-amylase A from Aspergillus oryzae. A three-dimensional structural model of PBA generated using the known three-dimensional structure of Taka-amylase A as a template suggested high structural similarity between them. Kinetic analysis revealed that the K(m) values of PBA were lower than those of Taka-amylase A for the oligosaccharides. Although the k(cat) values of PBA were lower than those of Taka-amylase A for the oligosaccharide substrates, the k(cat)/K(m) values of PBA were higher.

  11. A rapid lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of fungal alpha-amylase at the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koets, M.; Sander, I.; Bogdanovic, J.; Doekes, G.; Amerongen, van A.

    2006-01-01

    Fungal alpha-amylase is a flour supplement which is added to improve the quality of bakery products. Various studies have shown that exposure to this enzyme is an important risk factor for the development of bakers allergy and this allergy is reported to be one of the most frequent causes of

  12. SALIVARY ALPHA-AMYLASE AS A BIOMARKER OF DENTAL FEAR AND ANXIETY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réka GYERGYAY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental treatment represents a stress factor for most children. The aim of the study was to analyse the variation of salivary alpha-amylase concentration in children after a video viewing on dental treatments. In this study, 7 to 10 year-old school children were evaluated (n=119. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected before and after viewing a 15 min video on dental treatments performed on children. Changes in salivary alpha-amylase levels have been assessed. Video viewing on dental procedures led to a significant increase of the alpha-amylase level in the whole sample group. This was noticeable in terms of gender as well as age groups. From the viewpoint of age and gender, girls displayed significantly higher levels of amylase in all age groups, while this could be observed only in younger boys. In conclusion, analysis of salivary alpha-amylase revealed that the sight of dental treatment represents a significant source of stress among children.

  13. The role of alpha-amylase in the perception of oral texture and flavour in custards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Prinz, J.F.; Engelen, L.; Weenen, H.

    2004-01-01

    The role of salivary a-amylase in odour, flavour, and oral texture sensations was investigated in two studies in which the activity of salivary amylase present in the mouth of human subjects was either increased by presenting custards with added alpha-amylase or decreased by presenting custards with

  14. Comparison of salivary alpha-amylase levels in gingivitis and periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Nindita Carolina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of periodontal disease is influenced by bacteria-plaque, while there are also several factors modifying the host’s response, one of which is psychological stress. Alpha-amylase as a biomarker is also associated with periodontal inflammatory disease. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the difference of alpha-amylase level between gingivitis and periodontitis. Methods: This research constitutes a descriptive study involving 44 subjects, divided into two groups: one of 22 gingivitis subjects and the other of 22 periodontitis subjects. These individuals completed a PSS-14 questionnaire before their levels of alpha salivary amylase were measured by Cocorometer. Data was analyzed by means of a paired T test and a Mann Whitney test with p < 0.05. Results: There were significant differences between the alpha-amylase levels of gingivitis and periodontitis. However, no significant contrast existed in the PSS-14 scores of the two periodontal disease groups. Conclusion: In conclusion alpha-amylase levels in the periodontitis group were higher than those in the gingivitis group and could be used as marker indicators of stress.

  15. The effect of alpha amylase enzyme on quality of sweet sorghum juice for chrystal sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwati, T.; Cahyaningrum, N.; Widodo, S.; Astiati, U. T.; Budiyanto, A.; Wahyudiono; Arif, A. B.; Richana, N.

    2018-01-01

    Sweet sorghum juice (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has characteristics similar to sugar cane juice and potentially used for sugar substitutes that can support food security. Nevertheless the sweet sorghum juicecontain starch which impede sorghum sugar crystallization. Therefore, research on the enzymatic process is needed to convert starch into reducing sugar. The experimental design used was the Factorial Randomized Design with the first factor was alpha amylase enzyme concentration (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 μL/100 mL) and second factor was incubation time (0, 30, 60, 90 minute) at temperature 100°C. The experiment was conducted on fresh sweet sorghum. The results showed that the addition of the alpha amylase enzyme increased the content of reducing sugar and decreased levels of starch. Elevating concentration of alpha amylase enzyme will increase the reducing sugar content in sweet sorghum juice. The optimum alpha amylase enzyme concentration to produce the highest total sugar was 80 μL/100 mL of sweet sorghum juice with the optimum incubation time was 90 minutes. The results of this study are expected to create a new sweetener for sugar substitution. From the economic prospective aspect, sorghum is a potential crop and can be relied upon to support the success of the food diversification program which further leads to the world food security

  16. Peer Victimization and Aggression: Moderation by Individual Differences in Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Granger, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether variations in salivary measures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and autonomic nervous system (alpha amylase [sAA]) contribute to individual differences in the association between peer victimization and aggression. Children (N = 132; M age = 9.46 years, SD = 0.33) completed a measure of peer…

  17. Changes in the composition of the pulp, alpha-amylase activity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The laboratory rotting of Egusi Fruits was completed in 120 hours. At this stage pulp became soft and the seeds were extracted easily with the fingers. The changes in the composition of the pulp, alpha-amylase activity and titratable acidity during the controlled rotting of egusi fruit (Colocynthis citrullus L.) for the harvesting of ...

  18. Production of Active Bacillus licheniformis Alpha-Amylase in Tobacco and its Application in Starch Liquefaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, J; MOLENDIJK, L; Quax, Wim J.; SIJMONS, PC; VANOOYEN, AJJ; VANDENELZEN, PJM; RIETVELD, K; HOEKEMA, A

    As a first example of the feasibility of producing industrial bulk enzymes in plants, we have expressed Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase in transgenic tobacco, and applied the seeds directly in starch liquification. The enzyme was properly secreted into the intercellular space, and maximum

  19. Production of fungal alpha-amylase by Saccharomyces kluyveri in glucose-limited cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper; Sharif, M.Z.; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    Heterologous protein production by the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri was investigated under aerobic glucose-limited conditions. alpha-Amylase from Aspergillus oryzae was used as model protein and the gene was expressed from a S. cerevisiae 2 mu plasmid. For comparison, strains of both S. kluyveri ...

  20. Determinants of salivary evening alpha-amylase in a large sample free of psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Gerthe; Giltay, Erik J.; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Cobbaert, Christa M.; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Recently, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a suitable index for sympathetic activity and dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Although determinants of sAA have been described, they have not been studied within the same study with a large sample size

  1. Morphological characterization of recombinant strains of Aspergillus oryzae producing alpha-amylase during batch cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1997-01-01

    Three alpha-amylase producing strains of Aspergillus oryzae used for recombinant protein production have been studied with respect to growth and protein production. By comparing the three strains with respect to morphology and protein production it is shown that a morphological mutant with a more...

  2. Production of alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae for several industrial applications in a single step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfirif, María C; Milatich, Esteban J; Farruggia, Beatriz M; Romanini, Diana

    2016-06-01

    A one-step method as a strategy of alpha-amylase concentration and purification was developed in this work. This methodology requires the use of a very low concentration of biodegradable polyelectrolyte (Eudragit(®) E-PO) and represents a low cost, fast, easy to scale up and non-polluting technology. Besides, this methodology allows recycling the polymer after precipitation. The formation of reversible soluble/insoluble complexes between alpha-amylase and the polymer Eudragit(®) E-PO was studied, and their precipitation in selected conditions was applied with bioseparation purposes. Turbidimetric assays allowed to determine the pH range where the complexes are insoluble (4.50-7.00); pH 5.50 yielded the highest turbidity of the system. The presence of NaCl (0.05M) in the medium totally dissociates the protein-polymer complexes. When the adequate concentration of polymer was added under these conditions to a liquid culture of Aspergillus oryzae, purification factors of alpha-amylase up to 7.43 and recoveries of 88% were obtained in a simple step without previous clarification. These results demonstrate that this methodology is suitable for the concentration and production of alpha-amylase from this source and could be applied at the beginning of downstream processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Two Strategies for Microbial Production of an Industrial Enzyme-Alpha-Amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsdotter, Eva C. M. J.; Garriott, Owen; Pusey, Marc L.; Ng, Joseph D.

    2003-01-01

    Extremophiles are microorganisms that thrive in, from an anthropocentric view, extreme environments including hot springs, soda lakes and arctic water. This ability of survival at extreme conditions has rendered extremophiles to be of interest in astrobiology, evolutionary biology as well as in industrial applications. Of particular interest to the biotechnology industry are the biological catalysts of the extremophiles, the extremozymes, whose unique stabilities at extreme conditions make them potential sources of novel enzymes in industrial applications. There are two major approaches to microbial enzyme production. This entails enzyme isolation directly from the natural host or creating a recombinant expression system whereby the targeted enzyme can be overexpressed in a mesophilic host. We are employing both methods in the effort to produce alpha-amylases from a hyperthermophilic archaeon (Thermococcus) isolated from a hydrothermal vent in the Atlantic Ocean, as well as from alkaliphilic bacteria (Bacillus) isolated from a soda lake in Tanzania. Alpha-amylases catalyze the hydrolysis of internal alpha-1,4-glycosidic linkages in starch to produce smaller sugars. Thermostable alpha-amylases are used in the liquefaction of starch for production of fructose and glucose syrups, whereas alpha-amylases stable at high pH have potential as detergent additives. The alpha-amylase encoding gene from Thermococcus was PCR amplified using carefully designed primers and analyzed using bioinformatics tools such as BLAST and Multiple Sequence Alignment for cloning and expression in E.coli. Four strains of Bacillus were grown in alkaline starch-enriched medium of which the culture supernatant was used as enzyme source. Amylolytic activity was detected using the starch-iodine method.

  4. High-throughput hydrolysis of starch during permeation across {alpha}-amylase-immobilized porous hollow-fiber membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Suguru; Kubota, Noboru; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Saito, Kyoichi E-mail: marukyo@xtal.tf.chiba-u.ac.jp; Sugita, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kohei; Sugo, Takanobu

    2002-02-01

    Two kinds of supporting porous membranes, ethanolamine (EA) and phenol (Ph) fibers, for immobilization of {alpha}-amylase were prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization of an epoxy-group-containing monomer, glycidyl methacrylate, onto a porous hollow-fiber membrane, and subsequent ring-opening with EA and Ph, respectively. An {alpha}-amylase solution was forced to permeate radially outward through the pores of the EA and Ph fibers. {alpha}-Amylase was captured at a density of 0.15 and 6.6 g/L of the membrane by the graft chain containing 2-hydroxyethylamino and phenyl groups, respectively. A permeation pressure of 0.10 MPa provided a space velocity of 780 and 1500 h{sup -1} for the {alpha}-amylase-immobilized EA and Ph fibers, respectively. Quantitative hydrolysis of starch during permeation of a 20 g/L starch solution in the buffer across the {alpha}-amylase-immobilized Ph fiber was attained up to a space velocity of about 2000 h{sup -1}; this was achieved because of negligible diffusional mass-transfer resistance of the starch to the {alpha}-amylase due to convective flow/ whereas an enzyme reaction-controlled system was observed for the {alpha}-amylase-immobilized EA fiber.

  5. Mutational analysis of target enzyme recognition of the beta-trefoil fold barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Nielsen, Per K.; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2005-01-01

    The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor ( BASI) inhibits alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) with subnanomolar affinity. The contribution of selected side chains of BASI to this high affinity is discerned in this study, and binding to other targets is investigated. Seven BASI residues along the AMY2-BASI...... interface and four residues in the putative protease-binding loop on the opposite side of the inhibitor were mutated. A total of 15 variants were compared with the wild type by monitoring the alpha-amylase and protease inhibitory activities using Blue Starch and azoalbumin, respectively, and the kinetics...

  6. Alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits alpha-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Albuquerque, Erika V S; Silva, Maria C M; Souza, Djair S L; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Valencia, Arnubio; Rocha, Thales L; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2010-06-17

    Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an alpha-amylase inhibitor gene (alpha-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. We transformed C. arabica with the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (alpha-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the alpha-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against alpha-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum alpha-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the alpha-AI1 protein against H. hampei alpha-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  7. Response surface methodology for the optimization of alpha amylase production by serratia marcescens SB08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venil, C.K.; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, central composite design combining with response surface methodology was successfully employed to optimize medium composition for the production of alpha amylase by Serratia marcescens SB08 in submerged fermentation. The process parameters that influence the enzyme production were identified using Plackett- Burman design. Among the various factors screened, inoculum concentration, pH, NaCl and CaCl/sub 2/ were found to be most significant. The optimum level of pH was 5.0, inoculum concentration 3%, NaCl 0.30 g/l and CaCl/sub 2/ 0.13 g/l. The actual enzyme yield before and after optimization was 56.43 U/ml and 87.23 U/ml, respectively. Thus, it is advisable to the microbial industry sponsors to apply such profitable bioprocess to maintain high yield for mass production of alpha amylase. (author)

  8. Digestive alpha-amylases of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella - adaptation to alkaline environment and plant inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pytelková, Jana; Hubert, J.; Lepšík, Martin; Šobotník, Jan; Šindelka, Radek; Křížková, I.; Horn, Martin; Mareš, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 276, č. 13 (2009), s. 3531-3546 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550617; GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR GA301/09/1752 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : alkaline adaptation * alpha - amylase * alpha - amylase inhibitor * Ephestia kuehniella * plant-insect interaction Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.042, year: 2009

  9. Unripe Fruit's Extract of Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller as a Potent Alpha-amylase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Koutb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alpha-amylase inhibitors has recently gained in popularity with the success and growth of carbohydrate restricted diets. In this study, two different stages from the unripe fruits of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller have been tested for their potentiality in alpha-amylase inhibition as a key enzyme in carbohydrates assimilation. Our results revealed that addition of different concentrations from extracts (0, 2, 4, 6, 8mg of dry mass of each stage of unripe fruits resulted in drastically decrease in the enzymatic activity of alpha-amylase by the percent of (0%, 42.6%, 21%, 26.3%, and 16.9% for the stage 1. Extracts from the stage 2 were more effective in enzymatic inhibition (0%, 26.9%, 3.8%, 0.2%, and 0.4%. The GC/MS analysis revealed that quince extract contains (sorbitol, quinic acid, p-vinylphenol and cyclopropane carboxylic acid. To explore which components are involved in the inhibition process, two pure components of the quince extract (sorbitol and quinic acid were used in inhibition assay. Neither sorbitol nor quinic acid shows any significant inhibition; therefore, these two components could be excluded from the inhibition process. Our current study suggested that p-vinylphenol and cyclopropane carboxylic acid might act as a-amylase inhibitors in vitro separately or synergistically. The possible explanation for the presence of cyclopropane carboxylic acid (CPCA in this critical phase of the unripe fruit will be discussed. This study suggests that the unripe fruits of quince can be used as a natural starch blocker containing alpha-amylase inhibitors which would be of interest for people requiring carbohydrate restricted diets.

  10. Purification and physicochemical properties of. cap alpha. -amylase from irradiated wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaiah, J P; Vakil, U K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1981-06-01

    ..cap alpha..-Amylases from control and gamma-irradiated (at 0.2 and 2.0 kGy dose levels) wheat seedlings were purified to homogeneity and characterized. The molecular weight of the enzyme from a 2 kGy irradiated sample was slightly lower than that of the control; other general and catalytic properties also showed some differences. ..cap alpha..-Amylase from the irradiated (2kGy) sample had a narrow range of pH optimum and was inactivated faster at alkaline pH and by heat treatment than the enzyme from unirradiated wheat. A high apparent Michaelis constant (Ksub(m)) and a low maximal velocity (Vsub(max)) for the hydrolysis of soluble starch catalyzed by the enzyme from irradiated (2kGy) wheat, suggested some modifications in the formation of the substrate ..cap alpha..-amylase complex. Further, of the total number of amino acid residues lost on irradiation, dicarboxylic amino acids constituted the largest percentage; these structural alterations in the enzyme may be responsible for its partial inactivation. The total sugars liberated upon amylolysis of starch with the 2kGy irradiated enzyme were lower than control, and there was accumulation of higher maltodextrins in the place of maltose.

  11. Physiological characterisation of recombinant Aspergillus nidulans strains with different creA genotypes expressing A-oryzae alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Teit; Petersen, J.B.; O'Connor, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The physiology of three strains of Aspergillus nidulans was examined-a creA deletion strain, a wild type creA genotype and a strain containing extra copies of the creA gene, all producing Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase. The strains were cultured in batch and continuous cultivations and the biom......The physiology of three strains of Aspergillus nidulans was examined-a creA deletion strain, a wild type creA genotype and a strain containing extra copies of the creA gene, all producing Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase. The strains were cultured in batch and continuous cultivations...... and the biomass formation and alpha-amylase production was characterised. Overexpression of the creA gene resulted in a lower maximum specific growth rate and a slightly higher repression of the alpha-amylase production during conditions with high glucose concentration. No expression of creA also resulted...... in a decreased maximum specific growth rate, but also in drastic changes in morphology. Furthermore, the expression of alpha-amylase was completely derepressed and creA thus seems to be the only regulatory protein responsible for glucose repression of alpha-amylase expression. The effect of different carbon...

  12. Expression and secretion of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens alpha-amylase by using the yeast pheromone alpha-factor promoter and leader sequence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Southgate, V J; Steyn, A J; Pretorius, I S; Van Vuuren, H J

    1993-01-01

    Replacement of the regulatory and secretory signals of the alpha-amylase gene (AMY) from Bacillus amylolique-faciens with the complete yeast pheromone alpha-factor prepro region (MF alpha 1p) resulted in increased levels of extracellular alpha-amylase production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the removal of the (Glu-Ala)2 peptide from the MF alpha 1 spacer region (Lys-Arg-Glu-Ala-Glu-Ala) yielded decreased levels of extracellular alpha-amylase.

  13. Optimization of Thermostable Alpha-Amylase Production Via Mix Agricultural-Residues and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini RAI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports utilization of mixture of wheat and barley bran (1:1 for the production of thermostable alpha-amylase enzyme through a spore former, heat tolerant strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in solid state fermentation. Maximum yield of alpha-amylase (252.77 U mL-1 was obtained in following optimized conditions, inoculums size 2 mL (2 × 106 CFU/mL, moisture 80%, pH 7±0.02, NaCl (3%, temperature 38±1°C, incubation for 72 h, maltose (1% and tryptone (1%. After SSF crude enzyme was purified via ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange and column chromatography by DEAE Cellulose. Purified protein showed a molecular weight of 42 kDa by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. After purification, purified enzyme was characterized against several enzymes inhibitors such as temperature, NaCl, pH, metal and surfactants. Pure enzyme was highly active over broad temperature (50-70°C, NaCl concentration (0.5-4 M, and pH (6-10 ranges, indicating it’s a thermoactive and alkali-stable nature. Moreover, CaCl2, MnCl2, =-mercaptoethanol were found to stimulate the amylase activity, whereas FeCl3, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, CuCl3 and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA strongly inhibited the enzyme. Moreover, enzyme specificity and thermal stability conformed by degradation of different soluble starch up to 55°C. Therefore, the present study proved that the extracellular alpha-amylase extracted through wheat flour residues by organism B. amyloliquefaciens MCCB0075, both have considerable potential for industrial application owing to its properties.

  14. Chewing bread: impact on alpha-amylase secretion and oral digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Marianne; Septier, Chantal; Brignot, Hélène; Salles, Christian; Panouillé, Maud; Feron, Gilles; Tournier, Carole

    2017-02-22

    During chewing, saliva helps in preparing the food bolus by agglomerating the formed particles, and it initiates enzymatic food breakdown. However, limited information is actually available on the adaptation of saliva composition during the oral processing of complex foods, especially for foods that are sensitive to salivary enzymes. We addressed this question in the context of starch-based products and salivary alpha-amylase. The objectives were two-fold: (1) to determine if salivary alpha-amylase secretion can be modulated by the bread type and (2) to evaluate the contribution of the oral phase in bread enzymatic breakdown. Mouthfuls of three different wheat breads (industrial, artisan and whole-meal breads) were chewed by twelve subjects. Saliva samples were collected at rest and at different times corresponding to 33, 66 and 100% of the individual's chewing sequence. Alpha-amylase activity and total protein content were determined for all saliva samples that were collected. Additionally, the salivary maltose concentration was measured as a marker of bread enzymatic digestion. Boluses were collected at the swallowing time to evaluate the saliva uptake. Chewing industrial bread induced higher saliva uptake than the other breads despite a similar chewing duration. The evolution of salivary amylase activity tended to depend on the type of bread and was highly influenced by a large degree of inter- and intra-subject variability. The protein and maltose concentration steadily increased during chewing as a result of bread breakdown. The salivary protein concentration was mainly affected by the release of the water-soluble proteins of the bread. The salivary maltose concentration was found to be significantly lower for the whole-meal bread. When considering the weight of the mouthful, enzymatic breakdown was found to be most efficient for the breads ranking from industrial > artisan > whole-meal.

  15. Isolation and characterisation of a novel alpha-amylase from the extreme haloarchaeon Haloterrigena turkmenica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorelli, Marco; Maurelli, Luisa; Pocsfalvi, Gabriella; Fiume, Immacolata; Squillaci, Giuseppe; La Cara, Francesco; Del Monaco, Giovanni; Morana, Alessandra

    2016-11-01

    An extracellular halophilic alpha-amylase (AmyA) was produced by the haloarchaeon Haloterrigena turkmenica grown in medium enriched with 0.2% (w/v) starch. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) analyses showed a major band at 66.0kDa and a peak of 54.0kDa, respectively. Analysis of tryptic fragments of the protein present in the major SDS-PAGE band by nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS led to identification of the alpha-amylase catalytic region, encoded by the htur2110 gene, as the protein possessing the described activity. Optimal values for activity were 55°C, pH 8.5 and 2M NaCl, and high thermostability was showed at 55°C and 3M NaCl. AmyA activity was enhanced by Triton X-100 and was not influenced by n-hexane and chloroform. Starch hydrolysis produced different oligomers with maltose as the smallest end-product. The efficiency of AmyA in degrading starch contained in agronomic residues was tested in grape cane chosen as model substrate. Preliminary results showed that starch was degraded making the enzyme a potential candidate for utilization of agro-industrial waste in fuel and chemicals production. AmyA is one of the few investigated amylases produced by haloarchaea, and the first alpha-amylase described among microorganisms belonging to the genus Haloterrigena. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Determinants of wheat antigen and fungal alpha-amylase exposure in bakeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, I; Teschke, K; Bartlett, K; Kennedy, S M

    1998-05-01

    The study's objectives were to measure flour antigen exposure in bakeries and define the determinants of exposure. Ninety-six bakery workers, employed in seven different bakeries, participated in the study. Two side-by-side full-shift inhalable dust samples were obtained from each study participant on a single occasion. The flour antigen exposure was measured as wheat antigen and fungal alpha-amylase content of the water-soluble fraction of inhalable dust, assayed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. During the entire sampling period bakers were observed and information on 14 different tasks was recorded at 15-minute intervals. Other production characteristics were also recorded for each sampling day and used in statistical modeling to identify significant predictors of exposure. The mean alpha-amylase antigen exposure was 22.0 ng/m3 (ranging from below the limit of detection of 0.1 ng/m3 to 307.1 ng/m3) and the mean wheat antigen exposure was 109 micrograms/m3 (ranging from below the limit of detection of 1 microgram/m3 to 1018 micrograms/m3). Regression models that explained 74% of variability in wheat antigen and alpha-amylase antigen exposures were constructed. The models indicated that tasks such as weighing, pouring, and operating dough-brakers increased flour antigen exposure, while packing and decorating resulted in lower exposures. Croissant, puff-pastry, and bread/bun production lines were associated with increased exposure, while cake production and substitution of dusting with the use of divider oil were associated with decreased exposure. Exposure levels can be reduced by the automation of forming tasks, alteration of tasks requiring pouring of flour, and changes to the types of products manufactured.

  17. A Proposed Mechanism for the Thermal Denaturation of a Recombinant Bacillus Halmapalus Alpha-amylase - the Effect of Calcium Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Anders D.; Pusey, Marc L.; Fuglsang, Claus C.; Westh, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The thermal stability of a recombinant alpha-amylase from Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase (BHA) has been investigated using circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). This alpha-amylase is homologous to other Bacillus alpha-amylases where previous crystallographic studies have identified the existence of 3 calcium binding sites in the structure. Denaturation of BHA is irreversible with a Tm of approximately 89 C, and DSC thermograms can be described using a one-step irreversible model. A 5 C increase in T(sub m) in the presence of 10 fold excess CaCl2 was observed. However, a concomitant increase in the tendency to aggregate was also observed. The presence of 30-40 fold excess calcium chelator (EDTA or EGTA) results in a large destabilization of BHA corresponding to about 40 C lower T(sub m), as determined by both CD and DSC. Ten fold excess EGTA reveals complex DSC thermograms corresponding to both reversible and irreversible transitions, which possibly originate from different populations of BHA:calcium complexes. The observations in the present study have, in combination with structural information of homologous alpha-amylases, provided the basis for the proposal of a simple denaturation mechanism of BHA. The proposed mechanism describes the irreversible thermal denaturation of different BHA:calcium complexes and the calcium binding equilibrium involved. Furthermore, the model accounts for a temperature induced reversible structural change associated with calcium binding.

  18. Modification of the activity of an alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis by several surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Rodríguez,Vicente; Jurado Alameda,Encarnación; Martínez Gallegos,Juan Francisco; Reyes Requena,Antonia; García López,Ana Isabel; Sampaio Cabral,Joaquim Manuel; Fernandes,Pedro; Pina da Fonseca,Luis Joaquim

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different commercial surfactants on the enzymatic activity of a commercial alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (Termamyl 300 L) has been studied. As non-ionic surfactants, alkyl polyglycosides (Glucopon® 215, Glucopon® 600 and Glucopon® 650) were studied, as were fatty alcohol ethoxylates (Findet 1214N/23 and Findet 10/15), and nonyl phenol ethoxylate (Findet 9Q/21.5NF). Also, an anionic surfactant, linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) was assayed. In general, none of t...

  19. Production of alpha-amylase in batch and chemostat culture by bacillus stearothermophilus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P E; Cohen, D L; Whitaker, A

    1980-01-01

    The production of alpha-amylase by a strain of B.stearothermophilus isolated from leaf litter was investigated in a tryptone-maltose medium at 55 degrees in batch and chemostat culture. Amylase production was growth-limited and restricted to the exponential phase in batch culture. The enzyme yield was reduced by 40% when the culture pH was maintained at pH 7.2. Amylase production in chemostat culture was influenced by the growth rate throughout the dilution rate range used.

  20. High-level expression of the native barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Pernille Ollendorff; Ostergaard, Peter Rahbek; Lange, Lene

    2008-01-01

    An expression system for high-level expression of the native Hordeum vulgare alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) has been developed in Pichia pastoris, using the methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. To optimize expression, two codon-optimized coding regions have been designed...... and expressed alongside the wild-type coding region. To ensure secretion of the native mature protein, a truncated version of the alpha mating factor secretion signal from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used. In order to be able to compare expression levels from different clones, single insertion transformants...

  1. Alpha amylase from a fungal culture grown on oil cakes and its properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran,Sumitra; Patel,Anil K.; Nampoothiri,Kesavan Madhavan; Chandran,Sandhya; Szakacs,George; Soccol,Carlos Ricardo; Pandey,Ashok

    2004-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation was carried out for the production of alpha-amylase using Aspergillus oryzae. Different oil cakes such as coconut oil cake (COC) sesame oil cake (SOC), groundnut oil cake (GOC), palm kernel cake (PKC) and olive oil cake (OOC) were screened to be used as substrate for the enzyme production and also compared with wheat bran (WB). GOC was found to be the best producer of the enzyme among these. Combination of WB and GOC (1:1) resulted higher enzyme titres than the indivi...

  2. Screening alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitors from natural compounds by molecular docking in silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhong, Chien-Hung; Riyaphan, Jirawat; Lin, Shih-Hung; Chia, Yi-Chen; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor is a common oral anti-diabetic drug used for controlling carbohydrates normally converted into simple sugars and absorbed by the intestines. However, some adverse clinical effects have been observed. The present study seeks an alternative drug that can regulate the hyperglycemia by down-regulating alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase activity by molecular docking approach to screen the hyperglycemia antagonist against alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase activities from the 47 natural compounds. The docking data showed that Curcumin, 16-hydroxy-cleroda-3,13-dine-16,15-olide (16-H), Docosanol, Tetracosanol, Antroquinonol, Berberine, Catechin, Quercetin, Actinodaphnine, and Rutin from 47 natural compounds had binding ability towards alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase as well. Curcumin had a better biding ability of alpha-amylase than the other natural compounds. Analyzed alpha-glucosidase activity reveals natural compound inhibitors (below 0.5 mM) are Curcumin, Actinodaphnine, 16-H, Quercetin, Berberine, and Catechin when compared to the commercial drug Acarbose (3 mM). A natural compound with alpha-amylase inhibitors (below 0.5 mM) includes Curcumin, Berberine, Docosanol, 16-H, Actinodaphnine/Tetracosanol, Catechin, and Quercetin when compared to Acarbose (1 mM). When taken together, the implication is that molecular docking is a fast and effective way to screen alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitors as lead compounds of natural sources isolated from medicinal plants. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. Physical and catalytic properties of alpha-amylase from Tenebrio molitor L. larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, V; Poerio, E; Silano, V; Tomasi, M

    1976-01-01

    The amylase from Tenebrio molitor L. larvae (yellow mealworm) was characterized according to a number of its molecular and catalytic properties. The insect amylase is a single polypeptide chain with mol.wt. 68000, an isoelectric point of 4.0 and a very low content of sulphur-containing amino acids. The enzyme is a Ca2+-protein and behaves as an alpha-amylase. Removal of Ca2+ by exhaustive dialysis against water causes the irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. Moreover, the enzyme is activated by the presence in the assay mixture of Cl-, or some other inorganic anions that are less effective than Cl-, and is inhibited by F-. Optimal conditions of pH and temperature for the enzymic activity are 5.8 and 37 degrees C. The insect amylase exhibits an identical kinetic behaviour toward starch, amylose and amylopectin; the enzyme hydrolyses glycogen with a higher affinity constant. Compared with the non-insect alpha-amylases described in the literature, Tenebrio molitor amylase has a lower affinity for starch. PMID:942374

  4. Cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase and children's perceptions of their social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzi, Davide; Muehlenbein, Michael P; Geary, David C; Flinn, Mark V

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of social network analysis in biobehavioral research. Despite the well-established importance of social relationships in influencing human behavior and health, little is known about how children's perception of their immediate social relationships correlates with biological parameters of stress. In this study we explore the association between two measures of children's personal social networks, perceived network size and perceived network density, with two biomarkers of stress, cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase. Forty children (mean age = 8.30, min age = 5, and max age = 12) were interviewed to collect information about their friendships and three samples of saliva were collected. Our results show that children characterized by a lower pre-interview cortisol concentration and a lower salivary alpha-amylase reactivity to the interview reported the highest density of friendships. We discuss this result in light of the multisystem approach to the study of children's behavioral outcomes, emphasizing that future work of this kind is needed in order to understand the cognitive and biological mechanisms underlying children's and adolescents' social perceptual biases.

  5. ALPHA-AMYLASE PRODUCTION FROM Aspergillus oryzae M BY SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleimenova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of present study was implementation of the Aspergillus oryzae M strain improved technology using earlier developed method of microorganism selection. 8 pure strains of Aspergillus fungi were screened for the production of extra cellular alpha-amylase using agar medium with starch as a substrate and incubated for 72h at 30 ºС. Zone of clearance was observed for screening of the amylolytic fungi (in mm. Aspergillus oryzae M has demonstrated the highest zone of clearance. Aspergillus oryzae M was cultivated for 42 days in submerged conditions of growth using new method of fungal cultivation. This method based on immobilizing enzymes producers on solid career in submerged conditions of growth gives the way to improve quality of filtrates, which remain clear, does not require additional filtering and easily separated from the mycelium. Moreover, it allows to prolong the process of fungal cultivation and to maintain high enzymatic activity for a long period of time. Presented method allowed increasing alpha-amylase production from 321 U/ml (before immobilization to 502 U/ml (after immobilization.

  6. Adsorption of {alpha}-amylase onto poly(N-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone/itaconic acid) hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuemtuerk, Hayrettin; Caykara, Tuncer; Kantoglu, Oemer; Gueven, Olgun

    1999-05-02

    {alpha}-Amylase enzyme was adsorbed on poly(N-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone/itaconic acid) (P(VP/IA)) hydrogels prepared by irradiating the ternary mixtures of VP/IA/water by {gamma}-rays at ambient temperature. The adsorption capacity of the hydrogels was determined to increase from 2.30 to 3.40 mg {alpha}-amylase/g dry gel with increasing amount of IA in gel system. Kinetic parameters were calculated as 2.51 g/dm{sup 3} for K{sub m} and 1.67x10{sup -3} g/dm{sup 3} min for V{sub max} for free enzyme and in the range of 3.88-5.02 g/dm{sup 3} for K{sub m} and 1.62x10{sup -3}-2.27 x 10{sup -3} g/dm{sup 3} min for V{sub max} depending on the amount of IA in the hydrogel. Enzyme activities were found to increase from 49.9% to 77.4% with increasing amount of IA in the gel system and retained their activities for one month storage. On the other hand, the free enzyme loses its activity completely after 20 days.

  7. Quantitative digital image analysis of chromogenic assays for high throughput screening of alpha-amylase mutant libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Manoharan; Priyadharshini, Ramachandran; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2009-08-01

    An image analysis-based method for high throughput screening of an alpha-amylase mutant library using chromogenic assays was developed. Assays were performed in microplates and high resolution images of the assay plates were read using the Virtual Microplate Reader (VMR) script to quantify the concentration of the chromogen. This method is fast and sensitive in quantifying 0.025-0.3 mg starch/ml as well as 0.05-0.75 mg glucose/ml. It was also an effective screening method for improved alpha-amylase activity with a coefficient of variance of 18%.

  8. Effect of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone on the activity and stability of alpha-amylase: a comparative study on bacterial, fungal, and mammalian enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani-Amin, Elaheh; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Larijani, Bagher; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2015-10-01

    Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) was recently introduced as an activator of mammalian alpha-amylase. In the current study, the effect of NHDC has been investigated on bacterial and fungal alpha-amylases. Enzyme assays and kinetic analysis demonstrated the capability of NHDC to significantly activate both tested alpha-amylases. The ligand activation pattern was found to be more similar between the fungal and mammalian enzyme in comparison with the bacterial one. Further, thermostability experiments indicated a stability increase in the presence of NHDC for the bacterial enzyme. In silico (docking) test locates a putative binding site for NHDC on alpha-amylase surface in domain B. This domain shows differences in various alpha-amylase types, and the different behavior of the ligand toward the studied enzymes may be attributed to this fact. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Concurrent attenuated reactivity of alpha-amylase and cortisol is related to disruptive behavior in male adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouw, M.; Jansen, L.M.C.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van de Ven, P.M.; Popma, A.

    2012-01-01

    Attenuated reactivity of salivary alpha-amylase has been proposed as a specific sympathetic marker of disruptive behavior in juveniles and may have additional value to studying other autonomic parameters and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Investigating the interrelationships between

  10. Structure of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase crystallized with and without the substrate analogue acarbose and maltose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne-Iversen, Louise; Hobley, Timothy John; Kaasgaard, Svend G.

    2006-01-01

    Recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase (BHA) was studied in two different crystal forms. The first crystal form was obtained by crystallisation of BHA at room temperature in the presence of acarbose and maltose - data was collected at cryogenic temperatures to a resolution of 1.9 Å...

  11. Alpha amylase assisted synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles: Structural characterization and application as antibacterial agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Razi; Mohsin, Mohd; Ahmad, Tokeer; Sardar, Meryam

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green synthesis of TiO 2 nanoparticles using an enzyme alpha amylase has been described. • The morphology and shape depends upon the concentration of the alpha amylase enzyme. • The biosynthesized nanoparticles show good bactericidal effect against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. • The bactericidal effect was further confirmed by Confocal microscopy and TEM. - Abstract: The enzyme alpha amylase was used as the sole reducing and capping agent for the synthesis of TiO 2 nanoparticles. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) methods. The XRD data confirms the monophasic crystalline nature of the nanoparticles formed. TEM data shows that the morphology of nanoparticles depends upon the enzyme concentration used at the time of synthesis. The presence of alpha amylase on TiO 2 nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR. The nanoparticles were investigated for their antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration value of the TiO 2 nanoparticles was found to be 62.50 μg/ml for both the bacterial strains. The inhibition was further confirmed using disc diffusion assay. It is evident from the zone of inhibition that TiO 2 nanoparticles possess potent bactericidal activity. Further, growth curve study shows effect of inhibitory concentration of TiO 2 nanoparticles against S. aureus and E. coli. Confocal microscopy and TEM investigation confirm that nanoparticles were disrupting the bacterial cell wall

  12. Evening salivary alpha-amylase, major depressive disorder, and antidepressant use in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Gerthe; Giltay, Erik J.; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Cobbaert, Christa M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    2013-01-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) may be a suitable index for sympathetic activity and dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. The relationship between antidepressants and depression with sAA levels was studied, since antidepressants were previously shown to have a profound impact on heart rate

  13. Relationship Between Meditation Depth and Waking Salivary Alpha-Amylase Secretion Among Long-Term MBSR Instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Alyson; Wirth, Michael D; Robb, Sara Wagner

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize sympathetic activity by using waking salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) concentrations in a group of long-term meditation instructors and to examine the association between meditation (depth, dose and duration) and the waking alpha-amylase response. Salivary alpha-amylase samples were collected (immediately upon waking and at 15-min, 30-min and 45-min intervals after waking) from mindfulness-based stress reduction instructors to determine both the area under the curve and the awakening slope (difference in alpha-amylase concentrations between waking and 30-min post-waking). It was determined through general linear models that neither years of meditation nor meditation dose were associated with the awakening sAA slope, but higher scores for meditation depth (greater depth) was associated with a more negative (or steeper) awakening slope [Quartile (Q)1: -7 versus Q4: -21 U/mL; p = 0.06], in fully adjusted models. Older age (p = 0.04) and a later time of waking (p meditate more deeply. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Electrospray mass spectrometry characterization of post-translational modifications of barley alpha-amylase 1 produced in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, M; Andersen, Jens S.; Roepstorff, P

    1993-01-01

    We have used electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS) in combination with protein chemistry and genetics to delineate post-translational modifications in yeast of barley alpha-amylase 1 (AMY1), a 45 kD enzyme crucial for production of malt, an important starting material in the manufacture of beer...

  15. Overexpression, purification, and characterization of recombinant barley alpha-amylases 1 and 2 secreted by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juge, N; Andersen, Jens S.; Tull, D

    1996-01-01

    , and 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl beta-D-maltoheptaoside as well as in Ca2+ dependency of activity. Pichia pastoris thus produced in high yields recombinant alpha-amylase that is similar with respect to structure and function to the enzyme purified from malt extracts. This greatly facilitates future mutational...

  16. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  17. Immobilization of alpha-amylase from Bacillus circulans GRS 313 on coconut fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Gargi; Nagpal, Varima; Banerjee, Rintu

    2002-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method for immobilizing alpha-amylase from Bacillus circulans GRS 313 on coconut fiber was developed. The immobilization conditions for highest efficiency were optimized with respect to immobilization pH of 5.5, 30 degrees C, contact time of 4 h, and enzyme to support a ratio of 1:1 containing 0.12 mg/mL of protein. The catalytic properties of the immobilized enzyme were compared with that of the free enzyme. The activity of amylase adsorbed on coconut fiber was 38.7 U/g of fiber at its optimum pH of 5.7 and 48 degrees C, compared with the maximum activity of 40.2 U/mL of free enzyme at the optimum pH of 4.9 and 48 degrees C. The reutilization capacity of the immobilized enzyme was up to three cycles.

  18. Purification and properties of heat stable /alpha/-amylase from Bacillus brevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsvetkov, V T; Emanuilova, E I

    1989-09-01

    An extracellular /alpha/-amylase has been isolated from a continuous culture of a thermophilic strain of Bacillus brevis. This enzyme was purified eightfold and obtained in electrophoretically homogenous form. The enzyme had a molecular weight of about 58 000, a pH optimum from 5.0 to 9.0 and a temperature optimum at 80/sup 0/C. The half-life of the purified enzyme in the presence of 5 mM CaCl/sub 2/ at 90/sup 0/C and pH 8.0 was 20 min. The K/sub m/ value for soluble starch was calculated to be 0.8 mg/ml. (orig.).

  19. Self-compassionate young adults show lower salivary alpha-amylase responses to repeated psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breines, Juliana G; McInnis, Christine M; Kuras, Yuliya I; Thoma, Myriam V; Gianferante, Danielle; Hanlin, Luke; Chen, Xuejie; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2015-10-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that participants higher in dispositional self-compassion would show lower stress-induced reactivity of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a marker of sympathetic nervous system activation. Thirty-three healthy participants (18-34 years old) were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor on two consecutive days. Self-compassion, self-esteem, and demographic factors were assessed by questionnaire and sAA was assessed at baseline and at 1, 10, 30, and 60 minutes following each stressor. Self-compassion was a significant negative predictor of sAA responses on both days. This relationship remained significant when controlling for self-esteem, subjective distress, age, gender, ethnicity, and Body Mass Index (BMI). These results suggest that self-compassion may serve as a protective factor against stress-induced physiological changes that have implications for health.

  20. Salivary alpha amylase in on-call from home fire and emergency service personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Hall

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of working on-call from home on the sympatho-adrenal medullary system activity is currently unknown. This study had two aims, Aim 1: examine salivary alpha amylase awakening response (AAR and diurnal salivary alpha amylase (sAA profile in fire and emergency service workers who operate on-call from home following a night on-call with a call (NIGHT-CALL, a night on-call without a call (NO-CALL and an off-call night (OFF-CALL, and Aim 2: explore whether there was an anticipatory effect of working on-call from home (ON compared to when there was an off-call (OFF on the diurnal sAA profile. Participants wore activity monitors, completed sleep and work diaries and collected seven saliva samples a day for one week. AAR area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCG, AAR area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCI, AAR reactivity, diurnal sAA slope, diurnal sAA AUCG and mean 12-h sAA concentrations were calculated. Separate generalised estimating equation models were constructed for each variable of interest for each aim. For Aim 1, there were no differences between NIGHT-CALL or NO-CALL and OFF-CALL for any response variable. For Aim 2, there was no difference between any response variable of interest when ON the following night compared to when OFF the following night (n = 14. These findings suggest that there is no effect of working on-call from home on sAA, but should be interpreted with caution, as overnight data were not collected. Future research, using overnight heart rate monitoring, could help confirm these findings.

  1. [Activity of alpha-amylase and concentration of protein in saliva of pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciejak, Magdalena; Olszewska, Maria; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Zebiełowicz, Dariusz; Safranow, Krzysztof; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    One of the hypothetical reasons of the increased incidence of caries in women during the pregnancy may be the increased activity of alpha-amylase, which can be found in their saliva. The enzyme takes part in the process of decomposition of simple sugars, which make basic substrate for caries-causing bacteria. The aim of the paper was the evaluation of the influence of pregnancy and gestational age on the activity of alpha-amylase and the concentration of protein in women's saliva. The examined group consisted of 64 pregnant women at age 17-39, between 21st and 40th week of pregnancy. The control group consisted of 44 healthy women at age 20-35, who were not pregnant. In saliva, which was taken before morning meal, without stimulation, protein concentration was determined by Bradford method and the activity of amylase was determined by kinetic method. The activity of amylase correlated strongly and positively with protein concentration in saliva of both the pregnant (RS = +0.65; p women. There were no significant differences between examined parameters in the examined and the control group. It has been observed in the examined group, that there is the significant negative correlation between protein concentration in saliva and the week of pregnancy (RS = -0.35; p increased caries incidence of pregnant women. However, the observed changes of total protein concentration in saliva during pregnancy, suggest that the exact cognition of proteins in pregnant women's saliva may reveal new mechanisms, which lead to an increase of caries risk.

  2. [Alpha-amylase as an occupational allergen in baking industry employees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zotti, R; Larese, F; Molinari, S

    1994-01-01

    In a group of 226 bakers and pastry makers and in 88 students of a training school for bakers, we evaluated skin sensitization to the common allergens, wheat and alpha amylase. Skin prick tests were positive to the enzyme in 17 exposed subjects (7.5%) and in one student with previous occupational exposure as a baker; 27 exposed subjects (11.9%) and 2 students were sensitized to wheat. Among the 42 exposed workers who complained of work-related symptoms, 12 (28.6%) cases were skin positive to amylase and 17 (42.9%) to wheat. Among the 17 workers who were positive to amylase, 16 were also sensitized to wheat and/or common allergens, 12 complained of symptoms at work but since in many cases there was a positive response to wheat, too, it is impossible to speculate on the role of each allergen in inducing symptoms. One case, with work-related rhinoconjunctivitis, had skin sensitization only to alpha amylase but no specific IgE in the serum. These findings confirm that bakers are at risk of sensitization not only to wheat allergen but also to amylase from Aspergillus oryzae. The enzyme should be included in the list of substances to be tested among bakers in whom an occupational allergy is suspected, but particular care should be taken in evaluating the cutaneous response, especially if compared to wheat wheals. Further investigations are also needed to identify the source of risk and to better define the characteristics of the enzyme and the relationship between skin reaction to amylase, sensitization to wheat and atopy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Stress exacerbates pain in the everyday lives of women with fibromyalgia syndrome--The role of cortisol and alpha-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Susanne; Doerr, Johanna M; Strahler, Jana; Mewes, Ricarda; Thieme, Kati; Nater, Urs M

    2016-01-01

    Although fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic condition, its cardinal symptom pain is known to fluctuate over the day. Stress has often been claimed to exacerbate pain; however, there is barely any evidence on whether or not this is true on a day-to-day basis (and, alternatively, on whether pain leads to increased stress levels). Using an ecologically valid measurement design, we tested whether and how stress and pain are intertwined in participants with FMS. We additionally examined the role of the two major stress-responsive systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system, as potential mediators of this relationship. An ambulatory assessment study was conducted over the course of 14 days. On each day, 32 females with FMS provided six diary entries on momentary stress and pain levels. Saliva samples were collected at the same time points to determine cortisol and alpha-amylase as indicators of stress-responsive systems. Higher stress at a given measurement time point was associated with higher reported pain levels at the subsequent time point (UC=1.47, pstress-pain relationship was neither mediated by momentary cortisol nor by alpha-amylase; however, momentary cortisol was independently associated with momentary pain (UC=0.27, p=0.009). Stress seems to be a powerful exacerbating factor for pain as experienced by patients with FMS in their everyday lives. Cortisol may be involved in the diurnal fluctuation of pain levels in patients with FMS. Future studies should identify relevant daily stressors in persons with FMS and scrutinize the mechanisms underlying the cortisol-pain relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. THESIS-ABSTRACT Supplementation levels of exogenous alpha-amylase in broilers diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, H B; Silva, M I A; Mesquita, F R

    2017-08-17

    This study aimed to evaluate the supplementation levels of an exogenous alpha-amylase in broilers diets and compare two indicators in determining the diets energy. The experiment was divided into two parallel evaluations, being one of performance and the other of metabolism. In performance assay, 1,700 one-day-old Cobb-500 male chicks were used. The animals were distributed in 50 experimental plots and evaluated five treatments with ten replicates in a completely randomized design (CRD). The treatments were: a positive control (PC), a negative control (NC) and three alpha-amylase supplementation levels 200, 400 and 600 g/t, and the NC was formulated with 50 and 90 kcal of energy reduction in relation to the PC to the phases from 1 to 21 days and from 22 to 42 days, respectively. In the metabolism assay were used 240 animals, 150 birds for stage from 14 to 21 days and 90 birds to stage from 35 to 42 days of age and the treatments were the same as the performance assay, with six replicates per treatment in CRD. All diets of metabolism test contained the digestibility indicators Lipe ® (eucalyptus purified lignin) and chromic oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ), in concentrations of 0.05 and 1.0%, respectively. In the period from 1 to 21 days old, no significant differences were observed in weight gain (WG) (P > 0.05), however, feed intake (FI) was found higher by using 200 ppm of enzyme (P 0.05), but were observed lower FI and better FC to PC treatment (P 0.05), but there was lower FI and better FC for the PC treatment (P < 0.05). The AMEn (apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance), determined using the total collection, reaffirmed the values ​​calculated for the PC and NC with intermediate data obtained from the enzyme use (200, 400 and 600 ppm). Comparing the total collection using Lipe ® and Cr 2 O 3 , a correlation was observed only for the PC results, that were always higher, and for the NC results, that were lower for the three methodologies. For IDE

  5. Screening of traditional antidiabetic medicinal plants of Mauritius for possible alpha-amylase inhibitory effects in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowaroo, M I; Mahomoodally, M F; Gurib-Fakim, A; Subratty, A H

    2006-03-01

    In this study, seven exotic/indigenous medicinal plants of Mauritius, namely Coix lacryma-jobi (Poaceae), Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Moraceae), Vangueria madagascariensis (Rubiaceae), Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Rosaceae) and Syzigium cumini (Myrtaceae) were studied for possible effects on starch breakdown by alpha-amylase in vitro. The results showed that only Artocarpus heterophyllus significantly (p Artocarpus heterophyllus on alpha-amylase activity using rat plasma in vitro. It was found that the aqueous leaf extract significantly (p Artocarpus heterophyllus behaved as a competitive inhibitor. Results from the present study tend to indicate that Artocarpus heterophyllus could act as a 'starch blocker' thereby reducing post-prandial glucose peaks. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Adolescents' increasing stress response to social evaluation: pubertal effects on cortisol and alpha-amylase during public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C; Bokhorst, Caroline L; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden Public Speaking Task twice, with a 2-year interval (N = 217; age at Time 1: 8-17 years). The results support an increase in sensitivity to social evaluation during adolescence. The overall cortisol and alpha-amylase responses increased-both between and within participants-and were more strongly related to self-reported pubertal development than to age. The cortisol response shifted from speech delivery toward anticipation. The alpha-amylase response increased in both phases. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Effects of a dietary Aspergillus oryzae extract containing alpha-amylase activity on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricarico, J M; Abney, M D; Galyean, M L; Rivera, J D; Hanson, K C; McLeod, K R; Harmon, D L

    2007-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of an Aspergillus oryzae extract containing alpha-amylase activity on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 120 crossbred steers were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of roughage source (alfalfa hay vs. cottonseed hulls) and supplemental alpha-amylase at 950 dextrinizing units (DU)/kg of DM. Significant roughage source x alpha-amylase interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for performance. In steers fed cottonseed hulls, supplemental alpha-amylase increased ADG through d 28 and 112 and tended (P < 0.15) to increase ADG in all other periods. The increases in ADG were related to increased DMI and efficiency of gain during the initial 28-d period but were primarily related to increased DMI as the feeding period progressed. Supplemental alpha-amylase increased (P = 0.02) the LM area across both roughage sources. In Exp. 2, 96 crossbred heifers were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the effects of corn processing (dry cracked vs. high moisture) and supplemental alpha-amylase concentration (0, 580, or 1,160 DU/kg of DM). Alpha-amylase supplementation increased DMI (P = 0.05) and ADG (P = 0.03) during the initial 28 d on feed and carcass-adjusted ADG (P = 0.04) across corn processing methods. Longissimus muscle area was greatest (quadratic effect, P = 0.04), and yield grade was least (quadratic effect, P = 0.02) in heifers fed 580 DU of alpha-amylase/kg of DM across corn processing methods. In Exp. 3, 56 crossbred steers were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of supplemental alpha-amylase (930 DU/kg of DM) on performance when DMI was restricted to yield a programmed ADG. Alpha-amylase supplementation did not affect performance when DMI was restricted. We conclude that dietary alpha-amylase supplementation of finishing beef diets may result in

  8. Nutrient Content, Phytonutrient Composition, Alpha Amylase, Alpha Glucosidase Inhibition Activity and Antioxidant Activity of the Stoechospermum Marginatum Collected in Pre Monsoon Season

    OpenAIRE

    Reka Palanivel; Thahira Banu Azeez; Seethalakshmi Muthaya

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the nutrient content, phytonutrient composition, physicochemical properties, alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition activity and antioxidant activity of the brown algae Stoechospermum marginatum collected from Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India in pre monsoon season (June- September, 2015). Six and eight hours of ethanol and aqueous extract of Stoechospermum marginatum were used for phytonutrient screening, alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase...

  9. Alpha amylase assisted synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles: Structural characterization and application as antibacterial agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Razi; Mohsin, Mohd [Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Ahmad, Tokeer [Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Sardar, Meryam, E-mail: msardar@jmi.ac.in [Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles using an enzyme alpha amylase has been described. • The morphology and shape depends upon the concentration of the alpha amylase enzyme. • The biosynthesized nanoparticles show good bactericidal effect against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. • The bactericidal effect was further confirmed by Confocal microscopy and TEM. - Abstract: The enzyme alpha amylase was used as the sole reducing and capping agent for the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) methods. The XRD data confirms the monophasic crystalline nature of the nanoparticles formed. TEM data shows that the morphology of nanoparticles depends upon the enzyme concentration used at the time of synthesis. The presence of alpha amylase on TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR. The nanoparticles were investigated for their antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration value of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was found to be 62.50 μg/ml for both the bacterial strains. The inhibition was further confirmed using disc diffusion assay. It is evident from the zone of inhibition that TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles possess potent bactericidal activity. Further, growth curve study shows effect of inhibitory concentration of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles against S. aureus and E. coli. Confocal microscopy and TEM investigation confirm that nanoparticles were disrupting the bacterial cell wall.

  10. Digestive alpha-amylases of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella - adaptation to alkaline environment and plant inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pytelková, Jana; Hubert, J.; Lepšík, Martin; Šobotník, Jan; Šindelka, Radek; Křížková, I.; Horn, Martin; Mareš, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 276, Suppl. 1 (2009), s. 162-162 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress /34/. 04.07.2009-09.07.2009, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP525/09/P600; GA AV ČR IAA400550617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Ephestia kuehniella * alpha amylase * alkaline adaptation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  11. Enzymatic activity and immunoreactivity of Aca s 4, an alpha-amylase allergen from the storage mite Acarus siro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pytelková, Jana; Lepšík, Martin; Šanda, Miloslav; Talacko, Pavel; Marešová, Lucie; Mareš, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2012), s. 1-8 ISSN 1471-2091 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP525/09/P600 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Aca s 4 * Acarus siro * alpha - amylase s Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.776, year: 2012 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2091/13/3

  12. Assessing agreement between salivary alpha amylase levels collected by passive drool and eluted filter paper in adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameringer, Suzanne; Munro, Cindy; Elswick, R K

    2012-07-01

    To assess the validity of filter paper (FP) against the gold standard of passive drool (PD) for collecting salivary alpha amylase as a surrogate biomarker of psychological stress in adolescents with cancer. Part of a longitudinal, descriptive study of symptoms in adolescents with cancer during chemotherapy. A pediatric hematology/oncology treatment center. 33 saliva sample pairs from nine adolescents with cancer, aged 13-18 years. Salivary alpha amylase was collected by PD and FP at four time points during a cycle of chemotherapy: days 1 (time 1) and 2 (time 2) of chemotherapy, day 7-10 (time 3), and day 1 of the next cycle (time 4). A random effects regression was used to assess the correlation between PD and FP values, and a Bland Altman analysis was conducted to assess agreement between the values. Salivary alpha amylase. The estimated correlation between PD and FP values was r = 0.91, p < 0.001. Regression results were also used to rescale FP values to the levels of the PD values because the FP values were on a different scale than the PD values. The Bland Altman analysis revealed that the agreement between the rescaled FP values and PD values was not satisfactory. Eluted FP may not be a valid method for collecting salivary alpha amylase in adolescents with cancer. Psychological stress in adolescents with cancer may be linked to negative outcomes, such as greater symptom severity and post-traumatic stress disorder. Nurses need valid, efficient, biobehavioral measures to assess psychological stress in the clinical setting.

  13. Salivary alpha-amylase: More than an enzyme Investigating confounders of stress-induced and basal amylase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Strahler, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Salivary alpha-amylase: More than an enzyme - Investigating confounders of stress-induced and basal amylase activity (Dipl.-Psych. Jana Strahler) The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are two of the major systems playing a role in the adaptation of organisms to developmental changes that threaten homeostasis. The HPA system involves the secretion of glucocorticoids, including cortisol, into the circulatory system. Numerous studies hav...

  14. Optimization of cultural conditions for the production of alpha amylase by aspergillus niger (btm-26) in solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, R.; Shaheen, N.; Iqtedar, M.; Naz, S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the isolation, screening and selection of native fungal strain for the alpha amylase production. Forty fungal strains were isolated from different soil samples. These strains were initially screened qualitatively on starch agar medium and quantitative screening was carried out in solid state fermentation. A strain of Aspergillus niger showing maximum production (432 +- 0.9 U/ml/min) of enzyme was selected and assigned the code BTM-26. The yield on various agricultural products, namely, coconut oil cake (COC), rice bran (RB), vegetable wastes or banana peel and wheat bran (WB) was compared. Wheat bran proved to be the best substrate for alpha amylase production. The effect of incubation temperature, initial pH, and inoculum size was investigated for the enzyme production. The maximum enzyme production was obtained at 30 degree C, pH 5, and inoculum size of 1 ml. The rate of fermentation was also studied and the highest yield of enzyme was obtained after 72 h of inoculation. Addition of 1.5% lactose as carbon source and 0.2% (NH/sub 4/)2SO/sub 4/ and 0.3% yeast extract as inorganic and organic nitrogen sources respectively gave enzyme production 990 +- 0.81 U/ml/min which reflects about 1.87 fold increase in alpha amylase production as compared to the medium containing wheat bran alone as substrate. (author)

  15. Tobacco plants transformed with the bean. alpha. ai gene express an inhibitor of insect. alpha. -amylase in their seeds. [Nicotiana tabacum; Tenebrio molitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds contain a putative plant defense protein that inhibits insect and mammalian but not plant {alpha}-amylases. We recently presented strong circumstantial evidence that this {alpha}-amylase inhibitor ({alpha}Al) is encoded by an already-identified lectin gene whose product is referred to as lectin-like-protein (LLP). We have now made a chimeric gene consisting of the coding sequence of the lectin gene that encodes LLP and the 5{prime} and 3{prime} flanking sequences of the lectin gene that encodes phytohemagglutinin-L. When this chimeric gene was expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we observed in the seeds a series of polypeptides (M{sub r} 10,000-18,000) that cross-react with antibodies to the bean {alpha}-amylase inhibitor. Most of these polypeptides bind to a pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase affinity column. An extract of the seeds of the transformed tobacco plants inhibits pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase activity as well as the {alpha}-amylase present in the midgut of Tenebrio molitor. We suggest that introduction of this lectin gene (to be called {alpha}ai) into other leguminous plants may be a strategy to protect the seeds from the seed-eating larvae of Coleoptera.

  16. Molecular cloning of alpha-amylases from cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis and structural relations to plant inhibitors: an approach to insect resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Batista, João A N; Rigden, Daniel J; Franco, Octávio L; Falcão, Rosana; Fragoso, Rodrigo R; Mello, Luciane V; dos Santos, Roseane C; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F

    2003-01-01

    Anthonomus grandis, the cotton boll weevil, causes severe cotton crop losses in North and South America. Here we demonstrate the presence of starch in the cotton pollen grains and young ovules that are the main A. grandis food source. We further demonstrate the presence of alpha-amylase activity, an essential enzyme of carbohydrate metabolism for many crop pests, in A. grandis midgut. Two alpha-amylase cDNAs from A. grandis larvae were isolated using RT-PCR followed by 5' and 3' RACE techniques. These encode proteins with predicted molecular masses of 50.8 and 52.7kDa, respectively, which share 58% amino acid identity. Expression of both genes is induced upon feeding and concentrated in the midgut of adult insects. Several alpha-amylase inhibitors from plants were assayed against A. grandis alpha-amylases but, unexpectedly, only the BIII inhibitor from rye kernels proved highly effective, with inhibitors generally active against other insect amylases lacking effect. Structural modeling of Amylag1 and Amylag2 showed that different factors seem to be responsible for the lack of effect of 0.19 and alpha-AI1 inhibitors on A. grandis alpha-amylase activity. This work suggests that genetic engineering of cotton to express alpha-amylase inhibitors may offer a novel route to A. grandis resistance.

  17. Autonomic markers associated with generalized social phobia symptoms: heart rate variability and salivary alpha-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rubio, María J; Espín, Laura; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia; Gómez-Amor, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    The study of autonomic nervous system changes associated with generalized social phobia (GSP) disorder has increased in recent years, showing contradictory results. The present study aimed to evaluate how young people with GSP reacted before, during, and after exposure to the Trier Stress Social Test (TSST), focusing on their autonomic changes (heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA)) compared to a control group (non-GSP). Some psychological variables were also considered. Sex was specifically studied as a possible modulator of autonomic fluctuations and psychological state. Eighty young people were randomly distributed into two counterbalanced situations: stress condition (N = 18 and 21 for GSP and non-GSP, respectively) and control condition (N = 21 and 20 for GSP and non-GSP, respectively), where cardiovascular variables were continuously recorded. Psychological questionnaires about mood and perceived stress were filled out, and five saliva samples were collected to analyze sAA. GSP participants showed higher values on low- and high-frequency ratios (HR domains), compared to non-GSP people, during exposure to the TSST, but no differences were observed after the stressor. Furthermore, the two groups did not differ in sAA. Importantly, positive affect in GSP participants was modulated by sex. The present study suggests that the balance between high- and low-frequency domains of HRV is a key cardiovascular marker reflecting the stress response of GSP people, as well the importance of sex in positive affect when facing a stressful situation.

  18. Amylosucrase, a glucan-synthesizing enzyme from the alpha-amylase family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, L K; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A

    2001-01-01

    Amylosucrase (E.C. 2.4.1.4) is a member of Family 13 of the glycoside hydrolases (the alpha-amylases), although its biological function is the synthesis of amylose-like polymers from sucrose. The structure of amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea is divided into five domains: an all helical N...... of amylosucrase is at the bottom of a pocket at the molecular surface. A substrate binding site resembling the amylase 2 subsite is not found in amylosucrase. The site is blocked by a salt bridge between residues in the second and eight loops of the (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel. The result is an exo-acting enzyme. Loop......-terminal domain that is not similar to any known fold, a (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel A-domain, B- and B'-domains displaying alpha/beta-structure, and a C-terminal eight-stranded beta-sheet domain. In contrast to other Family 13 hydrolases that have the active site in the bottom of a large cleft, the active site...

  19. Harsh discipline and behavior problems: the moderating effects of cortisol and alpha-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian; Rudo-Hutt, Anna S; Glenn, Andrea L; Soyfer, Liana; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies link harsh discipline to adjustment problems in youth, yet not all individuals exposed to harsh discipline develop behavior problems. Contemporary theory suggests that this relationship could be moderated by individual differences in environmentally sensitive biological systems. This study investigated whether the interaction between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal moderated the link between harsh discipline and behavior problems. Three saliva samples were collected on a single day from 425 inner city youth (50% male, age 11-12 years, 80% African American) and were later assayed for cortisol (HPA) and alpha-amylase (ANS). Problem behavior was assessed by self- and parent-report using the Child Behavior Checklist. Youth also reported the level of harsh discipline that they experienced. Harsh discipline was positively associated with externalizing and internalizing problems only when there were asymmetrical profiles of HPA activity and ANS arousal. This pattern was evident for boys but not girls. Findings are discussed in relation to prevailing theories suggesting that biological susceptibility translates adversity into risk for behavior problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Endocrine and emotional response to exclusion among women and men; cortisol, salivary alpha amylase, and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpman, Liat; Penso, Julia; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2017-05-01

    Social exclusion is ubiquitous and painful. Evolutionary models indicate sex differences in coping with social stress. Recent empirical data suggest different sex patterns in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) reactivity. The present study sought to test this hypothesis. We examined differences in endocrine and emotional response to exclusion by using a virtual ball tossing paradigm (Cyberball). Saliva samples and mood ratings were collected to reflect levels before, and repeatedly following, exclusion. The sample included 21 women and 23 men. Cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), biomarkers of the HPA and SAM systems, respectively, were used as indices of two arms of stress response. Following exclusion, all participants experienced mood worsening followed by mood improvement, with men reporting less distress than women. Women evinced decline in cortisol following the Cyberball task, whereas men's cortisol levels showed a non-significant rise, and then decline, following exclusion. Our results concur with previous findings showing SAM reactivity to be gender-neutral and HPA reactivity to be gender-divergent. Additional studies are needed to examine sex-specific response to social exclusion. Implications for individual differences in recovery from stress are discussed.

  1. Aspergillus oryzae S2 alpha-amylase production under solid state fermentation: optimization of culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahnoun, Mouna; Kriaa, Mouna; Elgharbi, Fatma; Ayadi, Dorra-Zouari; Bejar, Samir; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2015-04-01

    Aspergillus oryzae S2 was assayed for alpha-amylase production under solid state fermentation (SSF). In addition to AmyA and AmyB already produced in monitored submerged culture, the strain was noted to produce new AmyB oligomeric forms, in particular a dominant tetrameric form named AmyC. The latter was purified to homogeneity through fractional acetone precipitation and size exclusion chromatography. SDS-PAGE and native PAGE analyses revealed that, purified AmyC was an approximately 172 kDa tetramer of four 42 kDa subunits. AmyC was also noted to display the same NH2-terminal amino acid sequence residues and approximately the same physico-chemical properties of AmyA and AmyB, to exhibit maximum activity at pH 5.6 and 60 °C, and to produce maltose and maltotriose as major starch hydrolysis end-products. Soyabean meal was the best substitute to yeast extract compared to fish powder waste and wheat gluten waste. AmyC production was optimized under SSF using statistical design methodology. Moisture content of 76.25%, C/N substrate ratio of 0.62, and inoculum size of 10(6.87) spores allowed maximum activity of 22118.34 U/g of dried substrate, which was 33 times higher than the one obtained before the application of the central composite design (CCD). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the alpha-amylase activity as an indicator of pasteurization efficiency and microbiological quality of liquid whole eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme Resende da; Menezes, Liliane Denize Miranda; Lanza, Isabela Pereira; Oliveira, Daniela Duarte de; Silva, Carla Aparecida; Klein, Roger Wilker Tavares; Assis, Débora Cristina Sampaio de; Cançado, Silvana de Vasconcelos

    2017-09-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of the pasteurization process in liquid whole eggs, an UV/visible spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the assessment of alpha-amylase activity. Samples were collected from 30 lots of raw eggs (n = 30) and divided into three groups: one was reserved for analysis of the raw eggs, the second group was pasteurized at 61.1°C for 3.5 minutes (n = 30), and the third group was pasteurized at 64.4°C for 2.5 minutes (n = 30). In addition to assessing alpha-amylase activity, the microbiological quality of the samples was also evaluated by counting total and thermotolerant coliforms, mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, Staphylococcus spp., and Salmonella spp. The validated spectrophotometric method demonstrated linearity, with a coefficient of determination (R2) greater than 0.99, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 0.48 mg kg-1 and 1.16 mg kg-1, respectively, and acceptable precision and accuracy with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of less than 10% and recovery rates between 98.81% and 105.40%. The results for alpha-amylase activity in the raw egg samples showed high enzyme activity due to near-complete hydrolysis of the starch, while in the eggs pasteurized at 61.1°C, partial inactivation of the enzyme was observed. In the samples of whole eggs pasteurized at 64.4°C, starch hydrolysis did not occur due to enzyme inactivation. The results of the microbiological analyses showed a decrease (P pasteurized egg samples according to the two binomials under investigation, compared to the raw egg samples, which showed high rates of contamination (P pasteurization, only one sample (3.33%) was positive for Salmonella spp., indicating failure in the pasteurization process, which was confirmed by the alpha-amylase test. It was concluded that the validated methodology for testing alpha-amylase activity is adequate for assessing the efficiency of the pasteurization process, and that the time

  3. Psychosocial determinants of diurnal alpha-amylase among healthy Quebec workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lupien, Sonia J; Durand, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is a stress-sensitive biomarker the shows promise as an indirect proxy of sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis activities that are otherwise difficult to discern non-invasively. This comprehensive study investigated diurnal sAA in association with numerous psychosocial characteristics related to mental health, work stress, and non-work stress. Participants included 395 workers (56.1% women, age: M=41.3, SD=10.81) from across 34 distinct workplaces. Diurnal sAA was sampled over two non-consecutive work days at awakening, 30 min after awakening, 14h00, 16h00, and bedtime. Well-validated psychometrics and survey items were used to measure mental health (psychological distress, depression, burnout, work characteristics) (task design, demands, social relations, gratifications), and non-work characteristics (marital/parental status, economic statuses, marital and parental stress, work-family conflicts). Preliminary results revealed that men showed occasionally higher sAA concentrations than women. Multilevel regressions were used to analyze sAA concentrations nested according to levels (i) for each time-point, (ii) between workers, and (iii) across workplaces while covarying for time of awakening, sex, age, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, regular physical activity, psychotropic drug use, and body mass index. Main results revealed that psychological demands, support from colleagues, interpersonal conflicts, job recognition and job insecurity appear to be associated with diurnal sAA, while non-work factors did not. Our findings showing a distinct diurnal profile for sAA replicate and expand those of Nater et al. (2007, Psychoneuroendocrinology 32, 392-401), providing further evidence that sAA is associated to subjective psychosocial factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alpha-amylase reactivity in relation to psychopathic traits in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Andrea L; Remmel, Rheanna J; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A; Gao, Yu; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-04-01

    Recent investigations of the psychobiology of stress in antisocial youth have benefited from a multi-system measurement model. The inclusion of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a surrogate marker of autonomic/sympathetic nervous system (ANS) activity, in addition to salivary cortisol, a biomarker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, has helped define a more complete picture of individual differences and potential dysfunction in the stress response system of these individuals. To the authors' knowledge, no studies have examined sAA in relation to antisocial behavior in adults or in relation to psychopathic traits specifically. In the present study, we examined sAA, in addition to salivary cortisol, in a relatively large sample (n=158) of adult males (M age=36.81, range=22-67 years; 44% African-American, 34% Caucasian, 16% Hispanic) recruited from temporary employment agencies with varying levels of psychopathic traits. Males scoring highest in psychopathy were found to have attenuated sAA reactivity to social stress compared to those scoring lower in psychopathy. No differential relationships with the different factors of psychopathy were observed. In contrast to studies of antisocial youth, there were no interactions between sAA and cortisol levels in relation to psychopathy, but there was a significant interaction between pre-stressor levels of sAA and cortisol. Findings reveal potential regulatory deficits in the fast-acting, 'fight or flight', component of the stress response in adult males with psychopathic traits, as well as abnormalities in how this system may interact with the HPA axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  6. LaaA, a novel high-active alkalophilic alpha-amylase from deep-sea bacterium Luteimonas abyssi XH031(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinghao; Wang, Yan; Yin, Chong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-amylase is a kind of broadly used industrial enzymes, most of which have been exploited from terrestrial organism. Comparatively, alpha-amylase from marine environment was largely undeveloped. In this study, a novel alkalophilic alpha-amylase with high activity, Luteimonas abyssi alpha-amylase (LaaA), was cloned from deep-sea bacterium L. abyssi XH031(T) and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The gene has a length of 1428bp and encodes 475 amino acids with a 35-residue signal peptide. The specific activity of LaaA reached 8881U/mg at the optimum pH 9.0, which is obvious higher than other reported alpha-amylase. This enzyme can remain active at pH levels ranging from 6.0 to 11.0 and temperatures below 45°C, retaining high activity even at low temperatures (almost 38% residual activity at 10°C). In addition, 1mM Na(+), K(+), and Mn(2+) enhanced the activity of LaaA. To investigate the function of potential active sites, R227G, D229K, E256Q/H, H327V and D328V mutants were generated, and the results suggested that Arg227, Asp229, Glu256 and Asp328 were total conserved and essential for the activity of alpha-amylase LaaA. This study shows that the alpha-amylase LaaA is an alkali-tolerant and high-active amylase with strong potential for use in detergent industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization of Thermostable Alpha-Amylase Production Via Mix Agricultural-Residues and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini RAI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports utilization of mixture of wheat and barley bran (1:1 for the production of thermostable alpha-amylase enzyme through a spore former, heat tolerant strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in solid state fermentation. Maximum yield of alpha-amylase (252.77 U mL-1 was obtained in following optimized conditions, inoculums size 2 mL (2 × 106 CFU/mL, moisture 80%, pH 7±0.02, NaCl (3%, temperature 38±1°C, incubation for 72 h, maltose (1% and tryptone (1%. After SSF crude enzyme was purified via ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange and column chromatography by DEAE Cellulose. Purified protein showed a molecular weight of 42 kDa by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. After purification, purified enzyme was characterized against several enzymes inhibitors such as temperature, NaCl, pH, metal and surfactants. Pure enzyme was highly active over broad temperature (50-70°C, NaCl concentration (0.5-4 M, and pH (6-10 ranges, indicating it’s a thermoactive and alkali-stable nature. Moreover, CaCl2, MnCl2, =-mercaptoethanol were found to stimulate the amylase activity, whereas FeCl3, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, CuCl3 and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA strongly inhibited the enzyme. Moreover, enzyme specificity and thermal stability conformed by degradation of different soluble starch up to 55°C. Therefore, the present study proved that the extracellular alpha-amylase extracted through wheat flour residues by organism B. amyloliquefaciens MCCB0075, both have considerable potential for industrial application owing to its properties.

  8. Reflection on design and testing of pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibitors: an in silico comparison between rat and rabbit enzyme models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil-Moghaddam Shiva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitors of pancreatic alpha-amylase are potential drugs to treat diabetes and obesity. In order to find compounds that would be effective amylase inhibitors, in vitro and in vivo models are usually used. The accuracy of models is limited, but these tools are nonetheless valuable. In vitro models could be used in large screenings involving thousands of chemicals that are tested to find potential lead compounds. In vivo models are still used as preliminary mean of testing compounds behavior in the whole organism. In the case of alpha-amylase inhibitors, both rats and rabbits could be chosen as in vivo models. The question was which animal could present more accuracy with regard to its pancreatic alpha-amylase. Results As there is no crystal structure of these enzymes, a molecular modeling study was done in order to compare the rabbit and rat enzymes with the human one. The overall result is that rabbit enzyme could probably be a better choice in this regard, but in the case of large ligands, which could make putative interactions with the −4 subsite of pancreatic alpha-amylase, interpretation of results should be made cautiously. Conclusion Molecular modeling tools could be used to choose the most suitable model enzyme that would help to identify new enzyme inhibitors. In the case of alpha-amylase, three-dimensional structures of animal enzymes show differences with the human one which should be taken into account when testing potential new drugs.

  9. Involvement of individual subsites and secondary substrate binding sites in multiple attack on amylose by barley alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramhøft, Birte; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Mori, Haruhide

    2005-01-01

    Barley alpha-amylase 1 (AMY1) hydrolyzed amylose with a degree of multiple attack (DMA) of 1.9; that is, on average, 2.9 glycoside bonds are cleaved per productive enzyme-substrate encounter. Six AMY1 mutants, spanning the substrate binding cleft from subsites -6 to +4, and a fusion protein, AMY1...... translocation of substrate in the binding cleft upon the initial cleavage to produce G6-G10, essentially independent of subsite mutations, and short-distance moves resulting in individually very different rates of release of G1-G4. Accordingly, the degree of multiple attack as well as the profile of products...

  10. Induction of Aspergillus oryzae mutant strains producing increased levels of {alpha}-amylase by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Nessa, Azizun [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1996-12-01

    Spores of Aspergillus oryzae IAM 2630 were suspended in 0.067 m phosphate buffer and irradiated with gamma rays. Spores were incubated for 7 days and colony mutants counted by observing colour change compared to normal colours. {alpha}-amylase activities of the normal and mutant colonies were assayed. DNA assay of the spores was also carried out, after culture on different plating media. Enzyme production increased 2-5 times with increasing radiation dose. Increased spore size and DNA content was also observed in mutant strains with higher enzyme production suggesting that enzyme production is genetically controlled. Ultraviolet radiation did not appear to induce higher frequency of mutation. (UK).

  11. Diurnal patterns and associations among salivary cortisol, DHEA and alpha-amylase in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Rand R; Granger, Douglas A; Szanton, Sarah; Clark, Florence

    2014-04-22

    Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are considered to be valuable markers of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, while salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) reflects the autonomic nervous system. Past studies have found certain diurnal patterns among these biomarkers, with some studies reporting results that differ from others. Also, some past studies have found an association among these three biomarkers while other studies have not. This study investigates these patterns and associations in older adults by taking advantage of modern statistical methods for dealing with non-normality, outliers and curvature. Basic characteristics of the data are reported as well, which are relevant to understanding the nature of any patterns and associations. Boxplots were used to check on the skewness and presence of outliers, including the impact of using simple transformations for dealing with non-normality. Diurnal patterns were investigated using recent advances aimed at comparing medians. When studying associations, the initial step was to check for curvature using a non-parametric regression estimator. Based on the resulting fit, a robust regression estimator was used that is designed to deal with skewed distributions and outliers. Boxplots indicated highly skewed distributions with outliers. Simple transformations (such as taking logs) did not deal with this issue in an effective manner. Consequently, diurnal patterns were investigated using medians and found to be consistent with some previous studies but not others. A positive association between awakening cortisol levels and DHEA was found when DHEA is relatively low; otherwise no association was found. The nature of the association between cortisol and DHEA was found to change during the course of the day. Upon awakening, cortisol was found to have no association with sAA when DHEA levels are relatively low, but otherwise there is a negative association. DHEA was found to have a positive association with s

  12. Effects of x-ray irradiation on the induction of. cap alpha. -amylase synthesis by gibberelic acid in the aleurone system of barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellner, H

    1974-01-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation on a system without DNA replication and cell division was investigated with the aid of GA/sub 3/-induced ..cap alpha..-amylase synthesis in aleurone cells of barley. The reaction of the system was determined by dose effect curves (after irradiation of one half of the endosperms in rest) for the synthesis and secretion of ..cap alpha..-amylase, protein, and reducing sugars. The system proves to be highly radiation-resistant. The course of the synthesis of ..cap alpha..-amylase after X-ray irradiation with varying doses during enzyme synthesis suggests that transcription occurs in the middle of the lag-phase and is the most sensitive stage in enzyme synthesis, while translation alone is less sensitive to radiation.

  13. [The primary structure of the alpha-amylase inhibitor Hoe 467A from Streptomyces tendae 4158. A new class of inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschauer, H; Vértesy, L; Nesemann, G; Braunitzer, G

    1983-10-01

    The native or modified alpha-amylase inhibitor Hoe 467A - isolated from the culture medium of Streptomyces tendae 4158 - and overlapping peptides were degraded by the automatic Edman technique. The oxidized or aminoethylated or oxidized and maleoylated inhibitor was digested with trypsin and the native inhibitor with pepsin. Further digestion with Staphylococcus aureus proteinase was also carried out. After peptic digestion two cystin peptides were isolated, which allowed the establishment of the disulfide bonds. The alpha-amylase inhibitor is a polypeptid consisting of 74 amino-acid residues with a molecular mass of 7958 Da. The inhibitor is composed of all naturally occurring amino acids except methionine and phenylalanine and shows no sequence homology to known inhibitors. The clinical and pharmacological importance in respect to the inhibitors ability for inactivation of human salivary and pancreatic alpha-amylase is discussed. Especially the proteinase resistance of the inhibitor enables a clinical application in human (e.g. Diabetes mellitus) per os.

  14. Amelioration in secretion of hyperthermostable and Ca2+ -independent alpha-amylase of Geobacillus thermoleovorans by some polyamines and their biosynthesis inhibitor methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma Maheswar Rao, J L; Satyanarayana, T

    2004-01-01

    Effect of polyamines and their biosynthesis inhibitors on the production of hyperthermostable and Ca2+ -independent alpha-amylase by Geobacillus thermoleovorans MTCC 4220. The alpha-amylase was produced in starch-yeast extract-tryptone (SYT) broth with different polyamines (PA) and polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors, methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG) and cyclohexylammonium sulphate (CHA) at 70 degrees C. The bacterial pellets were obtained after growing G. thermoleovorans at different temperatures, and used in determining total PA. The cell-free culture filtrates were used in alpha-amylase assays. During growth, total polyamines in biomass increased till 2 h, and thereafter, decreased gradually. The total polyamine content was very high in the biomass cultivated at 55 degrees C when compared with that of higher temperatures. Enzyme titre enhanced up to 70 degrees C, and thereafter declined. Extracellular enzyme and protein levels declined in the presence of exogenously added PA. The intracellular enzyme titres, however, were higher in putrescine (put) and spermidine (spd) than in spermine (spm). Polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor, MGBG enhanced secretion of alpha-amylase in a laboratory fermentor as well as shake flasks, although CHA did not affect it. The intracellular accumulation of put in the presence of MGBG appeared to enhance synthesis and secretion of alpha-amylase. Extracellular enzyme and protein levels were low in the presence of exogenously added PA, but their intracellular levels, however, were higher in put and spd than in spm. A substantial increase in the synthesis and secretion of alpha-amylase was attained in G. thermoleovorans in the presence of polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor MGBG.

  15. Purification and characterization of an alpha-amylase of Pichia burtonii isolated from the traditional starter "murcha" in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akiko; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka; Mura, Kiyoshi; Okada, Sanae; Tokue, Chiyoko; Arai, Soichi

    2006-12-01

    Among more than 20 yeast strains isolated from the traditional starter "murcha" in Nepal, we characterized a yeast that might be involved in saccharification. This strain, identified as Pichia burtonii, produced an extracellular amylolytic enzyme when cultured in the presence of starch in the medium. Since no amylase secreted by P. burtonii has yet been reported, we purified the enzyme and determined its N-terminal amino acid sequence. Together with the results of a hydrolyzing activity assay toward various substrates, it was found to be an alpha-amylase. The purified enzyme, named Pichia burtonii alpha-amylase (PBA), was a glycoprotein with an apparent molecular mass of 51 kDa. Enzyme activity was optimal at pH 5.0 at 40 degrees C. The enzyme retained 80% of its original activity after incubation under the optimal pH condition at 50 degrees C for 30 min. The activity was inhibited by metal ions such as Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Al(3+), and Zn(2+).

  16. Interaction of a gibberellin-induced factor with the upstream region of an alpha-amylase gene in rice aleurone tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Ou-Lee, T M; Turgeon, R; Wu, R

    1988-01-01

    The interaction between the DNA sequences of an alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) gene and a tissue-specific factor induced in rice (Oryza sativa L.) aleurone tissue by gibberellin was studied. DNA mobility-shift during electrophoresis indicated that a 500-base-pair sequence (HS500) of a rice alpha-amylase genomic clone (OSamy-a) specifically interacted with a factor from gibberellin-induced rice aleurone tissue. The amount of complex formed between the HS500 DNA fragment and the gibberellin-induced...

  17. Effects of a high-pressure treatment on the wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor and its relationship to elimination of allergenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, S [Food Science Center, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Takanohashi, K; Nishiumi, T [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Hara, T [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Odani, S [Department of Living Science and Technology, Faculty of Education and Human Science, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Suzuki, A, E-mail: shuyama@agr.niigata-u.ac.j [Department of Health and Nutrition, Faculty of Medical Science for Health, Teikyo Heisei University, Ikebukuro, Tokyo, 170-0013 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the effects of high-pressure treatment on structure and allergeincity of alpha amylase inhibitor (a-AI) were investigated. The pressure-induced structural changes of {alpha}-AI were estimated by fluorescence spectra and by fourth derivative UV-spectroscopy for probed tyrosine residues and by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The changes in the tertiary structure detected by fluorescence spectra and by fourth derivative UV-spectroscopy under high pressure were indicated at over 300 MPa. Measurements of CD spectroscopy suggested that the effects of a high-pressure treatment on changes in the secondary structure of {alpha}-AI were little. From our results, pressure-induced changes of the {alpha}-AI structure were not apparent. On the other hands, the IgE-specific binding activities of pressurized {alpha}-AI to sera from allergic patients against wheat, which is estimated by observations of dot-blotting, were decreased by high-pressure treatment. It is known that the pressure-induced elimination of allergenicity is related to the tertiary structural changes of allergen molecules. This study are suspected that the epitopes of {alpha}-AI do not contain tyrosine residues, and thus the decrease of IgE-specific binding activities is probably caused by the tertiary structural changes of these parts of {alpha}-AI.

  18. Effects of a high-pressure treatment on the wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor and its relationship to elimination of allergenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S.; Takanohashi, K.; Hara, T.; Odani, S.; Suzuki, A.; Nishiumi, T.

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the effects of high-pressure treatment on structure and allergeincity of alpha amylase inhibitor (a-AI) were investigated. The pressure-induced structural changes of α-AI were estimated by fluorescence spectra and by fourth derivative UV-spectroscopy for probed tyrosine residues and by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The changes in the tertiary structure detected by fluorescence spectra and by fourth derivative UV-spectroscopy under high pressure were indicated at over 300 MPa. Measurements of CD spectroscopy suggested that the effects of a high-pressure treatment on changes in the secondary structure of α-AI were little. From our results, pressure-induced changes of the α-AI structure were not apparent. On the other hands, the IgE-specific binding activities of pressurized α-AI to sera from allergic patients against wheat, which is estimated by observations of dot-blotting, were decreased by high-pressure treatment. It is known that the pressure-induced elimination of allergenicity is related to the tertiary structural changes of allergen molecules. This study are suspected that the epitopes of α-AI do not contain tyrosine residues, and thus the decrease of IgE-specific binding activities is probably caused by the tertiary structural changes of these parts of α-AI.

  19. Effects of a high-pressure treatment on the wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor and its relationship to elimination of allergenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, S; Takanohashi, K; Nishiumi, T; Hara, T; Odani, S; Suzuki, A

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of high-pressure treatment on structure and allergeincity of alpha amylase inhibitor (a-AI) were investigated. The pressure-induced structural changes of α-AI were estimated by fluorescence spectra and by fourth derivative UV-spectroscopy for probed tyrosine residues and by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The changes in the tertiary structure detected by fluorescence spectra and by fourth derivative UV-spectroscopy under high pressure were indicated at over 300 MPa. Measurements of CD spectroscopy suggested that the effects of a high-pressure treatment on changes in the secondary structure of α-AI were little. From our results, pressure-induced changes of the α-AI structure were not apparent. On the other hands, the IgE-specific binding activities of pressurized α-AI to sera from allergic patients against wheat, which is estimated by observations of dot-blotting, were decreased by high-pressure treatment. It is known that the pressure-induced elimination of allergenicity is related to the tertiary structural changes of allergen molecules. This study are suspected that the epitopes of α-AI do not contain tyrosine residues, and thus the decrease of IgE-specific binding activities is probably caused by the tertiary structural changes of these parts of α-AI.

  20. Production and immobilization of alpha amylase using biotechnology techniques for use in biological and medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobasher, E.E.F.

    2009-01-01

    The immobilized enzymes on polymeric supports are prepared for purpose of repeated use and the possibilities of continuous reaction system. One of the most important properties is the stability of proteins when they are used in some medical and industrial applications. The immobilization of the enzymes improves this property as well as many other properties.In this study, alpha amylase was purified and immobilized onto two different polymers. α- amylase was used in this study for its biological and industrial applications. It is used in paper textile, pharmaceutical applications, food, and detergent industries. α- amylase was found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Purification of α-amylase from microorganisms is the main source of α-amylase because it was excreted from many bacteria and fungi. In this study, α-amylase was purified from Aspergillus niger. Fractional precipitation of the α- amylase produced by A. niger with 80% ammonium sulphate saturation. The crude enzyme was applied on column chromatography packed with Sephadex G 100 for purification. The active eluents containing partially purified enzyme were collected for further investigation. The specific activity of α-amylase was (34.9 U/mg) which was corresponding to 2.09 fold purification for the tested organism. The purified α-amylase was immobilized by entrapment method into two types of polymers. One of them was natural consist of chitosan and alginate. The other polymer was synthetic consist of N- isopropyl acrylamide and alginate. The temperature optimum and thermal inactivation showed a severe loss in the activity of the free enzymes, while the temperature profile of the immobilized enzymes was much broader at higher temperatures demonstrating the effectiveness of the polymer protecting the enzymes. Also, the immobilized enzymes (natural polymer and synthetic polymer) showed higher thermal stability. Optimum ph and stability showed that immobilization of enzymes resulted in more

  1. Alpha amylase from a fungal culture grown on oil cakes and its properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Ramachandran

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state fermentation was carried out for the production of alpha-amylase using Aspergillus oryzae. Different oil cakes such as coconut oil cake (COC sesame oil cake (SOC, groundnut oil cake (GOC, palm kernel cake (PKC and olive oil cake (OOC were screened to be used as substrate for the enzyme production and also compared with wheat bran (WB. GOC was found to be the best producer of the enzyme among these. Combination of WB and GOC (1:1 resulted higher enzyme titres than the individual substrates. Maximum amount of enzyme (9196 U/gds was obtained when SSF was carried out using WB + GOC, having initial moisture of 64% and supplemented with lactose and ammonium nitrate (1% each at 30ºC for 72h using 2 mL spore suspension (6x10(7spores/ml. Partial purification of the enzyme using ammonium sulphate fractionation resulted in 2.4-fold increase in the activity. The enzyme showed molecular weight of 68 KDa by SDS-PAGE. Except Mn, all other metal ions such as Ca, K, Na, Mg were found to be inhibitory for the enzyme activity. The enzyme was optimally active at 50(0C and pH 5.0.Fermentação no Estado Sólido foi empregada na produção de alfa-amilase usando Aspergillus niger. Diferentes tipos de torta foram utilizadas, como torta de óleo de coco (COC, torta de de óleo de amendoim (GOC torta de óleo de sesamo (SOC, torta de palma (PKC e torta de óleo de oliva (OOC foram selecionadas para serem usadas como substratos para produção de enzima e comparadas com o farelo de trigo (WB, GOC foi escolhido por ser o que produziu maiores concentrações de enzima. A combinação WB e GOC (1:1 resultou em maiores títulos da enzima quando em comparação com os substratos individuais. A máxima concentração de enzima (9196 U/ gms foi obtida quando a FES foi conduzida utilizando WB + GOC, com umidade de 64% e suplementada com lactose e nitrato de amônia (1% cada a 300C por 72 horas utilizando 2 mL de uma suspensão de esporo (6x107sporos/ml. A purifica

  2. Two Secondary Carbohydrate Binding Sites on the Surface of Barley alpha-Amylase 1 Have Distinct Functions and Display Synergy in Hydrolysis of Starch Granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Munch; Bozonnet, Sophie; Seo, Eun-Seong

    2009-01-01

    Some polysaccharide processing enzymes possess secondary carbohydrate binding sites situated on the surface far from the active site. In barley alpha-amylase 1 (AMY1), two such sites, SBS1 and SBS2, are found on the catalytic (beta/alpha)8-barrel and the noncatalytic C-terminal domain, respective...

  3. Characteristics of raw starch degrading alpha-amylase from Bacillus aquimaris MKSC 6.2 associated with soft coral Sinularia sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puspasari, Fernita; Nurachman, Zeily; Noer, Achmad Saefuddin; Radjasa, Ocky Karna; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Natalia, Dessy

    Partially purified alpha-amylase from Bacillus aquimaris MKSC 6.2, a bacterium isolated from a soft coral Sinularia sp., Merak Kecil Island, West Java, Indonesia, showed an ability to degrade raw corn, rice, sago, cassava, and potato starches with adsorption percentage in the range of 65-93%. Corn

  4. Concomitant production of two proteases and alpha-amylase by a novel strain of Bacillus subtilis in a microprocessor controlled bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mukhtar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the simultaneous production of Bacillus subtilis based proteases and alpha amylase using a computer controlled laboratory scale 7.5 L batch bioreactor. The present strain is the first to be reported that concomitantly produces these two industrially important enzymes. The growth and sporulation of Bacillus subtilis was monitored and maximum production of alkaline protease and alpha amylase was found to coincide with maximum sporulation. Two types of proteases were detected in the fermentation broth; a neutral and an alkaline protease most active in a pH range of 7.0-8.0 and 8.0-10, respectively. Maximum production of proteases was observed at an incubation temperature of 37ºC while that of alpha amylase was observed at 40ºC. The optimum aeration and agitation levels for protease production were 0.6 L/L/min and 200rpm, respectively, and for alpha amylase were 0.6 L/L/min and 150 rpm. The kinetic parameters Yp/x and qp were also found to be significant at the given fermentation conditions.

  5. Discovering an Accessible Enzyme: Salivary [alpha]-Amylase--"Prima Digestio Fit in Ore"--A Didactic Approach for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Isabella

    2005-01-01

    Human salivary [alpha]-amylase is used in this experimental approach to introduce biology high school students to the concept of enzyme activity in a dynamic way. Through a series of five easy, rapid, and inexpensive laboratory experiments students learn what the activity of an enzyme consists of: first in a qualitative then in a semi-quantitative…

  6. Expositie aan stof, tarwe-allergenen en schimmel alpha-amylase : stand der techniek in ambachtelijke bakkerijen, industriële bakkerijen, meelmaalderijen en bij bakkerijgrondstoffenleveranciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pater, N. de; Doekes, G.; Miedema, E.; Goede, H.; Hemmen,J. van; Heederik, D.

    2003-01-01

    Beroepsmatige blootstelling aan meelstof kan leiden tot klachten aan de luchtwegen zoals astma en rhinitis. Deze klachten worden toegeschreven aan de in het stof aanwezige tarwe-allergenen en schimmel alpha-amylase. Het doel van het onderzoek is op basis van de resultaten een taakstelling te

  7. Messenger RNAs from the Scutellum and Aleurone of Germinating Barley Encode (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-d-Glucanase, alpha-Amylase and Carboxypeptidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundy, John; Brandt, Anders; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    1985-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies raised against barley (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-d-glucanase, alpha-amylase and carboxypeptidase were used to detect precursor polypeptides of these hydrolytic enzymes among the in vitro translation products of mRNA isolated from the scutellum and aleurone of germinating barley....... In the scutellum, mRNA encoding carboxypeptidase appeared to be relatively more abundant than that encoding alpha-amylase or (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-d-glucanase, while in the aleurone alpha-amylase and (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-d-glucanase mRNAs predominated. The apparent molecular weights of the precursors for (1......-->3,1-->4)-beta-d-glucanase, alpha-amylase, and carboxypeptidase were 33,000, 44,000, and 35,000, respectively. In each case these are slightly higher (1,500-5,000) than molecular weights of the mature enzymes. Molecular weights of precursors immunoprecipitated from aleurone and scutellum mRNA translation...

  8. Nutrient Content, Phytonutrient Composition, Alpha Amylase, Alpha Glucosidase Inhibition Activity and Antioxidant Activity of the Stoechospermum Marginatum Collected in Pre Monsoon Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reka Palanivel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the nutrient content, phytonutrient composition, physicochemical properties, alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition activity and antioxidant activity of the brown algae Stoechospermum marginatum collected from Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India in pre monsoon season (June- September, 2015. Six and eight hours of ethanol and aqueous extract of Stoechospermum marginatum were used for phytonutrient screening, alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase inhibition activity and antioxidant activity. From the results of the study it is understood that Stoechospermum marginatum contain a high amount of carbohydrate, protein, crude fiber and phytonutrients like tannin, flavonoid, saponin, alkaloid, terpenoids, steroid and total phenolic content. The physicochemical properties namely Water absorption and Swelling power were very promising. Alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition activity was recorded to be high in both aqueous and ethanol extracts of eight hour extraction than in extracts taken from six hours extraction. Antioxidant activity was detected using DPPH, FRAP, beta carotene scavenging and H2O2 assay and found to have a high radical scavenging activity. Stoechospermum marginatum possess a valuable amount of total phenolic content and other phytonutrients and physicochemical properties, it may the reason for the potential inhibition of alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase and antioxidant activity. It is concluded from the study that the brown algae may be incorporated into foods to enhance their nutritional and therapeutic value.

  9. Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…

  10. Daily Social Interactions and the Biological Stress Response: Are There Age Differences in Links Between Social Interactions and Alpha-Amylase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S; Tighe, Lauren A; Nevitt, Michael R; Zarit, Steven H

    2017-12-12

    According to the strength and vulnerability integration (SAVI) model, older people are better able to avoid negative social interactions than younger people, but when they do experience negative interactions, they are equally or more emotionally and physiologically reactive than younger people. Less is known about the links between daily negative and positive social encounters and the sympathetic adrenal medullary system (a key stress pathway) and whether there are age differences in these links. This study considers whether negative and positive social interactions are associated with diurnal alpha-amylase (a measure of the sympathetic adrenal medullary system) and whether there are differences in these links by age. Participants were from the Daily Health, Stress, and Relationship Study, which includes a random sample of 89 individuals (aged 40-95) who completed 14 days of daily diary interviews and provided saliva samples four times a day (wake, 30 min after wake, lunch, and bedtime) for four of those days that were assayed for alpha-amylase. Days in which people reported more negative interactions were associated with flatter morning declines in alpha-amylase, indicating greater stress. Links between positive interactions and diurnal alpha-amylase varied by age group. Findings are consistent with the SAVI model indicating that older adults respond differently to social stimuli than younger people. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effect of gelatinization and hydrolysis conditions on the selectivity of starch hydrolysis with alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baks, Tim; Bruins, Marieke E; Matser, Ariette M; Janssen, Anja E M; Boom, Remko M

    2008-01-23

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch can be used to obtain various valuable hydrolyzates with different compositions. The effects of starch pretreatment, enzyme addition point, and hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolyzate composition and reaction rate during wheat starch hydrolysis with alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis were compared. Suspensions of native starch or starch gelatinized at different conditions either with or without enzyme were hydrolyzed. During hydrolysis, the oligosaccharide concentration, the dextrose equivalent, and the enzyme activity were determined. We found that the hydrolyzate composition was affected by the type of starch pretreatment and the enzyme addition point but that it was just minimally affected by the pressure applied during hydrolysis, as long as gelatinization was complete. The differences between hydrolysis of thermally gelatinized, high-pressure gelatinized, and native starch were explained by considering the granule structure and the specific surface area of the granules. These results show that the hydrolyzate composition can be influenced by choosing different process sequences and conditions.

  12. Effects of exposure to GSM mobile phone base station signals on salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, and immunoglobulin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner, Christoph; Hacker, Gerhard W; Oberfeld, Gerd; Florian, Matthias; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Hutter, Jörg; Pauser, Gernot

    2010-06-01

    The present study aimed to test whether exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted by mobile phone base stations may have effects on salivary alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and cortisol levels. Fifty seven participants were randomly allocated to one of three different experimental scenarios (22 participants to scenario 1, 26 to scenario 2, and 9 to scenario 3). Each participant went through five 50-minute exposure sessions. The main RF-EMF source was a GSM-900-MHz antenna located at the outer wall of the building. In scenarios 1 and 2, the first, third, and fifth sessions were "low" (median power flux density 5.2 microW/m(2)) exposure. The second session was "high" (2126.8 microW/m(2)), and the fourth session was "medium" (153.6 microW/m(2)) in scenario 1, and vice versa in scenario 2. Scenario 3 had four "low" exposure conditions, followed by a "high" exposure condition. Biomedical parameters were collected by saliva samples three times a session. Exposure levels were created by shielding curtains. In scenario 3 from session 4 to session 5 (from "low" to "high" exposure), an increase of cortisol was detected, while in scenarios 1 and 2, a higher concentration of alpha-amylase related to the baseline was identified as compared to that in scenario 3. IgA concentration was not significantly related to the exposure. RF-EMF in considerably lower field densities than ICNIRP-guidelines may influence certain psychobiological stress markers. Copyright © 2010 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Alpha amylase and Alpha glucosidase inhibitory effects of aqueous stem extract of Salacia oblonga and its GC-MS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Raja Malar Chelladurai

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Our present investigation deals with the phytochemical screening, estimation of total flavonoids, terpenoids and tannin contents to evaluate the anti-diabetic activities of Salacia oblonga stem followed by GC-MS analysis. It explores the natural compounds and the potential α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory actions of stem extracts. The aqueous stem extract was selected from other extracts (ethanol, acetone, petroleum ether and chloroform for the in vitro study of anti-diabetic activity by alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitory assays. The stem extract was also analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to identify the natural chemical components. Phytochemical analysis of aqueous stem extract showed major classes of secondary metabolites such as phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins. The total flavonoid, terpenoid, and tannin contents were quantified as 19.82±0.06 mg QE/g, 96.2±0.20 mg/g and 11.25±0.03 mg TAE/g respectively. The percentage inhibition of assays showed maximum inhibitory effects (59.46±0.04% and 68.51±0.01% at a concentration of 100 mg/mL. The IC50 values of stem extract was found to be 73.56 mg/mL and 80.90 mg/mL for alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition. Fifteen chemical constituents were found by GC-MS analysis. This study suggest the aqueous stem extract of Salacia oblonga might be considered as potential source of bio active constituents with excellent antidiabetic activity.

  14. Longitudinal and immediate effect of Kundalini Yoga on salivary levels of cortisol and activity of alpha-amylase and its effect on perceived stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn N García-Sesnich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Stress is defined as an alteration of an organism's balance in response to a demand perceived from the environment. Diverse methods exist to evaluate physiological response. A noninvasive method is salivary measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the regular practice of Yoga would be an effective treatment for stress. Aims: To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity. Settings and Design: To determine the psychological perceived stress, levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity in saliva, and compare between the participants to KY classes performed for 3 months and a group that does not practice any type of yoga. Subjects and Methods: The total sample consisted of 26 people between 18 and 45-year-old; 13 taking part in KY classes given at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile and 13 controls. Salivary samples were collected, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify cortisol and kinetic reaction test was made to determine alpha-amylase activity. Perceived Stress Scale was applied at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was applied using Stata v11.1 software. Shapiro–Wilk test was used to determine data distribution. The paired analysis was fulfilled by t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. T-test or Mann–Whitney's test was applied to compare longitudinal data. A statistical significance was considered when P< 0.05. Results: KY practice had an immediate effect on salivary cortisol. The activity of alpha-amylase did not show significant changes. A significant decrease of perceived stress in the study group was found. Conclusions: KY practice shows an immediate effect on salivary cortisol levels and on perceived stress after 3 months of practice.

  15. Longitudinal and Immediate Effect of Kundalini Yoga on Salivary Levels of Cortisol and Activity of Alpha-Amylase and Its Effect on Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sesnich, Jocelyn N; Flores, Mauricio Garrido; Ríos, Marcela Hernández; Aravena, Jorge Gamonal

    2017-01-01

    Stress is defined as an alteration of an organism's balance in response to a demand perceived from the environment. Diverse methods exist to evaluate physiological response. A noninvasive method is salivary measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the regular practice of Yoga would be an effective treatment for stress. To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY) effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity. To determine the psychological perceived stress, levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity in saliva, and compare between the participants to KY classes performed for 3 months and a group that does not practice any type of yoga. The total sample consisted of 26 people between 18 and 45-year-old; 13 taking part in KY classes given at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile and 13 controls. Salivary samples were collected, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify cortisol and kinetic reaction test was made to determine alpha-amylase activity. Perceived Stress Scale was applied at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Statistical analysis was applied using Stata v11.1 software. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine data distribution. The paired analysis was fulfilled by t -test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. T -test or Mann-Whitney's test was applied to compare longitudinal data. A statistical significance was considered when P < 0.05. KY practice had an immediate effect on salivary cortisol. The activity of alpha-amylase did not show significant changes. A significant decrease of perceived stress in the study group was found. KY practice shows an immediate effect on salivary cortisol levels and on perceived stress after 3 months of practice.

  16. Biased mutagenesis in the N-terminal region by degenerate oligonucleotide gene shuffling enhances secretory expression of barley alpha-amylase 2 in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Kenji; Jensen, Malene Hillerup; Aghajari, Nushin

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant barley alpha-amylase 1 (rAMY1) and 2 (rAMY2), despite 80% sequence identity, are produced in very different amounts of 1.1 and alpha loop 2 that interacts with domain B (beta-->alpha loop 3) protruding from the catalytic (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel. Most remarkably Pichia pastoris strain G...... residue. Moreover, the G to C substitution for the A42P mutation might have a positive impact on protein translation....

  17. Production of alpha amylase from a randomly induced mutant strain of bacillus amyloliquefaciens and its application as a desizer in textile industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, I.; Ali, S.; Javed, M.M.; Hameed, U.; Saleem, A.; Adnan, F.; Qadeer, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the improvement of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain UNG-16 for alpha amylase production. The bacterial culture was exposed to UV irradiation at 1.6X102 J/m2/S for 15-60 min. However, UV induced viables did not give improved alpha amylase production; therefore chemical mutation using ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS 50-300 mu l/ml) was undertaken for 10-60 min. The mutant B. amyloliquefaciens EMS-6 gave 102.78+-2.22 U/ml/min enzyme activity which was 1.4 fold higher than the parental strain. In stirred fermentor, the incubation period was reduced from 72 to 48 h after inoculation. The production of alpha amylase was found to be maximal when the 60% volume, 2.0 vvm air supply and 400 rpm agitation rate was maintained during the fermentation period. The incubation temperature (37 deg. C) and size of inoculum (8.0 %) were also optimized. A 100% desizing of grey fabric (or starch removal) was obtained with 200-250 enzyme units at pH 6.5 at 60 deg. C in 1 h. (author)

  18. Fermentation of starch by Klebsiella oxytoca P2, containing plasmids with {alpha}-amylase and pullulanase genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, V.L. dos; Araujo, E.F.; Barros, E.G. de; Guimaraes, W.V.

    1999-12-20

    Klebsiella oxytoca P2(pC46), an ethanol-producing recombinant, has been evaluated in fermentation of maltose and starch. The maximum ethanol produced by P2(pC46) was 0.34 g ethanol/g maltose and 0.38, 0.40, or 0.36 g ethanol/g starch in fermentation of 1, 2, or 4% starch, representing 68, 71, and 64% the theoretical yield. The pC46 plasmid transformed to cells of K. oxytoca P2 reduced the ethanol production from maltose and starch. In fermentation of starch after its digestion at 60 C for 24 h, in two-step fermentation, the time for maximum ethanol production was reduced to 12--24 h and the theoretical yield was around 90%. The increase in starch concentration resulted in lower {alpha}-amylase activity but in higher pullulanase activity. The high activity and thermostability of the amylolytic enzymes from this transformant suggest that it has a potential for amylolytic enzymes source.

  19. Immobilization of anaerobic thermophilic bacteria for the production of cell-free thermostable. alpha. -amylases and pullulanases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingeberg, M [Goettingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Vorlop, K D [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Antranikian, G [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany, F. R.). Arbeitsbereich Biotechnologie 1

    1990-08-01

    For the production of cell-free thermostable {alpha}-amylases and pullulanases various anaerobic thermophilic bacteria that belong to the genera Clostridium and Thermoanaerobacter were immobilized in calcium alginate gel beads. The entrapment of bacteria was performed in full was well as in hollow spheres. An optimal limited medium, which avoided bacterial outgrowth, was developed for the cultivation of immobilized organisms at 60deg C using 0.4% starch as substrate. Compared to non-immobilized cells these techniques allowed a significant increase (up to 5.6-fold) in the specific activities of the extracellular enzymes formed. An increase in the productivity of extracellular enzymes was observed after immobilization of bacteria in full spheres. In the case of C. thermosaccharolyticum, for instance, the productivity was raised from 90 units (U)/10{sup 12} cells up to 700 U/10{sup 12} cells. Electrophoretic analysis of the secreted proteins showed that in all cases most of the amylolytic enzymes formed were released into the culture medium. Proteins that had a molecular mass of less than 450 000 daltons could easily diffuse through the gel matrix. Cultivation of immobilized bacteria in semi-continuous and fed-batch cultures was also accompanied by an elevation in the concentration of cell-free enzymes. (orig.).

  20. Partial purification and characterization of {alpha}-amylases from one insecticide-resistant population of Sitophilus zeamais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, K.V.; Oliveira, M.G.A.; Paixao, G.P.; Visotto, L.E. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular; Veloso, R.V.S.; Marinho, J.S.; Guedes, R.N.C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal; Oliveira, J.A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Full text: {alpha}-Amylases (EC 3.2.1.1) constitute a family of endo-amylases that catalyze the hydrolysis of a-D- (1,4)-glucan linkages in st ach components and various other related carbohydrates. They play a central role in carbohydrate metabolism of animals, plants and microorganisms. Many insects, especially those that feed on grain products during larval and/or adult life, depend on their amylases for survival. This is particularly true for the Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, a cosmopolitan pest of stored products. It is mainly controlled by insecticides. Amylases from adults of S.zeamais insecticide-resistant were purified by using a sequential procedure of glycogen-complex precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. Specific activity increased from 58,0454 AU/dL/mg protein in the crude homogenate to 2558,8720 AU/dL/mg protein in the final purified sample. Amylase unit (AU/dL) refers to the amount of amylase that hydrolysis 10 mg starch in 30 min at 37 deg C. The purified amylase ran as a single protein band on SDS-PAGE. From a plot of log molecular weight against relative mobility in 10% acrylamide gel, molecular weight was estimated to be 56 kDa. The enzyme had a K{sub m} of 0,2243 g/L for soluble starch and was most active at ph 5,0. The temperature of major activity was 40 deg C. The activity of enzyme was unaffected by presence or absence of Cl{sup -} and Ca{sup 2+}.

  1. Phylogenetic distribution of intron positions in alpha-amylase genes of bilateria suggests numerous gains and losses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Da Lage

    Full Text Available Most eukaryotes have at least some genes interrupted by introns. While it is well accepted that introns were already present at moderate density in the last eukaryote common ancestor, the conspicuous diversity of intron density among genomes suggests a complex evolutionary history, with marked differences between phyla. The question of the rates of intron gains and loss in the course of evolution and factors influencing them remains controversial. We have investigated a single gene family, alpha-amylase, in 55 species covering a variety of animal phyla. Comparison of intron positions across phyla suggests a complex history, with a likely ancestral intronless gene undergoing frequent intron loss and gain, leading to extant intron/exon structures that are highly variable, even among species from the same phylum. Because introns are known to play no regulatory role in this gene and there is no alternative splicing, the structural differences may be interpreted more easily: intron positions, sizes, losses or gains may be more likely related to factors linked to splicing mechanisms and requirements, and to recognition of introns and exons, or to more extrinsic factors, such as life cycle and population size. We have shown that intron losses outnumbered gains in recent periods, but that "resets" of intron positions occurred at the origin of several phyla, including vertebrates. Rates of gain and loss appear to be positively correlated. No phase preference was found. We also found evidence for parallel gains and for intron sliding. Presence of introns at given positions was correlated to a strong protosplice consensus sequence AG/G, which was much weaker in the absence of intron. In contrast, recent intron insertions were not associated with a specific sequence. In animal Amy genes, population size and generation time seem to have played only minor roles in shaping gene structures.

  2. In-vitro alpha amylase inhibitory activity of the leaf extracts of Adenanthera pavonina

    OpenAIRE

    Wickramaratne, M. Nirmali; Punchihewa, J. C.; Wickramaratne, D. B. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes has caused a major burden to the health sector in the developing countries and has shown an increasing trend among the urban population. It is estimated that most patients are with type II diabetes which could be easily treated with dietary changes, exercise, and medication. Sri Lanka carries a long history ayurvedic medicine where it uses the plant for treating many diseases. Therefore it is important to screen medicinal plants scientifically so they could be used safely ...

  3. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): a review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Marilyn L; Udani, Jay K

    2011-03-17

    Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ) has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity.

  4. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris: A review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Marilyn L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity.

  5. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Ronozyme RumiStar (alpha-amylase) as a feed additive for dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2012-01-01

    Ronozyme RumiStar is a feed additive in which the declared enzymatic activity is alpha-amylase. It is produced by a genetically modified Bacillus licheniformis strain. The final enzyme preparations contain no cultivable production organisms or recombinant DNA. Based on the results of a tolerance trial provided by the applicant, it was concluded that Ronozyme RumiStar is safe for use in dairy cows at the maximum proposed dose (400 KNU/kg dry matter of total daily ...

  6. Wheat bran as a substrate for thermo stable alpha-amylase production by gamma irradiated bacillus megaterium in solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElVatal, A.I.; Khalaf, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Thermo stable alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) production from cheap agriculture-industrial waste wheat bran (WB) medium by superior potent gamma irradiated locally isolated strain of Bacillus megaterium in solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. A highly yielding, stable enhanced isolated strain of bacillus megaterium in solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. A highly yielding stable enhanced isolate B. megaterium- gamma 21F derived from the 10 kGy, treatment, exhibited the highest alpha-amylase activity under SSF, with 2.8 fold more enzyme titer as compared to the unirradiated wild strain. A vancomycin (Vm) resistant gamma irradiated enhanced isolate B. megaterium-gamma 21F2 (which was selected throughout the subsequent work) secreted (1.27 and 3.58) folds superior titers of alpha-amylase than the gamma irradiated parent isolate (B.megaterium -gamma21F) and unirradiated wild strain, respectively under SSF process. The effects of various parameters, such as moistening agent, initial moisture content level, initial ph, incubation temperature, inoculum size and incubation time on thermo stable alpha-amylase production by B.megaterium-gamma 21F2 under SSF were studied. Maximum enzyme production was recorded in WB medium moistened with (1:2, w/v) distilled water at initial ph (7.0) and inoculated with (2.24 x 10 8 cells/g WB) after 48 h incubation at 40 C degree. Between different solvents used for enzyme extraction from fermented WB mass, distilled water at ph (7.0) was the superior efficient leaching solvent. The specific activity of the precipitated partially purified crude thermo stable enzyme was (258.7 U/mg protein) with ph optima (6.5-7.0), at optimal temperatures (65-70 c degree) and it retained about 53% of its maximum activity after 12 h incubation at 70 c degree. The partially purified crude enzyme was used for starch digestion (5%0 under optimized reaction conditions, wherein (98.2%) starch hydrolysis was attained after 6 h

  7. Combined effect of an antifeedant alpha-amylase inhibitor and a predator Cheyletus malaccensis in controlling the stored-product mite Acarus siro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubert, J.; Hýblová, Jana; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Pekár, S.; Křížková, I.; Marešová, Lucie; Stejskal, V.; Mareš, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2007), s. 41-49 ISSN 0307-6962 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04OC842.20; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04OC853.003; GA AV ČR IAA400550617; GA ČR GP203/02/P081 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : alpha-amylase * Acarus siro * Cheyletus malaccensis * digestion protease Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.410, year: 2007

  8. Inhibitory Effect of Capparis spinosa Extract on Pancreatic Alpha-Amylase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Selfayan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose level caused due to deficiency of insulin secretion or insulin function. The inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-amylase can be an important strategy for decrease postprandial blood glucose level in patients with type II diabetes. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the ethanolic extract of Capparis spinosa on pancreatic α-amylase activities to find out the relevance of the plant in controlling blood sugar. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, root and leaves of C. spinosa were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations (1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/mL of extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the spectrometric method used for measure enzyme activity. Also acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results Both root and leaves extracts showed inhibition of α-amylase (root = 97.31% and leaves = 98.92%. The root and leaves extracts of C. spinosa exhibited appreciable α-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 values 5.93 mg/mL and 3.89 mg/mL respectively, when compared with acarbose (IC50 value 0.038 mg/mL. Conclusions This study supports that root and leaves extracts of C. spinosa exhibit considerable α-amylase inhibitory activities. These results could be useful for developing functional foods by combination of plant-based foods for treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  9. In-vitro alpha amylase inhibitory activity of the leaf extracts of Adenanthera pavonina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaratne, M Nirmali; Punchihewa, J C; Wickramaratne, D B M

    2016-11-15

    Diabetes has caused a major burden to the health sector in the developing countries and has shown an increasing trend among the urban population. It is estimated that most patients are with type II diabetes which could be easily treated with dietary changes, exercise, and medication. Sri Lanka carries a long history ayurvedic medicine where it uses the plant for treating many diseases. Therefore it is important to screen medicinal plants scientifically so they could be used safely and effectively in the traditional medical system and also be used for further investigations. Adenanthera pavonina is a plant used in the Ayurvedic medical system in Sri Lanka for treating many diseases including diabetics. We evaluated the anti-diabetic properties and the antioxidant properties of Adenanthera pavonina leaves. The methanol extract of the leaves was sequentially extracted with petroleum ether and thereafter was partitioned between EtOAc, and water. The α-amylase inhibition assay was performed using the 3,5- dinitrosalicylic acid method. The antioxidant activities were measured using the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent. The cytotoxicity of the extract was evaluated using the Brine shrimp bioassay. The IC 50 values of α amylase inhibitory activity of MeOH, EtOAc, petroleum ether, and water were 16.16 ± 2.23, 59.93 ± 0.25, 145.49 ± 4.86 and 214.85 ± 9.72 μg/ml respectively and was similar to that of Acarbose (18.63 ± 1.21 (μg/ml). Antioxidant activities were also determined and the EtOAc fraction showed the highest total phenolic content (34. 62 ± 1.14 mg/g extract) and the highest DPPH scavenging activity with an IC 50 of 249.92 ± 3.35 μg/ml. The leaf extracts of Adenanthera pavonina exhibit remarkable α-amylase inhibitory activity in the crude methanolic extract. Hence leaves of Adenanthera pavonina has a potential to be used as a regular green vegetable and

  10. Measurements of amylase isoenzymes in sera and saliva of patients after radiotherapy because of larynx carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasik, A.; Tarnawski, R.; Wierzynski, J.; Tarnawski, R.

    1994-01-01

    Serum and salivary alpha-amylase were measured for controls and patients with laryngeal carcinoma before and after localized irradiation including salivary glands. A significant increase in amylasemia was observed after irradiation. Alpha-amylase activity in saliva was decreased after irradiation but differences were not statistically significant due to the significant decrease of protein in saliva of irradiated group. An increase of salivary isoenzyme S activity was observed while pancreatic isoenzyme activity was not altered. This method allows easy differentiation of hyperamylasemia due to irradiation of parothyroid gland and disorders of the pancreas. Alpha-amylase activity measurements may detect metabolic changes in salivary glands after irradiation. (author)

  11. Alpha-Amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Both (Porcine and bacterial) starch degrading enzymes highly valued by the biotechnology industry. (Porcine) A major target for protein engineering and the study of diabetes, obesity and dental care. (Bacterial) Major industrial and biotechnology interest used in brewing, baking, and food processing. World's number one industrial protein.

  12. Production of surfactant and detergent-stable, halophilic, and alkalitolerant alpha-amylase by a moderately halophilic Bacillus sp. Strain TSCVKK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Kondepudi Kanthi; Chandra, T S

    2008-01-01

    A moderately halophilic alkalitolerant Bacillus sp. Strain TSCVKK, with an ability to produce extracellular halophilic, alkalitolerant, surfactant, and detergent-stable alpha-amylase was isolated from soil samples obtained from a salt-manufacturing industry in Chennai. The culture conditions for higher amylase production were optimized with respect to NaCl, substrate, pH, and temperature. Maximum amylase production of 592 mU/ml was achieved in the medium at 48 h with 10% NaCl, 1% dextrin, 0.4% yeast extract, 0.2% tryptone, and 0.2% CaCl(2) at pH 8.0 at 30 degrees C. The enzyme activity in the culture supernatant was highest with 10% NaCl at pH 7.5 and 55 degrees C. The amylase that was partially purified by acetone precipitation was highly stable in various surfactants and detergents. Glucose, maltose, and maltooligosaccharides were the main end products of starch hydrolysis indicating that it is an alpha-amylase.

  13. Localization of an O-glycosylated site in the recombinant barley alpha-amylase 1 produced in yeast and correction of the amino acid sequence using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of peptide mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Søgaard, M; Svensson, B

    1994-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) of peptide mixtures was used to characterize recombinant barley alpha-amylase 1, produced in yeast. Three peptide mixtures were generated by cleavage with CNBr, digestion with endoproteinase Lys-C and Asp-N, respectively...

  14. Application of a statistical design to the optimization of parameters and culture medium for alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae CBS 819.72 grown on gruel (wheat grinding by-product).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, Radhouane; Naili, Belgacem; Bejar, Samir

    2008-09-01

    The production optimization of alpha-amylase (E.C.3.2.1.1) from Aspergillus oryzae CBS 819.72 fungus, using a by-product of wheat grinding (gruel) as sole carbon source, was performed with statistical methodology based on three experimental designs. The optimisation of temperature, agitation and inoculum size was attempted using a Box-Behnken design under the response surface methodology. The screening of nineteen nutrients for their influence on alpha-amylase production was achieved using a Plackett-Burman design. KH(2)PO(4), urea, glycerol, (NH(4))(2)SO(4), CoCl(2), casein hydrolysate, soybean meal hydrolysate, MgSO(4) were selected based on their positive influence on enzyme formation. The optimized nutrients concentration was obtained using a Taguchi experimental design and the analysis of the data predicts a theoretical increase in the alpha-amylase expression of 73.2% (from 40.1 to 151.1 U/ml). These conditions were validated experimentally and revealed an enhanced alpha-amylase yield of 72.7%.

  15. SusG: A Unique Cell-Membrane-Associated [alpha]-Amylase from a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont Targets Complex Starch Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Smith, Thomas J. (Danforth)

    2010-09-21

    SusG is an {alpha}-amylase and part of a large protein complex on the outer surface of the bacterial cell and plays a major role in carbohydrate acquisition by the animal gut microbiota. Presented here, the atomic structure of SusG has an unusual extended, bilobed structure composed of amylase at one end and an unprecedented internal carbohydrate-binding motif at the other. Structural studies further demonstrate that the carbohydrate-binding motif binds maltooligosaccharide distal to, and on the opposite side of, the amylase catalytic site. SusG has an additional starch-binding site on the amylase domain immediately adjacent to the active cleft. Mutagenesis analysis demonstrates that these two additional starch-binding sites appear to play a role in catabolism of insoluble starch. However, elimination of these sites has only a limited effect, suggesting that they may have a more important role in product exchange with other Sus components.

  16. Inducing mechanism of dextrins with different de values on production of alpha-amylase by B. subtilis zjf-1A5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.; Zhao, R.; Liu, B.

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-amylase was widely used in food industries, textile technology, paper manufacturing and so on. In this paper, the inducing mechanism of corn dextrins with different DE values (dextrose equivalent value) on production of a-amylase by Bacillus subtilis (B.subtilis) ZJF-1A5 was investigated. The results showed that the yield of a-amylase by B.subtilis ZJF-1A5 was increased by using dextrin with a certain DE value range as carbon source, which could be attributed to the presence of oligosaccharide in dextrins. By ordinary fermentation with oligosaccharide as carbon source, it was found that the inducing activity of maltopentaose was the strongest. It could be confirmed that the dextrins played important roles during the process of production of a-amylase by B.subtilis ZJF-1A5. (author)

  17. Mapping of barley alpha-amylases and outer subsite mutants reveals dynamic high-affinity subsites and barriers in the long substrate binding cleft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandra, L.; Abou Hachem, Maher; Gyemant, G.

    2006-01-01

    Subsite affinity maps of long substrate binding clefts in barley alpha-amylases, obtained using a series of maltooligosaccharides of degree of polymerization of 3-12, revealed unfavorable binding energies at the internal subsites -3 and -5 and at subsites -8 and +3/+4 defining these subsites...... as binding barriers. Barley a-amylase I mutants Y105A and T212Y at subsite -6 and +4 resulted in release or anchoring of bound substrate, thus modifying the affinities of other high-affinity subsites (-2 and +2) and barriers. The double mutant Y105A-T212Y displayed a hybrid subsite affinity profile......, converting barriers to binding areas. These findings highlight the dynamic binding energy distribution and the versatility of long maltooligosaccharide derivatives in mapping extended binding clefts in a-amylases....

  18. Synthesis of bromo phenyl piperidine derivatives and the study of their effects on neurotransmitters and strong compatibility with alpha amylase enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiq, K.; Zarreen, T.

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades several novel derivatives of piperidine have been synthesized for their CNS potentials and proved to be effective in the treatment of psychiatric and other CNS disorders. The present study is the demonstration of same phenomenon through which a new series of 4-(4-Bromophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidine derivatives were synthesized via substitution at nitrogen and tested for aectylcholinestrase and butyrylcholinestrase activity by TLC bioautographic method and showed that among these synthesized moieties two were found to produce effects on these neurotransmitters. The synthesized compounds were also assessed further for their interaction with digestive enzymes (alpha-amylase) in vitro by plate method and all the compounds showed good interaction with amylase enzyme. (author)

  19. Stilbene Glucoside, a Putative Sleep Promoting Constituent from Polygonum multiflorum Affects Sleep Homeostasis by Affecting the Activities of Lactate Dehydrogenase and Salivary Alpha Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qian; Ta, Guang; He, Wenjing; Wang, Wei; Wu, Qiucheng

    2017-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for treating insomnia for centuries. The most used CHM for insomnia was Polygonum multiflorum. However, the molecular mechanism for CHM preventing insomnia is unknown. Stilbene glucoside (THSG), an important active component of P. multiflorum, may play an important role for treating insomnia. To test the hypothesis, Kunming mice were treated with different dosages of THSG. To examine the sleep duration, a computer-controlled sleep-wake detection system was implemented. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) electrodes were implanted to determine sleep-wake state. RT-PCR and Western blot was used to measure the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and saliva alpha amylase. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to identify the strength of correlation between the variables. The results showed that THSG significantly prolonged the sleep time of the mice (palpha amylase (palpha amylase (pamylase were negatively associated with sleep duration (palpha amylase.

  20. Salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase and immunoglobulin a responses to a morning session of basketball or volleyball training in boys aged 14-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzda-Zwiech, A; Konieczka, M; Hilt, A; Daszkowska, M; Grzegorczyk, J; Szczepańska, J

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether a single session of routine morning basketball or volleyball training affects saliva levels of cortisol, alpha-amylase (sAA) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in boys aged 14–18 years. Twenty-nine boys who participate in basketball or volleyball training, recruited from the Marcin Gortat’s Athletic Championship School in Lodz, were enrolled in the study. The 90-minute routine exercise program included 15 minutes of warm-up followed by basketball or volleyball practice. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected prior to and immediately after the exercise, and were analysed using ELISA. One training session resulted in a significant increase of sAA concentration in all participants, as well as in the volleyball and basketball subgroups (p=0.00022; p=0.0029; p=0.0011; respectively). Post-exercise cortisol levels were significantly lower than pre-exercise levels (p=0.00002) throughout the group, as well as in the volleyball and basketball subgroups (p=0.0048; p=0.0019; p=0.0048; respectively). The exercise protocol did not significantly affect sIgA level, either in the whole examined group or the volleyball subgroup, however a weak significant increase of sIgA was observed in the basketball subgroup (p=0.046). The routine morning training session comprising a warm-up followed by basketball or volleyball practice seems to activate the sympatho-adrenal-medullary system, with a subsequent increase of alpha-amylase, but does not affect oral immunity in 14-18-year-old boys.

  1. Interaction of Salivary alpha-Amylase and Amylase-Binding-Protein A (AbpA of Streptococcus gordonii with Glucosyltransferase of S. gordonii and Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzer Jason M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucosyltransferases (Gtfs, enzymes that produce extracellular glucans from dietary sucrose, contribute to dental plaque formation by Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans. The alpha-amylase-binding protein A (AbpA of S. gordonii, an early colonizing bacterium in dental plaque, interacts with salivary amylase and may influence dental plaque formation by this organism. We examined the interaction of amylase and recombinant AbpA (rAbpA, together with Gtfs of S. gordonii and S. mutans. Results The addition of salivary alpha-amylase to culture supernatants of S. gordonii precipitated a protein complex containing amylase, AbpA, amylase-binding protein B (AbpB, and the glucosyltransferase produced by S. gordonii (Gtf-G. rAbpA was expressed from an inducible plasmid, purified from Escherichia coli and characterized. Purified rAbpA, along with purified amylase, interacted with and precipitated Gtfs from culture supernatants of both S. gordonii and S. mutans. The presence of amylase and/or rAbpA increased both the sucrase and transferase component activities of S. mutans Gtf-B. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using anti-Gtf-B antibody verified the interaction of rAbpA and amylase with Gtf-B. A S. gordonii abpA-deficient mutant showed greater biofilm growth under static conditions than wild-type in the presence of sucrose. Interestingly, biofilm formation by every strain was inhibited in the presence of saliva. Conclusion The results suggest that an extracellular protein network of AbpA-amylase-Gtf may influence the ecology of oral biofilms, likely during initial phases of colonization.

  2. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels during an assessment procedure correlate differently with risk-taking measures in male and female police recruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud eVan Den Bos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent laboratory studies have shown that men display more risk-taking behaviour in decision-making tasks following stress, whilst women are more risk-aversive or become more task-focussed. In addition, these studies have shown that sex differences are related to levels of the stress hormone cortisol (indicative of activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical-axis: the higher the levels of cortisol the more risk-taking behaviour is shown by men, whereas women generally display more risk-aversive or task-focussed behaviour following higher levels of cortisol. Here, we assessed whether such relationships hold outside the laboratory, correlating levels of cortisol obtained during a job-related assessment procedure with decision-making parameters in the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT in male and female police recruits. The CGT allows for discriminating different aspects of reward-based decision-making. In addition, we correlated levels of alpha-amylase (indicative for activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary-axis and decision-making parameters. In line with earlier studies men and women only differed in risk-adjustment in the CGT. Salivary cortisol levels correlated positively and strongly with risk-taking measures in men, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation in women. In contrast, and less strongly so, salivary alpha-amylase levels correlated positively with risk-taking in women, which was significantly different from the weak negative correlation with risk-taking in men. Collectively, these data support and extend data of earlier studies indicating that risky decision-making in men and women is differently affected by stress hormones. The data are briefly discussed in relation to the effects of stress on gambling.

  3. Tyrosine 105 and threonine 212 at outermost substrate binding subsites -6 and +4 control substrate specificity, oligosaccharide cleavage patterns, and multiple binding modes of barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; André, G.; Gottschalk, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    and oligosaccharides, respectively. Bond cleavage analysis of oligosaccharide degradation by wild-type and mutant AMY1 supports that Tyr105 is critical for binding at subsite -6. Substrate binding is improved by T212(Y/W) introduced at subsite +4 and the [Y105A/ T212(Y/W)] AMY1 double mutants synergistically enhanced......The role in activity of outer regions in the substrate binding cleft in alpha-amylases is illustrated by mutational analysis of Tyr(105) and Thr(212) localized at subsites - 6 and +4 ( substrate cleavage occurs between subsites -1 and +1) in barley alpha-amylase 1 (AMY1). Tyr(105) is conserved...... in plant alpha-amylases whereas Thr(212) varies in these and related enzymes. Compared with wild-type AMY1, the subsite -6 mutant Y105A has 140, 15, and 1% activity (k(cat)/K-m) on starch, amylose DP17, and 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl β-D-maltoheptaoside, whereas T212Y at subsite +4 has 32, 370, and 90...

  4. The activity of barley alpha-amylase on starch granules is enhanced by fusion of a starch binding domain from Aspergillus niger glucoamylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juge, N.; Nøhr, J.; Le Gal-Coëffet, M.-F.

    2006-01-01

    High affinity for starch granules of certain amylolytic enzymes is mediated by a separate starch binding domain (SBD). In Aspergillus niger glucoamylase (GA-I), a 70 amino acid O-glycosylated peptide linker connects SBD with the catalytic domain. A gene was constructed to encode barley alpha......-amylase 1 (AMY1) fused C-terminally to this SBD via a 37 residue GA-I linker segment. AMY1-SBD was expressed in A. niger, secreted using the AMY1 signal sequence at 25 mg x L(-1) and purified in 50% yield. AMY1-SBD contained 23% carbohydrate and consisted of correctly N-terminally processed multiple forms...... in A. niger). AMY1-SBD showed a 2-fold increased activity for soluble starch at low (0.5%) but not at high (1%) concentration. AMY1-SBD hydrolysed amylose DP440 with an increased degree of multiple attack of 3 compared to 1.9 for rAMY1. Remarkably, at low concentration (2 nM), AMY1-SBD hydrolysed...

  5. [Effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase, total protein, salivary flow rate and pH value in Pi deficiency children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ze-min; Chen, Long-hui; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao-rong; Chen, Wei-wen

    2015-02-01

    To compare the effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), total protein (TP), salivary flow rate, and pH value between Pi deficiency (PD) children and healthy children, thereby providing evidence for Pi controlling saliva theory. Twenty PD children were recruited, and 29 healthy children were also recruited at the same time. Saliva samples from all subjects were collected before and after citric acid stimulation. The sAA activity and amount, TP contents, salivary flow rate, and pH value were determined and compared. (1) Citric acid stimulation was able to significantly increase salivary flow rate, pH value, sAA activities, sAA specific activity and sAA amount (including glycosylated and non-glycosylated sAA amount) in healthy children (Psalivary flow rate, pH value, and glycosylated sAA levels in PD children (Psalivary indices between the two groups (P>0.05), salivary indices except salivary flow rate and glycosylated sAA levels decreased more in PD children. There was statistical difference in sAA activity ratio, sAA specific activity ratio, and the ratio of glycosylated sAA levels between PD children and healthy children (P<0.05). PD children had decreased response to citric acid stimulation.

  6. Effect of domestic cooking on the starch digestibility, predicted glycemic indices, polyphenol contents and alpha amylase inhibitory properties of beans (Phaseolis vulgaris) and breadfruit (Treculia africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinedum, E; Sanni, S; Theressa, N; Ebere, A

    2018-01-01

    The effect of processing on starch digestibility, predicted glycemic indices (pGI), polyphenol contents and alpha amylase inhibitory properties of beans (Phaseolis vulgaris) and breadfruit (Treculia africana) was studied. Total starch ranged from 4.3 to 68.3g/100g, digestible starch ranged from 4.3 to 59.2 to 65.7g/100g for the raw and processed legumes; Resistance starch was not detected in most of the legumes except in fried breadfruit and the starches in both the raw and processed breadfruit were more rapidly digested than those from raw and cooked beans. Raw and processed breadfruit had higher hydrolysis curves than raw and processed beans with the amylolysis level in raw breadfruit close to that of white bread. Raw beans had a low glycemic index (GI); boiled beans and breadfruit had intermediate glycemic indices respectively while raw and fried breadfruit had high glycemic indices. Aqueous extracts of the food samples had weak α-amylase inhibition compared to acarbose. The raw and processed legumes contained considerable amounts of dietary phenols and flavonoids. The significant correlation (r=0.626) between α-amylase inhibitory actions of the legumes versus their total phenolic contents suggests the contribution of the phenolic compounds in these legumes to their α-amylase inhibitory properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro alpha-amylase inhibition and in vivo antioxidant potential of Momordica dioica seeds in streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sailaja Rao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Momordica dioica Roxb. Commonly known as “Kakora” in Telugu, is used in the Indian traditional system of medicine for the treatment of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of M. dioica seeds (MEMD in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. The in vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity of the MEMD was done by spectrophotometric method. Diabetes was induced by STZ (45 mg/kg; i.p, MEMD (100 & 200 mg/kg; b.wt and standard drug metformin (50 mg/kg; b.wt were administered to the diabetic rats. Blood glucose was estimated on the 11th day and the level of MDA, SOD and CAT was estimated in the liver tissue homogenate after the 15 days of experimental period. MEMD showed significant inhibition of alpha amylase activity and the IC50 was found to be 48 μg/ml. Oral administration of MEMD significantly reduced blood glucose level (P < 0.05, diminished the MDA level and refurbished depleted antioxidant enzymes and Insulin level to normalcy. These findings revealed that M. dioica seeds possess antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and anti lipid peroxidative activity and thus mitigate STZ-induced oxidative damage.

  8. Refining the multisystem view of the stress response: coordination among cortisol, alpha-amylase, and subjective stress in response to relationship conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Powers, Sally I; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-07-02

    This study investigated associations among young adults' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, autonomic nervous system activity, and subjective stress in response to interpersonal conflict to better characterize coordination across stress systems. Seven saliva samples were collected from 199 young adult opposite-sex couples before, during, and after they discussed an unresolved relationship conflict. Samples were later assayed for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA). Couples rated anticipatory stress prior to the conflict and perceived stress immediately following the task. Growth curve modeling was used to examine two possible levels of within-person coordination across physiological systems: alignment between cortisol and sAA responses throughout the sampling period ("matched phase coordination"), and association between overall levels of cortisol and sAA in response to conflict ("average level coordination"). Whereas both partners showed the former type of coordination, only women showed the latter type. Positive anticipation of the stressor predicted stronger cortisol-sAA matched phase coordination for women. Pre-task ratings related to women's sAA, and post-task ratings related to both partners' cortisol responses. Implications for a multisystem interpretation of normal and pathological responses to daily stress are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Refining the multisystem view of the stress response: Coordination among cortisol, alpha-amylase, and subjective stress in response to relationship conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sally I.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations among young adults' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, autonomic nervous system activity, and subjective stress in response to interpersonal conflict to better characterize coordination across stress systems. Seven saliva samples were collected from 199 young adult opposite-sex couples before, during, and after they discussed an unresolved relationship conflict. Samples were later assayed for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA). Couples rated anticipatory stress prior to the conflict and perceived stress immediately following the task. Growth curve modeling was used to examine two possible levels of within-person coordination across physiological systems: alignment between cortisol and sAA responses throughout the sampling period (“matched phase coordination”), and association between overall levels of cortisol and sAA in response to conflict (“average level coordination”). Whereas both partners showed the former type of coordination, only women showed the latter type. Positive anticipation of the stressor predicted stronger cortisol-sAA matched phase coordination for women. Pre-task ratings related to women's sAA, and post-task ratings related to both partners' cortisol responses. Implications for a multisystem interpretation of normal and pathological responses to daily stress are discussed. PMID:23684904

  10. Solid State Fermentation of a Raw Starch Digesting Alkaline Alpha-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis RT7PE1 and Its Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Romana; Khaliq, Shazia; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim; Agblevor, Foster

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic properties of solids state raw starch digesting alpha amylase from newly isolated Bacillus licheniformis RT7PE1 strain were studied. The kinetic values Q p , Y p/s , Y p/X , and q p were proved to be best with 15% wheat bran. The molecular weight of purified enzyme was 112 kDa. The apparent K m and V max values for starch were 3.4 mg mL(-1) and 19.5 IU mg(-1) protein, respectively. The optimum temperature and pH for α -amylase were 55°C, 9.8. The half-life of enzyme at 95°C was 17h. The activation and denaturation activation energies were 45.2 and 41.2 kJ mol(-1), respectively. Both enthalpies (ΔH (∗)) and entropies of activation (ΔS (∗)) for denaturation of α -amylase were lower than those reported for other thermostable α -amylases.

  11. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of a Proprietary Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor from White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on Weight and Fat Loss in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay; Tan, Ollie; Molina, Jhanna

    2018-04-20

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of a proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) supplementation interventions in humans on modification of body weight and fat mass. A systematic literature search was performed using three databases: PubMed, the Cochrane collaboration, and Google Scholar. In addition, the manufacturer was contacted for internal unpublished data, and finally, the reference section of relevant original research and review papers were mined for additional studies. Eleven studies were selected for the meta-analysis of weight loss (a total of 573 subjects), and three studies for the meta-analysis of body fat reduction (a total of 110 subjects), as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation showed an average effect on weight loss difference of −1.08 kg (95% CI (confidence interval), −0.42 kg to −1.16 kg, p < 0.00001), and the average effect on body fat reduction was 3.26 kg (95% CI, −2.35 kg to −4.163 kg, p = 0.02). This meta-analysis found statistically significant effects of Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation on body weight and body fat.

  12. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of a Proprietary Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor from White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on Weight and Fat Loss in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Udani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of a proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. supplementation interventions in humans on modification of body weight and fat mass. A systematic literature search was performed using three databases: PubMed, the Cochrane collaboration, and Google Scholar. In addition, the manufacturer was contacted for internal unpublished data, and finally, the reference section of relevant original research and review papers were mined for additional studies. Eleven studies were selected for the meta-analysis of weight loss (a total of 573 subjects, and three studies for the meta-analysis of body fat reduction (a total of 110 subjects, as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation showed an average effect on weight loss difference of −1.08 kg (95% CI (confidence interval, −0.42 kg to −1.16 kg, p < 0.00001, and the average effect on body fat reduction was 3.26 kg (95% CI, −2.35 kg to −4.163 kg, p = 0.02. This meta-analysis found statistically significant effects of Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation on body weight and body fat.

  13. Influences of AMY1 gene copy number and protein expression on salivary alpha-amylase activity before and after citric acid stimulation in splenic asthenia children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zemin; Lin, Jing; Chen, Longhui; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiaorong; Chen, Weiwen

    2015-06-01

    To compare the correlations between salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) activity and amylase, alpha 1 (salivary) gene (AMYl) copy number or its gene expression between splenic asthenia and healthy children, and investigate the reasons of attenuated sAA activity ratio before and after citric acid stimulation in splenic asthenia children. Saliva samples from 20 splenic asthenia children and 29 healthy children were collected before and after citric acid stimulation. AMYl copy number, sAA activity, and total sAA and glycosylated sAA contents were determined, and their correlations were analyzed. Although splenic asthenia and healthy children had no differences in AMY1 copy number, splenic asthenia children had positive correlations between AMY1 copy number and sAA activity before or after citric acid stimulation. Splenic asthenia children had a higher sAA glycosylated proportion ratio and glycosylated sAA content ratio, while their total sAA content ratio and sAA activity ratio were lower compared with healthy children. The glycosylated sAA content ratio was higher than the total sAA content ratio in both groups. Splenic asthenia and healthy children had positive correlations between total sAA or glycosylated sAA content and sAA activity. However, the role played by glycosylated sAA content in sAA activity in healthy children increased after citric acid stimulation, while it decreased in splenic asthenia children. Genetic factors like AMY1 copy number variations, and more importantly, sAA glycosylation abnormalities leading to attenuated sAA activity after citric acid stimulation, which were the main reasons of the attenuated sAA activity ratio in splenic asthenia children compared with healthy children.

  14. Unintended changes in protein expression revealed by proteomic analysis of seeds from transgenic pea expressing a bean alpha-amylase inhibitor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hancai; Bodulovic, Greg; Hall, Prudence J; Moore, Andy; Higgins, Thomas J V; Djordjevic, Michael A; Rolfe, Barry G

    2009-09-01

    Seeds of genetically modified (GM) peas (Pisum sativum L.) expressing the gene for alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alphaAI1) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Tendergreen) exhibit resistance to the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum). A proteomic analysis was carried out to compare seeds from GM pea lines expressing the bean alphaAI1 protein and the corresponding alphaAI1-free segregating lines and non-GM parental line to identify unintended alterations to the proteome of GM peas due to the introduction of the gene for alphaAI1. Proteomic analysis showed that in addition to the presence of alphaAI1, 33 other proteins were differentially accumulated in the alphaAI1-expressing GM lines compared with their non-GM parental line and these were grouped into five expression classes. Among these 33 proteins, only three were found to be associated with the expression of alphaAI1 in the GM pea lines. The accumulation of the remaining 30 proteins appears to be associated with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation events. Sixteen proteins were identified after MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis. About 56% of the identified proteins with altered accumulation in the GM pea were storage proteins including legumin, vicilin or convicilin, phaseolin, cupin and valosin-containing protein. Two proteins were uniquely expressed in the alphaAI1-expressing GM lines and one new protein was present in both the alphaAI1-expressing GM lines and their alphaAI1-free segregating lines, suggesting that both transgenesis and transformation events led to demonstrable changes in the proteomes of the GM lines tested.

  15. Age Differences of Salivary Alpha-Amylase Levels of Basal and Acute Responses to Citric Acid Stimulation Between Chinese Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ze-Min; Chen, Long-Hui; Zhang, Min; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Wei-Wen; Yang, Xiao-Rong

    2015-01-01

    It remains unclear how salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels respond to mechanical stimuli in different age groups. In addition, the role played by the sAA gene (AMY1) copy number and protein expression (glycosylated and non-glycosylated) in sAA activity has also been rarely reported. In this study, we analyzed saliva samples collected before and after citric acid stimulation from 47 child and 47 adult Chinese subjects. We observed that adults had higher sAA activity and sAA glycosylated levels (glycosylated sAA amount/total sAA amount) in basal and stimulated saliva when compared with children, while no differences were found in total or glycosylated sAA amount between them. Interestingly, adults showed attenuated sAA activity levels increase over those of children after stimulation. Correlation analysis showed that total sAA amount, glycosylated sAA amount, and AMY1 copy number × total sAA amount were all positively correlated with sAA activity before and after stimulation in both groups. Interestingly, correlation r between sAA levels (glycosylated sAA amount and total sAA amount) and sAA activity decreased after stimulation in children, while adults showed an increase in correlation r. In addition, the correlation r between AMY1 copy number × total sAA amount and sAA activity was higher than that between AMY1 copy number, total sAA amount, and sAA activity, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that total sAA amount, glycosylated sAA amount, and the positive interaction between AMY1 copy number and total sAA amount are crucial in influencing sAA activity before and after stimulation in children and adults.

  16. Salivary alpha amylase diurnal pattern and stress response are associated with body mass index in low-income preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    Physiological stress responses are proposed as a pathway through which stress can "get under the skin" and lead to health problems, specifically obesity. We tested associations of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) diurnal patterns and stress responses with body mass index (BMI) in young, low-income children (51% male; 54% non-Hispanic white). Diurnal saliva samples were collected three times per day across three days for 269 children (M age 50.8 months, SD 6.3). Individual sAA intercept and slope values were calculated using random effect models to represent morning sAA levels and rate of sAA change across the day. A subset of children (n=195; M age 56.6 months, SD 6.9) participated in a lab-based behavioral stress protocol. Area under the curve increase (AUCI) across four timepoints was calculated to represent increase in sAA output during stress elicitation. Children were weighed and height measured and BMI z-score was calculated. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations of sAA intercept, sAA slope, and sAA AUCI with BMI z-score, controlling for child age, sex, and race/ethnicity; maternal weight status; and family income-to-needs ratio. Diurnal and stress-response sAA patterns were related to child adiposity: for each 1-standard deviation unit (SDU) decrease in morning sAA level, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.11 (SE 0.05) SDU's (pstress elicitation, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.14 (SE 0.06) SDU's (pstress responses and atypical diurnal patterns of sAA have been found following exposure to chronic life stressors such as poverty. Findings suggest that associations of stress, sAA, and elevated body mass index may develop very early in the lifespan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Age differences of salivary alpha-amylase levels of basal and acute responses to citric acid stimulation between Chinese children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemin eYang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It remains unclear how salivary alpha-amylase (sAA levels respond to mechanical stimuli in different age groups. In addition, the role played by the sAA gene (AMY1 copy number and protein expression (glycosylated and non-glycosylated in sAA activity has also been rarely reported. In this study, we analyzed saliva samples collected before and after citric acid stimulation from 47 child and 47 adult Chinese subjects. We observed that adults had higher sAA activity and sAA glycosylated levels (glycosylated sAA amount/total sAA amount in basal and stimulated saliva when compared with children, while no differences were found in total or glycosylated sAA amount between them. Interestingly, adults showed attenuated sAA activity levels increase over those of children after stimulation. Correlation analysis showed that total sAA amount, glycosylated sAA amount, and AMY1 copy number×total sAA amount were all positively correlated with sAA activity before and after stimulation in both groups. Interestingly, correlation r between sAA levels (glycosylated sAA amount and total sAA amount and sAA activity decreased after stimulation in children, while adults showed an increase in correlation r. In addition, the correlation r between AMY1 copy number×total sAA amount and sAA activity was higher than that between AMY1 copy number, total sAA amount and sAA activity, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that total sAA amount, glycosylated sAA amount, and the positive interaction between AMY1 copy number and total sAA amount are crucial in influencing sAA activity before and after stimulation in children and adults.

  18. Measurements of salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol in hominoid primates reveal within-species consistency and between-species differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Behringer

    Full Text Available Salivary alpha amylase (sAA is the most abundant enzyme in saliva. Studies in humans found variation in enzymatic activity of sAA across populations that could be linked to the copy number of loci for salivary amylase (AMY1, which was seen as an adaptive response to the intake of dietary starch. In addition to diet dependent variation, differences in sAA activity have been related to social stress. In a previous study, we found evidence for stress-induced variation in sAA activity in the bonobos, a hominoid primate that is closely related to humans. In this study, we explored patterns of variation in sAA activity in bonobos and three other hominoid primates, chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan to (a examine if within-species differences in sAA activity found in bonobos are characteristic for hominoids and (b assess the extent of variation in sAA activity between different species. The results revealed species-differences in sAA activity with gorillas and orangutans having higher basal sAA activity when compared to Pan. To assess the impact of stress, sAA values were related to cortisol levels measured in the same saliva samples. Gorillas and orangutans had low salivary cortisol concentrations and the highest cortisol concentration was found in samples from male bonobos, the group that also showed the highest sAA activity. Considering published information, the differences in sAA activity correspond with differences in AMY1 copy numbers and match with general features of natural diet. Studies on sAA activity have the potential to complement molecular studies and may contribute to research on feeding ecology and nutrition.

  19. Effects of Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS on the P300 and Alpha-Amylase Level: A Pilot Study

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    Carlos Ventura-Bort

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that the P3b may be closely related to the activation of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE system. To further study the potential association, we applied a novel technique, the non-invasive transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS, which is speculated to increase noradrenaline levels. Using a within-subject cross-over design, 20 healthy participants received continuous tVNS and sham stimulation on two consecutive days (stimulation counterbalanced across participants while performing a visual oddball task. During stimulation, oval non-targets (standard, normal-head (easy and rotated-head (difficult targets, as well as novel stimuli (scenes were presented. As an indirect marker of noradrenergic activation we also collected salivary alpha-amylase (sAA before and after stimulation. Results showed larger P3b amplitudes for target, relative to standard stimuli, irrespective of stimulation condition. Exploratory post hoc analyses, however, revealed that, in comparison to standard stimuli, easy (but not difficult targets produced larger P3b (but not P3a amplitudes during active tVNS, compared to sham stimulation. For sAA levels, although main analyses did not show differential effects of stimulation, direct testing revealed that tVNS (but not sham stimulation increased sAA levels after stimulation. Additionally, larger differences between tVNS and sham stimulation in P3b magnitudes for easy targets were associated with larger increase in sAA levels after tVNS, but not after sham stimulation. Despite preliminary evidence for a modulatory influence of tVNS on the P3b, which may be partly mediated by activation of the noradrenergic system, additional research in this field is clearly warranted. Future studies need to clarify whether tVNS also facilitates other processes, such as learning and memory, and whether tVNS can be used as therapeutic tool.

  20. Two secondary carbohydrate binding sites on the surface of barley alpha-amylase 1 have distinct functions and display synergy in hydrolysis of starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten M; Bozonnet, Sophie; Seo, Eun-Seong; Mótyán, János A; Andersen, Joakim M; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Abou Hachem, Maher; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Naested, Henrik; Kandra, Lili; Sigurskjold, Bent W; Svensson, Birte

    2009-08-18

    Some polysaccharide processing enzymes possess secondary carbohydrate binding sites situated on the surface far from the active site. In barley alpha-amylase 1 (AMY1), two such sites, SBS1 and SBS2, are found on the catalytic (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel and the noncatalytic C-terminal domain, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis of Trp(278) and Trp(279), stacking onto adjacent ligand glucosyl residues at SBS1, and of Tyr(380) and His(395), making numerous ligand contacts at SBS2, suggested that SBS1 and SBS2 act synergistically in degradation of starch granules. While SBS1 makes the major contribution to binding and hydrolysis of starch granules, SBS2 exhibits a higher affinity for the starch mimic beta-cyclodextrin. Compared to that of wild-type AMY1, the K(d) of starch granule binding by the SBS1 W278A, W279A, and W278A/W279A mutants thus increased 15-35 times; furthermore, the k(cat)/K(m) of W278A/W279A was 2%, whereas both affinity and activity for Y380A at SBS2 were 10% of the wild-type values. Dual site double and triple SBS1/SBS2 substitutions eliminated binding to starch granules, and the k(cat)/K(m) of W278A/W279A/Y380A AMY1 was only 0.4% of the wild-type value. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of mutants showed that beta-cyclodextrin binds to SBS2 and SBS1 with K(d,1) and K(d,2) values of 0.07 and 1.40 mM, respectively. A model that accounts for the observed synergy in starch hydrolysis, where SBS1 and SBS2 bind ordered and free alpha-glucan chains, respectively, thus targeting the enzyme to single alpha-glucan chains accessible for hydrolysis, is proposed. SBS1 and SBS2 also influence the kinetics of hydrolysis for amylose and maltooligosaccharides, the degree of multiple attack on amylose, and subsite binding energies.

  1. Effect of chronic training on heart rate variability, salivary IgA and salivary alpha-amylase in elite swimmers with a disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Edmonds

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to a determine the heart rate variability (HRV and saliva markers of immunity (salivary immunoglobulin A; sIgA and stress (salivary alpha-amylase; sAA responses to chronic training in elite swimmers with a disability; and b identify the relationships between HRV, sIgA, sAA and training volume. Eight members of a high performance Paralympic swimming program were monitored for their weekly resting HRV, sIgA and sAA levels in the 14 weeks leading up to a major international competition. The 14 week training program included aerobic, anaerobic, power and speed, and taper training phases, while also incorporating two swimming step tests and two swimming competitions. Specific time (root mean square of the successive differences; RMSSD and frequency (high frequency normalized units [HFnu] domain measures, along with non-linear indices (standard deviation of instantaneous RR variability; SD1 and short term fractal scaling exponent; α1 of HRV were used for all analyses with effects examined using magnitude-based inferences. Relationships between HRV and saliva markers were identified by Spearman rank rho (ρ correlation coefficients. Compared with week 1, SD1 was very likely lower (96/4/0, ES = -2.21, while sAA was very likely elevated (100/0/0, ES = 2.32 at the beginning of week 7 for all athletes. The training program did not alter HRV or saliva whereas competition did. There were also no apparent differences observed for HRV, sIgA and sAA between each of the training phases during the 14 week swimming program. Correlations were observed between sAA and SD1 (ρ = -0.212, p<0.05, along with sAA and mean HR (ρ = 0.309, p<0.05. These results show that high level national competition influences depresses HRV (SD1 and increases saliva biomarkers of stress (sAA. It appears that a well-managed and periodised swimming program can maintain these indices within normal baseline levels. The study also highlighted the

  2. Effects of strategic early-morning caffeine gum administration on association between salivary alpha-amylase and neurobehavioural performance during 50 h of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajcin, Maja; White, Jason M; Banks, Siobhan; Dorrian, Jill; Paech, Gemma M; Grant, Crystal L; Johnson, Kayla; Tooley, Katie; Aidman, Eugene; Fidock, Justin; Kamimori, Gary H; Della Vedova, Chris B

    2018-02-02

    Self-assessment is the most common method for monitoring performance and safety in the workplace. However, discrepancies between subjective and objective measures have increased interest in physiological assessment of performance. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, 23 healthy adults were randomly assigned to either a placebo (n = 11; 5 F, 6 M) or caffeine condition (n = 12; 4 F, 8 M) while undergoing 50 h (i.e. two days) of total sleep deprivation. In previous work, higher salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels were associated with improved psychomotor vigilance and simulated driving performance in the placebo condition. In this follow-up article, the effects of strategic caffeine administration on the previously reported diurnal profiles of sAA and performance, and the association between sAA and neurobehavioural performance were investigated. Participants were given a 10 h baseline sleep opportunity (monitored via standard polysomnography techniques) prior to undergoing sleep deprivation (total sleep time: placebo = 8.83 ± 0.48 h; caffeine = 9.01 ± 0.48 h). During sleep deprivation, caffeine gum (200 mg) was administered at 01:00 h, 03:00 h, 05:00 h, and 07:00 h to participants in the caffeine condition (n = 12). This strategic administration of caffeine gum (200 mg) has been shown to be effective at maintaining cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Saliva samples were collected, and psychomotor vigilance and simulated driving performance assessed at three-hour intervals throughout wakefulness. Caffeine effects on diurnal variability were compared with previously reported findings in the placebo condition (n = 11). The impact of caffeine on the circadian profile of sAA coincided with changes in neurobehavioural performance. Higher sAA levels were associated with improved performance on the psychomotor vigilance test during the first 24 h of wakefulness in the caffeine condition

  3. European Patient Summary Guideline: Focus on Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berler, Alexander; Tagaris, Anastassios; Chronaki, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The European Patient Summary (PS) guideline specifies a minimal dataset of essential and important information for unplanned or emergency care initially defined in the epSOS project with aim to improve patients' safety and quality of Care. The eHealth Network of European Union (EU) Member State (MS) representatives established under Article 14 of the EU directive 2011/24 on patient rights to cross-border healthcare adopted PS guideline in November 2013 and since then the guideline has been part of MS strategic eHealth implementation plans, standardization efforts, and concrete regional, national, European and international projects. This paper reviews implementation efforts for the implementation of an operational patient summary service in Greece drawing on challenges and lessons learned for sustainable standards-based large scale eHealth deployment in Europe and abroad, as well as the reuse of best practices from international standards and integration profiles.

  4. Comportamiento de glicinina, beta-conglicinina y alfa-amilasa en semillas de soja deterioradas y no deterioradas Glycinin, beta-conglycinin and alpha-amylase behaviour in artificially deteriorated and not deteriorated soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rita Salinas

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el comportamiento de glicinina y beta-conglicinina y la actividad de alfa-amilasa en semillas deterioradas y no deterioradas de 10 cultivares de soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.]. Las semillas se sometieron a dos tratamientos: deterioradas por envejecimiento acelerado y no deterioradas. Se determinó la presencia de las proteínas de reserva a partir de semillas con 0, 3 y 8 días de germinadas por electroforesis en geles de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE. La actividad de la alfa-amilasa se determinó bioquímicamente en semillas con 0, 3, 8 y 12 días de germinadas. No hubo diferencias en la presencia de bandas de glicinina y beta-conglicinina en semillas no deterioradas hasta los 8 días de germinadas. Las semillas deterioradas se comportaron en forma similar a las no deterioradas. La actividad de la alfa-amilasa aumentó en semillas germinadas hasta 8 días y disminuyó a los 12 días. En semillas deterioradas la actividad enzimática disminuyó con respecto a las no deterioradas. El deterioro artificial no afectó la presencia de glicinina y beta-conglicinina pero alteró la actividad de la alfa-amilasa hasta los 12 días de germinación. Los cultivares estudiados mostraron comportamiento diferencial frente a la actividad de esta enzima.The objective of this research was to study the behaviour of the storage proteins glycinin and beta-conglycinin and the alpha-amylase activity in artificially deteriorated and not deteriorated soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] seeds of 10 cultivars. The seeds were submitted to two treatments: deteriorated by accelerated aging and not deteriorated seeds. The presence of glycinin and beta-conglycinin were determined in seeds with 0, 3 and 8 days of germination using polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The alpha-amylase activity was biochemically determined in seeds with 0, 3, 8 and 12 days of germination. There were no differences in the presence of glycinin and beta

  5. Effect of the lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA-I) on the alpha-amylase secretion of rat pancreas in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkat, U; Damm, I; Schröder, G; Schmidt, K; Wirth, C; Weber, H; Jonas, L

    1998-05-01

    Lectins are able to bind to cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors and other glycosylated membrane proteins. The lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA-I) are used for affinity chromatography to isolate the highly glycosylated CCK-A receptor of pancreatic acinar cells. According to the working hypothesis that lectin binding to the CCK receptor should alter the ligand-receptor interaction, the effect of WGA and UEA-I on CCK-8-induced enzyme secretion was studied on isolated rat pancreatic acini in vitro. In vitro both lectins showed a dosage-dependent inhibition of CCK-8-induced alpha-amylase secretion of acini over 60 min. WGA showed a strong inhibitory effect on amylase secretion, approximately 40%, in vitro. UEA-I caused a smaller, but significant decrease, approximately 20%, in enzyme secretion of isolated acini. Additionally, both lectins inhibited cerulein/secretin- or cerulein-induced pancreatic secretion of rats in vivo, but not after secretin alone. The results are discussed with respect to a possible influence of both lectins on the interaction of CCK or cerulein with the CCK-A receptor.

  6. Production of Cellulases, Xylanase, Pectinase, alpha-amylase and Protease Enzymes Cocktail by Bacillus spp. and Their Mixed Cultures with Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula glutinis under Solid State Fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Batal, A.I.; Abo-State, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    A group of twelve locally isolated Bacillus species, B.megaterium (MAI and MA II), B.licheniformis (MLI and ML II); B. circulans, B. stearothermophilis, B.cereus, B.sphaericus, B. pumilus, B. laterosporus, B. coagulans and B. pantothenticus, were examined for the production of cellulases, xylanase, pectinase, alpha-amylase and protease enzymes cocktail on wheat bran under solid state fermentation (SSF). All species were found to be potent hydrolyzing enzymes producers and the superior producing species were B. megaterium MAI and B. licheniformis. On the other hand, both of them still produced highest enzyme titres when mixed with Candida tropicalis or Rhodotorula glutinis, yeast strains. The two superior bacterial strains produced the highest enzymatic activities when coculturing with C. tropicalis compared with coculturing with R. glutinis only or with both C. tropicalis and R. glutinis in combination. The inferior activities of cocultures (B. megaterinm MAI and R. glutinis) were enhanced in carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), filter paper cellulase (FPase), avecilase, xylanase, pectinase, -amylase and protease by gamma irradiation at dose 1.0 kGy with percent increase 8 %, 20 %, 10 %, 4 %, 31 %, 22 % and 34 %, respectively as compared with un-irradiated cocultures

  7. An experimental study of the job demand-control model with measures of heart rate variability and salivary alpha-amylase: Evidence of increased stress responses to increased break autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Emma; Landolt, Kathleen; Hazi, Agnes; Dragano, Nico; Wright, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    We assessed in an experimental design whether the stress response towards a work task was moderated by the autonomy to choose a break during the assigned time to complete the task. This setting is defined in accordance with the theoretical framework of the job-demand-control (JDC) model of work related stress. The findings from naturalistic investigations of a stress-buffering effect of autonomy (or 'buffer hypothesis') are equivocal and the experimental evidence is limited, especially with relation to physiological indices of stress. Our objective was to investigate if increased autonomy in a particular domain (break time control) was related with adaptive physiology using objective physiological markers of stress; heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary alpha amylase (sAA). We used a within-subject design and the 60 female participants were randomly assigned to an autonomy (free timing of break) and standard conditions (fixed timing of break) of a word processing task in a simulated office environment in a random order. Participants reported increased perceptions of autonomy, no difference in demand and performed worse in the task in the break-time autonomy versus the standard condition. The results revealed support for the manipulation of increased autonomy, but in the opposing direction. Increased autonomy was related with dysregulated physiological reactivity, synonymous with typical increased stress responses. Potentially, our findings may indicate that autonomy is not necessary a resource but could become an additional stressor when it adds additional complexity while the amount of work (demands) remains unchanged. Further, our findings underscore the need to collect objective physiological evidence of stress to supplement self-reported information. Self-report biases may partially explain the inconsistent findings with the buffer hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro anti-diabetic activity of flavonoids and pheophytins from Allophylus cominia Sw . on PTP1B, DPPIV, alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, D G; Igoli, J O; Young, L; Marrero, E; Gray, A I; Rowan, E G

    2017-05-05

    Ethno-botanical information from diabetic patients in Cuba led to the identification of Allophylus cominia as a possible source of new drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM). Chemical characterization of the extracts from A. cominia was carried out using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The extracts were tested for their activity on PTP1B, DPPIV, α-glucosidase enzymes and α-amylase. The flavonoid rich fractions from A. cominia inhibited DPPIV enzyme (75.3±2.33%) at 30µg/ml and produced a concentration-dependent inhibition against DPPIV with a Ki value of 2.6µg/ml. At 30µg/ml, flavonoids and pheophytins extracts significantly inhibited PTP1B enzyme (100±2.6% and 68±1% respectively). The flavonoids, pheophytin A and pheophytin B fractions showed significant concentration-dependent inhibition against PTP1B with Ki values of 3µg/ml, 0.64µg/ml and 0.88µg/ml respectively. At 30µg/ml, the flavonoid fraction significantly inhibited α-glucosidase enzyme (86±0.3%) in a concentration-dependent pattern with a Ki value of 2µg/ml. None of the fractions showed significant effects on α-amylase. Fatty acids, tannins, pheophytins A and B, and a mixture of flavonoids were detected in the methanolic extract from A. cominia. The identified flavonoids were mearnsitrin, quercitrin, quercetin-3-alloside, and naringenin-7-glucoside. The pharmacological effects of the extracts from A. cominia earlier observed in experimental diabetic models was confirmed in this study. Thus a new drug or formulation for the treatment of T2-DM could be developed from A. cominia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Production and properties of alpha-amylase from thermophilic Bacillus sp. Produção e propriedades de alfa-amilase de Bacillus sp. termofílico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martins Cordeiro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available alpha-amylase (1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1 production by thermophilic Bacillus sp strain SMIA-2 cultivated in liquid media containing soluble starch reached a maximum at 48h, with levels of 57U/mL. Studies on the a-amylase characterization revealed that the optimum temperature for activity was 70ºC. The enzyme was stable for 2h at 50ºC, while at 60ºC, 70ºC and 90ºC, 4%, 13% and 38% of the original activities were lost, respectively. The optimum pH of the enzyme was 7.5. After incubation of crude enzyme solution for 24h at pH 7.5, a decrease of about 5% of its original activity was observed. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by Co2+, Cu2+ and Ba2+, but less affected by Ca2+, Mg2+, Ni2+, Sr2+ and Mn2+. The enzyme in 1M and 5M NaCl solutions the enzyme retained 70% and 47% of the original activity after 24h of incubation at 4ºC, respectively.A produção de alfa-amilase (1,4-alfa-D-glicano glicanohidrolase, EC 3.2.1.1 por um Bacillus sp cepa SMIA-2 cultivado em meios líquidos contendo amido solúvel, alcançou o máximo em 48h com níveis de 57U/mL. Estudos sobre a caracterização de alfa-amilase revelaram que a temperatura ótima de atividade desta enzima foi 70ºC. A enzima foi estável por 2h a 50ºC, enquanto que a 60ºC, 70ºC e 90ºC, 4%, 13% e 38% da atividade original foram perdidas, respectivamente. O pH ótimo da enzima foi 7,5. Após a incubação da enzima bruta por 24h a pH 7,5 observou-se um decréscimo em torno de 5% de sua atividade original. A enzima foi fortemente inibida por Co2+, Cu2+ e Ba2+, mas foi menos afetada por Ca2+, Mg2+, Ni2+, Sr2+ e Mn2+. Em solução de NaCl 1M e 5M, a enzima reteve 70% e 47% da sua atividade original após 24h a 4ºC, respectivamente.

  10. Epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis among European AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Danner, S; Lazzarin, A

    1996-01-01

    for intravenous drug users than for homosexual men (relative risk 0.34, 95% confidence limits 0.22-0.54) and for women compared with men (RR 0.43 (0.21-0.87)). The risk was higher in North Europe than in South and Central Europe. In a multivariate analysis only transmission category remained a significant.......6%) patients, 216 at time of the AIDS diagnosis and 216 during follow-up. The probability of being diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis at AIDS diagnosis was significantly lower for intravenous drug users (1.3%) than for homosexual men (4.1%) and for patients belonging to other transmission categories (4.0%) (p...... Europe compared with patients from South Europe (4.1% versus 2.5%, p = 0.005). The rate of developing cryptosporidiosis after the diagnosis of AIDS was 3 per 100 patient years of follow-up. The rate was significantly lower...

  11. Efeitos de níveis de ácido L-glutâmico e de vitamina K da dieta sobre a atividade de alfa-amilase em frangos de corte Effects of dietary levels of L-glutamic acid and vitamin K in the activity of alpha-amylase of chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Escapini Fanchiotti

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigados os efeitos nutricionais de dois níveis de ácido L-glutâmico (L-Glu combinados com quatro níveis de vitamina K (Vit K sobre a atividade de alfa-amilase no quimo e pâncreas de aves de corte. Frangos de corte machos de um dia foram criados em baterias aquecidas e alimentados, à vontade, com dietas contendo todos L-aminoácidos essenciais, minerais e vitaminas (exceto Vit K até os 14 dias de idade. O experimento foi realizado em esquema fatorial, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado 2x4, com quatro repetições de oito aves cada. A dieta básica foi suplementada com 6,25 e 12,5% de L-Glu combinados com 0,02; 0,2; 20,0 e 200,0 mg de Vit K/kg de ração. Efeitos significativos de L-Glu e Vit K foram observados no quimo. A atividade específica máxima (1.005,78±245,25 UI/mg de proteína foi observada nas aves alimentadas com 6,25% de L-Glu e 20,0 mg de Vit K. Houve redução da atividade com a suplementação de 12,5% de L-Glu. No pâncreas, não houve interação entre L-Glu e Vit K, todavia, foi observado efeito de L-Glu sobre as atividades relativas, expressas em UI/g de tecido e UI/100 g de peso corporal. Os resultados sugerem que a associação entre L-Glu e Vit K interfere na atividade enzimática de alfa-amilase em aves de corte submetidas a dietas purificadas. Os resultados indicam que o nível de 12,5% de L-Glu associado aos diferentes níveis de vitamina K reduziu a atividade enzimática.The effects of two levels of L-glutamic acid (L-Glu combined with four levels of vitamin K (Vit K were studied with the objective of evaluating the activities of alpha-amylase in the chyme and pancreas of chicks. Day-old male broilers were reared in eletrically heated batteries, fed with purified amino acids diets, minerals and vitamins (except Vit K at the requirement levels, for 14 days. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. The experimental design was a factorial 2x4 with four replicates with eight chicks each The

  12. Implementation of patient safety strategies in European hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suñol, R; Vallejo, P; Groene, O; Escaramis, G; Thompson, A; Kutryba, B; Garel, P

    2009-02-01

    This study is part of the Methods of Assessing Response to Quality Improvement Strategies (MARQuIS) research project on cross-border care, investigating quality improvement strategies in healthcare systems across the European Union (EU). To explore to what extent a sample of acute care European hospitals have implemented patient safety strategies and mechanisms and whether the implementation is related to the type of hospital. Data were collected on patient safety structures and mechanisms in 389 acute care hospitals in eight EU countries using a web-based questionnaire. Subsequently, an on-site audit was carried out by independent surveyors in 89 of these hospitals to assess patient safety outputs. This paper presents univariate and bivariate statistics on the implementation and explores the associations between implementation of patient safety strategies and hospital type using the chi(2) test and Fisher exact test. Structures and plans for safety (including responsibilities regarding patient safety management) are well developed in most of the hospitals that participated in this study. The study found greater variation regarding the implementation of mechanisms or activities to promote patient safety, such as electronic drug prescription systems, guidelines for prevention of wrong patient, wrong site and wrong surgical procedure, and adverse events reporting systems. In the sample of hospitals that underwent audit, a considerable proportion do not comply with basic patient safety strategies--for example, using bracelets for adult patient identification and correct labelling of medication.

  13. European pharmacy students' experience with virtual patient technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaco, Afonso Miguel; Madeira, Filipe

    2012-08-10

    To describe how virtual patients are being used to simulate real-life clinical scenarios in undergraduate pharmacy education in Europe. One hundred ninety-four participants at the 2011 Congress of the European Pharmaceutical Students Association (EPSA) completed an exploratory cross-sectional survey instrument. Of the 46 universities and 23 countries represented at the EPSA Congress, only 12 students from 6 universities in 6 different countries reported having experience with virtual patient technology. The students were satisfied with the virtual patient technology and considered it more useful as a teaching and learning tool than an assessment tool. Respondents who had not used virtual patient technology expressed support regarding its potential benefits in pharmacy education. French and Dutch students were significantly less interested in virtual patient technology than were their counterparts from other European countries. The limited use of virtual patients in pharmacy education in Europe suggests the need for initiatives to increase the use of virtual patient technology and the benefits of computer-assisted learning in pharmacy education.

  14. Patient safety in undergraduate radiography curricula: A European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, A.; Azevedo, K.B.; Bezzina, P.; Henner, A.; McNulty, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To establish an understanding of patient safety within radiography education across Europe by surveying higher education institutions registered as affiliate members of the European Federation of Radiographer Societies (EFRS). Method: An online survey was developed to ascertain data on: programme type, patient safety definitions, relevant safety topics, specific areas taught, teaching and assessment methods, levels of teaching and curriculum drivers. Responses were identifiable in terms of educational institution and country. All 54 affiliated educational institutions were invited to participate. Descriptive and thematic analyses are reported. Results: A response rate of 61.1% (n = 33) was achieved from educational institutions representing 19 countries. Patient safety topics appear to be extremely well covered across curricula, however, topics including radiation protection and optimisation were not reported as being taught at an ‘advanced level’ by five and twelve respondents, respectively. Respondents identified the clinical department as the location of most patient safety-related teaching. Conclusions: Patient safety topics are deeply embedded within radiography curricula across Europe. Variations exist in terms of individual safety topics including, teaching and assessment methods, and the depth in which subjects are taught. Results from this study provide a baseline for assessing developments in curricula and can also serve as a benchmark for comparisons. - Highlights: • First European report on patient safety (PS). • PS deeply embedded within training curricula. • Terms and definitions largely consistent. • Some variety in the delivery and assessment methods. • Report provides baseline and opportunities for comparisons.

  15. Alfa-amilase em frangos de corte: efeitos do balanço eletrolítico e do nível protéico da dieta Alpha-amylase in broiler chickens: effects of electrolytic balance and dietary protein level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Piedade Monteiro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com pintos de corte macho para o estudo dos efeitos dos níveis de 20 e 23% de PB combinados com 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mEq/kg de balanço dietético eletrolítico (BDE sobre a atividade da alfa-amilase pancreática de frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado. Dietas e água foram fornecidas ad libitum. Aos 1, 7, 14 e 21 dias, três aves de cada tratamento foram sacrificadas por deslocamento cervical para remoção do pâncreas, o qual foi removido, homogeneizado, congelado em nitrogênio líquido e liofilizado. Uma alíquota de cada amostra foi solubilizada em água deionizada e centrifugada a 7500 x g por 3 minutos a 4ºC, para determinação da atividade da alfa-amilase no sobrenadante. Aves alimentadas com 20% de PB apresentaram atividades específicas (U/mg de proteína superiores à daquelas que receberam 23%, exceto para os níveis de BDE de 100 a 200 mEq/kg, aos 14 dias. Observou-se tendência de aumento da atividade específica dos 7 aos 14 dias e redução dos 14 aos 21 dias. Para maior atividade específica de alfa-amilase, recomendam-se dietas com 20% de PB e 200 mEq/kg de BDE na fase pré-inicial e dietas com 20% de PB e 135 a 250 mEq/kg de BDE para frangos de corte dos 8 aos 21 dias de idade.An experiment was conducted with male broiler chicks to study the effects of 20 and 23% of crude protein (CP combined with 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mEq/kg of dietary electrolytic balance (DEB on the pancreatic alpha-amylase activity from 1 to 21 days. A completely randomized factorial design was used. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. At days 1, 7, 14 and 21, three birds from each treatment were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, pancreas were removed, homogeneized and frozen in liquid nitrogen which were then freeze-dried. An aliquot of each sample was solubilized with deionized water and centrifuged at 7500 x g for three minutes at 4º

  16. Patient Access to Medicines for Rare Diseases in European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detiček, Andreja; Locatelli, Igor; Kos, Mitja

    2018-05-01

    The number of authorized orphan and non-orphan medicines for rare diseases has increased in Europe. Patient access to these medicines is affected by high costs, weak efficacy/safety evidence, and societal value. European health care systems must determine whether paying for expensive treatments for only a few patients is sustainable. This study aimed to evaluate patient access to orphan and non-orphan medicines for rare diseases in 22 European countries during 2005 to 2014. Medicines for rare diseases from the Orphanet list, authorized during 2005 to 2014, were searched for in the IMS MIDAS Quarterly Sales Data, January 2005 - December 2014 (IQVIA, Danbury, CT). The following three measures were determined for each country: number of available medicines, median time to continuous use, and medicine expenditure. A medicine was considered available if uninterrupted sales within a 1-year period were detected. From 2005 to 2014, 125 medicines were authorized and 112 were found in the search. Of those, between 70 (63%) and 102 (91%) were available in Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, France, and the Scandinavian countries. These countries were also the fastest to enable continuous use (3-9 mo). Only 27% to 38% of authorized medicines were available in Greece, Ireland, Bulgaria, Romania, and Croatia, which took 1 to 2.6 years to begin continuous use. A country's expenditure on medicines for rare diseases in 2014 ranged between €0.2 and €31.9/inhabitant. Patient access to medicines for rare diseases varies largely across Europe. Patients in Germany, Scandinavian countries, Switzerland, France, and the United Kingdom can access larger numbers of medicines in shorter time. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic considerations and patients' preferences affect treatment selection for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a discrete choice experiment among European rheumatologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hifinger, M.; Hiligsmann, M.; Ramiro, S.; Watson, V.; Severens, J. L.; Fautrel, B.; Uhlig, T.; van Vollenhoven, R.; Jacques, P.; Detert, J.; Canas da Silva, J.; Scirè, C. A.; Berghea, F.; Carmona, L.; Péntek, M.; Keat, A.; Boonen, A.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the value that rheumatologists across Europe attach to patients' preferences and economic aspects when choosing treatments for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In a discrete choice experiment, European rheumatologists chose between two hypothetical drug treatments for a patient with

  18. Patient engagement with research: European population register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKevitt, Christopher; Fudge, Nina; Crichton, Siobhan; Bejot, Yannick; Daubail, Benoît; Di Carlo, Antonio; Fearon, Patricia; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter; Sheldenkar, Anita; Newbound, Sophie; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2015-12-01

    Lay involvement in implementation of research evidence into practice may include using research findings to guide individual care, as well as involvement in research processes and policy development. Little is known about the conditions required for such involvement. To assess stroke survivors' research awareness, use of research evidence in their own care and readiness to be involved in research processes. Cross sectional survey of stroke survivors participating in population-based stroke registers in six European centres. The response rate was 74% (481/647). Reasons for participation in register research included responding to clinician request (56%) and to 'give something back' (19%); however, 20% were unaware that they were participating in a stroke register. Research awareness was generally low: 57% did not know the purpose of the register they had been recruited to; 73% reported not having received results from the register they took part in; 60% did not know about any research on stroke care. Few participants (7.6%) used research evidence during their consultations with a doctor. The 34% of participants who were interested in being involved in research were younger, more highly educated and already research aware. Across Europe, stroke survivors already participating in research appear ill informed about stroke research. Researchers, healthcare professionals and patient associations need to improve how research results are communicated to patient populations and research participants, and to raise awareness of the relationship between research evidence and increased quality of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Quality of life in patients with schizophrenia in five European countries: the EPSILON study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaite, L.; Vázquez-Barquero, J. L.; Borra, C.; Ballesteros, J.; Schene, A.; Welcher, B.; Thornicroft, G.; Becker, T.; Ruggeri, M.; Herrán, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare subjective quality of life (QOL) and objective, QOL indicators in patients with schizophrenia from five European sites: Amsterdam, Copenhagen, London, Santander and Verona. Method: A representative sample of 404 patients with schizophrenia, in contact with mental health

  20. Patient blood management knowledge and practice among clinicians from seven European university hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzini, P. M.; Dall'Omo, A. M.; D'Antico, S.

    2018-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this survey was to evaluate the knowledge about Patient Blood Management (PBM) principles and practices amongst clinicians working in seven European hospitals participating in a European Blood Alliance (EBA) project. Materials and Methods: A web...

  1. Assessment of dementia in ethnic minority patients in Europe: a European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Vogel, Asmus; Riepe, Matthias W

    2011-01-01

    In most European countries the ethnic minority migrant populations are currently reaching an age where dementia becomes an increasingly important issue. There is no European consensus on good clinical practice with these patient groups, who often have special needs and expectations with regard...... to dementia services....

  2. Steady-State Clozapine and Norclozapine Pharmacokinetics in Maori and European Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Menkes

    2018-01-01

    Discussion: Clozapine bioavailability does not vary between Maori and European patients, and thus does not need to be considered in prescribing decisions. Additional studies are needed to identify if there are differences between Maori and European populations for drugs metabolized by other enzyme pathways.

  3. The nucleic acids as early indicators of the recovery of patients subjected to total body irradiation for bone marrow transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morera Carrillo, L.M.; Garcia Lima, O.; Carnot, J.; Cardenas, J.

    2000-01-01

    The possibility to use the concentration of nucleic acids as an early indicator for the recovery of individuals exposed to high radiation was valued in 30 patients subjected to a dose of 10 Gy (cobalt 60) in two or three sessions of total body irradiation for bone marrow transplants. The determination of the concentration of the nucleic acids was carried out prior to the irradiation, and later in different periods until the patients discharge. The behaviour of indicate such as alpha amylase serics transaminases, glicemics, alkaline phosphatase and others was also studied

  4. Magnetic alginate microparticles for purification of .alpha.-amylases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafaříková, Miroslava; Roy, I.; Gupta, M. N.; Šafařík, Ivo

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 105, - (2003), s. 255-260 ISSN 0168-1656 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 523.80; GA AV ČR IBS6087204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : alginate * ferrofluid * amalyses Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.543, year: 2003

  5. Interaction of europium and curium with alpha-amylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkleit, Astrid [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Chemistry of the F-Elements; Heller, Anne [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. for Zoology, Molecular Cell Physiology and Endocrinology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Biogeochemistry

    2016-07-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) revealed that Eu(III) and Cm(III) form two dominant species with the protein α-amylase (Amy): one with the coordination of a single carboxylate group of the protein and the other with three coordinating carboxylate groups.

  6. Optimization of the industrial production of bacterial alpha amylase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    which was ... The thermal stability of the enzyme was determined by holding 5 ml of diluted growth .... sugar consumption rates (dS/dt), a more indicative para- meter than ..... high fructose corn syrup, an important commodity in the international.

  7. The effect of carbohydrates on alpha-amylase activity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Ceralpha method can be used for ¿-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40 wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ¿-amylase activity

  8. Fundamental conditions required in extracting an alpha-amylase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude extracts of Cadaba farinosa, Forsk plant are used for their starch-reducing power in most tropic countries to liquefy/sweeten starch gruels. The extraction process is a time consuming osmotic rehydrating process characterized by fluctuating extract yield and consequently, an unstable inherent starch-reducing power.

  9. Patient-reported outcomes in European spondyloarthritis patients: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torre-Alonso JC

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Juan Carlos Torre-Alonso,1 Rubén Queiro,2 Marta Comellas,3 Luís Lizán,3,4 Carles Blanch5 1Rheumatology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Oviedo, Hospital Monte Naranco, Oviedo, Spain; 2Rheumatology Division, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias (HUCA, Oviedo, Spain; 3Outcomes 10, Castellón de la Plana, Spain; 4Medicine Department, Jaime I University, Castellón de la Plana, Spain; 5Health Economics & Market Access, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Barcelona, Spain Objective: This review aims to summarize the current literature on patient-reported outcomes (PROs in spondyloarthritis (SpA. Patients and methods: We performed a systematic literature review to identify studies (original articles and narrative and systematic reviews regarding PROs (health-related quality of life [HRQoL], satisfaction, preferences, adherence/compliance, and persistence in SpA patients published in the European Union through December 2016. International databases (Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus were searched using keywords in English. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria. Results: A total of 26 publications met the inclusion criteria. Generally, studies indicated that SpA has a negative impact on patients’ HRQoL. In patients with ankylosing spondylitis, physical domains were more affected than emotional ones, whereas for psoriatic arthritis, both physical and psychological factors were strongly affected by the disease. Data indicated that biological agents (BAs greatly contributed to improvement in HRQoL in both ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis patients. Findings on compliance with BAs were heterogeneous. However, persistence rates exceeded 50% irrespective of the BA administered. Results on preferences indicated that most SpA patients prefer being involved in decisions regarding their treatment and that

  10. Differences in patients' perceptions of Schizophrenia between Māori and New Zealand Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Deanna; Kydd, Robert; Morunga, Eva; Broadbent, Elizabeth

    2011-06-01

    Māori (the Indigenous people of New Zealand) are disproportionately affected by mental illness and experience significantly poorer mental health compared to New Zealand Europeans. It is important to understand cultural differences in patients' ideas about mental illness in treatment settings. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in illness perceptions between Māori and New Zealand Europeans diagnosed with schizophrenia. A total of 111 users of mental health services (68 Māori, 43 New Zealand European) in the greater Auckland and Northland areas who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder were interviewed using the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Drug Attitude Inventory. District Health Board staff completed the Global Assessment of Functioning for each patient. Māori with schizophrenia believed that their illness would continue significantly less time than New Zealand European patients did. Chance or spiritual factors were listed as causes of mental illness by only five Māori patients and no New Zealand European patients. Other illness perceptions, as well as attitudes towards medication, were comparable between groups. Across groups, the top perceived causes were drugs/alcohol, family relationships/abuse, and biological causes. Illness perceptions provide a framework to assess patients' beliefs about their mental illness. Differences between Māori and New Zealand European patients' beliefs about their mental illness may be related to traditional Māori beliefs about mental illness. Knowledge of differences in illness perceptions provides an opportunity to design effective clinical interventions for both Māori and New Zealand Europeans.

  11. European origin of patients with Paget's disease of bone in the Buenos Aires area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Acotto, C.; Mautalen, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Paget's bone disease is heterogeneously distributed and several foci of high prevalence have been reported in Europe, United States, Argentina and Australia. The aim of the present work was to determine the ethnic origin of the disease in Buenos Aires using a cross sectional epidemiological study. Sample choice was based on a sampling according to grandparents' nationality. Ninety five percent of Paget patients were of European descent and 5% were non-European, while in the control group the proportion of European descendants is lower: 83% (OR: 3.7; p < 0.007; IC 95%: 1.4-9.7). Within the group of patients with Paget's disease the proportion of Italian and Russian descendants was higher than expected according to the 1914 Argentinean census. The prevalence of Paget's disease among European migrants was higher than in the control group of citizens. Regardless of environmental factors, it is likely that the migrants carried a higher risk of developing the disease

  12. Patient empowerment, an additional characteristic of the European definitions of general practice/family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola, Ernesto

    2013-06-01

    Growing evidence supports the inclusion of patient empowerment as a key ingredient of care for patients with chronic conditions. In recent years, several studies based on patient empowerment, have been carried out in different European countries in the context of general practice and primary care to improve management of chronic diseases. These studies have shown good results of the care model, increasing patient and health professionals' satisfaction, adherence to guidelines and to treatment, and improving clinical outcomes. In 2011, the Wonca European Council included as the twelfth characteristic of the European definitions of general practice/family medicine: 'promote patient empowerment'. The aim of this paper is to clarify the meaning of 'patient empowerment' and to explain why family medicine should be considered the most suitable setting to promote it. The inclusion of patient empowerment as one of the essential characteristics of general practice fills a conceptual gap and clearly suggests to the European health care systems a tested model to face chronic diseases: involving and empowering patients in managing their own conditions to improve health and well-being.

  13. European ancestry predominates in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis patients from Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralina Guimarães Brum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is considered relatively more common in non-Whites, whereas multiple sclerosis (MS presents a high prevalence rate, particularly in Whites from Western countries populations. However, no study has used ancestry informative markers (AIMs to estimate the genetic ancestry contribution to NMO patients. METHODS: Twelve AIMs were selected based on the large allele frequency differences among European, African, and Amerindian populations, in order to investigate the genetic contribution of each ancestral group in 236 patients with MS and NMO, diagnosed using the McDonald and Wingerchuck criteria, respectively. All 128 MS patients were recruited at the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto (MS-RP, Southeastern Brazil, as well as 108 healthy bone marrow donors considered as healthy controls. A total of 108 NMO patients were recruited from five Neurology centers from different Brazilian regions, including Ribeirão Preto (NMO-RP. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: European ancestry contribution was higher in MS-RP than in NMO-RP (78.5% vs. 68.7% patients. In contrast, African ancestry estimates were higher in NMO-RP than in MS-RP (20.5% vs. 12.5% patients. Moreover, principal component analyses showed that groups of NMO patients from different Brazilian regions were clustered close to the European ancestral population. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that European genetic contribution predominates in NMO and MS patients from Brazil.

  14. The Helsinki Declaration on Patient Safety in Anesthesiology: a way forward with the European Board and the European Society of Anesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, F; Solca, M; De Robertis, E; Peduto, V A; Pasetto, A; Conti, G; Antonelli, M; Pelosi, P

    2010-11-01

    Anesthesiology, which includes anaesthesia, perioperative care, intensive care medicine, emergency medicine and pain therapy, is acknowledged as the leading medical specialty in addressing issues of patient safety, but there is still a long way to go. Several factors pose hazards in Anesthesiology, like increasingly older and sicker patients, more complex surgical interventions, more pressure on throughput, as well as new drugs and devices. To better design educational and research strategies to improve patient safety, the European Board of Anesthesiology (EBA) and the European Society of Anesthesiology (ESA) have produced a blueprint for patient safety in Anesthesiology. This document, to be known as the Helsinki Declaration on Patient Safety in Anesthesiology, was endorsed together with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists (WFSA), and the European Patients' Federation (EPF) at the Euroanaesthesia meeting in Helsinki in June 2010. It was signed by several Presidents of National Anesthesiology Societies as well as other stakeholders. The Helsinki Declaration on Patient Safety in Anesthesiology represents a shared European view of what is necessary to improve patient safety, recommending practical steps that all anesthesiologists can include in their own clinical practice. The Italian Society of Anaesthesia, Analgesia, Reanimation and Intensive Care (SIAARTI) is looking forward to continuing work on "patient safety" issues in Europe, and to cooperating with the ESA in the best interest of European patients.

  15. European Society of Gynaecological Oncology Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Vulvar Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oonk, Maaike H M; Planchamp, François; Baldwin, Peter

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop clinically relevant and evidence-based guidelines as part of European Society of Gynaecological Oncology's mission to improve the quality of care for women with gynecologic cancers across Europe. METHODS: The European Society of Gynaecological...... Oncology Council nominated an international development group made of practicing clinicians who provide care to patients with vulvar cancer and have demonstrated leadership and interest in the management of patients with vulvar cancer (18 experts across Europe). To ensure that the statements are evidence...

  16. The European Registry for Patients with Mechanical Circulatory Support (EUROMACS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de By, Theo M M H; Mohacsi, Paul; Gummert, Jan

    2015-01-01

    other founding international members. It aims to promote scientific research to improve care of end-stage heart failure patients with ventricular assist device or a total artificial heart as long-term mechanical circulatory support. Likewise, the organization aims to provide and maintain a registry...

  17. Steady-State Clozapine and Norclozapine Pharmacokinetics in Maori and European Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, David B; Glue, Paul; Gale, Christopher; Lam, Frederic; Hung, Cheung-Tak; Hung, Noelyn

    2018-01-01

    Clozapine is the most effective drug for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but its use is limited by toxicity. Because ethnicity has been reported to affect clozapine metabolism, we compared its steady state pharmacokinetics in New Zealand Maori and European patients. Clozapine and norclozapine steady state bioavailability was assessed over 24h under fasting and fed conditions in 12 Maori and 16 European patients treated for chronic psychotic illnesses with stable once-daily clozapine doses. Plasma clozapine and norclozapine concentrations were assessed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry; pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using standard non-compartmental methods, and compared using unpaired t-tests. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC, C max and C min ) for clozapine and norclozapine were virtually identical in Maori and European subjects, under both fed and fasted conditions. Clozapine bioavailability does not vary between Maori and European patients, and thus does not need to be considered in prescribing decisions. Additional studies are needed to identify if there are differences between Maori and European populations for drugs metabolized by other enzyme pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A harmonized and efficient clinical research environment would benefit patients and enhance European competitiveness. Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Antonino; Aringhieri, Eugenio; Boccia, Stefania; Buccella, Filippo; Gorini, Barbara; Gramaglia, Donatella; Masetti, Riccardo; Rossi, Paolo; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The forthcoming implementation of the European Clinical Trial Regulation (Regulation (EU) No. 536/2014), which is expected to facilitate the conduct of clinical trials across the European Union, will require National Authorities to create the best conditions for the implementation of the new Regulation through national guidelines, so that sponsors may reconsider Europe as a prime location for planning clinical trials. During a meeting titled "Innovation in Clinical Research", an expert panel discussed potential local advances fostering competitiveness of European clinical research with representatives of the pharmaceutical industry, patient organisations and Italian regulatory agency in view of the forthcoming implementation of (EU) No. 536/2014 on clinical trials of medicinal products. In this article we summarise the findings of the meeting, describe features characterising clinical research patterns and offer some suggestions on the possible involvement of all stakeholders in order to foster research innovation and allow the timely access to novel medicines for patients.

  19. Wasp venom is appropriate for immunotherapy of patients with allergic reaction to the European hornet sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosnik, Mitja; Korosec, Peter; Silar, Mira; Music, Ema; Erzen, Renato

    2002-02-01

    To identify whether it is the yellow jacket (Vespula germanica) or European hornet (Vespa crabro) venom that induces sensitization in patients with IgE-mediated allergic reaction to the venom from the sting of a European hornet. Since these patients usually have positive skin tests and specific IgE to all vespid venoms, it would be useful to distinguish cross-reactors from non-cross-reactors to perform immunotherapy with the venom that induced the sensitization. We performed inhibition tests in 24 patients who had experienced anaphylactic reaction after being stung by a European hornet. Of 24 patients with allergic reaction after Vespa crabro sting, 17 were sensitized only to epitopes of Vespula germanica venom. Only 4 out of 24 patients were sensitized to epitopes completely cross-reactive with Dolichovespula arenaria venom. In Slovenia, the vast majority of patients with anaphylactic reaction to Vespa crabro sting seem to be sensitized to Vespula germanica venom. We consider wasp venom an appropriate immunotherapeutic agent for such patients, except for those with proven primary sensitization to specific epitopes of Vespa crabro venom. Fluorescence enzyme immunoassay inhibition should be considered a convenient tool for the identification of primary sensitization in patients allergic to vespid venoms.

  20. Position statement on the role of healthcare professionals, patient organizations and industry in European Reference Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollak, C.E.; Biegstraaten, M.; Baumgartner, M.R.; Belmatoug, N.; Bembi, B.; Bosch, A. van den; Brouwers, M.; Dekker, H.; Dobbelaere, D.; Engelen, M.; Groenendijk, M.C.; Lachmann, R.; Langendonk, J.G.; Langeveld, M.; Linthorst, G.; Morava, E.; Poll-The, B.T.; Rahman, S.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M.E.; Spiekerkoetter, U.; Treacy, E.; Wanders, R.; Zschocke, J.; Hagendijk, R.

    2016-01-01

    A call from the EU for the set-up of European Reference Networks (ERNs) is expected to be launched in the first quarter of 2016. ERNs are intended to improve the care for patients with low prevalent or rare diseases throughout the EU by, among other things, facilitating the pooling and exchange of

  1. Position statement on the role of healthcare professionals, patient organizations and industry in European Reference Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E.M. Hollak (Carla); M. Biegstraaten (Marieke); M.R. Baumgartner (Matthias R.); N. Belmatoug (Nadia); B. Bembi (Bruno); A.M. Bosch (Annet); M.C.G.J. Brouwers (M. C G J); H. Dekker (Hanka); D. Dobbelaere (Dries); M. Engelen (Marc); M.C. Groenendijk (Marike C.); R.H. Lachmann (Robin); J.G. Langendonk (Janneke); M. Langeveld (Mirjam); G. Linthorst (Gabor); E. Morava (Eva); B.T. Poll-The; S. Rahman (Shamima); M.E. Rubio-Gozalbo (Estela); U. Spiekerkoeter (Ute); E. Treacy (Eileen); R.J.A. Wanders (Ronald); J. Zschocke (Johannes); R. Hagendijk (Rob)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractA call from the EU for the set-up of European Reference Networks (ERNs) is expected to be launched in the first quarter of 2016. ERNs are intended to improve the care for patients with low prevalent or rare diseases throughout the EU by, among other things, facilitating the pooling and

  2. Continuing Medical Education for European General Practitioners in Doctor-Patient Relationship Skills and Psychosocial Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, L. Randol

    1998-01-01

    Most of the 23 European providers of continuing medical education (CME) surveyed reported programming on the doctor-patient relationship and psychosocial issues. Visits to programs in France, the Netherlands, and Spain identified the formats used most often in small group instruction, intensive individual learning, and national-level CME. (SK)

  3. Multicenter European Prevalence Study of Neurocognitive Impairment and Associated Factors in HIV Positive Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddow, Lewis J; Laverick, Rosanna; Daskalopoulou, Marina

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study in 448 HIV positive patients attending five European outpatient clinics to determine prevalence of and factors associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI) using computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests. NCI was defined as a normalized Z scor...

  4. A profile of prognostic and molecular factors in European and Māori breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dachs, Gabi U; Wells, J Elisabeth; Robinson, Bridget A; Kano, Maiko; Volkova, Ekaterina; Morrin, Helen R; Davey, Valerie CL; Harris, Gavin C; Cheale, Michelle; Frampton, Christopher; Currie, Margaret J

    2010-01-01

    New Zealand Māori have a poorer outcome from breast cancer than non-Māori, yet prognostic data are sparse. The objective of this study was to quantify levels of prognostic factors in a cohort of self-declared Māori and European breast cancer patients from Christchurch, New Zealand. Clinicopathological and survival data from 337 consecutive breast cancer patients (27 Māori, 310 European) were evaluated. Fewer tumours were high grade in Māori women than European women (p = 0.027). No significant ethnic differences were detected for node status, tumour type, tumour size, human epidermal growth factor receptor, oestrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status, or survival. In addition, tumour and serum samples from a sub-cohort of 14 Māori matched to 14 NZ European patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for molecular prognostic factors. Significant correlations were detected between increased grade and increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α), glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), microvessel density (MVD) and cytokeratins CK5/6 (p < 0.05). High nodal status correlated with reduced carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX). Negative ER/PR status correlated with increased GLUT-1, CA-IX and MVD. Within the molecular factors, increased HIF-1α correlated with raised GLUT-1, MVD and CK5/6, and CK5/6 with GLUT-1 and MVD (p < 0.05). The small number of patients in this sub-cohort limited discrimination of ethnic differences. In this Christchurch cohort of breast cancer patients, Māori women were no more likely than European women to have pathological or molecular factors predictive of poor prognosis. These data contrast with data from the North Island NZ, and suggest potential regional differences

  5. Influence of stress systems and physical activity on different dimensions of fatigue in female fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Johanna M; Fischer, Susanne; Nater, Urs M; Strahler, Jana

    2017-02-01

    Fatigue is a defining characteristic and one of the most debilitating features of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The mechanisms underlying different dimensions of fatigue in FMS remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to test whether stress-related biological processes and physical activity modulate fatigue experience. Using an ambulatory assessment design, 26 female FMS patients reported general, mental, and physical fatigue levels at six time points per day for 14 consecutive days. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase were analyzed as markers of neuroendocrine functioning. Participants wore wrist actigraphs for the assessment of physical activity. Lower increases in cortisol after awakening predicted higher mean daily general and physical fatigue levels. Additionally, mean daily physical activity positively predicted next-day mean general fatigue. Levels of physical fatigue at a specific time point were positively associated with momentary cortisol levels. The increase in cortisol after awakening did not mediate the physical activity - fatigue relationship. There were no associations between alpha-amylase and fatigue. Our findings imply that both changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and physical activity contribute to variance in fatigue in the daily lives of patients with FMS. This study helps to paint a clearer picture of the biological and behavioral underpinnings of fatigue in FMS and highlight the necessity of interdisciplinary treatment approaches targeting biological, behavioral and psychological aspects of FMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Therapists' and patients' stress responses during graduated versus flooding in vivo exposure in the treatment of specific phobia: A preliminary observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sarah; Miller, Robert; Fehm, Lydia; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Fydrich, Thomas; Ströhle, Andreas

    2015-12-15

    Exposure therapy is considered an effective treatment strategy for phobic anxiety, however, it is rarely applied in clinical practice. The under-usage might be due to various factors of which heightened stress levels not only in patients but also in therapists are presumed to be of particular relevance. The present study aimed to investigate whether different forms of exposure might lead to varying physiological and psychological stress responses in therapists and phobic patients. 25 patients with specific phobia underwent individual cognitive behavioural therapy, performed by 25 psychotherapist trainees, applying exposure sessions in graduated form or the flooding technique. Patients and therapists provided subjective evaluations of stress and five saliva samples for analysis of salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase either during two graduated exposure sessions or during one flooding session, while a regular therapy session served as control condition. Therapists displayed heightened salivary alpha-amylase release during exposure of the flooding, but not the graduated, type. Patients showed elevated salivary cortisol during flooding exposure numerically, however, not on a statistically significant level. Therapists reported more pronounced subjective stress during flooding compared to graduated exposure. Elevated stress levels should be addressed in clinical training in order to improve application of exposure in routine practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic variation in CFH predicts phenytoin-induced maculopapular exanthema in European-descent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Mark; Gui, Hongsheng; Ingason, Andrés; Speed, Doug; Wright, Galen E B; Zhang, Eunice J; Secolin, Rodrigo; Yasuda, Clarissa; Kwok, Maxwell; Wolking, Stefan; Becker, Felicitas; Rau, Sarah; Avbersek, Andreja; Heggeli, Kristin; Leu, Costin; Depondt, Chantal; Sills, Graeme J; Marson, Anthony G; Auce, Pauls; Brodie, Martin J; Francis, Ben; Johnson, Michael R; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Striano, Pasquale; Coppola, Antonietta; Zara, Federico; Kunz, Wolfram S; Sander, Josemir W; Lerche, Holger; Klein, Karl Martin; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Krenn, Martin; Gudmundsson, Lárus J; Stefánsson, Kári; Krause, Roland; Shear, Neil; Ross, Colin J D; Delanty, Norman; Pirmohamed, Munir; Carleton, Bruce C; Cendes, Fernando; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Liao, Wei-Ping; O'Brien, Terence J; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Cherny, Stacey; Kwan, Patrick; Baum, Larry; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L

    2018-01-23

    To characterize, among European and Han Chinese populations, the genetic predictors of maculopapular exanthema (MPE), a cutaneous adverse drug reaction common to antiepileptic drugs. We conducted a case-control genome-wide association study of autosomal genotypes, including Class I and II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, in 323 cases and 1,321 drug-tolerant controls from epilepsy cohorts of northern European and Han Chinese descent. Results from each cohort were meta-analyzed. We report an association between a rare variant in the complement factor H-related 4 ( CFHR4 ) gene and phenytoin-induced MPE in Europeans ( p = 4.5 × 10 -11 ; odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 7 [3.2-16]). This variant is in complete linkage disequilibrium with a missense variant (N1050Y) in the complement factor H ( CFH ) gene. In addition, our results reinforce the association between HLA-A*31:01 and carbamazepine hypersensitivity. We did not identify significant genetic associations with MPE among Han Chinese patients. The identification of genetic predictors of MPE in CFHR4 and CFH, members of the complement factor H-related protein family, suggest a new link between regulation of the complement system alternative pathway and phenytoin-induced hypersensitivity in European-ancestral patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Differences in Patient Characteristics and Midterm Outcome Between Asian and European Patients Treated with Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgmans, Mark Christiaan, E-mail: m.c.burgmans@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Too, Chow Wei, E-mail: too.chow.wei@singhealth.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore); Fiocco, Marta, E-mail: m.fiocco@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics (Netherlands); Kerbert, Annarein J. C., E-mail: a.kerbert@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology (Netherlands); Lo, Richard Hoau Gong, E-mail: richard.lo.h.g@sgh.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore); Schaapman, Jelte J., E-mail: j.j.schaapman@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Erkel, Arian R. van, E-mail: a.r.van-erkel@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology (Netherlands); Coenraad, Minneke J., E-mail: m.j.coenraad@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Tan, Bien Soo, E-mail: tan.bien.soo@singhealth.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

    2016-12-15

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to compare patient characteristics and midterm outcomes after RFA for unresectable Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Asian and European cohorts.Materials and MethodsThe study was based on retrospective analysis of 279 patients (mean 64.8 ± 12.1 years; 208 males) treated with RFA for de novo HCC in tertiary referral centers in Singapore and the Netherlands, with median follow-up of 28.2 months (quartiles: 13.1–40.5 months). Cumulative incidence of recurrence and death were analyzed using a competing risk model.ResultsAge was higher in the Asian group: 66.5 versus 60.1 years (p < 0.0001). The most common etiology was hepatitis B in the Asian group (48.0 %) and alcohol-induced cirrhosis in Europeans (54.4 %); p < 0.001. Asian patients had less advanced disease: 35.5, 55.0, and 3.0 %, respectively, had BCLC 0, A, and B versus 21.5, 58.2, and 15.2 % in the European group (p = 0.01). The cumulative incidences of recurrence in the Asian group at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years were 37.0, 56.4, 62.3, and 67.7 %, respectively, compared to 32.6, 47.2, 49.7, and 53.4 % in the European group (p = 0.474). At 1, 2, 3, and 5 years, the cumulative incidence rates of death in the Asian group were 2.0, 3.9, 4.9, and 4.9 %, respectively, corresponding to 7.7, 9.2, 14.1, and 21.0 % in the European group (p = 0.155).ConclusionSimilar short-term treatment outcomes are achieved with RFA in HCC patients in the South-East Asian and Northern-European populations. Midterm recurrence and death rates differ between the groups as a result of differences in baseline patient characteristics and patient selection. Our study provides insight relevant to the design of future international studies.

  9. Differences in Patient Characteristics and Midterm Outcome Between Asian and European Patients Treated with Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgmans, Mark Christiaan; Too, Chow Wei; Fiocco, Marta; Kerbert, Annarein J. C.; Lo, Richard Hoau Gong; Schaapman, Jelte J.; Erkel, Arian R. van; Coenraad, Minneke J.; Tan, Bien Soo

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to compare patient characteristics and midterm outcomes after RFA for unresectable Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Asian and European cohorts.Materials and MethodsThe study was based on retrospective analysis of 279 patients (mean 64.8 ± 12.1 years; 208 males) treated with RFA for de novo HCC in tertiary referral centers in Singapore and the Netherlands, with median follow-up of 28.2 months (quartiles: 13.1–40.5 months). Cumulative incidence of recurrence and death were analyzed using a competing risk model.ResultsAge was higher in the Asian group: 66.5 versus 60.1 years (p < 0.0001). The most common etiology was hepatitis B in the Asian group (48.0 %) and alcohol-induced cirrhosis in Europeans (54.4 %); p < 0.001. Asian patients had less advanced disease: 35.5, 55.0, and 3.0 %, respectively, had BCLC 0, A, and B versus 21.5, 58.2, and 15.2 % in the European group (p = 0.01). The cumulative incidences of recurrence in the Asian group at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years were 37.0, 56.4, 62.3, and 67.7 %, respectively, compared to 32.6, 47.2, 49.7, and 53.4 % in the European group (p = 0.474). At 1, 2, 3, and 5 years, the cumulative incidence rates of death in the Asian group were 2.0, 3.9, 4.9, and 4.9 %, respectively, corresponding to 7.7, 9.2, 14.1, and 21.0 % in the European group (p = 0.155).ConclusionSimilar short-term treatment outcomes are achieved with RFA in HCC patients in the South-East Asian and Northern-European populations. Midterm recurrence and death rates differ between the groups as a result of differences in baseline patient characteristics and patient selection. Our study provides insight relevant to the design of future international studies.

  10. A European survey relating to cancer therapy and neutropenic infections: Nurse and patient viewpoints.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, Kay

    2011-09-25

    PURPOSE: Severe neutropenia and febrile neutropenia (FN) are the major causes of morbidity, treatment interruptions and dose reductions in patients undergoing chemotherapy. The European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS) conducted an European survey to evaluate nurse perspectives on prevention of infection and FN in this setting, and how much they educate their patients about this. A separate survey explored these issues in patients receiving chemotherapy. METHODS: 217 nurse participants were identified by EONS from the membership database and 473 cancer patients who were receiving\\/had received chemotherapy were identified through patient advocacy groups. Questionnaires were completed anonymously online for both surveys. RESULTS: More than 90% of the nurses agreed that preventing infections including FN is extremely\\/very important for a successful chemotherapy outcome and said that they, or other health professionals in their practice, advised patients about these issues. Most (90%) indicated that they favoured giving treatment to protect against FN and infections in chemotherapy patients at risk, rather than treating infection after it develops, but 82% expressed concern over patient concordance with measures employed. A substantial proportion of patients reported emergency room visits, hospitalization and\\/or chemotherapy delays or changes as a result of neutropenia, infection or FN. However, only 44% said that their infection risk was discussed with them before starting chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that nurses recognise the importance of reducing the risk of infection and FN in patients undergoing chemotherapy, as well as the need to educate patients. However, results of the patient survey suggest a need for better patient education.

  11. Survival differences in European patients with AIDS, 1979-89. The AIDS in Europe Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Pedersen, C; Clumeck, N

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To examine the pattern of survival and factors associated with the outcome of disease in patients with AIDS. DESIGN--Inception cohort. Data collected retrospectively from patients' charts. SETTING--52 clinical centres in 17 European countries. SUBJECTS--6578 adults diagnosed with AIDS....... The regional differences in survival were less pronounced for patients diagnosed in 1989 compared with earlier years. Improved survival in recent years was observed for patients with a variety of manifestations used to define AIDS but was significant only for patients diagnosed with Pneumocystis carinii...... pneumonia. The three year survival, however, remains unchanged over time. CONCLUSIONS--Survival of AIDS patients seems to vary within Europe, being shorter in southern than central and northern Europe. The magnitude of these differences, however, has declined gradually over time. Short term survival has...

  12. Conversion to belatacept in maintenance kidney-transplant patients: A retrospective multicenter European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darres, Amandine; Ulloa, Camillo; Brakemeier, Susanne; Garrouste, Cyril; Bestard, Oriol; Del Bello, Arnaud; Sberro Soussan, Rebecca; Dürr, Michael; Budde, Klemens; Legendre, Christophe; Kamar, Nassim

    2018-03-22

    The use of belatacept is not yet approved for maintenance kidney-transplant patients. This retrospective multicenter European study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of conversion to belatacept in a large cohort of patients in a real-life setting, and to identify the predictive factors for improved kidney function after the switch. Two-hundred and nineteen maintenance kidney-transplant patients from 5 European kidney-transplant centers were converted to belatacept at 21.2 (0.1-337.1) months posttransplantation, mainly because of impaired kidney function. Thirty-two patients were converted to belatacept within the first 3 months posttransplantation. The mean duration of follow-up was 21.9±20.2 months. The actuarial rate of patients still on belatacept-based therapy was 77.6%. Mean estimated glomerular-filtration rate (eGFR) increased from 32±16.4 at baseline to 38±20 mL/min/1.73 m (ppredictive factor for a significant increase in eGFR (of 5 and 10 mL/min/1.73 m at 3 and 12 months after the switch, respectively). Eighteen patients (8.2%) presented with an acute-rejection episode after conversion; 3 developed a donor-specific antibody (DSA). Overall efficacy and safety were good, including for the 35 patients that had a DSA at conversion. The conversion to belatacept was effective, especially when performed early after transplantation.

  13. The European Cancer Patient's Bill of Rights, update and implementation 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Liselotte; Löwenberg, Bob; Selby, Peter

    2016-01-01

    .The right of every European citizen to optimal and timely access to a diagnosis and to appropriate specialised care, underpinned by research and innovation.The right of every European citizen to receive care in health systems that ensure the best possible cancer prevention, the earliest possible diagnosis...... of their cancer, improved outcomes, patient rehabilitation, best quality of life and affordable health care. The key aspects of working towards implementing the BoR are:Agree our high-level goal. The vision of 70% long-term survival for patients with cancer in 2035, promoting cancer prevention and cancer control...... on improving outcomes; (3) Improving access to new and established cancer care by sharing best practice in the development, approval, procurement and reimbursement of cancer diagnostic tests and treatments.Work with other organisations to bring into being a Europe based centre that will (1) systematically...

  14. Economic considerations and patients' preferences affect treatment selection for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a discrete choice experiment among European rheumatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hifinger, M; Hiligsmann, M; Ramiro, S; Watson, V; Severens, J L; Fautrel, B; Uhlig, T; van Vollenhoven, R; Jacques, P; Detert, J; Canas da Silva, J; Scirè, C A; Berghea, F; Carmona, L; Péntek, M; Keat, A; Boonen, A

    2017-01-01

    To compare the value that rheumatologists across Europe attach to patients' preferences and economic aspects when choosing treatments for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In a discrete choice experiment, European rheumatologists chose between two hypothetical drug treatments for a patient with moderate disease activity. Treatments differed in five attributes: efficacy (improvement and achieved state on disease activity), safety (probability of serious adverse events), patient's preference (level of agreement), medication costs and cost-effectiveness (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER)). A Bayesian efficient design defined 14 choice sets, and a random parameter logit model was used to estimate relative preferences for rheumatologists across countries. Cluster analyses and latent class models were applied to understand preference patterns across countries and among individual rheumatologists. Responses of 559 rheumatologists from 12 European countries were included in the analysis (49% females, mean age 48 years). In all countries, efficacy dominated treatment decisions followed by economic considerations and patients' preferences. Across countries, rheumatologists avoided selecting a treatment that patients disliked. Latent class models revealed four respondent profiles: one traded off all attributes except safety, and the remaining three classes disregarded ICER. Among individual rheumatologists, 57% disregarded ICER and these were more likely from Italy, Romania, Portugal or France, whereas 43% disregarded uncommon/rare side effects and were more likely from Belgium, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden or UK. Overall, European rheumatologists are willing to trade between treatment efficacy, patients' treatment preferences and economic considerations. However, the degree of trade-off differs between countries and among individuals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  15. Patient-reported causes of heart failure in a large European sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Ivy; Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2018-01-01

    ), psychosocial (35%, mainly (work-related) stress), and natural causes (32%, mainly heredity). There were socio-demographic, clinical and psychological group differences between the various categories, and large discrepancies between prevalence of physical risk factors according to medical records and patient...... distress (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 0.94–2.51, p = 0.09), and behavioral causes and a less threatening view of heart failure (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.40–1.01, p = 0.06). Conclusion: European patients most frequently reported comorbidities, smoking, stress, and heredity as heart failure causes, but their causal......Background: Patients diagnosed with chronic diseases develop perceptions about their disease and its causes, which may influence health behavior and emotional well-being. This is the first study to examine patient-reported causes and their correlates in patients with heart failure. Methods...

  16. Antibiotic prescribing in patients with acute rhinosinusitis is not in agreement with European recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars Christian; Friis Christensen, Sarah; Cordoba Currea, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To assess the potential overprescribing in patients with acute rhinosinusitis across six countries with different antibiotic prescribing rates and different prevalence of antibiotic resistance. Design, setting and subjects. A cross-sectional study including GPs from two Nordic...... tract infections" (HAPPY AUDIT). Main outcome measures. Use of antibiotics for acute rhinosinusitis based on the recommendations in the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2007 (EP3OS). Results. In total, 618 participating GPs registered 33 273 patients with RTI of whom 1150 (3...... overprescribing) and 23% had symptoms recommendations (EP3OS guidelines). To prevent overprescribing, efforts should be made to implement...

  17. European legislation impedes critical care research and fails to protect patients' rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Møller, Kirsten; Rossel, Peter Johannes Hancke

    2011-01-01

    in which a waiver of consent is deemed necessary, the Ethical Review Board should ensure that non-therapeutic risks are minimal, that the research is specifically designed to benefit critically ill patients, and that it cannot be conducted under circumstances where an informed consent can be obtained....... If the European Directive is changed accordingly, this permits clinical trials in critical care settings, while adequate protection from risky non-therapeutic procedures is ensured and exploitation of the patient as an easily accessible research subject is prevented....

  18. The ENDOCARE questionnaire guides European endometriosis clinics to improve the patient-centeredness of their care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancet, E A F; Apers, S; Kluivers, K B; Kremer, J A M; Sermeus, W; Devriendt, C; Nelen, W L D M; D'Hooghe, T M

    2012-11-01

    How patient-centered are two included specialized endometriosis clinics relative to each other and how can they improve the patient-centeredness of their care? The validated ENDOCARE questionnaire (ECQ) reliably concluded that the adjusted overall patient-centeredness did not differ between the clinics, that each clinic was significantly more patient-centered for 2 out of 10 dimensions of patient-centered endometriosis care and that clinics 1 and 2 had to improve 8 and 13 specific care aspects, respectively. Patient-centered endometriosis care is essential to high-quality care and is defined by 10 dimensions. The ECQ was developed, validated and proved to be reliable in a European setting of self-reported endometriosis patients but had not yet been used at a clinic level for quality management. A cross-sectional survey was disseminated in 2011 to all 514 women diagnosed with endometriosis during a laparoscopy indicated for pain and/or infertility during a retrospective 2-year period (2009-2010) in two university clinics from two different European countries. In total 337 patients completed the ECQ (216 and 121 per clinic). Respondents had a mean age of 34.3 years. Three in four reported a surgical diagnosis of moderate or severe endometriosis and the majority reported surgical treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The ECQ assessed the 10 dimensions of patient-centeredness, more specifically whether the health-care performance, as perceived by patients, measured up to what is important to patients in general. The ECQ was completed by 337 respondents (response rate = 65.6%). Reliability and validity of the ECQ for use on clinic level were confirmed. Clinics did not differ in overall mean importance scores; importance rankings of the ECQ dimensions were almost identical. The overall patient-centeredness scores (PCS), adjusted for education level, did not discriminate between the clinics. However, the adjusted PCS for the dimensions 'clinic staff' and 'technical

  19. Development/Testing of a Monitoring System Assisting MCI Patients: The European Project INLIFE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimakamis, Evangelos; Karavidopoulou, Vaia; Kilintzis, Vassilios; Stefanopoulos, Leandros; Papageorgiou, Valentini

    2017-01-01

    INLIFE is a project cofounded from the European Union aiming in prolonging independent living of elderly people with cognitive impairment based on open, seamless ICT services supporting communication, daily activities, providing health services and professional care to the elderly. The main innovation stems from ICT solutions offering 19 different services adapted on specific characteristics elderly people with mild cognitive impairment, early and later stages of Dementia, cognitive impairment and co-morbid condition, as well as their formal and informal caregivers. All services have different focus areas and are incorporated into a unified system based on cloud architecture implemented in patients of 6 European countries, including Greece. More than 1200 patients, caregivers and healthcare providers participate in the pilot testing of the project. Primary parameter for assessing the effectiveness of the interventions is their impact on the quality of life of the elderly patients and their caregivers, contributing to prolonging independent living of the affected. A special digital platform has been developed in the Greek pilot site aiming to adapt and monitor all the implemented applications. This includes a medical decision support system that receives biosignals from patients and interaction interfaces in which all participants are involved. Recruitment and patients' participation has already started in the pilot site of Thessaloniki for the services that are to be tested in Greece.

  20. Patient-reported outcomes among patients using exenatide twice daily or insulin in clinical practice in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reaney, Matthew; Mathieu, Chantal; Ostenson, Claes-Göran

    2013-01-01

    who did not meet this endpoint) and Diabetes Health Profile-18 scores (versus the main cohorts). High levels of missing data were observed for all PRO measures in both cohorts compared with those for clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: These data from a clinical practice study support those from clinical...... clinical practice are lacking. We examined PROs in patients initiating injectable treatment in the CHOICE (CHanges to treatment and Outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating InjeCtablE therapy) study. METHODS: CHOICE was a 24-month, prospective observational study conducted in six European......BACKGROUND: Improvements in the clinical condition of patients with type 2 diabetes are often accompanied by improvements in health-related quality of life and other patient-reported outcomes (PROs), but data assessing injectable treatment initiation from the patient's perspective in routine...

  1. Comparison of European ICU patients in 2012 (ICON) versus 2002 (SOAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Kotfis, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Occurrence in Acutely ill Patients (SOAP) study, an observational study conducted in European intensive care units in 2002, and the Intensive Care Over Nations (ICON) audit, a survey of intensive care unit patients conducted in 2012. RESULTS: We compared the 3147 patients from the SOAP study with the 4852...... patients from the ICON audit admitted to intensive care units in the same countries as those in the SOAP study. The ICON patients were older (62.5 ± 17.0 vs. 60.6 ± 17.4 years) and had higher severity scores than the SOAP patients. The proportion of patients with sepsis at any time during the intensive...... care unit stay was slightly higher in the ICON study (31.9 vs. 29.6%, p = 0.03). In multilevel analysis, the adjusted odds of ICU mortality were significantly lower for ICON patients than for SOAP patients, particularly in patients with sepsis [OR 0.45 (0.35-0.59), p

  2. Health management and patients who lack capacity: forms of guardianship in European health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, Alessandro; Smith, Anna; De Stefano, Francesco; Molinelli, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    The focus of healthcare debate has in recent years shifted from doctors and healthcare professionals in general to patients and the principle of patient self-determination. Patient competence therefore plays an increasingly central role in the legal framework of many Europeans countries. Consequently, healthcare policy has to address the possible repercussions of a non-systematic approach to cases of patient incapacity. The diverse nature of the experiences of the mentally or physically disadvantaged clearly raises problems for the healthcare professional. In this setting, we examine Italy's Law no. 6/2004 from a comparative perspective, in particular analysing legislation in the same area from Spain, France, Great Britain and the Netherlands. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Association Study for 26 Candidate Loci in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Patients from Four European Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kishore

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF affects lung parenchyma with progressing fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to replicate MUC5B rs35705950 variants and determine new plausible candidate variants for IPF among four different European populations. We genotyped 26 IPF candidate loci in 165 IPF patients from four European countries: Czech Republic (n = 41, Germany (n = 33, Greece (n = 40, France (n = 51 and performed association study comparing observed variant distribution with this obtained in a genetically similar Czech healthy control population (n = 96 described in our earlier data report. A highly significant association for a promoter variant (rs35705950 of mucin encoding MUC5B gene was observed in all IPF populations, individually and combined [OR (95% CI; p-value as 5.23 (8.94-3.06; 1.80x10-11. Another non-coding variant, rs7934606 in MUC2 was significant among German patients [2.85 (5.05-1.60; 4.03x10-4] and combined European IPF cases [2.18 (3.16-1.50; 3.73x10-5]. The network analysis for these variants indicated gene-gene and gene-phenotype interactions in IPF and lung biology. With replication of MUC5B rs35705950 previously reported in U.S. populations of European descent and indicating other plausible polymorphic variants relevant for IPF, we provide additional reference information for future extended functional and population studies aimed, ideally with inclusion of clinical parameters, at identification of IPF genetic markers.

  4. Patient-Focused Benefit-Risk Analysis to Inform Regulatory Decisions: The European Union Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Juhnke, Christin; Beyer, Andrea R; Garner, Sarah

    Regulatory decisions are often based on multiple clinical end points, but the perspectives used to judge the relative importance of those end points are predominantly those of expert decision makers rather than of the patient. However, there is a growing awareness that active patient and public participation can improve decision making, increase acceptance of decisions, and improve adherence to treatments. The assessment of risk versus benefit requires not only information on clinical outcomes but also value judgments about which outcomes are important and whether the potential benefits outweigh the harms. There are a number of mechanisms for capturing the input of patients, and regulatory bodies within the European Union are participating in several initiatives. These can include patients directly participating in the regulatory decision-making process or using information derived from patients in empirical studies as part of the evidence considered. One promising method that is being explored is the elicitation of "patient preferences." Preferences, in this context, refer to the individual's evaluation of health outcomes and can be understood as statements regarding the relative desirability of a range of treatment options, treatment characteristics, and health states. Several methods for preference measurement have been proposed, and pilot studies have been undertaken to use patient preference information in regulatory decision making. This article describes how preferences are currently being considered in the benefit-risk assessment context, and shows how different methods of preference elicitation are used to support decision making within the European context. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of an evaluation framework for African-European hospital patient safety partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Paul; Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Bagheri-Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward; Pittet, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Patient safety is recognised as a significant healthcare problem worldwide, and healthcare-associated infections are an important aspect. African Partnerships for Patient Safety is a WHO programme that pairs hospitals in Africa with hospitals in Europe with the objective to work together to improve patient safety. To describe the development of an evaluation framework for hospital-to-hospital partnerships participating in the programme. The framework was structured around the programme's three core objectives: facilitate strong interhospital partnerships, improve in-hospital patient safety and spread best practices nationally. Africa-based clinicians, their European partners and experts in patient safety were closely involved in developing the evaluation framework in an iterative process. The process defined six domains of partnership strength, each with measurable subdomains. We developed a questionnaire to measure these subdomains. Participants selected six indicators of hospital patient safety improvement from a short-list of 22 based on their relevance, sensitivity to intervention and measurement feasibility. Participants proposed 20 measures of spread, which were refined into a two-part conceptual framework, and a data capture tool created. Taking a highly participatory approach that closely involved its end users, we developed an evaluation framework and tools to measure partnership strength, patient safety improvements and the spread of best practice.

  6. The European Gaucher Alliance: a survey of member patient organisations' activities, healthcare environments and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žnidar, Irena; Collin-Histed, Tanya; Niemeyer, Pascal; Parkkinen, Johanna; Lauridsen, Anne-Grethe; Zariņa, Sandra; Cohen, Yossi; Manuel, Jeremy

    2014-09-02

    The European Gaucher Alliance (EGA) was established in 1994 and constituted in 2008 as an umbrella group supporting patient organisations for Gaucher disease. Every two years, the EGA conducts a questionnaire survey of member associations to help develop its priorities and annual work programme. Results of the latest survey are presented. Between June 2012 and April 2013, the 36 members and associate members of the EGA were asked to complete a questionnaire detailing membership numbers, disease specific treatments used by patients, means of access to treatment, availability of treatment centres and home infusions, sources of support for patients with Gaucher disease, patient organisations' activities, collaborations, funding sources and any issues of concern. Questionnaires completed in 2012 were revised in January 2013 and responses analysed between July and September 2013. Thirty three members returned data on one or more questions. Findings identified inequalities in access to treatment both within and between members' countries. Three of 27 countries, for which data were available, relied totally on humanitarian aid for treatment and 6% of untreated patients in 20 countries were untreated because of funding issues, a situation many feared would worsen with deteriorating economic climates. Access to treatment and reimbursement represented 45% of members' concerns, while 35% related to access to specialist treatment centres, home infusions and doctors with expertise in Gaucher disease. Member associations' main activities centred on patient support (59% of responses) and raising awareness of Gaucher disease and patients' needs amongst the medical community, government and healthcare decision makers and the general public (34% of responses). Twenty one (78% of respondents) indicated they were the only source of help for Gaucher disease patients in their country. For many, activities were constrained by funds; two members had no external funding source. Activities

  7. The European Registry for Patients with Mechanical Circulatory Support (EUROMACS) of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de By, Theo M M H; Mohacsi, Paul; Gahl, Brigitta

    2018-01-01

    of clinicians and scientists. This report includes updates of patient characteristics, implant frequency, mortality rates and adverse events. RESULTS: Fifty-two hospitals participated in the registry. This report is based on 2947 registered implants in 2681 patients. Survival of adult patients (>17 years of age...

  8. The European Respiratory Society and European Society of Thoracic Surgeons clinical guidelines for evaluating fitness for radical treatment (surgery and chemoradiotherapy) in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Alessandro; Charloux, Anne; Bolliger, Chris T; Rocco, Gaetano; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Varela, Gonzalo; Licker, Marc; Ferguson, Mark K; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Huber, Rudolf Maria; Clini, Enrico M; Win, Thida; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Goldman, Lee

    2009-07-01

    The European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) established a joint task force with the purpose to develop clinical evidence-based guidelines on evaluation of fitness for radical therapy in patients with lung cancer. The following topics were discussed, and are summarized in the final report along with graded recommendations: Cardiologic evaluation before lung resection; lung function tests and exercise tests (limitations of ppoFEV1; DLCO: systematic or selective?; split function studies; exercise tests: systematic; low-tech exercise tests; cardiopulmonary (high tech) exercise tests); future trends in preoperative work-up; physiotherapy/rehabilitation and smoking cessation; scoring systems; advanced care management (ICU/HDU); quality of life in patients submitted to radical treatment; combined cancer surgery and lung volume reduction surgery; compromised parenchymal sparing resections and minimally invasive techniques: the balance between oncological radicality and functional reserve; neoadjuvant chemotherapy and complications; definitive chemo and radiotherapy: functional selection criteria and definition of risk; should surgical criteria be re-calibrated for radiotherapy?; the patient at prohibitive surgical risk: alternatives to surgery; who should treat thoracic patients and where these patients should be treated?

  9. Patients' perceptions of information and education for renal replacement therapy: an independent survey by the European Kidney Patients' Federation on information and support on renal replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Biesen, Wim; van der Veer, Sabine N.; Murphey, Mark; Loblova, Olga; Davies, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Selection of an appropriate renal replacement modality is of utmost importance for patients with end stage renal disease. Previous studies showed provision of information to and free modality choice by patients to be suboptimal. Therefore, the European Kidney Patients' Federation (CEAPIR) explored

  10. Fluid Status in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: The European Body Composition Monitoring (EuroBCM) Study Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Wim; Williams, John D.; Covic, Adrian C.; Fan, Stanley; Claes, Kathleen; Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Verger, Christian; Steiger, Jurg; Schoder, Volker; Wabel, Peter; Gauly, Adelheid; Himmele, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Background Euvolemia is an important adequacy parameter in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. However, accurate tools to evaluate volume status in clinical practice and data on volume status in PD patients as compared to healthy population, and the associated factors, have not been available so far. Methods We used a bio-impedance spectroscopy device, the Body Composition Monitor (BCM) to assess volume status in a cross-sectional cohort of prevalent PD patients in different European countries. The results were compared to an age and gender matched healthy population. Results Only 40% out of 639 patients from 28 centres in 6 countries were normovolemic. Severe fluid overload was present in 25.2%. There was a wide scatter in the relation between blood pressure and volume status. In a multivariate analysis in the subgroup of patients from countries with unrestricted availability of all PD modalities and fluid types, older age, male gender, lower serum albumin, lower BMI, diabetes, higher systolic blood pressure, and use of at least one exchange per day with the highest hypertonic glucose were associated with higher relative tissue hydration. Neither urinary output nor ultrafiltration, PD fluid type or PD modality were retained in the model (total R2 of the model = 0.57). Conclusions The EuroBCM study demonstrates some interesting issues regarding volume status in PD. As in HD patients, hypervolemia is a frequent condition in PD patients and blood pressure can be a misleading clinical tool to evaluate volume status. To monitor fluid balance, not only fluid output but also dietary input should be considered. Close monitoring of volume status, a correct dialysis prescription adapted to the needs of the patient and dietary measures seem to be warranted to avoid hypervolemia. PMID:21390320

  11. Does pregnancy change the disease course? A study in a European cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, L; Vind, Ida; Politi, P

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often affects patients in their fertile age. The aim of this study was to describe pregnancy outcome in a European cohort of IBD patients. As data are limited regarding the effect of pregnancy on disease course, our second objective was to inv...

  12. Patient-centeredness of integrated care programs for people with multimorbidity: results from the European ICARE4EU project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, I. van der; Snoeijs, S.; Quattrini, S.; Struckmann, V.; Hujala, A.; Schellevis, F.; Rijken, M.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: This paper aims to support the implementation of patient-centered care for people with multimorbidity in Europe, by providing insight into ways in which patient-centeredness is currently shaped in integrated care programs for people with multimorbidity in European countries. Methods:

  13. Cholecystectomy and Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs: Patient Classification and Hospital Reimbursement in 11 European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerli Paat-Ahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background As part of the EuroDRG project, researchers from eleven countries (i.e. Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, and Spain compared how their Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG systems deal with cholecystectomy patients. The study aims to assist surgeons and national authorities to optimize their DRG systems. Methods National or regional databases were used to identify hospital cases with a procedure of cholecystectomy. DRG classification algorithms and indicators of resource consumption were compared for those DRGs that individually contained at least 1% of cases. Six standardised case vignettes were defined, and quasi prices according to national DRG-based hospital payment systems were ascertained and compared to an index case. Results European DRG systems vary widely: they classify cholecystectomy patients according to different sets of variables into diverging numbers of DRGs (between two DRGs in Austria and Poland to nine DRGs in England. The most complex DRG is valued at four times more resource intensive than the index case in Ireland but only 1.3 times more resource intensive than the index case in Austria. Conclusion Large variations in the classification of cholecystectomy patients raise concerns whether all systems rely on the most appropriate classification variables. Surgeons, hospital managers and national DRG authorities should consider how other countries’ DRG systems classify cholecystectomy patients in order to optimize their DRG systems and to ensure fair and appropriate reimbursement.

  14. Cholecystectomy and Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs): patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 11 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paat-Ahi, Gerli; Aaviksoo, Ain; Swiderek, Maria

    2014-12-01

    As part of the EuroDRG project, researchers from eleven countries (i.e. Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, and Spain) compared how their Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG) systems deal with cholecystectomy patients. The study aims to assist surgeons and national authorities to optimize their DRG systems. National or regional databases were used to identify hospital cases with a procedure of cholecystectomy. DRG classification algorithms and indicators of resource consumption were compared for those DRGs that individually contained at least 1% of cases. Six standardised case vignettes were defined, and quasi prices according to national DRG-based hospital payment systems were ascertained and compared to an index case. European DRG systems vary widely: they classify cholecystectomy patients according to different sets of variables into diverging numbers of DRGs (between two DRGs in Austria and Poland to nine DRGs in England). The most complex DRG is valued at four times more resource intensive than the index case in Ireland but only 1.3 times more resource intensive than the index case in Austria. Large variations in the classification of cholecystectomy patients raise concerns whether all systems rely on the most appropriate classification variables. Surgeons, hospital managers and national DRG authorities should consider how other countries' DRG systems classify cholecystectomy patients in order to optimize their DRG systems and to ensure fair and appropriate reimbursement.

  15. Warfarin maintenance dose in older patients: higher average dose and wider dose frequency distribution in patients of African ancestry than those of European ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Candice L; Clemente, Jennifer L; Ibe, George N; Kandula, Vijay A; Curtis, Kristy D; Whittaker, Peter

    2010-06-15

    Studies report that warfarin doses required to maintain therapeutic anticoagulation decrease with age; however, these studies almost exclusively enrolled patients of European ancestry. Consequently, universal application of dosing paradigms based on such evidence may be confounded because ethnicity also influences dose. Therefore, we determined if warfarin dose decreased with age in Americans of African ancestry, if older African and European ancestry patients required different doses, and if their daily dose frequency distributions differed. Our chart review examined 170 patients of African ancestry and 49 patients of European ancestry cared for in our anticoagulation clinic. We calculated the average weekly dose required for each stable, anticoagulated patient to maintain an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0, determined dose averages for groups 80 years of age and plotted dose as a function of age. The maintenance dose in patients of African ancestry decreased with age (PAfrican ancestry required higher average weekly doses than patients of European ancestry: 33% higher in the 70- to 79-year-old group (38.2+/-1.9 vs. 28.8+/-1.7 mg; P=0.006) and 52% in the >80-year-old group (33.2+/-1.7 vs. 21.8+/-3.8 mg; P=0.011). Therefore, 43% of older patients of African ancestry required daily doses >5mg and hence would have been under-dosed using current starting-dose guidelines. The dose frequency distribution was wider for older patients of African ancestry compared to those of European ancestry (PAfrican ancestry indicate that strategies for initiating warfarin therapy based on studies of patients of European ancestry could result in insufficient anticoagulation and thereby potentially increase their thromboembolism risk. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Emergency Department Length of Stay for Maori and European Patients in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Prisk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency department length of stay (ED LOS is currently used in Australasia as a quality measure. In our ED, Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, have a shorter ED LOS than European patients. This is despite Maori having poorer health outcomes overall. This study sought to determine drivers of LOS in our provincial New Zealand ED, particularly looking at ethnicity as a determining factor. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study that reviewed 80,714 electronic medical records of ED patients from December 1, 2012, to December 1, 2014. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out on raw data, and we used a complex regression analysis to develop a predictive model of ED LOS. Potential covariates were patient factors, temporal factors, clinical factors, and workload variables (volume and acuity of patients three hours prior to and two hours after presentation by a baseline patient. The analysis was performed using R studio 0.99.467. Results: Ethnicity dropped out in the stepwise regression procedure; after adjusting for other factors, a specific ethnicity effect was not informative. Maori were, on average, younger, less likely to receive bloodwork and radiographs, less likely to go to our observation area, less likely to have a general practitioner, and more likely to be discharged and to self-discharge; all of these factors decreased their length of stay. Conclusion: Length of stay in our ED does not seem to be related to ethnicity alone. Patient factors had only a small impact on ED LOS, while clinical factors, temporal factors, and workload variables had much greater influence. [West J Emerg Med. 2017;17(4438-448.

  17. Emergency Department Length of Stay for Maori and European Patients in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisk, David; Godfrey, A Jonathan R; Lawrence, Anne

    2016-07-01

    Emergency department length of stay (ED LOS) is currently used in Australasia as a quality measure. In our ED, Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, have a shorter ED LOS than European patients. This is despite Maori having poorer health outcomes overall. This study sought to determine drivers of LOS in our provincial New Zealand ED, particularly looking at ethnicity as a determining factor. This was a retrospective cohort study that reviewed 80,714 electronic medical records of ED patients from December 1, 2012, to December 1, 2014. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out on raw data, and we used a complex regression analysis to develop a predictive model of ED LOS. Potential covariates were patient factors, temporal factors, clinical factors, and workload variables (volume and acuity of patients three hours prior to and two hours after presentation by a baseline patient). The analysis was performed using R studio 0.99.467. Ethnicity dropped out in the stepwise regression procedure; after adjusting for other factors, a specific ethnicity effect was not informative. Maori were, on average, younger, less likely to receive bloodwork and radiographs, less likely to go to our observation area, less likely to have a general practitioner, and more likely to be discharged and to self-discharge; all of these factors decreased their length of stay. Length of stay in our ED does not seem to be related to ethnicity alone. Patient factors had only a small impact on ED LOS, while clinical factors, temporal factors, and workload variables had much greater influence.

  18. Difference between received and expected knowledge of patients undergoing knee or hip replacement in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetti, Seija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Cabrera, Esther; Copanitsanou, Panagiota; Ingadottir, Brynja; Istomina, Natalja; Katajisto, Jouko; Papastavrou, Evridiki; Unosson, Mitra; Valkeapää, Kirsi

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine received and expected knowledge of patients with knee/hip arthroplasty in seven European countries. The goal was to obtain information for developing empowering patient education. The data were collected (during 2009-2012) from patients (n = 943) with hip/knee arthroplasty prior to scheduled preoperative education and before discharge with the Received Knowledge of hospital patient scale (RKhp) and Expected Knowledge of hospital patient scale (EKhp). Patients' knowledge expectations were high but the level of received knowledge did not correspond to expectations. The difference between received and expected knowledge was higher in Greece and Sweden compared with Finland (p European countries. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Readability assessment of online patient education materials provided by the European Association of Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betschart, Patrick; Zumstein, Valentin; Bentivoglio, Maico; Engeler, Daniel; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Abt, Dominik

    2017-12-01

    To assess the readability of the web-based patient education material provided by the European Association of Urology. English patient education materials (PEM) as available in May 2017 were obtained from the EAU website. Each topic was analyzed separately using six well-established readability assessment tools, including Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), SMOG Grade Level (SMOG), Coleman-Liau Index (CLI), Gunning Fog Index (GFI), Flesch Reading Ease Formula (FRE) and Fry Readability Graph (FRG). A total of 17 main topics were identified of which separate basic and in-depth information is provided for 14 topics. Calculation of grade levels (FKGL, SMOG, CLI, GFI) showed readability scores of 7th-13th grade for basic information, 8th-15th grade for in-depth information and 7th-15th grade for single PEM. Median FRE score was 54 points (range 45-65) for basic information and 56 points (41-64) for in-depth information. The FRG as a graphical assessment revealed only 13 valid results with an approximate 8th-17th grade level. The EAU provides carefully worked out PEM for 17 urological topics. Although improved readability compared to similar analyses was found, a simplification of certain chapters might be helpful to facilitate better patient understanding.

  20. An epidemiological study of hemodialysis patients based on the European Fresenius Medical Care hemodialysis network: results of the ARO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francisco, Angel L M; Kim, Joseph; Anker, Stefan D; Belozeroff, Vasily; Canaud, Bernard; Chazot, Charles; Drüeke, Tilman B; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Floege, Jürgen; Kronenberg, Florian; Macdougall, Iain C; Marcelli, Daniele; Molemans, Bart; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Schernthaner, Guntram; Stenvinkel, Peter; Wheeler, David C; Fouqueray, Bruno; Aljama, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    ARO, an observational study of hemodialysis (HD) patients in Europe, aims to enhance our understanding of patient characteristics and practice patterns to improve patient outcome. HD patients (n = 8,963) from 134 Fresenius Medical Care facilities treated between 2005 and 2006 were randomly selected from 9 European countries (Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Slovak Republic and Slovenia) and Turkey. Information was captured on demographics, comorbidities, medications, laboratory and dialysis parameters, and outcome. Patients were followed for 1.4 ± 0.7 years. Wide variation by country was observed for age, sex and diabetes as a cause of chronic kidney disease. Cardiovascular disease was present in 73% of patients. Dialysis parameters were homogeneous across countries. Arteriovenous fistulas were frequently used (73%). More incident patients had hemoglobin <11 g/dl than prevalent patients (50 vs. 33%, respectively). Phosphatemia and intact parathyroid hormone were similar between incident and prevalent patients (4.7 ± 1.2 mg/dl and 190 vs. 213 ng/l, respectively). Medication use varied widely by country. In total, 5% of patients underwent renal transplantation. Overall death rate was 124/1,000 patient-years. ARO revealed differences in HD practice patterns and patient characteristics in the 10 participating countries. Future ARO studies will fill gaps in the knowledge about the care of European HD patients. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Differential gene expression between African American and European American colorectal cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovov

    Full Text Available The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC is higher in African Americans (AAs than other ethnic groups in the U. S., but reasons for the disparities are unknown. We performed gene expression profiling of sporadic CRCs from AAs vs. European Americans (EAs to assess the contribution to CRC disparities. We evaluated the gene expression of 43 AA and 43 EA CRC tumors matched by stage and 40 matching normal colorectal tissues using the Agilent human whole genome 4x44K cDNA arrays. Gene and pathway analyses were performed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM, Ten-fold cross validation, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA. SAM revealed that 95 genes were differentially expressed between AA and EA patients at a false discovery rate of ≤5%. Using IPA we determined that most prominent disease and pathway associations of differentially expressed genes were related to inflammation and immune response. Ten-fold cross validation demonstrated that following 10 genes can predict ethnicity with an accuracy of 94%: CRYBB2, PSPH, ADAL, VSIG10L, C17orf81, ANKRD36B, ZNF835, ARHGAP6, TRNT1 and WDR8. Expression of these 10 genes was validated by qRT-PCR in an independent test set of 28 patients (10 AA, 18 EA. Our results are the first to implicate differential gene expression in CRC racial disparities and indicate prominent difference in CRC inflammation between AA and EA patients. Differences in susceptibility to inflammation support the existence of distinct tumor microenvironments in these two patient populations.

  2. Appendectomy and diagnosis-related groups (DRGs): patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 11 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, Wilm; Scheller-Kreinsen, David; Geissler, Alexander; Busse, Reinhard

    2012-02-01

    As part of the EuroDRG project, researchers from 11 countries (i.e., Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, and Spain) compared how their diagnosis-related groups (DRG) systems deal with appendectomy patients. The study aims to assist surgeons and national authorities to optimize their DRG systems. National or regional databases were used to identify hospital cases with a diagnosis of appendicitis treated with a procedure of appendectomy. DRG classification algorithms and indicators of resource consumption were compared for those DRGs that together comprised at least 97% of cases. Six standardized case vignettes were defined, and quasi prices according to national DRG-based hospital payment systems were ascertained. European DRG systems vary widely: they classify appendectomy patients according to different sets of variables (between two and six classification variables) into diverging numbers of DRGs (between two and 11 DRGs). The most complex DRG is valued 5.1 times more resource intensive than an index case in France but only 1.1 times more resource intensive than an index case in Finland. Comparisons of quasi prices for the case vignettes show that hypothetical payments for the most complex case vignette amount to only 1,005 in Poland but to 12,304 in France. Large variations in the classification of appendectomy patients raise concerns whether all systems rely on the most appropriate classification variables. Surgeons and national DRG authorities should consider how other countries' DRG systems classify appendectomy patients in order to optimize their DRG system and to ensure fair and appropriate reimbursement.

  3. Awareness of General Practitioners concerning cancer patients' preferences for place of death: Evidence from four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, W.; Beccaro, M.; Miccinesi, G.; van Casteren, V.; Donker, G.A.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.; Espi, M.T.; Deliens, L.; Costantini, M.; Block, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: General Practitioners (GPs) are at the first level of contact in many European healthcare systems and they supposedly have a role in supporting cancer patients in achieving their desired place of death. A four-country (Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain) study was carried out

  4. Validity of the European society of cardiology's psychosocial screening interview in patients with coronary artery disease : The THORESCI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Montfort, E.M.J.; Denollet, J.; Widdershoven, J.W.M.G.; Kupper, N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the validity of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) psychosocial screening instrument. Methods: A total of 508 acute (67%) or elective (33%) percutaneous coronary intervention patients (mean [standard deviation]age = 63 [10] years, 81% male)

  5. Influence from genetic variability on opioid use for cancer pain: a European genetic association study of 2294 cancer pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klepstad, P; Fladvad, T; Skorpen, F

    2011-01-01

    variability with opioid doses in a large population using a confirmatory validation population was warranted. We recruited 2294 adult European patients using a World Health Organization (WHO) step III opioid and analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes with a putative influence on opioid...

  6. The general practitioner as the first contacted health professional by patients with psychosocial problems: a European study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, W.G.W.; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1999-01-01

    Background: there are considerable differences between and within countries in the involvement of general practitioners (GPs) in psychosocial care. This study aimed to describe the self-perceived role of GPs in 30 European countries as the first contacted professional for patients with psychosocial

  7. European Society of Cardiology smartphone and tablet applications for patients with atrial fibrillation and their health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecha, Dipak; Chua, Winnie W L; Fabritz, Larissa; Hendriks, Jeroen; Casadei, Barbara; Schotten, Ulrich; Vardas, Panos; Heidbuchel, Hein; Dean, Veronica; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2018-02-01

    We are in the midst of a digital revolution in health care, although the application of new and useful technology in routine clinical practice is variable. The Characterizing Atrial fibrillation by Translating its Causes into Health Modifiers in the Elderly (CATCH ME) Consortium, in collaboration with the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), has funded the creation of two applications (apps) in atrial fibrillation (AF) for use in smartphones and tablets. The patient app aims to enhance patient education, improve communication between patients and health care professionals, and encourage active patient involvement in the management of their condition. The health care professional app is designed as an interactive management tool incorporating the new ESC Practice Guidelines on AF and supported by the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), with the aim of improving best practice approaches for the care of patients with AF. Both stand-alone apps are now freely available for Android and iOS devices though the Google Play, Amazon, and Apple stores. In this article, we outline the rationale for the design and implementation of these apps. Our objective is to demonstrate the value of integrating novel digital technology into clinical practice, with the potential for patient engagement, optimization of pharmacological and interventional therapy in AF, and ultimately to improve patient outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  8. Major knowledge gaps and system barriers to guideline implementation among European physicians treating patients with atrial fibrillation: a European Society of Cardiology international educational needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbuchel, Hein; Dagres, Nikolaos; Antz, Matthias; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Lazure, Patrice; Murray, Suzanne; Carrera, Céline; Hindricks, Gerhard; Vahanian, Alec

    2018-03-12

    Guideline-adherent treatment is associated with improved prognosis in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients but is insufficiently implemented in clinical practice. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) performed a multinational educational needs assessment study among cardiologists, general practitioners/family physicians (GPs/FPs), and neurologists in order to evaluate knowledge and skills of physicians and system factors related to AF care delivery. A total of 561 physicians (294 cardiologists, 131 neurologists, and 136 GPs/FPs) from six European countries participated. This mixed-methods study included exploratory semi-structured qualitative interviews (n = 30) and a quantitative survey that included two clinical cases (n = 531). We identified eight key knowledge gaps and system barriers across all domains of AF care. A majority across all specialties reported skills needing improvement to classify AF pathophysiologically, rather than based on duration of episodes, and reported lack of availability of long-term electrocardiogram recording. Skills interpreting the CHA2DS2-VASc and the HAS-BLED scores were reported as needing improvement by the majority of neurologists (52% and 60%, respectively) and GPs/FPs (65% and 74%). Cardiologists calculated the CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores in 94%/70% in a presented case patient, but only 60%/49% of neurologists and 58%/42% of GPs/FPs did. There was much uncertainty on how to deal with anticoagulant therapy in complex patients. There was also a high disparity in using rate or rhythm control strategies, and indications for ablation. Information delivery to patients and communication between different specialties was often considered suboptimal, while national regulations and restrictions often hamper international guideline implementation. We identified major gaps in physicians' knowledge and skills across all domains of AF care, as well as system factors hampering guideline-compliant care implementation and

  9. Multi-centre European study of breakthrough cancer pain: pain characteristics and patient perceptions of current and potential management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew; Zeppetella, Giovambattista; Andersen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This study involved 320 cancer patients from four Northern European countries. Patients with breakthrough pain were questioned about the characteristics of their pain, the current management of their pain, and the acceptability/utility of alternative routes of administration. The median number...... of episodes was 3/day. Forty-four percent patients reported incident-type pain, 39% spontaneous-type pain, and 17% a combination of these pains. The median duration was 60 min, and the median time to peak intensity was 15 min. Three percent patients reported "mild" pain, 37% "moderate" pain, and 60% "severe......" pain. Ninety percent patients stated that the pain interfered with their daily activities. All patients were using opioids as rescue medication (mainly oral morphine/oxycodone), whilst 28% patients were using non-opioids, and 50% patients were using non-pharmacological interventions. Only 55% patients...

  10. A European Multicenter Study of 616 Patients Receiving the Freedom Solo Stentless Bioprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmann, Markus; Grubitzsch, Herko; Matschke, Klaus; Glauber, Mattia; Tan, Erwin; Francois, Katrien; Amorim, Mario J; Hensens, Ab G; Cesari, Francesco; Feyrer, Richard; Diegeler, Anno; Veit, Franz; Repossini, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and performance of the Freedom Solo valve in aortic valve replacement by clinical and hemodynamic outcomes. Six hundred sixteen patients underwent aortic valve replacement in 18 European centers; mean age was 74.5 ± 5.9 years, 54.1% of the patients were male, and concomitant procedures were performed in 43.2% of the patients. The majority (69%) of the implanted sizes were 23 mm and 25 mm. At 1 year, overall survival was 94.0%, whereas freedom from valve-related death was 98.6%. There were 9 (1.5%) early (≤ 30 days) and 27 (4.4%) late (>30 days) deaths. Early and late valve-related mortality was 0.3% (n = 2) and 1.1% (n = 7), respectively. Freedom from explant was 97.6%; 10 valves were explanted for endocarditis and 4 for paravalvular leak. There were 10 (1.6%) early and 5 (0.8%) late strokes. Atrioventricular block requiring pacemaker implant occurred in 8 (1.3%) and 1 (0.2%) patients in the early and late postoperative period, respectively. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 27 cases (4.4%) in the early postoperative period. Preoperatively, 93.8% of patients were in New York Heart Association functional classes II through IV, whereas at 1 year 96.9% of patients were in New York Heart Association functional classes I and II. At 1-year follow-up, mean and peak pressure gradients were 7.2 and 14.6 mm Hg, respectively. Indexed left ventricular mass decreased by 12% from 138 g/m(2) at discharge to 122 g/m(2) at 1 year. At 1-year follow-up after Freedom Solo implantation, we found acceptable clinical results with low mortality and morbidity and good hemodynamic performance, confirming safety and effectiveness in this multicenter experience. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psycho-oncology: structure and profiles of European centers treating patients with gynecological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenburg, Annette; Amant, Frederic; Aerts, Leen; Pascal, Astrid; Achimas-Cadariu, Patriciu; Kesic, Vesna

    2011-12-01

    Psycho-oncological counseling should be an integrated part of modern cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the structures and interests of psycho-oncology services within European Society of Gynecological Oncology (ESGO) centers. In 2010, a survey, which consisted of 15 questions regarding organization of psycho-oncological services and interests in training and research, was sent to all ESGO-accredited centers (n = 41). The response rate was 65.8% (27 centers). 96.3% (n = 26) of the surveys came from universities, and 3.7% (n = 1) came from nonacademic institutions. Most of the institutions (92.6%, n = 25) offer psycho-oncological care, mainly by psychologists (64%, n = 16) or psycho-oncologists (48%, n = 12). Fifty-two percent of patients are evaluated for sexual dysfunction as sequelae of their disease or treatment-related adverse effects. Fifty-two percent (n = 14) of institutions offer psychological support for cancer care providers. Eighty-five percent (n = 23) of all centers are interested in psycho-oncological training, and the preferred teaching tools are educational workshops (87%). The main issues of interest are sexual problems in patients with cancer, communication and interpersonal skills, responses of patients and their families, anxiety and adjustment disorders, and palliative care. Eighty-five percent (n = 17) of the 20 institutions look for research in the field of psycho-oncology, and 55% (n = 11) of those are already involved in some kind of research. Although psycho-oncological care is provided in most of the consulted ESGO accredited centers, almost 50% of women lack information about sexual problems. The results of the survey show the need for and interest in psycho-oncology training and research, including sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, psychological support should be offered to all cancer care providers.

  12. Prasugrel vs. clopidogrel in contemporary Western European patients with acute coronary syndromes receiving drug-eluting stents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wein, Bastian; Coslovsky, Michael; Jabbari, Reza

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical and cost-effectiveness of prasugrel vs. clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was only evaluated using TRITON-TIMI 38 event rates. A comparative analysis of both drugs in contemporary European ACS patients is lacking. METHODS: To address this issue, cardiac and bleedin......=0.255), but more major bleedings (4.0% vs. 1.7%, pexpenditures per patient: 1116.3 (DNK), 1063.5 (GER) and 880.8 (SUI) EURO, respectively. Accordingly, incremental cost...

  13. European Society of Gynaecological Oncology Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Vulvar Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, Maaike H. M.; Planchamp, Francois; Baldwin, Peter; Bidzinski, Mariusz; Brannstrom, Mats; Landoni, Fabio; Mahner, Sven; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Mirza, Mansoor; Petersen, Cordula; Querleu, Denis; Regauer, Sigrid; Rob, Lukas; Rouzier, Roman; Ulrikh, Elena; van der Velden, Jacobus; Vergote, Ignace; Woelber, Linn; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop clinically relevant and evidence-based guidelines as part of European Society of Gynaecological Oncology's mission to improve the quality of care for women with gynecologic cancers across Europe. Methods The European Society of Gynaecological Oncology

  14. European Society of Gynaecological Oncology Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Vulvar Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, Maaike H. M.; Planchamp, François; Baldwin, Peter; Bidzinski, Mariusz; Brännström, Mats; Landoni, Fabio; Mahner, Sven; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Mirza, Mansoor; Petersen, Cordula; Querleu, Denis; Regauer, Sigrid; Rob, Lukas; Rouzier, Roman; Ulrikh, Elena; van der Velden, Jacobus; Vergote, Ignace; Woelber, Linn; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop clinically relevant and evidence-based guidelines as part of European Society of Gynaecological Oncology's mission to improve the quality of care for women with gynecologic cancers across Europe. The European Society of Gynaecological Oncology Council nominated

  15. Vaccination in paediatric patients with auto-immune rheumatic diseases : A systemic literature review for the European League against Rheumatism evidence-based recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijstek, M. W.; de Bruin, L. M. Ott; Borrow, R.; van der Klis, F.; Kone-Paut, I.; Fasth, A.; Minden, K.; Ravelli, A.; Abinun, M.; Pileggi, G.; Borte, M.; Bijl, M.; Wulffraat, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze available evidence on vaccinations in paediatric patients with rheumatic and auto-inflammatory diseases. This evidence formed the basis of the recently constructed European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for vaccination of these patients. Methods: A

  16. The formal-informal patient payment mix in European countries. Governance, economics, culture or all of these?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambor, Marzena; Pavlova, Milena; Golinowska, Stanisława; Sowada, Christoph; Groot, Wim

    2013-12-01

    Cost-sharing for health care is high on the policy agenda in many European countries that struggle with deficits in their public budget. However, such policy often meets with public opposition, which might delay or even prevent its implementation. Increased reliance on patient payments may also have adverse equity effects, especially in countries where informal patient payments are widespread. The factors which might influence the presence of both, formal and informal payments can be found in economic, governance and cultural differences between countries. The aim of this paper is to review the formal-informal payment mix in Europe and to outline factors associated with this mix. We use quantitative analyses of macro-data for 35 European countries and a qualitative description of selected country experiences. The results suggest that the presence of obligatory cost-sharing for health care services is associated with governance factors, while informal patient payments are a multi-cause phenomenon. A consensus-based policy, supported by evidence and stakeholders' engagement, might contribute to a more sustainable patient payment policy. In some European countries, the implementation of cost-sharing requires policy actions to reduce other patient payment obligations, including measures to eliminate informal payments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lost productivity in four European countries among patients with rheumatic disorders: are absenteeism and presenteeism transferable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Saskia; Candel, Math J J M; Boonen, Annelies; Evers, Silvia M A A; Ament, Andre J H A; Severens, Johan L

    2012-09-01

    When national pharmacoeconomic guidelines are compared, different recommendations are identified on how to identify, measure and value lost productivity, leading to difficulties when comparing lost productivity estimates across countries. From a transferability point of view, the question arises of whether differences between countries regarding lost productivity are the result of using different calculation methods (methodological differences) or of other between-country differences. When lost productivity data differ significantly across countries, the transferability of lost productivity data across countries is hindered. The objective of this study was to investigate whether country of residence has a significant influence on the quantity of lost productivity among patients with rheumatic disorders. Confounding factors that might differ between countries were corrected for, while the methodology used to identify and measure lost productivity was kept the same. This question was investigated by means of an online questionnaire filled out by 200 respondents with a rheumatic disorder per country in four European countries, namely the Netherlands, the UK, Germany and France. In addition to those regarding lost productivity, the questionnaire contained questions about patient characteristics, disability insurance, disease characteristics, quality of life and job characteristics as these variables are expected to influence lost productivity in terms of absenteeism and presenteeism. The data were analysed by regression analyses, in which different components - being absent in last 3 months, number of days absent and presenteeism - of lost productivity were the main outcome measures and other variables, such as gender, impact of disease, shift work, job control, partial disability and overall general health, were corrected for. The results showed that country sometimes has a significant influence on lost productivity and that other variables such as, for example, age

  18. Effect of the European directive on medical exposure on patients doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, P.; Heaton, B. [Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In 2000 the European Directive on medical exposures was incorporated into United Kingdom law. Whilst the primary aim was to ensure that all uses of ionising radiation in medical practice were justified and a benefit to the patient or volunteer was identified, there was an understanding that patient doses would be controlled and collective doses reduced. The Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 made a lot of new demands on radiology and Nuclear Medicine departments. No department is too small or specialized to ignore these regulations and the impact can be major. The Aberdeen Radiation Protection Service advises a number of users of ionising radiation on the implementation of these regulations ranging from single person dental practices to large radiology departments in busy regional hospitals. The particular problems and issues affecting different departments will be discussed. The regulations identified new key roles with Employers, Referrers, Practitioners and Operators all having specific responsibilities. Each of these groups needs to be identified, informed of their responsibilities and trained as necessary. The problems this has raised for the various staff groups will be discussed. A large number of procedures had to be written from how a patient is uniquely identified to how incidents are reported and investigated. There is much emphasis on optimising the use of equipment and techniques used, paying particular attention to women of child bearing age and children. Again there are problems in implementing this in practice and these issues will be discussed. A formal procedure for reporting 'near misses' and actual incidents of overexposure, were introduced. Each reported event is reviewed to identify issues and lessons which can be learnt by others. There is often a lateral thinking exercise involved to reduce the probability of an incident happening again and some novel solutions have been

  19. Effect of the European directive on medical exposure on patients doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, P.; Heaton, B.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In 2000 the European Directive on medical exposures was incorporated into United Kingdom law. Whilst the primary aim was to ensure that all uses of ionising radiation in medical practice were justified and a benefit to the patient or volunteer was identified, there was an understanding that patient doses would be controlled and collective doses reduced. The Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 made a lot of new demands on radiology and Nuclear Medicine departments. No department is too small or specialized to ignore these regulations and the impact can be major. The Aberdeen Radiation Protection Service advises a number of users of ionising radiation on the implementation of these regulations ranging from single person dental practices to large radiology departments in busy regional hospitals. The particular problems and issues affecting different departments will be discussed. The regulations identified new key roles with Employers, Referrers, Practitioners and Operators all having specific responsibilities. Each of these groups needs to be identified, informed of their responsibilities and trained as necessary. The problems this has raised for the various staff groups will be discussed. A large number of procedures had to be written from how a patient is uniquely identified to how incidents are reported and investigated. There is much emphasis on optimising the use of equipment and techniques used, paying particular attention to women of child bearing age and children. Again there are problems in implementing this in practice and these issues will be discussed. A formal procedure for reporting 'near misses' and actual incidents of overexposure, were introduced. Each reported event is reviewed to identify issues and lessons which can be learnt by others. There is often a lateral thinking exercise involved to reduce the probability of an incident happening again and some novel solutions have been implemented

  20. Smoking cessation in European patients with coronary heart disease. Results from the EUROASPIRE IV survey: A registry from the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snaterse, M; Deckers, J W; Lenzen, M J; Jorstad, H T; De Bacquer, D; Peters, R J G; Jennings, C; Kotseva, K; Scholte Op Reimer, W J M

    2018-05-01

    We investigated smoking cessation rates in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients throughout Europe; current and as compared to earlier EUROASPIRE surveys, and we studied characteristics of successful quitters. Analyses were done on 7998 patients from the EUROASPIRE-IV survey admitted for myocardial infarction, unstable angina and coronary revascularisation. Self-reported smoking status was validated by measuring carbon monoxide in exhaled air. Thirty-one percent of the patients reported being a smoker in the month preceding hospital admission for the recruiting event, varying from 15% in centres from Finland to 57% from centres in Cyprus. Smoking rates at the interview were also highly variable, ranging from 7% to 28%. The proportion of successful quitters was relatively low in centres with a low number of pre- event smokers. Overall, successful smoking cessation was associated with increasing age (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.09-2.06) and higher levels of education (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.08-1.75). Successful quitters more frequently reported that they had been advised (56% vs. 47%, p < .001) and to attend (81% vs. 75%, p < .01) a cardiac rehabilitation programme. Our study shows wide variation in cessation rates in a large contemporary European survey of CHD patients. Therefore, smoking cessation rates in patients with a CHD event should be interpreted in the light of pre-event smoking prevalence, and caution is needed when comparing cessation rates across Europe. Furthermore, we found that successful quitters reported more actions to make healthy lifestyle changes, including participating in a cardiac rehabilitation programme, as compared with persistent smokers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Coronary artery bypass grafts and diagnosis related groups: patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 10 European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The prospective reimbursement of hospitals through the grouping of patients into a finite number of categories (Diagnosis Related Groups, DRGs), is common to many European countries. However, the specific categories used vary greatly across countries, using different characteristics to define group boundaries and thus those characteristics which result in different payments for treatment. In order to assist in the construction and modification of national DRG systems, this study analyses the DRG systems of 10 European countries. Aims To compare the characteristics used to categorise patients receiving a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery into DRGs. Further, to compare the structure into which DRGs are placed and the relative price paid for patients across Europe. Method Patients with a procedure of CABG surgery are analysed from Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Poland, Spain and Sweden. Diagrammatic algorithms of DRG structures are presented for each country. The price in Euros of seven typical case vignettes, each made up of a set of a hypothetical patient’s characteristics, is also analysed for each country. In order to enable comparisons across countries the simplest case (index vignette) is taken as baseline and relative price levels are calculated for the other six vignettes, each representing patients with different combinations of procedures and comorbidities. Results European DRG payment structures for CABG surgery vary in terms of the number of different DRGs used and the types of distinctions which define patient categorisation. Based on the payments given to hospitals in different countries, the most resource intensive patient, relative to the index vignette, ranges in magnitude from 1.37 in Poland to 2.82 in Ireland. There is also considerable variation in how much different systems pay for particular circumstances, such as the occurrence of catheterisation or presence of comorbidity. Conclusion Past

  2. Comparison of the Berlin definition with the American European consensus definition for acute respiratory distress syndrome in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, Julien; Lacroix, Guillaume; Esnault, Pierre; Goutorbe, Philippe; Cotte, Jean; Dantzer, Eric; Meaudre, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a leading cause of mortality in burn patients. Smoke inhalation, pneumonia and inflammation process are the major causes of ARDS in burn patients. The American European Consensus Conference (AECC) definition proposed in 1994 has recently been revised by the Berlin definition. Our objective was to describe the epidemiology of ARDS comparing the Berlin definition with the AECC definition in a retrospective cohort of burn patients. We reviewed admitted burn adult patients for a two year period, and investigated patient who received mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h and in whom pneumonia was diagnosed. 40 patients were analyzed. According to the AECC definition, 11 patients met criteria for ALI (27.5%), and 29 patients for ARDS (72.5%). According to the Berlin definition, all patients met criteria for ARDS: 4 (10%) for a severe ARDS, 25 (62.5%) for a moderate ARDS, 11 (27.5%) for a mild ARDS. Inhalation injury was diagnosed in 10 patients (25%). Categorizing patients with the Berlin definition showed statistically significative difference of mortality within the three groups, but not with the AECC definition. The Berlin definition seems to be more accurate than the AECC definition to assess the severity of ARDS in term of outcome in burn patients. This definition may facilitate prompt recognition of ARDS in burn patients, and promote protective ventilation strategy to a larger number of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. European Society of Cardiology smartphone and tablet applications for patients with atrial fibrillation and their health care providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecha, Dipak; Chua, Winnie W L; Fabritz, Larissa; Hendriks, Jeroen; Casadei, Barbara; Schotten, Ulrich; Vardas, Panos; Heidbuchel, Hein; Dean, Veronica; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We are in the midst of a digital revolution in health care, although the application of new and useful technology in routine clinical practice is variable. The Characterizing Atrial fibrillation by Translating its Causes into Health Modifiers in the Elderly (CATCH ME) Consortium, in collaboration with the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), has funded the creation of two applications (apps) in atrial fibrillation (AF) for use in smartphones and tablets. The patient app aims to enhance patient education, improve communication between patients and health care professionals, and encourage active patient involvement in the management of their condition. The health care professional app is designed as an interactive management tool incorporating the new ESC Practice Guidelines on AF and supported by the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), with the aim of improving best practice approaches for the care of patients with AF. Both stand-alone apps are now freely available for Android and iOS devices though the Google Play, Amazon, and Apple stores. In this article, we outline the rationale for the design and implementation of these apps. Our objective is to demonstrate the value of integrating novel digital technology into clinical practice, with the potential for patient engagement, optimization of pharmacological and interventional therapy in AF, and ultimately to improve patient outcomes. PMID:29040548

  4. Favourable outcome in a patient bitten by a rabid bat infected with the European bat lyssavirus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gucht, S; Verlinde, R; Colyn, J; Vanderpas, J; Vanhoof, R; Roels, S; Francart, A; Brochier, B; Suin, V

    2013-01-01

    The classic rabies virus (genotype 1) has been eliminated in Western Europe, but related lyssaviruses still circulate in local bats. In August 2010, a Belgian photographer was bitten upon provocation of a disoriented Eptesicus serotinus bat in Spain. The bat was infected with European bat lyssavirus-1 (genotype 5). The isolate proved highly neurovirulent in mice. The patient had received preventive rabies immunisations years before the incident and received two boosters with the HDCV rabies vaccine afterwards. Available vaccines are based on the classic rabies virus, which is significantly divergent from the European bat lyssavirus-1. Fortunately, the patient's serological immune response demonstrated satisfactory neutralisation of the 2010 EBLV-1 isolate, using an intracerebral challenge model in mice. Most likely, the patient's life was saved thanks to vaccination with the classic rabies vaccine, which proved sufficiently protective against European bat lyssavirus-1. This case highlights the need for preventive rabies vaccination in people, who come in contact with bats and to seek medical council after a scratch or bite from a bat.

  5. Inter-ethnic differences in valve morphology, valvular dysfunction, and aortopathy between Asian and European patients with bicuspid aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, William K F; Regeer, Madelien V; Poh, Kian K; Yip, James W; van Rosendael, Philippe J; Yeo, Tiong C; Tay, Edgar; Kamperidis, Vasileios; van der Velde, Enno T; Mertens, Bart; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J

    2018-04-14

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been shown safe and feasible in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) morphology. Evaluation of inter-ethnic differences in valve morphology and function and aortic root dimensions in patients with BAV is important for the worldwide spread of this therapy in this subgroup of patients. Comparisons between large European and Asian cohorts of patients with BAV have not been performed, and potential differences between populations may have important implications for TAVR. The present study evaluated the differences in valve morphology and function and aortic root dimensions between two large cohorts of European and Asian patients with BAV. Aortic valve morphology was defined on transthoracic echocardiography according to the number of commissures and raphe: type 0 = no raphe and two commissures, type 1 = one raphe and two commissures, type 2 = two raphes and one commissure. Aortic stenosis and regurgitation were graded according to current recommendations. For this study, aortic root dimensions were manually measured on transthoracic echocardiograms at the level of the aortic annulus, sinus of Valsalva (SOV), sinotubular junction (STJ), and ascending aorta (AA). Of 1427 patients with BAV (45.2 ± 18.1 years, 71.9% men), 794 (55.6%) were Europeans and 633 (44.4%) were Asians. The groups were comparable in age and proportion of male sex. Asians had higher prevalence of type 1 BAV with raphe between right and non-coronary cusps than Europeans (19.7% vs. 13.6%, respectively; P < 0.001), whereas the Europeans had higher prevalence of type 0 BAV (two commissures, no raphe) than Asians (14.5% vs. 6.8%, respectively; P < 0.001). The prevalence of moderate and severe aortic regurgitation was higher in Europeans than Asians (44.2% vs. 26.8%, respectively; P < 0.001) whereas there were no differences in BAV with normal function or aortic stenosis. After adjusting for demographics, comorbidities

  6. Low social interactions in eating disorder patients in childhood and adulthood: a multi-centre European case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Isabel; Penelo, Eva; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Anderluh, Marija; Bellodi, Laura; Cellini, Elena; di Bernardo, Milena; Granero, Roser; Karwautz, Andreas; Nacmias, Benedetta; Ricca, Valdo; Sorbi, Sandro; Tchanturia, Kate; Wagner, Gudrun; Collier, David; Treasure, Janet

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article was to examine lifestyle behaviours in eating disorder (ED) patients and healthy controls. A total of 801 ED patients and 727 healthy controls from five European countries completed the questions related to lifestyle behaviours of the Cross-Cultural Questionnaire (CCQ). For children, the ED sample exhibited more solitary activities (rigorously doing homework [psocializing with friends [pgroup and this continued in adulthood. There were minimal differences across ED sub-diagnoses and various cross-cultural differences emerged. Reduced social activities may be an important risk and maintaining factor for ED symptomatology.

  7. Adherence, satisfaction and preferences for treatment in patients with psoriasis in the European Union: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinchón I

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available I Belinchón,1 R Rivera,2 C Blanch,3 M Comellas,4 L Lizán4,5 1Department of Dermatology, Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Alicante, 2Department of Dermatology, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, 3Novartis Farmacéutica S.A., Barcelona, 4Outcomes’10, Castellón, Spain; 5Medical Department, University Jaime I, Castellón, Spain Background and objective: Adherence to treatment in patients with psoriasis is often poor. An investigation of patient preferences and satisfaction with treatment may be important, based on the expected correlation with therapy compliance. This paper aims to examine and describe the current literature on patient preferences, satisfaction and adherence to treatment for psoriasis in the European Union (EU.Methods: Electronic searches were conducted using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Spanish databases and Google Scholar. European studies published in English or Spanish between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014 regarding patient-reported outcomes in psoriatic patients were included. Studies conducted in non-EU countries, letters to the editor, editorials, experts’ opinions, case studies, congress proceedings, publications that did not differentiate between patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis or studies related to specific treatment were excluded.Results: A total of 1,769 titles were identified, of which 1,636 were excluded as they were duplicates or did not provide any relevant information. After a full-text reading and application of the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 46 publications were included. This paper will describe publications on adherence (n=4, preferences (n=5 and satisfaction with treatment (n=7. Results related to health-related quality of life articles (n=30 have been published elsewhere. Adherence rates are generally low in psoriasis patients regardless of the type of treatment, severity of disease or methods used to measure adherence. Biologic therapy is

  8. Involving patients in a multidisciplinary European consensus process and in the development of a 'patient summary of the consensus document for colon and rectal cancer care'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelens, Petra G; Taylor, Claire; Henning, Geoffrey; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J; Espin, Eloy; Wiggers, Theo; Gore-Booth, Jola; Moss, Barbara; Valentini, Vincenzo; van de Velde, Cornelis J H

    2014-01-01

    High-quality cancer care should be accessible for patients and healthcare professionals. Involvement of patients as partners in guideline formation and consensus processes is still rarely found. EURECCA, short for European Registration of Cancer Care, is the platform to improve outcomes of cancer care by reducing variation in the diagnostic and treatment process. EURECCA acknowledges the important role of patients in implementation of consensus information in clinical practice. The aim of this article is to describe the process of involving patients in the consensus process and in developing the patient summary of the consensus for colon and rectal cancer care. The Delphi method for achieving consensus was used. Three online voting rounds and one tele-voting round were offered to an expert panel of oncology professionals and patient representatives. At four different stages, patients and/or patient representatives were involved in the process: (1) during the consensus process, (2) lecturing about the role of the patient, (3) development of the patient summary, and (4) testing the patient summary. Representatives were invited to the voting and commenting rounds of this process and given an equal vote. Although patients were not consulted during the planning stages of this process, patient involvement increased following the panel's discussion of the implementation of the consensus among the patient population. After the consensus meeting, the patient summary was written by patient representatives, oncologists and nurses. A selection of proactive patients reviewed the draft patient summary; responses were positive and several patient-reported outcomes were added. Questionnaires to evaluate the use and implementation of the patient summary in daily practice are currently being developed and tested. Patient consultation will be needed in future planning for selection of topics. The present study may function as a model for future consensus processes to involve patients

  9. Physiotherapy for adult patients with critical illness: recommendations of the European Respiratory Society and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine Task Force on Physiotherapy for Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselink, R; Bott, J; Johnson, M; Dean, E; Nava, S; Norrenberg, M; Schönhofer, B; Stiller, K; van de Leur, H; Vincent, J L

    2008-07-01

    The Task Force reviewed and discussed the available literature on the effectiveness of physiotherapy for acute and chronic critically ill adult patients. Evidence from randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses was limited and most of the recommendations were level C (evidence from uncontrolled or nonrandomized trials, or from observational studies) and D (expert opinion). However, the following evidence-based targets for physiotherapy were identified: deconditioning, impaired airway clearance, atelectasis, intubation avoidance, and weaning failure. Discrepancies and lack of data on the efficacy of physiotherapy in clinical trials support the need to identify guidelines for physiotherapy assessments, in particular to identify patient characteristics that enable treatments to be prescribed and modified on an individual basis. There is a need to standardize pathways for clinical decision-making and education, to define the professional profile of physiotherapists, and increase the awareness of the benefits of prevention and treatment of immobility and deconditioning for critically ill adult patients.

  10. Key European guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spronsen, F.J. van; Wegberg, A.M.J. van; Ahring, K.; Belanger-Quintana, A.; Blau, N.; Bosch, A.M.; Burlina, A.; Campistol, J.; Feillet, F.; Gizewska, M.; Huijbregts, S.C.J.; Kearney, S.; Leuzzi, V.; Maillot, F.; Muntau, A.C.; Trefz, F.K.; Rijn, M. van de; Walter, J.H.; Macdonald, A.

    2017-01-01

    We developed European guidelines to optimise phenylketonuria (PKU) care. To develop the guidelines, we did a literature search, critical appraisal, and evidence grading according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network method. We used the Delphi method when little or no evidence was

  11. Key European guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsen, Francjan J.; van Wegberg, Annemiek M. J.; Ahring, Kirsten; Belanger-Quintana, Amaya; Blau, Nenad; Bosch, Annet M.; Burlina, Alberto; Campistol, Jaime; Feillet, Francois; Gizewska, Maria; Huijbregts, Stephan C.; Kearney, Shauna; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Maillot, Francois; Muntau, Ania C.; Trefz, Fritz K.; van Rijn, Margreet; Walter, John H.; MacDonald, Anita

    We developed European guidelines to optimise phenylketonuria (PKU) care. To develop the guidelines, we did a literature search, critical appraisal, and evidence grading according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network method. We used the Delphi method when little or no evidence was

  12. Inhaled medication and inhalation devices for lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis : A European consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijerman, Harry; Westerman, Elsbeth; Conway, Steven; Touw, Daan; Döring, Gerd; Frijlink, Henderik

    In cystic fibrosis inhalation of drugs for the treatment of CF related lung disease has been proven to be highly effective. Consequently, an increasing number of drugs and devices have been developed for CF lung disease or are currently under development. In this European consensus document we

  13. Outcome measures in European patients with haemophilia: Survey of implementation in routine clinical practice, perception of relevance and recommendations by European treaters in the EHTSB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, C; Klamroth, R; Richards, M; de Moerloose, P; Garrido, R P

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the current implementation of outcome measures in routine clinical haemophilia practice and to explore and appreciate the perception of the relevance of such measures by treaters. A survey was completed by 19 of the 26 physicians involved in the European Haemophilia Therapy Strategy Board (EHTSB). Employing an extensive inventory of outcome measures used in patients with haemophilia, information was collected about the frequency of data collection and the subjective appreciation of their importance during clinic review. The survey revealed that most treaters currently collect data that are mainly related to the haemostatic treatment (consumption of concentrates) and the bleeding symptoms (number and location of bleeds) in a non-uniform and non-standardized way. By contrast, functional, physical and quality of life scorings are rarely used and show considerable heterogeneity between treaters. Also, many disparities emerged between practice and perception, in particular quality of life data that are perceived as being important but for most of the time are not collected. This survey represents, in our view, the first attempt to evaluate the actual utilization of outcome measures in haemophilia care. While the value of outcome measures is appreciated, they are not assessed regularly. Therefore, there is a need to include appropriate performance indicators (outcome measures) of haemophilia care in routine clinical practice. Consensus recommendations to provide a framework for achieving this aim are provided. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The substantial burden of systemic lupus erythematosus on the productivity and careers of patients: a European patient-driven online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Caroline; Isenberg, David; Lerstrøm, Kirsten; Norton, Yvonne; Nikaï, Enkeleida; Pushparajah, Daphnee S; Schneider, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the burden of SLE and its effect on patients' lives. The Lupus European Online (LEO) survey included patient-designed questions on demographics, SLE diagnosis, and the impact of SLE on careers. Three SLE-specific patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires were also completed: the Lupus Quality of Life (LupusQoL), the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI)-Lupus v2.0. The survey was available online in five languages from May through August 2010. All self-identified SLE participants were eligible to respond. Survey results were analysed using descriptive statistics. Multivariate linear regression explored factors contributing to impaired productivity. Of the 2070 European SLE patients completing the survey, 93.1% were women, 86.7% were aged Productivity was impaired across all WPAI domains, both at work and in general activities. Fatigue, an inability to plan and reduced physical health were significantly associated with impaired productivity. Patients whose careers were affected by SLE had worse health-related quality of life, more fatigue and worse productivity than patients whose careers were not affected. LEO survey respondents reported that SLE negatively affects their daily lives, productivity and career choices.

  15. Validation of the adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder quality-of-life scale in European patients: comparison with patients from the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Meryl; Adler, Lenard A; Lipsius, Sarah; Tanaka, Yoko; Heinloth, Alexandra N; Upadhyaya, Himanshu

    2015-06-01

    The adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) quality-of-life (AAQoL) scale was previously validated in adult patients in the USA; here, the AAQoL is validated in adult European patients. Data from a 12-week open-label acute treatment period with atomoxetine (80-100 mg/day) in adults with ADHD were used. Patients (≥ 18 to ≤ 50 years old) had a score ≥ 2 on ≥ 6 items on the inattentive or hyperactive core subscales of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV); a CAARS-Inv:SV 18-item total ADHD symptom score ≥ 20; and Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Observer: Screening Version 6-item inattentive or hyperactive core subscale scores ≥ 2. Data were stratified based on patients' geographic region (Europe vs USA). Scale validation psychometric properties results were very similar between European (n = 1,217; 57.7 % male; mean age 33.0 years) and US (n = 602; 62.1 % male; mean age 33.5 years) patients, including factor loading, internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed four AAQoL subscales. Internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha > 0.70 for all subscales). The AAQoL total score showed moderate convergent validity with CAARS-Inv:SV 18-item total ADHD symptom and clinical global impression-ADHD-severity (CGI-ADHD-S) scores; and strong convergent validity with Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version: Self-Report Global-Executive-Composite Index scores. Mean AAQoL total scores were significantly different among patients grouped by CGI-ADHD-S scores, suggesting good discriminant validity. The AAQoL total and subscale scores presented good responsiveness from baseline to 12 weeks. The AAQoL scale shows comparable validity in European and US adults with ADHD.

  16. Making doctor‐patient communication more effective from a patient’s perspective : A European mixed‐method study in general medicine settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzi, Maria Angela

    2017-01-01

    The thesis investigated what in the eye of European citizens and primary care patients matters in doctor-patient communication. To include the public’s perspective in evaluating the communication quality of doctors is fundamental as patients often report quality problems in the area of communication

  17. Implementation of the European Working Time Directive in an NHS trust: impact on patient care and junior doctor welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Hugh F; Winfield, Sarah; Te, Hui Sen; Crook, David

    2010-04-01

    To comply with the European Working Time Directive (EWTD), from 1 August 2009, junior doctors are required to work no more than 48 hours per week. In accordance with this, East Sussex Hospitals Trust introduced changes to working practice in August 2007. To assess the impact upon patient care and junior doctor welfare a retrospective observational survey comparing data from the year prior to and the year following August 2007 was conducted. No impact on the standard of patient care, as measured by length of stay, death during admission or readmission was found. However, there was a notable increase in episodes of sick leave among junior doctors. Implementation of the EWTD may maintain standards of patient care but may be detrimental to the welfare of doctors in training.

  18. Patients' perceptions of information and education for renal replacement therapy: an independent survey by the European Kidney Patients' Federation on information and support on renal replacement therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Van Biesen

    Full Text Available Selection of an appropriate renal replacement modality is of utmost importance for patients with end stage renal disease. Previous studies showed provision of information to and free modality choice by patients to be suboptimal. Therefore, the European Kidney Patients' Federation (CEAPIR explored European patients' perceptions regarding information, education and involvement on the modality selection process.CEAPIR developed a survey, which was disseminated by the national kidney patient organisations in Europe.In total, 3867 patients from 36 countries completed the survey. Respondents were either on in-centre haemodialysis (53% or had a functioning graft (38% at the time of survey. The majority (78% evaluated the general information about kidney disease and treatment as helpful, but 39% did not recall being told about alternative treatment options than their current one. Respondents were more often satisfied with information provided on in-centre haemodialysis (90% and transplantation (87% than with information provided on peritoneal dialysis (79% or home haemodialysis (61%, and were more satisfied with information from health care professionals vs other sources such as social media. Most (75% felt they had been involved in treatment selection, 29% perceived they had no free choice. Involvement in modality selection was associated with enhanced satisfaction with treatment (OR 3.13; 95% CI 2.72-3.60. Many respondents (64% could not remember receiving education on how to manage their kidney disease in daily life. Perceptions on information seem to differ between countries.Kidney patients reported to be overall satisfied with the information they received on their disease and treatment, although information seemed mostly to have been focused on one modality. Patients involved in modality selection were more satisfied with their treatment. However, in the perception of the patients, the freedom to choose an alternative modality showed room for

  19. Red Flags for Maltese Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: Poorer Dental Care and Less Sports Participation Compared to Other European Patients-An APPROACH-IS Substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Maryanne; Apers, Silke; Kovacs, Adrienne H; Luyckx, Koen; Thomet, Corina; Budts, Werner; Sluman, Maayke; Eriksen, Katrine; Dellborg, Mikael; Berghammer, Malin; Johansson, Bengt; Soufi, Alexandra; Callus, Edward; Moons, Philip; Grech, Victor

    2017-06-01

    Studies in recent years have explored lifestyle habits and health-risk behaviours in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients when compared to controls. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in lifestyle habits between Maltese and other European ACHD patients. Data on alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, substance misuse, dental care and physical activity collected in 2013-2015 during "Assessment of Patterns of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Adults with Congenital Heart disease-International Study" (APPROACH-IS) were analysed. Responses from 119 Maltese participants were compared to those of 1616 participants from Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the Netherlands. Significantly fewer Maltese patients with simple (Maltese 84.1% vs. European 97.5%, p < 0.001) and moderately complex CHD (Maltese 83.6% vs. European 97.4%, p < 0.001) brushed their teeth daily. Only 67.2% of Maltese with moderately complex disease had dental reviews in the previous year compared to 80.3% of Europeans (p = 0.02). Maltese patients with simple (Maltese 31.8% vs. European 56.1%, p = 0.002) and moderately complex lesions (Maltese 30.0% vs. European 59.2%, p < 0.001) performed less regular sport activities. Comparison by country showed Maltese patients to have significantly poorer tooth brushing and sports participation than patients from any other participating country. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and substance misuse were not significantly different. This study highlights lifestyle aspects that Maltese ACHD patients need to improve on, which might not be evident upon comparing patients to non-CHD controls. These findings should also caution researchers against considering behaviours among patients in one country as necessarily representative of patients on the larger scale.

  20. Childbirth and Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs): patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 11 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, Martine M; Quentin, Wilm; Tan, Siok Swan

    2013-05-01

    The study compares how Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) based hospital payment systems in eleven European countries (Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden) deal with women giving birth in hospitals. It aims to assist gynaecologists and national authorities in optimizing their DRG systems. National or regional databases were used to identify childbirth cases. DRG grouping algorithms and indicators of resource consumption were compared for those DRGs which account for at least 1% of all childbirth cases in the respective database. Five standardized case vignettes were defined and quasi prices (i.e. administrative prices or tariffs) of hospital deliveries according to national DRG-based hospital payment systems were ascertained. European DRG systems classify childbirth cases according to different sets of variables (between one and eight variables) into diverging numbers of DRGs (between three and eight DRGs). The most complex DRG is valued 3.5 times more resource intensive than an index case in Ireland but only 1.1 times more resource intensive than an index case in The Netherlands. Comparisons of quasi prices for the vignettes show that hypothetical payments for the most complex case amount to only € 479 in Poland but to € 5532 in Ireland. Differences in the classification of hospital childbirth cases into DRGs raise concerns whether European systems rely on the most appropriate classification variables. Physicians, hospitals and national DRG authorities should consider how other countries' DRG systems classify cases to optimize their system and to ensure fair and appropriate reimbursement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prediction of prevalence of chronic kidney disease in diabetic patients in countries of the European Union up to 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, Alexander; Hronsky, Milan; Stel, Vianda S; Jager, Kitty J; Geroldinger, Angelika; Dunkler, Daniela; Heinze, Georg; Tripepi, Giovanni; Oberbauer, Rainer

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are a growing burden for health-care systems. The prevalence of diabetes has increased constantly during the last decade, although a slight flattening of end-stage renal disease as a result of diabetes has been observed recently in some European countries. In this study, we project the prevalence of CKD in patients with diabetes in European countries up to the year 2025. We analysed the population with diabetes and development of nephropathy in 12 European countries, which we computed from models published previously and on data from the annual reports of the European Renal Association (1998-2011). The prevalence of CKD stage 5 in patients with diabetes up to the year 2025 was projected by the Lee-Carter algorithm. Those for stage 3 and 4 were then estimated by applying the same ratios of CKD prevalences as estimated in the Austrian population with diabetic nephropathy. The estimated prevalence of CKD in patients with diabetes is expected to increase in all 12 countries up to the year 2025. For CKD stage 3, we estimate for Austria in 2025 a prevalence of 215 000 per million diabetic population (p.m.p.) (95% confidence interval 169 000, 275 000), for CKD4 18 600 p.m.p. (14 500, 23 700) and for CKD5 6900 p.m.p. (5400, 8900). The median prevalence in the considered countries is 132 900 p.m.p. (IQR: 118 500, 195 800), 11 500 (10 200, 16 900) and 4300 (3800, 6300) for CKD stages 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Altogether, these data predict in the years 2012-25 an annual increase of 3.2% in the prevalence of diabetic CKD stage 5. Due to the increase in prevalence of diabetes and CKD5, the costs of renal therapy are expected to rise. We believe that these data may help health-care policy makers to make informed decisions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  2. Nurses' shift length and overtime working in 12 European countries: the association with perceived quality of care and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Peter; Dall'Ora, Chiara; Simon, Michael; Ball, Jane; Lindqvist, Rikard; Rafferty, Anne-Marie; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Tishelman, Carol; Aiken, Linda H

    2014-11-01

    Despite concerns as to whether nurses can perform reliably and effectively when working longer shifts, a pattern of two 12- to 13-hour shifts per day is becoming common in many hospitals to reduce shift to shift handovers, staffing overlap, and hence costs. To describe shift patterns of European nurses and investigate whether shift length and working beyond contracted hours (overtime) is associated with nurse-reported care quality, safety, and care left undone. Cross-sectional survey of 31,627 registered nurses in general medical/surgical units within 488 hospitals across 12 European countries. A total of 50% of nurses worked shifts of ≤ 8 hours, but 15% worked ≥ 12 hours. Typical shift length varied between countries and within some countries. Nurses working for ≥ 12 hours were more likely to report poor or failing patient safety [odds ratio (OR)=1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13-1.76], poor/fair quality of care (OR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.10-1.53), and more care activities left undone (RR=1.13; 95% CI, 1.09-1.16). Working overtime was also associated with reports of poor or failing patient safety (OR=1.67; 95% CI, 1.51-1.86), poor/fair quality of care (OR=1.32; 95% CI, 1.23-1.42), and more care left undone (RR=1.29; 95% CI, 1.27-1.31). European registered nurses working shifts of ≥ 12 hours and those working overtime report lower quality and safety and more care left undone. Policies to adopt a 12-hour nursing shift pattern should proceed with caution. Use of overtime working to mitigate staffing shortages or increase flexibility may also incur additional risk to quality.

  3. Effect of the glass transition temperature on alpha-amylase activity in a starch matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Vinita; Panyoyai, Naksit; Small, Darryl M; Shanks, Robert A; Kasapis, Stefan

    2017-02-10

    This study optimises a protocol for the estimation of α-amylase activity in a condensed starch matrix in the vicinity of the glass transition region. Enzymatic activity on the vitrified starch system was compared with that of a reference substrate, maltodextrin. The activity was assayed as the rate of release of reducing sugar using a dinitrosalicylic acid procedure. The condensed carbohydrate matrices served the dual purpose of acting as a substrate as well as producing a pronounced effect on the ability to enzymatic hydrolysis. Activation energies were estimated throughout the glass transition region of condensed carbohydrate preparations based on the concept of the spectroscopic shift factor. Results were used to demonstrate a considerable moderation by the mechanical glass transition temperature, beyond the expected linear effect of the temperature dependence, on the reaction rate of starch hydrolysis by α-amylase in comparison with the low-molecular weight chain of maltodextrin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Rapid detection of fungal alpha-amylase in the work environment with a lateral flow immunoassay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanovic, J.; Koets, M.; Sander, I.; Wouters, I.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Amerongen, van A.; Doekes, G.

    2006-01-01

    Background Occupational allergen exposure assessment usually requires airborne dust sampling at the worksite followed by dust extraction and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analysis at the laboratory. Use of semiquantitative lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) may allow a more rapid detection procedure with

  5. Effects of alpha-amylase reaction mechanisms on analysis of resistant-starch contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Samuel A; Ai, Yongfeng; Chang, Fengdan; Jane, Jay-lin

    2015-01-22

    This study aimed to understand differences in the resistant starch (RS) contents of native and modified starches obtained using two standard methods of RS content analysis: AOAC Method 991.43 and 2002.02. The largest differences were observed in native potato starch, cross-linked wheat distarch phosphate, and high-amylose corn starch stearic-acid complex (RS5) between using AOAC Method 991.43 with Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BL) and AOAC Method 2002.02 with porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA). To determine possible reasons for these differences, we hydrolyzed raw-starch granules with BL and PPA with equal activity at pH 6.9 and 37°C for up to 84 h and observed the starch granules displayed distinct morphological differences after the hydrolysis. Starches hydrolyzed by BL showed erosion on the surface of the granules; those hydrolyzed by PPA showed pitting on granule surfaces. These results suggested that enzyme reaction mechanisms, including the sizes of the binding sites and the reaction patterns of the two enzymes, contributed to the differences in the RS contents obtained using different methods of RS analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Properties and applications of starch-converting enzymes of the alpha-amylase family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, MJEC; van der Veen, B; Uitdehaag, JCM; Leemhuis, H; Dijkhuizen, L

    2002-01-01

    Starch is a major storage product of many economically important crops such as wheat, rice, maize, tapioca, and potato. A large-scale starch processing industry has emerged in the last century. In the past decades, we have seen a shift from the acid hydrolysis of starch to the use of

  7. Immobilization of alpha-amylase produced by Bacillus circulans GRS 313

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargi Dey

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A maltooligosaccharide-forming amylase from B circulans GRS 313 was immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate beads. The immobilized activity was affected by the size of the bead and bead size of 2mm was found to be most effective for hydrolysis. Kinetics constants, Km and Vmax were estimated and were found to be affected by the bead size. The catalytic activity of the enzyme was studied in presence of various starchy residues and metal ions. HgCl2, CuSO4 and FeCl3 caused inhibition of the enzyme. The reaction conditions, pH and temperature, was optimized using response surface methodology. At the optimum pH and temperature of 4.9 and 57ºC, the apparent activity was 25.6U/g of beads, resulting in almost 2-fold increase in activity. The immobilized enzyme showed a high operational stability by retaining almost 85% of the initial activity after seventh use.Um maltooligossacarideo obtido a partir de amilase produzida por B. circulans GRS 313 foi imobilizada em alginato de sódio. A atividade enzimática foi afetada pelo tamanho da partícula. Partículas com 2mm foram as mais efetivas na hidrólise. Constantes cinética Km e Vmax foram estimadas e afetadas pelo tamanho das partículas. A atividade catalítica da enzima foi estuda na presença de diferentes tipos de amido e íons metálicos. HgCl2, CuSO4 e FeCl3 provocaram inibição na enzima. As condições de reação (temperatura e pH foram otimizadas utilizando a metodologia da superfície de resposta. Em pH ótimo de 4,9 e temperatura de 57 ºC, a atividade aparente foi de 25.6 U/g de partículas, resultando num acréscimo de mais de 2 vezes na atividade da enzima. A imobilização da enzima mostrou uma alta estabilidade operacional pela retenção de 85% de sua atividade inicial após sete ciclos de utilização.

  8. Interactions of barley alpha-amylase isozymes with Ca2+, substrates and proteinaceous inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou Hachem, Maher; Bozonnet, Sophie; Willemoes, Martin

    2006-01-01

    discovered 'sugar tongs' site in domain C of AMY1 is thus critical for binding to starch granules. Furthermore, mutations of binding sites mostly reduced the degree of multiple attack in amylose hydrolysis. AMY1 has higher substrate affinity than AMY2, but isozyme chimeras with AMY2 domain C and other...

  9. De novo design of alpha-amylase inhibitor: A small linear mimetic of macromolecular proteinaceous ligands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marešová, Lucie; Pavlík, Manfred; Horn, Martin; Mareš, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 12 (2005), 1349-1357 ISSN 1074-5521 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP203/02/P081; GA MŠk(CZ) OC D16.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : amylase * peptide inhibitor * combinatorial chemistry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.138, year: 2005

  10. Cloning and Characterization of an Alpha-amylase Gene from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus Thioreducens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsdotter, Eva C. M. J.; Pusey, Marc L.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.

    2004-01-01

    The gene encoding an extracellular a-amylase, TTA, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus thioreducens was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Primary structural analysis revealed high similarity with other a-amylases from the Thermococcus and Pyrococcus genera, as well as the four highly conserved regions typical for a-amylases. The 1374 bp gene encodes a protein of 457 amino acids, of which 435 constitute the mature protein preceded by a 22 amino acid signal peptide. The molecular weight of the purified recombinant enzyme was estimated to be 43 kDa by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Maximal enzymatic activity of recombinant TTA was observed at 90 C and pH 5.5 in the absence of exogenous Ca(2+), and the enzyme was considerably stable even after incubation at 90 C for 2 hours. The thermostability at 90 and 102 C was enhanced in the presence of 5 mM Ca(2+). The extraordinarily high specific activity (about 7.4 x 10(exp 3) U/mg protein at 90 C, pH 5.5 with soluble starch as substrate) together with its low pH optimum makes this enzyme an interesting candidate for starch processing applications.

  11. Isolation, characterization and partial purification of alpha-amylase from a marine bacillus NH-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Zohra, R.R.

    2012-01-01

    Total 399 marine strains were isolated from the sea water sample and screened for thermostable amylase production. Out of these 52 were to have amylogenic activity. Among them 2 isolates were able to grow and produce amylase at 55 degree C. Strain NH-25 tolerates 30% salt, a wide j-H range (4-8) and retained 64% activity at 50 degree C after 60 minutes. (author)

  12. Kinetics and thermodynamic studies of alpha amylase from bacillus licheniformis mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram-ul-Haq, M.; Javed, M.M.; Hameed, U.; Adnan, F.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the purification and characterization of enzyme a'-amylase from a mutant strain of Bacillus licheniformis EMS-6. A laboratory scale stirred fermentor of 7.5 L capacity was used for the enzyme production under optimal conditions. The enzyme was purified up to homogeneity level by Ammonium sulphate and ion-exchange chromatography using a fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) system. The specific activity of the enzyme increased 4-5 times while the yield was found to be 40.4%. The purification fold by RESOURCE-S was recorded to be 3.58. The molecular weight was found to be 55 KDa. In the present research work, the Vmax (2778 U/mg/min) and Km (8.3mg/ml) of a'-amylase were derived from the Lineweaver Burke plot. Thermodynamic parameters for soluble starch hydrolysis, Ea, AH, AS and AG of a'-amylase from B. licheniformis EMS-6 were found to be 25.14 KJ/mol, 22.53 KJ/mole, -110.95 J/mole/K and 36968 J/mole, respectively. The enzyme was stable over a pH range of 4.5-9.0 and gave pH optimum of 7.0. The pKa1 and pKa2 of ionizable groups of active site controlling Vmax, determined by Dixon plot, were 6.0 and 7.5, respectively. (author)

  13. Sex Differences in Salivary Cortisol, Alpha-Amylase, and Psychological Functioning Following Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob M.; Geary, David C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Flinn, Mark V.

    2010-01-01

    The study examines group and individual differences in psychological functioning and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity among adolescents displaced by Hurricane Katrina and living in a U.S. government relocation camp (n = 62, ages 12-19 years) 2 months postdisaster. Levels of salivary cortisol, salivary…

  14. Properties and Gamma Radiation Stability of Immobilized Alpha Amylase on Synthetic and Natural Polymer Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismaill, S.A.; Mobasher, E.F.; Shousha, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    αAmylase was immobilized onto two different copolymers. One of them was chitosan/alginate copolymer. The other copolymer was N- isopropyl acrylamide and alginate. αAmylase was immobilized by entrapment method. The optimum temperature and thermal inactivation of the free enzyme and the immobilized one were investigated. The activity of the immobilized enzyme was stable at higher temperature. Immobilized enzyme was stable under different ph. The immobilized enzymes showed a slight decrease in the relative activity after being used 12 times. Storage of the free and immobilized enzymes for 2 months showed that the free αamylase lost most of its catalytic activity after storage at this period. The storage of the immobilized enzyme in dry state was much better than that in the wet state. Storage at room temperature showed much less stability of the immobilized enzyme than in 4 degree C. Exposure the free and immobilized enzymes to gamma- radiation at doses (0-50 kGy) showed complete loss in activity of free enzyme at 5 kGy, while the immobilized enzyme showed high resistance to gamma- radiation. The kinetic studies of free and immobilized enzymes showed that the immobilization process increased Km and decreased V m ax values of the enzyme

  15. Brain alpha-amylase - a novel energy regulator important in Alzheimer disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byman, Elin; Schultz, Nina; Huitinga, I.; Fex, Malin; Wennström, Malin

    2018-01-01

    Reduced glucose metabolism and formation of polyglucosan bodies (PGB) are, beside amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, well-known pathological findings associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since both glucose availability and PGB are regulated by enzymatic degradation of glycogen,

  16. Properties and Gamma Radiation Stability of Immobilized Alpha Amylase on Synthetic and Natural Polymer Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismaill, S.A.; Mobasher, E.F.; Shousha, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    αAmylase was immobilized onto two different copolymers. One of them was chitosan/alginate copolymer. The other copolymer was N- isopropyl acrylamide and alginate. αAmylase was immobilized by entrapment method. The optimum temperature and thermal inactivation of the free enzyme and the immobilized one were investigated. The activity of the immobilized enzyme was stable at higher temperature. Immobilized enzyme was stable under different ph. The immobilized enzymes showed a slight decrease in the relative activity after being used 12 times. Storage of the free and immobilized enzymes for 2 months showed that the free αamylase lost most of its catalytic activity after storage at this period. The storage of the immobilized enzyme in dry state was much better than that in the wet state. Storage at room temperature showed much less stability of the immobilized enzyme than in 4 degree C. Exposure the free and immobilized enzymes to gamma- radiation at doses (0-50 kGy) showed complete loss in activity of free enzyme at 5 kGy, while the immobilized enzyme showed high resistance to gamma- radiation. The kinetic studies of free and immobilized enzymes showed that the immobilization process increased Km and decreased V m ax values of the enzyme

  17. Salivary alpha-amylase : a measure associated with satiety and subsequent food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, L.F.

    2008-01-01

    Food intake regulation in humans involves various central and peripheral mechanisms. In this study salivary -amylase was examined for functioning as a measure of satiety and food intake. In a 1.25-h session, 32 fasted subjects were given a preload of starch-based custard (849 kJ) followed by ad

  18. Classroom Emotional Support Predicts Differences in Preschool Children's Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Bridget E.; Hestenes, Linda L.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.; O'Brien, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests children enrolled in full-time child care often display afternoon elevations of the hormone cortisol, which is an indicator of stress. Recent advances in immunoassays allow for measurement of activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic sympathetic nervous system from saliva, and measurement…

  19. Role of electrostatic repulsion on colloidal stability of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Nymand; Andersen, Kim Bruno; Randolf, Theodor

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus halmapalus α-amylase (BHA) as a model protein. Repulsive forces between partly unfolded monomers were shown to strongly affect aggregation. Adding salt, increasing valence of counter ions or decreasing pH in the direction of pI resulted in a shift in the rate-limiting step from association...

  20. Synthesis and in vitro study of benzofuran hydrazone derivatives as novel alpha-amylase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Muhammad; Shah, Syed Adnan Ali; Imran, Syahrul; Afifi, Muhammad; Chigurupati, Sridevi; Selvaraj, Manikandan; Rahim, Fazal; Ullah, Hayat; Zaman, Khalid; Vijayabalan, Shantini

    2017-12-01

    The α-amylase acts as attractive target to treat type-2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore in discovering a small molecule as α-amylase inhibitor, we have synthesized benzofuran carbohydrazide analogs (1-25), characterized through different spectroscopic techniques such as 1 HNMR and EI-MS. All screened analog shows good α-amylase inhibitory potentials with IC 50 value ranging between 1.078±0.19 and 2.926±0.05µM when compared with acarbose having IC 50 =0.62±0.22µM. Only nine analogs among the series such as analogs 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 21, 23 and 24 exhibit good inhibitory potential with IC 50 values 1.644±0.128, 1.078±0.19, 1.245±0.25, 1.843±0.19, 1.350±0.24, 1.629±0.015, 1.353±0.232, 1.359±0.119 and 1.488±0.07µM when compare with standard drug acarbose. All other analogs showed good to moderate α-amylase inhibitory potentials. The SAR study was conducted on the basis of substituent difference at the phenyl ring. The binding interaction between analogs and active site of enzyme was confirmed by docking studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. New insight into structure/function relationships in plant alpha-amylase family GH13 members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seo, Eun-Seong; Andersen, Joakim Mark; Nielsen, Morten Munch

    2010-01-01

    Two carbohydrate binding surface sites (SBSs) on barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) of glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13) displayed synergy in interactions with starch granules, thus being pivotal for hydrolysis of supramolecular substrates. Mutational analysis showed that SBS1 is more critical for the ......Two carbohydrate binding surface sites (SBSs) on barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) of glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13) displayed synergy in interactions with starch granules, thus being pivotal for hydrolysis of supramolecular substrates. Mutational analysis showed that SBS1 is more critical...... binding domains (SBDs) mediate binding to starch granules. SBDs are currently categorised into 9 carbohydrate binding module (CBM) families. A novel CBM20 subfamily encountered in regulatory enzymes possesses characteristically low affinity for β-CD. Although α-amylase is essential for starch mobilisation...... in germinating barley seeds, efficient degradation requires the concerted action of α-amylase, β-amylase, limit dextrinase (LD) and possibly α-glucosidase. Limit dextrinase (LD) is encoded by a single gene and represents the sole debranching activity during germination. Recent expression of functional LD...

  2. Different agroresidues used in solid substrate fermentation for alpha- amylase production by bacillus subtilis-329

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, M.; Bhatty, M.B.; Nadeem, M.; Nasreen, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The best mass ratio for agroresidue fermentation for a-amylase production by locally isolated Bacillus subtilis-239 was found to be wheat bran to rice bran 2:1 with 70% initial moisture content for 60 h incubation time. Among different inorganic nitrogen sources supplemented, sodium nitrate and ammonium chloride (0.5% w/w) increased the enzyme yield upto 178 U/ml and 176 U/ml, respectively, whereas all the organic nitrogen sources decreased the enzyme production. Addition of glucose (1% w/w) as a carbon source enhanced a-amylase synthesis to 185 U/ml as compared to the control (134 U/ml). (author)

  3. Inhibitory specificity and insecticidal selectivity of alpha-amylase inhibitor from Phaseolus vulgaris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kluh, Ivan; Horn, Martin; Hýblová, Jana; Hubert, J.; Dolečková, Lucie; Voburka, Zdeněk; Kudlíková, I.; Kocourek, F.; Mareš, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 66, - (2005), 31-39 ISSN 0031-9422 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC D16.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : enzyme inhibition * digestive enzyme Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 2.780, year: 2005

  4. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimzadeh, Mahsa; Jahanshahi, Samaneh; Moein, Soheila; Moein, Mahmood Reza

    2014-06-01

    One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhibition, Dixon plot was depicted. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Both plant extracts showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of α-amylase. 60% inhibition was seen with 2 mg/ml of U. dioica and 0.4 mg/ml of J. regia aqueous extract. Dixon plots revealed the type of α-amylase inhibition by these two extracts as competitive inhibition. Determination of the type of α-amylase inhibition by these plant extracts could provide by successful use of plant chemicals as drug targets.

  5. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Rahimzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Materials and Methods: Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhibition, Dixon plot was depicted. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results: Both plant extracts showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of α-amylase. 60% inhibition was seen with 2 mg/ml of U. dioica and0.4 mg/ml of J. regia aqueous extract. Dixon plots revealed the type of α-amylase inhibition by these two extracts as competitive inhibition. Conclusion: Determination of the type of α-amylase inhibition by these plant extracts could provide by successful use of plant chemicals as drug targets.

  6. Salivary alpha-amylase, heart rate and heart-rate variability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Contemporary sport events including volleyball lead to greater mental stress and more ... A competitive stress game model based on essential volleyball techniques was designed.

  7. A retrospective study of 2585 patients patch tested with the European standard series in Hong Kong (1995-99).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wai Sun; Chan, Loi Yuen; Ho, Stanley Ching Kong; Chong, Lai Yin; So, Win Han; Wong, Tze Wai

    2008-02-01

    Data on patch test findings in Hong Kong are scarce, with the last survey performed more than 10 years ago. A retrospective analysis of results from all patch tests performed on patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis from January 1995 to December 1999 in the Social Hygiene Service, which provides a public dermatology service in Hong Kong, was undertaken. We aimed to explore the demographic data associated with positive reactions and the profile of contact sensitizing allergens in Hong Kong. A total of 2585 patients were patch tested with the European standard series during the period. Most were Chinese, with a female-to-male ratio of 3 : 2. One or more positive responses were noted in 1415 patients (54.7%). The most common allergen was nickel sulfate (24.4%), followed by fragrance mix (13.7%), cobalt chloride (8.7%), p-phenylenediamine (6.0%), and balsam of Peru (5.7%). Nickel sensitivity was more common in female patients, and dichromate sensitivity was more common in male patients (P history were significant risk factors for nickel sensitivity. This study provides a profile of allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis in the public dermatology service in Hong Kong. A prospective study, using a larger panel of allergens, involving patients from both the private and public sectors, would provide a more comprehensive profile of contact allergens in Hong Kong and contribute to the establishment of a local standard series.

  8. Purchasing health services abroad: practices of cross-border contracting and patient mobility in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinos, Irene A; Baeten, Rita; Maarse, Hans

    2010-05-01

    Contracting health services outside the public, statutory health system entails purchasing capacity from domestic non-public providers or from providers abroad. Over the last decade, these practices have made their way into European health systems, brought about by performance-oriented reforms and EU principles of free movement. The aim of the article is to explain the development, functioning, purposes and possible implications of cross-border contracting. Primary and secondary sources on purchasing from providers abroad have been collected in a systematic way and analysed in a structured frame. We found practices in six European countries. The findings suggest that purchasers from benefit-in-kind systems contract capacity abroad when this responds to unmet demand; pressures domestic providers; and/or offers financial advantages, especially where statutory purchasers compete. Providers which receive patients tend to be located in countries where treatment costs are lower and/or where providers compete. The modalities of purchasing and delivering care abroad vary considerably depending on contracts being centralised or direct, the involvement of middlemen, funding and pricing mechanisms, cross-border pathways and volumes of patient flows. The arrangements and concepts which cross-border contracting relies on suggest that statutory health purchasers, under pressure to deliver value for money and striving for cost-efficiency, experiment with new ways of organising health services for their populations. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Cross-cultural adaptation to the European Portuguese of the questionnaire "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" (CPM-ES-ES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón Rubio, Joaquín; Iglésias-Ferreira, Paula; García Delgado, Pilar; Mateus-Santos, Henrique; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    The scope of this work is to conduct the cross-cultural adaptation from Spanish to European Portuguese of a questionnaire to measure the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" (CPM-ES-ES). A method based on six steps was applied: 1. Translation into Portuguese, 2. Elaboration of the first consensus version in Portuguese; 3.Back-translation into Spanish; 4. Elaboration of the second consensus version (cultural equivalency); 5. Conducting the pre-test; 6. Evaluation of the overall results. A cross-culturally adapted questionnaire in European Portuguese that measures the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" is proposed. The pre-test confirmation obtained 100% agreement with the corrected version of the second consensus version after pre-testing. The methodology selected made it possible to cross-culturally adapt the Spanish version of the CPM-ES-ES questionnaire to the Portuguese version. Further studies should demonstrate the equivalence of the psychometric properties of the cross-cultural translation into Portuguese with the original version.

  10. The prevalence of genetic and serologic markers in an unselected European population-based cohort of IBD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Lene; Vind, Ida; Vermeire, Severine

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown, but it has become evident that genetic factors are involved in disease susceptibility. Studies have suggested a north-south gradient in the incidence of IBD, raising the question whether this difference is caused...... by genetic heterogeneity. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of polymorphisms in CARD15 and TLR4 and occurrence of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) in a European population-based IBD cohort. METHODS: Individuals from the incident cohort were genotyped...... for three mutations in CARD15 and the Asp299gly mutation in TLR4. Levels of ASCA and pANCA were assessed. Disease location and behaviour at time of diagnosis was obtained from patient files. RESULTS: Overall CARD15 mutation rate was 23.9% for CD and 9.6% for UC patients (P

  11. Basal hypercortisolism and trauma in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakvis, Patricia; Spinhoven, Philip; Giltay, Erik J; Kuyk, Jarl; Edelbroek, Peter M; Zitman, Frans G; Roelofs, Karin

    2010-05-01

    Several studies have indicated that psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are associated with psychological trauma, but only a few studies have examined the associations with neurobiologic stress systems, such as the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its end-product cortisol. We tested several relevant HPA-axis functions in patients with PNES and related them to trauma history. Cortisol awakening curve, basal diurnal cortisol, and negative cortisol feedback (using a 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test) were examined in 18 patients with PNES and 19 matched healthy controls (HCs) using saliva cortisol sampling on two consecutive days at 19 time points. Concomitant sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity was assessed by analyzing saliva alpha-amylase (sAA). Patients with PNES showed significantly increased basal diurnal cortisol levels compared to HCs. This effect was driven mainly by patients reporting sexual trauma who showed a trend toward higher cortisol levels as compared to patients without a sexual trauma report. Importantly, the increased basal diurnal cortisol levels in patients were not explained by depression, medication, or smoking, or by current seizures or group differences in SNS activity. This is the first study showing that basal hypercortisolism in patients with PNES is independent of the acute occurrence of seizures. In addition, basal hypercortisolism was more pronounced in traumatized patients with PNES as compared to nontraumatized patients with PNES. These findings suggest that HPA-axis activity provides a significant neurobiologic marker for PNES.

  12. A new device for the prevention of pulmonary embolism in critically ill patients: Results of the European Angel Catheter Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccone, Fabio S; Bunker, Nicholas; Waldmann, Carl; De Backer, Daniel; Brohi, Karim; Jones, Robert G; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life-threatening complication of critical illness. In trauma and neurosurgical patients with contraindications to anticoagulation, inferior vena cava (IVC) filters have been used to prevent PE, but their associated long-term complication rates and difficulties associated with filter removal have limited their use. The Angel catheter is a temporary device, which combined an IVC filter with a triple-lumen central venous catheter (IVC filter-catheter) and is intended for bedside placement and removal when no longer indicated. This study presents data from a European Registry of 60 critically ill patients in whom the IVC filter-catheter was used to prevent PE. The patients were all at high risk of PE development or recurrence and had contraindications to anticoagulation. The primary end points of this study were to evaluate the safety (in particular, the presence of infectious or thrombotic events) and effectiveness (the numbers of PEs and averted PEs) of the IVC filter-catheter. The main diagnosis before catheter insertion was major trauma in 33 patients (55%), intracerebral hemorrhage or stroke in 9 (15%), a venous thromboembolic event in 9 (15%), and active bleeding in 6 (10%). The IVC filter-catheter was placed as prophylaxis in 51 patients (85%) and as treatment in the 9 patients (15%) with venous thromboembolic event. The devices were inserted at the bedside without fluoroscopic guidance in 54 patients (90%) and within a median of 4 days after hospital admission. They were left in place for a mean of 6 days (4-8 days). One patient developed a PE, without hemodynamic compromise; two PEs were averted. No serious adverse events were reported. Early bedside placement of an IVC filter-catheter is possible, and our results suggest that this is a safe, effective alternative to short-term PE prophylaxis for high-risk patients with contraindications to anticoagulation. Therapeutic study, level V.

  13. Breast cancer surgery and diagnosis-related groups (DRGs): patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 11 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller-Kreinsen, David; Quentin, Wilm; Geissler, Alexander; Busse, Reinhard

    2013-10-01

    Researchers from eleven countries (i.e. Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden) compared how their DRG systems deal with breast cancer surgery patients. DRG algorithms and indicators of resource consumption were assessed for those DRGs that individually contain at least 1% of all breast cancer surgery patients. Six standardised case vignettes were defined and quasi prices according to national DRG-based hospital payment systems were ascertained. European DRG systems classify breast cancer surgery patients according to different sets of classification variables into three to seven DRGs. Quasi prices for an index case treated with partial mastectomy range from €577 in Poland to €5780 in the Netherlands. Countries award their highest payments for very different kinds of patients. Breast cancer specialists and national DRG authorities should consider how other countries' DRG systems classify breast cancer patients in order to identify potential scope for improvement and to ensure fair and appropriate reimbursement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The European Status Quo in legal recognition and patient-care services of occupational skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, C; Salavastru, C; Agner, T

    2016-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: This survey highlights the need for mandatory regulations on the prevention, management and potential compensation of work-related UV-induced skin cancer across Europe. Against the background of a joint European domestic market, equal standards of occupational safety across Europe should include......: Ten of 11 participating countries in this survey reported the existence of an established programme available on certain occupational diseases; work-related skin diseases were only specifically recognized in eight countries. Seven of 11 countries recognize cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in outdoor...... workers as 'occupational skin cancer'. Basal cell carcinoma (6 of 11), actinic keratosis (5 of 11), Bowen's disease (5 of 11) and malignant melanoma (5 of 11) are not as regularly approved as potentially 'work-induced'. Only a few of the countries included into this survey established a general...

  15. Content of Orthopedic Patient Education Provided by Nurses in Seven European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Andreas; Papastavrou, E; Valkeapää, K; Zabalegui, A; Ingadóttir, B; Lemonidou, C; Fatkulina, N; Jouko, K; Leino-Kilpi, H

    2017-07-01

    Patients' and their significant others' education during the perioperative phase is an important and challenging aspect of care. This study explored the content of education provided by nurses to arthroplasty patients and their significant others. Data were collected with the Education of Patients-NURSE content (EPNURSE-Content), Received Knowledge of Hospital Patient (RKhp), and Received Knowledge of Significant Other (RKso) scales. The results showed that the content of education emphasized biophysiological and functional needs, differed between countries, and was related to how physically demanding nurses found their job to be and the amount of education provided. There is congruence between the received knowledge of patients and their significant others in relation to the content of education provided by nurses. The findings can support nurses in developing aid material for patients and significant others explaining the nature of education and advising them what to expect and how to optimize their participation in the process.

  16. Is patient-centredness in European hospitals related to existing quality improvement strategies? Analysis of a cross-sectional survey (MARQuIS study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groene, O.; Lombarts, M. J. M. H.; Klazinga, N.; Alonso, J.; Thompson, A.; Suñol, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is growing recognition of patients' contributions to setting objectives for their own care, improving health outcomes and evaluating care. Objective: To quantify the extent to which European hospitals have implemented strategies to promote a patient-centred approach, and to assess

  17. Survival differences in European patients with AIDS, 1979-89. The AIDS in Europe Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Pedersen, C; Clumeck, N

    1994-01-01

    . The regional differences in survival were less pronounced for patients diagnosed in 1989 compared with earlier years. Improved survival in recent years was observed for patients with a variety of manifestations used to define AIDS but was significant only for patients diagnosed with Pneumocystis carinii...... pneumonia. The three year survival, however, remains unchanged over time. CONCLUSIONS--Survival of AIDS patients seems to vary within Europe, being shorter in southern than central and northern Europe. The magnitude of these differences, however, has declined gradually over time. Short term survival has...

  18. The European Cystic Fibrosis Society Patient Registry: valuable lessons learned on how to sustain a disease registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, Laura; Zolin, Anna; Mehta, Anil; Olesen, Hanne Vebert

    2014-06-07

    Disease registries have the invaluable potential to provide an insight into the natural history of the disease under investigation, to provide useful information (e.g. through health indicators) for planning health care services and to identify suitable groups of patients for clinical trials enrolment. However, the establishment and maintenance of disease registries is a burdensome initiative from economical and organisational points of view and experience sharing on registries management is important to avoid waste of resources. The aim of this paper is to discuss the problems embedded in the institution and management of an international disease registry to warn against common mistakes that can derail the best of intentions: we share the experience of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society Patient Registry, which collects data on almost 30,000 patients from 23 countries. We discuss the major problems that researchers often encounter in the creation and management of disease registries: definition of the aims the registry has to reach, definition of the criteria for patients referral to the registry, definition of the information to record, set up of a data quality process, handling of missing data, maintenance of data confidentiality, regulation of data use and dissemination of research results. We give examples on how many crucial aspects were solved by the European Cystic Fibrosis Society Patient Registry regarding objectives, inclusion criteria and variables definition, data management, data quality controls, missing data handling, confidentiality maintenance, data use and results dissemination. We suggest an extensive literature research and discussions in working groups with different stake holders, including patient representatives, on the objectives, inclusion criteria and the information to record. We propose to pilot the recording of few variables and test the applicability of their definition first. The use of a shared electronic platform for data

  19. Validation of the kidney failure risk equation in European CKD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.J.; Zuilen, A.D. van; Brand, A. van den; Bots, M.L.; Blankestijn, P.J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Vervoort, G.M.M.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at risk for progression to kidney failure. Using data of Canadian CKD patients, Tangri et al. recently developed models to predict the progression of CKD stages 3-5 to kidney failure within 5 years. We validated this kidney failure risk

  20. Socio-cultural difference in doctor-patient communication in the European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Meeuwesen, L.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: In medical encounters, good doctor-patient communication is of utmost importance in the health care process. The influence of doctor, patients and organizational charactersitics has been showed in many studies. Scarce studies have indicated the importance of cultural characteristics on

  1. Comparison of European ICU patients in 2012 (ICON) versus 2002 (SOAP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Kotfis, Katarzyna; Nanchal, Rahul; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Wittebole, Xavier; Sakka, Samir G.; Pickkers, Peter; Moreno, Rui; Sakr, Yasser; Pavlik, P.; Manak, J.; Kieslichova, E.; Turek, R.; Fischer, M.; Valkova, R.; Dadak, L.; Dostal, P.; Malaska, J.; Hajek, R.; Židková, A.; Lavicka, P.; Medve, L.; Sarkany, A.; Kremer, I.; Marjanek, Z.; Tamasi, P.; Kolbusz, J.; Kübler, A.; Mielczarek, B.; Mikaszewska-Sokolewicz, M.; Kotfis, K.; Tamowicz, B.; Sulkowski, W.; Smuszkiewicz, P.; Pihowicz, A.; Trejnowska, E.; Hagau, N.; Filipescu, D.; Droc, G.; Lupu, M.; Nica, A.; Stoica, R.; Tomescu, D.; Constantinescu, D.; Valcoreanu Zbaganu, G.; Slavcovici, A.; Soskic, L.; Palibrk, I.; Jankovic, R.; Jovanovic, B.; Pandurovic, M.; Bumbasirevic, V.; Uljarevic, B.; Surbatovic, M.; Ladjevic, N.; Slobodianiuk, G.; Sobona, V.; Cikova, A.; Gebhardtova, A.; Cohen, J.; Sold, O.; Urbanek, P.; Schlieber, J.; Reisinger, J.; Auer, J.; Hartjes, A.; Lerche, A.; Janous, T.; Kink, E.; Krahulec, W.; Smolle, K.; van der Schueren, M.; Thibo, P.; Vanhoof, M.; Ahmet, I.; Philippe, G.; Dufaye, P.; Jacobs, O.; Fraipont, V.; Biston, P.; Dive, A.; Bouckaert, Y.; Gilbert, E.; Gressens, B.; Pinck, E.; Collin, V.; Vincent, J. L.; de Waele, J.; Rimachi, R.; Gusu, D.; de Decker, K.; Mandianga, K.; Heytens, L.; Wittebole, X.; Herbert, S.; Olivier, V.; Vandenheede, W.; Rogiers, P.; Kolodzeike, P.; Kruse, M.; Andersen, T.; Harjola, V.; Saarinen, K.; Leone, M.; DUROCHER, A.; Moulront, S.; Lepape, A.; Losser, M.; Cabaret, P.; Kalaitzis, E.; Zogheib, E.; Charve, P.; Francois, B.; Lefrant, J. Y.; Beilouny, B.; Forceville, X.; Misset, B.; Jacobs, F.; Bernard, F.; Payen, D.; Wynckel, A.; Castelain, V.; Faure, A.; Lavagne, P.; Thierry, L.; Moussa, M.; Vieillard-Baron, A.; Durand, M.; Gainnier, M.; Ichai, C.; Arens, S.; Hoffmann, C.; Kaffarnik, M.; Scharnofske, C.; Voigt, I.; Peckelsen, C.; Weber, M.; Gille, J.; Lange, A.; Schoser, G.; Sablotzki, A.; Jaschinski, U.; Bluethgen, A.; Vogel, F.; Tscheu, A.; Fuchs, T.; Wattenberg, M.; Helmes, T.; Scieszka, S.; Heintz, M.; Sakka, S.; Kohler, J.; Fiedler, F.; Danz, M.; Sakr, Y.; Riessen, R.; Kerz, T.; Kersten, A.; Tacke, F.; Marx, G.; Volkert, T.; Schmutz, A.; Nierhaus, A.; Kluge, S.; Abel, P.; Janosi, R.; Utzolino, S.; Bracht, H.; Toussaint, S.; Giannakou Peftoulidou, M.; Myrianthefs, P.; Armaganidis, A.; Routsi, C.; Xini, A.; Mouloudi, E.; Kokoris, I.; Kyriazopoulos, G.; Vlachos, S.; Lavrentieva, A.; Partala, P.; Nakos, G.; Barry, J.; O'Leary, R.; Motherway, C.; Faheem, M.; Dunne, E.; Donnelly, M.; Konrad, T.; Bonora, E.; Achilli, C.; Rossi, S.; Castiglione, G.; Peris, A.; Albanese, D.; Stocchetti, N.; Citerio, G.; Mozzoni, L.; Sisillo, E.; de Negri, P.; Savioli, M.; Vecchiarelli, P.; Puflea, F.; Stankovic, V.; Minoja, G.; Montibeller, S.; Calligaro, P.; Sorrentino, R.; Feri, M.; Zambon, M.; Colombaroli, E.; Giarratano, A.; Pellis, T.; Capra, C.; Antonelli, M.; Gullo, A.; Chelazzi, C.; de Capraris, A.; Patroniti, N.; Girardis, M.; Franchi, F.; Berlot, G.; Ponssen, H.; ten Cate, J.; Bormans, L.; Husada, S.; Buise, M.; van der Hoven, B.; Reidinga, A.; Kuiper, M.; Pickkers, P.; Kluge, G.; den Boer, S.; Kesecioglu, J.; van Leeuwen, H.; Flaatten, H.; Mo, S.; Branco, V.; Rua, F.; Lafuente, E.; Sousa, M.; Catorze, N.; Barros, M.; Pereira, L.; Vintém de Oliveira, A.; Gomes, J.; Gaspar, I.; Pereira, M.; Cymbron, M.; Dias, A.; Almeida, E.; Beirao, S.; Serra, I.; Ribeiro, R.; Povoa, P.; Faria, F.; Costa-E-Silva, Z.; Nóbrega, J.; Fernandes, F.; Gabriel, J.; Voga, G.; Rupnik, E.; Kosec, L.; Kerin Povšic, M.; Osojnik, I.; Tomic, V.; Sinkovic, A.; González, J.; Zavala, E.; Pérez Valenzuela, J.; Marina, L.; Vidal-Cortés, P.; Posada, P.; Ignacio Martin-Loeches, A.; Muñoz Guillén, N.; Palomar, M.; Sole-Violan, J.; Torres, A.; Gonzalez Gallego, M.; Aguilar, G.; Montoiro Allué, R.; Argüeso, M.; Parejo, M.; Palomo Navarro, M.; Jose, A.; Nin, N.; Alvarez Lerma, F.; Martinez, O.; Tenza Lozano, E.; Arenal López, S.; Perez Granda, M.; Moreno, S.; Llubia, C.; de La Fuente Martos, C.; Gonzalez-Arenas, P.; Llamas Fernández, N.; Gil Rueda, B.; Estruch Pons, I.; Cruza, N.; Maroto, F.; Estella, A.; Ferrer, A.; Iglesias Fraile, L.; Quindos, B.; Quintano, A.; Tebar, M.; Cardinal, P.; Reyes, A.; Rodríguez, A.; Abella, A.; García del Valle, S.; Yus, S.; Maseda, E.; Berezo, J.; Tejero Pedregosa, A.; Laplaza, C.; Ferrer, R.; Rico-Feijoo, J.; Rodríguez, M.; Monedero, P.; Eriksson, K.; Lind, D.; Chabanel, D.; Zender, H.; Heer, K.; Frankenberger, B.; Jakob, S.; Haller, A.; Mathew, S.; Downes, R.; Barrera Groba, C.; Johnston, A.; Meacher, R.; Keays, R.; Haji-Michael, P.; Tyler, C.; Ferguson, A.; Jones, S.; Tyl, D.; Ball, A.; Vogel, J.; Booth, M.; Downie, P.; Watters, M.; Brett, S.; Garfield, M.; Everett, L.; Heenen, S.; Dhir, S.; Beardow, Z.; Mostert, M.; Brosnan, S.; Pinto, N.; Harris, S.; Summors, A.; Andrew, N.; Rose, A.; Appelboam, R.; Davies, O.; Vickers, E.; Agarwal, B.; Szakmany, T.; Wimbush, S.; Welters, I.; Pearse, R.; Hollands, R.; Kirk-Bayley, J.; Fletcher, N.; Bray, B.; Brealey, D.; Delle Karth, G.; Draxler, V.; Filzwieser, G.; Heindl, W.; Kellner, G.; Lenz, K.; Rossmann, E.; Wiedermann, C.; Chochrad, D.; Damas, P.; Decruyenaere, J.; Hoste, E.; Devriendt, J.; Espeel, B.; Installe, E.; Malbrain, M.; Nollet, G.; Preiser, J. C.; Raemaekers, J.; Roman, A.; Simon, M.; Spapen, H.; Swinnen, W.; Vallot, F.; Chytra, I.; Herold, I.; Polak, F.; Sterba, M.; Bestle, M.; Espersen, K.; Guldager, H.; Welling, K.-L.; Nyman, D.; Ruokonen, E.; Annane, D.; Catogni, P.; Colas, G.; Coulomb, F.; Dorne, R.; Garrouste, M.; Isetta, C.; Larché, J.; LeGall, J.-R.; Lessire, H.; Malledant, Y.; Mateu, P.; Ossart, M.; Schlossmacher, P.; Timsit, J.-F.; Winnock, S.; Sollet, J.-P.; Mallet, L.; Maurer, P.; Sab, J. M.; Sollet, J. P.; Aykut, G.; Brunkhorst, F.; Lauterbach, M.; Ragaller, M.; Gatz, R.; Gerlach, H.; Henzler, D.; Hopf, H.-B.; Hueneburg, H.; Karzai, W.; Keller, A.; Bauer, T.; Kuhlmann, U.; Langgartner, J.; Manhold, C.; Reith, B.; Schuerholz, T.; Spies, C.; Stögbauer, R.; Unterburger, J.; Clouva-Molyvdas, P.-M.; Giokas, G.; Ioannidou, E.; Lahana, A.; Liolios, A.; Marathias, K.; Tasiou, A.; Tsangaris, H.; Marsh, B.; Power, M.; SPRUNG, C.; Biagioli, B.; Bobbio Pallavicini, F.; Pesenti, A.; Della Corte, F.; Donadio, P. P.; Donati, A.; Giorgio, T.; Giudici, D.; Greco, S.; Guadagnucci, A.; Lapichino, G.; Livigni, S.; Moise, G.; Nardi, G.; Panascia, E.; Pizzamiglio, M.; Ranieri, V. M.; Rosi, R.; Sicignano, A.; Solca, M.; Vignali, G.; Volpe Rinonapoli, I.; Barnas, M.; de Bel, E. E.; de Pont, A.-C.; Groeneveld, J.; Nijsten, M.; Sie, L.; Zandstra, D. F.; Harboe, S.; Lindén, S.; Lovstad, R. Z.; Moen, H.; Smith-Erichsen, N.; Piotrowski, A.; Karpel, E.; Moreno, R.; Pais-de-Lacerda, A.; Paiva, J. A.; Pimentel, A.; Jovanovic, K.; Malik, P.; Lucka, K.; Aldecoa Alvarez-Santullano, C.; Artigas, A.; Escorsell, A.; Nicolas, J.; Izura Cea, J. J.; Montejo, J.; Palencia, E.; Santos, F.; Sierra-Camerino, R.; Sipmann, F.; Brodersen, K.; Haggqvist, J.; Hermansson, D.; Hjelmqvist, H.; Loderer, G.; Maggiorini, M.; Andrews, P.; Appadu, B.; Bewley, J.; Burchett, K.; Chambers, P.; Coakley, J.; Doberenz, D.; Eastwood, N.; Fielden, J.; Gedney, J.; Gunning, K.; Harling, D.; Jankowski, S.; Jayson, D.; Kilner, A.; Krishna-Kumar, V.; Lei, K.; Mackenzie, S.; Macnaughton, P.; McCulloch, C.; Morgan, P.; Rhodes, A.; Roberts, C.; Russell, M.; Tupper-Carey, D.; Wright, M.; Twohey, L.; Watts, J.; Webster, R.; Williams, D.

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate differences in the characteristics and outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) patients over time. We reviewed all epidemiological data, including comorbidities, types and severity of organ failure, interventions, lengths of stay and outcome, for patients from the Sepsis Occurrence in

  2. Towards a European Registry and Biorepository for Patients with Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareyson, Davide; Fratta, Pietro; Pradat, Pierre-François

    2016-01-01

    as possible can be included, with the following aims: facilitate planning of clinical trials and recruitment of patients, define natural history of the disease, characterize epidemiology, develop standards of care, and inform the community of patients about research progresses and ongoing trials. We also aim...

  3. How patients would like to improve medical consultations : Insights from a multicentre European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzi, Maria Angela; Rimondini, Michela; Boerma, Wienke G W; Zimmermann, Christa; Bensing, Jozien M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068519397

    OBJECTIVE: In a previous qualitative study (GULiVer-I), a series of lay-people derived recommendations ('tips') was listed for doctor and patient on 'How to make medical consultation more effective from the patient's perspective'. This work (GULiVer-II) aims to find evidence whether these tips can

  4. Patient education in Western European hospitals: a comparison of the Netherlands, Flanders and England.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, A.; Elbers, E.; Visser, A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This research describes the organization of patient education in hospitals and the conditions that influence this in the Netherlands, Flanders and England. METHODS: The research consists of document analysis and interviews. RESULTS: On the organizational level, there can be a patient

  5. Patient education in Western European hospitals: a comparison of the Netherlands, Flanders and England.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, A.; Elbers, E.; Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This research describes the organization of patient education in hospitals and the conditions that influence this in the Netherlands, Flanders and England. METHODS: The research consists of document analysis and interviews. RESULTS: On the organizational level, there can be a patient

  6. Patient blood management knowledge and practice among clinicians from seven European university hospitals: a multicentre survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzini, P M; Dall'Omo, A M; D'Antico, S; Valfrè, A; Pendry, K; Wikman, A; Fischer, D; Borg-Aquilina, D; Laspina, S; van Pampus, E C M; van Kraaij, M; Bruun, M T; Georgsen, J; Grant-Casey, J; Babra, P S; Murphy, M F; Folléa, G; Aranko, K

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to evaluate the knowledge about Patient Blood Management (PBM) principles and practices amongst clinicians working in seven European hospitals participating in a European Blood Alliance (EBA) project. A web-based questionnaire was sent to 4952 clinicians working in medical, surgery and anaesthesiology disciplines. The responses were analysed, and the overall results as well as a comparison between hospitals are presented. A total of 788 responses (16%) were obtained. About 24% of respondents were not aware of a correlation between preoperative anaemia (POA) and perioperative morbidity and mortality. For 22%, treatment of POA was unlikely to favourably influence morbidity and mortality even before surgery with expected blood loss. More than half of clinicians did not routinely treat POA. 29%, when asked which is the best way to treat deficiency anaemia preoperatively, answered that they did not have sufficient knowledge and 5% chose to 'do nothing'. Amongst those who treated POA, 38% proposed red cell transfusion prior to surgery as treatment. Restrictive haemoglobin triggers for red blood cell transfusion, single unit policy and reduction of number and volumes of blood samples for diagnostic purposes were only marginally implemented. Overall, the responses indicated poor knowledge about PBM. Processes to diagnose and treat POA were not generally and homogeneously implemented. This survey should provide further impetus to implement programmes to improve knowledge and practice of PBM. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  7. Acute myocardial infarction and diagnosis-related groups: patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 11 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, Wilm; Rätto, Hanna; Peltola, Mikko; Busse, Reinhard; Häkkinen, Unto

    2013-07-01

    As part of the diagnosis related groups in Europe (EuroDRG) project, researchers from 11 countries (i.e. Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden) compared how their DRG systems deal with patients admitted to hospital for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The study aims to assist cardiologists and national authorities to optimize their DRG systems. National or regional databases were used to identify hospital cases with a primary diagnosis of AMI. Diagnosis-related group classification algorithms and indicators of resource consumption were compared for those DRGs that individually contained at least 1% of cases. Six standardized case vignettes were defined, and quasi prices according to national DRG-based hospital payment systems were ascertained. European DRG systems vary widely: they classify AMI patients according to different sets of variables into diverging numbers of DRGs (between 4 DRGs in Estonia and 16 DRGs in France). The most complex DRG is valued 11 times more resource intensive than an index case in Estonia but only 1.38 times more resource intensive than an index case in England. Comparisons of quasi prices for the case vignettes show that hypothetical payments for the index case amount to only €420 in Poland but to €7930 in Ireland. Large variation exists in the classification of AMI patients across Europe. Cardiologists and national DRG authorities should consider how other countries' DRG systems classify AMI patients in order to identify potential scope for improvement and to ensure fair and appropriate reimbursement.

  8. Gastric cancers of Western European and African patients show different patterns of genomic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulder Chris JJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with H. pylori is important in the etiology of gastric cancer. Gastric cancer is infrequent in Africa, despite high frequencies of H. pylori infection, referred to as the African enigma. Variation in environmental and host factors influencing gastric cancer risk between different populations have been reported but little is known about the biological differences between gastric cancers from different geographic locations. We aim to study genomic instability patterns of gastric cancers obtained from patients from United Kingdom (UK and South Africa (SA, in an attempt to support the African enigma hypothesis at the biological level. Methods DNA was isolated from 67 gastric adenocarcinomas, 33 UK patients, 9 Caucasian SA patients and 25 native SA patients. Microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability were analyzed by PCR and microarray comparative genomic hybridization, respectively. Data was analyzed by supervised univariate and multivariate analyses as well as unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. Results Tumors from Caucasian and native SA patients showed significantly more microsatellite instable tumors (p Conclusions Gastric cancers from SA and UK patients show differences in genetic instability patterns, indicating possible different biological mechanisms in patients from different geographical origin. This is of future clinical relevance for stratification of gastric cancer therapy.

  9. Modic changes and associated features in Southern European chronic low back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Estanislao; Kovacs, Francisco M; Royuela, Ana; Estremera, Ana; Asenjo, Beatriz; Sarasíbar, Helena; Amengual, Guillermo; Galarraga, Isabel; Alonso, Ana; Casillas, Carlos; Muriel, Alfonso; Montoya, Julia; Ordóñez, Cristina; Martínez, Carmen; Zamora, Javier; Campillo, Carlos; Abraira, Víctor

    2011-05-01

    Conflicting reports exist regarding the prevalence of Modic changes among low back pain (LBP) patients and factors associated with their existence. To assess the prevalence of Modic changes and other findings on lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among Spanish adult chronic LBP patients and the patient characteristics and radiological findings associated with Modic changes. A cross-sectional imaging study among chronic LBP patients. Four hundred eighty-seven patients (263 women and 224 men) undergoing lumbar spine MRI examination for chronic LBP. Gender, age, body mass index (BMI), lifetime smoking exposure, degree of physical activity, and image features (disc degeneration, type and extension of Modic changes, disc contour, annular tears, spinal stenosis, and spondylolisthesis). Ten radiologists from six hospitals across six cities in Spain consecutively recruited adult patients in whom lumbar MRI had been prescribed for LBP lasting ≥3 months. Patients' characteristics and imaging findings were assessed through previously validated instruments. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed to assess the features associated with Modic changes. Modic changes were found in 81% of the patients. The most common was Type II (51.3%), affecting only the end plate. Variables associated with Type I changes were disc contour abnormalities, spondylolisthesis, and disc degeneration. The same variables were associated with a higher risk of Type II or any type of Modic changes, as well as being male, and having a higher BMI. Modic changes are found in 81% (95% confidence interval, 77-85) of adult Spanish patients in whom an MRI is prescribed for chronic LBP. Modic changes are more likely to be found in males with a high BMI, who also show disc contour abnormalities, spondylolisthesis, or disc degeneration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. How well are European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines adhered to in patients with syncope?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, C

    2010-01-01

    The ESC guidelines on syncope were published in 2001 and updated in 2004. Adherence to the recommendations enables early stratification of low and high risk patients and prevents unnecessary investigations and admissions. Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is the commonest cause of syncope in all age groups and a low risk condition. The study objective was to determine whether the ESC guidelines were adhered to prior to referral to a syncope unit; 100 consecutive patients with unexplained syncope (52 +\\/- 23 (15-91) years); 53 female. Sixty-six patients had VVS. Forty nine (75%) of patients with VVS had undergone unnecessary investigations prior to diagnosis and 31 (47%) were admitted to hospital for investigation. Research from other countries confirms that adherence to the ESC guidelines expediates accurate diagnosis, improves resource utilization and reduces health care cost. Greater awareness amongst Irish practitioners of guidelines may improve syncope management and reduce costs.

  11. Health care and patients' education in a European inflammatory bowel disease inception cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, J; Vegh, Z; Pedersen, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    was the Internet (92% vs. 88% p=0.23). In Western Europe, significantly more patients were educated by nurses (19% vs. 1%, p... care and education of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: A quality of care (QoC) questionnaire was developed in the EpiCom group consisting of 16 questions covering 5 items: time interval between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis, information, education, empathy and access...

  12. Socio-cultural difference in doctor-patient communication in the European countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Meeuwesen, L.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: In medical encounters, good doctor-patient communication is of utmost importance in the health care process. The influence of doctor, patients and organizational charactersitics has been showed in many studies. Scarce studies have indicated the importance of cultural characteristics on communication. Cultural differences find their expression along important dimensions (Hofstede 1991), as power distance and masculinity versus femininity. It was studied how theirs dimensions were reflect...

  13. Homeopathy and health related Quality of Life: a patient satisfaction survey in six European countries and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenhoven, Michel; Goossens, Maria; Anelli, Marco; Sermeus, Guy; Kupers, Peter; Morgado, Carlos; Martin, Eduardo; Bezerra, Melissa

    2014-10-01

    Many patients throughout the world consult homeopathic medical doctors. Using a similar methodology as in a first survey published in 2002 a second survey was done including 919 adults receiving homeopathic treatment in six European countries and Brazil aimed to look at who are they, their reasons for consultations and expectations and satisfaction with homeopathy prescribed by a homeopathic doctor after a follow-up time of six months. An initial questionnaire included demographic information and questions for assessing health-related Quality of Life (QoL). A follow-up questionnaire collected data on changes in QoL. 77% patients had initially used conventional treatments and 23% other non-conventional treatments. Satisfaction of patients with the medical homeopathic consultation is high. The difference between the final QoL scores after six months and the baseline are positive. Reported differences between baseline and final index range from 3.87 to 10.41 depending on diagnosis. Taking 7% as a reference value for 'minimal clinically significant difference', this is reached for 3 of 8 conditions. Changes in complaint limitations visual scales are positive. Conclusions on clinical impact must be cautious. 6% of the patients experienced side-effects which they attributed to homeopathic treatment. 7.8% of the patients reported significant aggravation at the beginning of the homeopathic treatment and 26.2% slight aggravation of symptoms. The satisfaction of patients using a medical homeopathic approach is linked to the perceived competence of the doctor homeopath, the perceived improvement of the main complaints limitations and the time dedicated to them by the doctor. Copyright © 2014 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pregnancy and Delivery in Patients with Mastocytosis Treated at the Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Ciach

    Full Text Available To present current guidelines regarding treatment of mastocytosis in pregnancy on the example of observed patients.Case control national study.Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM.23 singleton spontaneous pregnancies in 17 women diagnosed with mastocytosis in years 1999-2014, before becoming pregnant.Prospective analysis outcomes of pregnancies and deliveries.Survey developed in cooperation with the Spanish Instituto de Estudios de Mastocitosis de Castilla-La Mancha (CLMast, Hospital Virgen del Valle, Toledo, Red Espańola de Mastocitosis (REMA, Spain.All 23 pregnancies resulted from natural conception. Obstetrical complications recorded in the first trimester included spontaneous miscarriage (5 pregnancies. Four patients delivered preterm, including one delivery due to preeclampsia at 26 weeks which resulted with neonate death due to extreme prematurity. Five women delivered via cesarean: four due to obstetrical indications and one due to mastocytosis, during which no anesthesia related complications were recorded. Of patients delivering vaginally, two received extradural anesthesia, three required oxytocin infusion due to uterine hypotonia. No labor complications were recorded. In one woman with pregnancy-induced hypertension, early puerperium was complicated by the presence of persistent arterial hypertension. One neonate was born with the signs of cutaneous mastocytosis. Another neonate was diagnosed with Patau syndrome. Four women were treated for mastocytosis prior to conception and continued therapy after becoming pregnant. One patient was put on medications in the first trimester due to worsening of her symptoms. Pregnancy exerted only a slight effect on the intensity and frequency of mastocytosis-related symptoms observed. Worsening of the disease-related symptoms was documented in only four patients (23%. None of the patients showed the signs of anaphylaxis, either before becoming pregnant, or during

  15. Pregnancy and Delivery in Patients with Mastocytosis Treated at the Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciach, Katarzyna; Niedoszytko, Marek; Abacjew-Chmylko, Anna; Pabin, Izabela; Adamski, Przemyslaw; Leszczynska, Katarzyna; Preis, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Hanna; Wydra, Dariusz G; Hansdorfer-Korzon, Rita

    2016-01-01

    To present current guidelines regarding treatment of mastocytosis in pregnancy on the example of observed patients. Case control national study. Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM). 23 singleton spontaneous pregnancies in 17 women diagnosed with mastocytosis in years 1999-2014, before becoming pregnant. Prospective analysis outcomes of pregnancies and deliveries. Survey developed in cooperation with the Spanish Instituto de Estudios de Mastocitosis de Castilla-La Mancha (CLMast), Hospital Virgen del Valle, Toledo, Red Espańola de Mastocitosis (REMA), Spain. All 23 pregnancies resulted from natural conception. Obstetrical complications recorded in the first trimester included spontaneous miscarriage (5 pregnancies). Four patients delivered preterm, including one delivery due to preeclampsia at 26 weeks which resulted with neonate death due to extreme prematurity. Five women delivered via cesarean: four due to obstetrical indications and one due to mastocytosis, during which no anesthesia related complications were recorded. Of patients delivering vaginally, two received extradural anesthesia, three required oxytocin infusion due to uterine hypotonia. No labor complications were recorded. In one woman with pregnancy-induced hypertension, early puerperium was complicated by the presence of persistent arterial hypertension. One neonate was born with the signs of cutaneous mastocytosis. Another neonate was diagnosed with Patau syndrome. Four women were treated for mastocytosis prior to conception and continued therapy after becoming pregnant. One patient was put on medications in the first trimester due to worsening of her symptoms. Pregnancy exerted only a slight effect on the intensity and frequency of mastocytosis-related symptoms observed. Worsening of the disease-related symptoms was documented in only four patients (23%). None of the patients showed the signs of anaphylaxis, either before becoming pregnant, or during pregnancy

  16. Effects of patient-reported non-severe hypoglycemia on healthcare resource use, work-time loss, and wellbeing in insulin-treated patients with diabetes in seven European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, Petronella H; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Weitgasser, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    the effects of self-reported non-severe hypoglycemic events (NSHE) on use of healthcare resources and patient wellbeing. Methods: Patients with T1DM or insulin-treated T2DM diabetes from seven European countries were invited to complete four weekly questionnaires. Data were collected on patient demographics...

  17. Identifying Patient Attitudinal Clusters Associated with Asthma Control: The European REALISE Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Thys; Fletcher, Monica; Price, David

    Asthma is a highly heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical phenotypes, and treatment may be tailored accordingly. However, factors beyond purely clinical traits, such as patient attitudes and behaviors, can also have a marked impact on treatment outcomes. The objective of this study was to further analyze data from the REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience (REALISE) Europe survey, to identify distinct patient groups sharing common attitudes toward asthma and its management. Factor analysis of respondent data (N = 7,930) from the REALISE Europe survey consolidated the 34 attitudinal variables provided by the study population into a set of 8 summary factors. Cluster analyses were used to identify patient clusters that showed similar attitudes and behaviors toward each of the 8 summary factors. Five distinct patient clusters were identified and named according to the key characteristics comprising that cluster: "Confident and self-managing," "Confident and accepting of their asthma," "Confident but dependent on others," "Concerned but confident in their health care professional (HCP)," and "Not confident in themselves or their HCP." Clusters showed clear variability in attributes such as degree of confidence in managing their asthma, use of reliever and preventer medication, and level of asthma control. The 5 patient clusters identified in this analysis displayed distinctly different personal attitudes that would require different approaches in the consultation room certainly for asthma but probably also for other chronic diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Economy of Standards: European Association of Urology Guideline Changes Influence Treatment Costs in Stage I Testicular Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Axel; Baumgart, André; Worst, Thomas; Heinzelbecker, Julia

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to calculate direct medical costs (DMC) during the first year of diagnosis and to evaluate the impact of guideline changes on treatment costs in clinical stage (CS) I testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) patients in a German healthcare system. Healthcare expenditures as DMC during the first year of diagnosis for 307 TGCT patients in CS I treated at our institution from 1987 to 2013 were calculated from the statutory health insurance perspective using patient level data. Three periods were defined referring to the first European Association of Urology (EAU) guideline in 2001 as well as to subsequent major guideline changes in 2005 and 2010. Data source for cost calculations were the German Diagnosis Related Groups system for inpatient stays (version 2014) and the German system for reimbursement of outpatient care (EBM - Einheitlicher Bewertungsmaßstab, edition 2014). During our 25 years of study period, mean DMC in the first year after diagnosis for the entire cohort of TGCT patients in CS I almost halved from EUR 13.000 to EUR 6.900 (p < 0.001). From 1987 to 2001, DMC for CS I seminomatous germ cell tumor (SGCT) patients were EUR 13.790 ± 4.700. From 2002 to 2010, mean costs were EUR 10.900 ± 5.990, and from 2011 to 2013, mean costs were EUR 5.190 ± 3.700. For CS I non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) patients, from 1987 to 2001, mean DMC were EUR 11.650 ± 5.690. From 2002 to 2010, mean costs were EUR 11.230 ± 5.990, and from 2011 to 2013, mean costs were EUR 11.170 ± 7.390. Follow-up examinations became less frequent over time, which caused a significant cost reduction for NSGCT (p = 0.042) while costs remained stable for SGCT. When adding costs of relapse treatment, active surveillance (AS) was the most cost-effective adjuvant treatment option in CS I NSGCT whereas one course carboplatin or AS caused similar expenditures in SGCT patients. The introduction of the EAU guidelines in 2001 caused a decrease in DMC in CS I seminoma patients

  19. R.I.P. squad bench. European ambulances designed around the patient, not the vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heightman, A J

    2013-07-01

    You can see and hear more about my journey throughout Germany and England in a special, archived, free Webcast on jems.com. And in future articles, videos and Web presentations, you'll see and learn about the different EMS delivery models I saw, the men and women whom I met and rode with on calls, and, most importantly, their impressive attitude about patient care, customer service and safety. Progressive American and Canadian ambulance manufacturers now agree with safety experts and forward-thinking ambulance operators that the squad bench is dead. These manufacturers now offer innovative seats that are much safer and functional than those coffin-like obstructions that gobbled up so much space in our rigs for the past three decades. Design your next ambulance around the needs and safety of your crews and their patients, and spec a patient compartment that is laid out logiclaly and efficient.

  20. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Burn Patients: A Comparison of the Berlin and American-European Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sine, Christy R; Belenkiy, Slava M; Buel, Allison R; Waters, J Alan; Lundy, Jonathan B; Henderson, Jonathan L; Stewart, Ian J; Aden, James K; Liu, Nehemiah T; Batchinsky, Andriy; Cannon, Jeremy W; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Chung, Kevin K

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the Berlin definition to the American-European Consensus Conference (AECC) definition in determining the prevalence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and associated mortality in the critically ill burn population. Consecutive patients admitted to our institution with burn injury that required mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours were included for analysis. Included patients (N = 891) were classified by both definitions. The median age, % TBSA burn, and injury severity score (interquartile ranges) were 35 (24-51), 25 (11-45), and 18 (9-26), respectively. Inhalation injury was present in 35.5%. The prevalence of ARDS was 34% using the Berlin definition and 30.5% using the AECC definition (combined acute lung injury and ARDS), with associated mortality rates of 40.9 and 42.9%, respectively. Under the Berlin definition, mortality rose with increased ARDS severity (14.6% no ARDS; 16.7% mild; 44% moderate; and 59.7% severe, P Berlin definition was not different from patients without ARDS (P = .91). The Berlin definition better stratifies ARDS in terms of severity and correctly excludes those with minimal disease previously captured by the AECC.

  1. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30: factorial models to Brazilian cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini; Spexoto, Maria Cláudia Bernardes; da Silva, Wanderson Roberto; Serrano, Sergio Vicente; Marôco, João

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the psychometric properties of the seven theoretical models proposed in the literature for European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), when applied to a sample of Brazilian cancer patients. Methods Content and construct validity (factorial, convergent, discriminant) were estimated. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Convergent validity was analyzed using the average variance extracted. Discriminant validity was analyzed using correlational analysis. Internal consistency and composite reliability were used to assess the reliability of instrument. Results A total of 1,020 cancer patients participated. The mean age was 53.3±13.0 years, and 62% were female. All models showed adequate factorial validity for the study sample. Convergent and discriminant validities and the reliability were compromised in all of the models for all of the single items referring to symptoms, as well as for the “physical function” and “cognitive function” factors. Conclusion All theoretical models assessed in this study presented adequate factorial validity when applied to Brazilian cancer patients. The choice of the best model for use in research and/or clinical protocols should be centered on the purpose and underlying theory of each model. PMID:29694609

  2. How patients would like to improve medical consultations: insights from a multicentre European study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzi, M.A.; Rimondini, M.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Zimmermann, C.; Bensing, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In a previous qualitative study (GULiVer-I), a series of lay-people derived recommendations (‘tips’) was listed for doctor and patient on ‘How to make medical consultation more effective from the patient’s perspective’. This work (GULiVer-II) aims to find evidence whether these tips can

  3. Dialysis and Renal Transplantation in HIV-Infected Patients: a European Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trullas, Joan Carles; Mocroft, Amanda; Cofan, Federico

    2010-01-01

    was the reason for exclusion from RT waiting list in 22.4% of cases. All the RT recipients were all alive at the time of the survey. Acute rejection was reported in 8 patients (30%). Functioning graft was present in 21 (80%). CONCLUSIONS:: This is the first multinational cross-sectional study of ESRD among...

  4. Patch test results of the European baseline series among patients with occupational contact dermatitis across Europe - analyses of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy network, 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Maria; Jolanki, Riitta; Larese Filon, Francesca; Wilkinson, Mark; Kręcisz, Beata; Kieć-Świerczyńska, Marta; Bauer, Andrea; Mahler, Vera; John, Swen M; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is one of the most common occupational diseases in Europe. In order to develop effective preventive measures, detailed and up-to-date data on the incidence, main causes and professions at risk of occupational contact dermatitis are needed. To describe the pattern of patch test reactivity to allergens in the European baseline series of patients with occupational contact dermatitis in different occupations. We analysed data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy (ESSCA) network from 2002 to 2010, from 11 European countries. Allergens in the European baseline series associated with an at least doubled risk of occupational contact dermatitis include: thiuram rubber chemical accelerators, epoxy resin, and the antimicrobials methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, and formaldehyde. The highest risk of occupational contact dermatitis was found in occupations classified as 'other personal services workers', which includes hairdressers, nursing and other healthcare professionals, precision workers in metal and related materials, and blacksmiths, tool-makers and related trades workers. In the planning and implementation of measures aimed at preventing occupational contact dermatitis, the focus should be on the identified high-risk occupational groups and the most common occupational allergies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cholecystectomy and Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs): Patient Classification and Hospital Reimbursement in 11 European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gerli Paat-Ahi; Ain Aaviksoo; Maria Świderek

    2014-01-01

    Background As part of the EuroDRG project, researchers from eleven countries (i.e. Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, and Spain) compared how their Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG) systems deal with cholecystectomy patients. The study aims to assist surgeons and national authorities to optimize their DRG systems. Methods National or regional databases were used to identify hospital cases with a procedure of cholecystectom...

  6. Appendectomy and diagnosis-related groups (DRGs): patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 11 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Quentin, Wilm; Scheller-Kreinsen, David; Geissler, Alexander; Busse, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Background As part of the EuroDRG project, researchers from 11 countries (i.e., Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, and Spain) compared how their diagnosis-related groups (DRG) systems deal with appendectomy patients. The study aims to assist surgeons and national authorities to optimize their DRG systems. Methods National or regional databases were used to identify hospital cases with a diagnosis of appendicitis treated with a procedure ...

  7. European Medicines Agency approval summary: Zaltrap for the treatment of patients with oxaliplatin-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanel, Stefan Cristian; Sjöberg, Jan; Salmonson, Tomas; Foggi, Paolo; Caleno, Mariapaola; Melchiorri, Daniela; Gravanis, Iordanis; Tzogani, Kyriaki; Pignatti, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    On 1 February 2013, a marketing authorisation valid throughout the European Union was issued for aflibercept (Zaltrap) in combination with irinotecan/5-fluorouracil/folinic acid chemotherapy for the treatment of adults with metastatic colorectal cancer resistant to or progressive after an oxaliplatin-containing regimen. Aflibercept is a recombinant fusion protein which blocks the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors and the proliferation of endothelial cells, acting as a soluble decoy receptor that binds to VEGF-A with higher affinity than its native receptors, as well as placental growth factor and VEGF-B. The use of aflibercept was studied in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study, in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who had previously been treated with an oxaliplatin-based treatment with or without prior bevacizumab. Aflibercept (n=612) was compared with placebo (n=614), both in combination with FOLFIRI (infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin and irinotecan). The primary endpoint of the study was overall survival (OS). The median OS in the intent-to-treat population was 13.5 months in subjects treated with aflibercept compared with 12.1 months for subjects in the control arm (stratified HR=0.817, 95% CI 0.714 to 0.935, stratified pvalue=0.0032). The frequency of adverse events was higher in the aflibercept arm compared with the placebo arm, reflecting the toxicity profile of anti-VEGF agents in combination with chemotherapy. This paper is based on the scientific review of the application leading to approval of aflibercept in the EU. The detailed scientific assessment report and product information for this product are available on the European Medicines Agency website (http://www.ema.europa.eu). Trial registration number NCT00561470, Results.

  8. Transcatheter valve implantation for patients with aortic stenosis: A position statement from the European Association of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), in collaboration with the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vahanian (Alec); O. Alfieri (Ottavio); N. Al-Attar (Nawwar); M. Antunes (Manuel); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); B. Cormier (Bertrand); A. Cribier (Alain); P.P.T. de Jaegere (Peter); G. Fournial (Gerard); A.P. Kappetein (Arie Pieter); J. Kovac (Jan); S. Ludgate (Susanne); F. Maisano (Francesco); N. Moat (Neil); F.W. Mohr (Friedrich); P. Nataf (Patrick); L. Pierard (Luc); J.L. Pomar (Jose); J. Schofer (Joachim); P. Tornos (Pilar); M. Tuzcu (Murat); B.A. van Hout (Ben); L.K. von Segesser (Ludwig); T. Walther (Thomas)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAims: To critically review the available transcatheter aortic valve implantation techniques and their results, as well as propose recommendations for their use and development. Methods and results: A committee of experts including European Association of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and

  9. Acute myocardial infarction and diagnosis-related groups: patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 11 European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, Wilm; Rätto, Hanna; Peltola, Mikko; Busse, Reinhard; Häkkinen, Unto

    2013-01-01

    Aims As part of the diagnosis related groups in Europe (EuroDRG) project, researchers from 11 countries (i.e. Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden) compared how their DRG systems deal with patients admitted to hospital for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The study aims to assist cardiologists and national authorities to optimize their DRG systems. Methods and results National or regional databases were used to identify hospital cases with a primary diagnosis of AMI. Diagnosis-related group classification algorithms and indicators of resource consumption were compared for those DRGs that individually contained at least 1% of cases. Six standardized case vignettes were defined, and quasi prices according to national DRG-based hospital payment systems were ascertained. European DRG systems vary widely: they classify AMI patients according to different sets of variables into diverging numbers of DRGs (between 4 DRGs in Estonia and 16 DRGs in France). The most complex DRG is valued 11 times more resource intensive than an index case in Estonia but only 1.38 times more resource intensive than an index case in England. Comparisons of quasi prices for the case vignettes show that hypothetical payments for the index case amount to only €420 in Poland but to €7930 in Ireland. Conclusions Large variation exists in the classification of AMI patients across Europe. Cardiologists and national DRG authorities should consider how other countries' DRG systems classify AMI patients in order to identify potential scope for improvement and to ensure fair and appropriate reimbursement. PMID:23364755

  10. Pioglitazone utilization, efficacy & safety in Indian type 2 diabetic patients: A systematic review & comparison with European Medicines Agency Assessment Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Sarayu A; Kshirsagar, Nilima A

    2016-11-01

    With pioglitazone ban and subsequent revoking in India along with varying regulatory decisions in other countries, it was decided to carry out a systematic review on its safety, efficacy and drug utilization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in India and compare with the data from the European Medicines Agency Assessment Report (EMA-AR). Systematic review was performed as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, searching Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct databases using 'pioglitazone AND India AND human' and 'pioglitazone AND India AND human AND patient' and compared with EMA-AR. Spontaneous reports in World Health Organization VigiBase from India were compared with VigiBase data from other countries. Sixty six publications, 26 (efficacy), 32 (drug utilization) and eight (safety), were retrieved. In India, pioglitazone was used at 15-30 mg/day mostly with metformin and sulphonylurea, being prescribed to 26.7 and 8.4 per cent patients in north and south, respectively. The efficacy in clinical trials (CTs) was similar to those in EMA-AR. Incidence of bladder cancer in pioglitazone exposed and non-exposed patients was not significantly different in an Indian retrospective cohort study. There were two cases and a series of eight cases of bladder cancer published but none reported in VigiBase. In India, probably due to lower dose, lower background incidence of bladder cancer and smaller sample size in epidemiological studies, association of bladder cancer with pioglitazone was not found to be significant. Reporting of CTs and adverse drug reactions to Clinical Trials Registry of India and Pharmacovigilance Programme of India, respectively, along with compliance studies with warning given in package insert and epidemiological studies with larger sample size are needed.

  11. An innovative strategy for the molecular diagnosis of Usher syndrome identifies causal biallelic mutations in 93% of European patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Crystel; Riahi, Zied; Chantot-Bastaraud, Sandra; Smagghe, Luce; Letexier, Mélanie; Marcaillou, Charles; Lefèvre, Gaëlle M; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Singh-Estivalet, Amrit; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Kohl, Susanne; Kurtenbach, Anne; Sliesoraityte, Ieva; Zobor, Ditta; Gherbi, Souad; Testa, Francesco; Simonelli, Francesca; Banfi, Sandro; Fakin, Ana; Glavač, Damjan; Jarc-Vidmar, Martina; Zupan, Andrej; Battelino, Saba; Martorell Sampol, Loreto; Claveria, Maria Antonia; Catala Mora, Jaume; Dad, Shzeena; Møller, Lisbeth B; Rodriguez Jorge, Jesus; Hawlina, Marko; Auricchio, Alberto; Sahel, José-Alain; Marlin, Sandrine; Zrenner, Eberhart; Audo, Isabelle; Petit, Christine

    2016-12-01

    Usher syndrome (USH), the most prevalent cause of hereditary deafness-blindness, is an autosomal recessive and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Three clinical subtypes (USH1-3) are distinguishable based on the severity of the sensorineural hearing impairment, the presence or absence of vestibular dysfunction, and the age of onset of the retinitis pigmentosa. A total of 10 causal genes, 6 for USH1, 3 for USH2, and 1 for USH3, and an USH2 modifier gene, have been identified. A robust molecular diagnosis is required not only to improve genetic counseling, but also to advance gene therapy in USH patients. Here, we present an improved diagnostic strategy that is both cost- and time-effective. It relies on the sequential use of three different techniques to analyze selected genomic regions: targeted exome sequencing, comparative genome hybridization, and quantitative exon amplification. We screened a large cohort of 427 patients (139 USH1, 282 USH2, and six of undefined clinical subtype) from various European medical centers for mutations in all USH genes and the modifier gene. We identified a total of 421 different sequence variants predicted to be pathogenic, about half of which had not been previously reported. Remarkably, we detected large genomic rearrangements, most of which were novel and unique, in 9% of the patients. Thus, our strategy led to the identification of biallelic and monoallelic mutations in 92.7% and 5.8% of the USH patients, respectively. With an overall 98.5% mutation characterization rate, the diagnosis efficiency was substantially improved compared with previously reported methods.

  12. Patient safety in thoracic surgery and European Society of Thoracic Surgeons checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Nuria M

    2015-04-01

    Improving patient safety seems to be a new interesting clinical subject but, in fact, it is no new. It has to do with one of the oldest ethical principles of our profession: curing and not harming. The important research that has been done in a short period of time has brought in new insight to this complex area that is fast developing. The creation of safety managing systems will allow coordinating efforts from very different, although complementary, areas to create real safety culture and safety climate in every organization. In the surgical settings, teamwork is basic to provide good quality of care. Safety leaders in every team have an important role in establishing priorities, summarizing proposals, coordinating efforts, launching new initiatives and transmitting that safety efforts are worth taken. Preparedness and anticipation are key points for avoiding most of the diverse types of patient harm that can occur. As has been published, a great number of errors can be avoided simply using crosscheck based on specialized checklist that reviews every important detail of the procedure. This strategy has been demonstrated very useful at other high risk industries such as aviation, nuclear or food management. The Safe Surgery Saves Lives program launched in 2002 by the WHO has taught us that improvement is possible using a simple checklist. More complex and detail checklist can be more adequate for more complex procedures and settings. The proposed ESTS checklist reviews different areas of possible error in deeper detail allowing the finest adjustment of the patient before the skin incision. It has been recently released to the general thoracic community and monitors its use and usefulness has to be warrantied.

  13. Patient Blood Management in Europe: surveys on top indications for red blood cell use and Patient Blood Management organization and activities in seven European university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, M T; Pendry, K; Georgsen, J; Manzini, P; Lorenzi, M; Wikman, A; Borg-Aquilina, D; van Pampus, E; van Kraaij, M; Fischer, D; Meybohm, P; Zacharowski, K; Geisen, C; Seifried, E; Liumbruno, G M; Folléa, G; Grant-Casey, J; Babra, P; Murphy, M F

    2016-11-01

    Patient Blood Management (PBM) in Europe is a working group of the European Blood Alliance with the initial objective to identify the starting position of the participating hospitals regarding PBM for benchmarking purposes, and to derive good practices in PBM from the experience and expertise in the participating teams with the further aim of implementing and strengthening these practices in the participating hospitals. We conducted two surveys in seven university hospitals in Europe: Survey on top indications for red blood cell use regarding usage of red blood cells during 1 week and Survey on PBM organization and activities. A total of 3320 units of red blood cells were transfused in 1 week at the seven hospitals. Overall, 61% of red cell units were transfused to medical patients and 36% to surgical patients, although there was much variation between hospitals. The organization and activities of PBM in the seven hospitals were variable, but there was a common focus on optimizing the treatment of bleeding patients, monitoring the use of blood components and treatment of preoperative anaemia. Although the seven hospitals provide a similar range of clinical services, there was variation in transfusion rates between them. Further, there was variable implementation of PBM activities and monitoring of transfusion practice. These findings provide a baseline to develop joint action plans to further implement and strengthen PBM across a number of hospitals in Europe. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  14. Multi-center study on the characteristics and treatment strategies of patients with Graves' orbitopathy: the first European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, Mark F.; Bakker, Annemieke; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.; Baldeschi, Lelio; Mourits, Maarten P.; Kendall-Taylor, Pat; Perros, Petros; Neoh, Chris; Dickinson, A. Jane; Lazarus, John H.; Lane, Carol M.; Heufelder, Armin E.; Kahaly, George J.; Pitz, Suzanne; Orgiazzi, Jacques; Hullo, Alain; Pinchera, Aldo; Marcocci, Claudio; Sartini, Maria S.; Rocchi, Roberto; Nardi, Marco; Krassas, Gerry E.; Halkias, A.

    2003-01-01

    To improve management of patients with Graves' orbitopathy, a multi-center collaborative approach is necessary in order to have large enough sample sizes for meaningful randomized clinical trials. This is hampered by a lack of consensus on how to investigate the eye condition. The European Group on

  15. Occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensation in western European patients with cirrhosis type B. The EUROHEP Study Group on Hepatitis B Virus and Cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattovich, G; Giustina, G; Schalm, S W

    1995-01-01

    To examine the morbidity of compensated cirrhosis type B, a cohort of 349 Western European, white patients (86% men; mean age, 44 years) with biopsy-proven cirrhosis was followed up for a mean period of 73 months and was studied for occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and decompensation...

  16. Results of a consensus meeting on the use of argatroban in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia requiring antithrombotic therapy - a European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatri, Adriano; Armstrong, Anna-Elina; Greinacher, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Argatroban has been introduced as an alternative parenteral anticoagulant for HIT-patients in several European countries in 2005. In 2009 a panel of experts discussed their clinical experience with argatroban balancing risks and benefits of argatroban treatment in managing the highly procoagulant...

  17. Cytomorphology review of 100 newly diagnosed lower-risk MDS patients in the European LeukemiaNet MDS (EUMDS) registry reveals a high inter-observer concordance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, L. de; Smith, A.; MacKenzie, M.; Symeonidis, A.; Neukirchen, J.; Mikulenkova, D.; Vallespi, T.; Zini, G.; Paszkowska-Kowalewska, M.; Kruger, A.; Saft, L.; Fenaux, P.; Bowen, D.; Hellstrom-Lindberg, E.; Cermak, J.; Stauder, R.; Tatic, A.; Holm, M.S.; Malcovati, L.; Madry, K.; Droste, J.A.; Blijlevens, N.M.; Witte, T.J. de; Germing, U.

    2017-01-01

    The European LeukemiaNet MDS (EUMDS) registry is collecting data of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients belonging to the IPSS low or intermediate-1 category, newly diagnosed by local cytologists. The diagnosis of MDS can be challenging, and some data report inter-observer variability with regard

  18. Improving the well-being of elderly patients via community pharmacy-based provision of pharmaceutical care - A multicentre study in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernsten, C; Bjorkman, [No Value; Caramona, M; Crealey, G; Frokjaer, B; Grundberger, E; Gustafsson, T; Henman, M; Herborg, H; Hughes, C; McElnay, J; Magner, M; van Mil, F; Schaeffer, M; Silva, S; Sondergaard, B; Sturgess, [No Value; Tromp, D; Vivero, L; Winterstein, A

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to measure the outcomes of a harmonised, structured pharmaceutical care programme provided to elderly patients: (greater than or equal to 65 years of age) by community pharmacists in a multicentre international study performed in 7 European countries. Design and setting:

  19. The Influence of New European Union Driver’s License Legislation on Reporting of Severe Hypoglycemia by Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Færch, Louise; Allingbjerg, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We test the hypotheses that the implementation in Denmark of new, stricter European Union (EU) legislation on driver's licensing, with the purpose to improve traffic safety in January 2012, has reduced the self-reported rate of severe hypoglycemia in a routine clinical setting...... of concealed severe hypoglycemia may impair the safety of affected patients and unintentionally paradoxically reduce the general traffic safety....

  20. Sensitivity to European wasps in a group of allergic patients in Marseille: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzani, R; Blanca, M; Sánchez, F; Juarez, C

    1994-01-01

    The wasp Polistes dominulus (PD), the yellow jacket Vespula germanica (VG) and the hornet Vespa crabro (VC) are allergenically important social wasps found in Europe. Serum samples obtained from allergic subjects in Marseille were studied in order to determine the positivity by RAST to these venoms. All the sera studied had IgE antibodies to at least one of the wasp venoms tested and 50% had IgE antibodies that reacted with more than one venom. The presence in some sera of IgE antibodies to the venoms of all three wasps and RAST inhibition studies suggested that the three venoms were relevant in the area studied and that most sera were positive to the three venoms due to allergenic cross-reactivity. However, inhibition studies revealed that 2 patients may have had antibodies that did not cross-react and that were specific for the venom of only one species.

  1. Greater dyspnea is associated with lower health-related quality of life among European patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruenberger JB

    2017-03-01

    number of emergency room visits (0.61 vs 0.40, P=0.030 were higher in patients with greater dyspnea.Conclusion: Many European patients with COPD continue to experience dyspnea despite treatment and at levels associated with notable impairments in the patients’ ability to function across a multitude of domains. These patients may benefit from more intense treatment of their symptoms. Keywords: COPD, dyspnea, health-related quality of life, activity impairment, symptoms

  2. Key European guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with phenylketonuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Spronsen, Francjan J; van Wegberg, Annemiek Mj; Ahring, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    was available. From the 70 recommendations formulated, in this Review we describe ten that we deem as having the highest priority. Diet is the cornerstone of treatment, although some patients can benefit from tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Untreated blood phenylalanine concentrations determine management of people...... with PKU. No intervention is required if the blood phenylalanine concentration is less than 360 μmol/L. Treatment is recommended up to the age of 12 years if the phenylalanine blood concentration is between 360 μmol/L and 600 μmol/L, and lifelong treatment is recommended if the concentration is more than...... 600 μmol/L. For women trying to conceive and during pregnancy (maternal PKU), untreated phenylalanine blood concentrations of more than 360 μmol/L need to be reduced. Treatment target concentrations are as follows: 120-360 μmol/L for individuals aged 0-12 years and for maternal PKU, and 120-600 μmol...

  3. Between pharmaceutical patents and European patients: is a compromise still possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Livio; Padula, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Pharmaceutical regulation has always attempted to balance the public health objective to make safe and effective drugs available for patients while providing commercial incentives through patents. Here we discuss whether it is still possible to find a balance between the incentives on the supply side and the regulatory framework on the demand side. Areas covered: The current regulatory framework on pharmaceutical exclusivity has been harshly criticized by many experts, arguing about whether it is still fit for public purposes and needs. Here we envisage a different scenario without 'revolutionizing' the whole present system. The main radical change should concern the present management of pharmaceutical patents by introducing a specific agency dedicated to them. Secondly, specific pharmaceutical patents could be restricted to compounds for one (or more) declared indication(s). Thirdly, pharmaceutical patents should be kept only for compounds that start a first clinical trial within five years from the granting date. Expert opinion: We think it is time to reconsider the regulation of pharmaceutical patents in the light of their relevance in terms of public health. New models of enhancing research investments are required for long-term sustainability of public pharmaceutical expenditure and the EU can still play a leading role.

  4. Analysis of Factors and Medical Errors Involved in Patient Complaints in a European Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Haroutunian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients’ complaints from Emergency Departments (ED are frequent and can be used as a quality assurance indicator. Objective: Factors contributing to patients’ complaints (PCs in the emergency department were analyzed.  Methods: It was a retrospective cohort study, the qualitative variables of patients’ complaints visiting ED of a university hospital were compared with Chi-Square and t test tests. Results: Eighty-five PC were analyzed. The factors contributing to PC were: communication (n=26, length of stay (LOS (n=24, diagnostic errors (n=21, comfort and privacy issues (n=7, pain management (n=6, inappropriate treatment (n=6, delay of care and billing issues (n=3. PCs were more frequent when patients were managed by residents, during night shifts, weekends, Saturdays, Mondays, January and June. Moreover, the factors contributing to diagnostic errors were due to poor communication, non-adherence to guidelines and lack of systematic proofreading of X-rays. In 98% of cases, disputes were resolved by apology and explanation and three cases resulted in financial compensation. Conclusion: Poor communication, LOS and medical errors are factors contributing to PCs. Improving communication, resolving issues leading to slow health care provision, adequate staffing and supervision of trainees may reduce PCs.

  5. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  6. The prognostic value of dobutamine stress echocardiography amongst British Indian Asian and Afro-Caribbean patients: a comparison with European white patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Jamie M; Rossato, Claire; Gargallo-Fernandez, Paula; Araco, Marco; Giannoglou, Dimitrios; Sharma, Sanjay; Sharma, Rajan

    2015-08-06

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease is considerably disparate among different racial and ethnic populations. While dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) has been shown to be useful in Caucasian patients, its role among ethnic minority groups remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic importance of DSE in three ethnic groups in the UK. DSE was performed on 6231 consecutive patients. After exclusions, 5329 patients formed the study (2676 [50.2%] Indian Asian, 2219 [41.6%] European white and 434 [8.1%] Afro-Caribbean). Study outcome measures were non-fatal cardiac events (NFCE) and all-cause mortality. There were 849 (15.9%) NFCE and 1365 (25.6%) deaths over a median follow-up period of 4.6 years. In total 1174 (22%) patients had inducible myocardial ischaemia during DSE, 859 (16.1%) had fixed wall motion abnormalities and 3645 (68.4%) patients had a normal study. Ethnicity did not predict events. Among the three ethnic groups, ischaemia on DSE was associated with 2 to 2.5 times the risk of non-fatal cardiac events and 1.2 to 1.4 times the risk of all-cause mortality. Peak wall motion score index was the strongest independent predictor of non-fatal cardiac events and all-cause mortality in all groups. The C statistic for the prediction of NFCE and all-cause mortality were significantly higher when DSE parameters were added to the standard risk factors for all ethnic groups. DSE is a strong predictor of NFCE and all-cause mortality and provides predictive information beyond that provided by standard risk factors in three major racial and ethnic groups. No major differences among racial and ethnic groups in the predictive value of DSE was detected.

  7. Total Joint Arthroplasty Patients' Education on Financial Issues and Its Connection to Reported Out-of-Pocket Costs-A European Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copanitsanou, Panagiota; Valkeapää, Kirsi; Cabrera, Esther; Katajisto, Jouko; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Sigurdardottir, Arun K; Unosson, Mitra; Zabalegui, Adelaida; Lemonidou, Chryssoula

    2017-04-01

    Total joint arthroplasty is accompanied by significant costs. In nursing, patient education on financial issues is considered important. Our purpose was to examine the possible association between the arthroplasty patients' financial knowledge and their out-of-pocket costs. Descriptive correlational study in five European countries. Patient data were collected preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively, with structured, self-administered instruments, regarding their expected and received financial knowledge and out-of-pocket costs. There were 1,288 patients preoperatively, and 352 at 6 months. Patients' financial knowledge expectations were higher than knowledge received. Patients with high financial knowledge expectations and lack of fulfillment of these expectations had lowest costs. There is need to establish programs for improving the financial knowledge of patients. Patients with fulfilled expectations reported higher costs and may have followed and reported their costs in a more precise way. In the future, this association needs multimethod research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Chronic pancreatitis associated with the p.G208A variant of PRSS1 gene in a European patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, Eszter; Cierna, Iveta; Vavrova, Ludmila; Ilencikova, Denisa; Konecny, Michal; Kovacs, Laszlo

    2014-01-10

    The major etiologic factor of chronic pancreatitis in adults is excessive alcohol consumption, whereas among children structural anomalies, systemic and metabolic disorders, and genetic factors are prevalent. Mutations in the cationic trypsinogen gene (PRSS1) cause hereditary pancreatitis, while mutations in serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and chymotrypsin C (CTRC) genes have been shown to associate with chronic pancreatitis as independent risk factors. We present a case of 13-year-old boy with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. Given the unexplained attacks of pancreatitis since early childhood and despite the negative family history, molecular-genetic analysis of four pancreatitis susceptibility genes (PRSS1, SPINK1, CTRC and CFTR) was performed. The boy was found to carry the c.623G>C (p.G208A) mutation of the PRSS1 gene and the c.180C>T (p.G60G) mutation of the CTRC gene, both in heterozygous state. These mutations are considered as contributing risk factors for chronic pancreatitis. In children with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis genetic causes should be considered, even in absence of positive family history. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a European patient with chronic pancreatitis associated with the p.G208A mutation of PRSS1 gene. This mutation was previously reported only in Asian subjects and is thought to be a unique genetic cause of pancreatitis in Asia.

  9. Evaluation of NGS and RT-PCR Methods for ALK Rearrangement in European NSCLC Patients: Results from the European Thoracic Oncology Platform Lungscape Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letovanec, Igor; Finn, Stephen; Zygoura, Panagiota; Smyth, Paul; Soltermann, Alex; Bubendorf, Lukas; Speel, Ernst-Jan; Marchetti, Antonio; Nonaka, Daisuke; Monkhorst, Kim; Hager, Henrik; Martorell, Miguel; Sejda, Aleksandra; Cheney, Richard; Hernandez-Losa, Javier; Verbeken, Eric; Weder, Walter; Savic, Spasenija; Di Lorito, Alessia; Navarro, Atilio; Felip, Enriqueta; Warth, Arne; Baas, Paul; Meldgaard, Peter; Blackhall, Fiona; Dingemans, Anne-Marie; Dienemann, Hendrik; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Vansteenkiste, Johan; O'Brien, Cathal; Geiger, Thomas; Sherlock, Jon; Schageman, Jeoffrey; Dafni, Urania; Kammler, Roswitha; Kerr, Keith; Thunnissen, Erik; Stahel, Rolf; Peters, Solange

    2018-03-01

    The reported prevalence of ALK receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK) rearrangement in NSCLC ranges from 2% to 7%. The primary standard diagnostic method is fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Recently, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has also proved to be a reproducible and sensitive technique. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has also been advocated, and most recently, the advent of targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) for ALK and other fusions has become possible. This study compares anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) evaluation with all four techniques in resected NSCLC from the large European Thoracic Oncology Platform Lungscape cohort. A total of 96 cases from the European Thoracic Oncology Platform Lungscape iBiobank, with any ALK immunoreactivity were examined by FISH, central RT-PCR, and NGS. An H-score higher than 120 defines IHC positivity. RNA was extracted from the same formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. For RT-PCR, primers covered the most frequent ALK translocations. For NGS, the Oncomine Solid Tumour Fusion Transcript Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) was used. The concordance was assessed using the Cohen κ coefficient (two-sided α ≤ 5%). NGS provided results for 77 of the 95 cases tested (81.1%), whereas RT-PCR provided results for 77 of 96 (80.2%). Concordance occurred in 55 cases of the 60 cases tested with all four methods (43 ALK negative and 12 ALK positive). Using ALK copositivity for IHC and FISH as the criterion standard, we derived a sensitivity for RT-PCR/NGS of 70.0%/85.0%, with a specificity of 87.1%/79.0%. When either RT-PCR or NGS was combined with IHC, the sensitivity remained the same, whereas the specificity increased to 88.7% and 83.9% respectively. NGS evaluation with the Oncomine Solid Tumour Fusion transcript kit and RT-PCR proved to have high sensitivity and specificity, advocating their use in routine practice. For maximal sensitivity and specificity, ALK status should be

  10. A cost-effectiveness analysis of fixed-combination therapies in patients with open-angle glaucoma: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommer, A; Wickstrøm, J; Friis, M M; Steeds, C; Thygesen, J; Ferreras, A; Gouws, P; Buchholz, P

    2008-04-01

    To compare the efficacy and cost implications of the use of the intraocular pressure-lowering prostaglandin analogues bimatoprost, travoprost, and latanoprost as fixed-combination therapies with timolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. A decision analytic cost-effectiveness model was constructed. Since no head-to-head studies comparing the three treatment options exist, the analysis was based on an indirect comparison. Hence, the model was based on efficacy data from five randomized, controlled, clinical studies. The studies were comparable with respect to study design, time horizon, patient population and type of end point presented. The measure of effectiveness was the percentage reduction of the intraocular pressure level from baseline. The cost evaluated was the cost of medication and clinical visits to the ophthalmologist. All drug costs were market prices inclusive of value-added tax, and visit costs were priced using official physician fees. Cost-effectiveness analyses were carried out in five European countries: Spain, Italy, United Kingdom, Norway and Sweden. The time horizon for the analyses was 3 months. The analysis showed that fixed-combination bimatoprost/timolol was more effective and less costly than fixed-combination travoprost/timolol and fixed-combination latanoprost/timolol in three out of the five countries analyzed. In two countries, bimatoprost/timolol was less costly than latanoprost/timolol, and cost the same as travoprost/timolol. This cost-effectiveness analysis showed that the fixed combination of bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% administered once daily was a cost-effective treatment option for patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. This study was limited by available clinical data: without a head-to-head trial, indirect comparisons were necessary. In the United Kingdom, Sweden, Norway, Italy, and Spain, from a health service viewpoint, bimatoprost/timolol was a slightly more effective as well as less costly treatment strategy

  11. Hemodynamic monitoring and management in patients undergoing high risk surgery: a survey among North American and European anesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannesson, Maxime; Pestel, Gunther; Ricks, Cameron; Hoeft, Andreas; Perel, Azriel

    2011-08-15

    Several studies have demonstrated that perioperative hemodynamic optimization has the ability to improve postoperative outcome in high-risk surgical patients. All of these studies aimed at optimizing cardiac output and/or oxygen delivery in the perioperative period. We conducted a survey with the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) and the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) to assess current hemodynamic management practices in patients undergoing high-risk surgery in Europe and in the United States. A survey including 33 specific questions was emailed to 2,500 randomly selected active members of the ASA and to active ESA members. Overall, 368 questionnaires were completed, 57.1% from ASA and 42.9% from ESA members. Cardiac output is monitored by only 34% of ASA and ESA respondents (P = 0.49) while central venous pressure is monitored by 73% of ASA respondents and 84% of ESA respondents (P < 0.01). Specifically, the pulmonary artery catheter is being used much more frequently in the US than in Europe in the setup of high-risk surgery (85.1% vs. 55.3% respectively, P < 0.001). Clinical experience, blood pressure, central venous pressure, and urine output are the most widely indicators of volume expansion. Finally, 86.5% of ASA respondents and 98.1% of ESA respondents believe that their current hemodynamic management could be improved. In conclusion, these results point to a considerable gap between the accumulating evidence about the benefits of perioperative hemodynamic optimization and the available technologies that may facilitate its clinical implementation, and clinical practices in both Europe and the United States.

  12. Bleeding risk assessment and management in atrial fibrillation patients. Executive Summary of a Position Document from the European Heart Rhythm Association [EHRA], endorsed by the European Society of Cardiology [ESC] Working Group on Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Andreotti, Felicita; Fauchier, Laurent; Huber, Kurt; Hylek, Elaine; Knight, Eve; Lane, Deirdre; Levi, Marcel; Marín, Francisco; Palareti, Gualtiero; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2011-12-01

    In this executive summary of a Consensus Document from the European Heart Rhythm Association, endorsed by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis, we comprehensively review the published evidence and propose a consensus on bleeding risk assessments in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. The main aim of the document was to summarise 'best practice' in dealing with bleeding risk in AF patients when approaching antithrombotic therapy, by addressing the epidemiology and size of the problem, and review established bleeding risk factors. We also summarise definitions of bleeding in the published literature. Patient values and preferences balancing the risk of bleeding against thromboembolism as well as the prognostic implications of bleeding are reviewed. We also provide an overview of published bleeding risk stratification and bleeding risk schema. Brief discussion of special situations (e.g. periablation, peri-devices such as implantable cardioverter defibrillators [ICD] or pacemakers, presentation with acute coronary syndromes and/or requiring percutanous coronary interventions/stents and bridging therapy) is made, as well as a discussion of the prevention of bleeds and managing bleeding complications. Finally, this document puts forwards consensus statements that may help to define evidence gaps and assist in everyday clinical practice.

  13. Social inequalities and cancer: can the European deprivation index predict patients' difficulties in health care access? a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriceau, Guillaume; Bourmaud, Aurélie; Tinquaut, Fabien; Oriol, Mathieu; Jacquin, Jean-Philippe; Fournel, Pierre; Magné, Nicolas; Chauvin, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Context The European Deprivation Index (EDI), is a new ecological estimate for Socio-Economic Status (SES). This study postulates that Time-To-Treatment could be used as a cancer quality-of -care surrogate in order to identify the association between cancer patient's SES and quality of care in a French comprehensive cancer center. Methods retrospective mono-centered cohort study. All consecutive incoming adult patients diagnosed for breast cancer(BC), prostate cancer(PC), colorectal cancer (CRC), lung cancer(LC) or sarcoma(S) were included between January 2013 and December 2013. The association of EDI and Time-To-Diagnosis(TTD), as well as Time-To-Treatment(TTT) was analyzed using a cox regression, and a strata analysis per tumor site was performed. Results 969 patients were included. Primitive tumor site was 505 BC(52%), 169 PC(17%), 145 LC(15%), 116 CRC(12%), and 34 S(4%). Median TTD was 1.41 months (Q1-Q3 0.5 to 3.5 months). Median TTT was 0.9 months (0.4 - 1.4). In a multivariate analysis, we identified the tumor site as a predictive factor to influence TTD, shorter for BC (0.75months, [0.30- 1.9]) than PC (4.69 months [1.6-29.7]), HR 0.27 95%CI= [0.22-0.34], p < 0.001. TTT was also shorter for BC (0.75months [0.4-1.1]) than PC (2.02 [0.9-3.2]), HR 0.32 95%CI= [0.27-0.39], p < 0.001. EDI quintiles were not found associated with either TTT or TTD. Conclusions Deprivation estimated by the EDI does not appear to be related to an extension of the Time-to-Diagnosis or Time-to-Treatment in our real-life population. Further research should be done to identify other frailty-sensitive factors that could be responsible for delays in care. PMID:26540571

  14. Cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis: Consensus report of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Karin; Escribano, Luis; Grattan, Clive; Brockow, Knut; Carter, Melody C; Alvarez-Twose, Ivan; Matito, Almudena; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Siebenhaar, Frank; Lange, Magdalena; Niedoszytko, Marek; Castells, Mariana; Oude Elberink, Joanna N G; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Zanotti, Roberta; Hornick, Jason L; Torrelo, Antonio; Grabbe, Jürgen; Rabenhorst, Anja; Nedoszytko, Boguslaw; Butterfield, Joseph H; Gotlib, Jason; Reiter, Andreas; Radia, Deepti; Hermine, Olivier; Sotlar, Karl; George, Tracy I; Kristensen, Thomas K; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C; Yavuz, Selim; Hägglund, Hans; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Triggiani, Massimo; Maurer, Marcus; Nilsson, Gunnar; Horny, Hans-Peter; Arock, Michel; Orfao, Alberto; Metcalfe, Dean D; Akin, Cem; Valent, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous lesions in patients with mastocytosis are highly heterogeneous and encompass localized and disseminated forms. Although a classification and criteria for cutaneous mastocytosis (CM) have been proposed, there remains a need to better define subforms of cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis. To address this unmet need, an international task force involving experts from different organizations (including the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology) met several times between 2010 and 2014 to discuss the classification and criteria for diagnosis of cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis. This article provides the major outcomes of these meetings and a proposal for a revised definition and criteria. In particular, we recommend that the typical maculopapular cutaneous lesions (urticaria pigmentosa) should be subdivided into 2 variants, namely a monomorphic variant with small maculopapular lesions, which is typically seen in adult patients, and a polymorphic variant with larger lesions of variable size and shape, which is typically seen in pediatric patients. Clinical observations suggest that the monomorphic variant, if it develops in children, often persists into adulthood, whereas the polymorphic variant may resolve around puberty. This delineation might have important prognostic implications, and its implementation in diagnostic algorithms and future mastocytosis classifications is recommended. Refinements are also suggested for the diagnostic criteria of CM, removal of telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans from the current classification of CM, and removal of the adjunct solitary from the term solitary mastocytoma. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Economic costs of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia among patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in European and Australian clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weycker Derek

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic implications of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN in European and Australian clinical practice are largely unknown. Methods Data were obtained from a European (97% and Australian (3% observational study of patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL receiving CHOP (±rituximab chemotherapy. For each patient, each cycle of chemotherapy within the course, and each occurrence of FN within cycles, was identified. Patients developing FN in a given cycle (“FN patients”, starting with the first, were matched to those who did not develop FN in that cycle (“comparison patients”, irrespective of subsequent FN events. FN-related healthcare costs (£2010 were tallied for the initial FN event as well as follow-on care and FN events in subsequent cycles. Results Mean total cost was £5776 (95%CI £4928-£6713 higher for FN patients (n = 295 versus comparison patients, comprising £4051 (£3633-£4485 for the initial event and a difference of £1725 (£978-£2498 in subsequent cycles. Among FN patients requiring inpatient care (76% of all FN patients, mean total cost was higher by £7259 (£6327-£8205, comprising £5281 (£4810-£5774 for the initial hospitalization and a difference of £1978 (£1262-£2801 in subsequent cycles. Conclusions Cost of chemotherapy-induced FN among NHL patients in European and Australian clinical practice is substantial; a sizable percentage is attributable to follow-on care and subsequent FN events.

  16. European Society of Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guideline for long-term follow-up of patients operated on for a phaeochromocytoma or a paraganglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plouin, P F; Amar, L; Dekkers, O M; Fassnacht, M; Gimenez-Roqueplo, A P; Lenders, J W M; Lussey-Lepoutre, C; Steichen, O

    2016-05-01

    Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumours. Standard treatment is surgical resection. Following complete resection of the primary tumour, patients with PPGL are at risk of developing new tumoural events. The present guideline aims to propose standardised clinical care of long-term follow-up in patients operated on for a PPGL. The guideline has been developed by The European Society of Endocrinology and based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) principles. We performed a systematic review of the literature and analysed the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours (ENS@T) database. The risk of new events persisted in the long term and was higher for patients with genetic or syndromic diseases. Follow-up in the published cohorts and in the ENS@T database was neither standardised nor exhaustive, resulting in a risk of follow-up bias and in low statistical power beyond 10 years after complete surgery. To inform patients and care providers in this context of low-quality evidence, the Guideline Working Group therefore prepared recommendations on the basis of expert consensus. Key recommendations are the following: we recommend that all patients with PPGL be considered for genetic testing; we recommend assaying plasma or urinary metanephrines every year to screen for local or metastatic recurrences or new tumours; and we suggest follow-up for at least 10 years in all patients operated on for a PPGL. High-risk patients (young patients and those with a genetic disease, a large tumour and/or a paraganglioma) should be offered lifelong annual follow-up. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  17. Infraorbital nerve involvement on magnetic resonance imaging in European patients with IgG4-related ophthalmic disease: a specific sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soussan, J. Ben; Sadik, J.C.; Savatovsky, J.; Heran, F.; Lecler, A. [Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Deschamps, R. [Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Department of Neurology, Paris (France); Deschamps, L. [Bichat Hospital, APHP, Department of Pathology, Paris (France); Puttermann, M. [Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, APHP, Department of Pathology, Paris (France); Zmuda, M.; Galatoire, O. [Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Department of Orbitopalpebral Surgery, Paris (France); Picard, H. [Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Clinical Research Unit, Paris (France)

    2017-04-15

    To measure the frequency of infraorbital nerve enlargement (IONE) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in European patients suffering from an IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) as compared to patients suffering from non-IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (non-IgG4-ROD). From January 2006 through April 2015, 132 patients were admitted for non-lymphoma, non-thyroid-related orbital inflammation. Thirty-eight had both pre-therapeutic orbital MRI and histopathological IgG4 immunostaining. Fifteen patients were classified as cases of IgG4-ROD and 23 patients as cases of non-IgG4-ROD. Two readers performed blinded analyses of MRI images. The main criterion was the presence of an IONE, defined as the infraorbital nerve diameter being greater than the optic nerve diameter in the coronal section. IONE was present in 53% (8/15) of IgG4-ROD cases whereas it was never present (0/23) in cases of non-IgG4-ROD (P < 0.0001). IONE was only present in cases where, on MRI, the inflammation of the inferior quadrant was present and in direct contact with the ION canal. In European patients suffering from orbital inflammation, the presence of IONE on an MRI is a specific sign of IgG4-ROD. Recognition of this pattern may facilitate the accurate diagnosis for clinicians and allow for the adequate management and appropriate care of their patients. (orig.)

  18. Infraorbital nerve involvement on magnetic resonance imaging in European patients with IgG4-related ophthalmic disease: a specific sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussan, J. Ben; Sadik, J.C.; Savatovsky, J.; Heran, F.; Lecler, A.; Deschamps, R.; Deschamps, L.; Puttermann, M.; Zmuda, M.; Galatoire, O.; Picard, H.

    2017-01-01

    To measure the frequency of infraorbital nerve enlargement (IONE) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in European patients suffering from an IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) as compared to patients suffering from non-IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (non-IgG4-ROD). From January 2006 through April 2015, 132 patients were admitted for non-lymphoma, non-thyroid-related orbital inflammation. Thirty-eight had both pre-therapeutic orbital MRI and histopathological IgG4 immunostaining. Fifteen patients were classified as cases of IgG4-ROD and 23 patients as cases of non-IgG4-ROD. Two readers performed blinded analyses of MRI images. The main criterion was the presence of an IONE, defined as the infraorbital nerve diameter being greater than the optic nerve diameter in the coronal section. IONE was present in 53% (8/15) of IgG4-ROD cases whereas it was never present (0/23) in cases of non-IgG4-ROD (P < 0.0001). IONE was only present in cases where, on MRI, the inflammation of the inferior quadrant was present and in direct contact with the ION canal. In European patients suffering from orbital inflammation, the presence of IONE on an MRI is a specific sign of IgG4-ROD. Recognition of this pattern may facilitate the accurate diagnosis for clinicians and allow for the adequate management and appropriate care of their patients. (orig.)

  19. Piloting the European Unified Patient Identity Management (EUPID) Concept to Facilitate Secondary Use of Neuroblastoma Data from Clinical Trials and Biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Hubert; Hayn, Dieter; Falgenhauer, Markus; Nitzlnader, Michael; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Haupt, Riccardo; Erminio, Giovanni; Defferrari, Raffaella; Mazzocco, Katia; Kohler, Jan; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Ladenstein, Ruth; Schreier, Guenter

    2016-01-01

    Data from two contexts, i.e. the European Unresectable Neuroblastoma (EUNB) clinical trial and results from comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) analyses from corresponding tumour samples shall be provided to existing repositories for secondary use. Utilizing the European Unified Patient IDentity Management (EUPID) as developed in the course of the ENCCA project, the following processes were applied to the data: standardization (providing interoperability), pseudonymization (generating distinct but linkable pseudonyms for both contexts), and linking both data sources. The applied procedures resulted in a joined dataset that did not contain any identifiers that would allow to backtrack the records to either data sources. This provided a high degree of privacy to the involved patients as required by data protection regulations, without preventing proper analysis.

  20. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  1. Heart rate at admission is a predictor of in-hospital mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes: Results from 58 European hospitals: The European Hospital Benchmarking by Outcomes in acute coronary syndrome Processes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Pereira, Marta; Araujo, Carla; Malmivaara, Anti; Ferrieres, Jean; Degano, Irene R; Kirchberger, Inge; Farmakis, Dimitrios; Garel, Pascal; Torre, Marina; Marrugat, Jaume; Azevedo, Ana

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between heart rate at admission and in-hospital mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Consecutive ACS patients admitted in 2008-2010 across 58 hospitals in six participant countries of the European Hospital Benchmarking by Outcomes in ACS Processes (EURHOBOP) project (Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Portugal and Spain). Cardiogenic shock patients were excluded. Associations between heart rate at admission in categories of 10 beats per min (bpm) and in-hospital mortality were estimated by logistic regression in crude models and adjusting for age, sex, obesity, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, known heart failure, renal failure, previous stroke and ischaemic heart disease. In total 10,374 patients were included. In both STEMI and NSTE-ACS patients, a U-shaped relationship between admission heart rate and in-hospital mortality was found. The lowest risk was observed for heart rates between 70-79 bpm in STEMI and 60-69 bpm in NSTE-ACS; risk of mortality progressively increased with lower or higher heart rates. In multivariable models, the relationship persisted but was significant only for heart rates >80 bpm. A similar relationship was present in both patients with or without diabetes, above or below age 75 years, and irrespective of the presence of atrial fibrillation or use of beta-blockers. Heart rate at admission is significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in patients with both STEMI and NSTE-ACS. ACS patients with admission heart rate above 80 bpm are at highest risk of in-hospital mortality.

  2. Updated European Heart Rhythm Association practical guide on the use of non-vitamin-K antagonist anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: Executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbuchel, Hein; Verhamme, Peter; Alings, Marco; Antz, Matthias; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Hacke, Werner; Oldgren, Jonas; Sinnaeve, Peter; Camm, A John; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2017-07-14

    In 2013, the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) published a Practical Guide on the use of non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) (Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M, Antz M, Hacke W, Oldgren J, Sinnaeve P, Camm AJ, Kirchhof P, European Heart Rhythm A. European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Europace 2013;15:625-651; Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M, Antz M, Hacke W, Oldgren J, Sinnaeve P, Camm AJ, Kirchhof P. EHRA practical guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: executive summary. Eur Heart J 2013;34:2094-2106). The document received widespread interest, not only from cardiologists but also from neurologists, geriatricians, and general practitioners, as became evident from the distribution of >350 000 copies of its pocket version (the EHRA Key Message Booklet) world-wide. Since 2013, numerous new studies have appeared on different aspects of NOAC therapy in AF patients. Therefore, EHRA updated the Practical Guide, including new information but also providing balanced guiding in the many areas where prospective data are still lacking. The outline of the original guide that addressed 15 clinical scenarios has been preserved, but all chapters have been rewritten. Main changes in the Update comprise a discussion on the definition of 'non-valvular AF' and eligibility for NOAC therapy, inclusion of finalized information on the recently approved edoxaban, tailored dosing information dependent on concomitant drugs, and/or clinical characteristics, an expanded chapter on neurologic scenarios (ischaemic stroke or intracranial haemorrhage under NOAC), an updated anticoagulation card and more specifics on start-up and follow-up issues. There are also many new flow charts, like on appropriate switching between anticoagulants (VKA to NOAC or vice versa), default scenarios for

  3. How are patients with atrial fibrillation approached and informed about their risk profile and available therapies in Europe? Results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potpara, Tatjana S; Pison, Laurent; Larsen, Torben B; Estner, Heidi; Madrid, Antonio; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2015-03-01

    This European Heart Rhythm (EHRA) Scientific Initiatives Committee EP Wire Survey aimed at exploring the common practices in approaching patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and informing them about their risk profiles and available therapies in Europe. In the majority of 53 responding centres, patients were seen by cardiologists (86.8%) or arrhythmologists (64.2%). First- and follow-up visits most commonly lasted 21-30 and 11-20 min (41.5 and 69.8% of centres, respectively). In most centres (80.2%) stroke and bleeding risk had the highest priority for discussion with AF patients; 50.9% of centres had a structured patient education programme for stroke prevention. Individual patient stroke risk was assessed at every visit in 69.2% of the centres; 46.1% of centres had a hospital-based anticoagulation clinic. Information about non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) was communicated to all AF patients eligible for oral anticoagulation (38.5% of centres) or to warfarin-naive/unstable patients (42.3%). Only two centres (3.8%) had a structured NOAC adherence follow-up programme; in eight centres (15.4%) patients were requested to sign the statement they have been informed about the risks of non-adherence to NOAC therapy, and three centres (5.8%) had a patient education programme. Patient preferences were of the highest relevance regarding oral anticoagulation and AF ablation (64.7 and 49.0% of centres, respectively). This EP Wire Survey shows that in Europe considerable amount of time and resources are used in daily clinical practice to inform AF patients about their risk profile and available therapies. However, a diversity of strategies used across the European hospitals was noted, and further research is needed to better define optimal strategies for informing AF patients about their risk profile and treatment options. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  5. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  6. Sentinel European Node Trial (SENT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilling, Clare; Stoeckli, Sandro J; Haerle, Stephan K

    2015-01-01

    in patients with early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: An European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-approved prospective, observational study commenced in 2005. Fourteen European centres recruited 415 patients with radiologically staged T1-T2N0 squamous cell carcinoma. SNB...

  7. Analysis of potential protein-modifying variants in 9000 endometriosis patients and 150000 controls of European ancestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Yadav; Vivo, Immaculata De; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur

    2017-01-01

    -modifying variants in endometriosis using exome-array genotyping in 7164 cases and 21005 controls, and a replication set of 1840 cases and 129016 controls of European ancestry. Results in the discovery sample identified significant evidence for association with coding variants in single-variant (rs1801232-CUBN...... sufficient power, our results did not identify any protein-modifying variants (MAF > 0.01) with moderate or large effect sizes in endometriosis, although these variants may exist in non-European populations or in high-risk families. The results suggest continued discovery efforts should focus on genotyping...

  8. Adherence to 2016 European Society of Cardiology guidelines predicts outcome in a large real-world population of heart failure patients requiring cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Giuseppe; Pepi, Patrizia; Palmisano, Pietro; D'Onofrio, Antonio; De Simone, Antonio; Caico, Salvatore Ivan; Pecora, Domenico; Rapacciuolo, Antonio; Arena, Giuseppe; Marini, Massimiliano; Pieragnoli, Paolo; Badolati, Sandra; Savarese, Gianluca; Maglia, Gianpiero; Iuliano, Assunta; Botto, Giovanni Luca; Malacrida, Maurizio; Bertaglia, Emanuele

    2018-04-14

    Professional guidelines are based on the best available evidence. However, patients treated in clinical practice may differ from those included in reference trials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in a large population of patients implanted with a CRT device stratified in accordance with the 2016 European heart failure (HF) guidelines. We collected data on 930 consecutive patients from the Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy MOdular REgistry. The primary end point was a composite of death and HF hospitalization. Five hundred sixty-three (60.5%) patients met class I indications, 145 (15.6%) class IIa, 108 (11.6%) class IIb, and 114 (12.3%) class III. After a median follow-up of 1001 days, 120 patients who had an indication for CRT implantation had died and 71 had been hospitalized for HF. The time to the end point was longer in patients with a class I indication (hazard ratio 0.55; 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.76; P = .0001). After 12 months, left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume had decreased by ≥15% in 61.5% of patients whereas in 57.5% of patients the absolute LV ejection fraction improvement was ≥5%. Adherence to class I was also associated with an absolute LV ejection fraction increase of >5% (P = .0142) and an LV end-systolic volume decrease of ≥15% (P = .0055). In our population, ∼60% of patients underwent implantation according to the 2016 European HF guidelines class I indication. Adherence to class I was associated with a lower death and HF hospitalization rate and better LV reverse remodeling. Copyright © 2018 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. First Central and Eastern European Workshop on Quality control, patient dosimetry and radiation protection in diagnostic and interventional radiology and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Frederic Joliot-Curie Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene

    2007-01-01

    First Central and Eastern European Workshop on Quality Control, Patient Dosimetry and Radiation Protection in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, scientifically supported and accredited as a CPD event for medical physicists by EFOMP, National 'Frederic Joliot-Curie' Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene (NRIRR), Budapest, Hungary, April 25-28, 2007. Topics of the meeting included all areas of medical radiation physics except radiation therapy. A unique possibility was realized by inviting four European manufacturers of quality control instrumentation, not only for exhibiting but they also had 45 minutes individual presentations about each manufacturer's product scale and conception. Further sessions dealt with dosimetry, optimization, quality control and testing, radiation protection and standardization, computed tomography and nuclear medicine, in 29 oral presentations and 1 poster of the participants. (S.I.)

  10. Diversity in clinical management and protocols for the treatment of major bleeding trauma patients across European level I Trauma Centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schäfer, Nadine; Driessen, Arne; Fröhlich, Matthias; Stürmer, Ewa K.; Maegele, Marc; Johansson, Pär I.; Ostrowski, Sisse R.; Stensballe, Jakob; Goslings, J. Carel; Juffermans, Nicole; Balvers, Kirsten; Neble, Sylvie; van Dieren, Susan; Gaarder, Christine; Naess, Pål A.; Kolstadbraten, Knut Magne; Brohi, Karim; Eaglestone, Simon; Rourke, Claire; Campbell, Helen; Curry, Nicola; Stanworth, Simon; Harrison, Michael; Buchanan, James; Soyel, Hamit; Gall, Lewis; Orr, Adrian; Char, Ahmed; Görlinger, Klaus; Schubert, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Uncontrolled haemorrhage is still the leading cause of preventable death after trauma and the primary focus of any treatment strategy should be related to early detection and control of blood loss including haemostasis. Methods: For assessing management practices across six European

  11. A cost-effectiveness analysis of fixed-combination therapies in patients with open-angle glaucoma: a European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommer, A.; Wickstrom, J.; Friis, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    inclusive of value-added tax, and visit costs were priced using official physician fees. Cost-effectiveness analyses were carried out in five European countries: Spain, Italy, United Kingdom, Norway and Sweden. The time horizon for the analyses was 3 months. RESULTS: The analysis showed that fixed...

  12. Screening for Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans in patients with upper respiratory tract infections 2007-2008: a multicentre European study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wagner, K S

    2011-04-01

    Diphtheria is now rare in most European countries but, when cases do arise, the case fatality rate is high (5-10%). Because few countries continue to routinely screen for the causative organisms of diphtheria, the extent to which they are circulating amongst different European populations is largely unknown. During 2007-2008, ten European countries each screened between 968 and 8551 throat swabs from patients with upper respiratory tract infections. Six toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae were identified: two from symptomatic patients in Latvia (the country with the highest reported incidence of diphtheria in the European Union) and four from Lithuania (two cases, two carriers); the last reported case of diphtheria in Lithuania was in 2002. Carriage rates of non-toxigenic organisms ranged from 0 (Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy) to 4.0 per 1000 (95% CI 2.0-7.1) in Turkey. A total of 28 non-toxigenic strains were identified during the study (26 C. diphtheriae, one Corynebacterium ulcerans, one Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis). The non-toxigenic C. ulcerans strain was isolated from the UK, the country with the highest reported incidence of cases due to C. ulcerans. Of the eleven ribotypes detected, Cluj was seen most frequently in the non-toxigenic isolates and, amongst toxigenic isolates, the major epidemic clone, Sankt-Petersburg, is still in circulation. Isolation of toxigenic C. diphtheriae and non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae and C. ulcerans in highly-vaccinated populations highlights the need to maintain microbiological surveillance, laboratory expertise and an awareness of these organisms amongst public health specialists, microbiologists and clinicians.

  13. A cross-sectional survey among patients and prescribers on insulin dosing irregularities and impact of mild (self-treated) hypoglycemia episodes in Spanish patients with type 2 diabetes as compared to other European patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampudia-Blasco, Francisco J; Galán, Manuel; Brod, Meryl

    2014-10-01

    In Spain, data suggest that 13.8% of adults have diabetes. Two important aspects in diabetes management are mild hypoglycemic episodes and poor treatment adherence. This study assesses the impact of missed insulin doses and prevalence of mistimed and reduced insulin doses and mild hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with basal insulin analogues in Spain, and compares the data collected to pooled data from 8 other European countries (OECs). GAPP2 was an international, online, cross-sectional study of diabetic patients aged ≥40 years treated with long-acting insulin analogues and their healthcare professionals. Patients and healthcare professionals were recruited from online research panels. Data reported in Spain are compared to pooled data from 8 OECs. In Spain, 1-3% of patients reported they had reduced, missed, or mistimed at least one insulin does in the previous month. Significantly more OEC patients reported dosing irregularities (15-23%; all P<0.01). In Spain, 77% of patients were worried and 59% felt guilty for missing a dose of basal insulin, while 24% reported that they were very worried about nocturnal hypoglycemia. Significantly fewer OEC patients reported worrying (47%; P<0.01) and feeling guilty (37%; P<0.01) about missing an insulin dose, or worry about nocturnal hypoglycemia (12%; P<0.01). In Spain, patients with type 2 diabetes report fewer dosing irregularities and hypoglycemic episodes as compared to patients from OECs. However, Spanish patients appear to have a reduced quality of life related to hypoglycemia as well as worry and guilt related to insulin dosing irregularities. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical features and relapse rates after surgery in type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis differ from type 2: a study of 114 surgically treated European patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlefsen, Sönke; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Frulloni, Luca; Feyerabend, Bernd; Braun, Felix; Gerke, Oke; Schlitter, Anna Melissa; Esposito, Irene; Klöppel, Günter

    2012-01-01

    At the recent consensus conference on autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) in Honolulu, we presented preliminary data from our study of surgically treated AIP patients. Our data strongly supported the separation of AIP into type 1 and type 2. Our study is based on a total of 114 surgically treated European AIP patients. Our aims were to elucidate serum IgG4 elevation, other organ involvement, relapse of disease, steroid treatment and diabetes after surgery in 114 surgically treated European AIP patients. 88 pancreaticoduodenectomies, 22 left-sided resections and 4 total pancreatectomies were examined. All cases were graded for granulocytic epithelial lesions, IgG4-positive cells, storiform fibrosis, phlebitis and eosinophilic granulocytes. Follow-up data were obtained from 102/114 patients, mean follow-up was 5.3 years. Histologically, 63 (55.3%) of the 114 patients fulfilled the criteria of type 1 AIP, while 51 (44.7%) patients fulfilled the criteria of type 2 AIP. Type 1 AIP patients were older and more often males than type 2 AIP patients. Elevation of serum IgG4, involvement of extrapancreatic organs, disease relapse, systemic steroid treatment and diabetes after surgery were noted more often in type 1 AIP, while inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was observed mainly in type 2 AIP. Histological typing of AIP is clinically important because type 1 AIP is part of the IgG4-related disease and type 2 AIP is associated with IBD. Our data also show that relapse of disease and steroid treatment after surgery occur more frequently in type 1 than in type 2 AIP. Copyright © 2012 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  16. Environmental contact factors in eczema and the results of patch testing Chinese patients with a modified European standard series of allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin-Feng; Guo, Jing; Wang, Jing

    2004-07-01

    Environmental contact factors in eczema were investigated in China by clinical questionnaire and patch testing patients with a modified European standard series of allergens. 217 consecutive eczema patients were studied. Contact dermatitis (CD) was clinically diagnosed in 30% of the patients. Among the patients patch tested, 46 patients had clinically diagnosed allergic CD (ACD), 20 patients clinically had non-ACD (NACD) (including 16 cases of irritant contact dermatitis, 1 case of phototoxic contact reaction and 3 cases of asteatotic eczema) and 115 patients had clinically suspected ACD. 45 patients (98%) in the ACD group went on to have relevant patch test results. The most common ACD was from metals, fragrance materials, cosmetics and rubber materials. The most common contact allergens identified were nickel, fragrance mix, para-phenylenediamine (PPD), carba mix and thimerosal. No adverse reactions were observed to patch testing, except for pruritus in patch-test-positive patients. The positive rate of patch testing in ACD was much higher than that in NACD (98% versus 15%, P China.

  17. Patients' intention to consume prescribed and non-prescribed medicines: A study based on the theory of planned behaviour in selected European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamekis, A; Bertsias, A; Moschandreas, J; Petelos, E; Papadakaki, M; Tsiantou, V; Saridaki, A; Symvoulakis, E K; Souliotis, K; Papadakis, N; Faresjö, T; Faresjö, A; Martinez, L; Agius, D; Uncu, Y; Sengezer, T; Samoutis, G; Vlcek, J; Abasaeed, A; Merkouris, B; Lionis, C

    2018-02-01

    Polypharmacy has a significant impact on patients' health with overall expenditure on over-the-counter (OTC) medicines representing a substantial burden in terms of cost of treatment. The aim of this study, which was conducted within the framework of a European Project funded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework Programme and was entitled OTC-SOCIOMED, was to report on possible determinants of patient behaviour regarding the consumption of medicines, and particularly OTCs, in the context of primary care. A multicentre, cross-sectional study was designed and implemented in well-defined primary healthcare settings in Cyprus, the Czech Republic, France, Greece, Malta and Turkey. Patients completed a questionnaire constructed on the basis of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), which was administered via face-to-face interviews. The percentage of patients who had consumed prescribed medicines over a 6-month period was consistently high, ranging from 79% in the Czech Republic and 82% in Turkey to 97% in Malta and 100% in Cyprus. Reported non-prescribed medicine consumption ranged from 33% in Turkey to 92% in the Czech Republic and 97% in Cyprus. TPB behavioural antecedents explained 43% of the variability of patients' intention to consume medicines in Malta and 24% in Greece, but only 3% in Turkey. Subjective norm was a significant predictor of the intention to consume medicines in all three countries (Greece, Malta and Turkey), whereas attitude towards consumption was a significant predictor of the expectation to consume medicines, if needed. This study shows that parameters such as patients' beliefs and influence from family and friends could be determining factors in explaining the high rates of medicine consumption. Factors that affect patients' behavioural intention towards medicine consumption may assist in the formulation of evidence-based policy proposals and inform initiatives and interventions aimed at increasing the appropriate use of medicines

  18. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  19. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  20. Characterization of patients in the European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS): postmenopausal women entering teriparatide treatment in a community setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajzbaum, Gerald; Jakob, Franz; Karras, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS) study was primarily designed to assess fracture incidence, degree of pain, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and compliance in women prescribed teriparatide in a community setting. This report describes the design of the study...... deformities and 91.7% were pre-treated with bisphosphonates. HRQoL, evaluated by the health state value (HSV) (median: 0.59, Q1; Q3: 0.08; 0.71) and visual analogue scale (VAS) (median 50.0, Q1; Q3: 35.0; 69.0) status of the European quality of life questionnaire (EQ-5D) was poor. Extreme problems were...

  1. Characteristics of patients patch tested in the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network, 2009-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf; Giménez-Arnau, Ana

    2015-01-01

    from 63 530 consultations collected by 53 departments from 12 countries participating in the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) ( www.essca-dc.org) between 2009 and 2012. RESULTS: Considerable variation in the prevalence of the MOAHLFA factors between departments was found...... one department per country give valuable insights into the spectrum of contact allergy prevalence rates in that country, but are not as representative as national data pooled from several departments....

  2. Key pharmacovigilance stakeholders' experiences of direct patient reporting of adverse drug reactions and their prospects of future development in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, P; Cavaco, A; Allan, E; Airaksinen, M

    2018-02-01

    In the European Union (EU), legislation allows patients to directly report adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to competent authorities. Five years after its implementation, patient reporting is not equal in all countries. This study aimed to explore key stakeholders' perceptions of patient reporting in four EU countries. Qualitative study design. Twelve representatives from national pharmacovigilance centres and/or authorities as well as national pharmaceutical industry bodies in four EU countries participated in the study. Supranational organizations were also included. Data collection was via face-semi-structured interviews. Inductive content analysis was performed thereafter, applying principles of risk management as a theoretical framework. Four themes (attitudes and beliefs, system maturation factors, regulatory improvements, and cultural shifts) emerged, conceptually interconnected. Participants from countries introducing patient reporting recently expressed a negative attitude. Participants highlighted the need for additional resources, both human and financial, to address patient reporting and associated advantages. The findings identified perceived barriers and facilitators of patient reporting. The involvement of patients, use of information, and dissemination of patient reporting are far from optimal. A better integration of the work by EU regulatory authorities is recommended. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cost-effectiveness evaluation of clobetasol propionate shampoo (CPS) maintenance in patients with moderate scalp psoriasis: a Pan-European analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, K; Poulin, Y; Barber, K; Lynde, C; Prinz, J C; Berg, M; Kerrouche, N; Rives, V P

    2012-11-01

    Scalp psoriasis is a difficult to treat and usually chronic manifestation of psoriasis. The CalePso study showed that CPS (Clobex(®) Shampoo) in maintenance therapy of scalp psoriasis (twice weekly) significantly increases the probability of keeping patient under remission during 6 months, compared with vehicle (40.3% relapses vs. 11.6% relapses, ITT). The objective of the study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a maintenance therapy with CPS vs. its vehicle in nine European countries. A 24-week decision tree model was developed with 4-weekly time steps. The considered population has moderate scalp psoriasis successfully treated with a daily application of CPS up to 4 weeks. Data were taken from the CalePso study and from national experts' recommendations for alternative treatment choices, with their probabilities of success taken from literature to develop country-specific models. Health benefits are measured in disease-free days (DFD). The economic analysis includes drug and physician costs. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PrSA) assesses the uncertainty of the model. Depending on the country, the mean total number of DFDs per patient is 21-42% higher with CPS compared with vehicle, and the mean total cost is 11-31% lower. The mean costs per DFD are 30-46% lower with CPS compared with the vehicle. The PrSA showed in 1000 simulations that CPS is more effective vs. vehicle in 100% of the cases and less expensive than its vehicle in 80-99% of the cases. This model suggests that CPS is cost-effective in maintaining the success achieved in moderate scalp psoriasis patients. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Time trends of period prevalence rates of patients with inhaled long-acting beta-2-agonists-containing prescriptions: a European comparative database study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Rottenkolber

    Full Text Available Inhaled, long-acting beta-2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABA have well-established roles in asthma and/or COPD treatment. Drug utilisation patterns for LABA have been described, but few studies have directly compared LABA use in different countries. We aimed to compare the prevalence of LABA-containing prescriptions in five European countries using a standardised methodology.A common study protocol was applied to seven European healthcare record databases (Denmark, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands (2, and the UK (2 to calculate crude and age- and sex-standardised annual period prevalence rates (PPRs of LABA-containing prescriptions from 2002-2009. Annual PPRs were stratified by sex, age, and indication (asthma, COPD, asthma and COPD.From 2002-2009, age- and sex-standardised PPRs of patients with LABA-containing medications increased in all databases (58.2%-185.1%. Highest PPRs were found in men ≥ 80 years old and women 70-79 years old. Regarding the three indications, the highest age- and sex-standardised PPRs in all databases were found in patients with "asthma and COPD" but with large inter-country variation. In those with asthma or COPD, lower PPRs and smaller inter-country variations were found. For all three indications, PPRs for LABA-containing prescriptions increased with age.Using a standardised protocol that allowed direct inter-country comparisons, we found highest rates of LABA-containing prescriptions in elderly patients and distinct differences in the increased utilisation of LABA-containing prescriptions within the study period throughout the five European countries.

  5. [European Union Network for Patient Safety and Quality of Care (PASQ). Development and preliminary results in Europe and in the Spanish National Health System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra-Varela, Y; Fernández-Maíllo, M; Rivera-Ariza, S; Sáiz-Martínez-Acitorez, I; Casal-Gómez, J; Palanca-Sánchez, I; Bacou, J

    2015-01-01

    The joint action, European Union Network for Patient Safety and Quality of Care: PaSQ, aims to promote patient safety (PS) in the European Union (EU) and to facilitate the exchange of experiences among Member States (MS) and stakeholders on issues related to quality of care, PS, and patient involvement. The development and preliminary results are presented here, especially as regards the Spanish National Health System (SNHS). PaSQ is developed through 7 work packages, primarily aimed at sharing good practices (GP), which were identified using specific questionnaires and selected by means of explicit criteria, as well as to implement safe clinical practices (SCP) of proven effectiveness and agreed among MS. A total of 482 GP (39% provided by Spanish professionals) were identified. The 34 events organised in the EU, 11 including Spanish participation, facilitate sharing these practices. A total of 194 Health Care centres (49% in Spain) are implementing SCP (hand hygiene, safe surgery, medication reconciliation, and paediatric early warning scores) ACHIEVEMENTS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES: PaSQ is making it possible to strengthen collaboration between organizations and professionals at EU and SNHS level regarding PS and quality of care. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. 'heartfailurematters.org', an educational website for patients and carers from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology: objectives, use and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Kim P; Rutten, Frans H; Klompstra, Leonie; Bhana, Yusuf; Sieverink, Floor; Ruschitzka, Frank; Seferovic, Petar M; Lainscak, Mitja; Piepoli, Massimo F; Broekhuizen, Berna D L; Strömberg, Anna; Jaarsma, Tiny; Hoes, Arno W; Dickstein, Kenneth

    2017-11-01

    In 2007, the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) launched the information website heartfailurematters.org (HFM site) with the aim of creating a practical tool through which to provide advice and guidelines for living with heart failure to patients, their carers, health care professionals and the general public worldwide. The website is managed by the ESC at the European Heart House and is currently available in nine languages. The aim of this study is to describe the background, objectives, use, lessons learned and future directions of the HFM site. Data on the number of visitor sessions on the site as measured by Google Analytics were used to explore use of the HFM site from 2010 to 2015. Worldwide, the annual number of sessions increased from 416 345 in 2010 to 1 636 368 in 2015. Most users (72-75%) found the site by using a search engine. Desktops and, more recently, smartphones were used to visit the website, accounting for 50% and 38%, respectively, of visits to the site in 2015. Although its use has increased, the HFM site has not yet reached its full potential: fewer than 2 million users have visited the website, whereas the number of people living with heart failure worldwide is estimated to be 23 million. Uptake and use could be further improved by a continuous process of qualitative assessment of users' preferences, and the provision of professional helpdesk facilities, comprehensive information technology, and promotional support. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.

  7. Adherence to treatment guidelines for primary sarcomas affects patient survival: a side study of the European CONnective TIssue CAncer NETwork (CONTICANET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, C R; Vecchiato, A; Mastrangelo, G; Montesco, M C; Russano, F; Mocellin, S; Pasquali, S; Scarzello, G; Basso, U; Frasson, A; Pilati, P; Nitti, D; Lurkin, A; Ray-Coquard, I

    2013-06-01

    The impact of adherence to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for loco-regional treatment (i.e. surgery and radiotherapy) and chemotherapy on local disease control and survival in sarcoma patients was investigated in a European study conducted in an Italian region (Veneto). The completeness of the adherence to the Italian CPGs for sarcomas treatment was assessed by comparing the patient's charts and the CPGs. Propensity score-adjusted multivariate survival analysis was used to assess the impact of CPGs adherence on patient clinical outcomes. A total of 151 patients were included. Adherence to CPGs for loco-regional therapy and chemotherapy was observed in 106 out of 147 (70.2%) and 129 out of 139 (85.4%) patients, respectively. Non-adherence to CPGs for loco-regional treatment was independently associated with AJCC stage III disease [odds ratio (OR) 1.77, P = 0.011] and tumor-positive excision margin (OR 3.55, P = 0.003). Patients not treated according to the CPGs were at a higher risk of local recurrence [hazard ratio (HR) 5.4, P < 0.001] and had a shorter sarcoma-specific survival (HR 4.05, P < 0.001), independently of tumor stage. Incomplete adherence to CPGs for loco-regional treatment of sarcomas was associated with worse prognosis in patients with non-metastatic tumors.

  8. Patient Access, Unmet Medical Need, Expected Benefits, and Concerns Related to the Utilisation of Biosimilars in Eastern European Countries: A Survey of Experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Inotai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This policy research aims to map patient access barriers to biologic treatments, to explore how increased uptake of biosimilars may lower these hurdles and to identify factors limiting the increased utilisation of biosimilars. A policy survey was developed to review these questions in 10 Central and Eastern European (CEE and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS countries. Two experts (one public and one private sector representative from each country completed the survey. Questions were related to patient access, purchasing, clinical practice, and real-world data collection on both original biologics and biosimilars. Restrictions on the number of patients that can be treated and related waiting lists were reported as key patient access barriers. According to respondents, for both clinicians and payers the primary benefit of switching patients to biosimilars would be to treat more patients. However, concerns with therapeutic equivalence and fear of immunogenicity may reduce utilisation of biosimilars. Similar limitations in patient access to both original biologics and biosimilars raise concerns about the appropriateness and success of current biosimilar policies in CEE and CIS countries. The conceptual framework for additional real-world data collection exists in all countries which may provide a basis for future risk-management activities including vigorous pharmacovigilance data collection.

  9. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  10. Pressure ulcer and patient characteristics--A point prevalence study in a tertiary hospital of India based on the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel minimum data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Chitra; George, Joby V; Mehta, Yatin; Wangmo, Namgyal

    2015-08-01

    Pressure ulcers is a frequent problem in hospitalized patients. Several prevalence studies have been conducted across the globe. Little information is available regarding prevalence of pressure ulcers in India. The aim was to identify the prevalence of pressure ulcers in one of the tertiary hospital in northern India and the factors associated with its development. A cross sectional point prevalence study. European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) data collection form. Ethics approval was obtained prior to start of the study. Total of 358 patients were enrolled in the study. All patients above 18 years of age admitted in intensive care units and wards were included in the study. Patients admitted in emergency, day care, coronary care unit were excluded because of their short duration of hospital stay (varies from 24 to 72 h usually). All patients admitted before midnight on the predetermined day were included. The Braden scale was used to identify the risk of developing pressure ulcers. European Pressure ulcer advisory panel (EPUAP) minimum data set was used to collect prevalence data. The overall prevalence rate was 7.8%.The sacrum and heel were more commonly affected. Grade III pressure ulcers were the most common (42.8%). The pressure ulcer prevalence rate in our hospital was lower than that published in international studies. Severe forms of pressure ulcers were commonly encountered This data provides background information that may help us in developing protocols for applying effective practices for prevention of pressure ulcers. Copyright © 2015 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Emergency surgery and Limitation of therapeutic effort in relation to neurologic deterioration in elderly patients – a survey of European surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Păduraru

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. In emergency surgery, a very heterogeneous approach is required in the decision making process, especially when considering the patient’s postoperative quality of life as well as medical, ethical, and legal factors. In some cases, the presence of an Advance Directive (AD form may potentially help resolve the surgeon’s dilemma. Objectives. The primary objective of this survey was to investigate the opinions of surgeons across a representative cross-section of European countries regarding the decision making process using a specific case scenario so as to identify similarities and differences in practice. A secondary objective was to identify the possibility of establishing a more uniform approach and best practice. Method. A survey was conducted of surgeons from a range of European countries. Questionnaires were designed to obtain an overview of decision making in relation to the Limitation of Therapeutic Effort (LTE using a specific case study and the level of awareness and practical use of ADs. Surveys were distributed via email to the members of the ESTES (European Society for Trauma and Emergency Surgery and AEC (Association of Spanish surgeons, with voluntary, anonymous participation. Conclusions. Clear and additional support in the form of legal and ethical guidance with clinical protocols for surgical practice in such case scenarios is necessary. Wider use of ADs, together with education about their role and support for patients and relatives, would benefit the type of patient described in our scenario. A multidisciplinary team should play a more active role in decision making in order to avoid surgical procedures that are potentially futile. The concepts of LTE and Quality of life need a broader understanding among surgeons as well as more consistent application.

  12. European hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The European Hadron Facility (EHF) is a project for particle and nuclear physics in the 1990s which would consist of a fast cycling high intensity proton synchrotron of about 30 GeV primary energy and providing a varied spectrum of intense high quality secondary beams (polarized protons, pions, muons, kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos). The physics case of this project has been studied over the last two years by a European group of particle and nuclear physicists (EHF Study Group), whilst the conceptual design for the accelerator complex was worked out (and is still being worked on) by an international group of machine experts (EHF Design Study Group). Both aspects have been discussed in recent years in a series of working parties, topical seminars, and workshops held in Freiburg, Trieste, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Les Rasses and Villigen. This long series of meetings culminated in the International Conference on a European Hadron Facility held in Mainz from 10-14 March

  13. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology...... research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness...... of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology...

  14. Infraorbital nerve involvement on magnetic resonance imaging in European patients with IgG4-related ophthalmic disease: a specific sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soussan, J Ben; Deschamps, R; Sadik, J C; Savatovsky, J; Deschamps, L; Puttermann, M; Zmuda, M; Heran, F; Galatoire, O; Picard, H; Lecler, A

    2017-04-01

    To measure the frequency of infraorbital nerve enlargement (IONE) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in European patients suffering from an IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) as compared to patients suffering from non-IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (non-IgG4-ROD). From January 2006 through April 2015, 132 patients were admitted for non-lymphoma, non-thyroid-related orbital inflammation. Thirty-eight had both pre-therapeutic orbital MRI and histopathological IgG4 immunostaining. Fifteen patients were classified as cases of IgG4-ROD and 23 patients as cases of non-IgG4-ROD. Two readers performed blinded analyses of MRI images. The main criterion was the presence of an IONE, defined as the infraorbital nerve diameter being greater than the optic nerve diameter in the coronal section. IONE was present in 53% (8/15) of IgG4-ROD cases whereas it was never present (0/23) in cases of non-IgG4-ROD (P IgG4-ROD. Recognition of this pattern may facilitate the accurate diagnosis for clinicians and allow for the adequate management and appropriate care of their patients. • IONE on an MRI is a specific sign of IgG4-ROD. • IONE recognition allows for a quicker diagnosis and appropriate management. • IONE appears when inflammation is in direct contact with the ION canal.

  15. Translating patient reported outcome measures: methodological issues explored using cognitive interviewing with three rheumatoid arthritis measures in six European languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hewlett, Sarah E.; Nicklin, Joanna; Bode, Christina; Carmona, Loretto; Dures, Emma; Engelbrecht, Matthias; Hagel, Sofia; Kirwan, John R.; Molto, Anna; Redondo, Marta; Gossec, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Cross-cultural translation of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) is a lengthy process, often performed professionally. Cognitive interviewing assesses patient comprehension of PROMs. The objective was to evaluate the usefulness of cognitive interviewing to assess translations and

  16. Comparison of problems and unmet needs of patients with advanced cancer in a European country and an asian country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effendy, C.; Vissers, K.; Osse, B.H.; Tejawinata, S.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Engels, Y.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced cancer experience problems and unmet needs. However, we assume that patients with advanced cancer will have more problems and unmet needs in a country with a lower economic status than in an economically stronger country. We studied whether patients with advanced

  17. Therapeutic strategies evaluated by the European Society of Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (EUSCLE) Core Set Questionnaire in more than 1000 patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigges, Johanna; Biazar, Cyrus; Landmann, Aysche

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this prospective, cross-sectional, multicentre study performed by the European Society of Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (EUSCLE) was to investigate different therapeutic strategies and their efficacies in cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) throughout Europe. Using the EUSCLE Core Set...... Questionnaire, topical and systemic treatment options were analysed in a total of 1002 patients (768 females and 234 males) with different CLE subtypes. The data were correlated with the Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Disease Area and Severity Index (CLASI) and the criteria of the American College...... of Rheumatology (ACR) for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Sunscreens were applied by 84.0% of the study cohort and showed a high efficacy in preventing skin lesions in all disease subtypes, correlating with a lower CLASI activity score. Topical steroids were used in 81.5% of the patients...

  18. The Effectiveness of Local Hypothermia and Peritoneal Lavage-Dialysis in the Treatment of Patients with Acute Destructive Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veniamin I. Shaposhnikov, PhD, ScD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve the principles of the pathogenetic therapy of acute pancreatitis and assess the effectiveness of local hypothermia of the pancreas, as well as peritoneal lavage-dialysis in the treatment of acute destructive pancreatitis. A total of 5889 patients with acute pancreatitis (AP were examined. The leading role played by the lesions of the pancreatic lymphatic system in the development of destructive processes was noted. In experiments done on eight dogs, the first day of experimental acute pancreatitis showed necrosis of the lumbar retroperitoneal lymph nodes with a violation of lymph drainage from the pancreas before the retroperitoneal fat necrosis was initiated. The effectiveness of local hypothermia of the pancreas was experimentally demonstrated. In 32 patients with AP, the perioperative local hypothermia of the pancreas for 20-25 minutes was followed by the reduction of the alpha-amylase activity in the peripheral blood and in the portal system, as well as a significant reduction in the edema of the pancreas, that delayed the progression of the destructive lesions. An effective method of performing lavage-dialysis of the omental bursa, by using a transversely perforated tube with a pollution control device in the lumen, was developed.

  19. Family support and cardiac rehabilitation: a comparative study of the experiences of South Asian and White-European patients and their carer's living in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astin, Felicity; Atkin, Karl; Darr, Aliya

    2008-03-01

    Effective lifestyle modification facilitated by cardiac rehabilitation is known to reduce the occurrence of adverse coronary events and mortality. South Asians have poorer outcomes after a myocardial infarction than the general UK population, but little is known about their experiences of family support, cardiac rehabilitation and lifestyle change. To explore the nature of family support available to a sample of South Asian and White-European cardiac patients and to highlight similarities and differences between these groups with regard to cardiac rehabilitation and lifestyle modification. Using a qualitative approach, semi-structured interviews (in 1 of 6 languages) were conducted by researchers with; 45 South Asian patients and 37 carers and 20 White-European patients and 17 carers. Interviews were conducted in a home setting, up to eighteen months after discharge from hospital following myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass surgery or unstable angina. The main themes that emerged related to the provision of advice and information, family support and burden, dietary change and exercise regimes. Several cultural and ethnic differences were identified between patients and their families alongside similarities, irrespective of ethnicity. These may represent generic characteristics of recovery after a cardiac event. Health professionals should develop a cultural repertoire to engage with diversity and difference. Not every difficulty a person encounters as they try to access appropriate service delivery can be attributed to ethnic background. By improving services generally, support for South Asian populations can be improved. The challenge is to know when ethnicity makes a difference and mediates a person's relationship with service support and when it does not.

  20. The early development phases of a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) module to assess patient reported outcomes (PROs) in women undergoing breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, H J; Winters, Z E; Brandberg, Y; Didier, F; Blazeby, J M; Mills, J

    2013-03-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of breast reconstruction (BRR) surgery includes measurement of patient reported outcomes (PROs). There is, however, a lack of validated BRR-specific PRO measures (PROMs) that adequately assess relevant issues. This study is developing a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaire/module specific for PROs in BRR to supplement the cancer-core and breast cancer EORTC questionnaires, respectively: the QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23. Phases I and II of questionnaire development followed EORTC guidelines including a systematic literature review to identify all potential 'issues' (concepts relevant to PROs) and semi-structured interviews with 89 patients and 9 European multi-disciplinary health care professionals (HCPs) (Sweden, Italy and the United Kingdom [UK]). Interviewers asked participants the 'relevance' of outcomes identified in the literature and captured additional 'issues' of importance. The literature search and interviews of patients and HCPs yielded 69 issues relating to BRR operationalised into 31 provisional items (single questions) for the module, which was conceptualised to contain five scales: treatment/surgery related symptoms (affecting the shoulder, arm and reconstructed breast), body image, sexuality, cosmetic outcomes (pertaining to three areas: breast, donor site and nipple) and overall satisfaction. The provisional development of the EORTC BRR module has 31 items addressing issues of importance to patients as well as HCPs. Further international testing is underway as a UK National Cancer Research Network trial to ensure that this PROM will be psychometrically and clinically robust and applicable for use in clinical trials, cohort studies, national audit and clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  2. Bleeding risk assessment and management in atrial fibrillation patients. Executive Summary of a Position Document from the European Heart Rhythm Association [EHRA], endorsed by the European Society of Cardiology [ESC] Working Group on Thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Andreotti, Felicita; Fauchier, Laurent; Huber, Kurt; Hylek, Elaine; Knight, Eve; Lane, Deirdre; Levi, Marcel; Marín, Francisco; Palareti, Gualtiero; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2011-01-01

    In this executive summary of a Consensus Document from the European Heart Rhythm Association, endorsed by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis, we comprehensively review the published evidence and propose a consensus on bleeding risk assessments in atrial fibrillation (AF)

  3. Clinical characteristics of patients from the worldwide registry on peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM): EURObservational Research Programme in conjunction with the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology Study Group on PPCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Karen; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Petrie, Mark C; Maggioni, Aldo P; Laroche, Cecile; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Schaufelberger, Maria; Tavazzi, Luigi; van der Meer, Peter; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Seferovic, Petar; van Spandonck-Zwarts, Karin; Mbakwem, Amam; Böhm, Michael; Mouquet, Frederic; Pieske, Burkert; Hall, Roger; Ponikowski, Piotre; Bauersachs, Johann

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe disease presentation, co-morbidities, diagnosis and initial therapeutic management of patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) living in countries belonging to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) vs. non-ESC countries. Out of 500 patients with PPCM entered by 31 March 2016, we report on data of the first 411 patients with completed case record forms (from 43 countries) entered into this ongoing registry. There were marked differences in socio-demographic parameters such as Human Development Index, GINI index on inequality, and Health Expenditure in PPCM patients from ESC vs. non-ESC countries (P heart failure after 1 month (92.3% vs. 81.3%, P heart failure were common within 1 month post-diagnosis and required intensive, multidisciplinary management. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.

  4. A stochastic model for predicting dextrose equivalent and saccharide composition during hydrolysis of starch by alpha-amylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, T.; Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    A stochastic model was developed that was used to describe the formation and breakdown of all saccharides involved during -amylolytic starch hydrolysis in time. This model is based on the subsite maps found in literature for Bacillus amyloliquefaciens -amylase (BAA) and Bacillus licheniformis

  5. Effect of gelatinization and hydrolysis conditions on the selectivity of starch hydrolysis with alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Bruins, M.E.; Matser, A.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch can be used to obtain various valuable hydrolyzates with different compositions. The effects of starch pretreatment, enzyme addition point, and hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolyzate composition and reaction rate during wheat starch hydrolysis with ¿-amylase from

  6. The role of the enzyme alpha-amylase in binding of An(III)/Ln(III) by oral ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkleit, A.; Bernhard, G. [Institute of Resource Ecology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Division of Radiochemistry and Resource Ecology, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Heller, A. [Institute of Resource Ecology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    In case of incorporation, radionuclides represent a serious health risk to humans due to their (radio-)toxicity. Thus, the determination of their speciation and transport on a molecular level is crucial for the understanding of the transport, metabolism, deposition and elimination in the human organisms. In case of oral ingestion of contaminated food or radioactive substances the first contact medium in the mouth is the aqueous bio-fluid saliva which contains inorganic ions (mainly Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cl{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) and numerous biomolecules, mainly proteins. One of the major proteins in saliva is the digestive enzyme α-amylase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the α-1,4 glycosidic linkages of polysaccharides like starch or glycogen. [1] In this study the speciation of curium(III) and europium(III) in saliva as the first contact medium at oral incorporation was investigated with time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). For TRLFS measurements, fresh saliva samples from human sources have been spiked in vitro with Eu(III) or Cm(III). The identification of the dominant species was achieved by a comparison of the spectroscopic data with reference spectra obtained from synthetic saliva and the main single components of the bio-fluid. In the pH range from 6.8 to 7.4 similar spectra were obtained. With respect to reference data, the spectra indicate the formation of a ternary metal complex containing phosphate and carbonate anions and, in addition, a coordination of organic matter, namely α-amylase, to the central metal cation is suggested. To get more information about the binding behavior of α-amylase various investigations with Eu(III) as inactive analog for An(III) were carried out with porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) which serves as model system for various α-amylase species. Sorption experiments showed a high affinity of Eu(III) to α-amylase in a wide pH range, namely between pH 4 and 8. The analysis of binding isotherms demonstrated that up to 3 Eu{sup 3+} ions are bound to one enzyme molecule. Hence, the Eu{sup 3+} ions seem to replace the Ca{sup 2+} ions, a well-known mechanism in biological systems. The effect of Eu{sup 3+} on enzyme activity was determined with the α-amylase assay method by Bernfeld [2]. Eu{sup 3+} shows a strong inhibition effect on the enzyme activity, but in the presence of Ca{sup 2+} in excess the enzyme activity remains nearly unaffected. This effect might be useful for the refinement of decontamination strategies. (authors)

  7. A chemically modified [alpha]-amylase with a molten-globule state has entropically driven enhanced thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail; Poljak, Anne; De Francisci, Davide; Guerriero, Gea; Pilak, Oliver; Burg, Dominic; Raftery, Mark J.; Parkin, Don M.; Trewhella, Jill; Cavicchioli, Ricardo (Sydney); (New South)

    2010-11-15

    The thermostability properties of TAA were investigated by chemically modifying carboxyl groups on the surface of the enzyme with AMEs. The TAA{sub MOD} exhibited a 200% improvement in starch-hydrolyzing productivity at 60 C. By studying the kinetic, thermodynamic and biophysical properties, we found that TAA{sub MOD} had formed a thermostable, MG state, in which the unfolding of the tertiary structure preceded that of the secondary structure by at least 20 C. The X-ray crystal structure of TAA{sub MOD} revealed no new permanent interactions (electrostatic or other) resulting from the modification. By deriving thermodynamic activation parameters of TAA{sub MOD}, we rationalised that thermostabilisation have been caused by a decrease in the entropy of the transition state, rather than being enthalpically driven. Far-UV CD shows that the origin of decreased entropy may have arisen from a higher helical content of TAA{sub MOD}. This study provides new insight into the intriguing properties of an MG state resulting from the chemical modification of TAA.

  8. Study on the immobilization of alpha-amylase by radiation-induced polymerization at low-temperature, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaru; Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1975-07-01

    The immobilization of α-amylase by radiation-induced polymerization at low-temperature in the presence of an adsorbent has been studied. In the previous method, part of the enzyme escapes from the immobilized composition of HEMA polymer with a few enzyme reactions. This is prevented, however, by the present method in which the adsorbent-HEMA-α-amylase mixtures is immobilized by the polymerization with HEMA. Anhydride of an inorganic salt such as calcium carbonate, sodium acetate, calcium acetate, or DRIERETE (composed mainly of calcium sulfate) is especially useful as the adsorbent. Use of an inorganic ion such as Ca ++ or Na + improves remarkably heat-stability of the immobilized composition. The most effective composition for immobilization is 200 μg of α-amylase, 1 ml of 30% HEMA solution (in 0.02M phosphate buffer solution, pH 6.9) and 0.3g of DRIERETE. Frozen and irradiated with γ-rays of Co-60 to a total dose 1 x 10 6 R at -24 0 C, the immobilized enzyme has the activity about 93% that of the native one. (auth.)

  9. Study on the immobilization of alpha-amylase by radiation-induced polymerization at low-temperature, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaru; Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1975-07-01

    The immobilization of α-amylase in high concentration (50-200 mg) by radiation induced polymerization at low temperature, with HEMA has been studied. A feature of the high concentration α-amylase system is phase separation of the mixed solution prior to polymerization, markedly at HEMA concentrations above 50%. Useful immobilization is possible, however, by irradiation of the suspended composition at -196 0 C, which is obtained by shaking the phase-separated system. At temperatures below 0 0 C, the immobilization is possible, but not above this because of the phase separation. The polymerizability of HEMA changes abruptly at 0 0 C. The largest polymerization rate is obtained at -24 0 C, possibly due to phase change by crystallization of water of the buffer solution at 0 0 C. Activity of the immobilized high-concentration α-amylase is as high as 80-85% being somewhat higher than that in the low-concentration case. (auth.)

  10. Enzymatic Properties of an Alkaline and Chelator Resistant alpha-amylase from the Alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. Isolate L1711

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsdotter, Eva C. M. J.; Pusey, Marc L.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.

    2004-01-01

    An alkaliphilic amylase producing bacterium, Bacillus sp. strain L 711, was selected among 13 soda lakes isolates. When grown at pH 10.5 and 37 C, strain L711 produced multiple forms of amylases in the culture broth. One of these, BAA, was purified from the culture supernatant by QAE column chromatography and preparative native gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of BAA was determined to be 51 kDa by denaturing gel electrophoresis. The pH optima for activity below and above 40 C were 9.5 - 10.0 and 7.0 - 7.5 respectively. BAA was stable in the pH range 6-11 and was completely inactivated at 55 C. The thermostability was not increased in the presence of Ca(2+). The enzyme was strongly inhibited by Ca(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Ba(2+) and Cu(2+), whereas the presence of Na(+), Co(2+) and EDTA (10 mM) enhanced enzymatic activity. The K(sub m), and specific activity of BAA on soluble starch were 1.9 mg/ml and 18.5 U/mg respectively. The main end products of hydrolysis were maltotetraose, maltose and glucose.

  11. Study on the immobilization of alpha-amylase by radiation-induced polymerization at low-temperature, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaru; Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1975-07-01

    The immobilization α-amylase in low concentration (50-250μg) by radiation induced polymerization at low temperature, with HEMA has been studied. The immobilization was performed in the temperature range of -196 0 C to +40 0 C. Activity of the immobilized enzyme decreases at temperatures above 0 0 C. The optimum temperatures for immobilization of α-amylase are -78 0 C - -24 0 C, where only the polymerization by irradiation is effective. HEMA is a suitable monomer as the immobilization carrier, because of its high polymerization rate of 100% in the temperature range. The suitable concentration of HEMA is less than 30%, and above this concentration the activity of enzyme decreases considerably. The optimum irradiation dose for immobilization is 1 x 10 6 R, and the activity of enzyme decreases at 5 x 10 6 R. The polymerization composition is porous gel structure, so the enzymatic reaction can be carried out merely by introducing a substrate to the composition. The activity attained in the immobilized enzyme is 75-80% that of the native α-amylase. The immobilized enzyme is more heat-resistant than the native one. (auth.)

  12. A Kinetic Model to Explain the Maximum in alpha-Amylase Activity Measurements in the Presence of Small Carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the presence of several small carbohydrates on the measurement of the -amylase activity was determined over a broad concentration range. At low carbohydrate concentrations, a distinct maximum in the -amylase activity versus concentration curves was observed in several cases. At higher

  13. Adolescents' Increasing Stress Response to Social Evaluation: Pubertal Effects on Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase during Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden…

  14. Alpha-amylase inhibitor, CS-1036 binds to serum amylase in a concentration-dependent and saturable manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tomohiro; Kaneno-Urasaki, Yoko; Ito, Takashi; Kimura, Takako; Matsushima, Nobuko; Okabe, Hiromi; Yamasaki, Atsushi; Izumi, Takashi

    2014-03-01

    (2R,3R,4R)-4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl 4-O-(6-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (CS-1036), which is an α-amylase inhibitor, exhibited biphasic and sustained elimination with a long t1/2 (18.4-30.0 hours) in rats and monkeys, but exhibited a short t1/2 (3.7-7.9 hours) in humans. To clarify the species differences in the t1/2, the plasma protein binding of CS-1036 was evaluated by ultrafiltration. A concentration-dependent and saturable plasma protein binding of CS-1036 was observed in rats and monkeys with the dissociation rate constant (KD) of 8.95 and 27.2 nM, and maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 52.8 and 22.1 nM, respectively. By the assessments of the recombinant amylase and immunoprecipitation, the major binding protein of CS-1036 in rats was identified as salivary amylase (KD 5.64 nM). CS-1036 also showed concentration-dependent and saturable binding to human salivary and pancreatic amylase, with similar binding affinity in rats. However, the protein binding of CS-1036 was constant in human plasma (≤10.2%) due to the lower serum amylase level compared with rats and monkeys. From the calculation of the unbound fraction (fu) in plasma based on in vitro KD and Bmax, the dose-dependent increase in fu after oral administration is speculated to lead to a dose-dependent increase in total body clearance and a high area under the curve/dose at lower doses, such as 0.3 mg/kg in rats.

  15. Free cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase levels during a six-hour-water immersion in healthy young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohleder, N.; Wirth, D.; Fraßl, W.; Kowoll, R.; Schlemmer, M.; Vogler, S.; Kirsch, K. A.; Kirschbaum, C.; Gunga, H.-C.

    2005-08-01

    Limited data are available on the response of stress systems to microgravity. Increased activity of stress systems is reported during space flight, but unchanged or decreased activity during simulated microgravity. We here investigated the impact of head-out water immersion on the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) system.Eight healthy young men were exposed to a six-hour water immersion in a thermo neutral bath and a control condition. Saliva samples were taken before, during, and after interventions to assess cortisol as an index for HPA axis activity, and salivary α-amylase as an index for SAM system activity.Cortisol levels uniformly decreased during both conditions. Amylase levels increased during both conditions, but were significantly lower during the first half of water immersion compared to the control condition.In conclusion, the HPA axis is not influenced by simulated microgravity, while SAM system activity shows initial decreases during water immersion.

  16. An exceptionally cold-adapted alpha-amylase from a metagenomic library of a cold and alkaline environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Stougaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A cold-active α-amylase, AmyI3C6, identified by a functional metagenomics approach was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Sequence analysis showed that the AmyI3C6 amylase was similar to α-amylases from the class Clostridia and revealed classical characteristics of cold......-adapted enzymes, as did comparison of the kinetic parameters Km and kcat to a mesophilic α-amylase. AmyI3C6 was shown to be heat-labile. Temperature optimum was at 10-15 °C, and more than 70 % of the relative activity was retained at 1 °C. The pH optimum of AmyI3C6 was at pH 8-9, and the enzyme displayed activity...... in two commercial detergents tested, suggesting that the AmyI3C6 α-amylase may be useful as a detergent enzyme in environmentally friendly, low-temperature laundry processes....

  17. A single gene directs synthesis of a precursor protein with beta- and alpha-amylase activities in Bacillus polymyxa.

    OpenAIRE

    Uozumi, N; Sakurai, K; Sasaki, T; Takekawa, S; Yamagata, H; Tsukagoshi, N; Udaka, S

    1989-01-01

    The Bacillus polymyxa amylase gene comprises 3,588 nucleotides. The mature amylase comprises 1,161 amino acids with a molecular weight of 127,314. The gene appeared to be divided into two portions by the direct-repeat sequence located at almost the middle of the gene. The 5' region upstream of the direct-repeat sequence was shown to be responsible for the synthesis of beta-amylase. The 3' region downstream of the direct-repeat sequence contained four sequences homologous with those in other a...

  18. Starch Hydrolysis, Polyphenol Contents, and In Vitro Alpha Amylase Inhibitory Properties of Some Nigerian Foods As Affected by Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani Saidu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cooking on starch hydrolysis, polyphenol contents, and in vitro α-amylase inhibitory properties of mushrooms (two varieties Russula virescens and Auricularia auricula-judae, sweet potato (Ipomea batatas, and potato (Solanum tuberosum was investigated. The total, resistant, and digestible starch contents of the raw and cooked food samples (FS ranged from 6.4 to 64.9; 0 to 10.1; and 6.4 to 62.7 g/100 g, respectively, while their percentages of starch digestibility (DS values expressed as percentages of total starch hydrolyzed ranged from 45.99 to 100. Raw and boiled unpeeled potato, raw and boiled peeled potato, raw A. auricula-judae, and sweet potato showed mild to high α-amylase inhibition (over a range of concentration of 10–50 mg/mL, which was lower than that of acarbose (that had 69% inhibition of α-amylase over a range of concentration of 2–10 mg/mL, unlike raw R. virescens, boiled A. auricula-judae, and boiled sweet potatoes that activated α-amylase and boiled R. virescens that gave 0% inhibition. The FS contained flavonoids and phenols in addition. The significant negative correlation (r = −0.55; P = 0.05 between the α-amylase inhibitory properties of the raw and cooked FS versus their SD indicates that the α-amylase inhibitors in these FS also influenced the digestibility of their starches. In addition, the significant positive correlation between the α-amylase inhibitory properties of the raw and cooked FS versus their resistant starch (RS (r = 0.59; P = 0.01 contents indicates that the RS constituents of these FS contributed to their α-amylase inhibitory properties. The study showed the usefulness of boiled unpeeled potato, boiled potato peeled, and raw sweet potato as functional foods for people with type 2 diabetes.

  19. In vitro antibacterial, alpha-amylase inhibition potential of three nudibranchs extracts from South East coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giji Sadhasivam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial and antiamylase properties of methanol and acetone extracts of nudibranchs including Bursatella leachii (B. leachii, Kalinga ornata (K. ornata, Aplysia sp. Methods: Crude methanol and acetone extracts of sea slugs were tested for inhibition of fish bacterial pathogens' growth through disc diffusion method. The activity was measured based on the formation of inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with crude extracts. The α-amylase inhibitory effect was also measured calorimetrically. The chemical fingerprinting of the extract was recorded with HPTLC and GC-MS. Results: The solvent extracts of all the three sea slugs showed antibacterial property. The maximum zone of inhibition (>15-20 mm was recorded for methanol and acetone extracts of K. ornata. The methanol extract of Aplysia sp. exhibited 93% inhibition against α-amylase, following by B. leachii (methanol 70.6% and K. ornata (methanol 49.03% inhibition respectively. The acetone extracts didn' t show any notable inhibition. The presence of free amino acids like lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine etc., terpenoids and pigents were confirmed through HPTLC analysis. The presence of siloxanes and propanoic acid were also revealed through GC-MS. Conclusions: This study suggests that further scrutinisation of the B. leachii, K. ornata and Aplysia sp. will pave the way for development of antibacterial and α-amylase inhibitory agent for therapeutic application.

  20. Study on the immobilization of alpha-amylase by radiation-induced polymerization at low-temperature, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaru; Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1975-07-01

    The immobilization of enzymes by radiation-induced polymerization at low temperatures has been studied. It is important to know how the enzymes are affected by irradiation. The radiation effect of enzyme itself before immobilization must thus be investigated. In radiation effect on α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, interesting results were obtained, as follows. The enzyme is very stable for irradiation in the total dose range of 1 x 10 4 to 1 x 10 7 R, and the activity is hardly affected. And further, the relative activity increases by irradiation, when the α-amylase is of high purity or contains some appropriate additive. A certain substance such as diatomaceous earth or CaCl 2 thus decreases the activity, while the addition of DRIERITE composed mainly of CaSO 4 increases the activity. α-Amylase is then more stable and higher in activity in the irradiation at lower temperatures. The activity is independent of presence or absence of the ambient air. In conclusion, α-amylase is very stable for irradiation at low temperatures; therefore, its immobilization by polymerization at low temperature is recommended. (auth.)