WorldWideScience

Sample records for european paternal lineages

  1. A predominantly neolithic origin for European paternal lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Balaresque

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative contributions to modern European populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers from the Near East have been intensely debated. Haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269 is the commonest European Y-chromosomal lineage, increasing in frequency from east to west, and carried by 110 million European men. Previous studies suggested a Paleolithic origin, but here we show that the geographical distribution of its microsatellite diversity is best explained by spread from a single source in the Near East via Anatolia during the Neolithic. Taken with evidence on the origins of other haplogroups, this indicates that most European Y chromosomes originate in the Neolithic expansion. This reinterpretation makes Europe a prime example of how technological and cultural change is linked with the expansion of a Y-chromosomal lineage, and the contrast of this pattern with that shown by maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA suggests a unique role for males in the transition.

  2. Human paternal lineages, languages, and environment in the Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkhnishvili, David; Gavashelishvili, Alexander; Murtskhvaladze, Marine; Gabelaia, Mariam; Tevzadze, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    Publications that describe the composition of the human Y-DNA haplogroup in diffferent ethnic or linguistic groups and geographic regions provide no explicit explanation of the distribution of human paternal lineages in relation to specific ecological conditions. Our research attempts to address this topic for the Caucasus, a geographic region that encompasses a relatively small area but harbors high linguistic, ethnic, and Y-DNA haplogroup diversity. We genotyped 224 men that identified themselves as ethnic Georgian for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem-repeat markers and assigned them to their geographic places of origin. The genotyped data were supplemented with published data on haplogroup composition and location of other ethnic groups of the Caucasus. We used multivariate statistical methods to see if linguistics, climate, and landscape accounted for geographical diffferences in frequencies of the Y-DNA haplogroups G2, R1a, R1b, J1, and J2. The analysis showed significant associations of (1) G2 with wellforested mountains, (2) J2 with warm areas or poorly forested mountains, and (3) J1 with poorly forested mountains. R1b showed no association with environment. Haplogroups J1 and R1a were significantly associated with Daghestanian and Kipchak speakers, respectively, but the other haplogroups showed no such simple associations with languages. Climate and landscape in the context of competition over productive areas among diffferent paternal lineages, arriving in the Caucasus in diffferent times, have played an important role in shaping the present-day spatial distribution of patrilineages in the Caucasus. This spatial pattern had formed before linguistic subdivisions were finally shaped, probably in the Neolithic to Bronze Age. Later historical turmoil had little influence on the patrilineage composition and spatial distribution. Based on our results, the scenario of postglacial expansions of humans and their languages to the Caucasus from the Middle East, western

  3. Genetic origin, admixture, and asymmetry in maternal and paternal human lineages in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Background Before the arrival of Europeans to Cuba, the island was inhabited by two Native American groups, the Tainos and the Ciboneys. Most of the present archaeological, linguistic and ancient DNA evidence indicates a South American origin for these populations. In colonial times, Cuban Native American people were replaced by European settlers and slaves from Africa. It is still unknown however, to what extent their genetic pool intermingled with and was 'diluted' by the arrival of newcomers. In order to investigate the demographic processes that gave rise to the current Cuban population, we analyzed the hypervariable region I (HVS-I) and five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) coding region in 245 individuals, and 40 Y-chromosome SNPs in 132 male individuals. Results The Native American contribution to present-day Cubans accounted for 33% of the maternal lineages, whereas Africa and Eurasia contributed 45% and 22% of the lineages, respectively. This Native American substrate in Cuba cannot be traced back to a single origin within the American continent, as previously suggested by ancient DNA analyses. Strikingly, no Native American lineages were found for the Y-chromosome, for which the Eurasian and African contributions were around 80% and 20%, respectively. Conclusion While the ancestral Native American substrate is still appreciable in the maternal lineages, the extensive process of population admixture in Cuba has left no trace of the paternal Native American lineages, mirroring the strong sexual bias in the admixture processes taking place during colonial times. PMID:18644108

  4. Analysis of paternal lineages in Brazilian and African populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present-day Brazilian population is a consequence of the admixture of various peoples of very different origins, namely, Amerindians, Europeans and Africans. The proportion of each genetic contribution is known to be very heterogeneous throughout the country. The aim of the present study was to compare the male lineages present in two distinct Brazilian populations, as well as to evaluate the African contribution to their male genetic substrate. Thus, two Brazilian population samples from Manaus (State of Amazon and Ribeirão Preto (State of São Paulo and three African samples from Guinea Bissau, Angola and Mozambique were typed for a set of nine Y chromosome specific STRs. The data were compared with those from African, Amerindian and European populations. By using Y-STR haplotype information, low genetic distances were found between the Manaus and Ribeirão Preto populations, as well as between these and others from Iberia. Likewise, no significant distances were observed between any of the African samples from Angola, Mozambique and Guinea Bissau. Highly significant Rst values were found between both Brazilian samples and all the African and Amerindian populations. The absence of a significant Sub-Saharan African male component resulting from the slave trade, and the low frequency in Amerindian ancestry Y-lineages in the Manaus and Ribeirão Preto population samples are in accordance with the accentuated gender asymmetry in admixture processes that has been systematically reported in colonial South American populations.

  5. Presence of three different paternal lineages among North Indians: a study of 560 Y chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongming; Khan, Faisal; Borkar, Minal; Herrera, Rene; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2009-01-01

    The genetic structure, affinities, and diversity of the 1 billion Indians hold important keys to numerous unanswered questions regarding the evolution of human populations and the forces shaping contemporary patterns of genetic variation. Although there have been several recent studies of South Indian caste groups, North Indian caste groups, and South Indian Muslims using Y-chromosomal markers, overall, the Indian population has still not been well studied compared to other geographical populations. In particular, no genetic study has been conducted on Shias and Sunnis from North India. This study aims to investigate genetic variation and the gene pool in North Indians. A total of 32 Y-chromosomal markers in 560 North Indian males collected from three higher caste groups (Brahmins, Chaturvedis and Bhargavas) and two Muslims groups (Shia and Sunni) were genotyped. Three distinct lineages were revealed based upon 13 haplogroups. The first was a Central Asian lineage harbouring haplogroups R1 and R2. The second lineage was of Middle-Eastern origin represented by haplogroups J2*, Shia-specific E1b1b1, and to some extent G* and L*. The third was the indigenous Indian Y-lineage represented by haplogroups H1*, F*, C* and O*. Haplogroup E1b1b1 was observed in Shias only. The results revealed that a substantial part of today's North Indian paternal gene pool was contributed by Central Asian lineages who are Indo-European speakers, suggesting that extant Indian caste groups are primarily the descendants of Indo-European migrants. The presence of haplogroup E in Shias, first reported in this study, suggests a genetic distinction between the two Indo Muslim sects. The findings of the present study provide insights into prehistoric and early historic patterns of migration into India and the evolution of Indian populations in recent history.

  6. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie D Ellis

    Full Text Available Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding.

  7. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Charlie D; Hodgson, David J; André, Carl; Sørdalen, Tonje K; Knutsen, Halvor; Griffiths, Amber G F

    2015-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding.

  8. Paternal lineages in Libya inferred from Y-chromosome haplogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triki-Fendri, Soumaya; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rey-González, Danel; Ayadi, Imen; Carracedo, Ángel; Rebai, Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Many studies based on genetic diversity of North African populations have contributed to elucidate the modelling of the genetic landscape in this region. North Africa is considered as a distinct spatial-temporal entity on geographic, archaeological, and historical grounds, which has undergone the influence of different human migrations along its shaping. For instance, Libya, a North African country, was first inhabited by Berbers and then colonized by a variety of ethnic groups like Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs and, in recent times, Italians. In this study, we contribute to clarify the genetic variation of Libya and consequently, of North African modern populations, by the study of Libyan male lineages. A total of 22 Y-chromosome-specific SNPs were genotyped in a sample of 175 Libyan males, allowing the characterization of 18 Y-chromosomal haplogroups. The obtained data revealed a predominant Northwest African component represented by haplogroup E-M81 (33.7%) followed by J(xJ1a,J2)-M304 (27.4%), which is postulated to have a Middle Eastern origin. The comparative study with other populations (∼5,400 individuals from North Africa, Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Europe) revealed a general genetic homogeneity among North African populations (FST = 5.3 %; P-value Libya and in North Africa is characterized by two genetic components. The first signature is typical of Berber-speaking people (E-M81), the autochthonous inhabitants, whereas the second is (J(xJ1a,J2)-M304), originating from Arabic populations. This is in agreement with the hypothesis of an Arabic expansion from the Middle East, shaping the North African genetic landscape. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Maternal and paternal lineages in cross-breeding bovine species. Has wisent a hybrid origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaar, Edward L C; Nijman, Isaäc J; Beeke, Maurice; Hanekamp, Eline; Lenstra, Johannes A

    2004-07-01

    The tribe Bovini comprises cattle and cattle-like species. Reconstructions of their phylogeny have so far been incomplete and have yielded conflicting conclusions about the relationship of American bison and wisent (European bison). We have compared the sequences of three mitochondrial and two Y-chromosomal DNA segments. Mitochondrial DNA indicates that four distinct maternal lineages diverged after an early split-off of the buffalo species, leading to (1) taurine cattle and zebu, (2) wisent, (3) American bison and yak, and (4) banteng, gaur, and gayal, respectively. At a higher level, lineages (1) and (2) and lineages (3) and (4) are probably associated. In contrast, Y-chromosomal sequences indicate a close association of American and European bison, which is in agreement with their morphological similarity, complete fertility of hybrid offspring, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints of nuclear DNA. One explanation for the anomalous divergence of the mitochondrial DNA from the two bison species is lineage sorting, which implies that two distinct mitochondrial lineages coexisted in the bison-yak branch until the recent divergence of American bison and wisent. Alternatively, the wisent may have emerged by species hybridization initiated by introgression of bison bulls in another ancestral species. This "transpatric" mode of species formation would be consistent with the recent appearance of the wisent in the fossil record without clearly identifiable ancestors.

  10. Genetic analysis of maternal and paternal lineages in Kabardian horses by uniparental molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliy-bek D. Khaudov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA as well as the non-recombining part of the Y chromosome help to understand the origin and distribution of maternal and paternal lineages. The Kabardian horse from Northern Caucasia which is well-known for strength, stamina and endurance in distance riding has a large gap in its breeding documentation especially in the recent past. A 309 bp fragment of the mitochondrial D-loop (156 Kabardian horses and six mutations in Y chromosome (49 Kabardian stallions, respectively, were analyzed to get a better insight into breeding history, phylogenetic relationship to related breeds, maternal and paternal diversity and genetic structure. We found a high mitochondrial diversity represented by 64 D-loop haplotypes out of 14 haplogroups. The most frequent haplogroups were G (19.5%, L (12.3%, Q (11.7%, and B (11.0%. Although these four haplogroups are also frequently found in Asian riding horses (e.g. Buryat, Kirghiz, Mongolian, Transbaikalian, Tuvinian the percentage of the particular haplogroups varies sometimes remarkable. In contrast, the obtained haplogroup pattern from Kabardian horse was more similar to that of breeds reared in the Middle East. No specific haplotype cluster was observed in the phylogenetic tree for Kabardian horses. On Kabardian Y chromosome, two mutations were found leading to three haplotypes with a percentage of 36.7% (haplotype HT1, 38.8% (haplotype HT2 and 24.5% (haplotype HT3, respectively. The high mitochondrial and also remarkable paternal diversity of the Kabardian horse is caused by its long history with a widely spread maternal origin and the introduction of Arabian as well as Thoroughbred influenced stallions for improvement. This high genetic diversity provides a good situation for the ongoing breed development and performance selection as well as avoiding inbreeding.

  11. Maternal and paternal lineage double heterozygosity alteration in familial breast cancer: a first case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilato, Brunella; De Summa, Simona; Danza, Katia; Lambo, Rossana; Paradiso, Angelo; Tommasi, Stefania

    2010-12-01

    Hereditary breast cancer syndrome was firstly associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes the mutations of which confer high risk to develop breast and/or ovarian cancer. Double heterozygosity is a rare condition in which both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are present in a family at the same time. In the current study, a family with double heterozygosity has been reported. Furthermore, for the first time a molecular analysis in both proband lineages, maternal and paternal, has been reported to understand the provenience of both germinal mutations.The case regards a woman who developed breast and ovarian cancer with liver metastasis which presented two mutations, each in the two genes, transmitted from her mother and her father, respectively. In this family all available members have been investigated. The concomitant presence of these peculiar mutations was never reported before suggesting a link with Caucasian population from Southern Italy.

  12. Paternal lineage affinity of the Malay subethnic and Orang Asli populations in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SharifahNany RahayuKarmilla, SyedHassan; Aedrianee, Alwi R; Nur Haslindawaty, Abd Rashid; Nur Azeelah, Abdullah; Panneerchelvam, Sundararajulu; Norazmi, Mohd Nor; Zafarina, Zainuddin

    2017-10-19

    Peninsular Malaysia is populated by the Malays, Chinese, Indians, and Orang Asli. We have analyzed 17 Y-STRs loci for 243 randomly unrelated individuals, which include 153 Malays (7 Acheh, 13 Champa, 11 Rawa, 9 Kedah, 23 Minang, 15 Bugis, 43 Kelantan, 14 Jawa, and 18 Bugis) and 90 Orang Asli [54 Semang (16 Kensiu, 13 Lanoh, 25 Bateq); 30 Senoi (21 Semai, 9 Che Wong); and 6 Proto-Malay (6 Orang Kanaq)] from selected settlements in Peninsular Malaysia using the AmpFlSTR Yfiler™ kit (Applied Biosystems™). The overall haplotype diversity is 0.9966, i.e., 0.9984 for the Malays and 0.9793 for the Orang Asli. A total of 158 haplotypes (65.02%) were individually unique. The p value and pairwise Rst analysis was calculated to show the genetic structure of the samples with other world populations (from YHRD website). Based on the Y-STR data, Champa, Acheh, Kedah, Minang, and Kelantan are clustered together. Lanoh and Kensiu (Semang) are very closely related, suggesting similar paternal ancestry. Jawa Malays and Indonesian Java, plus the Bugis Malays and Australian Aborigines shared high degree of paternal lineage affinity. This study presents data for very precious relict groups, who are the earliest inhabitants of Peninsular Malaysia.

  13. Maternal High-Fat Diet Effects on Third-Generation Female Body Size via the Paternal Lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    The health consequences of in utero exposure to maternal obesity on future generations are concerning because they contribute to increased rates of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. We previously reported that maternal high-fat diet exposure in mice resulted in an increase in body size and reduced insulin sensitivity that persisted across two generations via both maternal and paternal lineages. However, because the first generation's primordial germ cells may be affected by gestational exposure, analysis of phenotype transmission into a third generation (F3) is necessary to determine whether stable epigenetic programming has occurred. Therefore, we have examined the body size and insulin sensitivity of male and female F3 offspring. We found that only females displayed the increased body size phenotype, and this effect was only passed on via the paternal lineage. The finding of a paternally transmitted phenotype to F3 female offspring supports a stable germline-based transgenerational mode of inheritance; thus we hypothesized that imprinted genes may be involved in this epigenetic programming. Using a quantitative TaqMan Array for imprinted genes to examine paternally or maternally expressed loci in F3 female livers, we detected a potential dynamic pattern of paternally expressed genes from the paternal lineage that was not noted in the maternal lineage. These findings suggest that the environmental influence on developmental regulation of growth and body size may be the result of broad programming events at imprinted loci, thereby providing sex specificity to both the transmission and inheritance of traits related to disease predisposition. PMID:21447631

  14. Testing isonymy with paternal and maternal lineages in the early Québec population: the impact of polyphyletism and demographic differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Alain; Toupance, Bruno

    2002-04-01

    Isonymy is an ingenious and useful approach to studying kinship in human populations. However, it relies on assumptions that are difficult to verify. In this study, we provided a way to assess, in the early Québec population, the impact of factors such as polyphyletism, unbalanced sex-ratio among founders, and age differentials between spouses. All data were taken from the Population Register of Early Québec, which contains births, marriages, and deaths (>712,000) recorded in parish registers from the beginning of colonization (in 1608) to 1800. More specifically, using the 70,869 marriages recorded during that period, we compared kinship estimates given by genealogies, surnames, and paternal and maternal lineages. We also calculated a fifth coefficient of kinship by combining paternal and maternal lineage, thus providing a new way to test the isonymy method. The results show a good agreement between genealogical and isonymous estimates. However, this good correspondence is due to counterbalancing biases. Some of the implications of our results are discussed in the context of colonial America. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Paternal and maternal influences on differences in birth weight between Europeans and Indians born in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C K Wells

    Full Text Available Ethnic groups differ significantly in adult physique and birth weight. We aimed to improve understanding of maternal versus paternal contributions to ethnic differences in birth weight, by comparing the offspring of same-ethnic versus mixed-ethnic unions amongst Europeans and South Asian Indians in the UK.We used data from the UK Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study (LS and the Chelsea and Westminster Hospital (CWH, London. In the combined sample at all gestational ages, average birth weight of offspring with two European parents was significantly greater than that of offspring with two Indian parents [Δ = 344 (95% CI 329, 360 g]. Compared to offspring of European mothers, the offspring of Indian mothers had lower birth weight, whether the father was European [Δ = -152 (95% CI -92, -212 g] or Indian [Δ = -254 (95% -315, -192 g]. After adjustment for various confounding factors, average birth weight of offspring with European father and Indian mother was greater than that of offspring with two Indian parents [LS: Δ = 249 (95% CI 143, 354 g; CWH: Δ = 236 (95% CI 62, 411 g]. Average birth weight of offspring with Indian father and European mother was significantly less than that of offspring with two European parents [LS: Δ = -117 (95% CI -207, -26 g; CWH: Δ = -83 (-206, 40 g].Birth weight of offspring with mixed-ethnic parentage was intermediate between that of offspring with two European or two Indian parents, demonstrating a paternal as well as a maternal contribution to ethnic differences in fetal growth. This can be interpreted as demonstrating paternal modulation of maternal investment in offspring. We suggest long-term nutritional experience over generations may drive such ethnic differences through parental co-adaptation.

  16. New clues to the evolutionary history of the main European paternal lineage M269

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde, Laura; Illescas, Maria José; Villaescusa, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The dissection of S116 in more than 1500 individuals from Atlantic Europe and the Iberian Peninsula has provided important clues about the controversial evolutionary history of M269. First, the results do not point to an origin of M269 in the Franco-Cantabrian refuge, owing to the lack of subline...

  17. Y-chromosome lineages in São Tomé e Príncipe islands: evidence of European influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rita; Spínola, Hélder; Brehm, António

    2007-01-01

    The Y-chromosome haplogroup composition of the population of São Tomé e Príncipe (STP) archipelago was analyzed using 25 biallelic markers and compared with populations of different origins from Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. Two main Y-chromosome haplogroups were found: E3a, very common among sub-Saharans accounts for 84.2% of the paternal lineages and R1b, typical of West Eurasia, represents 8.7% of the overall male population. Nevertheless, we detected in the population of STP a significant heterogeneous distribution of R1b among the two main ethnic groups of the archipelago: Forros (10.3%) and Angolares (6.6%). Together, haplogroups known to be prevalent in West Eurasia reach 12.5% of the chromosomes analyzed unequally distributed among the two groups: Forros present 17.7% while Angolares display only 8.2% of west Eurasian haplogroups. Our findings suggest that, despite its sub-Saharan genetic background, a relevant contribution of European paternal lineages is present in nowadays STP population. This influence has shown to be stronger in Forros than in Angolares, which could be explained by the social isolation that these have last experienced through their history. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Male-specific DNA markers provide genetic evidence of an XY chromosome system, a recombination arrest and allow the tracing of paternal lineages in date palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Emira; Zehdi, Salwa; Castillo, Karina; Chabrillange, Nathalie; Abdoulkader, Sabira; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Santoni, Sylvain; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Glémin, Sylvain; Aberlenc-Bertossi, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    Whether sex chromosomes are differentiated is an important aspect of our knowledge of dioecious plants, such as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). In this crop plant, the female individuals produce dates, and are thus the more valuable sex. However, there is no way to identify the sex of date palm plants before reproductive age, and the sex-determining mechanism is still unclear. To identify sex-linked microsatellite markers, we surveyed a set of 52 male and 55 female genotypes representing the geographical diversity of the species. We found three genetically linked loci that are heterozygous only in males. Male-specific alleles allowed us to identify the gender in 100% of individuals. These results confirm the existence of an XY chromosomal system with a nonrecombining XY-like region in the date palm genome. The distribution of Y haplotypes in western and eastern haplogroups allowed us to trace two male ancestral paternal lineages that account for all known Y diversity in date palm. The very low diversity associated with Y haplotypes is consistent with clonal paternal transmission of a nonrecombining male-determining region. Our results establish the date palm as a biological model with one of the most ancient sex chromosomes in flowering plants. © 2012 IRD. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim António

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin and prevalence of the prehispanic settlers of the Canary Islands has attracted great multidisciplinary interest. However, direct ancient DNA genetic studies on indigenous and historical 17th–18th century remains, using mitochondrial DNA as a female marker, have only recently been possible. In the present work, the analysis of Y-chromosome polymorphisms in the same samples, has shed light on the way the European colonization affected male and female Canary Island indigenous genetic pools, from the conquest to present-day times. Results Autochthonous (E-M81 and prominent (E-M78 and J-M267 Berber Y-chromosome lineages were detected in the indigenous remains, confirming a North West African origin for their ancestors which confirms previous mitochondrial DNA results. However, in contrast with their female lineages, which have survived in the present-day population since the conquest with only a moderate decline, the male indigenous lineages have dropped constantly being substituted by European lineages. Male and female sub-Saharan African genetic inputs were also detected in the Canary population, but their frequencies were higher during the 17th–18th centuries than today. Conclusion The European colonization of the Canary Islands introduced a strong sex-biased change in the indigenous population in such a way that indigenous female lineages survived in the extant population in a significantly higher proportion than their male counterparts.

  20. A glimpse at the intricate mosaic of ethnicities from Mesopotamia: Paternal lineages of the Northern Iraqi Arabs, Kurds, Syriacs, Turkmens and Yazidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Serkan; Gurkan, Cemal; Dogan, Mustafa; Balkaya, Hasan Emin; Tunc, Ramazan; Demirdov, Damla Kanliada; Ameen, Nihad Ahmed; Marjanovic, Damir

    2017-01-01

    Widely considered as one of the cradles of human civilization, Mesopotamia is largely situated in the Republic of Iraq, which is also the birthplace of the Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian civilizations. These lands were subsequently ruled by the Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Mongolians, Ottomans and finally British prior to the independence. As a direct consequence of this rich history, the contemporary Iraqi population comprises a true mosaic of different ethnicities, which includes Arabs, Kurds, Turkmens, Assyrians, and Yazidis among others. As such, the genetics of the contemporary Iraqi populations are of anthropological and forensic interest. In an effort to contribute to a better understanding of the genetic basis of this ethnic diversity, a total of 500 samples were collected from Northern Iraqi volunteers belonging to five major ethnic groups, namely: Arabs (n = 102), Kurds (n = 104), Turkmens (n = 102), Yazidis (n = 106) and Syriacs (n = 86). 17-loci Y-STR analyses were carried out using the AmpFlSTR Yfiler system, and subsequently in silico haplogroup assignments were made to gain insights from a molecular anthropology perspective. Systematic comparisons of the paternal lineages of these five Northern Iraqi ethnic groups, not only among themselves but also in the context of the larger genetic landscape of the Near East and beyond, were then made through the use of two different genetic distance metric measures and the associated data visualization methods. Taken together, results from the current study suggested the presence of intricate Y-chromosomal lineage patterns among the five ethic groups analyzed, wherein both interconnectivity and independent microvariation were observed in parallel, albeit in a differential manner. Notably, the novel Y-STR data on Turkmens, Syriacs and Yazidis from Northern Iraq constitute the first of its kind in the literature. Data presented herein is expected to contribute to further population and forensic

  1. Tracing European Founder Lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Martin; Macaulay, Vincent; Hickey, Eileen; Vega, Emilce; Sykes, Bryan; Guida, Valentina; Rengo, Chiara; Sellitto, Daniele; Cruciani, Fulvio; Kivisild, Toomas; Villems, Richard; Thomas, Mark; Rychkov, Serge; Rychkov, Oksana; Rychkov, Yuri; Gölge, Mukaddes; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Hill, Emmeline; Bradley, Dan; Romano, Valentino; Calì, Francesco; Vona, Giuseppe; Demaine, Andrew; Papiha, Surinder; Triantaphyllidis, Costas; Stefanescu, Gheorghe; Hatina, Jiři; Belledi, Michele; Di Rienzo, Anna; Oppenheim, Ariella; Nørby, Søren; Al-Zaheri, Nadia; Santachiara-Benerecetti, Silvana; Scozzari, Rosaria; Torroni, Antonio; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    Founder analysis is a method for analysis of nonrecombining DNA sequence data, with the aim of identification and dating of migrations into new territory. The method picks out founder sequence types in potential source populations and dates lineage clusters deriving from them in the settlement zone of interest. Here, using mtDNA, we apply the approach to the colonization of Europe, to estimate the proportion of modern lineages whose ancestors arrived during each major phase of settlement. To estimate the Palaeolithic and Neolithic contributions to European mtDNA diversity more accurately than was previously achievable, we have now extended the Near Eastern, European, and northern-Caucasus databases to 1,234, 2,804, and 208 samples, respectively. Both back-migration into the source population and recurrent mutation in the source and derived populations represent major obstacles to this approach. We have developed phylogenetic criteria to take account of both these factors, and we suggest a way to account for multiple dispersals of common sequence types. We conclude that (i) there has been substantial back-migration into the Near East, (ii) the majority of extant mtDNA lineages entered Europe in several waves during the Upper Palaeolithic, (iii) there was a founder effect or bottleneck associated with the Last Glacial Maximum, 20,000 years ago, from which derives the largest fraction of surviving lineages, and (iv) the immigrant Neolithic component is likely to comprise less than one-quarter of the mtDNA pool of modern Europeans. PMID:11032788

  2. The role of genealogy and clinical family histories in documenting possible inheritance patterns for diabetes mellitus in the pre-insulin era: part 2. Genealogic evidence for type 2 diabetes mellitus in Josephine Imperato's paternal and maternal lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Pascal James; Imperato, Gavin H

    2009-12-01

    Part 2 presents detailed genealogic information on Josephine Imperato's paternal and maternal lineages extending from four to seven generations into the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries. Among these lineages are some where early adult death over successive generations is perhaps indicative of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM). These lineages, all in the town of San Prisco in Italy, include both paternal and maternal ones with the following surnames: Casaccia, Casertano, Cipriano, de Angelis, de Paulis, Peccerillo, Foniciello, di Monaco, Vaccarella, Valenziano, Ventriglia, and Zibella. Genealogic studies of eighteenth and nineteenth century vital records in this area of Italy cannot definitively establish type 2 diabetes mellitus as either an immediate or contributory cause of death. This is because causes of death were not recorded and because disease diagnostic capabilities were largely absent. Genealogic studies of those who lived in Italy in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries can at best provide data on approximate age at time of death. Early adult death in this era was not uncommon. However, its presence over several successive generations in a lineage raises the possibility of inherited diseases prominent among which is type 2 DM.

  3. Epistemic Paternalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    jalal pikani; faramarz tagilu

    2013-01-01

    .... Finally, the view is defend that the epistemic paternalism because of its valuable epistemic consequences will be legitimate if it construct on some certain criterions without postulating epistemic...

  4. Paternally inherited markers in bovine hybrid populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaar, E L C; Vervaecke, H; Roden, C; Romero Mendoza, L; Barwegen, M W; Susilawati, T; Nijman, I J; Lenstra, J A

    2003-12-01

    The genetic integrity of crossfertile bovine- or cattle-like species may be endangered by species hybridization. Previously, amplified fragment length polymorphism, satellite fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite assays have been used to analyze the species composition of nuclear DNA in taurine cattle, zebu, banteng and bison populations, while mitochondrial DNA reveals the origin of the maternal lineages. Here, we describe species-specific markers of the paternally transmitted Y-chromosome for the direct detection of male-mediated introgression. Convenient PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and competitive PCR assays are shown to differentiate the Y-chromosomes of taurine cattle, American bison and European bison, and to detect the banteng origin of Indonesian Madura and Bali cattle bulls.

  5. Analysis of the nucleoprotein gene identifies three distinct lineages of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) within the European marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, M.; Cunningham, C.O.; Melvin, W.T.; Kurath, G.

    1999-01-01

    A ribonuclease (RNase) protection assay (RPA) has been used to detect nucleotide sequence variation within the nucleoprotein gene of 39 viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates of European marine origin. The classification of VHSV isolates based on RPA cleavage patterns permitted the identification of ten distinct groups of viruses based on differences at the molecular level. The nucleotide sequence of representatives of each of these groupings was determined and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. This revealed grouping of the European marine isolates of VHSV into three genotypes circulating within distinct geographic areas. A fourth genotype was identified comprising isolates originating from North America. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that VHSV isolates recovered from wild caught fish around the British Isles were genetically related to isolates responsible for losses in farmed turbot. Furthermore, a relationship between naturally occurring marine isolates and VHSV isolates causing mortality among rainbow trout in continental Europe was demonstrated. Analysis of the nucleoprotein gene identifies distinct lineages of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus within the European marine environment. Virus Res. 63, 35-44. Available from: 

  6. Chalcone Synthase Gene Lineage Diversification confirms allopolyploid evolutionary relationships of European Rostrate Violets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van den K.; Berg, van den R.G.; Gravendeel, B.

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among and within the subsections of the genus Viola are still far from resolved. We present the first organismal phylogeny of predominantly western European species of subsection Rostratae based on the plastid trnS¿trnG intron and intergenic spacer and the nuclear low-copy

  7. Livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA Clonal Complex (CC 398 isolated from UK animals belongs to European lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenaxi Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA clonal complex (CC 398 recovered from S. aureus isolated animals in the UK. To determine possible origins of 12 LA-MRSA CC398 isolates collected after screening more than a thousand S. aureus animal isolates from the UK between 2013- 2015, , whole genome sequences (WGS of CC398 European, including UK, and non-European isolates from diverse animal hosts were compared. Phylogenetic reconstruction applied to WGS data to assess genetic relatedness of all 89 isolates, clustered the 12 UK CC398 LA-MRSA within the European sub-lineages, although on different nodes; implicating multiple independent incursions into the UK, as opposed to a single introduction followed by clonal expansion. Three UK isolates from healthy pigs and one from turkey clustered within the cassette chromosome recombinases (ccrC S. aureus protein A (spa-type t011 European sub-lineage and three UK isolates from horses within the ccrA2B2 t011 European sub-lineage. The remaining UK isolates, mostly from pigs, clustered within the t034 European lineage. Presence of virulence, antimicrobial (AMR, heavy metal (HMR, and disinfectant (DR resistance genes were determined using an in-house pipeline. Most, including UK isolates, harboured resistance genes to ≥3 antimicrobial classes in addition to β-lactams. HMR genes were detected in most European ccrC positive isolates, with >80% harbouring czrC, encoding zinc and cadmium resistance; in contrast ~60% ccrC isolates within non-European lineages and 6% ccrA2B2 isolates showed this characteristic. The UK turkey MRSA isolate did not harbour φAVβ avian prophage genes (SAAV_2008 and SAAV_2009 present in US MSSA isolates from turkey and pigs. Absence of some of the major human-associated MRSA toxigenic and virulence genes in the UK LA-MRSA animal isolates was not unexpected. Therefore, we can conclude that the

  8. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) Clonal Complex (CC) 398 Isolated from UK Animals belong to European Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Meenaxi; Nunez-Garcia, Javier; Kearns, Angela M.; Doumith, Michel; Butaye, Patrick R.; Argudín, M. Angeles; Lahuerta-Marin, Angela; Pichon, Bruno; AbuOun, Manal; Rogers, Jon; Ellis, Richard J.; Teale, Christopher; Anjum, Muna F.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 recovered from S. aureus isolated animals in the UK. To determine possible origins of 12 LA-MRSA CC398 isolates collected after screening more than a thousand S. aureus animal isolates from the UK between 2013 and 2015, whole genome sequences (WGS) of CC398 European, including UK, and non-European isolates from diverse animal hosts were compared. Phylogenetic reconstruction applied to WGS data to assess genetic relatedness of all 89 isolates, clustered the 12 UK CC398 LA-MRSA within the European sub-lineages, although on different nodes; implicating multiple independent incursions into the UK, as opposed to a single introduction followed by clonal expansion. Three UK isolates from healthy pigs and one from turkey clustered within the cassette chromosome recombinases ccr C S. aureus protein A (spa)-type t011 European sub-lineage and three UK isolates from horses within the ccrA2B2 t011 European sub-lineage. The remaining UK isolates, mostly from pigs, clustered within the t034 European lineage. Presence of virulence, antimicrobial (AMR), heavy metal (HMR), and disinfectant (DR) resistance genes were determined using an in-house pipeline. Most, including UK isolates, harbored resistance genes to ≥3 antimicrobial classes in addition to β-lactams. HMR genes were detected in most European ccrC positive isolates, with >80% harboring czrC, encoding zinc and cadmium resistance; in contrast ~60% ccrC isolates within non-European lineages and 6% ccrA2B2 isolates showed this characteristic. The UK turkey MRSA isolate did not harbor φAVβ avian prophage genes (SAAV_2008 and SAAV_2009) present in US MSSA isolates from turkey and pigs. Absence of some of the major human-associated MRSA toxigenic and virulence genes in the UK LA-MRSA animal isolates was not unexpected. Therefore, we can conclude that the 12 UK LA

  9. Paternal genetic history of the Basque population of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristin L; Sun, Guangyun; Deka, Ranjan; Crawford, Michael H

    2011-08-01

    This study examines the genetic variation in Basque Y chromosome lineages using data on 12 Y-short tandem repeat (STR) loci in a sample of 158 males from four Basque provinces of Spain (Alava, Vizcaya, Guipuzcoa, and Navarre). As reported in previous studies, the Basques are characterized by high frequencies of haplogroup R1b (83%). AMOVA analysis demonstrates genetic homogeneity, with a small but significant amount of genetic structure between provinces (Y-short tandem repeat loci STRs: 1.71%, p = 0.0369). Gene and haplotype diversity levels in the Basque population are on the low end of the European distribution (gene diversity: 0.4268; haplotype diversity: 0.9421). Post-Neolithic contribution to the paternal Basque gene pool was estimated by measuring the proportion of those haplogroups with a Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) previously dated either prior (R1b, I2a2) or subsequent to (E1b1b, G2a, J2a) the Neolithic. Based on these estimates, the Basque provinces show varying degrees of post-Neolithic contribution in the paternal lineages (10.9% in the combined sample).

  10. Relating paternity to paternal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-03-29

    Intuition suggests, to most people, that parents should be selected to care for their offspring in relation to how certain they are of being the parents of those offspring. Theoretical models of the relationship between parental investment and certainty of parentage predict the two to be related only when some other assumptions are made, few of which can be taken for granted. I briefly review the models and their assumptions, and discuss two kinds of difficulty facing an empiricist wishing to test the models. The first is the problem of unmeasured (and immeasurable) variables. The second is the problem that even the most extensive models do not capture the complexity that can be demonstrated in real systems. I illustrate some of these problems, and some qualitative tests of the models, with experimental work on a population of the collared flycatcher. My conclusion is that although there are some cases where the models have qualitative support, we are a long way from understanding whether paternal care is commonly adjusted in relation to certainty of paternity.

  11. Cryptic diversity among Western Palearctic tree frogs: postglacial range expansion, range limits, and secondary contacts of three European tree frog lineages (Hyla arborea group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöck, Matthias; Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Lymberakis, Petros; Biollay, Sébastien; Berroneau, Matthieu; Borzée, Amaël; Ghali, Karim; Ogielska, Maria; Perrin, Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    We characterize divergence times, intraspecific diversity and distributions for recently recognized lineages within the Hyla arborea species group, based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences from 160 localities spanning its whole distribution. Lineages of H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri have at least Pliocene age, supporting species level divergence. The genetically uniform Iberian H. molleri, although largely isolated by the Pyrenees, is parapatric to H. arborea, with evidence for successful hybridization in a small Aquitanian corridor (southwestern France), where the distribution also overlaps with H. meridionalis. The genetically uniform H. arborea, spread from Crete to Brittany, exhibits molecular signatures of a postglacial range expansion. It meets different mtDNA clades of H. orientalis in NE-Greece, along the Carpathians, and in Poland along the Vistula River (there including hybridization). The East-European H. orientalis is strongly structured genetically. Five geographic mitochondrial clades are recognized, with a molecular signature of postglacial range expansions for the clade that reached the most northern latitudes. Hybridization with H. savignyi is suggested in southwestern Turkey. Thus, cryptic diversity in these Pliocene Hyla lineages covers three extremes: a genetically poor, quasi-Iberian endemic (H. molleri), a more uniform species distributed from the Balkans to Western Europe (H. arborea), and a well-structured Asia Minor-Eastern European species (H. orientalis). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Paternal and maternal genetic analysis of a desert Keriyan population: Keriyans are not the descendants of Guge Tibetans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaixu; Ablimit, Abdurahman; Ling, Fengjun; Wu, Weiwei; Shan, Wenjuan; Qin, Wenbei; Keweier, Tuerhong; Zuo, Hongli; Zhang, Fuchun; Ma, Zhenghai; Zheng, Xiufen

    2014-01-01

    The Keriyan people live in an isolated village in the Taklimakan Desert in Xinjiang, Western China. The origin and migration of the Keriyans remains unclear. We studied paternal and maternal genetic variance through typing Y-STR loci and sequencing the complete control region of the mtDNA and compared them with other adjacent populations. Data show that the Keriyan have relatively low genetic diversity on both the paternal and maternal lineages and possess both European and Asian specific haplogroups, indicating Keriyan is an admixture population of West and East. There is a gender-bias in the extent of contribution from Europe vs. Asia to the Keriyan gene pool. Keriyans have more genetic affinity to Uyghurs than to Tibetans. The Keriyan are not the descendants of the Guge Tibetans.

  13. Paternal and maternal genetic analysis of a desert Keriyan population: Keriyans are not the descendants of Guge Tibetans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaixu Chen

    Full Text Available The Keriyan people live in an isolated village in the Taklimakan Desert in Xinjiang, Western China. The origin and migration of the Keriyans remains unclear. We studied paternal and maternal genetic variance through typing Y-STR loci and sequencing the complete control region of the mtDNA and compared them with other adjacent populations. Data show that the Keriyan have relatively low genetic diversity on both the paternal and maternal lineages and possess both European and Asian specific haplogroups, indicating Keriyan is an admixture population of West and East. There is a gender-bias in the extent of contribution from Europe vs. Asia to the Keriyan gene pool. Keriyans have more genetic affinity to Uyghurs than to Tibetans. The Keriyan are not the descendants of the Guge Tibetans.

  14. Who wants paternalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie K.; Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the demand side of paternalism. We investigate attitudes towards paternalism among Danish students. The main question is whether demand for paternalism is related to self-control, either because people with self-control problems seek commitment devices to overcome...... these problems, or because people with good self-control want those who lack it to change their behaviours. We find no evidence linking self-control to attitudes towards weak forms of paternalism (e.g., nudges or information about health consequences). But respondents with good self-control are significantly...... more favourable towards strong paternalism (e.g., restricting choices or sin taxes) than those struggling with self-control....

  15. Who wants paternalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie Kragh; Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    Little is known about the demand side of paternalism. We investigate attitudes towards paternalism among Danish students. The main question is whether demand for paternalism is related to self-control, either because people with self-control problems seek commitment devices to overcome...... these problems, or because people with good self-control want those who lack it to change their behaviors. We find no evidence linking self-control to attitudes towards weak forms of paternalism (e.g. nudges or information about health consequences). But respondents with good selfcontrol are significantly more...... favorable towards strong paternalism (e.g. restricting choices or sin taxes) than those struggling with self-control....

  16. Barcoding of Central European Cryptops centipedes reveals large interspecific distances with ghost lineages and new species records from Germany and Austria (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesener, Thomas; Voigtländer, Karin; Decker, Peter; Oeyen, Jan Philip; Spelda, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In order to evaluate the diversity of Central European Myriapoda species in the course of the German Barcode of Life project, 61 cytochrome c oxidase I sequences of the genus Cryptops Leach, 1815, a centipede genus of the order Scolopendromorpha, were successfully sequenced and analyzed. One sequence of Scolopendra cingulata Latreille, 1829 and one of Theatops erythrocephalus Koch, 1847 were utilized as outgroups. Instead of the expected three species (Cryptops parisi Brolemann, 1920; Cryptops anomalans Newport, 1844; Cryptops hortensis (Donovan, 1810)), analyzed samples included eight to ten species. Of the eight clearly distinguishable morphospecies of Cryptops, five (Cryptops parisi; Cryptops croaticus Verhoeff, 1931; Cryptops anomalans; Cryptops umbricus Verhoeff, 1931; Cryptops hortensis) could be tentatively determined to species level, while a further three remain undetermined (one each from Germany, Austria and Croatia, and Slovenia). Cryptops croaticus is recorded for the first time from Austria. A single specimen (previously suspected as being Cryptops anomalans), was redetermined as Cryptops umbricus Verhoeff, 1931, a first record for Germany. All analyzed Cryptops species are monophyletic and show large genetic distances from one another (p-distances of 13.7–22.2%). Clear barcoding gaps are present in lineages represented by >10 specimens, highlighting the usefulness of the barcoding method for evaluating species diversity in centipedes. German specimens formally assigned to Cryptops parisi are divided into three clades differing by 8.4–11.3% from one another; their intra-lineage genetic distance is much lower at 0–1.1%. The three clades are geographically separate, indicating that they might represent distinct species. Aside from Cryptops parisi, intraspecific distances of Cryptops spp. in Central Europe are low (<3.3%). PMID:27081331

  17. Paternalism and Antipaternalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cardoso Simões

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2011v10n1p165This paper aims to examine the relation between paternalism and antipaternalism. The original intention is disable the arguments seeking to justify acceptance on the part of Mill of moral and legal paternalism. The work will also investigate the concern milleans with the concepts of autonomy and self-development, positioning itself for a reading of Mill as a thinker who advocates a weak version of paternalism. This research suggests, moreover, the communication with the interpreters of contemporary Mill, which will assess the impact of their ideas on the current dialogue on the liberty and paternalism.

  18. Paternal age and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Gideon A; Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2010-01-01

    Due to various sociological factors, couples in developed countries are increasingly delaying childbearing. Besides ethical, economical and sociological issues, this trend presents us with several complex problems in reproduction. Although it is well-known that maternal age has a negative effect on fertility and increases the risk of adverse outcome during pregnancy and in offspring, the paternal influence on these outcomes is less well researched and not well-known. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, and retrieved original articles and review articles to update our previous survey in this journal. This review highlights the link between male age and genetic abnormalities in the germ line and summarizes the knowledge about the effects of paternal age on reproductive function and outcome. Increasing paternal age can be associated with decreasing androgen levels, decreased sexual activity, alterations of testicular morphology and a deterioration of semen quality (volume, motility, morphology). Increased paternal age has an influence on DNA integrity of sperm, increases telomere length in spermatozoa and is suggested to have epigenetic effects. These changes may, at least in part, be responsible for the association of paternal age over 40 years with reduced fertility, an increase in pregnancy-associated complications and adverse outcome in the offspring. Although higher maternal age can be an indication for intensive prenatal diagnosis, including invasive diagnostics, consideration of the available evidence suggests that paternal age itself, however, provides no rationale for invasive procedures.

  19. Paternity and paternal effort in the pumpkinseed sunfish

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Rios-Cardenas; Webster, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that males should adjust their parental effort according to paternity when parental effort is costly, paternity varies among clutches, and males have a cue to assess paternity. To date, nearly all tests of this theory have been conducted using birds as model organisms. In this study we examined these three factors and the relationship between paternity and male parental care in a fish system. In the pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus), parental care is provided e...

  20. Paternity analysis in Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheta, Margarida; Dionísio, F Miguel; Fonseca, Luís; Pires, Ana M

    2007-12-01

    Paternity analysis using microsatellite information is a well-studied subject. These markers are ideal for parentage studies and fingerprinting, due to their high-discrimination power. This type of data is used to assign paternity, to compute the average selfing and outcrossing rates and to estimate the biparental inbreeding. There are several public domain programs that compute all this information from data. Most of the time, it is necessary to export data to some sort of format, feed it to the program and import the output to an Excel book for further processing. In this article we briefly describe a program referred from now on as Paternity Analysis in Excel (PAE), developed at IST and IBET (see the acknowledgments) that computes paternity candidates from data, and other information, from within Excel. In practice this means that the end user provides the data in an Excel sheet and, by pressing an appropriate button, obtains the results in another Excel sheet. For convenience PAE is divided into two modules. The first one is a filtering module that selects data from the sequencer and reorganizes it in a format appropriate to process paternity analysis, assuming certain conventions for the names of parents and offspring from the sequencer. The second module carries out the paternity analysis assuming that one parent is known. Both modules are written in Excel-VBA and can be obtained at the address (www.math.ist.utl.pt/~fmd/pa/pa.zip). They are free for non-commercial purposes and have been tested with different data and against different software (Cervus, FaMoz, and MLTR).

  1. Disclosing the genetic structure of Brazil through analysis of male lineages with highly discriminating haplotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha Palha

    Full Text Available In a large variety of genetic studies, probabilistic inferences are made based on information available in population databases. The accuracy of the estimates based on population samples are highly dependent on the number of chromosomes being analyzed as well as the correct representation of the reference population. For frequency calculations the size of a database is especially critical for haploid markers, and for countries with complex admixture histories it is important to assess possible substructure effects that can influence the coverage of the database. Aiming to establish a representative Brazilian population database for haplotypes based on 23 Y chromosome STRs, more than 2,500 Y chromosomes belonging to Brazilian, European and African populations were analyzed. No matter the differences in the colonization history of the five geopolitical regions that currently exist in Brazil, for the Y chromosome haplotypes of the 23 studied Y-STRs, a lack of genetic heterogeneity was found, together with a predominance of European male lineages in all regions of the country. Therefore, if we do not consider the diverse Native American or Afro-descendent isolates, which are spread through the country, a single Y chromosome haplotype frequency database will adequately represent the urban populations in Brazil. In comparison to the most commonly studied group of 17 Y-STRs, the 23 markers included in this work allowed a high discrimination capacity between haplotypes from non-related individuals within a population and also increased the capacity to discriminate between paternal relatives. Nevertheless, the expected haplotype mutation rate is still not enough to distinguish the Y chromosome profiles of paternally related individuals. Indeed, even for rapidly mutating Y-STRs, a very large number of markers will be necessary to differentiate male lineages from paternal relatives.

  2. Disclosing the genetic structure of Brazil through analysis of male lineages with highly discriminating haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palha, Teresinha; Gusmão, Leonor; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Elzemar; Guerreiro, João Farias; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Andrea; Santos, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    In a large variety of genetic studies, probabilistic inferences are made based on information available in population databases. The accuracy of the estimates based on population samples are highly dependent on the number of chromosomes being analyzed as well as the correct representation of the reference population. For frequency calculations the size of a database is especially critical for haploid markers, and for countries with complex admixture histories it is important to assess possible substructure effects that can influence the coverage of the database. Aiming to establish a representative Brazilian population database for haplotypes based on 23 Y chromosome STRs, more than 2,500 Y chromosomes belonging to Brazilian, European and African populations were analyzed. No matter the differences in the colonization history of the five geopolitical regions that currently exist in Brazil, for the Y chromosome haplotypes of the 23 studied Y-STRs, a lack of genetic heterogeneity was found, together with a predominance of European male lineages in all regions of the country. Therefore, if we do not consider the diverse Native American or Afro-descendent isolates, which are spread through the country, a single Y chromosome haplotype frequency database will adequately represent the urban populations in Brazil. In comparison to the most commonly studied group of 17 Y-STRs, the 23 markers included in this work allowed a high discrimination capacity between haplotypes from non-related individuals within a population and also increased the capacity to discriminate between paternal relatives. Nevertheless, the expected haplotype mutation rate is still not enough to distinguish the Y chromosome profiles of paternally related individuals. Indeed, even for rapidly mutating Y-STRs, a very large number of markers will be necessary to differentiate male lineages from paternal relatives.

  3. Genetic analysis of maternal and paternal lineages in Kabardian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2018-01-23

    Jan 23, 2018 ... A 309 bp fragment of the mitochondrial D-loop (156 Kabardian horses) and six mutations ... spread maternal origin and the introduction of Arabian as well as Thoroughbred influenced stallions for improvement. ... Keywords: Genetic diversity, Mitochondrial DNA, Phylogenetic analysis, Y chromosome.

  4. Estimativas de parâmetros e tendências genéticas para algumas características de importância econômica em linhagem paterna de frangos de corte sob seleção Estimates of genetic parameters and trends for performance traits in paternal broiler lineages under selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Adami Vayego

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimativas dos parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos de algumas características produtivas em linhagem paterna de matrizes de frango de corte foram obtidas utilizando-se a metodologia de modelos mistos. Utilizaram-se dados de aproximadamente 46.000 aves, originados de 12 gerações no período de 1992 a 2003, fornecidos pela EMBRAPA Suínos e aves. Nos machos foram avaliadas as características peso corporal aos 42 dias de idade (P42, comprimento de peito (CPeito, largura maior do peito (Larg1 e largura menor do peito (Larg2 aos 42 dias de idade. Os componentes de variância e co-variância foram estimados utilizando-se o programa DFREML. As estimativas de herdabilidade obtidas foram moderadas e variaram de 0,29 a 0,53. As correlações genéticas foram: 0,68 entre P42 e CPeito; 0,65 entre P42 e Larg1; 0,48 entre P42 e Larg2. O estudo da tendência genética das características indicou que progresso genético está sendo obtido.Estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters for performance traits in paternal broiler lineages selected during 12 generations were obtained through mixed models methodology. Data consisting of body weight (P42, breast length (CPeito, largest (Larg1 and smallest (Larg2 breast widths recorded at 42 days of age in approximately 46,000 birds between 1992 and 2003 provided by CNPSA/EMBRAPA were used to estimate (covariances by REML. The heritability estimates were moderate, ranging from 0.29 to 0.53. Genetic correlations estimates between P42 and CPeito, Larg1 and Larg2 were 0.68, 0.65 and 0.48 respectively. Genetic trend estimates indicate that progress has been obtained by selection on the performance traits.

  5. Justification of Paternalism in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenbo, Sven Erik

    1986-01-01

    A systematic presentation is given of the theories of justification normally applied to paternalistic acts: (1) pseudo-paternalism, (2) consequentialism, and (3) consent-based theories. The validity of four common arguments for educational paternalism is discussed: education is necessary, children are ignorant, children are unable to choose, and…

  6. Paternal Care May Influence Perceptions of Paternal Resemblance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A. Volk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Father-child resemblance is increasingly attracting attention from researchers interested in studying paternal investment. The current study sought to determine whether a quasi-experimental infant massage intervention would increase father's perceptions of resemblance. The study included a dozen fathers in each of two groups: the first received an intensive series of lessons on infant-father massage along with their infants, while the second group served as a neutral control. We failed to find significant correlations between paternal investment and resemblance, but we found that fathers who participated in the infant massage intervention reported significantly larger post-study ratings of resemblance and lower ratings of paternal stress. This suggests that the relationship between father-child resemblance and paternal investment may be bidirectional.

  7. New native South American Y chromosome lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jota, Marilza S; Lacerda, Daniela R; Sandoval, José R; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R; Ohasi, Dominique; Santos-Júnior, José E; Acosta, Oscar; Cuellar, Cinthia; Revollo, Susana; Paz-Y-Miño, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Schurr, Theodore G; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo M; Pena, Sergio Dj; Ayub, Qasim; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Santos, Fabrício R

    2016-07-01

    Many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the non-recombining region of the human Y chromosome have been described in the last decade. High-coverage sequencing has helped to characterize new SNPs, which has in turn increased the level of detail in paternal phylogenies. However, these paternal lineages still provide insufficient information on population history and demography, especially for Native Americans. The present study aimed to identify informative paternal sublineages derived from the main founder lineage of the Americas-haplogroup Q-L54-in a sample of 1841 native South Americans. For this purpose, we used a Y-chromosomal genotyping multiplex platform and conventional genotyping methods to validate 34 new SNPs that were identified in the present study by sequencing, together with many Y-SNPs previously described in the literature. We updated the haplogroup Q phylogeny and identified two new Q-M3 and three new Q-L54*(xM3) sublineages defined by five informative SNPs, designated SA04, SA05, SA02, SA03 and SA29. Within the Q-M3, sublineage Q-SA04 was mostly found in individuals from ethnic groups belonging to the Tukanoan linguistic family in the northwest Amazon, whereas sublineage Q-SA05 was found in Peruvian and Bolivian Amazon ethnic groups. Within Q-L54*, the derived sublineages Q-SA03 and Q-SA02 were exclusively found among Coyaima individuals (Cariban linguistic family) from Colombia, while Q-SA29 was found only in Maxacali individuals (Jean linguistic family) from southeast Brazil. Furthermore, we validated the usefulness of several published SNPs among indigenous South Americans. This new Y chromosome haplogroup Q phylogeny offers an informative paternal genealogy to investigate the pre-Columbian history of South America.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 31 March 2016; doi:10.1038/jhg.2016.26.

  8. Y chromosome lineages in men of west African descent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jada Benn Torres

    Full Text Available The early African experience in the Americas is marked by the transatlantic slave trade from ∼1619 to 1850 and the rise of the plantation system. The origins of enslaved Africans were largely dependent on European preferences as well as the availability of potential laborers within Africa. Rice production was a key industry of many colonial South Carolina low country plantations. Accordingly, rice plantations owners within South Carolina often requested enslaved Africans from the so-called "Grain Coast" of western Africa (Senegal to Sierra Leone. Studies on the African origins of the enslaved within other regions of the Americas have been limited. To address the issue of origins of people of African descent within the Americas and understand more about the genetic heterogeneity present within Africa and the African Diaspora, we typed Y chromosome specific markers in 1,319 men consisting of 508 west and central Africans (from 12 populations, 188 Caribbeans (from 2 islands, 532 African Americans (AAs from Washington, DC and Columbia, SC, and 91 European Americans. Principal component and admixture analyses provide support for significant Grain Coast ancestry among African American men in South Carolina. AA men from DC and the Caribbean showed a closer affinity to populations from the Bight of Biafra. Furthermore, 30-40% of the paternal lineages in African descent populations in the Americas are of European ancestry. Diverse west African ancestries and sex-biased gene flow from EAs has contributed greatly to the genetic heterogeneity of African populations throughout the Americas and has significant implications for gene mapping efforts in these populations.

  9. Y chromosome lineages in men of west African descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jada Benn; Doura, Menahem B; Keita, Shomarka O Y; Kittles, Rick A

    2012-01-01

    The early African experience in the Americas is marked by the transatlantic slave trade from ∼1619 to 1850 and the rise of the plantation system. The origins of enslaved Africans were largely dependent on European preferences as well as the availability of potential laborers within Africa. Rice production was a key industry of many colonial South Carolina low country plantations. Accordingly, rice plantations owners within South Carolina often requested enslaved Africans from the so-called "Grain Coast" of western Africa (Senegal to Sierra Leone). Studies on the African origins of the enslaved within other regions of the Americas have been limited. To address the issue of origins of people of African descent within the Americas and understand more about the genetic heterogeneity present within Africa and the African Diaspora, we typed Y chromosome specific markers in 1,319 men consisting of 508 west and central Africans (from 12 populations), 188 Caribbeans (from 2 islands), 532 African Americans (AAs from Washington, DC and Columbia, SC), and 91 European Americans. Principal component and admixture analyses provide support for significant Grain Coast ancestry among African American men in South Carolina. AA men from DC and the Caribbean showed a closer affinity to populations from the Bight of Biafra. Furthermore, 30-40% of the paternal lineages in African descent populations in the Americas are of European ancestry. Diverse west African ancestries and sex-biased gene flow from EAs has contributed greatly to the genetic heterogeneity of African populations throughout the Americas and has significant implications for gene mapping efforts in these populations.

  10. Genomic characterization of the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax reveals the presence of a novel uncoupling protein (UCP) gene family member in the teleost fish lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Uncoupling proteins (UCP) are evolutionary conserved mitochondrial carriers that control energy metabolism and therefore play important roles in several physiological processes such as thermogenesis, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), growth control, lipid metabolism and regulation of insulin secretion. Despite their importance in various physiological processes, their molecular function remains controversial. The evolution and phylogenetic distribution may assist to identify their general biological function and structure-function relationships. The exact number of uncoupling protein genes in the fish genome and their evolution is unresolved. Results Here we report the first characterisation of UCP gene family members in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and then retrace the evolution of the protein family in vertebrates. Four UCP genes that are shared by five other fish species were identified in sea bass genome. Phylogenetic reconstitution among vertebrate species and synteny analysis revealed that UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 evolved from duplication events that occurred in the common ancestor of vertebrates, whereas the novel fourth UCP originated specifically in the teleost lineage. Functional divergence analysis among teleost species revealed specific amino acid positions that have been subjected to altered functional constraints after duplications. Conclusions This work provides the first unambiguous evidence for the presence of a fourth UCP gene in teleost fish genome and brings new insights into the evolutionary history of the gene family. Our results suggest functional divergence among paralogues which might result from long-term and differential selective pressures, and therefore, provide the indication that UCP genes may have diverse physiological functions in teleost fishes. Further experimental analysis of the critical amino acids identified here may provide valuable information on the physiological functions of UCP genes. PMID:22577775

  11. Identification of genetic variation on the horse y chromosome and the tracing of male founder lineages in modern breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wallner

    Full Text Available The paternally inherited Y chromosome displays the population genetic history of males. While modern domestic horses (Equus caballus exhibit abundant diversity within maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA, no significant Y-chromosomal sequence diversity has been detected. We used high throughput sequencing technology to identify the first polymorphic Y-chromosomal markers useful for tracing paternal lines. The nucleotide variability of the modern horse Y chromosome is extremely low, resulting in six haplotypes (HT, all clearly distinct from the Przewalski horse (E. przewalskii. The most widespread HT1 is ancestral and the other five haplotypes apparently arose on the background of HT1 by mutation or gene conversion after domestication. Two haplotypes (HT2 and HT3 are widely distributed at high frequencies among modern European horse breeds. Using pedigree information, we trace the distribution of Y-haplotype diversity to particular founders. The mutation leading to HT3 occurred in the germline of the famous English Thoroughbred stallion "Eclipse" or his son or grandson and its prevalence demonstrates the influence of this popular paternal line on modern sport horse breeds. The pervasive introgression of Thoroughbred stallions during the last 200 years to refine autochthonous breeds has strongly affected the distribution of Y-chromosomal variation in modern horse breeds and has led to the replacement of autochthonous Y chromosomes. Only a few northern European breeds bear unique variants at high frequencies or fixed within but not shared among breeds. Our Y-chromosomal data complement the well established mtDNA lineages and document the male side of the genetic history of modern horse breeds and breeding practices.

  12. Case-control analysis of paternal age and trisomic anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, E; Morris, J K

    2010-11-01

    To determine whether older paternal age increases the risk of fathering a pregnancy with Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), Klinefelter (XXY) or XYY syndrome. Case-control: cases with each of these syndromes were matched to four controls with Down syndrome from within the same congenital anomaly register and with maternal age within 6 months. Data from 22 EUROCAT congenital anomaly registers in 12 European countries. Diagnoses with observed or (for terminations) predicted year of birth from 1980 to 2005, comprising live births, fetal deaths with gestational age ≥ 20 weeks and terminations after prenatal diagnosis of the anomaly. Data include 374 cases of Patau syndrome, 929 of Edwards syndrome, 295 of Klinefelter syndrome, 28 of XYY syndrome and 5627 controls with Down syndrome. Odds ratio (OR) associated with a 10-year increase in paternal age for each anomaly was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results were adjusted to take account of the estimated association of paternal age with Down syndrome (1.11; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.23). The OR for Patau syndrome was 1.10 (95% CI 0.83 to 1.45); for Edwards syndrome, 1.15 (0.96 to 1.38); for Klinefelter syndrome, 1.35 (1.02 to 1.79); and for XYY syndrome, 1.99 (0.75 to 5.26). There was a statistically significant increase in the odds of Klinefelter syndrome with increasing paternal age. The larger positive associations of Klinefelter and XYY syndromes with paternal age compared with Patau and Edwards syndromes are consistent with the greater percentage of these sex chromosome anomalies being of paternal origin.

  13. Vaccine-induced protection of rhesus macaques against plasma viremia after intradermal infection with a European lineage 1 strain of West Nile virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babs E Verstrepen

    Full Text Available The mosquito-borne West Nile virus (WNV causes human and animal disease with outbreaks in several parts of the world including North America, the Mediterranean countries, Central and East Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Particularly in elderly people and individuals with an impaired immune system, infection with WNV can progress into a serious neuroinvasive disease. Currently, no treatment or vaccine is available to protect humans against infection or disease. The goal of this study was to develop a WNV-vaccine that is safe to use in these high-risk human target populations. We performed a vaccine efficacy study in non-human primates using the contemporary, pathogenic European WNV genotype 1a challenge strain, WNV-Ita09. Two vaccine strategies were evaluated in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta using recombinant soluble WNV envelope (E ectodomain adjuvanted with Matrix-M, either with or without DNA priming. The DNA priming immunization was performed with WNV-DermaVir nanoparticles. Both vaccination strategies successfully induced humoral and cellular immune responses that completely protected the macaques against the development of viremia. In addition, the vaccine was well tolerated by all animals. Overall, The WNV E protein adjuvanted with Matrix-M is a promising vaccine candidate for a non-infectious WNV vaccine for use in humans, including at-risk populations.

  14. Paternal effort related to experimentally manipulated paternity of male collared flycatchers

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, B. C.; Ellegren, H.

    1998-01-01

    The way that variation in paternity affects the optimal level of paternal effort has been a contentious issue, both in terms of theory and the empirical data needed to test competing theories. Clarification of the theoretical issues has led to the prediction that a reduction in paternal effort should only be expected when (i) there are substantial costs of paternal care and (ii) males have available some cue to their share of paternity in the current brood. Previous work on the collared flyca...

  15. Influence of achieved paternity on quality of life in testicular cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoehr, Brigitte; Schachtner, Lydia; Pichler, Renate; Holzner, Bernhard; Giesinger, Johannes; Oberguggenberger, Anne; Leonhartsberger, Nicolai; Horninger, Wolfgang; Steiner, Hannes

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the influence of achieved/non-achieved paternity on quality of life (QoL) in testicular cancer (TC) survivors. We invited TC survivors treated at our department between 1989 and 2006 to complete a QoL assessment, including the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL questionnaire, EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3.0©)/+ TC26, and follow-up questions. A total of 311 TC survivors answered the questionnaire, of whom 207 patients who did not desire paternity were excluded. The remaining 104 patients who stated a desire for paternity after TC treatment were further divided in group A (TC survivors who achieved paternity; n = 51) and group B (TC survivors who did not achieve paternity; n = 53). The data obtained were statistically analysed. Significant differences between groups regarding QoL were detected for social functioning (P = 0.002), emotional functioning (P = 0.001), general QoL (P = 0.018), fatigue (P = 0.025), pain (P = 0.01), sleeping problems (P = 0.024), treatment satisfaction (P = 0.039), financial aspects (P = 0.006), sexual problems (P = 0.017), body image problems (P paternity. Counselling patients early at diagnosis as well as using cryopreservation of semen in all potential patients before treatment (only excluding patients definitely claiming they do not wish to achieve paternity) should therefore be regarded as the standard of care. © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  16. ISFG: Recommendations on biostatistics in paternity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjertson, David W; Brenner, Charles H; Baur, Max P

    2007-01-01

    The Paternity Testing Commission (PTC) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics has taken up the task of establishing the biostatistical recommendations in accordance with the ISO 17025 standards and a previous set of ISFG recommendations specific to the genetic investigations in patern......The Paternity Testing Commission (PTC) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics has taken up the task of establishing the biostatistical recommendations in accordance with the ISO 17025 standards and a previous set of ISFG recommendations specific to the genetic investigations...... in paternity cases. In the initial set, the PTC recommended that biostatistical evaluations of paternity are based on a likelihood ratio principle - yielding the paternity index, PI. Here, we have made five supplementary biostatistical recommendations. The first recommendation clarifies and defines basic....../reconstruction and immigration cases), respectively. The fourth recommendation considers strategies regarding genetic evidence against paternity. The fifth recommendation covers necessary documentation, reporting details and assumptions underlying calculations. The PTC strongly suggests that these recommendations should...

  17. Why do cuckolded males provide paternal care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh S Griffin

    Full Text Available In most species, males do not abandon offspring or reduce paternal care when they are cuckolded by other males. This apparent lack of adjustment of paternal investment with the likelihood of paternity presents a potential challenge to our understanding of what drives selection for paternal care. In a comparative analysis across birds, fish, mammals, and insects we identify key factors that explain why cuckolded males in many species do not reduce paternal care. Specifically, we show that cuckolded males only reduce paternal investment if both the costs of caring are relatively high and there is a high risk of cuckoldry. Under these circumstances, selection is expected to favour males that reduce paternal effort in response to cuckoldry. In many species, however, these conditions are not satisfied and tolerant males have outcompeted males that abandon young.

  18. Why Do Cuckolded Males Provide Paternal Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ashleigh S.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.; Cornwallis, Charlie K.

    2013-01-01

    In most species, males do not abandon offspring or reduce paternal care when they are cuckolded by other males. This apparent lack of adjustment of paternal investment with the likelihood of paternity presents a potential challenge to our understanding of what drives selection for paternal care. In a comparative analysis across birds, fish, mammals, and insects we identify key factors that explain why cuckolded males in many species do not reduce paternal care. Specifically, we show that cuckolded males only reduce paternal investment if both the costs of caring are relatively high and there is a high risk of cuckoldry. Under these circumstances, selection is expected to favour males that reduce paternal effort in response to cuckoldry. In many species, however, these conditions are not satisfied and tolerant males have outcompeted males that abandon young. PMID:23555193

  19. Y chromosome haplogroup distribution in Indo-European speaking tribes of Gujarat, western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Priyanka; Aggarwal, Aastha; Mitra, Siuli; Italia, Yazdi M; Saraswathy, Kallur N; Chandrasekar, Adimoolam; Kshatriya, Gautam K

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out in the Indo-European speaking tribal population groups of Southern Gujarat, India to investigate and reconstruct their paternal population structure and population histories. The role of language, ethnicity and geography in determining the observed pattern of Y haplogroup clustering in the study populations was also examined. A set of 48 bi-allelic markers on the non-recombining region of Y chromosome (NRY) were analysed in 284 males; representing nine Indo-European speaking tribal populations. The genetic structure of the populations revealed that none of these groups was overtly admixed or completely isolated. However, elevated haplogroup diversity and FST value point towards greater diversity and differentiation which suggests the possibility of early demographic expansion of the study groups. The phylogenetic analysis revealed 13 paternal lineages, of which six haplogroups: C5, H1a*, H2, J2, R1a1* and R2 accounted for a major portion of the Y chromosome diversity. The higher frequency of the six haplogroups and the pattern of clustering in the populations indicated overlapping of haplogroups with West and Central Asian populations. Other analyses undertaken on the population affiliations revealed that the Indo-European speaking populations along with the Dravidian speaking groups of southern India have an influence on the tribal groups of Gujarat. The vital role of geography in determining the distribution of Y lineages was also noticed. This implies that although language plays a vital role in determining the distribution of Y lineages, the present day linguistic affiliation of any population in India for reconstructing the demographic history of the country should be considered with caution.

  20. Colony size is linked to paternity frequency and paternity skew in yellowjacket wasps and hornets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Kevin J; Chien, Chun; Juhl, Michael

    2014-12-30

    The puzzle of the selective benefits of multiple mating and multiple paternity in social insects has been a major focus of research in evolutionary biology. We examine paternity in a clade of social insects, the vespine wasps (the yellowjackets and hornets), which contains species with high multiple paternity as well as species with single paternity. This group is particularly useful for comparative analyses given the wide interspecific variation in paternity traits despite similar sociobiology and ecology of the species in the genera Vespula, Dolichovespula and Vespa. We describe the paternity of 5 species of yellowjackets (Vespula spp.) and we perform a phylogenetically controlled comparative analysis of relatedness, paternity frequency, paternity skew, colony size, and nest site across 22 vespine taxa. We found moderate multiple paternity in four small-colony Vespula rufa-group species (effective paternity 1.5 - 2.1), and higher multiple paternity in the large-colony Vespula flavopilosa (effective paternity ~3.1). Our comparative analysis shows that colony size, but not nest site, predicts average intracolony relatedness. Underlying this pattern, we found that greater colony size is associated with both higher paternity frequency and reduced paternity skew. Our results support hypotheses focusing on the enhancement of genetic diversity in species with large colonies, and run counter to the hypothesis that multiple paternity is adaptively maintained due to sperm limitation associated with large colonies. We confirm the patterns observed in taxonomically widespread analyses by comparing closely related species of wasps with similar ecology, behavior and social organization. The vespine wasps may be a useful group for experimental investigation of the benefits of multiple paternity in the future.

  1. The unexpected but understandable dynamics of mating, paternity and paternal care in the ocellated wrasse

    OpenAIRE

    Alonzo, Suzanne H.; Heckman, Kellie L.

    2009-01-01

    Although theory generally predicts that males should reduce paternal care in response to cues that predict increased sperm competition and decreased paternity, empirical patterns are equivocal. Some studies have found the predicted decrease in male care with increased sperm competition, while even more studies report no effect of paternity or sperm competition on male care. Here, we report the first example, to our knowledge, of paternal care increasing with the risk and intensity of sperm co...

  2. Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-10-01

    Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species— Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)—and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

  3. Myocardial Lineage Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sylvia M.; Yelon, Deborah; Conlon, Frank L.; Kirby, Margaret L.

    2010-01-01

    The myocardium of the heart is composed of multiple highly specialized myocardial lineages, including those of the ventricular and atrial myocardium, and the specialized conduction system. Specification and maturation of each of these lineages during heart development is a highly ordered, ongoing process involving multiple signaling pathways and their intersection with transcriptional regulatory networks. Here, we attempt to summarize and compare much of what we know about specification and maturation of myocardial lineages from studies in several different vertebrate model systems. To date, most research has focused on early specification, and while there is still more to learn, less is known about factors that promote subsequent maturation of myocardial lineages required to build the functioning adult heart. PMID:21148449

  4. Ethical aspects of paternal preconception lifestyle modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zee, Boukje; de Wert, Guido; Steegers, Eric A; de Beaufort, Inez D

    2013-07-01

    This Clinical Opinion points to a potential conflict between the scarcity of evidence on paternal preconception risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and the view that preconception care should be also directed at men. We argue that from an ethical perspective, responsible fatherhood starts already before conception, as long as the evidence increases on the benefits of paternal preconception lifestyle (modification). Our explorative study suggests that the strength of the evidence for paternal preconception lifestyle modification is important for men. We argue that 5 aspects together determine the moral responsibility of prospective fathers to modify their behavior: the strength of the evidence of the risk factor, the modifiability of the risk, the efforts necessary to eliminate or diminish the risk factor, the severity of harm, and the probability that harm will occur and that it will be prevented by modifying the risk factor. The case of paternal preconception smoking illustrates the analysis. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Drugs to awaken a paternal gene

    OpenAIRE

    Beaudet, Arthur L.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the maternal copy of the UBE3A gene cause a neurodevelopmental disorder known as Angelman syndrome. Drugs that activate the normally silenced paternal copy of this gene may be of therapeutic value.

  6. The Influence of Paternal Separation, Paternal History of Alcohol Use Disorder Risk, and Early Substance Use on Offspring Educational Attainment by Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Brooke E; Grant, Julia D; Duncan, Alexis E; Sartor, Carolyn E; Waldron, Mary; Heath, Andrew C; Bucholz, Kathleen K

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the associations among paternal alcohol problems, separation, and educational attainment in European American and African American offspring and whether offspring early alcohol/tobacco/marijuana use influenced these associations. Families with offspring ages 13-19 years at intake were selected from state birth records and screened by telephone to determine high-risk or low-risk status (with/without paternal heavy drinking). Families of men with two or more driving-under-the-influence offenses were added as a very-high-risk group. Data from 340 African American and 288 European American offspring who were not enrolled in school at their last interview were analyzed. Educational attainment was modeled as less than high school, high school only (reference category), and some college or higher. Separation was defined as offspring report of not having lived continuously in the same household with their biological father from birth to age 14. Analyses were stratified by race. In European Americans, neither family risk status nor early alcohol/tobacco/marijuana use was associated with educational outcomes. However, paternal separation significantly elevated the likelihood of not completing high school in all models (relative risk ratios [RRRs] = 6.0-8.1, p education in an adjusted model (RRR = 0.4, p education in African American offspring only, suggesting that research with ethnically diverse samples yields important differences when examining outcomes of both separation and substance use on offspring education.

  7. Paternal Age Alters Social Development in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Magdalena; Haworth, Claire M A; Ronald, Angelica; Krapohl, Eva; Happé, Francesca; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Cathy; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rijsdijk, Frühling

    2017-05-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been linked with autism and schizophrenia in offspring, neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social functioning. The current study explored the effects of paternal age on social development in the general population. We used multilevel growth modeling to investigate APA effects on socioemotional development from early childhood until adolescence, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) sample. We also investigated genetic and environmental underpinnings of the paternal age effects on development, using the Additive genetics, Common environment, unique Environment (ACE) and gene-environment (GxE) models. In the general population, both very young and advanced paternal ages were associated with altered trajectory of social development (intercept: p = .01; slope: p = .03). No other behavioral domain was affected by either young or advanced age at fatherhood, suggesting specificity of paternal age effects. Increased importance of genetic factors in social development was recorded in the offspring of older but not very young fathers, suggesting distinct underpinnings of the paternal age effects at these two extremes. Our findings highlight that the APA-related deficits that lead to autism and schizophrenia are likely continuously distributed in the population. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple paternity in reptiles: patterns and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uller, Tobias; Olsson, Mats

    2008-06-01

    The evolution of female promiscuity poses an intriguing problem as benefits of mating with multiple males often have to arise via indirect, genetic, effects. Studies on birds have documented that multiple paternity is common in natural populations but strong evidence for selection via female benefits is lacking. In an attempt to evaluate the evidence more broadly, we review studies of multiple paternity in natural populations of all major groups of nonavian reptiles. Multiple paternity has been documented in all species investigated so far and commonly exists in over 50% of clutches, with particularly high levels in snakes and lizards. Marine turtles and lizards with prolonged pair-bonding have relatively low levels of multiple paternity but levels are nevertheless higher than in many vertebrates with parental care. There is no evidence that high levels of polyandry are driven by direct benefits to females and the evidence that multiple paternity arises from indirect genetic benefits is weak. Instead, we argue that the most parsimonious explanation for patterns of multiple paternity is that it represents the combined effect of mate-encounter frequency and conflict over mating rates between males and females driven by large male benefits and relatively small female costs, with only weak selection via indirect benefits. A crucial step for researchers is to move from correlative approaches to experimental tests of assumptions and predictions of theory under natural settings, using a combination of molecular techniques and behavioural observations.

  9. The unexpected but understandable dynamics of mating, paternity and paternal care in the ocellated wrasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Suzanne H; Heckman, Kellie L

    2010-01-07

    Although theory generally predicts that males should reduce paternal care in response to cues that predict increased sperm competition and decreased paternity, empirical patterns are equivocal. Some studies have found the predicted decrease in male care with increased sperm competition, while even more studies report no effect of paternity or sperm competition on male care. Here, we report the first example, to our knowledge, of paternal care increasing with the risk and intensity of sperm competition, in the ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus). Theory also predicts that if paternal care varies and is important to female fitness, female choice among males and male indicators traits of expected paternal care should evolve. Despite a non-random distribution of mating success among nests, we found no evidence for female choice among parental males. Finally, we document the highest published levels of extra-pair paternity for a species with exclusive and obligate male care: genetic paternity analyses revealed cuckoldry at 100 per cent of nests and 28 per cent of all offspring were not sired by the male caring for them. While not predicted by any existing theory, these unexpected reproductive patterns become understandable if we consider how male and female mating and parental care interact simultaneously in this and probably many other species.

  10. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (birth order and the Flynn effect.

  11. Paternal long-term exercise programs offspring for low energy expenditure and increased risk for obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, Alexander K; Pak, Elena S; Koury, Michael; Ajmera, Ajay; Jeyakumar, Maneesh; Parker, Matthew; Williams, Oksana; Ding, Jian; Walters, Dianne; Neufer, P Darrell

    2016-02-01

    Obesity has more than doubled in children and tripled in adolescents in the past 30 yr. The association between metabolic disorders in offspring of obese mothers with diabetes has long been known; however, a growing body of research indicates that fathers play a significant role through presently unknown mechanisms. Recent observations have shown that changes in paternal diet may result in transgenerational inheritance of the insulin-resistant phenotype. Although diet-induced epigenetic reprogramming via paternal lineage has recently received much attention in the literature, the effect of paternal physical activity on offspring metabolism has not been adequately addressed. In the current study, we investigated the effects of long-term voluntary wheel-running in C57BL/6J male mice on their offspring's predisposition to insulin resistance. Our observations revealed that fathers subjected to wheel-running for 12 wk produced offspring that were more susceptible to the adverse effects of a high-fat diet, manifested in increased body weight and adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance, and elevated insulin levels. Long-term paternal exercise also altered expression of several metabolic genes, including Ogt, Oga, Pdk4, H19, Glut4, and Ptpn1, in offspring skeletal muscle. Finally, prolonged exercise affected gene methylation patterns and micro-RNA content in the sperm of fathers, providing a potential mechanism for the transgenerational inheritance. These findings suggest that paternal exercise produces offspring with a thrifty phenotype, potentially via miRNA-induced modification of sperm. © FASEB.

  12. The paternal gene of the DDK syndrome maps to the Schlafen gene cluster on mouse chromosome 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Timothy A; de la Casa-Esperón, Elena; Doherty, Heather E; Ideraabdullah, Folami; Kim, Kuikwon; Wang, Yunfei; Lange, Leslie A; Wilhemsen, Kirk; Lange, Ethan M; Sapienza, Carmen; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The DDK syndrome is an early embryonic lethal phenotype observed in crosses between females of the DDK inbred mouse strain and many non-DDK males. Lethality results from an incompatibility between a maternal DDK factor and a non-DDK paternal gene, both of which have been mapped to the Ovum mutant (Om) locus on mouse chromosome 11. Here we define a 465-kb candidate interval for the paternal gene by recombinant progeny testing. To further refine the candidate interval we determined whether males from 17 classical and wild-derived inbred strains are interfertile with DDK females. We conclude that the incompatible paternal allele arose in the Mus musculus domesticus lineage and that incompatible strains should share a common haplotype spanning the paternal gene. We tested for association between paternal allele compatibility/incompatibility and 167 genetic variants located in the candidate interval. Two diallelic SNPs, located in the Schlafen gene cluster, are completely predictive of the polar-lethal phenotype. These SNPs also predict the compatible or incompatible status of males of five additional strains.

  13. Origin and history of mitochondrial DNA lineages in domestic horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cieslak

    Full Text Available Domestic horses represent a genetic paradox: although they have the greatest number of maternal lineages (mtDNA of all domestic species, their paternal lineages are extremely homogeneous on the Y-chromosome. In order to address their huge mtDNA variation and the origin and history of maternal lineages in domestic horses, we analyzed 1961 partial d-loop sequences from 207 ancient remains and 1754 modern horses. The sample set ranged from Alaska and North East Siberia to the Iberian Peninsula and from the Late Pleistocene to modern times. We found a panmictic Late Pleistocene horse population ranging from Alaska to the Pyrenees. Later, during the Early Holocene and the Copper Age, more or less separated sub-populations are indicated for the Eurasian steppe region and Iberia. Our data suggest multiple domestications and introgressions of females especially during the Iron Age. Although all Eurasian regions contributed to the genetic pedigree of modern breeds, most haplotypes had their roots in Eastern Europe and Siberia. We found 87 ancient haplotypes (Pleistocene to Mediaeval Times; 56 of these haplotypes were also observed in domestic horses, although thus far only 39 haplotypes have been confirmed to survive in modern breeds. Thus, at least seventeen haplotypes of early domestic horses have become extinct during the last 5,500 years. It is concluded that the large diversity of mtDNA lineages is not a product of animal breeding but, in fact, represents ancestral variability.

  14. Sperm competition games when males invest in paternal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Gustavo S; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2017-08-16

    Sperm competition games investigate how males partition limited resources between pre- and post-copulatory competition. Although extensive research has explored how various aspects of mating systems affect this allocation, male allocation between mating, fertilization and parental effort has not previously been considered. Yet, paternal care can be energetically expensive and males are generally predicted to adjust their parental effort in response to expected paternity. Here, we incorporate parental effort into sperm competition games, particularly exploring how the relationship between paternal care and offspring survival affects sperm competition and the relationship between paternity and paternal care. Our results support existing expectations that (i) fertilization effort should increase with female promiscuity and (ii) paternal care should increase with expected paternity. However, our analyses also reveal that the cost of male care can drive the strength of these patterns. When paternal behaviour is energetically costly, increased allocation to parental effort constrains allocation to fertilization effort. As paternal care becomes less costly, the association between paternity and paternal care weakens and may even be absent. By explicitly considering variation in sperm competition and the cost of male care, our model provides an integrative framework for predicting the interaction between paternal care and patterns of paternity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Handgrip Strength: Indications of Paternal Inheritance in Three European Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cournil, Amandine; Jeune, Bernard; Skytthe, Axel

    2010-01-01

    .29 to 0.16 for mother-daughter correlation versus r = .31; CI: 0.11-0.49 for father-daughter; p = .01) compared with sons (r = .12; CI: -0.13 to 0.36 for mother-son correlation versus r = .25; CI: 0.00-0.46 for father-son; p = .47). Father-daughter correlation remained higher than mother-daughter when...... weakly correlated (r = .16; p daughters (r = -.07; CI: -0...

  16. Medical paternalism in House M.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicclair, M R

    2008-12-01

    The popular television series House M.D. is drawn upon to provide a critical examination of medical paternalism and how it is presented in the show. Dr Gregory House, the character named in the title of the series, is a paradigm of a paternalistic physician. He believes that he knows what is best for his patients, and he repeatedly disregards their wishes in order to diagnose and treat their illnesses. This paper examines several examples of medical paternalism and the means used to portray it favourably in the series. It is argued that the positive depiction of medical paternalism in the fictional world of the series does not apply in the real world. The paper also considers why a show that features a paternalistic physician who so blatantly flouts mainstream medical ethics might appeal to health professionals and members of the general public.

  17. Paternal exposure to methotrexate and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghin, Delphine; Cournot, Marie-Pierre; Vauzelle, Catherine; Elefant, Elisabeth

    2011-04-01

    To assess the risk of major malformation in the case of paternal exposure to methotrexate (MTX) at the time of conception. Using prospective data of our Teratology Information Service, we analyzed outcomes of paternal MTX exposure at the time of conception or up to 3 months before conception. We report on the outcomes of 42 pregnancies involving 40 men treated with MTX at the time of conception. Twenty-three men were treated for an inflammatory disease (54.8%), 9 for psoriasis (21.4%), and 8 for a malignant disease (19.0%). Weekly dosages varied between 7.5 mg and 30 mg. The pregnancies resulted in 36 live births, 3 spontaneous abortions, and 3 voluntary abortions. No congenital malformation was observed at birth. Based on our results and case reports in literature, paternal MTX exposure at the time of conception does not seem to raise any major concern for offspring.

  18. Effects of a Paternal Participation Program during Cesarean Section on Paternal Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kyoung Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeIn this study effects of a paternal participation program during cesarean section on paternal infant attachment were investigate. The experimental treatment was an integrative nursing intervention to promote father to infant attachment.MethodsStudy design was a non-equivalent control group posttest design. The program consisted of emotional support to spouse and father towards infant attachment immediately following cesarean birth. Participants were 66 men, partners of women with normal full term pregnancy having a cesarean section with spinal or epidural anesthesia, (experimental group, 34; control group, 32. The experiment was carried out from August 1 to October 30, 2010. Control group data were obtained from May 1 to June 30, 2012. Posttest was performed 72 hours after cesarean birth. A self-report questionnaire including a paternal attachment instrument was used. Data were analyzed using t-test, propensity score matching, and analysis of covariance with the SPSS/WIN 18.0 program.ResultsTotal score for paternal infant attachment in the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group (p<.001. After matching, significant differences were found between the two groups through all subcategories. Adjusted mean score for paternal infant attachment verified experimental effects.ConclusionResults indicate that this paternal participation program during cesarean section is effective in improving paternal infant attachment.

  19. The Definition of Nudge and Libertarian Paternalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2016-01-01

    approach to behaviour change relates to libertarian paternalism. This paper sets out to improve the clarity and value of the definition of nudge by reconciling it with its theoretical foundations in behavioural economics. In doing so it not only explicates the relationship between nudges and libertarian...... paternalism, but also clarifies how nudges relate to incentives and information, and may even be consistent with the removal of certain types of choices. In the end we are left with a revised definition of the concept of nudge that allows for consistently categorising behaviour change interventions...

  20. Paternal Age: How Does It Affect a Baby?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... associated with a slightly higher risk of miscarriage. Autism. Research shows a link between advanced paternal age and ... advanced maternal and paternal ages to autism risk. Autism Research. 2010;3:30. McAninch JW, et al. The ...

  1. Is advanced paternal age a health risk for the offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Urhoj, Stine Kjaer

    2017-01-01

    consistently associated with increased paternal age are stillbirths, musculo-skeletal syndromes, cleft palate, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and retinoblastoma, and neurodevelopmental disorders in the autism spectrum and schizophrenia. Finally, we consider the public health impact of the increasing paternal age...

  2. Paternal Antisocial Behavior (But Not Paternal ADHD) Is Associated With Negative Parenting and Child Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoine, Kaitlyn A; Romirowsky, Abigail M; Woods, Kelsey E; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2015-09-23

    Parental psychopathology and parenting quality robustly predict negative outcomes among children with ADHD. Little research has investigated associations between paternal ADHD symptoms and parenting, though there is clear evidence linking maternal ADHD symptoms with both suboptimal parenting and child conduct problems, and considerable research supporting fathers' significant contributions to their children's development. This cross-sectional study examined psychopathology and parenting in a sample of fathers (N = 102) and their 5- to 12-year-old children with previously diagnosed ADHD. Results suggested that paternal antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) symptoms (rather than ADHD symptoms) were robustly associated with child conduct problems, with an indirect effect through paternal negative parenting. This study suggests that negative parenting may be a potential mechanism by which paternal ASPD is associated with child conduct problems, and demonstrates the importance of considering co-occurring psychopathology in research examining adult ADHD, parenting, and child outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Paternity Testing Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics: recommendations on genetic investigations in paternity cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels; Allen, Robert W; Carracedo, Angel

    2002-01-01

    The International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) has established a Paternity Testing Commission (PTC) with the purpose of formulating international recommendations concerning genetic investigations in paternity testing. The PTC recommends that paternity testing be performed in accordance...... with the ISO 17025 standards. The ISO 17025 standards are general standards for testing laboratories and the PTC offers explanations and recommendations concerning selected areas of special importance to paternity testing....

  4. Advancing Paternal Age and Simplex Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puleo, Connor Morrow; Schmeidler, James; Reichenberg, Abraham; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha V.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    De novo events appear more common in female and simplex autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases and may underlie greater ASD risk in older fathers' offspring. This study examined whether advancing paternal age predicts an increase in simplex (n = 90) versus multiplex ASD cases (n = 587) in 677 participants (340 families). Whether or not controlling…

  5. Paternal age and telomere length in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Mangino, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    . Based on two independent (discovery and replication) twin studies, comprising 889 twin pairs, we show an increase in the resemblance of leukocyte telomere length between dizygotic twins of older fathers, which is not seen in monozygotic twins. This phenomenon might result from a paternal age...

  6. Paternal age and telomere length in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Mangino, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length, a highly heritable trait, is longer in offspring of older fathers. This perplexing feature has been attributed to the longer telomeres in sperm of older men and it might be an 'epigenetic' mechanism through which paternal age plays a role in telomere length regulation in humans...

  7. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  8. Experimentally reduced paternity affects paternal effort and reproductive success in pied flycatchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifjeld; Slagsvold; Ellegren

    1998-02-01

    The question of whether, and how, male birds should change their parental effort in response to reduced paternity is a controversial issue among behavioural ecologists. We report a study on pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca, in which paternity was manipulated through experimentally induced mate switching during the female's fertile period. The paternity of care-giving males ranged from 0 to 100% of the brood. The number of parental males per nest varied between zero and two, and the amount of male assistance in nestling provisioning had a marked effect on female reproductive success. For 17 monogamous males, provisioning effort and the body mass of nestlings on day 12 were reduced at low levels of paternity. However, the shape of the effort function was not unambiguously determined. Male provisioning effort showed a curvilinear decline, whereas nestling body mass showed a linear decline. Two important assumptions of the theory of optimal parental effort seem to be fulfilled in this case: that males had reliable cues to their paternity, and that paternity is likely to be increased in future (normal) breeding attempts. The fact that males reduced their effort at the expense of the welfare of the offspring suggests that there are significant costs of parental care in this species. Whether a similar response to cuckoldry occurs in unmanipulated breeding situations remains to be studied.Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  9. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben C Arslan

    Full Text Available Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect.

  10. Cryptic species? Patterns of maternal and paternal gene flow in eight neotropical bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L Clare

    Full Text Available Levels of sequence divergence at mitochondrial loci are frequently used in phylogeographic analysis and species delimitation though single marker systems cannot assess bi-parental gene flow. In this investigation I compare the phylogeographic patterns revealed through the maternally inherited mitochondrial COI region and the paternally inherited 7(th intron region of the Dby gene on the Y-chromosome in eight common Neotropical bat species. These species are diverse and include members of two families from the feeding guilds of sanguivores, nectarivores, frugivores, carnivores and insectivores. In each case, the currently recognized taxon is comprised of distinct, substantially divergent intraspecific mitochondrial lineages suggesting cryptic species complexes. In Chrotopterus auritus, and Saccopteryx bilineata I observed congruent patterns of divergence in both genetic regions suggesting a cessation of gene flow between intraspecific groups. This evidence supports the existence of cryptic species complexes which meet the criteria of the genetic species concept. In Glossophaga soricina two intraspecific groups with largely sympatric South American ranges show evidence for incomplete lineage sorting or frequent hybridization while a third group with a Central American distribution appears to diverge congruently at both loci suggesting speciation. Within Desmodus rotundus and Trachops cirrhosus the paternally inherited region was monomorphic and thus does not support or refute the potential for cryptic speciation. In Uroderma bilobatum, Micronycteris megalotis and Platyrrhinus helleri the gene regions show conflicting patterns of divergence and I cannot exclude ongoing gene flow between intraspecific groups. This analysis provides a comprehensive comparison across taxa and employs both maternally and paternally inherited gene regions to validate patterns of gene flow. I present evidence for previously unrecognized species meeting the criteria of

  11. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  12. Certainty of paternity and paternal investment in eastern bluebirds and tree swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempenaers, Bart; Lanctot, Richard B.; Robertson, Raleigh J.

    1998-01-01

    Extra-pair paternity is common in many socially monogamous passerine birds with biparental care. Thus, males often invest in offspring to which they are not related. Models of optimal parental investment predict that, under certain assumptions, males should lower their investment in response to reduced certainty of paternity. We attempted to reduce certainty of paternity experimentally in two species, the eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis, and the tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, by temporarily removing fertile females on two mornings during egg laying. In both species, experimental males usually attempted to copulate with the female immediately after her reappearance, suggesting that they experienced the absence of their mate as a threat to their paternity. Experimental males copulated at a significantly higher rate than control males. However, contrary to the prediction of the model, experimental males did not invest less than control males in their offspring. There was no difference between experimental and control nests in the proportion of male feeds, male and female feeding rates, nestling growth and nestling condition and size at age 14 days. We argue that females might have restored the males’ confidence in paternity after the experiment by soliciting or accepting copulations. Alternatively, males may not reduce their effort, because the fitness costs to their own offspring may outweigh the benefits for the males, at least in populations where females cannot fully compensate for reduced male investment.

  13. Certainty of paternity and paternal investment in eastern bluebirds and tree swallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempenaers; Lanctot; Robertson

    1998-04-01

    Extra-pair paternity is common in many socially monogamous passerine birds with biparental care. Thus, males often invest in offspring to which they are not related. Models of optimal parental investment predict that, under certain assumptions, males should lower their investment in response to reduced certainty of paternity. We attempted to reduce certainty of paternity experimentally in two species, the eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis, and the tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, by temporarily removing fertile females on two mornings during egg laying. In both species, experimental males usually attempted to copulate with the female immediately after her reappearance, suggesting that they experienced the absence of their mate as a threat to their paternity. Experimental males copulated at a significantly higher rate than control males. However, contrary to the prediction of the model, experimental males did not invest less than control males in their offspring. There was no difference between experimental and control nests in the proportion of male feeds, male and female feeding rates, nestling growth and nestling condition and size at age 14 days. We argue that females might have restored the males' confidence in paternity after the experiment by soliciting or accepting copulations. Alternatively, males may not reduce their effort, because the fitness costs to their own offspring may outweigh the benefits for the males, at least in populations where females cannot fully compensate for reduced male investment. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  14. Religion as a means to assure paternity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmann, Beverly I.; Kurapati, Nikhil T.; Hug, Brendan F.; Burke, Erin E.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father–son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy. PMID:22665788

  15. Paternal age and risk for cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Revital; Santolaya-Forgas, Joaquin; Canterino, Joseph C; Oyelese, Yinka; Ananth, Cande V

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether advanced paternal age is associated with increased risk for cesarean delivery. We used the 1990-2002 US linked live birth and infant death data files restricted to primiparous Caucasian and African-American women that delivered a singleton birth at ≥20 week's gestation (12.5 million). We examined temporal trends and risk ratios of cesarean birth in relation to paternal age before and after adjustments for known confounders. Among Caucasians, the cesarean delivery rates were 21.1%, 26.7% and 31.8% in fathers aged 20-29, 30-39 and ≥40 years, respectively. Among African-Americans, the corresponding rates were 24.1%, 33.2%, and 38.1%, respectively. These increased cesarean delivery rates persisted in analyses stratified by maternal age before and after adjustment for a variety of confounders. These findings suggest that increasing paternal age may be associated with an increased risk for cesarean delivery in primiparous women.

  16. Paternity acknowledgment in 2 million birth records from Michigan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Almond

    Full Text Available Out-of-wedlock childbearing is more common in the U.S. than in other countries and becoming more so. A growing share of such non-marital births identify the father, which can create a legal entitlement to child support. Relatively little is known about individual determinants of the decision to establish paternity, in part because of data limitations. In this paper, we evaluate all birth records in Michigan from 1993 to 2006, which have been merged to the paternity registry. In 2006, 30,231 Michigan children, almost one quarter of all Michigan births, were born to unmarried mothers and had paternity acknowledged. We find that births with paternity acknowledged have worse outcomes along various health and socio-economic dimensions relative to births to married parents, but better outcomes relative to births to unmarried parents without paternity acknowledgement. Furthermore, unmarried men who father sons are significantly more likely to acknowledge paternity than fathers of daughters.

  17. A defence of medical paternalism: maximising patients' autonomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Komrad, M S

    1983-01-01

    All illness represents a state of diminished autonomy and therefore the doctor-patient relationship necessarily and justifiably involves a degree of medical paternalism argues the author, an American medical student. In a broad-ranging paper he discusses the concepts of autonomy and paternalism in the context of the doctor-patient relationship. Given the necessary diminution of autonomy which illness inflicts, a limited form of medical paternalism, aimed at restoring or maximising the patient...

  18. Male age mediates reproductive investment and response to paternity assurance

    OpenAIRE

    Benowitz, Kyle M.; Head, Megan L.; Williams, Camellia A.; Moore, Allen J; Royle, Nick J

    2013-01-01

    Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age, a co...

  19. Malware Lineage in the Wild

    OpenAIRE

    Haq, Irfan Ul; Chica, Sergio; Caballero, Juan; Jha, Somesh

    2017-01-01

    Malware lineage studies the evolutionary relationships among malware and has important applications for malware analysis. A persistent limitation of prior malware lineage approaches is to consider every input sample a separate malware version. This is problematic since a majority of malware are packed and the packing process produces many polymorphic variants (i.e., executables with different file hash) of the same malware version. Thus, many samples correspond to the same malware version and...

  20. [Influence of paternal age in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, A; Szöke, A; Leboyer, M; Schürhoff, F

    2011-06-01

    Schizophrenia is an aetiologically heterogeneous syndrome, with a strong genetic component. Despite a reduced fertility in this disorder, its prevalence is maintained and could be explained by de novo genetic mutations. Advanced paternal age (APA) is a major source of new mutations in human beings and could thus be associated with an increased risk of developing schizophrenia in offspring. New mutations related to APA have been implicated as a cause of sporadic cases in several autosomal dominant diseases and also in neurodevelopmental diseases, autism, intellectual disabilities, and social functioning. The aim of the present study was to summarize the results of studies investigating the role of APA, and to discuss some interpretations. All relevant studies were identified through the National Library of Medicine (PubMed(®) database). Keywords used for research were "age" and "schizophrenia" linked to "paternal or father". We have identified and analysed eight cohort studies, five case-control studies, two meta-analyses, and one review concerning different father's mutations potentially transmitted, two studies comparing paternal age at conception between sporadic versus familial cases of schizophrenia. All studies selected have been published between 2000 and 2009. After controlling for several confounding factors including maternal age, the relative risk of schizophrenia increased from 1.84 to 4.62 in offspring of fathers with an older age of fatherhood. Mother's age showed no significant effects after adjusting for paternal age. There was a significant association between paternal age and risk of developing schizophrenia, there was a weaker association with psychosis. The results of these different studies are confirmed by two recent meta-analyses which found an increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring of fathers older than 35 years. Two main hypotheses could explain these results. The first one is based on the presence of new mutations in the

  1. Female-directed aggression predicts paternal behavior, but female prairie voles prefer affiliative males to paternal males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophir, Alexander G; Crino, Ondi L; Wilkerson, Quiana C; Wolff, Jerry O; Phelps, Steven M

    2008-01-01

    In the socially monogamous prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, male affiliation and parental care are influenced by the neuropeptide arginine vasopressin and expression of its receptor V1aR. If parental care and adult affiliation can be considered a behavioral syndrome, females might use male affiliative behavior as a cue to choose a good father. We investigated three questions: (1) do females prefer affiliative males; (2) do males that are affiliative with females demonstrate paternal behavior with pups; and (3) is male V1aR expression related to male behavior or female preference? We evaluated paternal behavior of individual males, then offered sexually receptive females a choice between paternal and non-paternal males and measured the proportion of time each male spent engaging in affiliative behavior with the choosing female. Females showed a preference for more affiliative males, but affiliation was not predictive of paternal care. Thus females did not discriminate between paternal and non-paternal males. Perhaps surprisingly, paternal behavior was correlated with the relative amount of aggression males directed toward females. Finally, females did not discriminate between males with high or low V1aR expression and V1aR expression did not predict male affiliative behavior or parental care. These data suggest that male affiliative behavior, but not paternal care, is associated with female mate choice. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Paternalism, Public Health Ethics, and Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Søren Flinch

    2015-01-01

    ) A does so in B’s interest; (d) A’s behavior cannot be justified without counting its beneficial effects to B in its favor. According to this conception, when the government informs citizens of the danger involved in certain types of health-related conduct, it is not acting paternalistically. However...... of the problem of paternalism than their proponents are inclined to think. More familiar measures aiming to make the health-endangering behavior more expensive and/or difficult or outright prohibiting it stand a good chance of reducing inequalities, whilst not being more controversial than nudging policies...

  3. Random roots and lineage sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A; Payne, Ansel; DeSalle, Rob

    2012-07-01

    Lineage sorting has been suggested as a major force in generating incongruent phylogenetic signal when multiple gene partitions are examined. The degree of lineage sorting can be estimated using the coalescent process and simulation studies have also pointed to a major role for incomplete lineage sorting as a factor in phylogenetic inference. Some recent empirical studies point to an extreme role for this phenomenon with up to 50-60% of all informative genes showing incongruence as a result of lineage sorting. Here, we examine seven large multi-partition genome level data sets over a large range of taxonomic representation. We took the approach of examining outgroup choice and its impact on tree topology, by swapping outgroups into analyses with successively larger genetics distances to the ingroup. Our results indicate a linear relationship of outgroup distance with incongruence in the data sets we examined suggesting a strong random rooting effect. In addition, we attempted to estimate the degree of lineage sorting in several large genome level data sets by examining triads of very closely related taxa. This exercise resulted in much lower estimates of incongruent genes that could be the result of lineage sorting, with an overall estimate of around 10% of the total number of genes in a genome showing incongruence as a result of true lineage sorting. Finally we examined the behavior of likelihood and parsimony approaches on the random rooting phenomenon. Likelihood tends to stabilize incongruence as outgroups get further and further away from the ingroup. In one extreme case, likelihood overcompensates for sequence divergence but increases random rooting causing long branch repulsion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fertility assurance through extrapair fertilizations and male paternity defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Michael A; Stone, Lewi; Lotem, Arnon

    2003-03-07

    Extrapair paternity has been observed in many formally monogamous species. Male pursuit of extrapair fertilizations is explained by the advantages of having offspring that receive essential paternal care from other males. Since females are capable of exercising a degree of control over the post-copulatory sperm competition, extrapair paternity cannot persist unless it confers fitness benefits on cuckolding females. Thus, extrapair paternity involves cooperation between mated females and extrapair males. On the other hand, paired males frequently exhibit strategies that minimize their loss of paternity and/or conserve paternal investment if paternity is lost. Hence, extrapair attributes of diverse species and populations reported in the literature are particular solutions of evolutionary games involving gender-specific cuckolding/anti-cuckolding strategies. Here we use methods of evolutionary game theory to study the role of male paternity guarding strategies in situations where females seek extrapair fertilizations for reasons of genetic compatibility and/or in pursuit of genetic diversity for their offspring. Our results indicate that in these circumstances pursuit of extrapair fertilizations is the only evolutionary stable female strategy. Males, on the other hand, have two, mutually exclusive, evolutionary stable strategies: full time pursuit of extrapair fertilizations and a compromise strategy wherein they protect in-pair paternity during their mate's fertile periods and pursue extrapair paternity the rest of the time. The relative merits of these two strategies are determined by the efficiency of male in-pair paternity defense, breeding synchrony, fitness advantages of extrapair over in-pair offspring, and the intensity of competition for extrapair fertilizations from floater males.

  5. Paternal and sibling incest: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celbis, Osman; Ozcan, M Erkan; Ozdemir, Bora

    2006-01-01

    A case is reported of a female victim of paternal incest, who had also been raped repeatedly by her elder brother for two years. A survey of the literature showed no other report of such a case from Turkey. This does not necessarily mean that the incidence of paternal and sibling incest does not happen, but may indicate that incestuous abuse is not reported or handled without making it known to legal authorities. The victim was first raped by her 16 year-old brother when she was 9 years old. He raped her repeatedly over a period of two years, until he left home. Her father began raping the victim when she was 13 year-old, leaving her pregnant at age 15. He took her to a doctor for a termination of pregnancy. The father continued abuse after the termination. The victim left home to marry a man. The father filed a lawsuit against the man for taking the victim away from home. More openness and awareness of incest in Turkey may encourage the victims to seek help from medical and legal authorities.

  6. SCHIZOPHRENIA AND BIRTHPLACE OF PATERNAL AND MATERNAL GRANDFATHER IN THE JERUSALEM PERINATAL COHORT PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlap, S; Perrin, M C; Deutsch, L; Kleinhaus, K; Fennig, S; Nahon, D; Teitelbaum, A; Friedlander, Y; Malaspina, D

    2009-01-01

    Some forms of epigenetic abnormalities transmitted to offspring are manifest in differences in disease incidence that depend on parent-of-origin. To explore whether such phenomena might operate in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, we estimated the relative incidence of these conditions in relation to parent-of-origin by considering the two grandfathers' countries of birth. In a prospective cohort of 88,829 offspring, born in Jerusalem in 1964–76 we identified 637 cases through Israel's psychiatric registry. Relative risks (RR) were estimated for paternal and maternal grandfathers' countries of birth using proportional hazards methods, controlling for parents' ages, low social class and duration of marriage. After adjusting for multiple observations, we found no significant differences between descendants of maternal or paternal grandfathers born in Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Yemen, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya/Egypt, Poland, USSR, Czechoslovakia, Germany or the USA. Those with paternal grandfathers from Romania (RR=1.9, 95% CI=1.3–2.8) or Hungary (1.6, 1.0–2.6) showed an increased incidence; however, those with maternal grandfathers from these countries experienced reduced incidence (RR=0.5, 0.3–0.8 and 0.4, 0.2–0.8). In post-hoc analyses we found that results were similar whether the comparison groups were restricted to descendants of other Europeans or included those from Western Asia and North Africa; and effects of paternal grandfathers from Romania/Hungary were more pronounced in females, while effects of maternal grandfathers from these countries were similar in males and females. These post-hoc “hypothesis-generating” findings lead one to question whether some families with ancestors in Romania or Hungary might carry a variant or mutation at a parentally imprinted locus that is altering susceptibility to schizophrenia. Such a locus, if it exists, might involve the X chromosome. PMID:19361958

  7. Case-control analysis of paternal age and trisomic anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Souza, E; Morris, David Jackson; Garne, Ester

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether older paternal age increases the risk of fathering a pregnancy with Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), Klinefelter (XXY) or XYY syndrome.......To determine whether older paternal age increases the risk of fathering a pregnancy with Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), Klinefelter (XXY) or XYY syndrome....

  8. Paternal Involvement in Child- Rearing Activities: The Perspective of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recognition of the need to widen the scope of fatherhood scholarship, this article centered on examining paternal involvement but in a socio- cultural context and developmental stage that has headed little attention in previous research. An attempt was made to investigate the nature of paternal involvement (ways, desires ...

  9. Fathers in Turkey: Paternity Characteristics, Gender Role, Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ünüvar, Perihan

    2017-01-01

    Objective of this study is to examine the correlation the quality of paternity, gender roles and communication skills of fathers. The scores in the scale of supporting developmental tasks were used in order to determine the quality of paternity. The other data collection tools were the BEM sex role inventory and the communication skills inventory.…

  10. Paternal age at childbirth and eating disorders in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaras, K N; Rickert, M E; Thornton, L M; Peat, C M; Baker, J H; Birgegård, A; Norring, C; Landén, M; Almqvist, C; Larsson, H; Lichtenstein, P; Bulik, C M; D'Onofrio, B M

    2017-02-01

    Advanced paternal age at childbirth is associated with psychiatric disorders in offspring, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. However, few studies have investigated paternal age's relationship with eating disorders in offspring. In a large, population-based cohort, we examined the association between paternal age and offspring eating disorders, and whether that association remains after adjustment for potential confounders (e.g. parental education level) that may be related to late/early selection into fatherhood and to eating disorder incidence. Data for 2 276 809 individuals born in Sweden 1979-2001 were extracted from Swedish population and healthcare registers. The authors used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the effect of paternal age on the first incidence of healthcare-recorded anorexia nervosa (AN) and all eating disorders (AED) occurring 1987-2009. Models were adjusted for sex, birth order, maternal age at childbirth, and maternal and paternal covariates including country of birth, highest education level, and lifetime psychiatric and criminal history. Even after adjustment for covariates including maternal age, advanced paternal age was associated with increased risk, and younger paternal age with decreased risk, of AN and AED. For example, the fully adjusted hazard ratio for the 45+ years (v. the 25-29 years) paternal age category was 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.53] for AN and 1.26 (95% CI 1.13-1.40) for AED. In this large, population-based cohort, paternal age at childbirth was positively associated with eating disorders in offspring, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Future research should further explore potential explanations for the association, including de novo mutations in the paternal germline.

  11. The molecular phylogenetic signature of Bali cattle revealed by maternal and paternal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed-Shabthar, S M F; Rosli, M K A; Mohd-Zin, N A A; Romaino, S M N; Fazly-Ann, Z A; Mahani, M C; Abas-Mazni, O; Zainuddin, R; Yaakop, S; Md-Zain, B M

    2013-08-01

    Bali cattle is a domestic cattle breed that can be found in Malaysia. It is a domestic cattle that was purely derived from a domestication event in Banteng (Bos javanicus) around 3,500 BC in Indonesia. This research was conducted to portray the phylogenetic relationships of the Bali cattle with other cattle species in Malaysia based on maternal and paternal lineage. We analyzed the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene and SRY of Y chromosome obtained from five species of the Bos genus (B. javanicus, Bos gaurus, Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Bos grunniens). The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was used as an outgroup. The phylogenetic relationships were observed by employing several algorithms: Neighbor-Joining (PAUP version 4.0), Maximum parsimony (PAUP version 4.0) and Bayesian inference (MrBayes 3.1). Results from the maternal data showed that the Bali cattle formed a monophyletic clade, and together with the B. gaurus clade formed a wild cattle clade. Results were supported by high bootstrap and posterior probability values together with genetic distance data. For the paternal lineage, the sequence variation is low (with parsimony informative characters: 2/660) resulting an unresolved Neighbor-Joining tree. However, Bali cattle and other domestic cattle appear in two monophyletic clades distinct from yak, gaur and selembu. This study expresses the potential of the COI gene in portraying the phylogenetic relationships between several Bos species which is important for conservation efforts especially in decision making since cattle is highly bred and hybrid breeds are often formed. Genetic conservation for this high quality beef cattle breed is important by maintaining its genetic characters to prevent extinction or even decreased the genetic quality.

  12. Delayed paternal age of reproduction in humans is associated with longer telomeres across two generations of descendants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Dan T. A.; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Kuzawa, Christopher W.

    2012-01-01

    Telomeres are repeating DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes that protect and buffer genes from nucleotide loss as cells divide. Telomere length (TL) shortens with age in most proliferating tissues, limiting cell division and thereby contributing to senescence. However, TL increases with age in sperm, and, correspondingly, offspring of older fathers inherit longer telomeres. Using data and samples from a longitudinal study from the Philippines, we first replicate the finding that paternal age at birth is associated with longer TL in offspring (n = 2,023, P = 1.84 × 10−6). We then show that this association of paternal age with offspring TL is cumulative across multiple generations: in this sample, grandchildren of older paternal grandfathers at the birth of fathers have longer telomeres (n = 234, P = 0.038), independent of, and additive to, the association of their father’s age at birth with TL. The lengthening of telomeres predicted by each year that the father’s or grandfather’s reproduction are delayed is equal to the yearly shortening of TL seen in middle-age to elderly women in this sample, pointing to potentially important impacts on health and the pace of senescent decline in tissues and systems that are cell-replication dependent. This finding suggests a mechanism by which humans could extend late-life function as average age at reproduction is delayed within a lineage. PMID:22689985

  13. A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Cristian; Wilson, James F.; Richards, Martin; Stumpf, Michael P. H.; Gratrix, Fiona; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Underhill, Peter; Pascali, Vincenzo L.; Ko, Tsang-Ming; Goldstein, David B.

    2001-01-01

    Modern humans reached Southeast Asia and Oceania in one of the first dispersals out of Africa. The resulting temporal overlap of modern and archaic humans—and the apparent morphological continuity between them—has led to claims of gene flow between Homo sapiens and H. erectus. Much more recently, an agricultural technology from mainland Asia spread into the region, possibly in association with Austronesian languages. Using detailed genealogical study of Y chromosome variation, we show that the majority of current Austronesian speakers trace their paternal heritage to Pleistocene settlers in the region, as opposed to more-recent agricultural immigrants. A fraction of the paternal heritage, however, appears to be associated with more-recent immigrants from northern populations. We also show that the northern Neolithic component is very unevenly dispersed through the region, with a higher contribution in Southeast Asia and a nearly complete absence in Melanesia. Contrary to claims of gene flow (under regional continuity) between H. erectus and H. sapiens, we found no ancestral Y chromosome lineages in a set of 1,209 samples. The finding excludes the possibility that early hominids contributed significantly to the paternal heritage of the region. PMID:11170891

  14. Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, Fulvio; Trombetta, Beniamino; Sellitto, Daniele; Massaia, Andrea; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Watson, Elizabeth; Beraud Colomb, Eliane; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Moral, Pedro; Scozzari, Rosaria

    2010-07-01

    Although human Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup R1b are quite rare in Africa, being found mainly in Asia and Europe, a group of chromosomes within the paragroup R-P25(*) are found concentrated in the central-western part of the African continent, where they can be detected at frequencies as high as 95%. Phylogenetic evidence and coalescence time estimates suggest that R-P25(*) chromosomes (or their phylogenetic ancestor) may have been carried to Africa by an Asia-to-Africa back migration in prehistoric times. Here, we describe six new mutations that define the relationships among the African R-P25(*) Y chromosomes and between these African chromosomes and earlier reported R-P25 Eurasian sub-lineages. The incorporation of these new mutations into a phylogeny of the R1b haplogroup led to the identification of a new clade (R1b1a or R-V88) encompassing all the African R-P25(*) and about half of the few European/west Asian R-P25(*) chromosomes. A worldwide phylogeographic analysis of the R1b haplogroup provided strong support to the Asia-to-Africa back-migration hypothesis. The analysis of the distribution of the R-V88 haplogroup in >1800 males from 69 African populations revealed a striking genetic contiguity between the Chadic-speaking peoples from the central Sahel and several other Afroasiatic-speaking groups from North Africa. The R-V88 coalescence time was estimated at 9.2-5.6 [corrected] kya, in the early mid Holocene. We suggest that R-V88 is a paternal genetic record of the proposed mid-Holocene migration of proto-Chadic Afroasiatic speakers through the Central Sahara into the Lake Chad Basin, and geomorphological evidence is consistent with this view.

  15. The impact of paternity on male-infant association in a primate with low paternity certainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langos, Doreen; Kulik, Lars; Mundry, Roger; Widdig, Anja

    2013-07-01

    In multimale groups where females mate promiscuously, male-infant associations have rarely been studied. However, recent studies have shown that males selectively support their offspring during agonistic conflicts with other juveniles and that father's presence accelerates offspring maturation. Furthermore, it was shown that males invest in unrelated infants to enhance future mating success with the infant's mother. Hence, infant care might provide fitness gain for males. Here, we investigate male-infant associations in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a primate with low paternity certainty as females mate with multiple partners and males ensure paternity less efficiently through mate-guarding. We combined behavioural data with genetic paternity analyses of one cohort of the semi-free-ranging population of Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico) and recorded affiliative and aggressive interactions between focal subjects and adult males from birth to sexual maturation (0-4 years) of focal subjects. Our results revealed that 9.6% of all interactions of focal subjects involved an adult male and 94% of all male-infant interactions were affiliative, indicating the rareness of male-infant aggression. Second and most interestingly, sires were more likely to affiliate with their offspring than nonsires with unrelated infants. This preference was independent of mother's proximity and emphasized during early infancy. Male-infant affiliation rose with infant age and was pronounced between adult males and male rather than female focal subjects. Overall, our results suggest that male-infant affiliation is also an important component in structuring primate societies and affiliation directed towards own offspring presumably represent low-cost paternal care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Microsatellite DNA analysis as a tool for forensic paternity testing (DNA paternity testing)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselinović, Igor

    2006-01-01

    MICROSATELLITE ANALYSIS: By using serological or HLA-testing, the alleged father can be excluded as the biological father, but, regardless of the degree of probability, positive paternity results cannot be obtained without DNA testing. According to the results of the National Human Genome Project, human genome consists of approximately 30.000 genes. The vast majority of human DNA is not organized in genes and has no genetic expression or visible function. Non-coding DNA contains genetic markers important for human identification. Short tandem repeats, or STRs, are a class of microsatellites consisting of tandemly repeated sequences of 2 to 6 base pair length monomers. Most of the microsatellites show a high degree of polymorphism, which can be evaluated by PCR technique, and used in criminalistics, forensic identification and parentage testing. A source of DNA in parentage testing are blood samples or buccal swabs which are routinelly used. Amplification of isolated DNA can be performed in 25-30 cycles by PCR, and fragments are separated by capillary electrophoresis. The probability of paternity of 99.99% or higher corresponds to the paternity "practically proven", indicating that the alleged father is the biological father. Such results can be obtained only by DNA testing. DNA-testing laboratories are required to conduct validation of laboratory facilities, equipment and staff and are subject to permanent control by the society.

  17. Male age mediates reproductive investment and response to paternity assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Kyle M; Head, Megan L; Williams, Camellia A; Moore, Allen J; Royle, Nick J

    2013-08-07

    Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age, a component of male state, mediated male response to perceived paternity. Older males provided more prenatal care, whereas younger males provided less prenatal care, when perceived paternity was low. Adjustments in male care, however, did not influence selection acting indirectly on parents, through offspring performance. This is because females adjusted their care in response to the age of their partner, providing less care when paired with older males than younger males. As a result offspring, performance did not differ between treatments. Our study shows, for the first time, that a male state variable is an important modifier of paternity-parental care trade-offs and highlights the importance of social interactions between males and females during care in determining male response to perceived paternity.

  18. Maternal Grandmothers Do Go the Extra Mile: Factoring Distance and Lineage into Differential Contact with Grandchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas V. Pollet

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies conducted from an evolutionary perspective have documented differential investment in grandchildren by lineage. The majority of these studies have used retrospective ratings by grandchildren, but only a fraction of these studies have examined actual grandparental behavior. Here we focus on the interaction between distance and lineage on face-to-face contact with a (random grandchild in a large scale sample. Our main prediction is that maternal grandparents are significantly more willing to travel in order to see their grandchild. While controlling for initiative of contact, urbanization, sex and age of the grandchild, educational attainment, marital status and age we found a significant interaction between distance and grandparent type on frequency of contact with a grandchild. Maternal grandmothers were significantly more inclined than paternal grandfathers and grandmothers to maintain frequent face-to-face contact, as distance between grandparent and grandchild increased. The results are discussed with reference to evolutionary theories of grandparental investment.

  19. Modeling paternal attentiveness: distressed pups evoke differential neurobiological and behavioral responses in paternal and nonpaternal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, K G; Franssen, C L; Hampton, J E; Rzucidlo, A M; Hyer, M M; True, M; Kaufman, C; Bardi, M

    2013-03-27

    With the exception of parturition and lactation, male California deer mice (Peromyscus californicus) exhibit the same parental responses toward offspring as conspecific females. A closely related species, Peromyscus maniculatus, however, rarely exhibits paternal responses. In the current study, a comparative species approach was used to assess paternal responses in both Peromyscus species with varying levels of paternal experience (biological fathers, pup-exposed virgins, and pup-naïve virgins). Of special interest was the persistence of the males to direct their attention toward a distressed pup housed in a small enclosure (i.e., a barrier existed between males and pups). In addition to pup-directed responses, non-pup-directed responses such as grooming, resting and jumping were recorded. Subsequently, all animals' brains were assessed for fos-immunoreactivity (ir) in several areas previously associated with the paternal brain circuit. Overall, P. californicus exhibited more pup-directed responses as well as less fos-ir in brain areas involved in emotional integration and processing such as the insula and anterior cingulate. In addition to increased activation of emotional regulatory areas, P. maniculatus males, observed to direct their behavior away from the pup, exhibited higher fos-ir in the nucleus accumbens (involved in goal acquisition), perhaps due to a heightened motivation to avoid the pups. Interestingly, experience with pups altered the lateral septum and amygdala activation of P. maniculatus to levels similar to P. californicus biological fathers. Finally, fos-ir was increased in the medial preoptic area, involved in the maintenance of maternal behavior, in the biological fathers of both species. Thus, although biological predispositions toward pup-directed behaviors were observed in P. californicus males, evidence of a few shifts toward the paternal neural activation profile was apparent in P. maniculatus males. Specifically, modifications in fear

  20. Paternal Mitochondrial Transmission in Intra-Species Caenorhabditis briggsae Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph A.; Howe, Dana K.; Coleman-Hulbert, Anna; Denver, Dee R.; Estes, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    To study mitochondrial–nuclear genetic interactions in the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae, our three laboratories independently created 38 intra-species cytoplasmic–nuclear hybrid (cybrid) lines. Although the cross design combines maternal mitotypes with paternal nuclear genotypes, eight lines (21%) unexpectedly contained paternal mitotypes. All eight share in common ancestry of one of two genetically related strains. This unexpected parallel observation of paternal mitochondrial transmission, undesirable given our intent of creating cybrids, provides a serendipitous experimental model and framework to study the molecular and evolutionary basis of uniparental mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:27613821

  1. [The questionnaire on paternal engagement of separated fathers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, André Della; Schildknecht, Cornelia Vonlanthen; Winkler-Metzke, Christa; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The present contribution presents psychometric findings of a newly developed questionnaire on paternal engagement after parental separation based on a sample of 225 separated or divorced fathers living in the German part of Switzerland. Factor analyses led to the following five dimensions: educational responsibility, cognitive and social support, quality of the emotional relationship, temporal availability, and leisure activities. Internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach's Alpha) ranged from .86 to .91. The dimensions reflect significant differences of paternal engagement regarding child custody, living arrangements of the mother, and parental cooperation. These findings clearly indicate that paternal engagement after separation should be considered in a differentiated multidimensional way.

  2. Sperm competition mechanisms, confidence of paternity, and the evolution of paternal care in the golden egg bug (Phyllomorpha laciniata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Francisco; Núñez, Yolanda; Ponz, Fernando; Roldán, Eduardo R S; Gomendio, Montserrat

    2003-05-01

    Theoretical models predict how paternal effort should vary depending on confidence of paternity and on the trade-offs between present and future reproduction. In this study we examine patterns of sperm precedence in Phyllomorpha laciniata and how confidence of paternity influences the willingness of males to carry eggs. Female golden egg bugs show a flexible pattern of oviposition behavior, which results in some eggs being carried by adults (mainly males) and some being laid on plants, where mortality rates are very high. Adults are more vulnerable to predators when carrying eggs; thus, it has been suggested that males should only accept eggs if there are chances that at least some of the eggs will be their true genetic offspring. We determined the confidence of paternity for naturally occurring individuals and its variation with the time. Paternity of eggs fertilized by the last males to mate with females previously mated in the field has been determined using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). The exclusion probability was 98%, showing that AFLP markers are suitable for paternity assignment. Sperm mixing seems the most likely mechanism of sperm competition, because the last male to copulate with field females sires an average of 43% of the eggs laid during the next five days. More importantly, the proportion of eggs sired does not change significantly during that period. We argue that intermediate levels of paternity can select for paternal care in this system because: (1) benefits of care in terms of offspring survival are very high; (2) males have nothing to gain from decreasing their parental effort in a given reproductive event because sperm mixing makes it difficult for males to reach high paternity levels and males are left with no cues to assess paternity; (3) males cannot chose to care for their offspring exclusively because they can neither discriminate their own eggs, nor can they predict when their own eggs will be produced; and (4) males

  3. Y-chromosome variation in Altaian Kazakhs reveals a common paternal gene pool for Kazakhs and the influence of Mongolian expansions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Dulik

    Full Text Available Kazakh populations have traditionally lived as nomadic pastoralists that seasonally migrate across the steppe and surrounding mountain ranges in Kazakhstan and southern Siberia. To clarify their population history from a paternal perspective, we analyzed the non-recombining portion of the Y-chromosome from Kazakh populations living in southern Altai Republic, Russia, using a high-resolution analysis of 60 biallelic markers and 17 STRs. We noted distinct differences in the patterns of genetic variation between maternal and paternal genetic systems in the Altaian Kazakhs. While they possess a variety of East and West Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups, only three East Eurasian paternal haplogroups appear at significant frequencies (C3*, C3c and O3a3c*. In addition, the Y-STR data revealed low genetic diversity within these lineages. Analysis of the combined biallelic and STR data also demonstrated genetic differences among Kazakh populations from across Central Asia. The observed differences between Altaian Kazakhs and indigenous Kazakhs were not the result of admixture between Altaian Kazakhs and indigenous Altaians. Overall, the shared paternal ancestry of Kazakhs differentiates them from other Central Asian populations. In addition, all of them showed evidence of genetic influence by the 13(th century CE Mongol Empire. Ultimately, the social and cultural traditions of the Kazakhs shaped their current pattern of genetic variation.

  4. Paternal programming of offspring cardiometabolic diseases in later life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Early – intrauterine – environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will first describe clinical observational studies providing evidence for paternal programming of adulthood diseases in progeny. Next, we describe key animal studies proving this relationship, followed by a detailed analysis of our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of paternal programming. Alterations of noncoding sperm micro-RNAs, histone acetylation, and targeted as well as global DNA methylation seem to be in particular involved in paternal programming of offspring's diseases in later life. PMID:27457668

  5. Paternal postpartum depression: what health care providers should know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Anna K; Ahmed, Azza H; Foli, Karen J; Coddington, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    Paternal postpartum depression (PPD) is a clinically significant problem for families that is currently underscreened, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. Maternal PPD is a well-known condition and has been extensively researched. In comparison, PPD in fathers and its potential effects on the family are not widely recognized. Studies have shown the importance of optimal mental health in fathers during the postpartum period. Negative effects of paternal PPD affect marital/partner relationships, infant bonding, and child development. To promote optimal health for parents and children, pediatric nurse practitioners must stay up to date on this topic. This article discusses the relationship of paternal PPD to maternal PPD; the consequences, signs, and symptoms; and the pediatric nurse practitioner's role in assessing and managing paternal PPD. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) through maternal plasma DNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Haojun; Xie, Yifan; Li, Xuchao

    2016-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been already used to perform noninvasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal plasma DNA. The frequently used technologies were PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and SNP typing array, respectively. Here, we...... developed a noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) based on SNP typing with maternal plasma DNA sequencing. We evaluated the influence factors (minor allele frequency (MAF), the number of total SNP, fetal fraction and effective sequencing depth) and designed three different selective SNP panels...... paternity test using STR multiplex system. Our study here proved that the maternal plasma DNA sequencing-based technology is feasible and accurate in determining paternity, which may provide an alternative in forensic application in the future....

  7. The Certainty that Engendered New Doubts: DNA and Paternity Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Claudia Fonseca

    2004-01-01

    DNA paternity tests, in both private and public laboratories, have become popular of late throughout Brazil, raising some interesting questions as to the overlap of the legal and medical spheres in family issues...

  8. Food supplementation affects extrapair paternity in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Radovan Va´clav; Herbert Hoi; Donald Blomqvist

    2003-01-01

    Extrapair paternity (EPP) is common among birds, but the reasons why it varies within and among species are less clear. In particular, few studies have experimentally examined how food availability influences paternity and sexual behavior. We manipulated food supply in a nest-box population of house sparrows, Passer domesticus, a colonial passerine with extensive biparental care. During three successive breeding attempts, we changed food availability at nest sites and examined behavior and ge...

  9. Evidence for paternal imprinting in familial Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Viljoen, D.; Ramesar, R.

    1992-01-01

    A previously unreported family in which seven members in two generations have Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is documented. Paternal imprinting of the gene responsible for BWS is involved as the mechanism responsible for the aberrant inheritance pattern in this kindred. A review of published reports showed 27 previously published pedigrees with two or more affected subjects with BWS. Paternal imprinting would explain the non-mendelian inheritance of BWS in all but four kindreds. The latter...

  10. Paternal filicide in Québec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, Dominique; Gagné, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    In this retrospective study, relevant demographic, social, and clinical variables were examined in 77 cases of paternal filicide. Between 1991 and 2001, all consecutive coroners' files on domestic homicide in Québec, Canada, were reviewed, and 77 child victims of 60 male parent perpetrators were identified. The results support data indicating that more fathers commit filicide than do mothers. A history of family abuse was characteristic of a substantial number of cases, and most of the cases involved violent means of homicide. Filicide was frequently (60%) followed by the suicide of the perpetrator and more so (86%) in cases involving multiple sibling victims. The abuse of drugs and alcohol was rare. At the time of the offense, most of the perpetrators were suffering from a psychiatric illness, usually depressive disorder. Nearly one-third were in a psychotic state. The proportion of fatal abuse cases was comparatively low. Many of the perpetrators had had contact with health professionals prior to the offense, although none had received treatment for a psychiatric illness.

  11. Resurrecting surviving Neandertal lineages from modern human genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernot, Benjamin; Akey, Joshua M

    2014-02-28

    Anatomically modern humans overlapped and mated with Neandertals such that non-African humans inherit ~1 to 3% of their genomes from Neandertal ancestors. We identified Neandertal lineages that persist in the DNA of modern humans, in whole-genome sequences from 379 European and 286 East Asian individuals, recovering more than 15 gigabases of introgressed sequence that spans ~20% of the Neandertal genome (false discovery rate = 5%). Analyses of surviving archaic lineages suggest that there were fitness costs to hybridization, admixture occurred both before and after divergence of non-African modern humans, and Neandertals were a source of adaptive variation for loci involved in skin phenotypes. Our results provide a new avenue for paleogenomics studies, allowing substantial amounts of population-level DNA sequence information to be obtained from extinct groups, even in the absence of fossilized remains.

  12. Paternal Genetic Structure in Contemporary Mennonite Communities from the American Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Kristine G; Mosher, M J; Crawford, Michael H; Melton, Phillip

    2016-04-01

    Over the last 35 years, researchers from the Laboratory of Biological Anthropology at the University of Kansas have been working with Mennonite communities to better understand evolutionary patterns of fission-fusion in relationship to their genetic history and population structure. In this study, short tandem repeat (STR) markers from the nonrecombining region of the Y chromosome (NRY) provided increased resolution of the molecular population structure for these groups. NRY is known to be informative for determining paternal genetic ancestral patterns in recently derived human populations. Mennonites represent a branch of the Anabaptist movement that began in northern and central Europe in the 16th century and maintain a well-documented migration and genealogical history. Provided this historical information, we investigated the genetic relationship of 15 NRY STR loci within five Mennonite communities from Kansas (Goessel, Lone Tree, Garden View, and Meridian) and Nebraska (Henderson). We sought to determine if patterns of fission/fusion along familial lines persisted with paternal genetic information as evidenced through other classical genetic polymorphisms and molecular markers. NRY haplotype information was obtained for 94 individuals, and genetic variation was analyzed and compared across the five study populations and comparative Anabaptist and European populations. NRY haplogroups were assigned using a Bayesian allele frequency approach with 14 STR loci. A total of 92 NRY haplotypes were detected, with none shared across these communities. The most prevalent NRY haplogroup was R1b, which occurred in 56% of the entire sample. Eight additional NRY haplogroups (E1b1b, G2a, I1, I2, J2a1, L, Q, and R1a) were detected in smaller frequencies. Principal component analysis of NRY data, in contrast to mitochondrial DNA data, displayed no patterns of population subdivision of these congregations into communities. These NRY genetic profiles provide additional

  13. Cues of Paternal Uncertainty and Father to Child Physical Abuse as Reported by Mothers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Gisele Caldas; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Paternity is uncertain, so if paternal feelings evolved to promote fitness, we might expect them to vary in response to variables indicative of paternity probability. We therefore hypothesized that the risk of lapses of paternal affection, including abusive assaults on children, will be exacerbated by cues of non-paternity. Methods:…

  14. Paternal mental health following perceived traumatic childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Christian; Sharman, Rachael; Reed, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    the objective behind the current study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of fathers after childbirth trauma, an area of minimal research. This is part two of a two-part series conducted in 2014 researching the mental health of fathers after experiencing a perceived traumatic childbirth. qualitative methodology using semi-structured interviews and reporting of qualitative questions administered in part one's online survey (Inglis, 2014). interviews conducted face-to-face at an Australian University or on Skype. sixty-nine responded to the online qualitative questions and of these seven were interviewed. thematic analysis of verbal and written qualitative responses. thematic analysis of qualitative survey data and interviews found a global theme 'standing on the sideline' which encompassed two major themes of witnessing trauma: unknown territory, and the aftermath: dealing with it, and respective subthemes. according to the perceptions and experiences of the fathers, there was a significant lack of communication between birthing teams and fathers, and fathers experienced a sense of marginalisation before, during, and after the traumatic childbirth. The findings of this study suggest that these factors contributed to the perception of trauma in the current sample. Whilst many fathers reported the negative impact of the traumatic birth on themselves and their relationships, some reported post-traumatic growth from the experience and others identified friends and family as a valuable source of support. improved communication between midwifery staff and fathers before, during and after childbirth may reduce the rates of paternal postpartum mental health difficulties and experiences of trauma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal and paternal imprisonment in the stress process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Holly; Hagan, John

    2013-05-01

    Parental incarceration is now prevalent in community samples (e.g., with 11% of children reporting paternal imprisonment and 3% reporting maternal imprisonment in a national sample), pointing to a potentially important childhood trauma that should be included in work on contemporary childhood stressors in this era of mass incarceration. This paper investigates the influences of maternal and paternal imprisonment on changes in young adult mental health using a nationally representative sample. We assess four perspectives-gendered loss, same-sex role model, intergenerational stress, and maternal salience - on the joint influences of maternal and paternal incarceration within the broader stress process paradigm. The results generalize support for a gendered loss perspective developed in work on parental death and an early small study of parental incarceration. This pattern reveals maternal incarceration increases depressive symptoms while paternal incarceration increases substance role problems. Chronicity of parental imprisonment and its timing are also influential. Analyses further specify a vulnerability of male and minority young adults to high levels of mental health problems following maternal and paternal incarceration in adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nudging towards nutrition? Soft paternalism and obesity-related reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most contentious issues facing the United States today. Some researchers warn of an obesity "epidemic" that poses a grave threat to our nation's health, while others attack these claims as alarmist and misguided. This divide reinforces the political schism between advocates of government intervention and anti-regulatory groups. As a result, obesity science finds itself entangled in partisan battles that leave little room for compromise. This paper explores the potential for the political philosophy of soft paternalism to provide a regulatory framework that may appeal to both sides of the obesity reform debate. Soft paternalism draws upon social science research in order to develop policies that encourage better decision-making, while preserving individual choice. Applying this framework to the issue of obesity, I look at two areas of potential reform: 1) information-based policies such as nutritional label design, and 2) policies that affect default choices, such as portion size norms. I find that while soft paternalism is an appealing framework that offers many promising reforms, it is not a panacea. Instead, I argue that these proposals should be considered on their own merit, not as a complete solution precluding other measures. In addition, in light of potential criticism concerning the stigmatizing effect of some obesity-related measures, I suggest that reforms based on soft paternalism can and should be tailored to promote more mindful eating habits. With these concerns in mind, I conclude that soft paternalism is a promising approach that warrants serious consideration by policymakers.

  17. Multiple paternity and hybridization in two smooth-hound sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Ilaria A M; Riginella, Emilio; Gristina, Michele; Rasotto, Maria B; Zane, Lorenzo; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2015-08-10

    Multiple paternity appears to be a common trait of elasmobranch mating systems, with its occurrence likely driven by convenience, due to females seeking to minimize the stress of male harassment. Here we use molecular markers to analyse the frequency of multiple paternity in two related viviparous sharks, Mustelus mustelus and Mustelus punctulatus. We first applied molecular methods to assign pregnant females, embryos and additional reference adults (N = 792) to one of the two species. Paternity analysis was performed using a total of 9 polymorphic microsatellites on 19 females and 204 embryos of M. mustelus, and on 13 females and 303 embryos of M. punctulatus. Multiple paternity occurs in both species, with 47% of M. mustelus and 54% of M. punctulatus litters sired by at least two fathers. Female fecundity is not influenced by multiple mating and in 56% of polyandrous litters paternity is skewed, with one male siring most of the pups. Genetic analyses also revealed hybridization between the two species, with a M. punctulatus female bearing pups sired by a M. mustelus male. The frequency of polyandrous litters in these species is consistent with aspects of their reproductive biology, such as synchronous ovulation and possible occurrence of breeding aggregations.

  18. [Effect of paternity leave on maternal postpartum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séjourné, N; Beaumé, M; Vaslot, V; Chabrol, H

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of the paternity leave in the appearance of the maternal postpartum depression. Fifty-one couples took part in the whole study. Between the second and the fifth day after the childbirth, the mother completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), which measures the symptoms of depression and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) which measures the social support the mother has become. The father completed the EPDS. Two months and then the second time four months after the childbirth, the mother received the EPDS, the MSPSS, and questionnaires measuring the temperament of the baby, the maternal skills, the feeling of being a mother and the quality of life postpartum. In order to evaluate the paternal involvement, the father completed the EPDS and questions about paternal skills and involvement. The paternity leave seemed not to have any consequences on the results at the EPDS or other questionnaires. However, lack of paternal involvement was a significant predictor of the intensity of the depressive symptoms of the mothers. It is not the presence of the father wich seems important to take into account for detection and the traitement of postpatum depression but his participation in the care of the baby. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Promiscuity, paternity and personality in the great tit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Samantha C; Chapman, Joanne R; Dugdale, Hannah L; Quinn, John L; Sheldon, Ben C

    2012-05-07

    Understanding causes of variation in promiscuity within populations remain a major challenge. While most studies have focused on quantifying fitness costs and benefits of promiscuous behaviour, an alternative possibility--that variation in promiscuity within populations is maintained because of linkage with other traits-has received little attention. Here, we examine whether promiscuity in male and female great tits (Parus major)--quantified as extra-pair paternity (EPP) within and between nests--is associated with variation in a well-documented personality trait: exploration behaviour in a novel environment. Exploration behaviour has been shown to correlate with activity levels, risk-taking and boldness, and these are behaviours that may plausibly influence EPP. Exploration behaviour correlated positively with paternity gained outside the social pair among males in our population, but there was also a negative correlation with paternity in the social nest. Hence, while variation in male personality predicted the relative importance of paternity gain within and outside the pair bond, total paternity gained was unrelated to exploration behaviour. We found evidence that males paired with bold females were more likely to sire extra-pair young. Our data thus demonstrate a link between personality and promiscuity, with no net effects on reproductive success, suggesting personality-dependent mating tactics, in contrast with traditional adaptive explanations for promiscuity.

  20. Paternal age and assisted reproductive outcomes in ICSI donor oocytes: is there an effect of older fathers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguería, R; García, D; Obradors, A; Poisot, F; Vassena, R; Vernaeve, V

    2014-10-10

    Does paternal age affect semen quality and reproductive outcomes in oocyte donor cycles with ICSI? Paternal age is associated with a decrease in sperm quality, however it does not affect either pregnancy or live birth rates in reproductive treatments when the oocytes come from donors generalization of our results to a population of young women with older male partners. No data were available on perinatal and obstetrical outcomes of these pregnancies. Most (75%) cycles used frozen/thawed sperm samples which might have introduced a bias owing to loss of viability after thawing. ICSI was performed in all cycles to control for fertilization method; this technique could mask the natural fertilization rate of poorer sperm samples. Furthermore, we did not use stringent ICSI indications; and our data are therefore not generalizable to cases where only severe male factor is considered. However, male patients were of different racial background, thus allowing generalizing our results to a wider patient base. Our study suggests that paternal age does not affect reproductive outcomes when the oocyte donor is <36 years of age, indicating that ICSI and oocyte quality can jointly overcome the lower reproductive potential of older semen. This study was supported in part by Fundació Privada EUGIN. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

  1. New Q lineage found in bovine (Bos taurus) of Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Oceja, Andres; Muro-Verde, Amara; Gamarra, David; Cardoso, Sergio; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2016-09-01

    The northern Iberian Peninsula is home to a variety of autochthonous cattle breeds, such as the Terreña and Pirenaica. With the objective of characterizing the matrilineal lineages of these breeds, a study of mitochondrial DNA was performed. The D-loop of 155 individuals was analyzed and most of the individuals were carriers of the T3 haplogroup, while haplogroups T and T1 were much less frequent. A Pirenaica individual belonging to the Q haplogroup was found. To verify the presence of the Q haplogroup individual, the entire mitochondrial DNA was sequenced and compared with two descendants. The individuals were assigned to the Q1 sub-haplogroup. These findings extend the geographic distribution of the Q haplogroup to the south west of the European continent. This new Q1 lineage has seven polymorphisms in the coding region, so this lineage is probably as old as the Q lineages described to date.

  2. Fetal male lineage determination by analysis of Y-chromosome STR haplotype in maternal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Gustavo Barcelos; Santa Rita, Ticiane Henriques; Chianca, Camilla Figueiredo; Velasco, Lara Francielle Ribeiro; de Sousa, Claudia Ferreira; Nery, Lídia Freire Abdalla; Costa, Sandra Santana Soares

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the fetus Y-STR haplotype in maternal plasma during pregnancy and estimate, non-invasively, if the alleged father and fetus belong to the same male lineage. The study enrolled couples with singleton pregnancies and known paternity. All participants signed informed consent and the local ethics committee approved the study. Peripheral blood was collected in EDTA tubes (mother) and in FTA paper (father). Maternal plasma DNA was extracted by using NucliSens EasyMAG. Fetal gender was determined by qPCR targeting DYS-14 in maternal plasma and it was also confirmed after the delivery. From all included volunteers, the first consecutive 20 mothers bearing male fetuses and 10 mothers bearing female fetuses were selected for the Y-STR analysis. The median gestational age was 12 weeks (range 12-36). All DNA samples were subjected to PCR amplification by PowerPlex Y23, ampFLSTR Yfiler, and two in-house multiplexes, which together accounts for 27 different Y-STR. The PCR products were detected with 3500 Genetic Analyzer and they were analyzed using GeneMapper-IDX. Fetuses' haplotypes (Yfiler format) were compared to other 5328 Brazilian haplotypes available on Y-chromosome haplotypes reference database (YHRD). As a result, between 22 and 27 loci were successfully amplified from maternal plasma in all 20 cases of male fetuses. None of the women bearing female fetuses had a falsely amplified Y-STR haplotype. The haplotype detected in maternal plasma completely matched the alleged father haplotype in 16 out of the 20 cases. Four cases showed single mismatches and they did not configure exclusions; 1 case showed a mutation in the DYS 458 locus due to the loss of one repeat unit and 3 cases showed one DYS 385I/II locus dropout. All mismatches were confirmed after the delivery. Seventeen fetuses' haplotypes were not found in YHRD and one of them had a mutation, which corresponded to the paternity probability of 99.9812% and 95.7028%, respectively

  3. Establishing paternity in Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) by DNA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, Jonathan L.; Gee, George F.; Hardekopf, C.L.; Mark, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting was used to study paternity and genetic variability within a captive flock of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana). Fingerprint patterns for 42 individuals were obtained by digesting genomic crane DNAs with HaeIII followed by electrophoresis, blotting, and hybridization to the M13 minisatellite probe. Despite finding reduced levels of genetic variation in the Whooping Crane due to a population "bottleneck," these polymorphisms were successfully used to determine paternity in six of seven cases of captive propagation where the maternal-offspring relationship was known, but where the sire was unknown. These determinations of paternity are required for effective genetic management of the crane flock. These results also revealed a number of heterozygous minisatellite loci that will be valuable in future assessments of genetic variability in this endangered species.

  4. Primate paternal care: interactions between biology and social experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Anne E.; Ziegler, Toni E.

    2016-01-01

    We review recent research on the roles of hormones and social experiences on the development of paternal care in humans and non-human primates. Generally, lower concentrations of testosterone and higher concentrations of oxytocin are associated with greater paternal responsiveness. Hormonal changes prior to the birth appear to be important in preparation for fatherhood and changes after the birth are related to how much time fathers spend with offspring and whether they provide effective care. Prolactin may facilitate approach and the initiation of infant care, and in some biparental non-human primates, it affects body mass regulation. Glucocorticoids are involved in coordinating reproductive and parental behavior between mates. New research involving intranasal oxytocin and neuropeptide receptor polymorphisms may help us understand individual variation in paternal responsiveness. This area of research, integrating both biological factors and the role of early and adult experience, has the potential to suggest individually designed interventions that can strengthen relationships between fathers and their offspring. PMID:26253726

  5. The certainty that engendered doubt: paternity and DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fonseca

    Full Text Available There has been a surge in the use of DNA paternity tests in Brazil in both private and government laboratories. This raises interesting questions about the influence of the medical and legal spheres on gender and kinship relations in contemporary society. To analyze this phenomenon, we conducted research and observations in various government agencies in Porto Alegre (the Public Defender's office, Mediation Hearings, Family Court and the Court's Medical Service of people involved in legal disputes over paternal identification. We also studied how recent changes in the laws concerning paternal recognition are applied by the different personalities on the scene. Based on this data, we present the hypothesis that far from inspiring greater tranquility, the simple existence of the test instigates doubt. This has profound repercussions on our form of "knowing" who is the father. The situation described in this paper raises new challenges for an anthropology of knowledge, which focuses on an analysis of Western beliefs - including scientific ones.

  6. Involved fathering: Expanding conceptualisations of men’s paternal caring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Smit

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatherhood has received increased attention during the past few decades in both scholarly writings and public forums, yet the conceptualisation of involved fathering has remained largely limited to the idea that men are merely childcare assistants. In this article the generativity perspective on fathering is considered as a possible theoretical expansion of what paternal involvement may entail. Taking the concept of generativity, as defined by Erik Erikson in his psychosocial development theory, as point of departure, generative fathering refers to paternal conduct that responds to the physical, emotional and cognitive needs of a child. This kind of involved fathering implies that a father is focused on lovingly nurturing his child and improving the wellbeing of his offspring, instead of merely conforming to what is stipulated by society and cultural norms with regard to paternal role obligations.

  7. Characteristic neurobiological patterns differentiate paternal responsiveness in two Peromyscus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kelly G; Franssen, Catherine L; Bardi, Massimo; Hampton, Joseph E; Hainley, Leslie; Karsner, Stephanie; Tu, Eddie B; Hyer, Molly M; Crockett, Ashly; Baranova, Anya; Ferguson, Tajh; Ferguson, Tenaj; Kinsley, Craig H

    2011-01-01

    Rodent paternal models provide unique opportunities to investigate the emergence of affiliative social behavior in mammals. Using biparental and uniparental Peromyscus species (californicus and maniculatus, respectively) we assessed paternal responsiveness by exposing males to biological offspring, unrelated conspecific pups, or familiar brothers following a 24-hour separation. The putative paternal circuit we investigated included brain areas involved in fear/anxiety [cingulate cortex (Cg), medial amygdala (MeA), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), and lateral septum (LS)], parental motivation [medial preoptic area (MPOA)], learning/behavioral plasticity (hippocampus), olfaction [pyriform cortex (PC)], and social rewards (nucleus accumbens). Paternal experience in californicus males reduced fos immunoreactivity (ir) in several fear/anxiety areas; additionally, all californicus groups exhibited decreased fos-ir in the PC. Enhanced arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT)-ir cell bodies and fibers, as well as increased neuronal restructuring in the hippocampus, were also observed in californicus mice. Multidimensional scaling analyses revealed distinct brain activation profiles differentiating californicus biological fathers, pup-exposed virgins, and pup-naïve virgins. Specifically, associations among MPOA fos, CA1 fos, dentate gyrus GFAP, CA2 nestin-, and PVN OT-ir characterized biological fathers; LS fos-, Cg fos-, and AVP-ir characterized pup-exposed virgins, and PC-, PVN-, and MeA fos-ir characterized pup-naïve virgins. Thus, whereas fear/anxiety areas characterized pup-naïve males, neurobiological factors involved in more diverse functions such as learning, motivation, and nurturing responses characterized fatherhood in biparental californicus mice. Less distinct paternal-dependent activation patterns were observed in uniparental maniculatus mice. These data suggest that dual neurobiological circuits, leading to the inhibition of social

  8. Resolving Questioned Paternity Issues Using a Philippine Genetic Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Corazon De Ungria

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The utility of the Philippines genetic database consisting of seven Short Tandem Repeat (STR markers for testing of ten questioned paternity cases was investigated. The markers used were HUMvWA, HUMTH01, HUMCSF1PO, HUMFOLP23, D8S306, HUMFES/FPS, and HUMF13A01. These markers had a combined Power of Paternity Exclusion of 99.17%. Due to the gravity of some cases handled in the laboratory, routine procedures must be assessed to determine the capacity of the analysis to exclude a non-father of predict paternity. Clients showed a preference for only testing father and child to lower costs and reduce conflicts, particularly when the mother objects to the conduct of DNA tests, or when she is deceased or cannot be located. The Probability of Paternity was calculated with and without the mother’s profile in each of the cases. In all instances, results were more informative when the mother’s DNA profile was included. Moreover, variations in the allelic distribution of five STR markers among eight Caucasian, one African-American, and two Amerindian (Argentina populations resulted in significant differences in Probability of Paternity estimates compared to those calculated using the Philippine Database.Based on the results of the present study, it is recommended that tests on alleged father-child samples be performed to screen for at least two mismatches. In the absence of theses mismatches, further analysis that includes the mother’s DNA profile is recommended. Moreover, it is recommended that a Philippines genetic database be used for DNA-based paternity testing in the Philippines.

  9. Stronger influence of maternal than paternal obesity on infant and early childhood BMI: The Fels Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linabery, Amy M.; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Johnson, William; Choh, Audrey C.; Towne, Bradford; Odegaard, Andrew O.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demerath, Ellen W.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective Parental obesity influences infant body size. To fully characterize their relative effects on infant adiposity, associations between maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI) category (normal: ≤25 kg/m2, overweight: 25–obese: ≥30 kg/m2) and infant BMI were compared in Fels Longitudinal Study participants. Methods A median of 9 serial weight and length measures from birth-3.5 years were obtained from 912 European American children born in 1928–2008. Using multivariable mixed effects regression, contributions of maternal versus paternal BMI status to infant BMI growth curves were evaluated. Cubic spline models also included parental covariates, infant sex, age, and birth variables, and interactions with child’s age. Results Infant BMI curves were significantly different across the three maternal BMI categories (POverallobese mothers had greater mean BMI at birth and between 1.5–3.5 years than those of over- and normal weight mothers (P≤0.02). Average differences between offspring of obese and normal weight mothers were similar at birth (0.8 kg/m2, P=0.0009) and between 2–3.5 years (0.7–0.8 kg/m2, Pobese fathers also had BMI growth curves distinct from those of normal weight fathers (P=0.02). Infant BMI was more strongly associated with maternal than paternal obesity overall (P<0.0001); significant differences were observed at birth (1.11 kg/m2, P=0.006) and from 2–3 years (0.62 kg/m2, P3years=0.02). Conclusion At birth and in later infancy, maternal BMI has a stronger influence on BMI growth than paternal BMI, suggesting weight control in reproductive age women may be of particular benefit for preventing excess infant BMI. PMID:23042783

  10. Paternity after vasectomy with two previous semen analyses without spermatozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Lucon, Marcos; Lucon, Antonio Marmo; Pasqualoto, Fabio Firmbach; Srougi, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: The risk of paternity after vasectomy is rare but still exists. Overall failure to achieve sterility after vasectomy occurs in 0.2 to 5.3% of patients due to technical failure or recanalization. The objective of this report was to describe a rare but notable case of proven paternity in which the semen analyses had not given evidence of spermatozoa. CASE REPORT: A 44-year-old vasectomized man whose semen analyses had shown azoospermia became a father four years after sterilization. Bl...

  11. Tobacco control: an analysis on paternalism and liberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bastos Carvalho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at verifying if the measures adopted in Brazil for tobacco control are paternalistic and if they, in any way, restrict individual liberties. Firstly, some of the theories on paternalism and their relation to liberty will be analyzed, focusing on the Libertarian Paternalism doctrine. Then, measures for tobacco control adopted in other countries and in Brazil will be discussed. Finally, each measure adopted in Brazil will be thoroughly analyzed, in order to verify if it restricts liberty and if there are less restrictive measures available. The conclusion is that the measures adopted in Brazil, even though they are predominantly paternalistic, do not necessarily restrict individual liberties.

  12. The architecture of madness and the good of paternalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sine, David M

    2008-09-01

    From the era of the asylum to the present day, the architectural design of inpatient facilities has long been considered a contributing factor in the treatment of patients with mental and substance use disorders. The author examines the ethical basis for decisions about the design of psychiatric hospitals--architectural paternalism. The ethic of paternalism in the design of asylums and in contemporary thinking about psychiatric hospital design is described. The author argues that limitation of patients' autonomy and rights by the purpose-built architectural environment is legitimate and ethical.

  13. [When should evoke prenatal paternal uniparental disomy 14?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiffard, F; Bénéteau, C; Quéré, M P; Philippe, H J; Le Vaillant, C

    2014-04-01

    The paternal uniparental disomy 14 is a rare malformation syndrome whose postnatal pathognomonic sign is the deformation of the rib as coat hanger. In prenatal, ultrasonographic signs are major recurrent polyhydramnios, a narrow thorax and deformed long bones short and sometimes other anomalies including ends. The authors report one rare case of prenatal paternal uniparental disomy 14 with the deformation of the rib as coat hanger. Prenatally, the narrow deformed thorax can be searched by ultrasound three-dimensional (3D) and/or helical CT and thus represent an aid to prenatal diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  15. Men's preference for women's facial features: testing homogamy and the paternity uncertainty hypothesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bovet, Jeanne; Barthes, Julien; Durand, Valérie; Raymond, Michel; Alvergne, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    .... However, why men exhibit variable preferences remains less studied. Male mate choice might be influenced by uncertainty of paternity, a selective factor in species where the survival of the offspring depends on postnatal paternal care...

  16. Bigger testes increase paternity in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, independently of the sperm competition level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellnow, N; Marie-Orleach, L; Zadesenets, K S; Schärer, L

    2018-02-01

    Hermaphroditic animals face the fundamental evolutionary optimization problem of allocating their resources to their male vs. female reproductive function (e.g. testes and sperm vs. ovaries and eggs), and this optimal sex allocation can be affected by both pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection. For example, local sperm competition (LSC) - the competition between related sperm for the fertilization of a partner's ova - occurs in small mating groups and can favour a female-biased sex allocation, because, under LSC, investment into sperm production is predicted to show diminishing fitness returns. Here, we test whether higher testis investment increases an individual's paternity success under sperm competition, and whether the strength of this effect diminishes when LSC is stronger, as predicted by sex allocation theory. We created two subsets of individuals of the simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum lignano - by sampling worms from either the highest or lowest quartile of the testis investment distribution - and estimated their paternity success in group sizes of either three (strong LSC) or eight individuals (weak LSC). Specifically, using transgenic focal individuals expressing a dominant green-fluorescent protein marker, we showed that worms with high testis investment sired 22% more offspring relative to those with low investment, corroborating previous findings in M. lignano and other species. However, the strength of this effect was not significantly modulated by the experienced group size, contrasting theoretical expectations of more strongly diminishing fitness returns under strong LSC. We discuss the possible implications for the evolutionary maintenance of hermaphroditism in M. lignano. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Extensive geographical and social structure in the paternal lineages of Saudi Arabia revealed by analysis of 27 Y-STRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubrani, Yahya M; Wetton, Jon H; Jobling, Mark A

    2018-03-01

    Saudi Arabia's indigenous population is organized into patrilineal descent groups, but to date, little has been done to characterize its population structure, in particular with respect to the male-specific region of the Y chromosome. We have used the 27-STR Yfiler ® Plus kit to generate haplotypes in 597 unrelated Saudi males, classified into five geographical regions (North, South, Central, East and West). Overall, Yfiler ® Plus provides a good discrimination capacity of 95.3%, but this is greatly reduced (74.7%) when considering the reduced Yfiler ® set of 17 Y-STRs, justifying the use of the expanded set of markers in this population. Comparison of the five geographical divisions reveals striking differences, with low diversity and similar haplotype spectra in the Central and Northern regions, and high diversity and similar haplotype spectra in the East and West. These patterns likely reflect the geographical isolation of the desert heartland of the peninsula, and the proximity to the sea of the Eastern and Western areas, and consequent historical immigration. We predicted haplogroups from Y-STR haplotypes, testing the performance of prediction by using a large independent set of Saudi Arabian Y-STR + Y-SNP data. Prediction indicated predominance (71%) of haplogroup J1, which was significantly more common in Central, Northern and Southern groups than in East and West, and formed a star-like expansion cluster in a median-joining network with an estimated age of ∼2800 years. Most of our 597 participants were sampled within Saudi Arabia itself, but ∼16% were sampled in the UK. Despite matching these two groups by home sub-region, we observed significant differences in haplotype and predicted haplogroup constitutions overall, and for most sub-regions individually. This suggests social structure influencing the probability of leaving Saudi Arabia, correlated with different Y-chromosome compositions. The UK-recruited sample is an inappropriate proxy for Saudi Arabia generally, and caution is needed when considering expatriate groups as representative of country of origin. Our study shows the importance of geographical and social structuring that may affect the utility of forensic databases and the interpretation of Y-STR profiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. From here to paternity: neural correlates of the onset of paternal behavior in California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Trynke R; Chauke, Miyetani; Harris, Breanna N; Saltzman, Wendy

    2009-08-01

    In a minority of mammalian species, including humans, fathers play a significant role in infant care. Compared to maternal behavior, the neural and hormonal bases of paternal care are poorly understood. We analyzed behavioral, neuronal and neuropeptide responses towards unfamiliar pups in biparental California mice, comparing males housed with another male ("virgin males") or with a female before ("paired males") or after ("new fathers") the birth of their first litter. New fathers approached pups more rapidly and spent more time engaging in paternal behavior than virgin males. In each cage housing two virgin males, one was spontaneously paternal and one was not. New fathers and paired males spent more time sniffing and touching a wire mesh ball containing a newborn pup than virgin males. Only new fathers showed significantly increased Fos-like immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPO) following exposure to a pup-containing ball, as compared to an empty ball. Moreover, Fos-LIR in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (STMV and STMPM) and caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC) was increased in new fathers, independent of test condition. No differences were found among the groups in Fos-LIR in oxytocinergic or vasopressinergic neurons. These results suggest that sexual and paternal experiences facilitate paternal behavior, but other cues play a role as well. Paternal experience increases Fos-LIR induced by distal pup cues in the MPO, but not in oxytocin and vasopressin neurons. Fatherhood also appears to alter neurotransmission in the BNST and DRC, regions implicated in emotionality and stress-responsiveness.

  19. An evolutionary review of human telomere biology: the thrifty telomere hypothesis and notes on potential adaptive paternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Dan T A

    2011-01-01

    Telomeres, repetitive DNA sequences found at the ends of linear chromosomes, play a role in regulating cellular proliferation, and shorten with increasing age in proliferating human tissues. The rate of age-related shortening of telomeres is highest early in life and decreases with age. Shortened telomeres are thought to limit the proliferation of cells and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Although natural selection is widely assumed to operate against long telomeres because they entail increased cancer risk, the evidence for this is mixed. Instead, here it is proposed that telomere length is primarily limited by energetic constraints. Cell proliferation is energetically expensive, so shorter telomeres should lead to a thrifty phenotype. Shorter telomeres are proposed to restrain adaptive immunity as an energy saving mechanism. Such a limited immune system, however, might also result in chronic infections, inflammatory stress, premature aging, and death--a more "disposable soma." With an increased reproductive lifespan, the fitness costs of premature aging are higher and longer telomeres will be favored by selection. Telomeres exhibit a paternal effect whereby the offspring of older fathers have longer telomeres due to increased telomere lengths of sperm with age. This paternal effect is proposed to be an adaptive signal of the expected age of male reproduction in the environment offspring are born into. The offspring of lineages of older fathers will tend to have longer, and thereby less thrifty, telomeres, better preparing them for an environment with higher expected ages at reproduction. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The complete maternal and paternal mitochondrial genomes of Unio crassus: Mitochondrial molecular clock and the overconfidence of molecular dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzyński, Artur; Soroka, Marianna; Mioduchowska, Monika; Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka; Sell, Jerzy

    2017-02-01

    The availability of a rapidly growing number of complete mitochondrial genome sequences provokes high confidence dating approaches. However, even if the congruence between mitochondrial and nuclear markers is reasonable, the resulting topologies are frequently questionable. The unique opportunity to study the evolutionary history of two independent mitochondrial genomes in one phylogenetic context exists in the freshwater mussels family Unionidae. The two lineages function under doubly uniparental inheritance since well before the emergence of the family. Despite the relatively high number of available complete sequences of maternally inherited genomes, comparative analyses are limited by the small number of sequences of counterpart paternally inherited genomes. We have sequenced for the first time the representative set of five sequences (two maternal and three paternal) from the species Unio crassus. Comparative analysis of the phylogenies reconstructed using relevant mitogenomic data available in GenBank (13 species in total) reveal that single - genome inferences are congruent only if the relaxed clock is assumed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Advanced paternal age and risk of fetal death: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Hansen, Kasper Daniel; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2004-01-01

    A possible detrimental paternal age effect on offspring health due to mutations of paternal origin should be reflected in an association between paternal age and fetal loss. The authors used data from a prospective study of 23,821 pregnant women recruited consecutively to the Danish National Birt...

  2. Mapping of paternal-sex-ratio deletion chromosomes localizes multiple regions involved in expression and transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McAllister, BF; Beukeboom, LW; Werren, JH

    The paternal-sex-ratio (PSR) chromosome in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis is a submetacentric supernumerary (B chromosome). Males transmit PSR, but after fertilization it causes the loss of the paternal autosomes. Paternal genome loss caused by PSR results in the conversion of a female

  3. For Your Child's Sake...Establish Paternity [and] Collect Child Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    These brochures explain briefly the importance of establishing paternity for unwed mothers. By establishing paternity and enforcing child support orders, fathers can be required to help raise their child legally and financially. The brochures consist of two separate sheets. "For Your Child's Sake...Establish Paternity" presents several…

  4. Cell lineage specific distribution of H3K27 trimethylation accumulation in an in vitro model for human implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Teklenburg

    Full Text Available Female mammals inactivate one of their two X-chromosomes to compensate for the difference in gene-dosage with males that have just one X-chromosome. X-chromosome inactivation is initiated by the expression of the non-coding RNA Xist, which coats the X-chromosome in cis and triggers gene silencing. In early mouse development the paternal X-chromosome is initially inactivated in all cells of cleavage stage embryos (imprinted X-inactivation followed by reactivation of the inactivated paternal X-chromosome exclusively in the epiblast precursors of blastocysts, resulting temporarily in the presence of two active X-chromosomes in this specific lineage. Shortly thereafter, epiblast cells randomly inactivate either the maternal or the paternal X-chromosome. XCI is accompanied by the accumulation of histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3 marks on the condensed X-chromosome. It is still poorly understood how XCI is regulated during early human development. Here we have investigated lineage development and the distribution of H3K27me3 foci in human embryos derived from an in-vitro model for human implantation. In this system, embryos are co-cultured on decidualized endometrial stromal cells up to day 8, which allows the culture period to be extended for an additional two days. We demonstrate that after the co-culture period, the inner cell masses have relatively high cell numbers and that the GATA4-positive hypoblast lineage and OCT4-positive epiblast cell lineage in these embryos have segregated. H3K27me3 foci were observed in ∼25% of the trophectoderm cells and in ∼7.5% of the hypoblast cells, but not in epiblast cells. In contrast with day 8 embryos derived from the co-cultures, foci of H3K27me3 were not observed in embryos at day 5 of development derived from regular IVF-cultures. These findings indicate that the dynamics of H3K27me3 accumulation on the X-chromosome in human development is regulated in a lineage specific fashion.

  5. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…

  6. Paternity reconstruction and phenotypic pre-selection for genetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    usuallyhigh.Often this approach could be hampered due to reproductive phenology variation, parental fecundity and requires more resources. In order to bypass the limitations of controlled cross approach,. Lambeth et al.(2000) suggested molecular markersbased paternity assignment to convert half-sib into full sib families ...

  7. From killer to carer: steroid hormones and paternal behaviour | de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Well-studied species, such as bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis), dwarf mongoose (Helogale parvula) and meerkats (Suricata suricatta), where social dynamics are relatively well understood, can act as ideal model systems through which we may further investigate the endocrine basis of paternal investment in carnivores.

  8. Change in paternity and recurrence of hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzo, Marlena S; Ching, Chunyu; Schoenberg, Frederic P; Macgibbon, Kimber; Romero, Roberto; Goodwin, T Murphy; Mullin, Patrick M

    2012-08-01

    To determine whether change in paternity changes recurrence risk of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). Survey data on recurrence of HG was compared between cases who had a paternity change between pregnancies and cases who did not. The percentage of HG pregnancies in women with the same partner for all pregnancies was not significantly different from the percentage of HG pregnancies in women who changed partners for at least one pregnancy (78% vs 71%, p > 0.05). Participants who did and did not change partners between their first and second pregnancies, were asked to rate their first and second pregnancy in regards to symptoms of HG. Neither the ratings nor the change in rating between pregnancies was significantly different between the two groups. Women reported HG in over 70% of their pregnancies regardless of a paternity change. Paternal genes expressed through the fetus do not have a significant effect on incidence or recurrence of HG. This study supports a strong maternal genetic factor involved in HG. However, because the recurrence risk is not 100%, other factors play a role. Identification of the predisposing gene(s) and other factors will determine the cause of this poorly understood complication of pregnancy.

  9. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  10. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determination of good cause for refusal to cooperate under section 454(29) of the Act. (2) A contested paternity... Maternal and Child Health (MCH) clinics), and private health care providers (including obstetricians... enforcement (IV-D) services; (C) Head Start and child care agencies (including child care information and...

  11. Genetic Analyses of Sorting of Paternally Transmitted Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The organelles are maternally transmitted in the vast majority of eukaryotes. However paternal transmission of plastids and mitochondria occurs rarely in plants. Cucumber is a unique model plant for organellar genetics because its three genomes show differential transmission: maternal for chlorop...

  12. Maternity leave, what about Paternity leave?: child care and social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, it is noteworthy that in child development and care, the roles of both parents are important. Analysis of the paper is done with the review of literatures and interviews conducted randomly among working women and men in Abeokuta on their experiences and views about maternity and paternity leaves respectively.

  13. Those They Leave behind: Paternal Incarceration and Maternal Instrumental Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Schnittker, Jason; Wildeman, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    As the American imprisonment rate has risen, researchers have become increasingly concerned about the implications of mass imprisonment for family life. The authors extend this research by examining how paternal incarceration is linked to perceived instrumental support among the mothers of inmates' children. Results from the Fragile Families and…

  14. Father Involvement: The Importance of Paternal Solo Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Katherine R.; Prior, Margot R.

    2010-01-01

    Paternal time spent caring for children alone is qualitatively different from time together mediated by the presence of the mother and may be particularly relevant to father-child relations. Many fathers spend minimal time alone with their children. Indeed, it is still commonly referred to as "babysitting". We explored the concept of Solo Care as…

  15. Paternal social experience affects male reproductive behaviour in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Dasgupta P., Halder S. and Nandy B. 2016 Paternal social experience affects male reproductive behaviour in Drosophila melanogaster. J. Genet. 95, 725–727] ... ous social cues (e.g. number of rivals, sex ratio and female mating status) to .... Progeny sired by the first males were all red eyed, whereas those sired by the ...

  16. Impact of paternal investment among women in Sandzak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čvorović Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An evolutionary model of facultative reproductive strategies explains much of women's life history strategy in terms of the absence or presence of their fathers and parental investment they made. This paper assesses direct paternal investment and behavioral outcomes in 164 women in the Sandzak region, using human behavioral ecology approach, with a special emphasis on female reproductive strategy.

  17. Dynamic adjustment of parental care in response to perceived paternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, B D; Gross, M R

    2001-08-07

    Theories of parental care evolution predict that genetic relatedness will be an important variable in the amount of care a parent provides. However, current inferences of relatedness-based parental investment from studies in humans and birds remain challenged. No study has yet demonstrated parental care adjustment in a manner uncomplicated by life-history correlates or experimental design. We now present a unique test that controls for individual life histories and demonstrates paternity-related dynamic adjustments in parental care. Brood-rearing male bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) that are cuckolded to a varying degree will either increase or decrease their parental investment in response to changing information on paternity during brood development. Specifically, as parental males detect paternity lost to cuckolders and, hence, a reduction in the value of their brood, they adaptively lower their level of parental care. Conversely, if they detect that their paternity is higher than previously assessed, they adaptively raise their level of parental care. This dynamic adjustment during brood rearing indicates the importance of genetic relatedness in parental investment decisions and provides needed empirical support for theoretical predictions.

  18. Paternity leave in Sweden: costs, savings and health gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Winkvist, Anna

    2007-06-01

    The initial objective is to examine the relationship between paternity leave in 1978-1979 and male mortality during 1981-2001, and the second objective is to calculate the cost-effectiveness of the 1974 parental insurance reform in Sweden. Based on a population of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (45,801 males), the risk of death for men who took paternity leave, compared with men who did not, was estimated by odds ratios. The cost-effectiveness analysis considered costs for information, administration and production losses, minus savings due to decreased sickness leave and inpatient care, compared to health gains in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). It is demonstrated that fathers who took paternity leave have a statistically significant decreased death risk of 16%. Costs minus savings (discounted values) stretch from a net cost of EUR 19 million to a net saving of EUR 11 million, and the base case cost-effectiveness is EUR 8000 per QALY. The study indicates that that the right to paternity leave is a desirable reform based on commonly stated public health, economic, and feminist goals. The critical issue in future research should be to examine impact from health-related selection.

  19. Paternal Involvement and Child Sleep: A Look beyond Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Annie; Tétreault, Émilie; Bélanger, Marie-Ève; Carrier, Julie

    2017-01-01

    While maternal influences on young children's sleep are increasingly documented, the study of paternal contributions to this important sphere of child functioning is only just beginning. In addition, much of this emerging research has focused on infancy only or has relied on parental reports of child sleep. The current study aimed to examine the…

  20. [Family law, witness of the analysis of prenatal paternity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez López, Raquel; Marfil, Jorge A; González Poveda, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    The authors analyse from a scientific and legal perspective, how paternity analysis in the prenatal period can be reliably performed exactly the same as with newborns, and therefore, establish kinship in accordance with established regulations. In other words, there is an option for those who might not want to wait until birth to establish kinship.

  1. A relict bank vole lineage highlights the biogeographic history of the Pyrenean region in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffontaine, Valérie; Ledevin, Ronan; Fontaine, Michaël C; Quéré, Jean-Pierre; Renaud, Sabrina; Libois, Roland; Michaux, Johan R

    2009-06-01

    The Pyrenean region exhibits high levels of endemism suggesting a major contribution to the phylogeography of European species. But, to date, the role of the Pyrenees and surrounding areas as a glacial refugium for temperate species remains poorly explored. In the current study, we investigated the biogeographic role of the Pyrenean region through the analyses of genetic polymorphism and morphology of a typical forest-dwelling small mammal, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). Analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the third upper molar (M(3)) show a complex phylogeographic structure in the Pyrenean region with at least three distinct lineages: the Western European, Spanish and Basque lineages. The Basque lineage in the northwestern (NW) Pyrenees was identified as a new clearly differentiated and geographically localized bank vole lineage in Europe. The average M(3) shape of Basque bank voles suggests morphological differentiation but also restricted genetic exchanges with other populations. Our genetic and morphological results as well as palaeo-environmental and fossils records support the hypothesis of a new glacial refugium in Europe situated in the NW Pyrenees. The permissive microclimatic conditions that prevailed for a long time in this region may have allowed the survival of temperate species, including humans. Moreover, local differentiation around the Pyrenees is favoured by the opportunity for populations to track the shift of the vegetation belt in altitude rather than in latitude. The finding of the Basque lineage is in agreement with the high level of endemic taxa reported in the NW Pyrenees.

  2. Mosaic paternal genome-wide uniparental isodisomy with down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Diana; Atwal, Paldeep Singh; Angell, Cathy; Gadi, Inder; Wallerstein, Robert

    2015-10-01

    We report on a 6-month-old girl with two apparent cell lines; one with trisomy 21, and the other with paternal genome-wide uniparental isodisomy (GWUPiD), identified using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based microarray and microsatellite analysis of polymorphic loci. The patient has Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) due to paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) at chromosome location 11p15 (UPD 11p15), which was confirmed through methylation analysis. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is present, which is associated with paternal UPD 11p15.5; and she likely has medullary nephrocalcinosis, which is associated with paternal UPD 20, although this was not biochemically confirmed. Angelman syndrome (AS) analysis was negative but this testing is not completely informative; she has no specific features of AS. Clinical features of this patient include: dysmorphic features consistent with trisomy 21, tetralogy of Fallot, hemihypertrophy, swirled skin hyperpigmentation, hepatoblastoma, and Wilms tumor. Her karyotype is 47,XX,+21[19]/46,XX[4], and microarray results suggest that the cell line with trisomy 21 is biparentally inherited and represents 40-50% of the genomic material in the tested specimen. The difference in the level of cytogenetically detected mosaicism versus the level of mosaicism observed via microarray analysis is likely caused by differences in the test methodologies. While a handful of cases of mosaic paternal GWUPiD have been reported, this patient is the only reported case that also involves trisomy 21. Other GWUPiD patients have presented with features associated with multiple imprinted regions, as does our patient. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Paternal allele influences high fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Sumiyo; Horii, Takuro; Kimura, Mika; Arai, Yuji; Kamei, Yasutomi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Hatada, Izuho

    2014-01-01

    C57BL/6J (B6) mice are susceptible to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and have been used in metabolism research for many decades. However, the genetic component of HFD-induced obesity has not yet been elucidated. This study reports evidence for a paternal transmission of HFD-induced obesity and a correlated expression of Igf2 and Peg3 (paternal expressed gene 3) imprinted genes. We found that PWK mice are resistant to HFD-induced obesity compared to C57BL/6J mice. Therefore, we generated and analyzed reciprocal crosses between these mice, namely; (PWK×B6) F1 progeny with B6 father and (B6×PWK) F1 progeny with PWK father. The (PWK×B6) F1 mice were more sensitive to diet-induced obesity compared to (B6×PWK) F1 mice, suggesting a paternal transmission of diet-induced obesity. Expression analysis of imprinted genes in adipocytes revealed that HFD influences the expression of some of the imprinted genes in adipose tissue in B6 and PWK mice. Interestingly, Igf2 and Peg3, which are paternally expressed imprinted genes involved in the regulation of body fat accumulation, were down-regulated in B6 and (PWK×B6) F1 mice, which are susceptible to HFD-induced obesity, but not in PWK and (B6×PWK) F1 mice, which are resistant. Furthermore, in vitro analysis showed that Igf2, but not Peg3, had an anti-inflammatory effect on TNF-α induced MCP-1 expression in adipocytes. Taken together, our findings suggest that the down-regulation of Igf2 and Peg3 imprinted genes in adipocytes may be involved in the paternal transmission of HFD-induced obesity.

  4. The influence of paternal age on down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, Harry; Hyun, Grace; Golden, Robert; Hensle, Terry W; Olsson, Carl A; Liberson, Gary L

    2003-06-01

    Children born to older parents are at greater risk for genetic abnormalities, such as Down syndrome. The influence of maternal age on Down syndrome is well established but little is known about the genetic consequences of advanced paternal age. Data on the incidence of Down syndrome from 1983 to 1997 (3,419 cases) were obtained from the New York State Department of Health congenital malformations registry. Parental age was modeled as individual age groups and by a single linear covariate (drift model). The log linear chi-square test and a test of significance of different explanatory variables were used to evaluate these models to determine significance. We compared actual Down syndrome rates by maternal age with the estimated rate corrected for paternal age. From 1983 to 1997 a dramatic increase in the number of infants born to parents 35 years or older was observed. During the 15-year study period there was an increase of 111% and 60% in the number of mothers and fathers 35 years old or older, respectively. There was no parental age influence on Down syndrome until age 35 years and older. A paternal age effect was seen in association with a maternal age of 35 years and older, and it was most pronounced when maternal age was 40 years and older (p = 0.0004). In this later maternal age group the paternal contribution to Down syndrome was 50%. Advanced paternal age combined with maternal age significantly influences the incidence of Down syndrome. This effect may represent a paradigm for other genetic abnormalities in children of older fathers.

  5. SALL1 mutations in sporadic Townes-Brocks syndrome are of predominantly paternal origin without obvious paternal age effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Johann; Munk-Schulenburg, Susanne; Felscher, Stephanie; Kohlhase, Jürgen

    2006-09-15

    Autosomal dominant Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS) is characterized by imperforate anus, triphalangeal and supernumerary thumbs, dysplastic ears and sensorineural hearing loss, and may also involve other organ systems. Strong inter- and intrafamiliar variability is known. Approximately 50% of TBS cases are sporadic and due to de novo mutations in the SALL1 gene. SALL1 encodes a zinc finger protein operating as a transcriptional repressor and localizing to pericentromeric heterochromatin. We traced the parental origin of SALL1 mutations in sporadic TBS by analysis of linkage between SALL1 mutations and exonic or intronic polymorphisms in 16 families with 10 different mutations. Mutations were of paternal origin in 14 of 16 cases (87.5%). Paternal origin was independent of the mutation type. The mean paternal age at conception was 29.9 and the mean maternal age 26.5 years. We conclude that de novo mutations in SALL1 mostly occur on the paternally derived chromosome 16 without an obvious age effect.

  6. [Paternal GNAS mutations: Which phenotypes? What genetic counseling?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottler, Marie-Laure

    2015-05-01

    Parental imprinting and the type of the genetic alteration play a determinant role in the phenotype expression of GNAS locus associated to pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP). GNAS locus gives rise to several different messenger RNA transcripts that are derived from the paternal allele, the maternal allele, or both and can be either coding or non-coding. As a consequence, GNAS mutations lead to a wide spectrum of phenotypes. An alteration in the coding sequence of the gene leads to a haplo-insufficiency and a dysmorphic phenotype (Albright's syndrome or AHO). AHO is a clinical syndrome defined by specific physical features including short stature, obesity, round-shaped face, subcutaneous ossifications, brachymetarcapy (mainly of the 4th and 5th ray). If the alteration is on the maternal allele, there is a hormonal resistance to the PTH at the kidney level and to the TSH at the thyroid level. The phenotype is known as pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP1a). If the alteration is on the paternal allele, there are few clinical signs with no hormonal resistance and the phenotype is known as pseudopseudo hypoparathyroidism (pseudo-PPHP). Heterozygous GNAS mutations on the paternal GNAS allele were associated with intra uterin growth retardation (IUGR). Moreover, birth weights were lower with paternal GNAS mutations affecting exon 2-13 than with exon 1/intron 1 mutations suggesting a role for loss of function XLαs. Progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) is a rare disease of ectopic bone formation, characterized by cutaneous and subcutaneous ossifications progressing towards deep connective and muscular tissues. POH is caused by a heterozygous GNAS inactivating mutation and has been associated with paternal inheritance. However, genotype/phenotype correlations suggest that there is no direct correlation between the ossifying process and parental origin, as there is high variability in heterotopic ossification. Clinical heterogeneity makes genetic counseling a very delicate

  7. New Lineage of Lassa Virus, Togo, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Shannon L M; Strecker, Thomas; Cadar, Daniel; Dienes, Hans-Peter; Faber, Kelly; Patel, Ketan; Brown, Shelley M; Davis, William G; Klena, John D; Rollin, Pierre E; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Noack, Bernd; Emmerich, Petra; Rieger, Toni; Wolff, Svenja; Fehling, Sarah Katharina; Eickmann, Markus; Mengel, Jan Philipp; Schultze, Tilman; Hain, Torsten; Ampofo, William; Bonney, Kofi; Aryeequaye, Juliana Naa Dedei; Ribner, Bruce; Varkey, Jay B; Mehta, Aneesh K; Lyon, G Marshall; Kann, Gerrit; De Leuw, Philipp; Schuettfort, Gundolf; Stephan, Christoph; Wieland, Ulrike; Fries, Jochen W U; Kochanek, Matthias; Kraft, Colleen S; Wolf, Timo; Nichol, Stuart T; Becker, Stephan; Ströher, Ute; Günther, Stephan

    2018-03-01

    We describe a strain of Lassa virus representing a putative new lineage that was isolated from a cluster of human infections with an epidemiologic link to Togo. This finding extends the known range of Lassa virus to Togo.

  8. Functional distinctiveness of major plant lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornwell, W.K.; Westoby, M.; Falster, D.S.; FitzJohn, R.G.; O'Meara, B.C.; Pennell, M.W.; McGlilnn, D.J.; Eastman, J.M.; Moles, A.T.; Reich, P.B.; Tank, D.C.; Wright, I.J.; Aarssen, L.; Beaulieu, J.M.; Kooyman, R.M.; Leishman, M.R.; Miller, E.T.; Niinemets, U.; Oleksyn, J.; Ordonez, A.; Royer, D.L.; Smith, S.A.; Stevens, P.F.; Warman, L.; Wilf, P.; Zanne, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Plant traits vary widely across species and underpin differences in ecological strategy. Despite centuries of interest, the contributions of different evolutionary lineages to modern-day functional diversity remain poorly quantified. Expanding data bases of plant traits plus rapidly improving

  9. Lineage Selection and the Maintenance of Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vienne, Damien M; Giraud, Tatiana; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri

    2013-01-01

    Sex predominates in eukaryotes, despite its short-term disadvantage when compared to asexuality. Myriad models have suggested that short-term advantages of sex may be sufficient to counterbalance its twofold costs. However, despite decades of experimental work seeking such evidence, no evolutionary mechanism has yet achieved broad recognition as explanation for the maintenance of sex. We explore here, through lineage-selection models, the conditions favouring the maintenance of sex. In the first model, we allowed the rate of transition to asexuality to evolve, to determine whether lineage selection favoured species with the strongest constraints preventing the loss of sex. In the second model, we simulated more explicitly the mechanisms underlying the higher extinction rates of asexual lineages than of their sexual counterparts. We linked extinction rates to the ecological and/or genetic features of lineages, thereby providing a formalisation of the only figure included in Darwin's "The origin of species". Our results reinforce the view that the long-term advantages of sex and lineage selection may provide the most satisfactory explanations for the maintenance of sex in eukaryotes, which is still poorly recognized, and provide figures and a simulation website for training and educational purposes. Short-term benefits may play a role, but it is also essential to take into account the selection of lineages for a thorough understanding of the maintenance of sex.

  10. Lineage Selection and the Maintenance of Sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien M de Vienne

    Full Text Available Sex predominates in eukaryotes, despite its short-term disadvantage when compared to asexuality. Myriad models have suggested that short-term advantages of sex may be sufficient to counterbalance its twofold costs. However, despite decades of experimental work seeking such evidence, no evolutionary mechanism has yet achieved broad recognition as explanation for the maintenance of sex. We explore here, through lineage-selection models, the conditions favouring the maintenance of sex. In the first model, we allowed the rate of transition to asexuality to evolve, to determine whether lineage selection favoured species with the strongest constraints preventing the loss of sex. In the second model, we simulated more explicitly the mechanisms underlying the higher extinction rates of asexual lineages than of their sexual counterparts. We linked extinction rates to the ecological and/or genetic features of lineages, thereby providing a formalisation of the only figure included in Darwin's "The origin of species". Our results reinforce the view that the long-term advantages of sex and lineage selection may provide the most satisfactory explanations for the maintenance of sex in eukaryotes, which is still poorly recognized, and provide figures and a simulation website for training and educational purposes. Short-term benefits may play a role, but it is also essential to take into account the selection of lineages for a thorough understanding of the maintenance of sex.

  11. Correlated paternity measures mate monopolization and scales with the magnitude of sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorken, M E; Perry, L E

    2017-02-01

    Indirect measures of sexual selection have been criticized because they can overestimate the magnitude of selection. In particular, they do not account for the degree to which mating opportunities can be monopolized by individuals of the sex that compete for mates. We introduce a measure of mate monopolization (m) based on the magnitude of correlated paternity and evaluate its ability to track changes in the magnitude of sexual selection. Simulation models were used to compare how well m tracked changes in the selection differential (s) for a trait regulating mating success. We further evaluated the association between m and s using ten replicate mating arrays of Sagittaria latifolia in which plants with contrasting alleles at microsatellite loci competed for siring opportunities. The computer models and mating arrays both demonstrated a positive linear association between m and s, supporting the utility of m as an index of sexual selection. Commonly used measures of sexual selection are not easily applied to organisms, such as the flowering plants, for which mating events are difficult to observe. The measure of mate monopolization introduced here could prove to be a useful addition to studies of sexual selection in these organisms. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. The impact of grandparental investment on mothers' fertility intentions in four European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Tanskanen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evolutionary theory predicts that grandparental investment should support the childbearing of adult children, but evidence from contemporary developed countries is mixed or relatively weak. One possible reason for this lack of clarity is that grandparental support for fertility may vary by country, the economic situation of the adult child's household, and the lineage and the sex of the grandparent. Objective: We investigate the associations between grandparental investments and the intentions of mothers to have a second or third child in four European countries - Bulgaria, France, Lithuania, and Norway - while paying special attention to effect of the country, the financial security of the household, and the different grandparent types. Methods: Using the first wave data (2004-08 of the Generations and Gender Surveys, we measured grandparental investment by the amount of child care help and emotional support mothers reported receiving from their parents. We studied these factors with binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Both emotional support and child care help from grandparents were associated with increased fertility intentions in France and Norway. Emotional support was also associated with increased fertility intentions in Bulgaria, while grandparental child care help was associated with decreased intentions in Lithuania. Emotional support was more strongly associated with fertility intentions in financially secure households. Emotional support received from a maternal grandmother, a maternal grandfather, and a paternal grandmother; and child care help received from a maternal grandfather; were associated with an increased probability that a mother would report the intention to have another child. Conclusions: Grandparental investment, especially emotional support, appears to be most influential in wealthier European countries and among more financially secure families. When a family's socioeconomic situation and the

  13. Uniparental Genetic Heritage of Belarusians: Encounter of Rare Middle Eastern Matrilineages with a Central European Mitochondrial DNA Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniarevich, Alena; Sivitskaya, Larysa; Danilenko, Nina; Novogrodskii, Tadeush; Tsybovsky, Iosif; Kiseleva, Anna; Kotova, Svetlana; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Metspalu, Ene; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Reidla, Maere; Rootsi, Siiri; Parik, Jüri; Reisberg, Tuuli; Achilli, Alessandro; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Gandini, Francesca; Olivieri, Anna; Behar, Doron M.; Torroni, Antonio; Davydenko, Oleg; Villems, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic Belarusians make up more than 80% of the nine and half million people inhabiting the Republic of Belarus. Belarusians together with Ukrainians and Russians represent the East Slavic linguistic group, largest both in numbers and territory, inhabiting East Europe alongside Baltic-, Finno-Permic- and Turkic-speaking people. Till date, only a limited number of low resolution genetic studies have been performed on this population. Therefore, with the phylogeographic analysis of 565 Y-chromosomes and 267 mitochondrial DNAs from six well covered geographic sub-regions of Belarus we strove to complement the existing genetic profile of eastern Europeans. Our results reveal that around 80% of the paternal Belarusian gene pool is composed of R1a, I2a and N1c Y-chromosome haplogroups – a profile which is very similar to the two other eastern European populations – Ukrainians and Russians. The maternal Belarusian gene pool encompasses a full range of West Eurasian haplogroups and agrees well with the genetic structure of central-east European populations. Our data attest that latitudinal gradients characterize the variation of the uniparentally transmitted gene pools of modern Belarusians. In particular, the Y-chromosome reflects movements of people in central-east Europe, starting probably as early as the beginning of the Holocene. Furthermore, the matrilineal legacy of Belarusians retains two rare mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, N1a3 and N3, whose phylogeographies were explored in detail after de novo sequencing of 20 and 13 complete mitogenomes, respectively, from all over Eurasia. Our phylogeographic analyses reveal that two mitochondrial DNA lineages, N3 and N1a3, both of Middle Eastern origin, might mark distinct events of matrilineal gene flow to Europe: during the mid-Holocene period and around the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, respectively. PMID:23785503

  14. Epigenetic effects of paternal diet on offspring: emphasis on obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyvka, Yuriy; Zhang, Yizhu; Nowak, Felicia V

    2015-02-01

    Overnutrition, obesity, and the rise in associated comorbidities are widely recognized as preventable challenges to global health. Behavioral, metabolic, and epigenetic influences that alter the epigenome, when passed on to offspring, can increase their risk of developing an altered metabolic profile. This review is focused on the role of paternal inheritance as demonstrated by clinical, epidemiological, and experimental models. Development of additional experimental models that resemble the specific epigenetic sensitive situations in human studies will be essential to explore paternally induced trans-generational effects that are mediated, primarily, by epigenetic effects. Further elucidation of epigenetic marks will help identify preventive and therapeutic targets, which in combination with healthy lifestyle choices, can diminish the growing tide of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other related disorders.

  15. Paternalism and the good lives model of sex offender rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Bill

    2011-09-01

    The lives of sex offenders are often confused and disorganized. Modern sex offender rehabilitation approaches such as the good lives model emphasize holistic aims such as helping offenders to live more satisfying and fulfilling lives, rather than merely teaching them to avoid risk. The appeal of the model lies in its justification by paternalism: Whatever harms are inflicted on offenders during the rehabilitation process are ultimately for their own good. But paternalism has its limitations, which include potential infringements on offenders' autonomy and human rights, the risk of therapists imposing their own values and attitudes, and false claims that harmful interventions are justified by their benefit for offenders. Furthermore, some recent empirical studies suggest that offenders themselves do not necessarily prefer personal well-being goals over risk management techniques and that some offenders find it distressingly easy to incorporate "good lives" principles into an ongoing antisocial lifestyle. These limitations need to be taken into account when applying a good lives approach.

  16. Low birthweight and prematurity in relation to paternal factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Olsen, Jørn; Christensen, Kaare

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of paternal determinants in the occurrence of low birthweight and prematurity is not well known. We investigated these outcomes in siblings and paternal half siblings as a function of changes in putative external determinants between two births in fathers who had...... risk was 16.7% for preterm delivery and 16.8% for LBW. Changing female partner was, as expected, associated with a reduction in the recurrence risk for both outcomes (RR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.27-0.60 for preterm delivery and RR = 0.38; 95% CI : 0.26-0.56 for LBW). None of the other studied factors...... factor of importance in the occurrence of LBW and preterm delivery....

  17. Birth outcomes after preconception paternal exposure to methotrexate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Rachel W; Larsen, Michael Due; Magnussen, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    odds ratio (OR) for preterm birth was 1.38 (95% CI:0.68-2.81). The adjusted ORs of congenital anomalies (CAs) and small for gestational age (SGA) were 1.10 (95% CI:0.57-2.13) and 0.98 (95% CI:0.39-2.50), respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results regarding the effect of paternal use of MTX within 3 months...... before conception on birth outcomes of CAs, preterm birth and SGA are overall reassuring....

  18. Beyond the Consent Dilemma in Libertarian Paternalism, a Normative Void

    OpenAIRE

    Baujard, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    CNRS : NR; AERES: NR; International audience; I am convinced by Alain Marciano’s argument (Marciano 2015). He remarks that consent to the condition of choice is considered by neoclassicaleconomics to be an external issue. And although it does remain an issue as far as the theory of rational choice is concerned, there too it is notunjustified to consider it as an external one. For libertarian paternalism, though, it becomes an internal issue as soon as the suppositions ofrationality and perfec...

  19. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  20. Dynamic adjustment of parental care in response to perceived paternity.

    OpenAIRE

    Neff, B. D.; Gross, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    Theories of parental care evolution predict that genetic relatedness will be an important variable in the amount of care a parent provides. However, current inferences of relatedness-based parental investment from studies in humans and birds remain challenged. No study has yet demonstrated parental care adjustment in a manner uncomplicated by life-history correlates or experimental design. We now present a unique test that controls for individual life histories and demonstrates paternity-rela...

  1. Paid maternity and paternity leave: rights and choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Claire

    2007-01-01

    From April 2007 onwards, maternity leave will be raised to nine months Paid maternity leave is associated with significant health benefits for babies, including reduced infant mortality The Government proposes to increase paid maternity leave to one year and introduce additional paternity leave by around 2009 The U.K's provision for maternity leave and child care is more generous than the U.S.A. or Australia but less than in the Scandinavian countries

  2. Behavioral economics and the ‘new’ paternalism1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostislav Kapeliushnikov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critical appraisal of the normative program of behavioral economics known as ‘new paternalism’. First, it explores the theoretical foundations of behavioral economics, describes major behavioral anomalies associated with bounded rationality of economic agents and discusses its normative principles and political implications. It then discusses the main empirical and conceptual drawbacks of new paternalism and provides arguments for the alternative non-welfarist normative tradition based on the idea of freedom.

  3. Male genotype affects female fitness in a paternally investing species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedell, N

    2006-08-01

    Male nutrient provisioning is widespread in insects. Females of some species use male-derived nutrients for increased longevity and reproductive output. Despite much research into the consequences of paternal nutrient investment for male and female fitness, the heritability, and therefore the potential of this trait to respond to selection, has rarely been examined. Males of several butterfly species provide the female with nutrients in the spermatophore at mating. Females of the green-veined white butterfly Pieris napi (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) use male donations both for developing eggs (resulting in higher lifetime fecundity of multiply mated females), but also for their somatic maintenance (increasing longevity). Using half-sib, father-son regression and full-sib analyses, I showed that paternal nutrient investment is heritable, both in terms of the absolute but also the relative size of the spermatophore (controlling for body size). Male size and spermatophore size were also genetically correlated. Furthermore, a separate study showed male genotype had a significant effect on female longevity and lifetime fecundity. In contrast, male genotype had no influence on the immediate egg-laying rate of females following mating, suggesting limited scope for male manipulation of immediate female oviposition. These results indicate that females may derive both direct (increased lifetime fecundity and longevity) and indirect (sons with greater reproductive success) fitness benefits from paternal nutrient donations in this species.

  4. [Paternal grief and nursing care in perinatal deaths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Ting; Chen, Fu-Hsuan

    2013-12-01

    Perinatal death distresses all family members. Paternal perceptions of perinatal death should be better understood in order to help the expectant father maintain long-term health and quality of life and minimize the potential negative effects of paternal grieving and stress on family and marital relations. Male and female grieving behaviors have been shown to differ significantly. Taiwan society typically expects males to be strong and support the family while avoiding the overt expression or revelation of personal feelings such as grief, regret, and anger. Although fathers may be reluctant to express a need for care, care personnel may facilitate care through such activities as understanding of a perinatal-death father's feelings, providing related messages about the event to facilitate good decisions, helping him support his spouse, helping him adopt appropriate behaviors and attitudes toward the fetus, and treating him as a grieving father rather than a medical event. This article reviews the literature to explore paternal perceptions and reactions toward perinatal death in order to recognize nursing needs and principles of grieving fathers within the Taiwan cultural context. Further study in this area is recommended.

  5. Decisions about parental care in response to perceived paternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Bryan D

    2003-04-17

    Evolutionary ecologists are attempting to explain how parents make behavioural decisions about how much care to provide to their young. Theory predicts that when genetic relatedness to young is decreased by cuckoldry, for example, parents should reduce their care in favour of alternative broods that provide greater reproductive success. Experimental manipulation of perceived paternity has been used to test the theory, but such studies have generated mixed results. Some manipulations can fail to alter a parent's perceived paternity, whereas others may directly affect parental behaviour when, for instance, the manipulation involves capturing the parent. No study has demonstrated parental care adjustment in a manner uncomplicated by experimental design or life history correlates. Here I test the theory using the fact that nest-tending parental male bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) can assess their paternity using both the visual presence of parasitic cuckolder males during spawning, and olfactory cues released by newly hatched eggs. By manipulating both types of cues I show that parental males dynamically adjust their parental care, favouring broods that are apparently most closely related. These results confirm the importance of genetic relatedness in parental care decision-making.

  6. A search for obligatory paternal alleles in a DNA database to find an alleged rapist in a fatherless paternity case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, Mark; Reshef, Ayeleth; Voskoboinik, Lev; Zamir, Ashira; Motro, Uzi; Gafny, Ron

    2012-07-01

    A sexual assault case resulted in a pregnancy, which was subsequently aborted. The alleged father of the fetus was unknown. Maternal and fetal types were obtained using the 11-locus AmpFℓSTR(®) SGM Plus(®) kit. The national DNA database was searched for the paternal obligatory alleles and detected two suspects who could not be excluded as father of the male fetus. Additional typing using the AmpFℓSTR(®) Minifiler(™) kit, containing three additional autosomal loci, was not sufficient to exclude either suspect. Subsequent typing using the PowerPlex(®) 16, containing four additional loci, and Y-Filer(™) kits resulted in excluding one suspect. Searching a database for paternal obligatory alleles can be fruitful, but is fraught with possible false positive results so that finding a match must be taken as only preliminary evidence. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA: degradation of paternal mitochondria by allogeneic organelle autophagy, allophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miyuki; Sato, Ken

    2012-03-01

    Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is generally observed in many eukaryotes. Sperm-derived paternal mitochondria and their mtDNA enter the oocyte cytoplasm upon fertilization and then normally disappear during early embryogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying this clearance of paternal mitochondria has remained largely unknown. Recently, we showed that autophagy is required for the elimination of paternal mitochondria in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Shortly after fertilization, autophagosomes are induced locally around the penetrated sperm components. These autophagosomes engulf paternal mitochondria, resulting in their lysosomal degradation during early embryogenesis. In autophagy-defective zygotes, paternal mitochondria and their genomes remain even in the larval stage. Therefore, maternal inheritance of mtDNA is accomplished by autophagic degradation of paternal mitochondria. We also found that another kind of sperm-derived structure, called the membranous organelle, is degraded by zygotic autophagy as well. We thus propose to term this allogeneic (nonself) organelle autophagy as allophagy.

  8. Noninvasive Prenatal Paternity Testing (NIPAT) through Maternal Plasma DNA Sequencing: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haojun; Xie, Yifan; Li, Xuchao; Ge, Huijuan; Deng, Yongqiang; Mu, Haofang; Feng, Xiaoli; Yin, Lu; Du, Zhou; Chen, Fang; He, Nongyue

    2016-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been already used to perform noninvasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal plasma DNA. The frequently used technologies were PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and SNP typing array, respectively. Here, we developed a noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) based on SNP typing with maternal plasma DNA sequencing. We evaluated the influence factors (minor allele frequency (MAF), the number of total SNP, fetal fraction and effective sequencing depth) and designed three different selective SNP panels in order to verify the performance in clinical cases. Combining targeted deep sequencing of selective SNP and informative bioinformatics pipeline, we calculated the combined paternity index (CPI) of 17 cases to determine paternity. Sequencing-based NIPAT results fully agreed with invasive prenatal paternity test using STR multiplex system. Our study here proved that the maternal plasma DNA sequencing-based technology is feasible and accurate in determining paternity, which may provide an alternative in forensic application in the future.

  9. Parental Divorce, Maternal-Paternal Alcohol Problems, and Adult Offspring Lifetime Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Ronald G.; ALONZO, DANA; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime alcohol dependence using data from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime alcohol dependence. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems double...

  10. Different Implications of Paternal and Maternal Atopy for Perinatal IgE Production and Asthma Development

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Chiang Wu; Rong-Fu Chen; Ho-Chang Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a hereditary disease associated with IgE-mediated reaction. Whether maternal atopy and paternal atopy have different impacts on perinatal IgE production and asthma development remains unclear. This paper reviews and summarizes the effects of maternal and paternal atopy on the developmental aspects of IgE production and asthma. Maternal atopy affects both pre- and postnatal IgE production, whereas paternal atopy mainly affects the latter. Maternally transmitted genes GSTP1 and FceRI-...

  11. Postnatal paternal depressive symptoms associated with fathers' subsequent parenting: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Selina; Russell, Ginny; Ford, Tamsin; Kuyken, Willem; Psychogiou, Lamprini

    2015-12-01

    Impaired parenting may lie on the causal pathway between paternal depression and children's outcomes. We use the first four surveys of the Millennium Cohort Study to investigate the association between paternal depressive symptoms and fathers' parenting (negative, positive and involvement). Findings suggest that postnatal paternal depressive symptoms are associated with fathers' negative parenting. This has implications for the design of intervention programmes for parents with depression and young children. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  12. Living on the wedge: female control of paternity in a cooperatively polyandrous cichlid

    OpenAIRE

    Kohda, Masanori; Heg, Dik; Makino, Yoshimi; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Shibata, Jun-ya; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Munehara, Hiroyuki; Hori, Michio; Awata, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Theories suggest that, in cooperatively breeding species, female control over paternity and reproductive output may affect male reproductive skew and group stability. Female paternity control may come about through cryptic female choice or female reproductive behaviour, but experimental studies are scarce. Here, we show a new form of female paternity control in a cooperatively polyandrous cichlid fish (Julidochromis transcriptus), in which females prefer wedge-shaped nesting sites. Wedge-shap...

  13. Difference in Psychosocial Well-being Between Paternal and Maternal AIDS Orphans in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Qun; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    This study compares psychosocial well-being between paternal and maternal orphans in rural China in a sample (N = 459) of children who had lost one parent to HIV and who were in family-based care. Measures included academic marks, education expectation, trusting relationships with current caregivers, self-reported health status, depression, loneliness, posttraumatic stress, and social support. No significant differences were found between maternal and paternal orphans, except that paternal or...

  14. Determining Lineage Pathways from Cellular Barcoding Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leïla Perié

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellular barcoding and other single-cell lineage-tracing strategies form experimental methodologies for analysis of in vivo cell fate that have been instrumental in several significant recent discoveries. Due to the highly nonlinear nature of proliferation and differentiation, interrogation of the resulting data for evaluation of potential lineage pathways requires a new quantitative framework complete with appropriate statistical tests. Here, we develop such a framework, illustrating its utility by analyzing data from barcoded multipotent cells of the blood system. This application demonstrates that the data require additional paths beyond those found in the classical model, which leads us to propose that hematopoietic differentiation follows a loss of potential mechanism and to suggest further experiments to test this deduction. Our quantitative framework can evaluate the compatibility of lineage trees with barcoded data from any proliferating and differentiating cell system.

  15. Effects of increased paternal age on sperm quality, reproductive outcome and associated epigenetic risks to offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ashok; Rohra, Vikram K; Assidi, Mourad; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Turki, Rola F

    2015-04-19

    Over the last decade, there has been a significant increase in average paternal age when the first child is conceived, either due to increased life expectancy, widespread use of contraception, late marriages and other factors. While the effect of maternal ageing on fertilization and reproduction is well known and several studies have shown that women over 35 years have a higher risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, spontaneous abortion, congenital anomalies, and perinatal complications. The effect of paternal age on semen quality and reproductive function is controversial for several reasons. First, there is no universal definition for advanced paternal ageing. Secondly, the literature is full of studies with conflicting results, especially for the most common parameters tested. Advancing paternal age also has been associated with increased risk of genetic disease. Our exhaustive literature review has demonstrated negative effects on sperm quality and testicular functions with increasing paternal age. Epigenetics changes, DNA mutations along with chromosomal aneuploidies have been associated with increasing paternal age. In addition to increased risk of male infertility, paternal age has also been demonstrated to impact reproductive and fertility outcomes including a decrease in IVF/ICSI success rate and increasing rate of preterm birth. Increasing paternal age has shown to increase the incidence of different types of disorders like autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and childhood leukemia in the progeny. It is thereby essential to educate the infertile couples on the disturbing links between increased paternal age and rising disorders in their offspring, to better counsel them during their reproductive years.

  16. Consistent paternity skew through ontogeny in Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig D H Sherman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large number of studies in postcopulatory sexual selection use paternity success as a proxy for fertilization success. However, selective mortality during embryonic development can lead to skews in paternity in situations of polyandry and sperm competition. Thus, when assessment of paternity fails to incorporate mortality skews during early ontogeny, this may interfere with correct interpretation of results and subsequent evolutionary inference. In a previous series of in vitro sperm competition experiments with amphibians (Litoria peronii, we showed skewed paternity patterns towards males more genetically similar to the female. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we use in vitro fertilizations and sperm competition trials to test if this pattern of paternity of fully developed tadpoles reflects patterns of paternity at fertilization and if paternity skews changes during embryonic development. We show that there is no selective mortality through ontogeny and that patterns of paternity of hatched tadpoles reflects success of competing males in sperm competition at fertilization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While this study shows that previous inferences of fertilization success from paternity data are valid for this species, rigorous testing of these assumptions is required to ensure that differential embryonic mortality does not confound estimations of true fertilization success.

  17. Psychiatric Disorders Among Offspring of Depressed Mothers: Associations With Paternal Psychopathology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marmorstein, Naomi R; Malone, Stephen M; Iacono, William G

    2004-01-01

    ...; however, little attention has been paid to psychopathology in the partners of these depressed mothers or to how paternal psychopathology might influence the relationship between maternal depression...

  18. Identification of a PVL-negative SCCmec-IVa sub-lineage of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC80 lineage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edslev, Sofie Marie; Westh, Henrik Torkil; Andersen, Paal Skytt

    2018-01-01

    of the CC80 S. aureus lineage was conducted from whole-genome sequences of 217 isolates (23 MSSA and 194 MRSA) from 22 countries. All isolates were further genetically characterized in regard to resistance determinants and PVL carriage, and epidemiological data was obtained for selected isolates. RESULTS......OBJECTIVES: Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) isolates belonging to clonal complex 80 (CC80) are recognized as the European CA-MRSA. The prevailing European CA-MRSA clone carries a type IVc staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and expresses Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Recently......, a significant increase of PVL-negative CC80 MRSA has been observed in Denmark. The aim of this study was to examine the genetics and the epidemiology of these, and to compare them to the European CA-MRSA clone in order to understand the emergence of PVL-negative CC80 MRSA. METHODS: Phylogenetic analysis...

  19. Extra-pair paternity and egg dumping in birds: life history, parental care and the risk of retaliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathryn E; Owens, Ian P F

    2002-06-22

    Molecular techniques have revealed striking variation among bird species in the rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP) and intraspecific brood parasitism (IBP). In terms of the proportion of broods affected, rates of EPP and IBP vary across species from 0-95% and 0-50%, respectively. Despite a plethora of hypotheses and several careful comparative analyses, few robust correlates of this interspecific variation have been identified. One explanation for this shortfall is that most comparative studies have tended to focus on contemporary ecological factors and ignored fundamental differences in reproductive biology that evolved millions of years ago. We show that, for both EPP and IBP, over 50% of interspecific variation is due to differences among taxonomic families and orders. Therefore, we test hypotheses that predict interspecific variation in the rate of alternative reproductive strategies should be associated with differences in life history and the form of parental care. Our analyses largely support these predictions, with high rates of reproductive cheating being associated with 'fast' life histories. High EPP rates are associated with high rates of adult mortality and reduced paternal care. High IBP rates are associated with high-fecundity rates. These patterns remain intact whether we use species as independent data points or evolutionary contrasts based on either molecular or morphological phylogenies. These results are interpreted as supporting the idea that alternative reproductive strategies are most common in taxa in which the risks of retaliation are low. We suggest a hierarchical explanation for interspecific variation in the incidence of alternative reproductive strategies. Variation between major avian lineages in the EPP and IBP rates are determined by fundamental differences in life history and parental care that evolved many millions of years ago. Variation between populations or individuals of the same species, however, are more likely to be

  20. Ancestral stories of Ghanaian Bimoba reflect millennia-old genetic lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Sanchez-Faddeev

    Full Text Available Oral history and oral genealogies are mechanisms of collective memory and a main cultural heritage of many populations without a writing system. In the effort to analytically address the correspondence between genetic data and historical genealogies, anthropologists hypothesised that genealogies evolve through time, ultimately containing three parts: literal--where the most recent ancestry is truthfully represented; intended--ancestry is inferred and reflects political relations among groups; and mythical--that does not represent current social reality. While numerous studies discuss oral genealogies, to our knowledge no genetic studies have been able to investigate to what extent genetic relatedness corresponds to the literal and intended parts of oral genealogies. We report on the correspondence between genetic data and oral genealogies among Bimoba males in a single village in North-Eastern Ghana. We compared the pairwise mismatch distribution of Y chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR haplotypes among all lineages present in this village to the self-reported (oral relatedness. We found that Bimoba are able to correctly identify unrelated individuals in 92% of the cases. In contrast, they are able to correctly identify related individuals only in 38% of the cases, which can be explained by three processes: (1 the compression of genealogies, leading to increasing inaccuracy with increasing genealogical distance, (2 inclusions into the lineage from intended relations such as clan co-option or adoptions, and (3 false paternities, which in this study were found to have a minor effect on the correspondence between genetic data and oral genealogies. In addition, we observed that 70% of unrelated pairs have from six to eight Y-STR differences, a diversification peak which we attribute to an ancient West African expansion dating around 9454 years ago. We conclude that, despite all caveats, oral genealogies are reflecting ancient lineages more

  1. Paternity assignment in the polyploid Acipenser dabryanus based on a novel microsatellite marker system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Liu

    Full Text Available Acipenser dabryanus is listed as a Critical Endangered species in the IUCN Red List and the first class protected animals in China. Fortunately, A. dabryanus specimens are being successfully bred in captivity for conservation. However, for effective ex situ conservation, we should be aware of the genetic diversity and the degree of relatedness of the individuals selected for breeding. In this study, we aimed at the development of novel and reliable microsatellites used for the genetic study of A. dabryanus. A total of 14,321 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were detected by transcriptome sequencing and screening. We selected 20 novel and polymorphic microsatellites (non-dinucleotide with good repeatability from the 100 tested loci for a subsequent genetic and paternity study. A set of captive broodstock (F1 stock, n = 43 and their offspring (F2 stock, n = 96 were used to examine the efficiency of the 20 SSRs for assigning parentage to offspring, with an allocation success of 91.7%. We also found that only a few families predominantly contributed to the progeny produced by the 43 breeders. In addition, mitochondrial DNA data showed that the captive broodstock (F1 individuals had an excellent probability of the same lineage, implying that a high level of inbreeding may have occurred in these individuals. Our research provides useful information on genetic diversity and reproductive pattern of A. dabryanus, and the 20 SSRs developed in this study can be applied to the future breeding program to avoid inbreeding for this stock or other related species of Acipenseriformes.

  2. Taiwanese aborigines: genetic heterogeneity and paternal contribution to Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhaoshu; Rowold, Diane J; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Calderon, Silvia; Regueiro, Maria; Li, Li; Zhong, Mingxia; Herrera, Rene J

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, for the first time, 293 Taiwanese aboriginal males from all nine major tribes (Ami, Atayal, Bunun, Rukai, Paiwan, Saisat, Puyuma, Tsou, Yami) were genotyped with 17 YSTR loci in a attend to reveal migrational patterns connected with the Austronesian expansion. We investigate the paternal genetic relationships of these Taiwanese aborigines to 42 Asia-Pacific reference populations, geographically selected to reflect various locations within the Austronesian domain. The Tsou and Puyuma tribes exhibit the lowest (0.1851) and the highest (0.5453) average total genetic diversity, respectively. Further, the fraction of unique haplotypes is also relatively high in the Puyuma (86.7%) and low in Tsou (33.3%) suggesting different demographic histories. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed several notable findings: 1) the Taiwan indigenous populations are highly diverse. In fact, the level of inter-population heterogeneity displayed by the Taiwanese aboriginal populations is close to that exhibited among all 51 Asia-Pacific populations examined; 2) the asymmetrical contribution of the Taiwanese aborigines to the Oceanic groups. Ami, Bunun and Saisiyat tribes exhibit the strongest paternal links to the Solomon and Polynesian island communities, whereas most of the remaining Taiwanese aboriginal groups are more genetically distant to these Oceanic inhabitants; 3) the present YSTR analyses does not reveal a strong paternal affinity of the nine Taiwanese tribes to their continental Asian neighbors. Overall, our current findings suggest that, perhaps, only a few of the tribes were involved in the migration out of Taiwan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Child gender influences paternal behavior, language, and brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Jennifer S; Rentscher, Kelly E; Hackett, Patrick D; Mehl, Matthias R; Rilling, James K

    2017-06-01

    Multiple lines of research indicate that fathers often treat boys and girls differently in ways that impact child outcomes. The complex picture that has emerged, however, is obscured by methodological challenges inherent to the study of parental caregiving, and no studies to date have examined the possibility that gender differences in observed real-world paternal behavior are related to differential paternal brain responses to male and female children. Here we compare fathers of daughters and fathers of sons in terms of naturalistically observed everyday caregiving behavior and neural responses to child picture stimuli. Compared with fathers of sons, fathers of daughters were more attentively engaged with their daughters, sang more to their daughters, used more analytical language and language related to sadness and the body with their daughters, and had a stronger neural response to their daughter's happy facial expressions in areas of the brain important for reward and emotion regulation (medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]). In contrast, fathers of sons engaged in more rough and tumble play (RTP), used more achievement language with their sons, and had a stronger neural response to their son's neutral facial expressions in the medial OFC (mOFC). Whereas the mOFC response to happy faces was negatively related to RTP, the mOFC response to neutral faces was positively related to RTP, specifically for fathers of boys. These results indicate that real-world paternal behavior and brain function differ as a function of child gender. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Maternal smoking and offspring inattention and hyperactivity: Results from a cross-national European survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovess, V.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Pez, O.; Bitfoi, A.; Koc, C.; Goelitz, D.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Fermanian, C.; Pilowsky, D.J.; Susser, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    In utero exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes; the association with later childhood mental health outcomes remains controversial. We used a strategy involving comparison of maternal and paternal smoking reports in a sample pooling data from six diverse European

  5. Determining lineage pathways from cellular barcoding experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perié, Leïla; Hodgkin, Philip D; Naik, Shalin H; Schumacher, Ton N; de Boer, Rob J; Duffy, Ken R

    2014-01-01

    Cellular barcoding and other single-cell lineage-tracing strategies form experimental methodologies for analysis of in vivo cell fate that have been instrumental in several significant recent discoveries. Due to the highly nonlinear nature of proliferation and differentiation, interrogation of the

  6. Molecular serotype and evolutionary lineage of Listeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The molecular serotypes and the evolutionary lineage of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from various foods in Nigeria are yet to be documented. Consequently, popular uncooked food items known locally as Okazi Utazi, Onugbu, Ogbono, Garri and Egusi obtained from plants botanically known as Gnetum africanum, ...

  7. Stronger influence of maternal than paternal obesity on infant and early childhood body mass index: the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linabery, A M; Nahhas, R W; Johnson, W; Choh, A C; Towne, B; Odegaard, A O; Czerwinski, S A; Demerath, E W

    2013-06-01

    Excessive early childhood adiposity is a prevalent and increasing concern in many parts of the world. Parental obesity is one of the several factors previously associated with infant and early childhood weight, length and adiposity. Parental obesity represents a surrogate marker of the complex interplay among genetic, epigenetic and shared environmental factors, and is potentially modifiable. The relative contributions of maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI) to infant and early childhood growth, as well as the timing of such effects, have not been firmly established. Utilizing serial infant measurements and growth curve modelling, this is the largest study to fully characterize and formally compare associations between maternal and paternal BMI and offspring growth across the entire infancy and early childhood period. Maternal obesity is a stronger determinant of offspring BMI than paternal obesity at birth and from 2 to 3 years of age, suggesting that prevention efforts focused particularly on maternal lifestyle and BMI may be important in reducing excess infant BMI. The observation that maternal BMI effects are not constant, but rather present at birth, wane and re-emerge during late infancy, suggests that there is a window of opportunity in early infancy when targeted interventions on children of obese mothers may be most effective. Parental obesity influences infant body size. To fully characterize their relative effects on infant adiposity, associations between maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI) category (normal: ≤25 kg m(-2) , overweight: 25 - obese: ≥30 kg m(-2) ) and infant BMI were compared in Fels Longitudinal Study participants. A median of 9 serial weight and length measures from birth to 3.5 years were obtained from 912 European American children born in 1928-2008. Using multivariable mixed effects regression, contributions of maternal vs. paternal BMI status to infant BMI growth curves were evaluated. Cubic spline models

  8. Inferring paternal history of rural African-derived Brazilian populations from Y chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Lilian; Nunes, Kelly; Macedo-Souza, Lúcia Inês; Rocha, Jorge; Meyer, Diogo; Mingroni-Netto, Regina Célia

    2017-03-01

    Quilombo remnants are relics of communities founded by runaway or abandoned African slaves, but often with subsequent extensive and complex admixture patterns with European and Native Americans. We combine a genetic study of Y-chromosome markers with anthropological surveys in order to obtain a portrait of quilombo structure and history in the region that has the largest number of quilombo remnants in the state of São Paulo. Samples from 289 individuals from quilombo remnants were genotyped using a set of 17 microsatellites on the Y chromosome (AmpFlSTR-Yfiler). A subset of 82 samples was also genotyped using SNPs array (Axiom Human Origins-Affymetrix). We estimated haplotype and haplogroup frequencies, haplotype diversity and sharing, and pairwise genetic distances through F ST and R ST indexes. We identified 95 Y chromosome haplotypes, classified into 15 haplogroups. About 63% are European, 32% are African, and 6% Native American. The most common were: R1b (European, 34.2%), E1b1a (African, 32.3%), J1 (European, 6.9%), and Q (Native American, 6.2%). Genetic differentiation among communities was low (F ST  = 0.0171; R ST  = 0.0161), and haplotype sharing was extensive. Genetic, genealogical and oral surveys allowed us to detect five main founder haplotypes, which explained a total of 27.7% of the Y chromosome lineages. Our results showed a high European patrilineal genetic contribution among the founders of quilombos, high amounts of gene flow, and a recent common origin of these populations. Common haplotypes and genealogical data indicate the origin of quilombos from a few male individuals. Our study reinforces the importance of a dual approach, involving the analysis of both anthropological and genetic data. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Paternal germline mosaicism of a SCN2A mutation results in Ohtahara syndrome in half siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerem, Ayelet; Lev, Dorit; Blumkin, Lubov; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Michaeli-Yossef, Yael; Halevy, Ayelet; Kivity, Sara; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Leshinsky-Silver, Esther; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Lerman-Sagie, Tally

    2014-09-01

    Ohtahara syndrome is a devastating early infantile epileptic encephalopathy caused by mutations in different genes. We describe a patient with Ohtahara syndrome who presented on the first day of life with refractory tonic seizures and a suppression-burst pattern on EEG. The patient developed severe microcephaly, and never achieved any developmental milestones. He died at the age of 5 years. A de novo missense mutation (c. 4007C>A, p.S1336Y) in SCN2A was found. Interestingly, the father has another son with Ohtahara syndrome from a different mother. The half brother carries the same SCN2A mutation, strongly suggesting paternal gonadal mosaicism of the mutation. The broad clinical spectrum of SCN2A mutations now includes Ohtahara syndrome. This is the first report of familial Ohtahara syndrome due to a germline mosaic SCN2A mutation. Somatic mosaicism, including germline, has been described in several epileptic encephalopathies such as Dravet syndrome, KCNQ2 neonatal epileptic encephalopathy, SCN8A epileptic encephalopathy and STXBP1 related Ohtahara syndrome. Mosaicism should be considered as one of the important inheritance patterns when counseling parents with a child with these devastating diseases. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mafb lineage tracing to distinguish macrophages from other immune lineages reveals dual identity of Langerhans cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodi; Briseño, Carlos G; Durai, Vivek; Albring, Jörn C; Haldar, Malay; Bagadia, Prachi; Kim, Ki-Wook; Randolph, Gwendalyn J; Murphy, Theresa L; Murphy, Kenneth M

    2016-11-14

    Current systems for conditional gene deletion within mouse macrophage lineages are limited by ectopic activity or low efficiency. In this study, we generated a Mafb-driven Cre strain to determine whether any dendritic cells (DCs) identified by Zbtb46-GFP expression originate from a Mafb-expressing population. Lineage tracing distinguished macrophages from classical DCs, neutrophils, and B cells in all organs examined. At steady state, Langerhans cells (LCs) were lineage traced but also expressed Zbtb46-GFP, a phenotype not observed in any other population. After exposure to house dust mite antigen, Zbtb46-negative CD64(+) inflammatory cells infiltrating the lung were substantially lineage traced, but Zbtb46-positive CD64(-) cells were not. These results provide new evidence for the unique identity of LCs and challenge the notion that some inflammatory cells are a population of monocyte-derived DCs. © 2016 Wu et al.

  11. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  12. Filicide: a comparative study of maternal versus paternal child homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Marieke; Koenraadt, Frans

    2008-01-01

    Filicide is the murder of a child by a parent. Historically, filicide was regarded as a female crime, but nowadays, in the West, men have become increasingly likely to be convicted of killing their child. Previous research on filicide has primarily focussed on either maternal or paternal filicide rather than comparing the two. The aim of our study is to examine and compare the socio-demographic, environmental and psychopathological factors underlying maternal and paternal filicide. Data were extracted from records in a forensic psychiatric observation hospital in Utrecht, in the Netherlands for the period 1953-2004. Seventy-nine men and 82 women were detained in the hospital under criminal charges in that period, having killed (132) or attempted to kill (29) their own child(ren). Differences between men and women were found with regard to age, methods of killing and motivation underlying the filicide. Conclusions The categories of filicide identified corresponded to those in studies from other countries, indicating that filicide follows similar patterns throughout the Western world. The fact that 25% of fathers had killed in reaction to threatened separation or divorce, and that over a third of men and more than half of the women were mentally ill at the time may suggest that increased monitoring by primary care physicians under such circumstances might have preventive value. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Coercion in psychiatric care: can paternalism justify coercion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mi Kyung; Kim, Seung Hyun; Rhee, MinKyu

    2013-05-01

    It has long been debated whether coercion can be justified as paternalism in the field of mental health and it is still a continuing issue of controversy today. This study analyses whether coercive intervention in mental health can be justified by the basic assumptions of paternalists: the assumption of incompetence, the assumption of dangerousness and the assumption of impairment. This study involved 248 patients: 158 (63.7%) were diagnosed with schizophrenia and 90 (36.3%) were diagnosed with mood disorder. In this study, experiences of coercion were divided into legal status, subjective (perceived coercion) and objective experiences (experienced coercion). The assumption of incompetence was justified in all three categories of coercion whereas the assumption of dangerousness was not justified in any. The assumption of impairment was not justified in legal status and perceived coercion, but provided a partial explanation to serve as a basis for justifying experienced coercive measures. It can be noted that mental health experts who support paternalism without question must reconsider their previous methods. Above all, the reason why the assumption of dangerousness was not justified in any of the categories of coercion was because coercive intervention used to prevent harm to oneself and others must be very carefully carried out.

  14. Paternity of subordinates raises cooperative effort in cichlids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Bruintjes

    Full Text Available In cooperative breeders, subordinates generally help a dominant breeding pair to raise offspring. Parentage studies have shown that in several species subordinates can participate in reproduction. This suggests an important role of direct fitness benefits for cooperation, particularly where groups contain unrelated subordinates. In this situation parentage should influence levels of cooperation. Here we combine parentage analyses and detailed behavioural observations in the field to study whether in the highly social cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher subordinates participate in reproduction and if so, whether and how this affects their cooperative care, controlling for the effect of kinship.We show that: (i male subordinates gained paternity in 27.8% of all clutches and (ii if they participated in reproduction, they sired on average 11.8% of young. Subordinate males sharing in reproduction showed more defence against experimentally presented egg predators compared to subordinates not participating in reproduction, and they tended to stay closer to the breeding shelter. No effects of relatedness between subordinates and dominants (to mid-parent, dominant female or dominant male were detected on parentage and on helping behaviour.This is the first evidence in a cooperatively breeding fish species that the helping effort of male subordinates may depend on obtained paternity, which stresses the need to consider direct fitness benefits in evolutionary studies of helping behaviour.

  15. Paternal irradiation perturbs the expression of circadian genes in offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Andre M.G.F.; Barber, Ruth C.; Dubrova, Yuri E., E-mail: yed2@le.ac.uk

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have analysed gene expression in the offspring of irradiated male mice. • CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice were used in our study. • The pattern of gene expression was established in four tissues. • Expression of genes in involved in rhythmic process/circadian rhythm is compromised. • Our data may explain the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. - Abstract: The circadian system represents a complex network which influences the timing of many biological processes. Recent studies have established that circadian alterations play an important role in the susceptibility to many human diseases, including cancer. Here we report that paternal irradiation in mice significantly affects the expression of genes involved in rhythmic processes in their first-generation offspring. Using microarrays, the patterns of gene expression were established for brain, kidney, liver and spleen samples from the non-exposed offspring of irradiated CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice. The most over-represented categories among the genes differentially expressed in the offspring of control and irradiated males were those involved in rhythmic process, circadian rhythm and DNA-dependent regulation of transcription. The results of our study therefore provide a plausible explanation for the transgenerational effects of paternal irradiation, including increased transgenerational carcinogenesis described in other studies.

  16. [The paternal constellation: a pilot study in prenatal period.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupa, D; Riazuelo-Deschamps, H

    2001-01-01

    In a research where the authors had argued that some maternal prenatal representations concerning the infant had a decisive impact on precocious interactions (Cupa et al., 1992), they have asked in parallel, what was the weight on these very same interactions of paternal representations during pregnancy, knowing that in this specific period psychic reorganization of the father are profound (Bouchard-Godard, 1976; Cupa et al., 1997). If, in the intertwining of the two theoretical fields where the authors situate their work, being that of psychoanalysis and developmental psychology, there is a an important literature on the father, results and contribution allow to appreciate the impact of studies on the father during pregnancy and present theoretical points of reference of the authors' hypotheses. The presentation of the following study is that of a comparative longitudinal research carried out from the 7th month of pregnancy to 9 months after birth. It appeared indeed to the authors that in order to explore simultaneously the two representational universes and to observe the effects on the triadic interactions, this type of methodology was the most relevant. The results proposed in the last part, only concern the analysis of paternal representations.

  17. Reality and Paternity in the Cinema of the Dardennes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Guanzini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Dardenne brothers’ filmic production aims at restoring the missing link between human beings and the world that has been progressively undermined during the ultimate development of late-capitalist society. This contribution deals with their search for a new contact with reality and a concrete belief in the world, focusing on the theme of body and paternity, in the epoch of their evaporation. However, in or¬der to rethink the paternal function in a post-political and post-ideological age, the Dardennes have had to radically come to terms with its ambiguity and oscillation be¬tween abandon and adoption, self-preservation and transmission, forgiveness and revenge. With regard to this ambivalence, this contribution focuses on two films by the Dardennes, La promesse (The Promise, BE/FR/LU/TN 1996 and Le fils (The Son, BE/FR 2002, which represent significant descriptions of what (the body of a father is capable of, suggesting, at the same time, interruption and filiation as possible experi¬ences for a new beginning.

  18. Paternity testing in case of brother-sister incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macan, Marijana; Uvodić, Petra; Botica, Vladimir

    2003-06-01

    We performed a paternity test in a case of incest between brother and sister. DNA from blood samples of the alleged parents and their two children was obtained with Chelex DNA extraction method and quantified with Applied Biosystems QuantiBlot quantitation kit. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA samples was performed with AmpFlSTR SGM Plus PCR amplification kit and GenePrint PowerPlex PCR amplification kit. The amplified products were separated and detected by using the Perkin Elmer's ABI PRISM trade mark 310 Genetic Analyser. DNA and data analysis of 17 loci and Amelogenin confirmed the suspicion of brother-sister incest. Since both children had inherited all of the obligate alleles from the alleged father, we could confirm with certainty of 99.999999% that the oldest brother in the family was the biological father of both children. Calculated data showed that even in a case of brother-sister incest, paternity could be proved by the analysis of Amelogenin and 17 DNA loci.

  19. Paternity of subordinates raises cooperative effort in cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruintjes, Rick; Bonfils, Danielle; Heg, Dik; Taborsky, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In cooperative breeders, subordinates generally help a dominant breeding pair to raise offspring. Parentage studies have shown that in several species subordinates can participate in reproduction. This suggests an important role of direct fitness benefits for cooperation, particularly where groups contain unrelated subordinates. In this situation parentage should influence levels of cooperation. Here we combine parentage analyses and detailed behavioural observations in the field to study whether in the highly social cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher subordinates participate in reproduction and if so, whether and how this affects their cooperative care, controlling for the effect of kinship. We show that: (i) male subordinates gained paternity in 27.8% of all clutches and (ii) if they participated in reproduction, they sired on average 11.8% of young. Subordinate males sharing in reproduction showed more defence against experimentally presented egg predators compared to subordinates not participating in reproduction, and they tended to stay closer to the breeding shelter. No effects of relatedness between subordinates and dominants (to mid-parent, dominant female or dominant male) were detected on parentage and on helping behaviour. This is the first evidence in a cooperatively breeding fish species that the helping effort of male subordinates may depend on obtained paternity, which stresses the need to consider direct fitness benefits in evolutionary studies of helping behaviour.

  20. Paternal transmission of a FMR1 full mutation allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Mora, Maria Isabel; Guitart, Miriam; Rodriguez-Revenga, Laia; Madrigal, Irene; Gabau, Elisabeth; Milà, Montserrat

    2017-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability (ID) and autism. In most of cases, the molecular basis of this syndrome is a CGG repeat expansion in the 5' untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. It is inherited as an X linked dominant trait, with a reduced penetrance (80% for males and 30% for females). Full mutation (FM) expansion from premutated alleles (PM) is only acquired via maternal meiosis, while paternal transmission always remains in the PM range. We present a 16-year-old girl with a mild fragile X syndrome phenotype. FMR1 gene study showed that the patient inherited a mosaic premutation-full mutation with an unmethylated uninterrupted allele (175, >200 CGG) from her father. The father showed an 88 CGG uninterrupted unmethylated allele in blood and sperm cells. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a FMR1 mosaic premutation-full mutation allele inherited from a PM father. In our opinion, the most likely explanation could be a postzygotic somatic expansion. We can conclude that in rare cases of a child with a full mutation whose mother does not carry a premutation, the possibility of paternal transmission should be considered. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Multiple paternity in a viviparous toad with internal fertilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberger-Loua, Laura; Feldhaar, Heike; Jehle, Robert; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Anurans are renowned for a high diversity of reproductive modes, but less than 1 % of species exhibit internal fertilisation followed by viviparity. In the live-bearing West African Nimba toad (Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis), females produce yolk-poor eggs and internally nourish their young after fertilisation. Birth of fully developed juveniles takes place after 9 months. In the present study, we used genetic markers (eight microsatellite loci) to assign the paternity of litters of 12 females comprising on average 9.7 juveniles. In 9 out of 12 families (75 %), a single sire was sufficient; in three families (25 %), more than one sire was necessary to explain the observed genotypes in each family. These findings are backed up with field observations of male resource defence (underground cavities in which mating takes place) as well as coercive mating attempts, suggesting that the observed moderate level of multiple paternity in a species without distinct sperm storage organs is governed by a balance of female mate choice and male reproductive strategies.

  2. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  3. Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hashemian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents′ libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans.

  4. Comparative AFLP reveals paternal sex ratio chromosome specific DNA sequences in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Pruijssers, A.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Stouthamer, R.; Jong, de H.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai with a haplo-diploid sex determination has a B chromosome called the paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome that confers paternal genome loss during early embryogenesis, resulting in male offspring. So far, it is not well known whether the PSR chromosome has

  5. The paternal-sex-ratio (PSR) chromosome in natural populations of Nasonia (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, L.W.; Werren, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Selfish genetic elements may be important in promoting evolutionary change. Paternal sex ratio (PSR) is a selfish B chromosome that causes all-male families in the haplodiploid parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis, by inducing paternal genome loss in fertilized eggs. The natural distribution and

  6. Paternal Incarceration and Children's Physically Aggressive Behaviors: Evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This study extends research on the consequences of mass imprisonment and the causes of children's behavioral problems by considering the effects of paternal incarceration on children's physical aggression at age 5 using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Results suggest that paternal incarceration is associated with…

  7. PPO.46 Risk of Miscarriage associated with Maternal and Paternal Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meaney, S.; Corcoran, P.; Lutomski, J.E.; Spillane, N.; O'Donoghue, K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maternal smoking has been associated with increased risk of miscarriage. However little is known about the influence of paternal smoking. The study aimed to examine maternal and paternal smoking as risk factors for miscarriage. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study was conducted in a large,

  8. Paternal involvement and support and risk of preterm birth: findings from the Boston birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkan, Pamela J; Dong, Liming; Ji, Yuelong; Hong, Xiumei; Ji, Hongkai; Kimmel, Mary; Tang, Wan-Yee; Wang, Xiaobin

    2017-11-16

    To investigate to what extent paternal involvement and support during pregnancy were associated with preterm (PTB) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) births. Using data from the Boston Birth Cohort (n = 7047), multiple logistic regression models were performed to estimate the log odds of either PTB or SGA birth, with paternal involvement, paternal social support, and family and friend social support variables as the primary independent variables. About 10% of participating mothers reported their husbands not being involved or supportive during their pregnancies. Lack of paternal involvement was associated with 21% higher risk of PTB (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.01-1.45). Similarly, lack of paternal support was borderline associated with PTB (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.94-1.35). Also marginally significant, lack of paternal involvement (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.95-1.47) and father's support (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.96-1.48) were associated with higher odds of SGA birth. No associations were found between familial and friend support during pregnancy and PTB or SGA. Among predominantly low-income African Americans, lack of paternal involvement and lack of paternal support during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of PTB, and suggestive of SGA birth. These findings, if confirmed in future research, underscore the important role a father can play in reducing PTB and/or SGA.

  9. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno D Pires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.

  10. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Nuno D; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.

  11. To nudge or not to nudge: cancer screening programmes and the limits of libertarian paternalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, T.; Holm, S.; Brodersen, J.

    2012-01-01

    '. The basic tenet of 'libertarian paternalism' is outlined and the relationship between 'libertarian paternalism' and informed consent investigated. Key elements in the process of enrolling women into the Danish mammography screening programme are introduced. It is shown that for several reasons the influence...

  12. Statistical approaches to paternity analysis in natural populations and applications to the North Atlantic humpback whale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, R; Mattila, DK; Clapham, PJ; Palsboll, PJ

    We present a new method for paternity analysis in natural populations that is based on genotypic data that can take the sampling fi action of putative parents into account. The method allows paternity assignment to be performed in a decision theoretic framework. Simulations at e performed to

  13. Men’s Preference for Women’s Facial Features: Testing Homogamy and the Paternity Uncertainty Hypothesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bovet, Jeanne; Barthes, Julien; Durand, Valérie; Raymond, Michel; Alvergne, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    .... However, why men exhibit variable preferences remains less studied. Male mate choice might be influenced by uncertainty of paternity, a selective factor in species where the survival of the offspring depends on postnatal paternal care...

  14. [Mutagenic effect of advanced paternal age in neurocardiofaciocutaneous syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemanová, Eva; Zenker, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Increased frequency of chromosomal aberration in children of mothers aged 35 years and older is very well known and since 1973 it is an indication to investigate the foetal karyotype in cells obtained by invasive method (amniocentesis), because the genetic risk of severe affection is higher than the risk of necessary invasive method. Mutagenic effect of advanced paternal age is known only among geneticists (1-4). The reason is not only low absolute risk of new mutation but particularly a high number of involved genes and last not least the limited spectrum of autosomal dominant disorders without abiotrofic character. Therefore the preventive methods for elimination of this risk are very limited. Only a few of them could be recognized prenatally by noninvasive methods of prenatal diagnostics. Genealogical, anamnestic and clinical data of 83 patients were studied with clinical suspection on neurocardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (NCFCs) (5-7). The diagnosis has not been confirmed in 29 patients, no mutation was detected in 8 investigated genes (PTPN11, SOS1, HRAS, BRAF, RAF1, MEK1, KRAS, NRAS). In 54 patients with autosomal dominant inherited Noonan syndrome, Costello syndrome and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome the diagnosis was confirmed on DNA level and the biological fitness was estimated for each disorder. Paternal age at conception was compared in the group of patients with familial and sporadic occurrence of Noonan and NCFC syndromes. The clinical prognosis of this disorder is represented by biological fitness of patients. Coefficient of selection is 0,6 in Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes (29 from 48). All 6 patients with Costello and cardiofaciocutaneous syndromes developed due to a new mutation. Paternal age at birth was studied in 83 children patients with autosomal dominant Neurocardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (Noonan, LEOPARD, Costello, CFC) with a high population incidence and decreased biological fitness. Due to severe congenital heart defects, failure to thrive

  15. Brown and polar bear Y chromosomes reveal extensive male-biased gene flow within brother lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidon, Tobias; Janke, Axel; Fain, Steven R; Eiken, Hans Geir; Hagen, Snorre B; Saarma, Urmas; Hallström, Björn M; Lecomte, Nicolas; Hailer, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Brown and polar bears have become prominent examples in phylogeography, but previous phylogeographic studies relied largely on maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or were geographically restricted. The male-specific Y chromosome, a natural counterpart to mtDNA, has remained underexplored. Although this paternally inherited chromosome is indispensable for comprehensive analyses of phylogeographic patterns, technical difficulties and low variability have hampered its application in most mammals. We developed 13 novel Y-chromosomal sequence and microsatellite markers from the polar bear genome and screened these in a broad geographic sample of 130 brown and polar bears. We also analyzed a 390-kb-long Y-chromosomal scaffold using sequencing data from published male ursine genomes. Y chromosome evidence support the emerging understanding that brown and polar bears started to diverge no later than the Middle Pleistocene. Contrary to mtDNA patterns, we found 1) brown and polar bears to be reciprocally monophyletic sister (or rather brother) lineages, without signals of introgression, 2) male-biased gene flow across continents and on phylogeographic time scales, and 3) male dispersal that links the Alaskan ABC islands population to mainland brown bears. Due to female philopatry, mtDNA provides a highly structured estimate of population differentiation, while male-biased gene flow is a homogenizing force for nuclear genetic variation. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing both maternally and paternally inherited loci for a comprehensive view of phylogeographic history, and that mtDNA-based phylogeographic studies of many mammals should be reevaluated. Recent advances in sequencing technology render the analysis of Y-chromosomal variation feasible, even in nonmodel organisms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  16. Genome analyses of an aggressive and invasive lineage of the Irish potato famine pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E L Cooke

    Full Text Available Pest and pathogen losses jeopardise global food security and ever since the 19(th century Irish famine, potato late blight has exemplified this threat. The causal oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, undergoes major population shifts in agricultural systems via the successive emergence and migration of asexual lineages. The phenotypic and genotypic bases of these selective sweeps are largely unknown but management strategies need to adapt to reflect the changing pathogen population. Here, we used molecular markers to document the emergence of a lineage, termed 13_A2, in the European P. infestans population, and its rapid displacement of other lineages to exceed 75% of the pathogen population across Great Britain in less than three years. We show that isolates of the 13_A2 lineage are among the most aggressive on cultivated potatoes, outcompete other aggressive lineages in the field, and overcome previously effective forms of plant host resistance. Genome analyses of a 13_A2 isolate revealed extensive genetic and expression polymorphisms particularly in effector genes. Copy number variations, gene gains and losses, amino-acid replacements and changes in expression patterns of disease effector genes within the 13_A2 isolate likely contribute to enhanced virulence and aggressiveness to drive this population displacement. Importantly, 13_A2 isolates carry intact and in planta induced Avrblb1, Avrblb2 and Avrvnt1 effector genes that trigger resistance in potato lines carrying the corresponding R immune receptor genes Rpi-blb1, Rpi-blb2, and Rpi-vnt1.1. These findings point towards a strategy for deploying genetic resistance to mitigate the impact of the 13_A2 lineage and illustrate how pathogen population monitoring, combined with genome analysis, informs the management of devastating disease epidemics.

  17. Longitudinal associations among fathers' perception of coparenting, partner relationship quality, and paternal stress during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the longitudinal and concurrent associations among fathers' perceptions of partner relationship quality (happiness, conflict), coparenting (shared decision making, conflict), and paternal stress. The sample consisted of 6,100 children who lived with both biological parents at 24 and 48 months in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data set. The results showed that there are significant and concurrent associations between fathers' perceptions of the coparenting relationship and paternal stress, and between partner relationship quality and paternal stress. There was also a positive direct longitudinal association between partner relationship conflict and paternal stress. However, we found only one longitudinal cross-system mediation effect: fathers' perception of coparenting conflict at 48 months mediated the association between partner relationship conflict at 24 months and paternal stress at 48 months. The family practice implications of these findings are discussed. © 2013 FPI, Inc.

  18. Different implications of paternal and maternal atopy for perinatal IgE production and asthma development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Chiang; Chen, Rong-Fu; Kuo, Ho-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a hereditary disease associated with IgE-mediated reaction. Whether maternal atopy and paternal atopy have different impacts on perinatal IgE production and asthma development remains unclear. This paper reviews and summarizes the effects of maternal and paternal atopy on the developmental aspects of IgE production and asthma. Maternal atopy affects both pre- and postnatal IgE production, whereas paternal atopy mainly affects the latter. Maternally transmitted genes GSTP1 and FceRI-beta are associated with lung function and allergic sensitization, respectively. In IgE production and asthma development, the maternal influence on gene-environment interaction is greater than paternal influence. Maternal, paternal, and/or postnatal environmental modulation of allergic responses have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms, which may be good targets for early prevention of asthma.

  19. Meiotic interstrand DNA damage escapes paternal repair and causes chromosomal aberrations in the zygote by maternal misrepair

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Francesco; Bishop, Jack; Gingerich, John; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    De novo point mutations and chromosomal structural aberrations (CSA) detected in offspring of unaffected parents show a preferential paternal origin with higher risk for older fathers. Studies in rodents suggest that heritable mutations transmitted from the father can arise from either paternal or maternal misrepair of damaged paternal DNA, and that the entire spermatogenic cycle can be at risk after mutagenic exposure. Understanding the susceptibility and mechanisms of transmission of patern...

  20. Paternal physical exercise improves spatial learning ability by enhancing hippocampal neuroplasticity in male pups born from obese maternal rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2017-01-01

    Maternal obesity exerts negative effects on cognitive function and behavior of the offspring. In the present study, we assessed the effects of paternal physical exercise on spatial learning ability in relation with hippocampal neuroplasticity in the rat pups born from the obese maternal rats. There were four experimental groups: paternal nonexercised male pups from normal maternal rats, paternal exercised male pups from normal maternal rats, paternal nonexercised male pups from obese maternal...

  1. Chromosome 11 segmental paternal isodisomy in amniocytes from two fetuses with omphalocoele: new highlights on phenotype-genotype correlations in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grati, F R; Turolla, L; D'Ajello, P; Ruggeri, A; Miozzo, M; Bracalente, G; Baldo, D; Laurino, L; Boldorini, R; Frate, E; Surico, N; Larizza, L; Maggi, F; Simoni, G

    2007-04-01

    The phenotypic variability in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) reflects the genetic heterogeneity of the mechanism which by default leads to the deregulation of genes located at 11p15.5. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies have demonstrated an association between omphalocoele and CDKN1C/p57 mutations or hypermethylation. Paternal uniparental disomy 11 (pUPD11) has been described only in the mosaic condition with both uniparental and biparental cell lines, and no association with omphalocoele has been pointed out. Two cases are presented here, in which a paternal segmental UPD11 was detected by molecular investigation of amniotic fluid cell cultures after the presence of apparently isolated omphalocoele was revealed in the fetuses by ultrasound scan. Further studies were performed on additional autoptic feto-placental tissues to characterise the distribution of the uniparental cell line and to unmask any biparental lineage in order to document in more detail the as yet unreported association between omphalocoele and pUPD11. Results on the UPD distribution profile showed that the abdominal organs have a predominant uniparental constitution. This condition could mimic the effect of CDKN1C/p57 inactivation, causing the omphalocoele. New genotype-phenotype correlations emerge from the investigated cases, suggesting that molecular analysis be extended to all cases with fetal omphalocoele in order to establish the incidence of pUPD11 in complete BWS and in monosymptomatic/mild forms.

  2. Paternal body mass index (BMI is associated with offspring intrauterine growth in a gender dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Peng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental alternations leading to fetal programming of cardiovascular diseases in later life have been attributed to maternal factors. However, animal studies showed that paternal obesity may program cardio-metabolic diseases in the offspring. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that paternal BMI may be associated with fetal growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the relationship between paternal body mass index (BMI and birth weight, ultrasound parameters describing the newborn's body shape as well as parameters describing the newborns endocrine system such as cortisol, aldosterone, renin activity and fetal glycated serum protein in a birth cohort of 899 father/mother/child triplets. Since fetal programming is an offspring sex specific process, male and female offspring were analyzed separately. Multivariable regression analyses considering maternal BMI, paternal and maternal age, hypertension during pregnancy, maternal total glycated serum protein, parity and either gestational age (for birth weight or time of ultrasound investigation (for ultrasound parameters as confounding showed that paternal BMI is associated with growth of the male but not female offspring. Paternal BMI correlated with birth parameters of male offspring only: birth weight; biparietal diameter, head circumference; abdominal diameter, abdominal circumference; and pectoral diameter. Cortisol was likewise significantly correlated with paternal BMI in male newborns only. CONCLUSIONS: Paternal BMI affects growth of the male but not female offspring. Paternal BMI may thus represent a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases of male offspring in later life. It remains to be demonstrated whether this is linked to an offspring sex specific paternal programming of cortisol secretion.

  3. Association of missing paternal demographics on infant birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika R. Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of fathers in the development of obesity in their offspring remains poorly understood. We evaluated associations of missing paternal demographic information on birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Methods Data were from the Linked CENTURY Study, a database linking birth certificate and well-child visit data for 200,258 Massachusetts children from 1980–2008. We categorized participants based on the availability of paternal age, education, or race/ethnicity and maternal marital status on the birth certificate: (1 pregnancies missing paternal data; (2 pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data; and (3 pregnancies involving married women with paternal data. Using linear and logistic regression, we compared differences in smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, birthweight, breastfeeding initiation, and ever recording a weight for length (WFL ≥ the 95th percentile or crossing upwards ≥2 WFL percentiles between 0–24 months among the study groups. Results 11,989 (6.0 % birth certificates were missing paternal data; 31,323 (15.6 % mothers were unmarried. In adjusted analyses, missing paternal data was associated with lower birthweight (β -0.07 kg; 95 % CI: −0.08, −0.05, smoking during pregnancy (AOR 4.40; 95 % CI: 3.97, 4.87, non-initiation of breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95 % CI: 0.36, 0.42, and with ever having a WFL ≥ 95th percentile (AOR 1.10; 95 % CI: 1.01, 1.20. Similar associations were noted for pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data, but differences were less pronounced. Conclusions Missing paternal data on the birth certificate is associated with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Efforts to understand and reduce obesity risk factors in early life may need to consider paternal factors.

  4. Association of missing paternal demographics on infant birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Erika R; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Taveras, Elsie M

    2016-07-14

    The role of fathers in the development of obesity in their offspring remains poorly understood. We evaluated associations of missing paternal demographic information on birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Data were from the Linked CENTURY Study, a database linking birth certificate and well-child visit data for 200,258 Massachusetts children from 1980-2008. We categorized participants based on the availability of paternal age, education, or race/ethnicity and maternal marital status on the birth certificate: (1) pregnancies missing paternal data; (2) pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data; and (3) pregnancies involving married women with paternal data. Using linear and logistic regression, we compared differences in smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, birthweight, breastfeeding initiation, and ever recording a weight for length (WFL) ≥ the 95th percentile or crossing upwards ≥2 WFL percentiles between 0-24 months among the study groups. 11,989 (6.0 %) birth certificates were missing paternal data; 31,323 (15.6 %) mothers were unmarried. In adjusted analyses, missing paternal data was associated with lower birthweight (β -0.07 kg; 95 % CI: -0.08, -0.05), smoking during pregnancy (AOR 4.40; 95 % CI: 3.97, 4.87), non-initiation of breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95 % CI: 0.36, 0.42), and with ever having a WFL ≥ 95th percentile (AOR 1.10; 95 % CI: 1.01, 1.20). Similar associations were noted for pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data, but differences were less pronounced. Missing paternal data on the birth certificate is associated with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Efforts to understand and reduce obesity risk factors in early life may need to consider paternal factors.

  5. Trajectories Leading to Autism Spectrum Disorders Are Affected by Paternal Age: Findings from Two Nationally Representative Twin Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, Sebastian; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Carlstrom, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher; Mill, Jonathan; Rastam, Maria; Hultman, Christina M.; Ronald, Angelica; Anckarsater, Henrik; Plomin, Robert; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite extensive efforts, the causes of autism remain unknown. Advancing paternal age has been associated with various neurodevelopmental disorders. We aim to investigate three unresolved questions: (a) What is the association between paternal age and autism spectrum disorders (ASD)?; (b) Does paternal age moderate the genetic and…

  6. 42 CFR 433.147 - Cooperation in establishing paternity and in obtaining medical support and payments and in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... respect to establishing paternity, obtaining medical care support and payments, or identifying and... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperation in establishing paternity and in... establishing paternity and in obtaining medical support and payments and in identifying and providing...

  7. Mesenchymal progenitor cells for the osteogenic lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal progenitors of the osteogenic lineage provide the flexibility for bone to grow, maintain its function and homeostasis. Traditionally, colony-forming-unit fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) have been regarded as surrogates for mesenchymal progenitors; however, this definition cannot address the function of these progenitors in their native setting. Transgenic murine models including lineage-tracing technologies based on the cre-lox system have proven to be useful in delineating mesenchymal progenitors in their native environment. Although heterogeneity of cell populations of interest marked by a promoter-based approach complicates overall interpretation, an emerging complexity of mesenchymal progenitors has been revealed. Current literatures suggest two distinct types of bone progenitor cells; growth-associated mesenchymal progenitors contribute to explosive growth of bone in early life, whereas bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors contribute to the much slower remodeling process and response to injury that occurs mainly in adulthood. More detailed relationships of these progenitors need to be studied through further experimentation.

  8. Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages in French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaltou Aboubaker Osman

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Genotyping identified four phylogenetic lineages belonging to the modern Euro–American subgroup, one Beijing genotype responsible for worldwide pandemics, including remote islands in the South Pacific, and one Manu genotype of the ancestral lineage of M. tuberculosis.

  9. The origin of widespread species in a poor dispersing lineage (diving beetle genus Deronectes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vázquez, David; Ribera, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    In most lineages, most species have restricted geographic ranges, with only few reaching widespread distributions. How these widespread species reached their current ranges is an intriguing biogeographic and evolutionary question, especially in groups known to be poor dispersers. We reconstructed the biogeographic and temporal origin of the widespread species in a lineage with particularly poor dispersal capabilities, the diving beetle genus Deronectes (Dytiscidae). Most of the ca. 60 described species of Deronectes have narrow ranges in the Mediterranean area, with only four species with widespread European distributions. We sequenced four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes of 297 specimens of 109 different populations covering the entire distribution of the four lineages of Deronectes, including widespread species. Using Bayesian probabilities with an a priori evolutionary rate, we performed (1) a global phylogeny/phylogeography to estimate the relationships of the main lineages within each group and root them, and (2) demographic analyses of the best population coalescent model for each species group, including a reconstruction of the geographical history estimated from the distribution of the sampled localities. We also selected 56 specimens to test for the presence of Wolbachia, a maternally transmitted parasite that can alter the patterns of mtDNA variability. All species of the four studied groups originated in the southern Mediterranean peninsulas and were estimated to be of Pleistocene origin. In three of the four widespread species, the central and northern European populations were nested within those in the northern areas of the Anatolian, Balkan and Iberian peninsulas respectively, suggesting a range expansion at the edge of the southern refugia. In the Mediterranean peninsulas the widespread European species were replaced by vicariant taxa of recent origin. The fourth species (D. moestus) was proven to be a composite of unrecognised lineages with

  10. The origin of widespread species in a poor dispersing lineage (diving beetle genus Deronectes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David García-Vázquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In most lineages, most species have restricted geographic ranges, with only few reaching widespread distributions. How these widespread species reached their current ranges is an intriguing biogeographic and evolutionary question, especially in groups known to be poor dispersers. We reconstructed the biogeographic and temporal origin of the widespread species in a lineage with particularly poor dispersal capabilities, the diving beetle genus Deronectes (Dytiscidae. Most of the ca. 60 described species of Deronectes have narrow ranges in the Mediterranean area, with only four species with widespread European distributions. We sequenced four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes of 297 specimens of 109 different populations covering the entire distribution of the four lineages of Deronectes, including widespread species. Using Bayesian probabilities with an a priori evolutionary rate, we performed (1 a global phylogeny/phylogeography to estimate the relationships of the main lineages within each group and root them, and (2 demographic analyses of the best population coalescent model for each species group, including a reconstruction of the geographical history estimated from the distribution of the sampled localities. We also selected 56 specimens to test for the presence of Wolbachia, a maternally transmitted parasite that can alter the patterns of mtDNA variability. All species of the four studied groups originated in the southern Mediterranean peninsulas and were estimated to be of Pleistocene origin. In three of the four widespread species, the central and northern European populations were nested within those in the northern areas of the Anatolian, Balkan and Iberian peninsulas respectively, suggesting a range expansion at the edge of the southern refugia. In the Mediterranean peninsulas the widespread European species were replaced by vicariant taxa of recent origin. The fourth species (D. moestus was proven to be a composite of unrecognised

  11. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  12. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  13. Patterns of paternity skew among polyandrous social insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; den Boer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Monogamy results in high genetic relatedness among offspring and thus it is generally assumed to be favored by kin selection. Female multiple mating (polyandry) has nevertheless evolved several times in the social Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps), and a substantial amount of work has been cond...... the potential for postcopulatory sexual selection to influence patterns of paternity in social insects, and suggest that sexual selection may have played a key, yet overlooked role in social evolution.......Monogamy results in high genetic relatedness among offspring and thus it is generally assumed to be favored by kin selection. Female multiple mating (polyandry) has nevertheless evolved several times in the social Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps), and a substantial amount of work has been...

  14. Radiological evaluation of dysmorphic thorax of paternal uniparental disomy 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Osamu; Nishimura, Gen; Kagami, Masayo; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2011-08-01

    The "coat-hanger" sign of the ribs with a bell-shaped thorax has been known as a radiological hallmark of the paternal uniparental disomy 14 (upd(14)pat). To quantitatively determine the differences in thoracic deformity between upd(14)pat and other bone diseases with thoracic hypoplasia and to establish the age-dependent evolution. The subjects comprised 11 children with upd(14)pat. The angle between the 6th posterior rib and the horizontal axis was measured (coat hanger angle; CHA). The ratio of the mid- to widest thorax diameter (M/W ratio) was calculated for the bell-shaped thorax. CHA ranged from +28.5 to 45° (mean; 35.1° ± 5.2) in upd(14)pat, and from -19.8 to 21° (-3.3 ± 13°) in bone dysplasias (p thorax is significant only in the neonatal period.

  15. NNAT and DIRAS3 genes are paternally expressed in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ming-Gang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although expression and epigenetic differences of imprinted genes have been extensively characterised in man and the mouse, little is known on livestock species. In this study, the polymorphism-based approach was used to detect the imprinting status of NNAT and DIRAS3 genes in five heterozygous pigs (based on SNP of Large White and Meishan F1 hybrids. The results show that both genes were paternally expressed in all the tested tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, small intestine, skeletal muscle, fat, uterus, ovary and pituitary. In addition, the NNAT gene had two transcripts in all tested tissues, which is consistent with its counterpart in man and cattle.

  16. Shadows of doubt: the uneasy incorporation of identification science into legal determination of paternity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Sueann; Stern, Alexandra Minna

    2017-05-08

    The arrival of DNA paternity testing in the 1980s was met with great enthusiasm in the Brazilian courts. Yet, over the past two decades, Brazilian legal doctrine and jurisprudence have increasingly rejected DNA proof as the sine qua non for paternity cases. Instead, DNA paternity testing has generated mountains of litigation, as biological proof has been challenged by the argument that paternity is primarily "socio-affective". Leading family law specialists describe this new conception of paternity as an outcome of the "revolutionary" provisions of the 1988 Constitution, which recognizes the "pluralism" of family forms in modern society and guarantees equal family rights for all children. Without denying the significance of the constitution's dignitary framework, we show that new legal understandings of paternity represent less a paradigm shift than a continuation of longstanding historical tensions between biological and socio-cultural understandings of family and identity. In this article, we explore the development of biological and eventually genetic typing in Brazil, both of which had ties to the fields of criminology and race science. Our review suggests that techniques of biological identification, no matter how sophisticated or precise, were ineffective means for establishing identity, whether of individual personhood, as in the case of paternity, or national make-up. Instead, they became incorporated as supplemental methods into complex legal, social, and cultural decision-making around families.

  17. Evidence for paternal leakage in hybrid periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Fontaine

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial inheritance is generally assumed to be maternal. However, there is increasing evidence of exceptions to this rule, especially in hybrid crosses. In these cases, mitochondria are also inherited paternally, so "paternal leakage" of mitochondria occurs. It is important to understand these exceptions better, since they potentially complicate or invalidate studies that make use of mitochondrial markers. We surveyed F1 offspring of experimental hybrid crosses of the 17-year periodical cicadas Magicicada septendecim, M. septendecula, and M. cassini for the presence of paternal mitochondrial markers at various times during development (1-day eggs; 3-, 6-, 9-week eggs; 16-month old 1st and 2nd instar nymphs. We found evidence of paternal leakage in both reciprocal hybrid crosses in all of these samples. The relative difficulty of detecting paternal mtDNA in the youngest eggs and ease of detecting leakage in older eggs and in nymphs suggests that paternal mitochondria proliferate as the eggs develop. Our data support recent theoretical predictions that paternal leakage may be more common than previously estimated.

  18. Is there an association between advanced paternal age and endophenotype deficit levels in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debby Tsuang

    Full Text Available The children of older fathers have increased risks of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and among those who develop these disorders, those with older fathers present with more severe clinical symptoms. However, the influence of advanced paternal age on other important domains related to schizophrenia, such as quantitative endophenotype deficit levels, remains unknown. This study investigated the associations between paternal age and level of endophenotypic impairment in a well-characterized family-based sample from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS. All families included at least one affected subject and one unaffected sibling. Subjects met criteria for schizophrenia (probands; n = 293 or were unaffected first-degree siblings of those probands (n = 382. Paternal age at the time of subjects' birth was documented. Subjects completed a comprehensive clinical assessment and a battery of tests that measured 16 endophenotypes. After controlling for covariates, potential paternal age-endophenotype associations were analyzed using one model that included probands alone and a second model that included both probands and unaffected siblings. Endophenotype deficits in the Identical Pairs version of the 4-digit Continuous Performance Test and in the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery verbal memory test showed significant associations with paternal age. However, after correcting for multiple comparisons, no endophenotype was significantly associated with paternal age. These findings suggest that factors other than advanced paternal age at birth may account for endophenotypic deficit levels in schizophrenia.

  19. Paternal Caregivers' Parenting Practices and Psychological Functioning among African American Youth Living in Urban Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Otima; Clark Goings, Trenette; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R; Lombe, Margaret; Stephens, Jennifer; Nebbitt, Von E

    2017-09-01

    Structural factors associated with public housing contribute to living environments that expose families to adverse life events that may in turn directly impact parenting and youth outcomes. However, despite the growth in research on fathers, research on families in public housing has practically excluded fathers and the role fathers play in the well-being of their adolescents. Using a sample of 660 African American adolescents recruited from public housing, we examined the relationship between paternal caregivers' (i.e., fathers' and father figures') parenting practices and adolescents' depressive symptoms, attitudes toward deviance, and self-efficacy. Using a latent profile analysis (LPA), we confirmed a four-class model of paternal parenting practices ranging from high to low levels of monitoring and encouragement. Results from a one-way ANOVA indicated that paternal caregivers with high (compared to moderate) levels of encouragement and monitoring were associated with youth who reported less depressive symptoms, higher levels of self-efficacy, and less favorable attitudes toward deviance. Discriminant analysis results indicated that approximately half of the sample were correctly classified into two paternal caregiver classes. The findings provide evidence that some of these caregivers engage in parenting practices that support youths' psychological functioning. More research is needed to determine what accounts for the variability in levels of paternal encouragement and supervision, including environmental influences, particularly for paternal caregivers exhibiting moderate-to-low levels of paternal encouragement and monitoring. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  20. Paternal ADHD Symptoms and Child Conduct Problems: Is Father Involvement Always Beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romirowsky, Abigail Mintz; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal psychopathology robustly predicts poor developmental and treatment outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the high heritability of ADHD, few studies have examined associations between paternal ADHD symptoms and child adjustment, and none have also considered degree of paternal involvement in childrearing. Identification of modifiable risk factors for child conduct problems is particularly important in this population given the serious adverse outcomes resulting from this comorbidity. Methods This cross-sectional study examined the extent to which paternal involvement in childrearing moderated the association between paternal ADHD symptoms and child conduct problems among 37 children with ADHD and their biological fathers. Results Neither paternal ADHD symptoms nor involvement was independently associated with child conduct problems. However, the interaction between paternal ADHD symptoms and involvement was significant, such that paternal ADHD symptoms were positively associated with child conduct problems only when fathers were highly involved in childrearing. Conclusions The presence of adult ADHD symptoms may determine whether father involvement in childrearing has a positive or detrimental influence on comorbid child conduct problems. PMID:25250402

  1. Paternal care and the evolution of exaggerated sexual swellings in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Susan C; Fitzpatrick, Courtney L

    2012-07-01

    The exaggerated sexual swellings exhibited by females of some primate species have been of interest to evolutionary biologists since the time of Darwin. We summarize existing hypotheses for their function and evolution and categorize these hypotheses within the context of 3 types of variation in sexual swelling size: 1) variation within a single sexual cycle, 2) variation between the sexual cycles of a single female, and 3) differences between females. We then propose the Paternal Care Hypothesis for the function of sexual swellings, which posits that exaggerated sexual swellings function to elicit the right quantity and quality of male care for a female's infant. As others have noted, swellings may allow females to engender paternity confusion, or they may allow females to confer relative paternal certainty on one male. Key to our hypothesis is that both of these scenarios create an incentive for one or more males to provide care. This hypothesis builds on previous hypotheses but differs from them by highlighting the elicitation of paternal care as a key function of swellings. Our hypothesis predicts that true paternal care (in which males accurately differentiate and provide assistance to their own offspring) will be most common in species in which exaggerated swellings accurately signal the probability of conception, and males can monopolize females during the window of highest conception probability. Our hypothesis also predicts that females will experience selection to behave in ways that either augment paternity confusion or enhance paternal certainty depending on their social and demographic contexts.

  2. Demographic and relationship predictors of paternity establishment for infants born to adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A L; Rosengard, C; Weitzen, S; Raker, C A; Phipps, M G

    2012-10-01

    To identify demographic and relationship characteristics associated with paternity establishment for children born to adolescent mothers. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING, AND DESIGN: This prospective cohort study included 300 pregnant adolescents 12-19 years old, presenting for prenatal care between March 2002 and February 2005. Demographic and relationship characteristics were compared based on paternity establishment (father's name on the infant's birth certificate). Paternity establishment (father's name on the infant's birth certificate). Of the 273 participants with outcome data, 54% established paternity. Paternity establishment differed by maternal race/ethnicity (69% Hispanic vs 36% non-Hispanic Black vs 52% non-Hispanic White, P = .01), maternal age (37% for 12-15 years vs 64% for 18-19 years, P = .01), maternal country of birth (48% U.S. born vs 76% non-U.S. born, P = .01), relationship with father of the infant, and father involvement at the time of delivery. Paternity establishment rates for children born to teens were low overall. To increase rates of paternity establishment, policies and programs need to consider the unique characteristics and circumstances of teen parents. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Shadows of doubt: the uneasy incorporation of identification science into legal determination of paternity in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueann Caulfield

    Full Text Available The arrival of DNA paternity testing in the 1980s was met with great enthusiasm in the Brazilian courts. Yet, over the past two decades, Brazilian legal doctrine and jurisprudence have increasingly rejected DNA proof as the sine qua non for paternity cases. Instead, DNA paternity testing has generated mountains of litigation, as biological proof has been challenged by the argument that paternity is primarily “socio-affective”. Leading family law specialists describe this new conception of paternity as an outcome of the “revolutionary” provisions of the 1988 Constitution, which recognizes the “pluralism” of family forms in modern society and guarantees equal family rights for all children. Without denying the significance of the constitution’s dignitary framework, we show that new legal understandings of paternity represent less a paradigm shift than a continuation of longstanding historical tensions between biological and socio-cultural understandings of family and identity. In this article, we explore the development of biological and eventually genetic typing in Brazil, both of which had ties to the fields of criminology and race science. Our review suggests that techniques of biological identification, no matter how sophisticated or precise, were ineffective means for establishing identity, whether of individual personhood, as in the case of paternity, or national make-up. Instead, they became incorporated as supplemental methods into complex legal, social, and cultural decision-making around families.

  4. Assessing the impact of paternal involvement on racial/ethnic disparities in infant mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Kornosky, Jennifer L; Wathington, Deanna; Marty, Phillip J; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2011-02-01

    We sought to assess the contribution of paternal involvement to racial disparities in infant mortality. Using vital records data from singleton births in Florida between 1998 and 2005, we generated odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and preventative fractions to assess the association between paternal involvement and infant mortality. Paternal involvement status was based on presence/absence of paternal first and/or last name on the birth certificate. Disparities in infant mortality were observed between and within racial/ethnic subpopulations. When compared to Hispanic (NH)-white women with involved fathers, NH-black women with involved fathers had a two-fold increased risk of infant mortality whereas infants born to black women with absent fathers had a seven-fold increased risk of infant mortality. Elevated risks of infant mortality were also observed for Hispanic infants with absent fathers (OR = 3.33. 95%CI = 2.66-4.17). About 65-75% of excess mortality could be prevented with increased paternal involvement. Paternal absence widens the black-white gap in infant mortality almost four-fold. Intervention programs to improve perinatal paternal involvement may decrease the burden of absent father-associated infant mortality.

  5. The role of paternal drinking problems in the psychological characteristics of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jong Sung; Jung, Jin Gyu; Ryou, Young Il; Kim, Young Seok; Uh, Won Chul

    2013-11-01

    It has been reported that children with parental drinking problems are at increased risk of drinking problems or psychiatric diseases in adulthood. The present study was conducted to examine the psychiatric characteristics of high school students according to paternal drinking problems. The subjects were 950 high school students (390 male and 560 female). The paternal drinking problems were assessed by using the Father-Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Beck's depression inventory, and Beck's anxiety inventory were used to evaluate the drinking behavior, depression, and anxiety of high school students. While male students with paternal drinking problems showed significantly increased risk of anxiety (odds ratio [OR], 2.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 4.63), female students with paternal drinking problems showed significantly increased risk of depression (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.74) according to the results of logistic regression analysis with adjustments for participants' age, whether they live together with parents, their religion, club activities, and smoking habits on the basis of students without paternal drinking problems. The above results suggest that paternal drinking problems lead to unstable mentalities in both male and female students, and that a family physician should address the mental state of teenagers with paternal drinking problems during clinical encounters.

  6. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  7. Paternal obesity, interventions, and mechanistic pathways to impaired health in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Nicole O; Fullston, Tod; Aitken, R John; Lane, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The global rates of male overweight/obesity are rising, approaching 70% of the total adult population in Western nations. Overweight/obesity increases the risk of chronic diseases; however, there is increasing awareness that male obesity negatively impacts fertility, subsequent pregnancy, and the offspring health burden. Developmental programming is well defined in mothers; however, it is becoming increasingly evident that developmental programming can be paternally initiated and mediated through paternal obesity. Both human and rodent models have established that paternal obesity impairs sex hormones, basic sperm function, and molecular composition. This results in perturbed embryo development and health and an increased subsequent offspring disease burden in both sexes. The reversibility of obesity-induced parental programming has only recently received attention. Promising results in animal models utilizing diet and exercise interventions have shown improvements in sperm function and molecular composition, resulting in restorations of both embryo and fetal health and subsequent male offspring fertility. The direct mode for paternal inheritance is likely mediated via spermatozoa. We propose two main theories for the origin of male obesity-induced paternal programming: (1) accumulation of sperm DNA damage resulting in de novo mutations in the embryo and (2) changes in sperm epigenetic marks (microRNA, methylation, or acetylation) altering the access, transcription, and translation of paternally derived genes during early embryogenesis. Paternal overweight/obesity induces paternal programming of offspring phenotypes likely mediated through genetic and epigenetic changes in spermatozoa. These programmed changes to offspring health appear to be partially restored via diet/exercise interventions in obese fathers preconception, which have been shown to improve aspects of sperm DNA integrity. However, the majority of data surrounding paternal obesity and offspring

  8. High Correlated Paternity Leads to Negative Effects on Progeny Performance in Two Mediterranean Shrub Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Nora

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic habitat deterioration can promote changes in plant mating systems that subsequently may affect progeny performance, thereby conditioning plant recruitment for the next generation. However, very few studies yet tested mating system parameters other than outcrossing rates; and the direct effects of the genetic diversity of the pollen received by maternal plants (i.e. correlated paternity has often been overlooked. In this study, we investigated the relation between correlated paternity and progeny performance in two common Mediterranean shrubs, Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus. To do so, we collected open-pollinated progeny from selected maternal plants, calculated mating system parameters using microsatellite genotyping and conducted sowing experiments under greenhouse and field conditions. Our results showed that some progeny fitness components were negatively affected by the high correlated paternity of maternal plants. In Myrtus communis, high correlated paternity had a negative effect on the proportion and timing of seedling emergence in the natural field conditions and in the greenhouse sowing experiment, respectively. In Pistacia lentiscus, seedling emergence time under field conditions was also negatively influenced by high correlated paternity and a progeny survival analysis in the field experiment showed greater mortality of seedlings from maternal plants with high correlated paternity. Overall, we found effects of correlated paternity on the progeny performance of Myrtus communis, a self-compatible species. Further, we also detected effects of correlated paternity on the progeny emergence time and survival in Pistacia lentiscus, an obligate outcrossed species. This study represents one of the few existing empirical examples which highlight the influence that correlated paternity may exert on progeny performance in multiple stages during early seedling growth.

  9. High Correlated Paternity Leads to Negative Effects on Progeny Performance in Two Mediterranean Shrub Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Sofia; Aparicio, Abelardo; Albaladejo, Rafael G

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat deterioration can promote changes in plant mating systems that subsequently may affect progeny performance, thereby conditioning plant recruitment for the next generation. However, very few studies yet tested mating system parameters other than outcrossing rates; and the direct effects of the genetic diversity of the pollen received by maternal plants (i.e. correlated paternity) has often been overlooked. In this study, we investigated the relation between correlated paternity and progeny performance in two common Mediterranean shrubs, Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus. To do so, we collected open-pollinated progeny from selected maternal plants, calculated mating system parameters using microsatellite genotyping and conducted sowing experiments under greenhouse and field conditions. Our results showed that some progeny fitness components were negatively affected by the high correlated paternity of maternal plants. In Myrtus communis, high correlated paternity had a negative effect on the proportion and timing of seedling emergence in the natural field conditions and in the greenhouse sowing experiment, respectively. In Pistacia lentiscus, seedling emergence time under field conditions was also negatively influenced by high correlated paternity and a progeny survival analysis in the field experiment showed greater mortality of seedlings from maternal plants with high correlated paternity. Overall, we found effects of correlated paternity on the progeny performance of Myrtus communis, a self-compatible species. Further, we also detected effects of correlated paternity on the progeny emergence time and survival in Pistacia lentiscus, an obligate outcrossed species. This study represents one of the few existing empirical examples which highlight the influence that correlated paternity may exert on progeny performance in multiple stages during early seedling growth.

  10. Patterns of paternity skew among polyandrous social insects: what can they tell us about the potential for sexual selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; den Boer, Susanne P A; Simmons, Leigh W; Baer, Boris

    2012-12-01

    Monogamy results in high genetic relatedness among offspring and thus it is generally assumed to be favored by kin selection. Female multiple mating (polyandry) has nevertheless evolved several times in the social Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps), and a substantial amount of work has been conducted to understand its costs and benefits. Relatedness and inclusive fitness benefits are, however, not only influenced by queen mating frequency but also by paternity skew, which is a quantitative measure of paternity biases among the offspring of polyandrous females. We performed a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of paternity skew across polyandrous social Hymenoptera. We found a general and significant negative association between paternity frequency and paternity skew. High paternity skew, which increases relatedness among colony members and thus maximizes inclusive fitness gains, characterized species with low paternity frequency. However, species with highly polyandrous queens had low paternity skew, with paternity equalized among potential sires. Equal paternity shares among fathers are expected to maximize fitness benefits derived from genetic diversity among offspring. We discuss the potential for postcopulatory sexual selection to influence patterns of paternity in social insects, and suggest that sexual selection may have played a key, yet overlooked role in social evolution. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcome After Paternal Exposure to Methotrexate Within 90 Days Before Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eck, Lasse Karlsen; Jensen, Thomas Bo; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between paternal exposure to methotrexate within the 90-day period before pregnancy and congenital malformations and stillbirth in the offspring. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide register study. Our cohort consisted of all live births in Denmark between 1997...... group and no increased risk of preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.66-2.59) among the children from exposed fathers. CONCLUSION: We found no association between paternal exposure to methotrexate within 90 days before pregnancy and congenital malformations, stillbirths, or preterm birth. Available...... data suggest that prepregnancy paternal methotrexate exposure should not be of major concern. Multinational recommendations should be changed accordingly....

  12. [Formalisation parental genotype recognition for the computation of probability of paternity (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, D

    1981-01-01

    Advances in biological identification of an individual based on blood markers polymorphism make available the attribution of paternity of a given child to an alleged father. Using Bayes' formula on these data requires previous calculation of conditional probabilities of the child's phenotype under either hypothesis of true paternity and non-paternity of the man. However, exact formulation of those is obtained only by introducing into the both parents-child link. The necessity of the successive use of Bayes' formula in each step for exact calculation of parental genotype weights is proved. The resulting process allows computer identification of possible genotypes and exact computer processing.

  13. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  14. Uncovering the mutation-fixation correlation in short lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallender Eric J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently reported a highly unexpected positive correlation between the fixation probability of nonsynonymous mutations (estimated by ω and neutral mutation rate (estimated by Ks in mammalian lineages. However, this positive correlation was observed for lineages with relatively long divergence time such as the human-mouse lineage, and was not found for very short lineages such as the human-chimpanzee lineage. It was previously unclear how to interpret this discrepancy. It may indicate that the positive correlation between ω and Ks in long lineages is a false finding. Alternatively, it may reflect a biologically meaningful difference between various lineages. Finally, the lack of positive correlation in short lineages may be the result of methodological artifacts. Results Here we show that a strong positive correlation can indeed be seen in short lineages when a method was introduced to correct for the inherently high levels of stochastic noise in the use of Ks as an estimator of neutral mutation rate. Thus, the previously noted lack of positive correlation between ω and Ks in short lineages is due to stochastic noise in Ks that makes it a far less reliable estimator of neutral mutation rate in short lineages as compared to long lineages. Conclusion A positive correlation between ω and Ks can be observed in all mammalian lineages for which large amounts of sequence data are available, including very short lineages. It confirms the authenticity of this highly unexpected correlation, and argues that the correction likely applies broadly across all mammals and perhaps even non-mammalian species.

  15. Tracing lineages to uncover neuronal identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlmann Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many previous studies have focused on understanding how midbrain dopamine neurons, which are implicated in many neurological conditions, are generated during embryogenesis. One of the remaining questions concerns how different dopamine neuron subtypes are specified. A recent paper in Neural Development has revealed features of a spatial and temporal lineage map that, together with other studies, begins to elucidate the developmental origin of distinct neuronal subtypes within the developing midbrain. See research article http://www.neuraldevelopment.com/content/6/1/29

  16. Lineage specific recombination rates and microevolution in Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nightingale Kendra K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a saprotroph as well as an opportunistic human foodborne pathogen, which has previously been shown to consist of at least two widespread lineages (termed lineages I and II and an uncommon lineage (lineage III. While some L. monocytogenes strains show evidence for considerable diversification by homologous recombination, our understanding of the contribution of recombination to L. monocytogenes evolution is still limited. We therefore used STRUCTURE and ClonalFrame, two programs that model the effect of recombination, to make inferences about the population structure and different aspects of the recombination process in L. monocytogenes. Analyses were performed using sequences for seven loci (including the house-keeping genes gap, prs, purM and ribC, the stress response gene sigB, and the virulence genes actA and inlA for 195 L. monocytogenes isolates. Results Sequence analyses with ClonalFrame and the Sawyer's test showed that recombination is more prevalent in lineage II than lineage I and is most frequent in two house-keeping genes (ribC and purM and the two virulence genes (actA and inlA. The relative occurrence of recombination versus point mutation is about six times higher in lineage II than in lineage I, which causes a higher genetic variability in lineage II. Unlike lineage I, lineage II represents a genetically heterogeneous population with a relatively high proportion (30% average of genetic material imported from external sources. Phylograms, constructed with correcting for recombination, as well as Tajima's D data suggest that both lineages I and II have suffered a population bottleneck. Conclusion Our study shows that evolutionary lineages within a single bacterial species can differ considerably in the relative contributions of recombination to genetic diversification. Accounting for recombination in phylogenetic studies is critical, and new evolutionary models that

  17. Population structure and paternal admixture landscape on present-day Mexican-Mestizos revealed by Y-STR haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Flores, J; Dondiego-Aldape, R; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Anaya-Palafox, M; Nuño-Arana, I; Canseco-Avila, L M; Flores-Flores, G; Morales-Vallejo, M E; Barojas-Pérez, N; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Campos-Gutiérrez, R; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2010-01-01

    Mestizos currently represent most of the Mexican population (>90%); they are defined as individuals born in the country having a Spanish-derived last name, with family antecedents of Mexican ancestors back at least to the third generation. Mestizos are result of 500 years of admixture mainly among Spaniards, Amerindians, and African slaves. Consequently, a complex genetic pattern has been generated throughout the country that has been scarcely studied from the paternal point of view. This fact is important, taking into account that gene flow toward the New World comprised largely males. We analyzed the population structure and paternal admixture of present-day Mexican-Mestizo populations based on Y-STRs. We genotyped at least 12 Y-STRs in DNA samples of 986 males from five states: Aguascalientes (n = 293); Jalisco (n = 185); Guanajuato (n = 168); Chiapas (n = 170); and Yucatán (n = 170). AmpFlSTR Y-filer and Powerplex-Y(R) kits were used. Inclusion of North and Central Y-STR databases in the analyses allowed obtaining a Y-STR variability landscape from Mexico. Results confirmed the population differentiation gradient previously noted in Mestizos with SNPs and autosomal STRs throughout the Mexican territory: European ancestry increments to the Northwest and, correspondingly, Amerindian ancestry increments to the Center and Southeast. In addition, SAMOVA test and Autocorrelation Index for DNA Analysis autocorrelogram plot suggested preferential gene flow of males with neighboring populations in agreement with the isolation-by-distance model. Results are important for disease-risk studies (principally male-related) and for human identification purposes, because Y-STR databases are not available on the majority of Mexican-Mestizo populations.

  18. Listeria monocytogenes lineages: Genomics, evolution, ecology, and phenotypic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Renato H; den Bakker, Henk C; Wiedmann, Martin

    2011-02-01

    Listeria monocytogenes consists of at least 4 evolutionary lineages (I, II, III, and IV) with different but overlapping ecological niches. Most L. monocytogenes isolates seem to belong to lineages I and II, which harbor the serotypes more commonly associated with human clinical cases, including serotype 1/2a (lineage II) and serotypes 1/2b and 4b (lineage I). Lineage II strains are common in foods, seem to be widespread in the natural and farm environments, and are also commonly isolated from animal listeriosis cases and sporadic human clinical cases. Most human listeriosis outbreaks are associated with lineage I isolates though. In addition, a number of studies indicate that, in many countries, lineage I strains are overrepresented among human isolates, as compared to lineage II strains. Lineage III and IV strains on the other hand are rare and predominantly isolated from animal sources. The apparent differences in the distribution of strains representing the L. monocytogenes lineages has lead to a number of studies aimed at identifying phenotypic differences among the different lineages. Interestingly, lineage II isolates seem to carry more plasmids than lineage I isolates and these plasmids often confer resistance to toxic metals and possibly other compounds that may be found in the environment. Moreover, lineage II isolates seem to be more resistant to bacteriocins than lineage I isolates, which probably confers an advantage in environments where bacteriocin-producing organisms are abundant. A large number of lineage II isolates and strains have been shown to be virulence-attenuated due to premature stop codon mutations in inlA and mutations in prfA. A subset of lineage I isolates carry a listeriolysin S hemolysin, which is not present in isolates belonging to lineages II, III, or IV. While lineage II isolates also show higher recombination rates than lineage I isolates, possibly facilitating adaptation of lineage II strains to diverse environments, lineage I

  19. [Advances in lineage-specific genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan-ping; Yin, Tong-ming

    2015-06-01

    Lineage-specific genes (LSGs) are defined as genes found in one particular taxonomic group but have no significant sequence similarity with genes from other lineages, which compose about 10%?20% of the total genes in the genome of a focal organism. LSGs were first uncovered in the yeast genome in 1996. The development of the whole genome sequencing leads to the emergence of studies on LSGs as a hot topic in comparative genomics. LSGs have been extensively studied on microbial species, lower marine organisms, plant (such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Populus), insects, primate, etc; the biological functions of LSGs are important to clarify the evolution and adaptability of a species. In this review, we summarize the progress of LSGs studies, including LSGs identification, gene characterization, origin and evolution of LSGs, biological function, and expression analysis of LSGs. In addition, we discuss the existing problems and future directions for studies in this area. Our purpose is to provide some unique insights into the researches of LSGs.

  20. Diversification of Cell Lineages in Ureter Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenpoll, Tobias; Feraric, Sarah; Nattkemper, Marvin; Weiss, Anna-Carina; Rudat, Carsten; Meuser, Max; Trowe, Mark-Oliver; Kispert, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    The mammalian ureter consists of a mesenchymal wall composed of smooth muscle cells and surrounding fibrocytes of the tunica adventitia and the lamina propria and an inner epithelial lining composed of layers of basal, intermediate, and superficial cells. How these cell types arise from multipotent progenitors is poorly understood. Here, we performed marker analysis, cell proliferation assays, and genetic lineage tracing to define the lineage relations and restrictions of the mesenchymal and epithelial cell types in the developing and mature mouse ureter. At embryonic day (E) 12.5, the mesenchymal precursor pool began to subdivide into an inner and outer compartment that began to express markers of smooth muscle precursors and adventitial fibrocytes, respectively, by E13.5. Smooth muscle precursors further diversified into lamina propria cells directly adjacent to the ureteric epithelium and differentiated smooth muscle cells from E16.5 onwards. Uncommitted epithelial progenitors of the ureter differentiated into intermediate cells at E14.5. After stratification into two layers at E15.5 and three cell layers at E18.5, intermediate cells differentiated into basal cells and superficial cells. In homeostasis, proliferation of all epithelial and mesenchymal cell types remained low but intermediate cells still gave rise to basal cells, whereas basal cells divided only into basal cells. These studies provide a framework to further determine the molecular mechanisms of cell differentiation in the tissues of the developing ureter. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasing, Sanne P A; Creemers, Daan H M; Janssens, Jan M A M; Scholte, Ron H J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents' depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents' self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents' perceptions of their parents' psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems.

  2. The Association between Perceived Maternal and Paternal Psychopathology and Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne P.A. Rasing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = .79. Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems.

  3. Paternal involvement in Multisystemic Therapy: Effects on adolescent outcomes and maternal depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gervan, S.; Granic, I.; Solomon, T.; Blokland, K.; Ferguson, B.

    2012-01-01

    The association between paternal involvement in therapy, adolescent outcomes and maternal depression was examined within the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an empirically supported, family- and community-based treatment for antisocial adolescents. Ninety-nine families were recruited from

  4. Maternity and paternity leave and career progression of black African women in dual-career couples

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucky L Motaung; Mark HR Bussin; Renjini M Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Orientation: The study focused on examining the perceptions of dual-career couples at a stateowned company about the influence of taking maternity and paternity leave on the career progression of black African...

  5. Beyond Boys’ Bad Behavior: Paternal Incarceration and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children’s cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys’ behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability. Moreover, I estimate that paternal incarceration explains between 2 and 15 percent of the Black-White achievement gap at age 9. These findings represent new outcomes of importance and suggest that paternal incarceration may play an even larger role in the production of intergenerational inequalities for American children than previously documented. PMID:28579646

  6. Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA by diverse mechanisms to eliminate paternal mitochondrial DNA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sato, Miyuki; Sato, Ken

    2013-01-01

    .... This pattern of mtDNA inheritance is well known as "maternal inheritance." However, how the paternal mitochondria and mtDNA are eliminated from the cytoplasm of gametes or zygotes remains an enigma...

  7. Paternalism and egregious harm: Prader-Willi Syndrome and the importance of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groarke, Louis

    2000-07-01

    Paternalism clashes with the usual liberal model. In this paper I argue that attempts to defend even a limited form of paternalism by liberal authors such as Joel Feinberg, Gerald Dworkin and H.L.A. Hart fail. I propose instead a bivalent model for paternalism that appeals to two separate principles: the no-harm principle and the care-principle. The notion of care discussed by contemporary feminist authors is a fundamental moral archetype that permeates history and culture. I go on to consider the case of patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome and argue that paternalism is not only permissible but imperative in cases in egregious harm. This view is enshrined in common law jurisprudence which dismisses consent as a justification in serious crime.

  8. Investigating paternal preconception risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in a population of internet users

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agricola, Eleonora; Gesualdo, Francesco; Carloni, Emanuela; D'Ambrosio, Angelo; Russo, Luisa; Campagna, Ilaria; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Tozzi, Alberto E

    2016-01-01

    Paternal preconception risk factors such as smoking, exposure to environmental substances, medication use, overweight and advanced age correlate with the occurrence of malformations and birth defects in the offspring...

  9. To nudge or not to nudge: cancer screening programmes and the limits of libertarian paternalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploug, Thomas; Holm, Søren; Brodersen, John

    2012-12-01

    'Nudging--and the underlying idea 'libertarian paternalism'--to an increasing degree influences policy thinking in the healthcare sector. This article discusses the influence exerted upon a woman's choice of participation in the Danish breast screening programme in light of 'libertarian paternalism'. The basic tenet of 'libertarian paternalism' is outlined and the relationship between 'libertarian paternalism' and informed consent investigated. Key elements in the process of enrolling women into the Danish mammography screening programme are introduced. It is shown that for several reasons the influence exerted upon women's choices of participation cannot be justified within a welfare-enhancing libertarian paternalistic framework. The article suggests that screening programmes alternatively adopt a liberty-enhancing approach and considers the practical implications of this alternative.

  10. Beyond Boys' Bad Behavior: Paternal Incarceration and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Anna R

    2016-12-07

    A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children's cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys' behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability. Moreover, I estimate that paternal incarceration explains between 2 and 15 percent of the Black-White achievement gap at age 9. These findings represent new outcomes of importance and suggest that paternal incarceration may play an even larger role in the production of intergenerational inequalities for American children than previously documented.

  11. The reproductive biology of Polytrichum formosum : clonal structure and paternity revealed by microsatellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velde, M; During, HJ; Van de Zande, L; Bijlsma, R

    2001-01-01

    Using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we assessed clonal structure and paternity in a population of the bryophyte species Polytrichum formosum. Identical multilocus genotypes of individual shoots were almost never observed in spatially separated cushions, but were found to be highly

  12. Biparental care in insects: paternal care, life history, and the function of the nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Seizi

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of parental care is a complex process, and many evolutionary pathways have been hypothesized. Maternal care is common, but paternal care is not. High confidence of paternity should favor the evolution of paternal attendance in caring for young; biparental care is rare because paternity assurance is typically low compared to maternity. Biparental care in insects has evolved several times and has high diversity. To evaluate the conditions for the evolution of biparental care, a comparison across taxa is suitable. In this review, common traits of biparental species are discussed in order to evaluate previous models of biparental care and the life history of insects. It will be shown that nesting is a common feature in biparental insects. Nest structure limits extra-pair copulations, contributing to the evolution of biparental care.

  13. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  14. Development of the Korean Paternal-Fetal Attachment Scale (K-PAFAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Iee Noh, PhD, RN

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The K-PAFAS demonstrated initial validity and reliability. It was short, and relatively easy for use in evaluating the degree of paternal-fetal attachment in the antenatal management stage.

  15. Fecundity of Paternal and Maternal Non-Parental Female Relatives of Homosexual and Heterosexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Pellizzari, Elena

    2012-01-01

    A variety of social, developmental, biological and genetic factors influence sexual orientation in males. Thus, several hypotheses have attempted to explain the sustenance of genetic factors that influence male homosexuality, despite decreased fecundity within the homosexuals. Kin selection, the existence of maternal effects and two forms of balancing selection, sexually antagonistic selection and overdominance, have been proposed as compensatory mechanisms for reduced homosexual fecundity. Here, we suggest that the empirical support for kin selection and maternal effects cannot account for the low universal frequency and stability of the distribution of homosexuals. To identify the responsible compensatory mechanism, we analyzed fecundity in 2,100 European female relatives, i.e., aunts and grandmothers, of either homosexual or heterosexual probands who were matched in terms of age, culture and sampling strategy. Female relatives were chosen to avoid the sampling bias of the fraternal birth order effect, which occurs when indirectly sampling mothers though their homosexual sons. We observed that the maternal aunts and grandmothers of homosexual probands were significantly more fecund compared with the maternal aunts and maternal grandmothers of the heterosexual probands. No difference in fecundity was observed in the paternal female lines (grandmothers or aunts) from either of the two proband groups. Moreover, due to the selective increase in maternal female fecundity, the total female fecundity was significantly higher in homosexual than heterosexual probands, thus compensating for the reduced fecundity of homosexuals. Altogether, these data support an X-linked multi-locus sexually antagonistic hypothesis rather than an autosomal multi-locus overdominance hypothesis. PMID:23227237

  16. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  17. No evidence of extra-pair paternity in a colonial seabird, the common tern (Sterna hirundo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, M.; Matessi, Giuliano; Marin, G.

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of extra-pair paternity and egg dumping was investigated in a colony of common terns (Sterna hirundo), a colonial seabird, in the Venetian lagoon. Ten families were sampled and multilocus DNA fingerprinting analysis was performed. No indication of extra-pair paternity or egg dumping...... was found in any of the families. The results are discussed in the light of life-history strategies, the benefits of coloniality and the evolution of adoption behaviour in the species....

  18. Male reed buntings do not adjust parental effort in relation to extrapair paternity

    OpenAIRE

    Bouwman, Karen M.; Lessells, C(Kate). M; Jan Komdeur

    2005-01-01

    Parental effort is considered to be costly; therefore, males are expected to provide less care to unrelated offspring. Theoretical models suggest that males should either reduce their care to the entire brood or alternatively distinguish between related and unrelated nestlings and direct provisioning to kin when paternity is in doubt. Reed buntings (Emberiza schoeniclus) have been found to have high levels of extrapair paternity (EPP, i.e., offspring of a male other than the male attending th...

  19. Paternal origin of the de novo deleted chromosome 4 in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Tupler, R.; Bortotto, L; Bühler, E M; Alkan, M; Malik, N J; Bösch-Al Jadooa, N; Memo, L; Maraschio, P

    1992-01-01

    The parental origin of the de novo deleted chromosome 4 was studied in five cases of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome using polymorphic probes mapping in the 4p16.3 region. In all the patients the deleted chromosome was found to be of paternal origin and these results, together with similar ones obtained by another group, make the preferential paternal origin of the de novo chromosome 4 deletion highly significant.

  20. Paternal Influences on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors: A Structured Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouris, Alida; Lee, Jane; McCarthy, Katharine; Michael, Shannon L.; Pitt-Barnes, Seraphine; Dittus, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To date, most parent-based research has neglected the role of fathers in shaping adolescent sexual behavior and has focused on mothers. The objective of this study was to conduct a structured review to assess the role of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior and to assess the methodological quality of the paternal influence literature related to adolescent sexual behavior. METHODS: We searched electronic databases: PubMed, PsychINFO, Social Services Abstracts, Family Studies Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies published between 1980 and 2011 that targeted adolescents 11 to 18 years and focused on paternal parenting processes were included. Methodological quality was assessed by using an 11-item scoring system. RESULTS: Thirteen articles were identified and reviewed. Findings suggest paternal factors are independently associated with adolescent sexual behavior relative to maternal factors. The most commonly studied paternal influence was emotional qualities of the father-adolescent relationship. Paternal communication about sex was most consistently associated with adolescent sexual behavior, whereas paternal attitudes about sex was least associated. Methodological limitations include a tendency to rely on cross-sectional design, nonprobability sampling methods, and focus on sexual debut versus broader sexual behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Existing research preliminarily suggests fathers influence the sexual behavior of their adolescent children; however, more rigorous research examining diverse facets of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior is needed. We provide recommendations for primary care providers and public health practitioners to better incorporate fathers into interventions designed to reduce adolescent sexual risk behavior. PMID:23071205

  1. Paternal lifestyle as a potential source of germline mutations transmitted to offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linschooten, Joost O.; Verhofstad, Nicole; Gutzkow, Kristine; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Yauk, Carole; Oligschläger, Yvonne; Brunborg, Gunnar; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Godschalk, Roger W. L.

    2013-01-01

    Paternal exposure to high levels of radioactivity causes heritable germline minisatellite mutations. However, the effect of more general paternal exposures, such as cigarette smoking, on germline mutations remains unexplored. We analyzed two of the most commonly used minisatellite loci (CEB1 and B6.7) to identify germline mutations in blood samples of complete mother–father–child triads from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The presence of mutations was subsequently related to general lifestyle factors, including paternal smoking before the partner became pregnant. Paternally derived mutations at the B6.7 locus (mutation frequency 0.07) were not affected by lifestyle. In contrast, high gross yearly income as a general measure of a healthy lifestyle coincided with low-mutation frequencies at the CEB1 locus (P=0.047). Income was inversely related to smoking behavior, and paternally derived CEB1 mutations were dose dependently increased when the father smoked in the 6 mo before pregnancy, 0.21 vs. 0.05 in smoking and nonsmoking fathers, respectively (P=0.061). These results suggest that paternal lifestyle can affect the chance of heritable mutations in unstable repetitive DNA sequences. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting an effect of lifestyle on germline minisatellite mutation frequencies in a human population with moderate paternal exposures.—Linschooten, J. O., Verhofstad, N., Gutzkow, K., Olsen, A.-K., Yauk, C., Oligschläger, Y., Brunborg, G., van Schooten, F. J., Godschalk, R. W. L. Paternal lifestyle as a potential source of germline mutations transmitted to offspring. PMID:23538710

  2. Nature v. Nurture: Children Left Fatherless and Family-Less When Nature Prevails in Paternity Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Niccol Kording

    2004-01-01

    Those words describe the feeling many parents get from parenthood and from being part of a family, regardless of whether the child is their biological offspring, stepchild, surrogate child, or adopted child. All these families and children born of biological connections or traditional families enjoy some protection under statutory or common law paternity or parentage laws. The Uniform Parentage Act and similar paternity laws protect traditional families under the marital or legitimacy presump...

  3. [Maternity and paternity in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Veleda, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Helen; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

    2008-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of maternity and paternity among subjects and its association with perinatal, socioeconomic and demographic variables. The participants were youth, aged 23, on the average, accompanied in a cohort study since they were born, in 1982, in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) and interviewed in 2004-5. Those who were considered eligible referred having had one or more children, whether these were liveborns or stillborns. Data was collected on reproductive health as well as socioeconomic and demographic information, by means of two different instruments. The independent variables were sex and skin color, family income in 1982 and in 2004-5, changes in income, birth weight and educational level when aged 23 years old. Crude and adjusted analysis were conducted by means of Poisson regression so as to investigate the effects of the independent variables on maternity/paternity during adolescence. Among the 4,297 youth interviewed, 1,373 (32%) were parents and 842 (19.6%) of these had experienced maternity/paternity during their adolescence. Planned pregnancy of the first child was directly related to the youth's age. Socioeconomic variables were inversely related to the occurrence of maternity/paternity during adolescence. The probability of being an adolescent mother was higher among black and mixed skin colored women, but skin color was not associated to adolescent paternity. There was a strong relation between adolescent maternity/paternity and socioeconomic conditions, which should be taken into consideration when delineating preventive actions in the field of public health.

  4. Implications of advancing paternal age: does it affect offspring school performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Svensson

    Full Text Available Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875. Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI -3.8, 4.4 points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30-34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers.

  5. The Effect of Paternal Age on Offspring Intelligence and Personality when Controlling for Parental Trait Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents’ intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224

  6. Implications of advancing paternal age: does it affect offspring school performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Anna C; Abel, Kathryn; Dalman, Christina; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875). Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI -3.8, 4.4) points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30-34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers.

  7. Paternal Smoking and Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiling Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the association between paternal smoking and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. Method. We identified 18 published epidemiologic studies that reported data on both paternal smoking and childhood ALL risk. We performed a meta-analysis and analyzed dose-response relationships on ALL risk for smoking during preconception, during pregnancy, after birth, and ever smoking. Results. The summary odds ratio (OR of childhood ALL associated with paternal smoking was 1.11 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.05–1.18, I2=18% during any time period, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.08–1.46, I2=53% preconception; 1.24 (95% CI: 1.07–1.43, I2=54% during pregnancy, and 1.24 (95% CI: 0.96–1.60, I2=64% after birth, with a dose-response relationship between childhood ALL and paternal smoking preconception or after birth. Conclusion. The evidence supports a positive association between childhood ALL and paternal ever smoking and at each exposure time period examined. Future epidemiologic studies should assess paternal smoking during well-defined exposure windows and should include biomarkers to assess smoking exposure and toxicological mechanisms.

  8. Chinese Preschool Children’s Socioemotional Development: The Effects of Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufen Xing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relative prediction and joint effects of maternal and paternal psychological control on children’s socioemotional development. A total of 325 preschool children between the ages of 34 and 57 months (M = 4 years 2 months and their parents participated in the study. Fathers and mothers, respectively, reported their levels of psychological control and mothers evaluated the socioemotional development of children using two indicators (i.e., behavioral problems and prosocial behaviors. The results indicated that the relative predictive effects of maternal and paternal psychological control on children’s socioemotional development differed. Specifically, maternal psychological control was a significant predictor of children’s behavioral problems and prosocial behaviors, whereas the levels of paternal psychological control were unrelated to children’s socioemotional development. With regard to the combined effects of maternal and paternal psychological control, the results of ANOVAs and simple slope analysis both indicated that children would be at risk of behavioral problems as long as they had one highly psychologically controlling parent. High levels of paternal psychological control were associated with increased behavioral problems of children only when maternal psychological control was low. However, the association between maternal psychological control and children’s behavioral behaviors was significant, despite paternal psychological control.

  9. Applying massively parallel sequencing to paternity testing on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhao, Xueying; Ma, Ke; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Huaigu; Ping, Yuan; Shao, Chengchen; Xie, Jianhui; Liu, Wenbin

    2017-09-12

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) is a promising supplementary method for forensic genetics and has gradually been applied to forensic casework. In this study, we applied MPS to forensic casework on an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine to evaluate its performance in paternity testing with mismatched STR loci. A total of 15 samples from seven cases containing one mismatched locus by capillary electrophoresis typing were analyzed. Combined paternity index (CPI) and relative chance of paternity were calculated according to the International Society for Forensic Genetics guidelines and the Chinese national standards recommended for paternity testing. With simultaneous analysis of enough STR loci, the results support the certainty of paternity, and the mismatched alleles were considered to be mutations (CPI>10,000). With the detection of allele sequence structures, the origins of the mutations were inferred in some cases. Meanwhile, nine STRs (CSF1PO, D1S1656, D2S441, D2S1338, D3S1358, D8S1179, D12S391, D21S11 and D4S2408) were found in an increased number of unique alleles and three new alleles in three STRs (D2S441, D21S11, and FGA) that have not been reported before were detected. Therefore, MPS can provide valuable information for forensic genetics research and play a promising role in paternity testing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Chinese Preschool Children’s Socioemotional Development: The Effects of Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shufen; Gao, Xin; Song, Xinxin; Archer, Marc; Zhao, Demao; Zhang, Mengting; Ding, Bilei; Liu, Xia

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relative prediction and joint effects of maternal and paternal psychological control on children’s socioemotional development. A total of 325 preschool children between the ages of 34 and 57 months (M = 4 years 2 months) and their parents participated in the study. Fathers and mothers, respectively, reported their levels of psychological control and mothers evaluated the socioemotional development of children using two indicators (i.e., behavioral problems and prosocial behaviors). The results indicated that the relative predictive effects of maternal and paternal psychological control on children’s socioemotional development differed. Specifically, maternal psychological control was a significant predictor of children’s behavioral problems and prosocial behaviors, whereas the levels of paternal psychological control were unrelated to children’s socioemotional development. With regard to the combined effects of maternal and paternal psychological control, the results of ANOVAs and simple slope analysis both indicated that children would be at risk of behavioral problems as long as they had one highly psychologically controlling parent. High levels of paternal psychological control were associated with increased behavioral problems of children only when maternal psychological control was low. However, the association between maternal psychological control and children’s behavioral behaviors was significant, despite paternal psychological control. PMID:29093691

  11. Functional diversification within bacterial lineages promotes wide functional overlapping between taxonomic groups in a Mediterranean forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel Yuste, Jorge; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Antonio José; Fernandez-Lopez, Manuel; Ogaya, Romá; Penuelas, Josep; Lloret, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the relationship between taxonomy and functioning of soil bacterial communities in soils from a Mediterranean holm oak forest using a high-throughput DNA pyrosequencing technique. We used nonparametric tests (Mann-Whitney U-test) to evaluate the sensitivity of each single bacterial genus within the community to the fluctuations of plant physiological and environmental abiotic variables, as well as to fluctuations in soil microbial respiration. Within-lineage (phylum/class) functional similarities were evaluated by the distribution of the Mann-Whitney U-test standardized coefficients (z) obtained for all genera within a given lineage. We further defined different ecological niches and within-lineage degree of functional diversification based on multivariate analyses (principal component analyses, PCA). Our results indicate that strong within-lineage functional diversification causes extensive functional overlapping between lineages, which hinders the translation of taxonomic diversity into a meaningful functional classification of bacteria. Our results further suggest a widespread colonization of possible ecological niches as taxonomic diversity increases. While no strong functional differentiation could be drawn from the analyses at the phylum/class level, our results suggest a strong ecological niche differentiation of bacteria based mainly on the distinct response of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria to fluctuations in soil moisture. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Global divergence of the human follicle mite Demodex folliculorum: Persistent associations between host ancestry and mite lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palopoli, Michael F; Fergus, Daniel J; Minot, Samuel; Pei, Dorothy T; Simison, W Brian; Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Thoemmes, Megan S; Dunn, Robert R; Trautwein, Michelle

    2015-12-29

    Microscopic mites of the genus Demodex live within the hair follicles of mammals and are ubiquitous symbionts of humans, but little molecular work has been done to understand their genetic diversity or transmission. Here we sampled mite DNA from 70 human hosts of diverse geographic ancestries and analyzed 241 sequences from the mitochondrial genome of the species Demodex folliculorum. Phylogenetic analyses recovered multiple deep lineages including a globally distributed lineage common among hosts of European ancestry and three lineages that primarily include hosts of Asian, African, and Latin American ancestry. To a great extent, the ancestral geography of hosts predicted the lineages of mites found on them; 27% of the total molecular variance segregated according to the regional ancestries of hosts. We found that D. folliculorum populations are stable on an individual over the course of years and that some Asian and African American hosts maintain specific mite lineages over the course of years or generations outside their geographic region of birth or ancestry. D. folliculorum haplotypes were much more likely to be shared within families and between spouses than between unrelated individuals, indicating that transmission requires close contact. Dating analyses indicated that D. folliculorum origins may predate modern humans. Overall, D. folliculorum evolution reflects ancient human population divergences, is consistent with an out-of-Africa dispersal hypothesis, and presents an excellent model system for further understanding the history of human movement.

  13. Global divergence of the human follicle mite Demodex folliculorum: Persistent associations between host ancestry and mite lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palopoli, Michael F.; Fergus, Daniel J.; Minot, Samuel; Pei, Dorothy T.; Simison, W. Brian; Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Thoemmes, Megan S.; Dunn, Robert R.; Trautwein, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic mites of the genus Demodex live within the hair follicles of mammals and are ubiquitous symbionts of humans, but little molecular work has been done to understand their genetic diversity or transmission. Here we sampled mite DNA from 70 human hosts of diverse geographic ancestries and analyzed 241 sequences from the mitochondrial genome of the species Demodex folliculorum. Phylogenetic analyses recovered multiple deep lineages including a globally distributed lineage common among hosts of European ancestry and three lineages that primarily include hosts of Asian, African, and Latin American ancestry. To a great extent, the ancestral geography of hosts predicted the lineages of mites found on them; 27% of the total molecular variance segregated according to the regional ancestries of hosts. We found that D. folliculorum populations are stable on an individual over the course of years and that some Asian and African American hosts maintain specific mite lineages over the course of years or generations outside their geographic region of birth or ancestry. D. folliculorum haplotypes were much more likely to be shared within families and between spouses than between unrelated individuals, indicating that transmission requires close contact. Dating analyses indicated that D. folliculorum origins may predate modern humans. Overall, D. folliculorum evolution reflects ancient human population divergences, is consistent with an out-of-Africa dispersal hypothesis, and presents an excellent model system for further understanding the history of human movement. PMID:26668374

  14. Stem Cell Lineage Infidelity Drives Wound Repair and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yejing; Gomez, Nicholas C; Adam, Rene C; Nikolova, Maria; Yang, Hanseul; Verma, Akanksha; Lu, Catherine Pei-Ju; Polak, Lisa; Yuan, Shaopeng; Elemento, Olivier; Fuchs, Elaine

    2017-05-04

    Tissue stem cells contribute to tissue regeneration and wound repair through cellular programs that can be hijacked by cancer cells. Here, we investigate such a phenomenon in skin, where during homeostasis, stem cells of the epidermis and hair follicle fuel their respective tissues. We find that breakdown of stem cell lineage confinement-granting privileges associated with both fates-is not only hallmark but also functional in cancer development. We show that lineage plasticity is critical in wound repair, where it operates transiently to redirect fates. Investigating mechanism, we discover that irrespective of cellular origin, lineage infidelity occurs in wounding when stress-responsive enhancers become activated and override homeostatic enhancers that govern lineage specificity. In cancer, stress-responsive transcription factor levels rise, causing lineage commanders to reach excess. When lineage and stress factors collaborate, they activate oncogenic enhancers that distinguish cancers from wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Autonomy and paternalism in medical e-commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2015-08-01

    One of the overriding interests of the literature on health care economics is to discover where personal choice in market economies end and corrective government intervention should begin. Our study addresses this question in the context of John Stuart Mill's utilitarian principle of harm. Our primary objective is to determine whether public policy interventions concerning more than 35,000 online pharmacies worldwide are necessary and efficient compared to traditional market-oriented approaches. Secondly, we seek to determine whether government interference could enhance personal  utility maximization, despite its direct and indirect (unintended) costs on medical e-commerce. This study finds that containing the negative externalities of medical e-commerce provides the most compelling raison d'etre of government interference. It asserts that autonomy and paternalism need not be mutually exclusive, despite their direct and indirect consequences on individual choice and decision-making processes. Valuable insights derived from Mill's principle should enrich theory-building in health care economics and policy.

  16. Paternalism and utilitarianism in research with human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2015-03-01

    In this article I defend a rule utilitarian approach to paternalistic policies in research with human participants. Some rules that restrict individual autonomy can be justified on the grounds that they help to maximize the overall balance of benefits over risks in research. The consequences that should be considered when formulating policy include not only likely impacts on research participants, but also impacts on investigators, institutions, sponsors, and the scientific community. The public reaction to adverse events in research (such as significant injury to participants or death) is a crucial concern that must be taken into account when assessing the consequences of different policy options, because public backlash can lead to outcomes that have a negative impact on science, such as cuts in funding, overly restrictive regulation and oversight, and reduced willingness of individuals to participate in research. I argue that concern about the public reaction to adverse events justifies some restrictions on the risks that competent, adult volunteers can face in research that offers them no significant benefits. The paternalism defended here is not pure, because it involves restrictions on the rights of investigators in order to protect participants. It also has a mixed rationale, because individual autonomy may be restricted not only to protect participants from harm but also to protect other stakeholders. Utility is not the sole justification for paternalistic research policies, since other considerations, such as justice and respect for individual rights/autonomy, must also be taken into account.

  17. Rational suicide, assisted suicide, and indirect legal paternalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramme, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This article argues in favour of three related claims: First, suicide is not an immoral act. If people autonomously choose to kill themselves, this ought to be respected. Second, we can deem the desire to die comprehensible, and even rational, when the person contemplating suicide does not see a meaning in her life. This assessment is not based on a metaphysically dubious comparison between the actual life of a person and the supposed state of being dead. Third, from the first two theses it does not automatically follow that we should allow other people to help someone who autonomously and rationally chooses to die to pursue this plan. To argue against indirect legal paternalism, the practice of legally preventing someone else to assist a person to perform a suicide or to be killed on request, needs additional reasons. It is argued that assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia can indeed be justified by establishing a claim of persons who want to die but are not able to kill themselves. This mainly means that being really free to die should be interpreted as involving the means to fulfil one's desire to die. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal and paternal personality profiles of adolescent suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Nurullah; Kadak, Tayyib; Eliacik, Kayi; Sargin, Enis; Incekas, Secil; Gunes, Hatice

    2017-02-01

    Personality features have been correlated with suicidal behaviors in recent decades. Given its neurobiological background, Cloninger's model of personality, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), may help to identify the maternal and paternal personality dimensions associated with adolescent suicide attempts. The present study is the first that specifically compares the temperament and character profiles of both mothers and fathers of the adolescent suicide attempters with a control group, by considering the influence of demographic and clinical factors. The study group comprised 117 parents of 71 adolescent suicide attempters and 119 parents of 71 age- and gender-matched adolescents without a suicide attempt included as a control group. The TCI and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were applied to the parents in both groups. Logistic regression analysis, which was performed to adjust confounding factors, demonstrated significantly higher scores for harm avoidance among the mothers and lower scores of self-directedness among the fathers of the adolescent suicide attempters. New psychotherapeutic modalities considering the high-risk parental personality traits would be beneficial to support parent-adolescent relationships and may have a preventative effect on adolescent suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Keeping the Genealogical Structure of Paternal Breed Nuclei in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Voiculescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For a long period of time pigs as farm animals were considered producing a single ware, pork. Not very long ago the pork market became interested in lean meet. Some breeders tried to have it from the old breeds and lave a lent genetic progress. Other breeders decided to follow the hybridization schemes used in poultry to produce broilers. But in strains with high daily gain and gross muscles the sows fertility declined and by then by disjunction selection they have isolated strains of high fertility. Then the final animal for the market was the cross piglet obtained from these two kinds of strains or lines. The third kind of breeders decided to specializing breeds, selected for as much as possible muscle mass as paternal breeds and breeds specialized for high fertility as maternal breeds. The present paper will present the movement taking place in the genealogy of a breed nucleus of 200sows with closed reproduction. The goal of the families’ movement analysis is to find out how to ensure a convenient genealogy structure preventing consanguinity when some families are extinct by selection for daily gain.

  20. Paternal personality and social status influence offspring activity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajitschek, Susanne; Herbert-Read, James E; Abbasi, Nasir M; Zajitschek, Felix; Immler, Simone

    2017-07-03

    Evidence for the transmission of non-genetic information from father to offspring is rapidly accumulating. While the impact of chemical and physical factors such as toxins or diet on the fitness of the parents and their offspring have been studied extensively, the importance of behavioural and social circumstances has only recently been recognised. Behavioural traits such as personality characteristics can be relatively stable, and partly comprise a genetic component but we know little about the non-genetic transmission of plastic behavioural traits from parents to offspring. We investigated the relative effect of personality and of social dominance as indicators at the opposite ends of the plasticity range on offspring behaviour in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). We assessed male boldness, a behavioural trait that has previously been shown previously to possess genetic underpinnings, and experimentally manipulated male social status to assess the association between the two types of behaviour and their correlation with offspring activity. We found a clear interaction between the relatively stable and putative genetic effects based on inherited differences in personality and the experimentally induced epigenetic effects from changes in the social status of the father on offspring activity. Our study shows that offspring behaviour is determined by a combination of paternal personality traits and on-genetic effects derived from the social status of the father.

  1. Prospective identification of hematopoietic lineage choice by deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggenthin, Felix; Buettner, Florian; Hoppe, Philipp S; Endele, Max; Kroiss, Manuel; Strasser, Michael; Schwarzfischer, Michael; Loeffler, Dirk; Kokkaliaris, Konstantinos D; Hilsenbeck, Oliver; Schroeder, Timm; Theis, Fabian J; Marr, Carsten

    2017-04-01

    Differentiation alters molecular properties of stem and progenitor cells, leading to changes in their shape and movement characteristics. We present a deep neural network that prospectively predicts lineage choice in differentiating primary hematopoietic progenitors using image patches from brightfield microscopy and cellular movement. Surprisingly, lineage choice can be detected up to three generations before conventional molecular markers are observable. Our approach allows identification of cells with differentially expressed lineage-specifying genes without molecular labeling.

  2. Feedback, Lineages and Self-Organizing Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameeran Kunche

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Feedback regulation of cell lineage progression plays an important role in tissue size homeostasis, but whether such feedback also plays an important role in tissue morphogenesis has yet to be explored. Here we use mathematical modeling to show that a particular feedback architecture in which both positive and negative diffusible signals act on stem and/or progenitor cells leads to the appearance of bistable or bi-modal growth behaviors, ultrasensitivity to external growth cues, local growth-driven budding, self-sustaining elongation, and the triggering of self-organization in the form of lamellar fingers. Such behaviors arise not through regulation of cell cycle speeds, but through the control of stem or progenitor self-renewal. Even though the spatial patterns that arise in this setting are the result of interactions between diffusible factors with antagonistic effects, morphogenesis is not the consequence of Turing-type instabilities.

  3. Feedback, Lineages and Self-Organizing Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calof, Anne L.; Lowengrub, John S.; Lander, Arthur D.

    2016-01-01

    Feedback regulation of cell lineage progression plays an important role in tissue size homeostasis, but whether such feedback also plays an important role in tissue morphogenesis has yet to be explored. Here we use mathematical modeling to show that a particular feedback architecture in which both positive and negative diffusible signals act on stem and/or progenitor cells leads to the appearance of bistable or bi-modal growth behaviors, ultrasensitivity to external growth cues, local growth-driven budding, self-sustaining elongation, and the triggering of self-organization in the form of lamellar fingers. Such behaviors arise not through regulation of cell cycle speeds, but through the control of stem or progenitor self-renewal. Even though the spatial patterns that arise in this setting are the result of interactions between diffusible factors with antagonistic effects, morphogenesis is not the consequence of Turing-type instabilities. PMID:26989903

  4. Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luísa; Cerný, Viktor; Cerezo, María; Silva, Nuno M; Hájek, Martin; Vasíková, Alzbeta; Kujanová, Martina; Brdicka, Radim; Salas, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    The Tuareg presently live in the Sahara and the Sahel. Their ancestors are commonly believed to be the Garamantes of the Libyan Fezzan, ever since it was suggested by authors of antiquity. Biological evidence, based on classical genetic markers, however, indicates kinship with the Beja of Eastern Sudan. Our study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and Y chromosome SNPs of three different southern Tuareg groups from Mali, Burkina Faso and the Republic of Niger reveals a West Eurasian-North African composition of their gene pool. The data show that certain genetic lineages could not have been introduced into this population earlier than approximately 9000 years ago whereas local expansions establish a minimal date at around 3000 years ago. Some of the mtDNA haplogroups observed in the Tuareg population were involved in the post-Last Glacial Maximum human expansion from Iberian refugia towards both Europe and North Africa. Interestingly, no Near Eastern mtDNA lineages connected with the Neolithic expansion have been observed in our population sample. On the other hand, the Y chromosome SNPs data show that the paternal lineages can very probably be traced to the Near Eastern Neolithic demic expansion towards North Africa, a period that is otherwise concordant with the above-mentioned mtDNA expansion. The time frame for the migration of the Tuareg towards the African Sahel belt overlaps that of early Holocene climatic changes across the Sahara (from the optimal greening approximately 10 000 YBP to the extant aridity beginning at approximately 6000 YBP) and the migrations of other African nomadic peoples in the area.

  5. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  6. Ancient mitochondrial lineages support the prehistoric maternal root of Basques in Northern Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia-Madrid, Leire; Cardoso, Sergio; Keyser, Christine; López-Quintana, Juan Carlos; Guenaga-Lizasu, Amagoia; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2017-05-01

    The Basque population inhabits the Franco-Cantabrian region in southwest Europe where Palaeolithic human groups took refuge during the Last Glacial Maximum. Basques have been an isolated population, largely considered as one of the most ancient European populations and it is possible that they maintained some pre-Neolithic genetic characteristics. This work shows the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis of seven ancient human remains from the Cave of Santimamiñe in the Basque Country dated from Mesolithic to the Late Roman period. In addition, we compared these data with those obtained from a modern sample of Basque population, 158 individuals that nowadays inhabits next to the cave. The results support the hypothesis that Iberians might have been less affected by the Neolithic mitochondrial lineages carried from the Near East than populations of Central Europe and revealed the unexpected presence of prehistoric maternal lineages such as U5a2a and U3a in the Basque region. Comparison between ancient and current population samples upholds the hypothesis of continuity of the maternal lineages in the area of the Franco-Cantabrian region.

  7. Implementation of erythroid lineage analysis by flow cytometry in diagnostic models for myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Eline M P; Westers, Theresia M; Alhan, Canan; Cali, Claudia; Visser-Wisselaar, Heleen A; Chitu, Dana A; van der Velden, Vincent H J; Te Marvelde, Jeroen G; Klein, Saskia K; Muus, Petra; Vellenga, Edo; de Greef, Georgina E; Legdeur, Marie-Cecile C J C; Wijermans, Pierre W; Stevens-Kroef, Marian J P L; Silva-Coelho, Pedro da; Jansen, Joop H; Ossenkoppele, Gert J; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A

    2017-02-01

    Flow cytometric analysis is a recommended tool in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes. Current flow cytometric approaches evaluate the (im)mature myelo-/monocytic lineage with a median sensitivity and specificity of ~71% and ~93%, respectively. We hypothesized that the addition of erythroid lineage analysis could increase the sensitivity of flow cytometry. Hereto, we validated the analysis of erythroid lineage parameters recommended by the International/European LeukemiaNet Working Group for Flow Cytometry in Myelodysplastic Syndromes, and incorporated this evaluation in currently applied flow cytometric models. One hundred and sixty-seven bone marrow aspirates were analyzed; 106 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, and 61 cytopenic controls. There was a strong correlation between presence of erythroid aberrancies assessed by flow cytometry and the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes when validating the previously described erythroid evaluation. Furthermore, addition of erythroid aberrancies to two different flow cytometric models led to an increased sensitivity in detecting myelodysplastic syndromes: from 74% to 86% for the addition to the diagnostic score designed by Ogata and colleagues, and from 69% to 80% for the addition to the integrated flow cytometric score for myelodysplastic syndromes, designed by our group. In both models the specificity was unaffected. The high sensitivity and specificity of flow cytometry in the detection of myelodysplastic syndromes illustrates the important value of flow cytometry in a standardized diagnostic approach. The trial is registered at www.trialregister.nl as NTR1825; EudraCT n.: 2008-002195-10. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  8. Paternity in wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta): Implications for male mating strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parga, Joyce A; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; Youssouf Jacky, Ibrahim Antho; Lawler, Richard R; Sussman, Robert W; Gould, Lisa; Pastorini, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    In group-living species with male dominance hierarchies where receptive periods of females do not overlap, high male reproductive skew would be predicted. However, the existence of female multiple mating and alternative male mating strategies can call into question single-male monopolization of paternity in groups. Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) are seasonally breeding primates that live in multi-male, multi-female groups. Although established groups show male dominance hierarchies, male dominance relationships can break down during mating periods. In addition, females are the dominant sex and mate with multiple males during estrus, including group residents, and extra-group males-posing the question of whether there is high or low male paternity skew in groups. In this study, we analyzed paternity in a population of wild L. catta from the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve in southwestern Madagascar. Paternity was determined with 80-95% confidence for 39 offspring born to nine different groups. We calculated male reproductive skew indices for six groups, and our results showed a range of values corresponding to both high and low reproductive skew. Between 21% and 33% of offspring (3 of 14 or three of nine, counting paternity assignments at the 80% or 95% confidence levels, respectively) were sired by extra-troop males. Males siring offspring within the same group during the same year appear to be unrelated. Our study provides evidence of varying male reproductive skew in different L. catta groups. A single male may monopolize paternity across one or more years, while in other groups, >1 male can sire offspring within the same group, even within a single year. Extra-group mating is a viable strategy that can result in extra-group paternity for L. catta males. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Primatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Paternity in wild ring‐tailed lemurs (Lemur catta): Implications for male mating strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauther, Michelle L.; Cuozzo, Frank P.; Youssouf Jacky, Ibrahim Antho; Lawler, Richard R.; Sussman, Robert W.; Gould, Lisa; Pastorini, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    1 In group‐living species with male dominance hierarchies where receptive periods of females do not overlap, high male reproductive skew would be predicted. However, the existence of female multiple mating and alternative male mating strategies can call into question single‐male monopolization of paternity in groups. Ring‐tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) are seasonally breeding primates that live in multi‐male, multi‐female groups. Although established groups show male dominance hierarchies, male dominance relationships can break down during mating periods. In addition, females are the dominant sex and mate with multiple males during estrus, including group residents, and extra‐group males—posing the question of whether there is high or low male paternity skew in groups. In this study, we analyzed paternity in a population of wild L. catta from the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve in southwestern Madagascar. Paternity was determined with 80–95% confidence for 39 offspring born to nine different groups. We calculated male reproductive skew indices for six groups, and our results showed a range of values corresponding to both high and low reproductive skew. Between 21% and 33% of offspring (3 of 14 or three of nine, counting paternity assignments at the 80% or 95% confidence levels, respectively) were sired by extra‐troop males. Males siring offspring within the same group during the same year appear to be unrelated. Our study provides evidence of varying male reproductive skew in different L. catta groups. A single male may monopolize paternity across one or more years, while in other groups, >1 male can sire offspring within the same group, even within a single year. Extra‐group mating is a viable strategy that can result in extra‐group paternity for L. catta males. PMID:27391113

  10. The Effect of Multiple Paternity on Genetic Diversity of Small Populations during and after Colonisation

    KAUST Repository

    Rafajlović, Marina

    2013-10-28

    Genetic variation within and among populations is influenced by the genetic content of the founders and the migrants following establishment. This is particularly true if populations are small, migration rate low and habitats arranged in a stepping-stone fashion. Under these circumstances the level of multiple paternity is critical since multiply mated females bring more genetic variation into founder groups than single mated females. One such example is the marine snail Littorina saxatilis that during postglacial times has invaded mainland refuge areas and thereafter small islands emerging due to isostatic uplift by occasional rafting of multiply mated females. We modelled effects of varying degrees of multiple paternity on the genetic variation of island populations colonised by the founders spreading from the mainland, by quantifying the population heterozygosity during both the transient colonisation process, and after a steady state (with migration) has been reached. During colonisation, multiple mating by 2-10 males increased the heterozygosity by 10-300% in comparison with single paternity, while in the steady state the increase was 10-50% compared with single paternity. In the steady state the increase of heterozygosity due to multiple paternity is determined by a corresponding increase in effective population size. During colonisation, by contrast, the increase in heterozygosity is larger and it cannot be explained in terms of the effective population size alone. During the steady-state phase bursts of high genetic variation spread through the system, and far from the mainland this led to short periods of high diversity separated by long periods of low diversity. The size of these fluctuations was boosted by multiple paternity. We conclude that following glacial periods of extirpation, recolonization of isolated habitats by this species has been supported by its high level of multiple paternity. 2013 Rafajlovi? et al.

  11. Brief report of a test of differential alcohol risk using sibling attributions of paternal alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, Marcella H; Arkes, Jeremy; Hoyle, Rick H

    2011-11-01

    Parental alcoholism is generally found to be a strong predictor of alcohol misuse. Although the majority of siblings agree on the presence of parental alcohol issues, there is a significant minority who do not. The current study analyzed sibling data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth using multilevel modeling, which accounts for the nested structure of the data. These analyses permitted a test of whether (a) identifying one's father as an alcoholic predicted greater risk of alcohol problems, (b) being from a family whose siblings did not all agree on the presence of paternal alcoholism increased the likelihood of alcohol problems, and (c) risk of alcohol misuse significantly differed among individuals from families in which there was familial disagreement about paternal alcoholism. Results show that individuals who identified their father as an alcoholic were themselves more likely to have alcohol issues as compared with individuals both within and between families who did not identify their father as an alcoholic. Risk was similar for individuals in families in which there was disagreement about paternal alcoholism compared with individuals from families in which everyone agreed on the presence of paternal alcoholism. Moreover, there was not a significant interaction between paternal alcoholism attributions and familial disagreement. Findings indicate that in the case of child reports of paternal alcoholism, the increased risk of alcohol problems holds true regardless of the accuracy of an individual's assessment. These results may be not only because of the impact of paternal alcoholism on a person's alcohol misuse but also because of a person's alcohol problems potentially influencing his or her perceptions of familial alcohol-related behaviors.

  12. Teenage pregnancy and the influence of paternal involvement on fetal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Grunsten, Ryan A; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2011-12-01

    We sought to assess the impact of paternal involvement on adverse birth outcomes in teenage mothers. Using vital records data, we generated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to assess the association between paternal involvement and fetal outcomes in 192,747 teenage mothers. Paternal involvement status was based on presence/absence of paternal first and/or last name on the birth certificate. Data were obtained from vital records data from singleton births in Florida between 1998 and 2007. The study population consisted of 192,747 teenage mothers ≤ 20 years old with live single births in the State of Florida. Low birth weight, very low birth weight, preterm birth, very preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA), neonatal death, post-neonatal death, and infant death. Risks of SGA (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.03-1.10), low birth weight (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.15-1.23), very low birth weight (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.41-1.67), preterm birth (OR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.17-1.25), and very preterm birth (OR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.38-1.62) were elevated for mothers in the father-absent group. When results were stratified by race, black teenagers in the father-absent group had the highest risks of adverse birth outcomes when compared to white teenagers in the father-involved group. Lack of paternal involvement is a risk factor for adverse birth outcomes among teenage mothers; risks are most pronounced among African-American teenagers. Our findings suggest that increased paternal involvement can have a positive impact on birth outcomes for teenage mothers, which may be important for decreasing the racial disparities in infant morbidities. More studies assessing the impact of greater paternal involvement on birth outcomes are needed. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Is there a greater maternal than paternal influence on offspring adiposity in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Daniel J; Subramanian, S V; Ackerson, Leland K; Davey Smith, George

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has provided conflicting evidence regarding fetal roots of adiposity in India. To compare the strength of association between maternal and paternal body mass indexes (BMIs) corrected for height with offspring BMI in India to examine the potential for intrauterine mechanisms to influence offspring adiposity in India, we analysed a sample of 16,528 mother-father-offspring trios from the 2005 to 2006 Indian National Family Health Survey. Children were aged 0-59 months with parents aged 15-49 years (mothers) and 15-54 years (fathers). Linear and logistic regression models, specified in multiple ways, were used to estimate associations between parental BMI* (BMI redefined by power term x (kg/m(x)) to be independent from height), and child BMI/top decile of child BMI. Higher values of maternal BMI and paternal BMI were associated with higher values of offspring BMI. In comparing the effects of maternal BMI and paternal BMI, however, no consistent differences were found in the strength of these parental influences on offspring BMI. In the fully adjusted linear model, the standardised coefficient was 0.131 (95% CI 0.110 to 0.154) for maternal BMI* and 0.079 (95% CI 0.056 to 0.103) for paternal BMI*; with evidence of heterogeneity between maternal-offspring and paternal-offspring associations (p=0.005). This was not robust in the unstandardised regression (β=0.056, 95% CI 0.044 to 0.067 for maternal BMI and β=0.039, 95% CI 0.025 to 0.053 for paternal BMI, p=0.093). Mixed results indicate that compared with paternal BMI, maternal BMI did not have a consistently stronger influence on offspring BMI in India. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Lineage-Biased Stem Cells Maintain Estrogen-Receptor-Positive and -Negative Mouse Mammary Luminal Lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Delineating the mammary differentiation hierarchy is important for the study of mammary gland development and tumorigenesis. Mammary luminal cells are considered a major origin of human breast cancers. However, how estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+ and ER− luminal cells are developed and maintained remains poorly understood. The prevailing model suggests that a common stem/progenitor cell generates both cell types. Through genetic lineage tracing in mice, we find that SOX9-expressing cells specifically contribute to the development and maintenance of ER− luminal cells and, to a lesser degree, basal cells. In parallel, PROM1-expressing cells give rise only to ER+ luminal cells. Both SOX9+ and PROM1+ cells specifically sustain their respective lineages even after pregnancy-caused tissue remodeling or serial transplantation, demonstrating characteristic properties of long-term repopulating stem cells. Thus, our data reveal that mouse mammary ER+ and ER− luminal cells are two independent lineages that are maintained by distinct stem cells, providing a revised mammary epithelial cell hierarchy.

  15. STR data for the AmpFlSTR Identifiler loci from Swedish population in comparison to European, as well as with non-European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelius, Kerstin; Karlsson, Andreas O; Holmlund, Gunilla

    2008-06-01

    The modern Swedish population is a mixture of people that originate from different parts of the world. This is also the truth for the clients participating in the paternity cases investigated at the department. Calculations based on a Swedish frequency database only, could give us overestimated figures of probability and power of exclusion in cases including clients with a genetic background other than Swedish. Here, we describe allele frequencies regarding the markers in the Identifiler-kit. We have compared three sets of population samples; Swedish, European and non-European to investigate how these three groups of population samples differ. Also, all three population sets were compared to data reported from other European and non-European populations. Swedish allele frequencies for the 15 autosomal STRs included in the Identifiler kit were obtained from unrelated blood donors with Swedish names. The European and non-European frequencies were based on DNA-profiles of alleged fathers from our paternity cases in 2005 and 2006.

  16. Improving research, policy and practice to promote paternal involvement in pregnancy outcomes: the roles of obstetricians-gynecologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, M Jermane; Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Robertson, Audra; Alio, P A; Parker, Willie J

    2010-12-01

    To review current research, policy, and practice on paternal involvement in pregnancy outcomes and suggest recommendations to improve paternal involvement in pregnancy and childbirth. Although much has been written about fathers' influence on child health and development, little is known about the expectant father's role in pregnancy and childbirth. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of paternal involvement during pregnancy, but more research is needed to identify specific contributions expectant fathers make and their impact on reducing infant mortality and associated risk factors during pregnancy and childbirth. Obstetricians-gynecologists can play a greater role in promoting research, policy and practice to improve paternal involvement in pregnancy and childbirth.

  17. How well do mating frequency and duration predict paternity success in the polygynandrous water strider Aquarius remigis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermette, Richard; Fairbairn, Daphne J

    2002-09-01

    The relationship between mating success and paternity success is a key component of sexual selection but has seldom been estimated for species in which both sexes mate with many partners (polygynandry). We used a modification of Parker's sterile male technique to measure this relationship for the water strider Aquarius remigis in 47 laboratory populations simulating natural conditions of polygynandry. We also tested the hypothesis that prolonged copulation, a characteristic of this species, enhances paternity success. Mating behavior and paternity success were assayed for four days while males and females freely interacted. Paternity success was also assayed for an additional 7 days when females were isolated from males. Mating success significantly predicted paternity success and accounted for < or = 36% of the variance. Copulation duration was negatively related to both mating success and paternity success and did not explain any of the residual variance in paternity success. Thus, we found no evidence that prolonged copulation functions as a paternity assurance strategy in this species. Comparisons of sterile and fertile males suggested that paternity success is directly influenced by the quantity of sperm transferred. Our results support previous studies that have used mating success to estimate sexual selection, but also highlight the potential importance of sperm competition and other postinsemination processes.

  18. Paternal occupational lead exposure and offspring risks for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallmén, Markku; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Malaspina, Dolores; Opler, Mark G

    2016-10-01

    This register-based cohort study investigated whether paternal occupational exposure to inorganic lead was related to offspring risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD). Exposed men (n=11,863) were identified from blood lead measurements taken at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in 1973-1983. Data on mothers and their offspring born from 1972-1984 were obtained from the national Population Information System. Two population comparison offspring for each exposed offspring were matched on date of birth, sex and area (n=23,720). SSD cases were identified from The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Hazard ratios of SSD between exposed groups were analyzed using conditional proportional hazards regression, adjusted for parental history of psychoses, parental ages, language of offspring, father's employment, and father's self-employment. After 26-38years of follow up, there were no significant differences in the incidence of schizophrenia, either between the offspring of exposed (188/11,863; 1.6%) and unexposed fathers (347/23,720; 1.5%) or based on blood lead levels (adjusted hazard ratios (aHR): 0.97, CI 0.52-1.83, 1.25, CI 0.85-1.82, 0.90, CI 0.54-1.49, and 1.38, CI 0.65-2.92 for lead categories exposure to lead is not a risk factor for schizophrenia in offspring. However, the majority of exposed fathers had low-level exposure, and we cannot exclude the possibility of an effect for higher exposures to lead. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. On the paternal origin of trisomy 21 Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultén, Maj A; Patel, Suketu D; Westgren, Magnus; Papadogiannakis, Nikos; Jonsson, Anna Maria; Jonasson, Jon; Iwarsson, Erik

    2010-02-23

    Down syndrome (DS), characterized by an extra free chromosome 21 is the most common genetic cause for congenital malformations and learning disability. It is well known that the extra chromosome 21 originates from the mother in more than 90% of cases, the incidence increases with maternal age and there is a high recurrence in young women. In a previous report we have presented data to indicate that maternal trisomy 21 (T21) ovarian mosaicism might provide the major causative factor underlying these patterns of DS inheritance. One important outstanding question concerns the reason why the extra chromosome 21 in DS rarely originates from the father, i.e. in less than 10% of T21 DS cases. We here report data indicating that one reason for this parental sex difference is a very much lower degree of fetal testicular in comparison to ovarian T21 mosaicism. We used fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with two chromosome 21-specific probes to determine the copy number of chromosome 21 in fetal testicular cell nuclei from four male fetuses, following termination of pregnancy for a non-medical/social reason at gestational age 14-19 weeks. The cells studied were selected on the basis of their morphology alone, pending immunological specification of the relevant cell types. We could not detect any indication of testicular T21 mosaicism in any of these four male fetuses, when analysing at least 2000 cells per case (range 2038-3971, total 11.842). This result is highly statistically significant (p paternal origin of T21 DS than maternal. The mechanisms underlying the DS cases, where the extra chromosome 21 does originate from the father, remains unknown and further studies in this respect are required.

  20. Genetic heterogeneity in regional populations of Quebec--parental lineages in the Gaspe Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Claudia; Vézina, Hélène; Yotova, Vania; Hamon, Robert; de Knijff, Peter; Sinnett, Daniel; Labuda, Damian

    2009-08-01

    Stable colonization of the Gaspe Peninsula by Europeans started in the middle of the 18th century at the time of the British conquest of New France. The earliest settlers were Acadians, escaping British deportation policies, followed by Loyalists from the US, who preferred to remain under British rule after the Declaration of Independence. In the 19th century, the developing fishing industry attracted French Canadians from the St. Lawrence Valley and newcomers from Europe including Channel Islanders from Jersey and Guernsey. We analyzed parental lineages of the self-declared descendants of these four groups of settlers by mtDNA D-loop sequencing and Y-chromosome genotyping and compared them with French, British, and Irish samples. Their representation in terms of haplotype frequency classes reveals different signatures of founder effects, such as a loss of rare haplotypes, modification of intermediate frequency haplotypes, reduction in genetic diversity (seen in Acadians), but also enrichment by admixture. Parental lineages correlate with group identity. Descendants of early settlers, Acadians and Loyalists, preserved their identity more than those of French Canadian and Channel Islander "latecomers." Although overall genetic diversity among Gaspesians is comparable with their European source populations, F(ST) analysis indicated their greater differentiation. Distinct settlement history, a limited number of founders and relative genetic isolation contributed to the regionalization of the Quebec gene pool that appears less homogenous than usually anticipated.

  1. Denial of lineage: clinical investigation of 50 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, N; Kao, Z X; Lenz, H

    1987-01-01

    Fifty randomly selected Chinese schizophrenic patients with denial of lineage were investigated. This delusion concerns the generation of parents, sisters, but not the offspring. Twenty-four of them manifested delusion of high-ranking lineage or of distinguished leadership lineage. Denial of lineage, involving the delusion of high-ranking lineage and the delusion of leadership lineage, may occur at the onset or during the course of schizophrenia. The clinical characteristics of this delusion are described and its concept, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, course and also possible mechanism are discussed. One possible mechanism is of psychodynamical origin. Emotional conflicts resulting from dissatisfaction of the primary need of being loved from birth may contribute to the onset of the denial of lineage. The second possible mechanism is a sociocultural fact. Far Eastern culture is based on the clan whereas occidental culture is based on the self. Thus can observe the denial of lineage in the Far East, but in the occident we can experience instead the idea of surmounting our self so as to be god or now to experience the omnipotence in form of technical ideas, e.g. the rays.

  2. Transcriptional and Microenvironmental Regulation of Lineage Ambiguity in Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyuan Hu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leukemia is characterized by the uncontrolled production of leukemic cells and impaired normal hematopoiesis. Although the combination of chemotherapies and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has significantly improved the outcome of leukemia patients, a proportion of patients still suffer from relapse after treatment. Upon relapse, a phenomenon termed “lineage switch” is observed in a subset of leukemia patients, in which conversion of lymphoblastic leukemia to myeloid leukemia or vice versa is observed. A rare entity of leukemia called mixed-phenotype acute leukemia exhibits co-expression of markers representing two or three lineages. These two phenotypes regarding the lineage ambiguity suggest that the fate of some leukemia retain or acquire a certain degree of plasticity. Studies using animal models provide insight into how lineage specifying transcription factors can enforce or convert a fate in hematopoietic cells. Modeling lineage conversion in normal hematopoietic progenitor cells may improve our current understanding of how lineage switch occurs in leukemia. In this review, we will summarize the role of transcription factors and microenvironmental signals that confer fate plasticity to normal hematopoietic progenitor cells, and their potential to regulate lineage switching in leukemias. Future efforts to uncover the mechanisms contributing to lineage conversion in both normal hematopoiesis and leukemia may pave the way to improve current therapeutic strategies.

  3. Differential Protein Network Analysis of the Immune Cell Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Clancy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Immunological Genome Project (ImmGen completed the first phase of the goal to understand the molecular circuitry underlying the immune cell lineage in mice. That milestone resulted in the creation of the most comprehensive collection of gene expression profiles in the immune cell lineage in any model organism of human disease. There is now a requisite to examine this resource using bioinformatics integration with other molecular information, with the aim of gaining deeper insights into the underlying processes that characterize this immune cell lineage. We present here a bioinformatics approach to study differential protein interaction mechanisms across the entire immune cell lineage, achieved using affinity propagation applied to a protein interaction network similarity matrix. We demonstrate that the integration of protein interaction networks with the most comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of the immune cells can be used to generate hypotheses into the underlying mechanisms governing the differentiation and the differential functional activity across the immune cell lineage. This approach may not only serve as a hypothesis engine to derive understanding of differentiation and mechanisms across the immune cell lineage, but also help identify possible immune lineage specific and common lineage mechanism in the cells protein networks.

  4. Mitochondrial lineage M1 traces an early human backflow to Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestano José

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The out of Africa hypothesis has gained generalized consensus. However, many specific questions remain unsettled. To know whether the two M and N macrohaplogroups that colonized Eurasia were already present in Africa before the exit is puzzling. It has been proposed that the east African clade M1 supports a single origin of haplogroup M in Africa. To test the validity of that hypothesis, the phylogeographic analysis of 13 complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences and 261 partial sequences belonging to haplogroup M1 was carried out. Results The coalescence age of the African haplogroup M1 is younger than those for other M Asiatic clades. In contradiction to the hypothesis of an eastern Africa origin for modern human expansions out of Africa, the most ancestral M1 lineages have been found in Northwest Africa and in the Near East, instead of in East Africa. The M1 geographic distribution and the relative ages of its different subclades clearly correlate with those of haplogroup U6, for which an Eurasian ancestor has been demonstrated. Conclusion This study provides evidence that M1, or its ancestor, had an Asiatic origin. The earliest M1 expansion into Africa occurred in northwestern instead of eastern areas; this early spread reached the Iberian Peninsula even affecting the Basques. The majority of the M1a lineages found outside and inside Africa had a more recent eastern Africa origin. Both western and eastern M1 lineages participated in the Neolithic colonization of the Sahara. The striking parallelism between subclade ages and geographic distribution of M1 and its North African U6 counterpart strongly reinforces this scenario. Finally, a relevant fraction of M1a lineages present today in the European Continent and nearby islands possibly had a Jewish instead of the commonly proposed Arab/Berber maternal ascendance.

  5. Genetic variability and efficiency of DNA microsatellite markers for paternity testing in horse breeds from the Brazilian Marajó archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sávio P. Reis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 15 microsatellite DNA loci used in comparative tests by the International Society for Animal Genetics were applied to the evaluation of genetic diversity and management, and the efficiency of paternity testing in Marajoara horses and Puruca ponies from the Marajó Archipelago. Based on the genotyping of 93 animals, mean allelic diversity was estimated as 9.14 and 7.00 for the Marajoara and Puruca breeds, respectively. While these values are similar to those recorded in most European breeds, mean levels of heterozygosity were much lower (Marajoara 49%, Puruca 40%, probably as a result of high levels of inbreeding in the Marajó populations. The mean informative polymorphic content of this 15-marker system was over 50% in both breeds, and was slightly higher in the Marajoara horses. The discriminative power and exclusion probabilities derived from this system were over 99% for both populations, emphasizing the efficacy of these markers for paternity testing and genetic management in the two breeds.

  6. Sex differences in life history drive evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Hope; Bonsall, Michael B; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care have been common in many animal groups. We use a mathematical model to examine the effect of male and female life-history characteristics (stage-specific maturation and mortality) on evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care. When males and females are relatively similar – that is, when females initially invest relatively little into eggs and both sexes have similar mortality and maturation – transitions among different patterns of care are unlikely to be strongly favored. As males and females become more different, transitions are more likely. If females initially invest heavily into eggs and this reduces their expected future reproductive success, transitions to increased maternal care (paternal → maternal, paternal → bi-parental, bi-parental → maternal) are favored. This effect of anisogamy (i.e., the fact that females initially invest more into each individual zygote than males) might help explain the predominance of maternal care in nature and differs from previous work that found no effect of anisogamy on the origin of different sex-specific patterns of care from an ancestral state of no care. When male mortality is high or male egg maturation rate is low, males have reduced future reproductive potential and transitions to increased paternal care (maternal → paternal, bi-parental → paternal, maternal → bi-parental) are favored. Offspring need (i.e., low offspring survival in the absence of care) also plays a role in transitions to paternal care. In general, basic life-history differences between the sexes can drive evolutionary transitions among different sex-specific patterns of care. The finding that simple life-history differences can alone lead to transitions among maternal and paternal care suggests that the effect of inter-sexual life-history differences should be considered as a baseline scenario when attempting to understand how other

  7. Paternal and maternal age at pregnancy and autism spectrum disorders in offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Putu Rihayani Budi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs has increased 10 times over the past half century, while paternal and maternal age at pregnancy has also increased. Studies looking for an association between paternal or maternal age at pregnancy and ASDs in offspring have not been conclusive. Objective To assess for possible associations between paternal and maternal age at pregnancy and ASDs in offspring. Methods This case-control study had 50 case and 100 control subjects, each case was matched for age and gender to two controls. Case subjects were obtained by consecutive sampling of patients aged 18 months to 7 years who visited the Developmental Behavioral & Community Pediatrics Outpatient Clinic and private growth and development centers from January to April 2013, while control group were children of the same age range and same gender who visited pediatric outpatient clinic at Sanglah Hospital mostly due to acute respiratory tract infection, without ASDs as assessed by the DSM-IV-TR criteria. We interviewed parents to collect the following data: maternal and paternal age at pregnancy, child’s birth weight, history of asphyxia, hospital admission during the neonatal period, pathological labor, maternal smoking during pregnancy, paternal smoking, and gestational age. Data analysis was performed with Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Results Multivariable analysis showed that higher paternal age at pregnancy was associated with ASDs in offspring (OR 6.3; 95%CI 2.0 to 19.3; P 0.001. However, there was no significant association between maternal age during pregnancy and the incidence of ASDs. Asphyxia and paternal smoking were also associated with higher incidence of ASDs in the offspring (OR 10.3; 95%CI 1.9 to 56.5; P 0.007 and OR 3.2; 95%CI 1.5 to 6.9; P 0.003, respectively. Conclusion Paternal age >=40 years increased the risk of ASDs in offspring by 6.3 times. In addition, paternal smoking increased the risk of ASDs in

  8. The complete maternally and paternally inherited mitochondrial genomes of the endangered freshwater mussel Solenaia carinatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae and implications for Unionidae taxonomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chen Huang

    Full Text Available Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI is an exception to the typical maternal inheritance of mitochondrial (mt DNA in Metazoa, and found only in some bivalves. In species with DUI, there are two highly divergent gender-associated mt genomes: maternal (F and paternal (M, which transmit independently and show different tissue localization. Solenaia carinatus is an endangered freshwater mussel species exclusive to Poyang Lake basin, China. Anthropogenic events in the watershed greatly threaten the survival of this species. Nevertheless, the taxonomy of S. carinatus based on shell morphology is confusing, and the subfamilial placement of the genus Solenaia remains unclear. In order to clarify the taxonomic status and discuss the phylogenetic implications of family Unionidae, the entire F and M mt genomes of S. carinatus were sequenced and compared with the mt genomes of diverse freshwater mussel species. The complete F and M mt genomes of S. carinatus are 16716 bp and 17102 bp in size, respectively. The F and M mt genomes of S. carinatus diverge by about 40% in nucleotide sequence and 48% in amino acid sequence. Compared to F counterparts, the M genome shows a more compact structure. Different gene arrangements are found in these two gender-associated mt genomes. Among these, the F genome cox2-rrnS gene order is considered to be a genome-level synapomorphy for female lineage of the subfamily Gonideinae. From maternal and paternal mtDNA perspectives, the phylogenetic analyses of Unionoida indicate that S. carinatus belongs to Gonideinae. The F and M clades in freshwater mussels are reciprocal monophyly. The phylogenetic trees advocate the classification of sampled Unionidae species into four subfamilies: Gonideinae, Ambleminae, Anodontinae, and Unioninae, which is supported by the morphological characteristics of glochidia.

  9. The complete maternally and paternally inherited mitochondrial genomes of the endangered freshwater mussel Solenaia carinatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae) and implications for Unionidae taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Chen; Rong, Jun; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Wan, Yuan; Ouyang, Shan; Zhou, Chun-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) is an exception to the typical maternal inheritance of mitochondrial (mt) DNA in Metazoa, and found only in some bivalves. In species with DUI, there are two highly divergent gender-associated mt genomes: maternal (F) and paternal (M), which transmit independently and show different tissue localization. Solenaia carinatus is an endangered freshwater mussel species exclusive to Poyang Lake basin, China. Anthropogenic events in the watershed greatly threaten the survival of this species. Nevertheless, the taxonomy of S. carinatus based on shell morphology is confusing, and the subfamilial placement of the genus Solenaia remains unclear. In order to clarify the taxonomic status and discuss the phylogenetic implications of family Unionidae, the entire F and M mt genomes of S. carinatus were sequenced and compared with the mt genomes of diverse freshwater mussel species. The complete F and M mt genomes of S. carinatus are 16716 bp and 17102 bp in size, respectively. The F and M mt genomes of S. carinatus diverge by about 40% in nucleotide sequence and 48% in amino acid sequence. Compared to F counterparts, the M genome shows a more compact structure. Different gene arrangements are found in these two gender-associated mt genomes. Among these, the F genome cox2-rrnS gene order is considered to be a genome-level synapomorphy for female lineage of the subfamily Gonideinae. From maternal and paternal mtDNA perspectives, the phylogenetic analyses of Unionoida indicate that S. carinatus belongs to Gonideinae. The F and M clades in freshwater mussels are reciprocal monophyly. The phylogenetic trees advocate the classification of sampled Unionidae species into four subfamilies: Gonideinae, Ambleminae, Anodontinae, and Unioninae, which is supported by the morphological characteristics of glochidia.

  10. Luminal progenitors restrict their lineage potential during mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, Veronica; Dasti, Alessandro; Huyghe, Mathilde; Lafkas, Daniel; Laurent, Cécile; Reyal, Fabien; Fre, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The hierarchical relationships between stem cells and progenitors that guide mammary gland morphogenesis are still poorly defined. While multipotent basal stem cells have been found within the myoepithelial compartment, the in vivo lineage potential of luminal progenitors is unclear. Here we used the expression of the Notch1 receptor, previously implicated in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis, to elucidate the hierarchical organization of mammary stem/progenitor cells by lineage tracing. We found that Notch1 expression identifies multipotent stem cells in the embryonic mammary bud, which progressively restrict their lineage potential during mammary ductal morphogenesis to exclusively generate an ERαneg luminal lineage postnatally. Importantly, our results show that Notch1-labelled cells represent the alveolar progenitors that expand during pregnancy and survive multiple successive involutions. This study reveals that postnatal luminal epithelial cells derive from distinct self-sustained lineages that may represent the cells of origin of different breast cancer subtypes.

  11. Reproductive isolation between phylogeographic lineages scales with divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Sonal; Moritz, Craig

    2013-12-07

    Phylogeographic studies frequently reveal multiple morphologically cryptic lineages within species. What is not yet clear is whether such lineages represent nascent species or evolutionary ephemera. To address this question, we compare five contact zones, each of which occurs between ecomorphologically cryptic lineages of skinks from the rainforests of the Australian Wet Tropics. Although the contacts probably formed concurrently in response to Holocene expansion from glacial refugia, we estimate that the divergence times (τ) of the lineage pairs range from 3.1 to 11.5 Ma. Multi-locus analyses of the contact zones yielded estimates of reproductive isolation that are tightly correlated with divergence time and, for lineages with older divergence times (τ > 5 Myr), substantial. These results show that phylogeographic splits of increasing depth represent stages along the speciation continuum, even in the absence of overt change in ecologically relevant morphology.

  12. Paternal investment and status-related child outcomes: timing of father's death affects offspring success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A

    2012-09-01

    Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence.

  13. Paternal behavior and testosterone plasma levels in the Volcano Mouse Neotomodon alstoni (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Juana; Ramírez, Lorena; Carmona, Agustín; Ortiz, Guadalupe; Delgado, Jesús; Cárdenas, René

    2009-01-01

    Paternal behavior and testosterone plasma levels in the Volcano Mouse Neotomodon alstoni (Rodentia: Muridae). Although initially it was thought that testosterone inhibited the display of paternal behavior in males of rodents, it has been shown that in some species high testosterone levels are needed for exhibition of paternal care. In captivity, males of Volcano Mouse (Neotomodon alstoni) provide pups the same care provided by the mother, with the exception of suckling. Here we measured plasmatic testosterone concentrations 10 days after mating, five and 20 days postpartum, and 10 days after males were isolated from their families in order to determine possible changes in this hormone, associated to the presence and age of pups. Males of Volcano Mouse exhibited paternal behavior when their testosterone levels were relatively high. Although levels of this hormone did not change with the presence or pups age, males that invested more time in huddling showed higher testosterone levels. It is possible that in the Volcano Mouse testosterone modulates paternal behavior indirectly, as in the California mouse.

  14. Men's preference for women's facial features: testing homogamy and the paternity uncertainty hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Jeanne; Barthes, Julien; Durand, Valérie; Raymond, Michel; Alvergne, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Male mate choice might be based on both absolute and relative strategies. Cues of female attractiveness are thus likely to reflect both fitness and reproductive potential, as well as compatibility with particular male phenotypes. In humans, absolute clues of fertility and indices of favorable developmental stability are generally associated with increased women's attractiveness. However, why men exhibit variable preferences remains less studied. Male mate choice might be influenced by uncertainty of paternity, a selective factor in species where the survival of the offspring depends on postnatal paternal care. For instance, in humans, a man might prefer a woman with recessive traits, thereby increasing the probability that his paternal traits will be visible in the child and ensuring paternity. Alternatively, attractiveness is hypothesized to be driven by self-resembling features (homogamy), which would reduce outbreeding depression. These hypotheses have been simultaneously evaluated for various facial traits using both real and artificial facial stimuli. The predicted preferences were then compared to realized mate choices using facial pictures from couples with at least 1 child. No evidence was found to support the paternity uncertainty hypothesis, as recessive features were not preferred by male raters. Conversely, preferences for self-resembling mates were found for several facial traits (hair and eye color, chin dimple, and thickness of lips and eyebrows). Moreover, realized homogamy for facial traits was also found in a sample of long-term mates. The advantages of homogamy in evolutionary terms are discussed.

  15. Paternal and maternal psychological and physical aggression and children's anxiety in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meifang; Wang, Xinxin; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the unique relationships between paternal and maternal psychological aggression (PA) and physical aggression (corporal punishment [CP] and severe physical abuse [SPA]) and children's anxiety in China. A total of 1,971 father-mother dyads completed the Chinese version of Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC) and the Chinese version of Spence Children's Anxiety Scale for Parents (SCAS-P). Results indicated that when paternal and maternal PA, CP, and SPA were considered simultaneously, parental PA and maternal CP were both significantly predictive of children's anxiety, whereas SPA had no significant effects on children's anxiety. Specifically, both paternal and maternal PA were the most unique predictors of children's anxiety among parental psychological and physical aggression, whereas the effects of maternal CP and paternal CP were different, with maternal CP having a stronger effect on children's anxiety compared with paternal CP. The findings indicated that appropriate prevention and intervention efforts are needed to target parental PA and maternal CP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular evidence for high frequency of multiple paternity in a freshwater shrimp species Caridina ensifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Gen Hua; Chang, Alex

    2010-09-14

    Molecular genetic analyses of parentage provide insights into mating systems. Although there are 22,000 members in Malacostraca, not much has been known about mating systems in Malacostraca. The freshwater shrimp Caridina ensifera blue, is a new species belonging to Malacostraca which was discovered recently in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Due to its small body size and low fecundity, this species is an ideal species to study the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity and to understand of how the low fecundity species persist and evolve. In this study, we developed four polymorphic microsatellites from C. ensifera and applied them to investigate the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity in 20 C. ensifera broods caught from Lake Matano, Sulawesi. By genotyping the mother and all offspring from each brood we discovered multiple paternity in all 20 broods. In most of the 20 broods, fathers contributed skewed numbers of offspring and there was an apparent inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers. Our results in combination with recent reports on multiple paternity in crayfish, crab and lobster species suggests that multiple paternity is common in Malacostraca. Skewed contribution of fathers to the numbers of offspring and inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers suggest that sperm competition occurred and/or pre- and postcopulatory female choice happen, which may be important for avoiding the occurrence of inbreeding and optimize genetic variation in offspring and for persistence and evolution of low fecundity species.

  17. The effects of paternal disengagement on women's sexual decision making: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpriore, Danielle J; Hill, Sarah E

    2013-08-01

    An abundance of research demonstrates a robust association between father absence--or low-quality paternal involvement--and daughters' accelerated sexual development, promiscuity, and sexual risk taking. Although recent natural experiments provide support for fathers playing a causal role in these outcomes, these effects have not been examined using a randomized experimental design to eliminate genetic and environmental confounds inherent in previous studies. We redressed this empirical gap by experimentally testing the effects of primed paternal disengagement cues on women's sexual decision making. Across 5 experiments, reminders of paternal disengagement increased women's activation of sexual thoughts (Experiment 1), sexual permissiveness (Experiments 2-4), and negativity toward condom use (Experiment 5). Moreover, these effects were specific to women's sexual decision making, as paternal disengagement cues failed to influence women's willingness to take nonsexual risks (Experiment 4) or men's risky sexual attitudes (Experiment 5). These results provide the first true experimental evidence supporting a causal relationship between paternal disengagement and changes in women's psychology that promote risky sexual behavior.

  18. Economics of paternalism: the hidden costs of self-commanding strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Salvat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an economic assessment of paternalism by comparing different alternative responses to dynamically inconsistent behaviors consecutive to hyperbolic discounting. Two main types of action are possible, self-commanding strategies and paternalism The first category includes personal rules and pre-commitment The second can be subcategorized between coercive and non-coercive forms of paternalism, which are respectively associated (although it is debatable with legal paternalism and with ‘nudges’. Despite being self-inflicted, self-commanding strategies are actually not cost free and can result in a dramatic cutback of people’s freedom of choice. Likewise, legal paternalism can, on occasion, be less harmful than personal rules or pre-commitment; similarly, nudges can be more invasive and less effective than their proponents want us to believe. The aim of this paper is not to propose any standardized form of response to irrational behavior (whatever that may mean but to argue, on the contrary, that every case should be individually appraised. Individual situations can be remedied by self-commanding strategies or by paternalistic policies, either in isolation or in combination.

  19. Men's preference for women's facial features: testing homogamy and the paternity uncertainty hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Bovet

    Full Text Available Male mate choice might be based on both absolute and relative strategies. Cues of female attractiveness are thus likely to reflect both fitness and reproductive potential, as well as compatibility with particular male phenotypes. In humans, absolute clues of fertility and indices of favorable developmental stability are generally associated with increased women's attractiveness. However, why men exhibit variable preferences remains less studied. Male mate choice might be influenced by uncertainty of paternity, a selective factor in species where the survival of the offspring depends on postnatal paternal care. For instance, in humans, a man might prefer a woman with recessive traits, thereby increasing the probability that his paternal traits will be visible in the child and ensuring paternity. Alternatively, attractiveness is hypothesized to be driven by self-resembling features (homogamy, which would reduce outbreeding depression. These hypotheses have been simultaneously evaluated for various facial traits using both real and artificial facial stimuli. The predicted preferences were then compared to realized mate choices using facial pictures from couples with at least 1 child. No evidence was found to support the paternity uncertainty hypothesis, as recessive features were not preferred by male raters. Conversely, preferences for self-resembling mates were found for several facial traits (hair and eye color, chin dimple, and thickness of lips and eyebrows. Moreover, realized homogamy for facial traits was also found in a sample of long-term mates. The advantages of homogamy in evolutionary terms are discussed.

  20. Effects of paternal depression on fathers' parenting behaviors: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sylia; Durbin, C Emily

    2010-03-01

    One possible mechanism for the familial transmission of depression is through its negative effects on parenting and the parent-child relationship. Although previous research indicates that depression is associated with parenting impairment for mothers, no quantitative synthesis of the empirical literature on the effects of paternal depression on fathers' parenting has been conducted. The present meta-analysis examined the effects of paternal depression on fathers' positive and negative parenting behaviors. The mean effect sizes, computed using 40 independent effect sizes derived from 28 published and unpublished studies, indicated that paternal depression has significant, though small, effects on parenting, with depressed fathers demonstrating decreased positive and increased negative parenting behaviors. Several moderating effects were found, including child and father age, and sample race/ethnicity, and effects were comparable for studies that used self-report measures and observational methods to assess fathers' parenting behaviors. Moreover, effect sizes for the relationship between paternal depression and fathers' parenting behaviors were comparable to those found for mothers. The present findings indicate that paternal depression has a significant and deleterious effect on parenting behaviors by fathers, and speak to the importance of continuing to include fathers in research on child development and the family environment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential Investment Behavior between Grandparents and Grandchildren: The Role of Paternity Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Bishop

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Kin selection theory predicts that grandparents will differentially invest in their grandchildren as a function of paternity certainty. This study explored the hypothesis of “discriminative grandparental solicitude” (Euler and Weitzel, 1996; Smith, 1988 in a sample of college students. Students with four living grandparents were asked to indicate the frequency of various behaviors received from or directed to each grandparent. A significant linear trend on a majority of the measures supported this hypothesis. Reported contact and closeness were highest with the maternal grandmother (most genetically certain and lowest with the paternal grandfather (least genetically certain; maternal grandfathers and paternal grandmothers were intermediate. The “preferential investment hypothesis” (Laham, Gonsalkorale, and von Hippel, 2005 predicts that the investment behavior of the maternal grandfather and the paternal grandmother should differ only when there are cousins through the father's sisters. Contrary to the predictions of this hypothesis, grandchildren did not rate the maternal grandfather consistently higher on any of the indices when more certain investment outlets were available to the paternal grandmother.

  2. Paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14: confirmation of a clinically-recognizable phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, David A; Brothman, Arthur R; Chen, Zhong; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Longo, Nicola

    2004-09-15

    We report on a girl with a dicentric chromosome 14 [45,XX,inv(9)(p11q13),dic(14;14)(p11.1;p11.1)] with paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 14. Clinical findings include severe hypotonia, thoracic dystrophy, diastasis recti, swallowing difficulties with aspiration, developmental delay, and multiple minor anomalies. UPD for chromosome 14 has been documented with paternal UPD much less commonly than with maternal UPD. There have been ten cases of paternal UPD for chromosome 14 and one case of segmental paternal isodisomy of chromosome 14. Many of the findings are nonspecific, but the radiographic rib findings (referred to as the "coat-hanger" sign) are characteristic for this condition. UPD 14 studies should be performed in children thought to have Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy or other related osteochondrodysplasias when the diagnosis is in question. Our patient and the previously reported cases support a discrete recognizable phenotype for paternal UPD for chromosome 14. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Paternal uniparental isodisomy for chromosome 14 with mosaicism for a supernumerary marker chromosome 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Joerg; Whitehead, Bruce; Liehr, Thomas; Wilkinson, Ian; Bear, John; Fagan, Kerry; Craven, Paul; Bennetts, Bruce; Edwards, Matthew

    2007-09-15

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) describes the inheritance of two homologous chromosomes from a single parent. Disease phenotypes associated with UPD and chromosomal imprinting, rather than with mutations, include Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (paternal UPD11p), Angelman syndrome (paternal UPD15), Prader-Willi syndrome (maternal UPD15), and transient neonatal diabetes (paternal UPD6). Here we report on the first case of paternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 14 with a mosaicism for a supernumerary marker chromosome 14. The patient demonstrated a small thorax with a 'coat hanger' shape of the ribs, kyphoscoliosis, hypoplasia of the maxilla and mandible, a broad nasal bridge with anteverted nares, contractures of the wrists with ulnar deviation bilaterally, diastasis recti, and marked muscle hypotonia. Vertical skin creases under the chin and stippled epiphyses of the humeri were features not previously described in patients with paternal UPD14. This case illustrates that as with the finding of an isochromosome, a supernumerary marker chromosome can be an important clue to the presence of UPD14. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Paternity, parental behavior and circulating steroid hormone concentrations in nest-tending male bluegill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Bryan D; Knapp, Rosemary

    2009-08-01

    Like many teleost fishes, bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) are characterized by sole male parental care of offspring. In addition, bluegill parental males experience cuckoldry by specialized parasitic male morphs. This cuckoldry has previously been shown to influence the expression of parental care behavior. To better understand some of the proximate mechanisms mediating parental behavior, we examined the relationships between circulating steroid hormones, paternity, and parental behavior during the egg and fry stages of care in parentals that spawned during the first third of the breeding season. During the egg stage of care, we found that males with higher paternity had lower levels of testosterone, but there was no relationship between paternity and either 11-ketotestosterone or cortisol. There also was no relationship between the hormones and care behavior comprising fanning of the eggs, nest rim circles, chases of brood predators, or pecking at the eggs (indicative of egg cannibalism), except for a negative relationship between cortisol and pecking behavior. During the fry stage of care, we conversely found that males with higher paternity had higher levels of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. There also was a negative relationship between the concentrations of these two androgens and the defensive behavior of males when exposed to a potential brood predator (a pumpkinseed, Lepomis gibbosus). We discuss these results in relation to previous work in fishes and other vertebrate taxa. Overall, our data suggest a complex relationship between circulating steroid hormone levels, paternity and parental behavior.

  5. Exclusive male care despite extreme female promiscuity and low paternity in a marine snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Stephanie J; Grosberg, Richard K

    2012-10-01

    Males exhibit striking variation in the degree to which they invest in offspring, from merely provisioning females with sperm, to providing exclusive post-zygotic care. Paternity assurance is often invoked to explain this variation: the greater a male's confidence of paternity, the more he should be willing to provide care. Here, we report a striking exception to expectations based on paternity assurance: despite high levels of female promiscuity, males of a marine snail provide exclusive, and costly, care of offspring. Remarkably, genetic paternity analyses reveal cuckoldry in all broods, with fewer than 25% of offspring being sired by the caring male, although caring males sired proportionally more offspring in a given clutch than any other fathers did individually. This system presents the most extreme example of the coexistence of high levels of female promiscuity, low paternity, and costly male care, and emphasises the still unresolved roles of natural and sexual selection in the evolution of male parental care. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  6. Living on the wedge: female control of paternity in a cooperatively polyandrous cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, Masanori; Heg, Dik; Makino, Yoshimi; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Shibata, Jun-ya; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Munehara, Hiroyuki; Hori, Michio; Awata, Satoshi

    2009-12-07

    Theories suggest that, in cooperatively breeding species, female control over paternity and reproductive output may affect male reproductive skew and group stability. Female paternity control may come about through cryptic female choice or female reproductive behaviour, but experimental studies are scarce. Here, we show a new form of female paternity control in a cooperatively polyandrous cichlid fish (Julidochromis transcriptus), in which females prefer wedge-shaped nesting sites. Wedge-shaped sites allowed females to manipulate the siring success of the group member males by spawning the clutch at the spot where the large males were just able to enter and fertilize the outer part of the clutch. Small males fertilized the inner part of the clutch, protected from the large aggressive males, leading to low male reproductive skew. Small males provided more brood care than large males. Multiple paternity induced both males to provide brood care and reduced female brood care accordingly. This is, to our knowledge, the first documented case in a species with external fertilization showing female mating behaviour leading to multiple male paternity and increased male brood care as a result.

  7. Extra-pair paternity as the result of reproductive transactions between paired mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellman-Reeve, J S; Reeve, H K

    2000-12-22

    Transactional ('optimal skew' or concessions') models of social evolution emphasize that dominant members of society can be favoured for donating parcels of reproduction to same-sexed subordinates in return for cooperation by the latter. We developed a mathematically similar model in which extra-pair paternity in broods receiving biparental care is viewed as emerging from a reproductive transaction between the paired mates. The model quantitatively predicted the maximum paternity that a male mate can demand before its female mate is favoured to break the pair bond and caring solitarily for a brood sired entirely by a neighbouring male. The model predicts that extra-pair paternity results when the neighbouring male is of sufficiently higher quality than the male mate. In such cases, the exact amount of extra-pair paternity will vary directly with the difference in quality between the two males and inversely with the value (fitness impact) of the male mate's parental care. Importantly, the transactional model provided a unified explanation for experimental and observational evidence that extra-pair paternity rises with decreasing quality of the male mate, increasing genetic variability among breeding males, increasing breeding density, increasing availability of food and decreasing involvement of the male mate in parental care.

  8. Preferential loss of the paternal alleles in the 18q- syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cody, J.D.; Pierce, J.F.; Brkanac, Z. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-03-31

    Individuals with the 18q- syndrome have variable deletions from the long arm of chromosome 18. They also exhibit a highly variable phenotype. To correlate genotype with phenotype accurately, extensive molecular and phenotypic analyses are needed on each affected individual. As a part of this analysis, we have determined the parental origin of the deleted chromosome in 34 individuals with the 18q- syndrome. We have found that 85% of the de novo deletions are paternal in origin. The percentage of fathers of individuals with paternally derived deletions who were >30 years old was (not significantly) greater than that of the general population. The mothers of individuals with maternally derived deletions were near an average age for childbearing compared to the general population. Individuals with maternally derived terminal deletions had breakpoints as varied as those with paternally derived deletions. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the reduced incidence of maternally derived deletions is not due to reduced viability, since individuals with large maternally derived deletions of chromosome 18q were found. We hypothesize that the prevalence of paternally derived deletions is due to an increased frequency of chromosome breakage in male germ cells. These results are consistent with results observed in other segmental aneusomies in which there is a high incidence of paternally derived deletions. 39 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Paternalistic Leadership in Korean Small and Medium Scale Enterprises: Applicability of a Turkish Paternalism Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulaş Çakar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Social and cultural exchange between Korea and Turkey has been rapidly increasing and is expected to be accelerated for the future. Especially business exchange is interest of many people in both countries. This paper aims to provide insights for business people in Korea and Turkey to understand each country’s cultural aspects. Among different perspectives, paternalism is focused in the study. Paternalism is an important intersection of both cultures but it did not receive much attention. Even though both Turkish and Korean leaders are paternalistic, the origin of the characteristic is based on different background. The current studies of paternalism in Korea are based on Confucianism and economic crisis whereas those of Turkey are based on nomadic history, military Coup d'Etat, complicated bureaucracy, and economic instability. Using a paternalism scale developed with Turkish sample, this study measured Korean employees’ perception on paternalism and paternalistic leadership. The results showed that the scale is applicable in Korean organizations as well.

  10. [Dipetalonema lineage. New attempt at classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabaud, A G; Bain, O

    1976-01-01

    Through comparing the morphological evolution to the host range and the geographical distribution we can suggest Dipetalonema sensu-largo may be interpreted as a gondwanian lineage which may have evolved after the three main austral continents drifted apart. Therefore, we propose the following systematic splitting: --Sprattia n.gen., type species: S. venacavincola parasite of Australian Marsupials, which may be related to Litomosa; --Breinlia Yorke and Maplestone, 1926, and Breinlia (Johnstonema) (Yeh, 1957), parasite of Australian Marsupials; --Skrjabinofilaria (Travassos, 1925), parasite of American Marsupials; --Macdonaldius (Khanna, 1933), parasite of American Reptiles; --Dipetalonema (Orihelia) n.sub. gen., type species: D. (O.) anticlava, parasite of Dasypodidae; --Dipetalonema (Acanthocheilonema) (Cobbold, 1870), parasite of Insectivora, Carnivora, Pinnipedia, sometimes Rodents; --Dipetalonema (Molinema) (Freitas and Lent, 1939), parasite of Caviomorpha and Beavers; --Dipetalonema (Loxodontofilaria) (Berghe and Gillain, 1939), parasite of Ethiopian Ungulates; --Dipetalonema (Chenofilaria) (Kou, 1958), parasite of Asiatic Pholidota and Australian Marsupials; --Dipetalonema (Dipetalonema) (Diesing, 1861), parasite of American Primates; --Monanema Anteson, 1968, parasite of Rodents other than Cariomorpha; --Ackertia (Vaz, 1934), parasite of Caviomorpha; --Tetrapetalonema (Sandnema) n.sub.gen., type species: T. (S.) digitata, parasite of Asiatic Insectivora and Primates; --Tetrapetalonema (Tetrapetalonema) (Faust, 1935), parasite of Tupaidae, Platyrhinii, and, sometimes, American Rodents and Carnivora; --Tetrapetalonema (Esslingeria) n. sub.gen., type species: T. (E.) perstans, parasite of African African Anthropoidea and Humans; --Filarissima (Chabaud, 1974), parasite of Caviomorpha.

  11. The forest behind the tree: phylogenetic exploration of a dominant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain lineage from a high tuberculosis burden country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso Oelemann, Maranibia; Gomes, Harrison M; Willery, Eve; Possuelo, Lia; Batista Lima, Karla Valéria; Allix-Béguec, Caroline; Locht, Camille; Goguet de la Salmonière, Yves-Olivier L; Gutierrez, Maria Cristina; Suffys, Philip; Supply, Philip

    2011-03-25

    Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is a powerful tool for epidemiological control of tuberculosis (TB) and phylogenetic exploration of the pathogen. Standardized PCR-based typing, based on 15 to 24 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) loci combined with spoligotyping, has been shown to have adequate resolution power for tracing TB transmission and to be useful for predicting diverse strain lineages in European settings. Its informative value needs to be tested in high TB-burden countries, where the use of genotyping is often complicated by dominance of geographically specific, genetically homogeneous strain lineages. We tested this genotyping system for molecular epidemiological analysis of 369 M. tuberculosis isolates from 3 regions of Brazil, a high TB-burden country. Deligotyping, targeting 43 large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs), and the MIRU-VNTRplus identification database were used to assess phylogenetic predictions. High congruence between the different typing results consistently revealed the countrywide supremacy of the Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM) lineage, comprised of three main branches. In addition to an already known RDRio branch, at least one other branch characterized by a phylogenetically informative LAM3 spoligo-signature seems to be globally distributed beyond Brazil. Nevertheless, by distinguishing 321 genotypes in this strain population, combined MIRU-VNTR typing and spoligotyping demonstrated the presence of multiple distinct clones. The use of 15 to 24 loci discriminated 21 to 25% more strains within the LAM lineage, compared to a restricted lineage-specific locus set suggested to be used after SNP analysis. Noteworthy, 23 of the 28 molecular clusters identified were exclusively composed of patient isolates from a same region, consistent with expected patterns of mostly local TB transmission. Standard MIRU-VNTR typing combined with spoligotyping can reveal

  12. The forest behind the tree: phylogenetic exploration of a dominant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain lineage from a high tuberculosis burden country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maranibia Cardoso Oelemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is a powerful tool for epidemiological control of tuberculosis (TB and phylogenetic exploration of the pathogen. Standardized PCR-based typing, based on 15 to 24 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR loci combined with spoligotyping, has been shown to have adequate resolution power for tracing TB transmission and to be useful for predicting diverse strain lineages in European settings. Its informative value needs to be tested in high TB-burden countries, where the use of genotyping is often complicated by dominance of geographically specific, genetically homogeneous strain lineages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested this genotyping system for molecular epidemiological analysis of 369 M. tuberculosis isolates from 3 regions of Brazil, a high TB-burden country. Deligotyping, targeting 43 large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs, and the MIRU-VNTRplus identification database were used to assess phylogenetic predictions. High congruence between the different typing results consistently revealed the countrywide supremacy of the Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM lineage, comprised of three main branches. In addition to an already known RDRio branch, at least one other branch characterized by a phylogenetically informative LAM3 spoligo-signature seems to be globally distributed beyond Brazil. Nevertheless, by distinguishing 321 genotypes in this strain population, combined MIRU-VNTR typing and spoligotyping demonstrated the presence of multiple distinct clones. The use of 15 to 24 loci discriminated 21 to 25% more strains within the LAM lineage, compared to a restricted lineage-specific locus set suggested to be used after SNP analysis. Noteworthy, 23 of the 28 molecular clusters identified were exclusively composed of patient isolates from a same region, consistent with expected patterns of mostly local TB transmission. CONCLUSIONS

  13. The Impact of Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of African American and European American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…

  14. Experimentally simulating paternity uncertainty: immediate and long-term responses of male and female reed warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Hoi

    Full Text Available In many socially monogamous species, both sexes seek copulation outside the pair bond in order to increase their reproductive success. In response, males adopt counter-strategies to combat the risk of losing paternity. However, no study so far has tried to experimentally prove the function of behaviour for paternity assurance. Introducing a potential extra-pair partner during the female fertile period provides a standardised method to examine how pair members respond immediately (e.g. increase mate guarding or copulation frequency or long term (e.g. later parental investment and paternity uncertainty. In this study on a socially monogamous passerine species, we experimentally confronted pairs of reed warblers with a conspecific male (caged male simulating an intruder during egg-laying. Our results revealed that occurrence of an intruder during that period triggered aggression against the intruder, depending on the presence of the female. The male territory owner also attacked the female partner to drive her away from the intruder. Thus territory defence in reed warblers also serves to protect paternity. The increase in paternity uncertainty did not affect later paternal investment. Paternal investment was also independent of the actual paternity losses. In females, the experiment elicited both, immediate and long-term responses. E.g. female copulation solicitations during the intruder experiment were only observed for females which later turned out to have extra-pair chicks in their nest. In relation to long term response females faced with an intruder invested later less in offspring feeding, and had less extra-pair chicks in their nests. Extra-pair paternity also seems to be affected by female quality (body size. In conclusion female reed warblers seem to seek extra-pair fertilizations but we could demonstrate that males adopt paternity assurance tactics which seems to efficiently help them to reduce paternity uncertainty.

  15. Strong and stable geographic differentiation of swamp buffalo maternal and paternal lineages indicates domestication in the China/Indochina border region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Yongfang; Yindee, Marnoch; Li, Kuan-Yi; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Ju, Yu-Ten; Ye, Shaohui; Faruque, Md Omar; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yachun; Cuong, Vu Chi; Pham, Lan Doan; Bouahom, Bounthong; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Cai, Zhihua; Vankan, Dianne; Manatchaiworakul, Wallaya; Kowlim, Nonglid; Duangchantrasiri, Somphot; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Colenbrander, Ben; Zhang, Yuan; Beerli, Peter; Lenstra, Johannes A; Barker, J Stuart F

    The swamp type of the Asian water buffalo is assumed to have been domesticated by about 4000 years BP, following the introduction of rice cultivation. Previous localizations of the domestication site were based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation within China, accounting only for the maternal

  16. Bias in the Listeria monocytogenes enrichment procedure: Lineage 2 strains outcompete lineage 1 strains in University of Vermont selective enrichments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone

    2005-01-01

    of the present study was to investigate if the selective enrichment procedure results in a true representation of the subtypes of L. monocytogenes present in a sample. Eight L. monocytogenes strains (four lineage 1 strains and four lineage 2 strains) and one Listeria innocua strain grew with identical growth...... tested, indicating a bias in strains selected by the enrichment procedures. Bias also occurred when coinoculating two lineage 2 or lineage 1 strains; however, it did not appear to correlate with origin (clinical versus food). Identical coinoculation experiments in BHI suggested that the selective......Listeria monocytogenes can be isolated from a range of food products and may cause food-borne outbreaks or sporadic cases of listeriosis. L. monocytogenes is divided into three genetic lineages and 13 serotypes. Strains of three serotypes (1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b) are associated with most human cases...

  17. Identification of lineage-specifying cytokines that signal all CD8+-cytotoxic-lineage-fate 'decisions' in the thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzensperger, Ruth; Kadakia, Tejas; Tai, Xuguang; Alag, Amala; Guinter, Terry I; Egawa, Takeshi; Erman, Batu; Singer, Alfred

    2017-11-01

    T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling in the thymus initiates positive selection, but the CD8 + -lineage fate is thought to be induced by cytokines after TCR signaling has ceased, although this remains controversial and unproven. We have identified four cytokines (IL-6, IFN-γ, TSLP and TGF-β) that did not signal via the common γ-chain (γ c ) receptor but that, like IL-7 and IL-15, induced expression of the lineage-specifying transcription factor Runx3d and signaled the generation of CD8 + T cells. Elimination of in vivo signaling by all six of these 'lineage-specifying cytokines' during positive selection eliminated Runx3d expression and completely abolished the generation of CD8 + single-positive thymocytes. Thus, this study proves that signaling during positive selection by lineage-specifying cytokines is responsible for all CD8 + -lineage-fate 'decisions' in the thymus.

  18. On the paternal origin of trisomy 21 Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonsson Anna

    2010-02-01

    paternal origin of T21 DS than maternal. The mechanisms underlying the DS cases, where the extra chromosome 21 does originate from the father, remains unknown and further studies in this respect are required.

  19. Paternal Age Explains a Major Portion of De Novo Germline Mutation Rate Variability in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon L Girard

    Full Text Available De novo mutations (DNM are an important source of rare variants and are increasingly being linked to the development of many diseases. Recently, the paternal age effect has been the focus of a number of studies that attempt to explain the observation that increasing paternal age increases the risk for a number of diseases. Using disease-free familial quartets we show that there is a strong positive correlation between paternal age and germline DNM in healthy subjects. We also observed that germline CNVs do not follow the same trend, suggesting a different mechanism. Finally, we observed that DNM were not evenly distributed across the genome, which adds support to the existence of DNM hotspots.

  20. Mutations of short tandem repeat loci in cases of paternity testing in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mao; Zhang, XiaoNan; Wu, Dan; Shen, Qi; Wu, YuanMing; Fu, ShanMin

    2016-09-01

    In order to find out the characteristics of genetic mutations in 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci, 3734 parentage cases were analyzed using AmpFlSTR Sinofiler kit. The allele source, mutation rate, and mutation rule of the STR loci were determined. Seventy mutations were observed in all cases for paternity testing. Among 15 STR loci, the highest mutation rate was observed in D12S391 (0.21 %), but the D5S818 gene mutation rate was relatively low (0.02 %). One-step mutation cases accounted for 95.7 % of all of the cases monitored. And the mutations in this study mainly showed paternal mutation (64/70). The research results are of great significance for identification and paternity tests and for the improvement of genetic studies on Chinese population in the future.

  1. Paternal Age Explains a Major Portion of De Novo Germline Mutation Rate Variability in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Cynthia V.; Lemieux Perreault, Louis-Philippe; Legault, Marc-André; Barhdadi, Amina; Ambalavanan, Amirthagowri; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Noreau, Anne; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Dion, Patrick A.; Boivin, Michel; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Rouleau, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    De novo mutations (DNM) are an important source of rare variants and are increasingly being linked to the development of many diseases. Recently, the paternal age effect has been the focus of a number of studies that attempt to explain the observation that increasing paternal age increases the risk for a number of diseases. Using disease-free familial quartets we show that there is a strong positive correlation between paternal age and germline DNM in healthy subjects. We also observed that germline CNVs do not follow the same trend, suggesting a different mechanism. Finally, we observed that DNM were not evenly distributed across the genome, which adds support to the existence of DNM hotspots. PMID:27723766

  2. Mating success and sexual selection in a pelagic copepod, Temora longicornis: Evidence from paternity analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2015-01-01

    ) on the females reproductive output, and (3) whether mating is random or some individuals have a higher than average chance of fertilizing or being fertilized (super individuals). We show that multiple paternity is common in this copepod species, that females benefit from multiple matings by increased offspring......Knowledge about mating patterns is essential for understanding and explaining rates of reproduction and genetic potential of copepods populations. The aim of this study was to examine (1) the occurrence of multiple paternity in Temora longicornis, (2) the effect of multiple paternity (if present...... production, and that a relatively small fraction of the males and females in a population account for most of the offspring production. In both males and females, mating is nonrandom. Superior individuals with a higher than average matings success were identified both among females and among males....

  3. Young Adult South African Daughters’ Perceptions of Paternal Involvement and Nurturance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Wessels

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess current and retrospective levels of reported and desired paternal involvement experienced by young adult daughters, as well as current and retrospective levels of paternal nurturance. A sample of 89, female, third year South African Psychology students completed self-administered questionnaires, consisting of a biographical questionnaire, four Father Involvement Scales and two Nurturant Father Scales. Daughters reported their fathers as having been involved and nurturing while growing up. Although they indicated that they perceived fathers as somewhat less involved in young adulthood; they reported being satisfied with the level of father involvement. Daughters also reported high current paternal nurturance. The findings therefore indicate that a group of middle to upper middle-class South African daughters perceived their fathers as relatively involved in their lives and suggest that their fathers’ involvement extends beyond traditional father roles.

  4. Reinvestigations of six unusual paternity cases by typing of autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In some relationship cases, the initial investigations of autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) lead to an ambiguous conclusion and supplementary investigations become necessary. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Six unusual paternity cases were previously investigated by other researchers...... and published as case work examples in forensic journals. Here, the cases were reinvestigated by typing the samples for 49 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the SNPforID multiplex assay. RESULTS: Three cases were solved by the SNP investigation without the need for any additional testing....... In two cases, the SNP results supported the conclusions based on STRs. In the last case, the SNP results spoke in favor of paternity, and the combined paternity index based on autosomal STRs and SNPs was 12.3 billion. Nevertheless, the alleged father was excluded by X-chromosome typing. CONCLUSION...

  5. [Identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage in Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Patricia; Calvopiña, Karina; Herrera, Diana; Rojas, Carlos; Pérez-Lago, Laura; Grijalva, Marcelo; Guna, Remedios; García-de Viedma, Darío

    2017-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage isolates are considered to be especially virulent, transmissible and prone to acquire resistances. Beijing strains have been reported worldwide, but studies in Latin America are still scarce. The only multinational study performed in the region indicated a heterogeneous distribution for this lineage, which was absent in Chile, Colombia and Ecuador, although further studies found the lineage in Chile and Colombia. To search for the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador, the only country in the region where it remains unreported. We obtained a convenience sample (2006-2012) from two hospitals covering different populations. The isolates were genotyped using 24-MIRU-VNTR. Lineages were assigned by comparing their patterns to those in the MIRU-VNTRplus platform. Isolates belonging to the Beijing lineage were confirmed by allele-specific PCR. We identified the first Beijing isolate in Ecuador in an unexpected epidemiological scenario: A patient was infected in the Andean region, in a population with low mobility and far from the borders of the neighboring countries where Beijing strains had been previously reported. This is the first report of the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador in an unusual epidemiological context that deserves special attention.

  6. Instruction of hematopoietic lineage choice by cytokine signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endele, Max; Etzrodt, Martin; Schroeder, Timm, E-mail: timm.schroeder@bsse.ethz.ch

    2014-12-10

    Hematopoiesis is the cumulative consequence of finely tuned signaling pathways activated through extrinsic factors, such as local niche signals and systemic hematopoietic cytokines. Whether extrinsic factors actively instruct the lineage choice of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells or are only selectively allowing survival and proliferation of already intrinsically lineage-committed cells has been debated over decades. Recent results demonstrated that cytokines can instruct lineage choice. However, the precise function of individual cytokine-triggered signaling molecules in inducing cellular events like proliferation, lineage choice, and differentiation remains largely elusive. Signal transduction pathways activated by different cytokine receptors are highly overlapping, but support the production of distinct hematopoietic lineages. Cellular context, signaling dynamics, and the crosstalk of different signaling pathways determine the cellular response of a given extrinsic signal. New tools to manipulate and continuously quantify signaling events at the single cell level are therefore required to thoroughly interrogate how dynamic signaling networks yield a specific cellular response. - Highlights: • Recent studies provided definite proof for lineage-instructive action of cytokines. • Signaling pathways involved in hematopoietic lineage instruction remain elusive. • New tools are emerging to quantitatively study dynamic signaling networks over time.

  7. Analysis of the human Alu Ye lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurka Jerzy

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alu elements are short (~300 bp interspersed elements that amplify in primate genomes through a process termed retroposition. The expansion of these elements has had a significant impact on the structure and function of primate genomes. Approximately 10 % of the mass of the human genome is comprised of Alu elements, making them the most abundant short interspersed element (SINE in our genome. The majority of Alu amplification occurred early in primate evolution, and the current rate of Alu retroposition is at least 100 fold slower than the peak of amplification that occurred 30–50 million years ago. Alu elements are therefore a rich source of inter- and intra-species primate genomic variation. Results A total of 153 Alu elements from the Ye subfamily were extracted from the draft sequence of the human genome. Analysis of these elements resulted in the discovery of two new Alu subfamilies, Ye4 and Ye6, complementing the previously described Ye5 subfamily. DNA sequence analysis of each of the Alu Ye subfamilies yielded average age estimates of ~14, ~13 and ~9.5 million years old for the Alu Ye4, Ye5 and Ye6 subfamilies, respectively. In addition, 120 Alu Ye4, Ye5 and Ye6 loci were screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays to determine their phylogenetic origin and levels of human genomic diversity. Conclusion The Alu Ye lineage appears to have started amplifying relatively early in primate evolution and continued propagating at a low level as many of its members are found in a variety of hominoid (humans, greater and lesser ape genomes. Detailed sequence analysis of several Alu pre-integration sites indicated that multiple types of events had occurred, including gene conversions, near-parallel independent insertions of different Alu elements and Alu-mediated genomic deletions. A potential hotspot for Alu insertion in the Fer1L3 gene on chromosome 10 was also identified.

  8. Misguided transcriptional elongation causes mixed lineage leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Mueller

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusion proteins composed of the histone methyltransferase mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL and a variety of unrelated fusion partners are highly leukemogenic. Despite their prevalence, particularly in pediatric acute leukemia, many molecular details of their transforming mechanism are unknown. Here, we provide mechanistic insight into the function of MLL fusions, demonstrating that they capture a transcriptional elongation complex that has been previously found associated with the eleven-nineteen leukemia protein (ENL. We show that this complex consists of a tight core stabilized by recursive protein-protein interactions. This central part integrates histone H3 lysine 79 methylation, RNA Polymerase II (RNA Pol II phosphorylation, and MLL fusion partners to stimulate transcriptional elongation as evidenced by RNA tethering assays. Coimmunoprecipitations indicated that MLL fusions are incorporated into this complex, causing a constitutive recruitment of elongation activity to MLL target loci. Chromatin immunoprecipitations (ChIP of the homeobox gene A cluster confirmed a close relationship between binding of MLL fusions and transcript levels. A time-resolved ChIP utilizing a conditional MLL fusion singled out H3K79 methylation as the primary parameter correlated with target expression. The presence of MLL fusion proteins also kept RNA Pol II in an actively elongating state and prevented accumulation of inhibitory histone methylation on target chromatin. Hox loci remained open and productive in the presence of MLL fusion activity even under conditions of forced differentiation. Finally, MLL-transformed cells were particularly sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of RNA Pol II phosphorylation, pointing to a potential treatment for MLL. In summary, we show aberrant transcriptional elongation as a novel mechanism for oncogenic transformation.

  9. Intestinal lineage commitment of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Gibson, Jason D; Miyamoto, Shingo; Sail, Vibhavari; Verma, Rajeev; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Nelson, Craig E; Giardina, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Generating lineage-committed intestinal stem cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could provide a tractable experimental system for understanding intestinal differentiation pathways and may ultimately provide cells for regenerating damaged intestinal tissue. We tested a two-step differentiation procedure in which ESCs were first cultured with activin A to favor formation of definitive endoderm, and then treated with fibroblast-conditioned medium with or without Wnt3A. The definitive endoderm expressed a number of genes associated with gut-tube development through mouse embryonic day 8.5 (Sox17, Foxa2, and Gata4 expressed and Id2 silent). The intestinal stem cell marker Lgr5 gene was also activated in the endodermal cells, whereas the Msi1, Ephb2, and Dcamkl1 intestinal stem cell markers were not. Exposure of the endoderm to fibroblast-conditioned medium with Wnt3A resulted in the activation of Id2, the remaining intestinal stem cell markers and the later gut markers Cdx2, Fabp2, and Muc2. Interestingly, genes associated with distal gut-associated mesoderm (Foxf2, Hlx, and Hoxd8) were also simulated by Wnt3A. The two-step differentiation protocol generated gut bodies with crypt-like structures that included regions of Lgr5-expressing proliferating cells and regions of cell differentiation. These gut bodies also had a smooth muscle component and some underwent peristaltic movement. The ability of the definitive endoderm to differentiate into intestinal epithelium was supported by the vivo engraftment of these cells into mouse colonic mucosa. These findings demonstrate that definitive endoderm derived from ESCs can carry out intestinal cell differentiation pathways and may provide cells to restore damaged intestinal tissue. Copyright © 2010 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternity and paternity in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Veleda, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Helen; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of maternity and paternity among subjects and its association with perinatal, socioeconomic and demographic variables. METHODS The participants were youth, aged 23, on the average, accompanied in a cohort study since they were born, in 1982, in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) and interviewed in 2004-5. Those who were considered eligible referred having had one or more children, whether these were liveborns or stillborns. Data was collected on reproductive health as well as socioeconomic and demographic information, by means of two different instruments. The independent variables were sex and skin color, family income in 1982 and in 2004-5, changes in income, birth weight and educational level when aged 23 years old. Crude and adjusted analysis were conducted by means of Poisson regression so as to investigate the effects of the independent variables on maternity/paternity during adolescence. RESULTS Among the 4,297 youth interviewed, 1,373 (32%) were parents and 842 (19.6%) of these had experienced maternity/paternity during their adolescence. Planned pregnancy of the first child was directly related to the youth’s age. Socioeconomic variables were inversely related to the occurrence of maternity/paternity during adolescence. The probability of being an adolescent mother was higher among black and mixed skin colored women, but skin color was not associated to adolescent paternity. CONCLUSIONS There was a strong relation between adolescent maternity/paternity and socioeconomic conditions, which should be taken into consideration when delineating preventive actions in the field of public health. PMID:19142344

  11. Cumulative risks of paternal and maternal incarceration in Denmark and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wildeman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: No research has estimated the cumulative risk of paternal or maternal incarceration in any country other than the U.S., so it remains unclear how much more likely U.S. children are to be exposed to parental incarceration than children living in other countries. Objective: To estimate the cumulative risks of paternal and maternal incarceration (including even very short jail stays of less than 24 hours by age 14 for the 1990 Danish birth cohort. We then compare these estimates to equivalent estimates for the 1990 U.S. birth cohort. Methods: We use birth cohort life tables and Danish registry data, which provide administrative records on all incarcerations in Denmark, to estimate the cumulative risks of paternal and maternal incarceration. We follow the full 1990 Danish birth cohort (N = 62,982 up to age 14 to see whether each child has ever experienced different lengths of paternal and maternal incarceration. Results: We estimate that 1.54Š of Danish children experienced paternal imprisonment and that 8.78Š of Danish children experienced any paternal incarceration (including jail stays less than 24 hours, indicating that U.S. children are almost as likely to have their fathers sent to prison (which usually results from a sentence of at least one year in the U.S. as Danish children are to have their fathers spend less than one day in jail. Results for maternal imprisonment are similar. Conclusions: U.S. children are far more likely to be exposed to parental incarceration than Danish children, suggesting that imprisonment contributes not only to inequality among children within the U.S., but also to inequality between children in the U.S. and children in other developed democracies.

  12. Effect of paternal age in achondroplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia, and osteogenesis imperfecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orioli, I.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Castilla, E.E. [Centro de Educacion Medica e Investigacion Clinica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Scarano, G.; Mastroiacovo, P. [Universita Cattolica, Rome (Italy)

    1995-11-06

    The paternal ages of nonfamilial cases of achondroplasia (AC) (n = 78), thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) (n = 64), and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) (n = 106), were compared with those of matched controls, from an Italian Indagine Policentrica Italiana sulle Malformazioni Congenite (IPIMC) and a South American Estudio Colaborativo Latinoamericano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC) series. The degree of paternal age effect on the origin of these dominant mutations differed among the three conditions. Mean paternal age was highly elevated in AC, 36.30 {plus_minus} 6.74 years in the IPIMC, and 37.19 {plus_minus} 10.53 years in the ECLAMC; less consistently elevated in TD, 33.60 {plus_minus} 7.08 years in the IPIMC, and 36.41 {plus_minus} 9.38 years in the ECLAMC; and only slightly elevated in OI in the ECLAMC, 31.15 {plus_minus} 9.25 years, but not in the IPIMC, 32.26 {plus_minus} 6.07 years. Increased maternal age or birth order in these conditions disappeared when corrected for paternal age. Approximately 50% of AC and TD cases, and only 30% of OI cases, were born to fathers above age 35 years. For AC and TD, the increase in relative incidence with paternal age fitted an exponential curve. The variability of paternal age effect in these new mutations could be due, among other reasons, to the high proportion of germ-line mosaicism in OI parents, or to the localization of the AC gene, mapped to the 4p16.3 region, in the neighborhood of an unstable DNA area. 28 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  13. Extra-pair paternity in the long-tailed finch Poephila acuticauda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica P. van Rooij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the majority of passerine birds are socially monogamous, true genetic monogamy is rare, with extra-pair paternity (EPP occurring in almost 90% of surveyed socially monogamous species. We present the first molecular data on the genetic breeding system of the long-tailed finch, Poephila acuticauda, a grass finch endemic to the tropical northern savannah of Australia. Although the species forms socially monogamous pair bonds during the breeding season, we found that extra-pair males sired 12.8% of 391 offspring, in 25.7% of 101 broods. Our findings provide only the second estimate of extra-pair paternity in the estrildid finch family.

  14. Age- and tactic-related paternity success in male African elephants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Barner; Okello, J. B. A.; Wittemyer, G.

    2008-01-01

    on age- and tactic-specific paternity success in male African elephants are the first from a free-ranging population and demonstrate that paternity success increases dramatically with age, with the small number of older bulls in the competitive state of musth being the most successful sires. However......, reproduction was not heavily skewed compared with many other mammalian systems with a similar breeding system. Nevertheless, these results indicate that trophy hunting and ivory poaching, both of which target older bulls, may have substantial behavioral and genetic effects on elephant populations. In addition...

  15. Toward a New Model of Fatherhood? Discourses on the Process of Paternal Involvement in Urban Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Barbeta-Viñas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades quantitative studies have documented an increase in paternal involvement. These changes have led to hypotheses of a new model of fatherhood. The aim of this paper is to explore the discourses of Spanish fathers regarding paternal involvement, identifying its structure and changing tendencies. The analysis is based on eight focus groups conducted in Madrid and Barcelona. Among the main findings we emphasize that the transition of fatherhood,not without contradictions, is causing the traditional homogeneous fatherhood to evolve toward a more complex and multidimensional conceptualization.

  16. How female reed buntings benefit from extra-pair mating behaviour : testing hypotheses through patterns of paternity in sequential broods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Karen M.; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan

    Extra-pair paternity is an important aspect of reproductive strategies in many species of birds. Given that in most species females control whether fertilization occurs, they are expected to benefit in some way from the extra-pair matings. In this study we use patterns of extra-pair paternity (EPP)

  17. Results of the 2007 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallenberg, C.; Langkjær, Rikke B.; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of the 2007 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics. The exercise included paternity testing of blood samples from a mother, a child and an alleged father. The laboratories were encouraged to answer...... systems investigated with RFLP. The rate of typing and reporting errors was 0.2%...

  18. Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles in Adolescents: Associations with Self-Esteem, Depression and Life-Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milevsky, Avidan; Schlechter, Melissa; Netter, Sarah; Keehn, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Our study examined variations in adolescent adjustment as a function of maternal and paternal parenting styles. Participants included 272 students in grades 9 and 11 from a public high school in a metropolitan area of the Northeastern US. Participants completed measures of maternal and paternal parenting styles and indices of psychological…

  19. The origin of a selfish B chromosome triggering paternal sex ratio in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Stouthamer, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses molecular and cytogenetic methods to determine the origin of a B chromosome in some males of the wasp Trichogramma kaykai. This so-called paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome transmits only through sperm and shortly after fertilization triggers degeneration of the paternal genome,

  20. Phenotypic fitness effects of the selfish B chromosome, paternal sex ratio (PSR) in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.

    1994-01-01

    B chromosomes are often considered genomic parasites. Paternal sex ratio (PSR) is an extreme example of a parasitic B chromosome in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. PSR is transmitted through the sperm of carrier males and destroys the other paternal chromosomes in early fertilized eggs. PSR

  1. Deletion analysis of the selfish B chromosome, Paternal Sex Ratio (PSR), in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.; Werren, John H.

    1993-01-01

    Paternal Sex Ratio (PSR) is a “selfish” B chromosome in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. It is transmitted via sperm, but causes supercondensation and destruction of the paternal chromosomes in early fertilized eggs. Because this wasp has haplodiploid sex determination, the effect of PSR is

  2. A Comparison of Perceived and Measured Paternal Weight and BMI, and Relationship to Weight and BMI of his Children

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, RF

    2018-02-01

    Nineteen percent of 9 years old Irish children are overweight; seven percent are obese. Our aims were: to examine whether differences exist between paternal self-reported and measured height, weight and BMI in a population representative sample; and to explore paternal perceptions of their own weight status.\\r\

  3. Influence of postzygotic reproductive isolation on the interspecific transmission of the paternal sex ratio chromosome in Trichogramma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, G.S.; Stouthamer, R.

    2006-01-01

    The paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome is a supernumerary chromosome that causes the destruction of the paternal chromosome set in the first mitosis in a fertilized egg. It is known from parasitoid wasps in the genera Nasonia and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera). In these haplodiploids, the egg

  4. Women in southern Nigeria with change in paternity do not have increased incidence of pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbu, C O; Okezie, O A; Odugu, B U

    2009-02-01

    This was a prospective cohort study of women in their second pregnancies aimed at determining if there was a difference in the incidence of pre-eclampsia between those with changed paternity and those without change in paternity in an entirely black African population. Women in their second pregnancies receiving antenatal care between September 2006 and August 2007 were recruited into the study between 10 and 20 weeks' gestational age and followed up until 37 weeks' gestation. The main outcome measures included incidence of pre-eclampsia in relation to change in paternity at second pregnancy, incidence of pre-eclampsia in relation to duration of sexual cohabitation among those with changed paternity and inter-pregnancy interval. There was no significant difference in the incidence of pre-eclampsia between women who had changed paternity and those without change in paternity (3.5% vs 3.1%, p=0.835). The inter-pregnancy interval was also similar in both groups. The mean duration of sexual cohabitation was similar between women who had changed paternity that developed pre-eclampsia and those that did not develop pre-eclampsia (7.9+/-1.3 vs 7.5+/-2.1 months, p=0.531). It was concluded that Southern Nigerian women with change in paternity in their second pregnancies do not have increased incidence of pre-eclampsia.

  5. To eat or not to eat : egg-based assessment of paternity triggers fine-tuned decisions about filial cannibalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehlis, Marion; Bakker, Theo C. M.; Engqvist, Leif; Frommen, Joachim G.

    2010-01-01

    Filial cannibalism occurs in many animal species ranging from insects to mammals, and is especially well described in teleost fishes. Numerous causes may lead to this behaviour, e. g. certainty of paternity. However, the cues males use to assess their paternity often remain unknown. One possible way

  6. Is male-infant caretaking related to paternity and/or mating activities in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, N; von Segesser, F; Scheffrahn, W; Pastorini, J; Vallet, D; Gaci, B; Martin, R D; Gautier-Hion, A

    2001-07-01

    In species with a promiscuous mating system, the functions of male-infant caretaking remain unclear in the absence of genetic paternity tests. We tested paternal investment and hypotheses concerning reproductive tactics in wild groups of Barbary macaques, including results of genetic paternity tests. Our study revealed that male-infant caretaking was not related to the probability of paternity. In principle, males could use access to females to estimate paternity. However, we found that mating success was not related to paternity, so males could invest in infants that they had not sired, and caretaking of non-offspring was actually observed. Accordingly, males might be 'deceived' with respect to their paternal investment. In that case, one would expect a positive relation between mating success and the subsequent rate of male caretaking of infants. Such a relation is also lacking, leading to comprehensive rejection of the paternal investment hypothesis in Barbary macaques. By contrast, there was evidence that males showing infant care achieved higher mating frequencies than other males with the mothers of the relevant infants. Thus, male Barbary macaques do not show a 'mate-then-care' pattern, but they do exhibit a 'care-then-mate' pattern.

  7. [Annulment of paternity recognition based on the absence of identity of chromosomes Y. A judgment of the Paris court of law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grouche, J

    1977-06-01

    The medico-legal expertise having having concluded to non-paternity because of a marked dissimilarity between the Y chromosomes, the Paris Court of law accepted these conclusions and gave a sentence nullifying a previous paternity recognition.

  8. Paternal heterochromatin formation in human embryos is H3K9/HP1 directed and primed by sperm-derived histone modifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van de Werken (Christine); G.W. van der Heijden (Godfried); C. Eleveld (C.); M. Teeuwssen (Miriam); M. Albert (Mareike); W.M. Baarends (Willy); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); A.H.F.M. Peters (Antoine H. F. M.); E.B. Baart (Esther)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe different configurations of maternal and paternal chromatin, acquired during oogenesis and spermatogenesis, have to be rearranged after fertilization to form a functional embryonic genome. In the paternal genome, nucleosomal chromatin domains are re-established after the

  9. Y-chromosome lineages from Portugal, Madeira and Açores record elements of Sephardim and Berber ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rita; Freitas, Ana; Branco, Marta; Rosa, Alexandra; Fernandes, Ana T; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Underhill, Peter A; Kivisild, Toomas; Brehm, António

    2005-07-01

    A total of 553 Y-chromosomes were analyzed from mainland Portugal and the North Atlantic Archipelagos of Açores and Madeira, in order to characterize the genetic composition of their male gene pool. A large majority (78-83% of each population) of the male lineages could be classified as belonging to three basic Y chromosomal haplogroups, R1b, J, and E3b. While R1b, accounting for more than half of the lineages in any of the Portuguese sub-populations, is a characteristic marker of many different West European populations, haplogroups J and E3b consist of lineages that are typical of the circum-Mediterranean region or even East Africa. The highly diverse haplogroup E3b in Portuguese likely combines sub-clades of distinct origins. The present composition of the Y chromosomes in Portugal in this haplogroup likely reflects a pre-Arab component shared with North African populations or testifies, at least in part, to the influence of Sephardic Jews. In contrast to the marginally low sub-Saharan African Y chromosome component in Portuguese, such lineages have been detected at a moderately high frequency in our previous survey of mtDNA from the same samples, indicating the presence of sex-related gene flow, most likely mediated by the Atlantic slave trade.

  10. Fast and scalable inference of multi-sample cancer lineages.

    KAUST Repository

    Popic, Victoria

    2015-05-06

    Somatic variants can be used as lineage markers for the phylogenetic reconstruction of cancer evolution. Since somatic phylogenetics is complicated by sample heterogeneity, novel specialized tree-building methods are required for cancer phylogeny reconstruction. We present LICHeE (Lineage Inference for Cancer Heterogeneity and Evolution), a novel method that automates the phylogenetic inference of cancer progression from multiple somatic samples. LICHeE uses variant allele frequencies of somatic single nucleotide variants obtained by deep sequencing to reconstruct multi-sample cell lineage trees and infer the subclonal composition of the samples. LICHeE is open source and available at http://viq854.github.io/lichee .

  11. The couple that sings together stays together: duetting, aggression and extra-pair paternity in a promiscuous bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Daniel T; Greig, Emma I; Webster, Michael S

    2016-02-01

    When individuals mate outside the pair bond, males should employ behaviours such as aggression or vocal displays (e.g. duetting) that help assure paternity of the offspring they care for. We tested whether male paternity was associated with aggression or duetting in the red-backed fairy-wren, a species exhibiting high rates of extra-pair paternity. During simulated territorial intrusions, aggression and duetting were variable among and repeatable within males, suggesting behavioural consistency of individuals. Males with quicker and stronger duet responses were cuckolded less often than males with slower and weaker responses. In contrast, physical aggression was not correlated with male paternity. These results suggest that either acoustic mate guarding or male-female vocal negotiations via duetting lead to increased paternity assurance, whereas physical aggression does not. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Germline and somatic mosaicism for FGFR2 mutation in the mother of a child with Crouzon syndrome: Implications for genetic testing in ?paternal age-effect? syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Goriely, Anne; Lord, Helen; Lim, Jasmine; Johnson, David; Lester, Tracy; Firth, Helen V.; Wilkie, Andrew OM

    2010-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by craniosynostosis and facial dysostosis, caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene; it belongs to a class of disorders that mostly arise as de novo mutations and exhibit a near-exclusive paternal origin of mutation and elevated paternal age (?paternal age effect?). However, even if this is the major mode of origin of mutations in paternal age-effect disorders, germline mosaicism may also occu...

  13. Population differentiation of southern Indian male lineages correlates with agricultural expansions predating the caste system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganeshprasad Arunkumar

    Full Text Available Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India. Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian autochthonous Y-chromosomal haplogroups (H-M69, F-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124, and C5-M356; 81% combined with a shared genetic heritage dating back to the late Pleistocene (10-30 Kya, suggesting that more recent Holocene migrations from western Eurasia contributed <20% of the male lineages. We found strong evidence for genetic structure, associated primarily with the current mode of subsistence. Coalescence analysis suggested that the social stratification was established 4-6 Kya and there was little admixture during the last 3 Kya, implying a minimal genetic impact of the Varna (caste system from the historically-documented Brahmin migrations into the area. In contrast, the overall Y-chromosomal patterns, the time depth of population diversifications and the period of differentiation were best explained by the emergence of agricultural technology in South Asia. These results highlight the utility of detailed local genetic studies within India, without prior assumptions about the importance of Varna rank status for population grouping, to obtain new insights into the relative influences of past demographic events for the population structure of the whole of modern India.

  14. Phylogeny of Gobioidei and the origin of European gobies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Agorreta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The percomorph order Gobioidei comprises over 2200 species worldwide distributed that occupy most freshwater, brackish and marine environments, and show a spectacular variety in morphology, ecology, and behaviour. However, phylogenetic relationships among many gobioid groups still remain poorly understood. Such is the case of Gobiidae, a rapidly radiating lineage that encompass an unusually high diversity of species (nearly 2000, including the largely endemic European species whose origin and ancestry remain uncertain. The resolution and accuracy of previous molecular phylogenetic studies has been limited due to the use of only a few (generally mitochondrial molecular markers and/or the absence of representatives of several key lineages. Our study (built on Agorreta et al. 2013 is the first to include multiple nuclear and mitochondrial genes for nearly 300 terminal taxa representing the vast diversity of gobioid lineages. We have used this information to reconstruct a robust phylogeny of Gobioidei, and we are now investigating the historical biogeography and diversification times of European gobies with a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny. Robustness of the inferred phylogenetic trees is significantly higher than that of previous studies, hence providing the most compelling molecular phylogenetic hypotheses for Gobioidei thus far. The family Eleotrididae branches off the gobioid tree after the Rhyacichthyidae + Odontobutidae clade followed by the Butidae as the sister-group of the Gobiidae. Several monophyletic groups are identified within the two major Gobiidae subclades, the gobionelline-like and the gobiine-like gobiids. The European gobies cluster in three distinct lineages (Pomatoschistus-, Aphia-, and Gobius-lineages, each with different affinities with gobiids from the Indo-Pacific and perhaps the New World. Our ongoing more-detailed study on European gobies will reveal whether their origin is related to vicariant events linked to the

  15. Parental care, loss of paternity and circulating levels of testosterone and corticosterone in a socially monogamous song bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Camila P; Apfelbeck, Beate; Goymann, Wolfgang

    2014-02-12

    In biparental birds testosterone levels of males are typically high during the mating phase and decrease during the parental phase. Testosterone implants may enhance mating behaviors, increase the likelihood of males to engage in extra-pair mating behavior and may reduce paternal care. Thus, sex steroids such as testosterone influence reproductive behaviors. Little is known, however, as to whether the more subtle differences in physiological concentrations of testosterone that occur between individuals are related to differences in paternal care, extra-pair behavior, and genetic paternity between those males. Here, we investigate these relationships in the male black redstart (Phoenicurus ochruros), a socially monogamous songbird with a low breeding synchrony. We used nestling provisioning as a proxy for parental care behavior and genetic paternity loss as a proxy for the efficiency of mate-guarding. There was no relationship between nestling provisioning and paternity loss of males. Baseline and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced levels of testosterone, but not baseline corticosterone, were significantly higher during the mating than during the provisioning phase. Males fed more often when temperatures decreased and fed less when they sang more, but we found no correlation between parental behavior and baseline or GnRH-induced testosterone, and baseline corticosterone - both measured during either the mating or the parental phase. However, males that experienced loss of paternity had lower levels of testosterone during the provisioning phase than males that did not lose paternity. Further, males that lost paternity also expressed higher baseline levels of corticosterone. Physiological differences in testosterone or baseline corticosterone were not related to differences in parental care, suggesting that the variation of testosterone within a physiological range may not relate to the degree of paternal care in this species. However, the profile of both

  16. Postglacial recolonizations, watershed crossings and human translocations shape the distribution of chub lineages around the Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouskov, Alexandre; Vorburger, Christoph

    2016-09-09

    Distributions of European fish species were shaped by glaciations and the geological history of river networks until human activities partially abrogated the restrictions of biogeographical regions. The nearby origins of the Rhine, Rhone, Danube and Po rivers in the Swiss Alps allow the examination of historical and human-influenced patterns in fish genetic structure over a small geographic scale. We investigated these patterns in the widespread European chub (Squalius cephalus) from the Rhone, Rhine and Danube catchments and its proposed southern sister species Italian chub (Squalius squalus) from the Po catchment. A phylogenetic tree constructed from mitochondrial Cytochrome b and COI sequences was consistent with earlier work in that it showed a separation of European chub and Italian chub, which was also reflected in microsatellite allele frequencies, morphological traits and shape differences quantified by geometric morphometrics. A new finding was that the predominant mitochondrial haplotype of European chub from the Rhine and Rhone catchments was also discovered in some individuals from Swiss populations of the Italian chub, presumably as a result of human translocation. Consistent with postglacial recolonizations from multiple refugia along the major rivers, the nuclear genetic structure of the European chub largely reflected drainage structure, but it was modified by watershed crossings between Rhine and Rhone near Lake Geneva as well as between Danube and Rhine near Lake Constance. Our study adds new insights into the cyprinid colonization history of central Europe by showing that multiple processes shaped the distribution of different chub lineages around the Swiss Alps. Interestingly, we find evidence that cross-catchment migration has been mediated by unusual geological events such as drainage captures or watershed crossings facilitated by retreating glaciers, as well as evidence that human transport has interfered with the historical distribution of

  17. Anterior dental evolution in the Australopithecus anamensis—afarensis lineage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carol V. Ward; J. Michael Plavcan; Fredrick K. Manthi

    2010-01-01

    .... anamensis—afarensis lineage, significant changes appear to occur particularly in the anterior dentition, but also in jaw structure and molar form, suggesting selection for altered diet and/or food processing...

  18. Sympatric speciation: perfume preferences of orchid bee lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Duncan E

    2008-12-09

    Female attraction to an environmentally derived mating signal released by male orchid bees may be tightly linked to shared olfactory preferences of both sexes. A change in perfume preference may have led to divergence of two morphologically distinct lineages.

  19. Mammalian Merkel cells are descended from the epidermal lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kristin M.; Miesegaes, George R.; Lumpkin, Ellen A.; Maricich, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Merkel cells are specialized cells in the skin that are important for proper neural encoding of light touch stimuli. Conflicting evidence suggests that these cells are lineally descended from either the skin or the neural crest. To address this question, we used epidermal (Krt14Cre) and neural crest (Wnt1Cre) Cre-driver lines to conditionally delete Atoh1 specifically from the skin or neural crest lineages, respectively, of mice. Deletion of Atoh1 from the skin lineage resulted in loss of Merkel cells from all regions of the skin, while deletion from the neural crest lineage had no effect on this cell population. Thus, mammalian Merkel cells are derived from the skin lineage. PMID:19782676

  20. Determinative developmental cell lineages are robust to cell deaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Rong Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available All forms of life are confronted with environmental and genetic perturbations, making phenotypic robustness an important characteristic of life. Although development has long been viewed as a key component of phenotypic robustness, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we report that the determinative developmental cell lineages of two protostomes and one deuterostome are structured such that the resulting cellular compositions of the organisms are only modestly affected by cell deaths. Several features of the cell lineages, including their shallowness, topology, early ontogenic appearances of rare cells, and non-clonality of most cell types, underlie the robustness. Simple simulations of cell lineage evolution demonstrate the possibility that the observed robustness arose as an adaptation in the face of random cell deaths in development. These results reveal general organizing principles of determinative developmental cell lineages and a conceptually new mechanism of phenotypic robustness, both of which have important implications for development and evolution.

  1. Polycomb enables primitive endoderm lineage priming in embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illingworth, Robert S; Hölzenspies, Jurriaan J; Roske, Fabian V

    2016-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), like the blastocyst from which they are derived, contain precursors of the epiblast (Epi) and primitive endoderm (PrEn) lineages. While transient in vivo, these precursor populations readily interconvert in vitro. We show that altered transcription is the driver...... polycomb with dynamic changes in transcription and stalled lineage commitment, allowing cells to explore alternative choices prior to a definitive decision....

  2. [Lineage assignment in acute leukemia: confrontation between cytology and immunophenotyping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah, N; El Borgi, W; Chelbi, A; Ben Lakhal, F; Gouider, E; Aounallah Skhiri, H; Hafsia, R

    2014-12-01

    The determination of the cellular lineage in acute leukemia is a crucial step in the diagnosis and the later therapeutic conduct. In Tunisia, emerging country, some cases of acute leukemias are still treated on the basis of an only cytologic study because of lack of cytometry. Our objective is to realize a confrontation between cytology and flow cytometry in the diagnosis of AL and to analyze discrepancies. The study concerns 100 cases of AL. A second double-blind examination of the bone marrow smears of acute leukemias is realized by two cytologists and confronted to immunophenotyping. In two cases of AML, flow cytometry reassigned lineage into T ALL and biphenotypic AL. In three cases of ALL the lineage was reassigned into undifferentiated acute leukemia (2 cases) and biphenotypic acute leukemia (1 case). Lineage was not established in four cases, immunophenotyping allowed the diagnosis of B ALL in 3 cases, and of biphenotypic acute leukemia in 1 case. In both cases of discrepant findings, flow cytometry allowed the diagnosis of biphenotypic acute leukemia in a case and of AML in the other one. The cytological study remains insufficient in the diagnosis of lineage even with experimented cytologists. Immunophenotyping is essential in lineage assignment and reassignment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Paternal Work Stress and Latent Profiles of Father-Infant Parenting Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers' experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective…

  4. Paternal influences on infant temperament: effects of father internalizing problems, parenting-related stress, and temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapova, Natalia V; Gartstein, Maria A; Bridgett, David J

    2014-02-01

    Temperament ratings were obtained from 98 fathers when their infants were 4 and 6 months of age to examine effects of paternal characteristics on infant temperament. Parental stress, internalizing symptoms, and father's temperament were considered as factors possibly contributing to differences in their child's temperament. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and sex ratio of the offspring: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shu-Hui; Liu, Yi-Ting; Liu, Yang

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association between paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and the sex ratio of the offspring. We searched various databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, OVID, Bioscience Information Service (BIOSIS), China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and Wanfang Database, for the literature relevant to the association of paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation with the sex ratio of the offspring. We conducted a meta-analysis on their correlation using Stata 11.0. There was no statistically significant difference in the sex ratio between the offspring with paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and those without (pooled OR = 1.00 [95% CI: 0.95 -1.05], P = 0.875). Subgroup analysis of both case-control and cohort studies revealed no significant difference (pooled OR = 1.03 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.104 and pooled OR = 0.98 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.186, respectively). Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation is not correlated with the sex ratio of the offspring.

  6. Do ornaments, arrival date, and sperm size influence mating and paternity success in the collared flycatcher?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Edme, A.; Zobač, P.; Opatová, Pavlína; Šplíchalová, P.; Munclinger, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Krist, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 3. ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Mating success * Extra-pair paternity * Differential allocation * Sexual ornament * Sperm size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.185, year: 2016

  7. Polygyny and extra-pair paternity enhance the opportunity for sexual selection in blue tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, Oscar; Komdeur, Jan; van der Velde, Marco; Schut, Elske; Magrath, Michael J. L.

    Polygyny and extra-pair paternity are generally thought to enhance sexual selection. However, the extent to which these phenomena increase variance in male reproductive success will depend on the covariance between success at these two strategies. We analysed these patterns over four breeding

  8. Maternal and Paternal Age Are Jointly Associated with Childhood Autism in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Bressler, Jan; Chen, Zhongxue; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Beecher, Compton; Bloom, Kari; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reported maternal and paternal age as risk factors for having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), yet the results remain inconsistent. We used data for 68 age- and sex-matched case-control pairs collected from Jamaica. Using Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) and controlling for parity, gestational age, and…

  9. Paternal Involvement in Multisystemic Therapy: Effects on Adolescent Outcomes and Maternal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervan, Shannon; Granic, Isabela; Solomon, Tracy; Blokland, Kirsten; Ferguson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The association between paternal involvement in therapy, adolescent outcomes and maternal depression was examined within the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an empirically supported, family- and community-based treatment for antisocial adolescents. Ninety-nine families were recruited from five mental health agencies providing MST. We…

  10. Advanced paternal age is associated with impaired neurocognitive outcomes during infancy and childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Saha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced paternal age (APA is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, as well as with dyslexia and reduced intelligence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between paternal age and performance on neurocognitive measures during infancy and childhood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A sample of singleton children (n = 33,437 was drawn from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project. The outcome measures were assessed at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test. The main analyses examined the relationship between neurocognitive measures and paternal or maternal age when adjusted for potential confounding factors. Advanced paternal age showed significant associations with poorer scores on all of the neurocognitive measures apart from the Bayley Motor score. The findings were broadly consistent in direction and effect size at all three ages. In contrast, advanced maternal age was generally associated with better scores on these same measures. CONCLUSIONS: The offspring of older fathers show subtle impairments on tests of neurocognitive ability during infancy and childhood. In light of secular trends related to delayed fatherhood, the clinical implications and the mechanisms underlying these findings warrant closer scrutiny.

  11. The influence of light on paternal plants in Campanula americana (Campanulaceae): pollen characteristics and offspring traits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Etterson, Julie R; Galloway, Laura F

    2002-01-01

    ... • paternal environmental effects • plasticity to light • pollen number CiteULike     Complore     Connotea     Del.icio.us     Digg     Facebook     Reddit     Technorati...

  12. Exploiting Synteny in Cucumis for Mapping of Psm, A Unique Locus Controlling Paternal Mitochondrial Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three genomes of cucumber show different modes of transmission, nuclear DNA bi-parentally, plastid DNA maternally, and mitochondrial DNA paternally. The mosaic (MSC) phenotype of cucumber is associated with mitochondrial DNA rearrangements and is a valuable tool for studying mitochondrial trans...

  13. Weather conditions affect levels of extra-pair paternity in the reed bunting Emberiza schoeniclus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, KM; Komdeur, J

    Extra-pair paternity (EPP) is common in many socially monogamous birds, but large variations in frequency of EPP are found both between and within species. Local ecological factors can affect the costs and benefits of extra-pair mating behaviour, and may therefore influence the chance that

  14. Prescription of Protective Paternalism for Men in Romantic and Work Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlet, Marie; Dumont, Muriel; Delacollette, Nathalie; Dardenne, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral prescription specifies how people ought to act. Five studies investigated prescription for men of protective paternalism, a particular form of benevolent sexism, depending on contextual and individual factors. In Studies 1 and 2, female participants prescribed for men more protective paternalistic behavior toward women in a romantic…

  15. Does father know best? A formal model of the paternal influence on childhood social anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Perotti, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    We explore paternal social anxiety as a specific risk factor for childhood social anxiety in a rational optimization model. In the course of human evolution, fathers specialized in external protection (e.g., confronting the external world) while mothers specialized in internal protection (e.g.,

  16. Paternal history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension affects the prevalence and phenotype of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Zhang, Haolin; Zhao, Yue; Li, Rong; Qiao, Jie

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine if paternal or maternal history of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT) contributes to the prevalence and phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We performed an epidemiologic study about PCOS from four districts in Beijing, China, between 2008 and 2009. Parental histories of DM and HT were collected, and the basic characteristics and serum indices of 123 PCOS patients and 718 non-PCOS controls were tested. The prevalence of a parental history of DM and HT was significantly higher in PCOS patients than non-PCOS women (17.1 % vs. 9.2 % and 42.3 % vs. 26.0 %, P PCOS and non-PCOS patients (odds ratio (OR) = 3.42, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.69-6.91; OR = 2.50, 95 % CI = 1.58-3.93, respectively). A paternal history of both DM and HT was significantly associated with sex hormone-binding globulin, fasting plasma glucose, and fasting insulin levels, the free androgen index, and the homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance in PCOS patients (P PCOS. PCOS patients with a positive paternal history of both DM and HT have an adverse endocrine and metabolic profile. A paternal history of DM and HT poses a risk to PCOS.

  17. Paternity Cases within a Medicolegal Context: a Case Study of Heteropaternal Superfecundation in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan K. Mahmood

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of paternity was referred to the Medical-Legal Directorate( MLD/ Baghdad in August 2011 .The family who were concerned was the  Father (41 years old ,mother (23 years old and 2 sons non identical twin (1.5year old . Paternity test includes Conventional Blood Group Markers, DNA and Y chromosome STR Typing were investigated . The DNA and Y chromosome STR Typing were tested  for the referred trios father and twins first , the results revealed an absolute exclusion of fatherhood relationship to both . , surprisingly the Y Chromosomeprofiles  revealed obviously that the two non identical twins were from different fathers or paternal descent. Maternity test was ought to be examined  for the assumed mother to rule out the possibility of switch of both babies in the hospital during their delivery and to prove their brotherhood relationship from mother side. The mother was referred and maternity was confirmed later using DNA Typing . Combined Maternity Index (CPI was calculated for twins ,The probability of Maternity were 99.98% and 99.95% for the1st and 2nd twin respectively. Key words : hetero paternal Superfecundation ,Non Identical twin,DNA Typing ,Y Chromosome STR Polymorphysim

  18. Prevalence of paternal perinatal depressiveness and its link to partnership satisfaction and birth concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, S; Muller, M; Hoffmann, L; Dienes, A; Wallwiener, M; Sohn, C; Schlehe, B; Reck, C

    2014-02-01

    Depressive disorders have shown an increasing prevalence over the past decades. Growing evidence suggests that pregnancy and childbirth trigger depressive symptoms not only in women but likewise in men. This study estimates the prevalence of paternal perinatal depressiveness in a German community sample and explores its link to partnership satisfaction as well as birth-related concerns and concerns about the future. Data was gathered in a longitudinal study over the second and third trimester of their partner’s pregnancy up to 6 weeks postpartum. In a two-stage screening procedure, 102 expectant fathers were assessed for symptoms of depression, anxiety, and partnership satisfaction using the Edinburgh Postnatal depression Scale (EPDS), the State/Trait Anxiety Inventory, a self-constructed questionnaire for birth concerns and the Questionnaire of Partnership. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms among expectant fathers was 9.8 % prenatally and 7.8 % postnatally. Prenatal relationship quality, prenatal EPDS scores, and birth concerns were significantly associated with and explained 47 % of the variance in paternal postnatal depressive symptoms. The prevalence of paternal depressive symptoms is a significant concern. Our findings point out the need for implementing awareness and screening for depressiveness in fathers in clinical routine in Germany as well as the necessity of developing a screening instrument for paternal birth-related anxiety.

  19. Maternal and paternal beliefs, support and parenting as determinants of sport participation of adolescents with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, D.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Schayck, C.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Sluijs, E.M.F. van

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Few studies have examined determinants of physical activity in patients with chronic illnesses, like asthma. The aim of this study was to examine whether baseline maternal and paternal beliefs, support and parenting were associated with changes in sport participation of adolescents with

  20. Maternal and paternal transmission of type 2 diabetes : influence of diet, lifestyle and adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, A.; Corpeleijn, E.; van der Schouw, Y. T.; Stolk, R. P.; Spijkerman, A. M. W.; van der A, D. L.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Beulens, J. W. J.; van, der A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Transmission of family history of type 2 diabetes to the next generation is stronger for maternal than paternal diabetes in some populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this difference is explained by diet, lifestyle factors and/or adiposity. Methods. We

  1. Recurrent Disruptions of Rituals and Routines in Families with Paternal Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt

    2005-01-01

    Changes in rituals and routines between drinking and sobriety were examined in families in treatment due to paternal alcohol abuse. Information was gathered through a semistructured family interview. Recurrent disruptions of rituals and routines were found between different phases in the drinking cycle. Disruptions were found typically with regard…

  2. Academic Stressors and Anxiety in Children: The Role of Paternal Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Grace S. M.; Yeung, K. C.; Wong, Daniel F. K.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the role of paternal support in the relation between academic stress and the mental health of primary school children in Hong Kong. The participants of this cross-sectional study were 1,171 fifth and sixth graders. The results indicated that academic stress was a risk factor that heightened student anxiety levels and that parental…

  3. Father Involvement, Paternal Sensitivity, and Father-Child Attachment Security in the First Three Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    To reach a greater understanding of the early father-child attachment relationship, this study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations among father involvement, paternal sensitivity, and father-child attachment security at 13 months and 3 years of age. Analyses revealed few associations among these variables at 13 months of age, but involvement and sensitivity independently predicted father-child attachment security at age 3. Moreover, sensitivity moderated the association between involvement and attachment security at 3 years. Specifically, involvement was unrelated to attachment security when fathers were highly sensitive, but positively related to attachment security when fathers were relatively less sensitive. Father involvement was also moderately stable across the two timepoints, but paternal sensitivity was not. Furthermore, there was significant stability in father-child attachment security from 13 months to 3 years. Secure attachment at 13 months also predicted greater levels of paternal sensitivity at 3 years, with sensitivity at age 3 mediating the association between 13 month and 3 year attachment security. In sum, a secure father-child attachment relationship a) was related to both quantity and quality of fathering behavior, b) remained relatively stable across early childhood, and c) predicted increased paternal sensitivity over time. These findings further our understanding of the correlates of early father-child attachment, and underscore the need to consider multiple domains of fathers’ parenting and reciprocal relations between fathering behavior and father-child attachment security. PMID:22468691

  4. Transmission and expression of the parasitic paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.; Werren, John H.

    1993-01-01

    B-chromosomes are often considered genomic parasites. They are extra to the normal chromosomal complement, are unnecessary for survival of an individual, and are often inherited at higher than Mendelian rates. Paternal Sex Ratio (PSR) is an extreme example of a parasitic B-chromosome in the wasp

  5. Further patient with Angelman syndrome due to paternal disomy of chromosome 15 and a milder phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillessen-Kaesbach, G.; Passarge, E.; Horsthemke, B. [Institut fuer Humangenetik, Essen (Germany)

    1995-04-10

    This {open_quotes}Letter to the Editor{close_quotes} decribes a patient with Angelman syndrome due to paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 and a milder phenotype compared to Angelman syndrome patients with a 15q deletion. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Paternal involvement and fetal morbidity outcomes in HIV/AIDS: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Shah, Krupa; August, Euna M; Dejoy, Sharon; Adegoke, Korede; Marty, Phillip J; Salihu, Hamisu M; Aliyu, Muktar H

    2015-01-01

    Prior research indicates that infants with absent fathers are vulnerable to unfavorable fetal birth outcomes. HIV is a recognized risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. However, the influence of paternal involvement on fetal morbidity outcomes in women with HIV remains poorly understood. Using linked hospital discharge data and vital statistics records for the state of Florida (1998-2007), the authors assessed the association between paternal involvement and fetal growth outcomes (i.e., low birth weight [LBW], very low birth weight [VLBW], preterm birth [PTB], very preterm birth [VPTB], and small for gestational age [SGA]) among HIV-positive mothers (N=4,719). Propensity score matching was used to match cases (absent fathers) to controls (fathers involved). Conditional logistic regression was employed to generate adjusted odds ratios (OR). Mothers of infants with absent fathers were more likely to be Black, younger (absent paternal involvement during pregnancy had elevated risks for adverse fetal outcomes (LBW: OR=1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.05-1.60; VLBW: OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.05-2.82; PTB: OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.13-1.69; VPTB: OR=1.81, 95% CI=1.13-2.90). Absence of fathers increases the likelihood of adverse fetal morbidity outcomes in women with HIV infection. These findings underscore the importance of paternal involvement during pregnancy, especially as an important component of programs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Was bioethics founded on historical and conceptual mistakes about medical paternalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B

    2011-02-01

    Bioethics has a founding story in which medical paternalism, the interference with the autonomy of patients for their own clinical benefit, was an accepted ethical norm in the history of Western medical ethics and was widespread in clinical practice until bioethics changed the ethical norms and practice of medicine. In this paper I show that the founding story of bioethics misreads major texts in the history of Western medical ethics. I also show that a major source for empirical claims about the widespread practice of medical paternalism has been misread. I then show that that bioethics based on its founding story deprofessionalizes medical ethics. The result leaves the sick exposed to the predatory power of medical practitioners and healthcare organizations with only their autonomy-based rights to non-interference, expressed in contracts, to protect them. The sick are stripped of the protection afforded by a professional, fiduciary relationship of physicians to their patients. Bioethics based on its founding story reverts to the older model of a contractual relationship between the sick and medical practitioners not worthy of intellectual or moral trust (because such trust cannot be generated by what I call 'deprofessionalizing bioethics'). On closer examination, bioethics based on its founding story, ironically, eliminates paternalism as a moral category in bioethics, thus causing bioethics to collapse on itself because it denies one of the necessary conditions for medical paternalism. Bioethics based on its founding story should be abandoned. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Prenatal diagnosis of recurrent autosomal dominant osteogenesis imperfecta associated with unaffected parents and paternal gonadal mosaicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Recurrent autosomal dominant OI may occur in the offspring of unaffected parents with parental gonadal mosaicism. Genetic counseling of recurrent autosomal dominant OI should include a thorough mutational analysis of the family members, and mutational analysis of the sperm may detect paternal gonadal mosaicism for the mutation.

  9. Chromosomal mosaicism in mouse two-cell embryos after paternal exposure to acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Bishop, Jack; Lowe, Xiu; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2008-10-14

    Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos is a common cause ofspontaneous abortions, however, our knowledge of its etiology is limited. We used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) painting to investigate whether paternally-transmitted chromosomal aberrations result in mosaicism in mouse 2-cell embryos. Paternal exposure to acrylamide, an important industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke and generated during the cooking process of starchy foods, produced significant increases in chromosomally defective 2-cell embryos, however, the effects were transient primarily affecting the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. Comparisons with our previous study of zygotes demonstrated similar frequencies of chromosomally abnormal zygotes and 2-cell embryos suggesting that there was no apparent selection against numerical or structural chromosomal aberrations. However, the majority of affected 2-cell embryos were mosaics showing different chromosomal abnormalities in the two blastomeric metaphases. Analyses of chromosomal aberrations in zygotes and 2-cell embryos showed a tendency for loss of acentric fragments during the first mitotic division ofembryogenesis, while both dicentrics and translocations apparently underwent propersegregation. These results suggest that embryonic development can proceed up to the end of the second cell cycle of development in the presence of abnormal paternal chromosomes and that even dicentrics can persist through cell division. The high incidence of chromosomally mosaic 2-cell embryos suggests that the first mitotic division of embryogenesis is prone to missegregation errors and that paternally-transmitted chromosomal abnromalities increase the risk of missegregation leading to embryonic mosaicism.

  10. Paternal and maternal warmth and the development of prosociality among preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ella; Madigan, Sheri; Jenkins, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Although the influence of maternal behavior on child outcomes has been extensively studied, there has not been the same attention to the role of paternal behavior in development. This gap in research stands in contrast to the observable shift in parental roles and responsibilities in contemporary society. The goal of this study was to examine the roles of fathers, mothers, and children in the development of children's prosocial behavior. In the current study we examined the development of reciprocal relations between paternal and maternal behavior and child prosociality over 36 months. Three hundred eighty-one families were assessed when children were 18, 36, and 54 months of age. Fathers and mothers reported on their own warmth and negativity using standardized questionnaires. Child prosociality was measured using averaged parental reports. Actor-partner interdependence models revealed that paternal and maternal warmth predicted subsequent increases in child prosocial behavior, but child prosocial behavior did not predict subsequent parenting. Father and mother parenting practices were reciprocally interrelated. The results point to the important roles paternal and maternal warmth play in the development of children's prosocial behavior. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pires, Nuno D.; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M.; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can

  12. Variability in multiple paternity rates for grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) and scalloped hammerheads (Sphyrna lewini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M E; Appleyard, S A; White, W; Tracey, S; Ovenden, J

    2017-05-08

    This study assessed the presence and prevalence of multiple paternity (MP) in litters of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) and scalloped hammerheads (Sphyrna lewini) opportunistically caught in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Litter size between species were significantly different with an average of 3.3 pups for grey reef sharks and 17.2 pups for scalloped hammerhead. Using 14 and 10 microsatellite loci respectively, we identified MP in 66% of grey reef sharks (4 out of 6 litters) and 100% MP in scalloped hammerheads (5 litters). We found high paternal skew (the uneven contribution of sires per litter) and a positive correlation between female adult size and litter size in scalloped hammerheads but not in grey reef sharks. Differences in the frequency of MP between species and the identification of paternal skew may be linked with mating strategies and post-copulatory mechanisms. Multiple paternity is thought to benefit populations by enhancing genetic diversity therefore increasing the population's genetic resilience to extrinsic pressures. The identification of MP in two shark species reported here, further elucidates the complex breeding strategies elasmobranchs undertake.

  13. Paternal Lake Ontario fish consumption and risk of conception delay, New York state angler cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, G.M.; Mendola, P.; Vena, J.E.; Kostyniak, P.; Greizerstein, H.; Olson, J.; Stephen, F.D. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Social and Preventive Medicine; Sever, L.E. [Battelle, Seattle, WA (United States). Centers for Public Health and Evaluation

    1999-02-01

    The aquatic ecosystems of the Great Lakes are contaminated with a variety of compounds, some of which are considered reproductive toxicants. Few studies of paternal fish consumption and reproductive endpoints have been undertaken and serve as the impetus for study. Standardized telephone interviews were conducted with 2,445 female members of the New York State Angler Cohort (82% response) to update reproductive profiles and to ascertain specific information on time-to-pregnancy (TTP). The study sample includes women with a known TTP and paternal fish consumption data (n = 785). Conception delay was defined as more than 12 cycles of unprotected intercourse to achieve pregnancy. Paternal fish consumption was assessed by three measures: frequency of Lake Ontario sport fish meals in 1991, numbers of years eating fish, and estimated PCB exposure from fish consumption. Adjusted ORs for number of fish meals, based on logistic regression, ranged from 0.69 to 0.80; from 0.61 to .82 for number of years eating fish; and from 0.44 to 1.14 for quartiles of estimated PCB exposure from fish consumption. All confidence intervals included one. These findings suggest that, based on paternal self-reports, Lake Ontario fish consumption does not increase the risk of conception delay.

  14. High fidelity--no evidence for extra-pair paternity in Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gienapp, Phillip; Merilä, Juha

    2010-08-09

    Extra-pair paternity (EPP) in birds is related to a number of ecological and social factors. For example, it has been found to be positively related with breeding density, negatively with the amount of paternal care and especially high rates have been observed in group-living species. Siberian jays (Perisoreous infaustus) breed at low densities and have extended parental care, which leads to the expectation of low rates of EPP. On the other hand, Siberian jays live in groups which can include also unrelated individuals, and provide opportunities for extra-pair matings. To assess the potential occurrence of EPP in Siberian jays, we analysed a large data pool (n=1029 offspring) covering ca. 30 years of samples from a Finnish Siberian jay population. Paternities were assigned based on up to 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers with the additional information from field observations. We were unable to find any evidence for occurrence of EPP in this species. Our findings are in line with earlier studies and confirm the generally low rates of EPP in related Corvid species. These results suggest that ecological factors may be more important than social factors (group living) in determining costs and benefits of extra-pair paternity.

  15. High fidelity--no evidence for extra-pair paternity in Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Gienapp

    Full Text Available Extra-pair paternity (EPP in birds is related to a number of ecological and social factors. For example, it has been found to be positively related with breeding density, negatively with the amount of paternal care and especially high rates have been observed in group-living species. Siberian jays (Perisoreous infaustus breed at low densities and have extended parental care, which leads to the expectation of low rates of EPP. On the other hand, Siberian jays live in groups which can include also unrelated individuals, and provide opportunities for extra-pair matings. To assess the potential occurrence of EPP in Siberian jays, we analysed a large data pool (n=1029 offspring covering ca. 30 years of samples from a Finnish Siberian jay population. Paternities were assigned based on up to 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers with the additional information from field observations. We were unable to find any evidence for occurrence of EPP in this species. Our findings are in line with earlier studies and confirm the generally low rates of EPP in related Corvid species. These results suggest that ecological factors may be more important than social factors (group living in determining costs and benefits of extra-pair paternity.

  16. High Fidelity – No Evidence for Extra-Pair Paternity in Siberian Jays (Perisoreus infaustus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gienapp, Phillip; Merilä, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Extra-pair paternity (EPP) in birds is related to a number of ecological and social factors. For example, it has been found to be positively related with breeding density, negatively with the amount of paternal care and especially high rates have been observed in group-living species. Siberian jays (Perisoreous infaustus) breed at low densities and have extended parental care, which leads to the expectation of low rates of EPP. On the other hand, Siberian jays live in groups which can include also unrelated individuals, and provide opportunities for extra-pair matings. To assess the potential occurrence of EPP in Siberian jays, we analysed a large data pool (n = 1029 offspring) covering ca. 30 years of samples from a Finnish Siberian jay population. Paternities were assigned based on up to 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers with the additional information from field observations. We were unable to find any evidence for occurrence of EPP in this species. Our findings are in line with earlier studies and confirm the generally low rates of EPP in related Corvid species. These results suggest that ecological factors may be more important than social factors (group living) in determining costs and benefits of extra-pair paternity. PMID:20711255

  17. Lines of male care geared to sexual health, reproduction and paternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Romeu; Albernaz, Lidianne; Ribeiro, Cláudia Regina Santos; Moreira, Martha Cristina Nunes; Nascimento, Marcos

    2016-05-01

    The article seeks to propose principles for male care geared to sexual health, reproduction and paternity, as well as present a blueprint for the involvement of men in prenatal care. The proposal of the authors was submitted to a consensus building process with invited experts. The main results presented include: (a) the principles of lines of male care geared to sexual health, reproduction and paternity; and (b) a blueprint for the involvement of men in prenatal care. The conclusion drawn is that the cultural preconceptions of how males should lead their lives, including their social relations and roles as fathers interfere in health care actions and touch on three main points: (a) the idea of man as a collaborator in the promotion of the health of his partner while pregnant and/or his offspring; (b) the idea of paternity being strongly linked to being the financial provider; (c) the hiatus generated between the traditional concept of paternity and the new family and gender patterns.

  18. Mate guarding in the Seychelles warbler is energetically costly and adjusted to paternity risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Males may increase their fitness through extra-pair copulations (copulations outside the pair bond) that result in extra-pair fertilizations, but also risk lost paternity when they leave their own mate unguarded. The fitness costs of cuckoldry for Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) are

  19. Maladaptive Behavior Differences in Prader-Willi Syndrome Due to Paternal Deletion versus Maternal Uniparental Disomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; King, Bryan H.; Cassidy, Suzanne B.

    1999-01-01

    This study compared maladaptive behavior in 23 people with Prader-Willi syndrome due to paternal deletion and in 23 age- and gender-matched subjects with maternal uniparental disomy. Controlling for IQs, the deletion cases showed significantly higher maladaptive ratings, more symptom-related distress, and more behavior problems. Findings suggest a…

  20. CHD7 mutations causing CHARGE syndrome are predominantly of paternal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, S; von Velsen, N; Burfeind, P; Steckel, M; Mänz, J; Buchholz, A; Borozdin, W; Kohlhase, J

    2012-03-01

    CHARGE (coloboma, heart defects, atresia of the choanae, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies and deafness) syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome caused by mutations in the CHD7 gene in approximately 2/3 of cases. In the vast majority of cases, CHARGE syndrome is sporadic. There are only a few reports of parent-to-child transmission and somatic or gonadal mosaicism. To determine the parental origin of CHD7 mutations in sporadic CHARGE syndrome, we screened 30 families for informative exonic or intronic polymorphisms located near the detected CHD7 mutation. An informative polymorphism could be identified in 13 out of 30 families. Linkage analysis was performed between the CHD7 mutation and the polymorphism in the child. In 12 out of 13 families, the mutation affected the paternal allele (92.3%). In our cohort, the mean paternal age at birth was 32.92 years. Comparing the age of fathers of an affected CHARGE patient with the paternal age of the German population in general, we could not observe any paternal age effect. Taken together, we show in this study that de novo CHD7 mutations occur predominantly in the male germ line. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Advanced paternal age is associated with impaired neurocognitive outcomes during infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sukanta; Barnett, Adrian G; Foldi, Claire; Burne, Thomas H; Eyles, Darryl W; Buka, Stephen L; McGrath, John J

    2009-03-10

    Advanced paternal age (APA) is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, as well as with dyslexia and reduced intelligence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between paternal age and performance on neurocognitive measures during infancy and childhood. A sample of singleton children (n = 33,437) was drawn from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project. The outcome measures were assessed at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test). The main analyses examined the relationship between neurocognitive measures and paternal or maternal age when adjusted for potential confounding factors. Advanced paternal age showed significant associations with poorer scores on all of the neurocognitive measures apart from the Bayley Motor score. The findings were broadly consistent in direction and effect size at all three ages. In contrast, advanced maternal age was generally associated with better scores on these same measures. The offspring of older fathers show subtle impairments on tests of neurocognitive ability during infancy and childhood. In light of secular trends related to delayed fatherhood, the clinical implications and the mechanisms underlying these findings warrant closer scrutiny.

  2. Advanced Paternal Age and Risk of Musculoskeletal Congenital Anomalies in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urhøj, Stine Kjær; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2015-01-01

    covering cohort of children. STUDY DESIGN: A register-based prospective study of 1,605,885 children born in Denmark, 1978–2004, using information from record-linked healthand administrative registers. The association between paternal age and overall musculoskeletal CAs, limb anomalies,craniosynostosis...

  3. A Testis-Specific Chaperone and the Chromatin Remodeler ISWI Mediate Repackaging of the Paternal Genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Doyen (Cécile); G.E. Chalkley (Gillian); O. Voets (Olaf); K. Bezstarosti (Karel); J.A.A. Demmers (Jeroen); Y.M. Moshkin (Yuri); C.P. Verrijzer (Peter)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDuring spermatogenesis, the paternal genome is repackaged into a non-nucleosomal, highly compacted chromatin structure. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that Drosophila sperm chromatin proteins are characterized by a motif related to the high-mobility group (HMG) box, which we termed

  4. Estimation of mutation rates from paternity cases using a Bayesian network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicard, P.; Dawid, A.P.; Mortera, J.

    and paternal mutation rates, while allowing a wide variety of mutation models. A Bayesian network is constructed to facilitate computation of the likelihood function for the mutation parameters. It can process both full and summary genotypic information, from both complete putative father-mother-child triplets...

  5. The Role of Value Priorities in Paternal and Maternal Involvement in Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    This study used the theory of human values to explore parents' involvement with their children. The relationships between maternal and paternal value priorities and various forms of involvement in child care were examined in a sample of 209 couples with 1 child between 6 and 36 months of age. As predicted, giving high priority to…

  6. Paternity analysis in special fatherless cases without direct testing of alleged father.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixich, Francisc; Ioana, Mihai; Mixich, Vlad A

    2004-12-02

    The ability to establish the biological father, in which the father of a person is not available, named "reverse paternity determination", is based on the determination of STR alleles in mother and her child, other children and brothers of the alleged father, and deduction of genetic constitution of the father by the basis of genetic laws. Presented herein are two cases of reverse paternity determinations. Mother and parenthood DNA was isolated from 300 microl of fresh blood collected into tubes containing the EDTA, using Wizard Genomic DNA purification kit (Promega). DNA amplification was performed using GenePrint STR System (CTT, FFv, and Silver STR III multiplex) (Promega). Amplification results were read on 0.4 mm thick sequencing size polyacrilamide gel (4% for CTT and FFv, and 6% for Silver STR III). Gels were silver stained using Silver Sequence DNA Staining Reagents (Promega). Possible alleles of the alleged father for the loci CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01, F13A01, FESFPS, vWA, D16S539, D7S820, D13S317, LPL, F13B, and HPRTB were established by the selection from alleles determined in mother and parenthood, as to as obligate alleles with which the alleged father contributes to the genetic constitution of investigated child. Probability of paternity was calculated using population data on STR allele frequencies for Romanian population established by our laboratory. These are the first cases of litigious reverse paternity determinations in Romania.

  7. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammohan Anu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  8. Men who kill their own children: paternal filicide incidents in contemporary Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2003-05-01

    Filicide, or parental murder of offspring, constitutes a major portion of lethal violence perpetrated against children worldwide. Despite the global nature of the phenomenon, researchers have focused their studies on the developed industrialized societies with the consequent neglect of small, developing societies. Second, there is a paucity of empirical data on child homicide committed by fathers. This study therefore explores the nature and extent of paternal filicides in Fiji, a non-Western society, and the social and cultural forces underlying them in order to enhance our knowledge of the phenomenon. Information was obtained from a number of sources, including (a) a police homicide logbook, (b) newspaper reports of homicide, and (c) detailed interviews conducted with criminal justice and medical personnel. Information from these data sources were consolidated to construct case histories of paternal filicides. These cases were then analyzed for dominant themes. Case illustrations are presented in the text. Several of the study's findings are congruent with other studies of paternal filicides: poor, working class fathers were the offenders in all cases. As a corollary, their victims were from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Regarding location, paternal filicides occurred in the home of the offender and victim. The filicides were the culmination of stresses and strains associated with marital disharmony and excessive corporal child-control strategies. The general conclusion of this study is that further research in non-Western societies has the potential to increase our understanding of the social factors and processes involved in paternal child murders. We will then be better positioned to craft effective intervention strategies.

  9. Mouse zygotes respond to severe sperm DNA damage by delaying paternal DNA replication and embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna E Gawecka

    Full Text Available Mouse zygotes do not activate apoptosis in response to DNA damage. We previously reported a unique form of inducible sperm DNA damage termed sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF. SCF mirrors some aspects of somatic cell apoptosis in that the DNA degradation is mediated by reversible double strand breaks caused by topoisomerase 2B (TOP2B followed by irreversible DNA degradation by a nuclease(s. Here, we created zygotes using spermatozoa induced to undergo SCF (SCF zygotes and tested how they responded to moderate and severe paternal DNA damage during the first cell cycle. We found that the TUNEL assay was not sensitive enough to identify the breaks caused by SCF in zygotes in either case. However, paternal pronuclei in both groups stained positively for γH2AX, a marker for DNA damage, at 5 hrs after fertilization, just before DNA synthesis, while the maternal pronuclei were negative. We also found that both pronuclei in SCF zygotes with moderate DNA damage replicated normally, but paternal pronuclei in the SCF zygotes with severe DNA damage delayed the initiation of DNA replication by up to 12 hrs even though the maternal pronuclei had no discernable delay. Chromosomal analysis of both groups confirmed that the paternal DNA was degraded after S-phase while the maternal pronuclei formed normal chromosomes. The DNA replication delay caused a marked retardation in progression to the 2-cell stage, and a large portion of the embryos arrested at the G2/M border, suggesting that this is an important checkpoint in zygotic development. Those embryos that progressed through the G2/M border died at later stages and none developed to the blastocyst stage. Our data demonstrate that the zygote responds to sperm DNA damage through a non-apoptotic mechanism that acts by slowing paternal DNA replication and ultimately leads to arrest in embryonic development.

  10. Paternal education status significantly influences infants' measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Anu; Awofeso, Niyi; Fernandez, Renae C

    2012-05-08

    Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent's age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school) schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  11. Molecular evidence for high frequency of multiple paternity in a freshwater shrimp species Caridina ensifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Hua Yue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular genetic analyses of parentage provide insights into mating systems. Although there are 22,000 members in Malacostraca, not much has been known about mating systems in Malacostraca. The freshwater shrimp Caridina ensifera blue, is a new species belonging to Malacostraca which was discovered recently in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Due to its small body size and low fecundity, this species is an ideal species to study the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity and to understand of how the low fecundity species persist and evolve. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we developed four polymorphic microsatellites from C. ensifera and applied them to investigate the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity in 20 C. ensifera broods caught from Lake Matano, Sulawesi. By genotyping the mother and all offspring from each brood we discovered multiple paternity in all 20 broods. In most of the 20 broods, fathers contributed skewed numbers of offspring and there was an apparent inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results in combination with recent reports on multiple paternity in crayfish, crab and lobster species suggests that multiple paternity is common in Malacostraca. Skewed contribution of fathers to the numbers of offspring and inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers suggest that sperm competition occurred and/or pre- and postcopulatory female choice happen, which may be important for avoiding the occurrence of inbreeding and optimize genetic variation in offspring and for persistence and evolution of low fecundity species.

  12. Paternal cyclophosphamide exposure induces the formation of functional micronuclei during the first zygotic division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanne Grenier

    Full Text Available Paternal exposures to cancer chemotherapeutics or environmental chemicals may have adverse effects on progeny outcome that are manifested in the preimplantation embryo. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of paternal exposure to cyclophosphamide, an anticancer alkylating agent, on the formation, chromatin origin and function of micronuclei in cleavage stage rat embryos. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with saline or cyclophosphamide (6 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks and mated to naturally cycling females to collect pronuclear zygotes and 2 to 8 cell embryos. Micronuclear chromatin structure was characterized using confocal microscopy to detect immunoreactivities for H3K9me3, a marker for maternal chromatin, and lamin B, a nuclear membrane marker. DNA synthesis was monitored using EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation. Fertilization by cyclophosphamide-exposed spermatozoa led to a dramatic elevation in micronuclei in cleavage stage embryos (control embryos: 1% to 5%; embryos sired by treated males: 70%. The formation of micronuclei occurred during the first zygotic division and was associated with a subsequent developmental delay. The absence of H3K9me3 indicated that these micronuclei were of paternal origin. The micronuclei had incomplete peri-nuclear and peri-nucleolar lamin B1 membrane formation but incorporated EdU into DNA to the same extent as the main nucleus. The formation of micronuclei in response to the presence of a damaged paternal genome may play a role in increasing the rate of embryo loss that is associated with the use of assisted reproductive technologies, parenthood among cancer survivors, and paternal aging.

  13. Maternal and paternal factors associated with congenital syphilis in Shenzhen, China: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, J-B; Feng, T-J; Yang, T-B; Hong, F-C; Lan, L-N; Zhang, C-L

    2014-02-01

    Maternal and paternal factors create considerable obstacles to the elimination of congenital syphilis (CS). A clear understanding of maternal and paternal factors is important in order to define interventions in every community. This study aimed to investigate the maternal and paternal factors associated with CS. A prospective cohort study was conducted from April 25, 2007 to October 31, 2012 at the Shenzhen Center for Chronic Disease Control and Prevention (SCCDC) in China. We screened 279,334 pregnant women and identified 838 women with syphilis. Finally, a total of 360 women with syphilis were included for analysis. At the end of follow-up, 34 infants [9.4 %, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 6.8-12.9 %] were diagnosed with CS. Following adjustment for confounders, maternal history of syphilis [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 0.21], prenatal care (aRR = 0.12), and complete treatment (aRR = 0.22) reduced the risk of infants being infected. Every two-fold increase of titer of non-treponemal antibodies (aRR = 1.88), early stage of syphilis (aRR = 9.59), a shorter length of time between the end of the first treatment to childbirth (aRR = 5.39), and every week of delay in treatment (aRR = 2.25) for maternal syphilis as well as paternal history of cocaine use (aRR = 6.28) and positive (aRR = 3.30) or unknown (aRR = 2.79) status of syphilis increased the risk of infants being infected. CS also increased the risk (aRR = 8.02) of neonatal death. Maternal and paternal factors constituted two separate profiles associated with CS. To become more effective, future strategies for the prevention of CS should be targeted to each profile.

  14. Offspring's leukocyte telomere length, paternal age, and telomere elongation in sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Kimura

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length (LTL is a complex genetic trait. It shortens with age and is associated with a host of aging-related disorders. Recent studies have observed that offspring of older fathers have longer LTLs. We explored the relation between paternal age and offspring's LTLs in 4 different cohorts. Moreover, we examined the potential cause of the paternal age on offspring's LTL by delineating telomere parameters in sperm donors. We measured LTL by Southern blots in Caucasian men and women (n=3365, aged 18-94 years, from the Offspring of the Framingham Heart Study (Framingham Offspring, the NHLBI Family Heart Study (NHLBI-Heart, the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (Danish Twins, and the UK Adult Twin Registry (UK Twins. Using Southern blots, Q-FISH, and flow-FISH, we also measured telomere parameters in sperm from 46 young (50 years donors. Paternal age had an independent effect, expressed by a longer LTL in males of the Framingham Offspring and Danish Twins, males and females of the NHLBI-Heart, and females of UK Twins. For every additional year of paternal age, LTL in offspring increased at a magnitude ranging from half to more than twice of the annual attrition in LTL with age. Moreover, sperm telomere length analyses were compatible with the emergence in older men of a subset of sperm with elongated telomeres. Paternal age exerts a considerable effect on the offspring's LTL, a phenomenon which might relate to telomere elongation in sperm from older men. The implications of this effect deserve detailed study.

  15. The relative safety of paternal, maternal, and traditional foster care placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, Jesse J; Boutwell, Brian B; DiBernardo, Michael

    2017-08-01

    When children are placed into foster care the caseworker must give preference to an adult relative, many of whom are grandparents, over an unrelated caregiver. This kinship preference is based in evolutionary biology, which suggests that the imperative to care for a child should be greater for kin versus non-kin. However, not all kin are related to a child in the same way, and level of paternity uncertainty may influence level of care provided. For instance, maternal grandparents can be assured that they share genetic material with their grandchild, while paternal grandparents may not have the same level of certainty. Owing to the possibility of paternity uncertainty, we hypothesize that out-of-home placements with paternal grandparents will be at a greater risk of subsequent investigations than placements with maternal grandparents or with foster parents. We secured data on placements n=560 of children ages 1.5 to 17 following a maltreatment investigation from a merger of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being NSCAW II and the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System NCANDS. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression were used to examine the difference in time to the first new investigation by type of out-of-home placement while controlling for covariates. Consistent with our hypothesis, placements with paternal grandparents were at a higher risk of a subsequent investigations than placements with maternal grandparents or non-kin foster parents. Results suggest a need for further considerations of child safety in foster care based on genetic relatedness of caregivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school) schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively. PMID:22568861

  17. Analysis of the full genome of human group C rotaviruses reveals lineage diversification and reassortment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Maria Cristina; Tummolo, Fabio; Martella, Vito; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; De Conto, Flora; Chezzi, Carlo; Fehér, Enikő; Marton, Szilvia; Calderaro, Adriana; Bányai, Krisztián

    2016-08-01

    Group C rotaviruses (RVC) are enteric pathogens of humans and animals. Whole-genome sequences are available only for few RVCs, leaving gaps in our knowledge about their genetic diversity. We determined the full-length genome sequence of two human RVCs (PR2593/2004 and PR713/2012), detected in Italy from hospital-based surveillance for rotavirus infection in 2004 and 2012. In the 11 RNA genomic segments, the two Italian RVCs segregated within separate intra-genotypic lineages showed variation ranging from 1.9 % (VP6) to 15.9 % (VP3) at the nucleotide level. Comprehensive analysis of human RVC sequences available in the databases allowed us to reveal the existence of at least two major genome configurations, defined as type I and type II. Human RVCs of type I were all associated with the M3 VP3 genotype, including the Italian strain PR2593/2004. Conversely, human RVCs of type II were all associated with the M2 VP3 genotype, including the Italian strain PR713/2012. Reassortant RVC strains between these major genome configurations were identified. Although only a few full-genome sequences of human RVCs, mostly of Asian origin, are available, the analysis of human RVC sequences retrieved from the databases indicates that at least two intra-genotypic RVC lineages circulate in European countries. Gathering more sequence data is necessary to develop a standardized genotype and intra-genotypic lineage classification system useful for epidemiological investigations and avoiding confusion in the literature.

  18. Sequence motifs associated with paternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA in the horse mussel, Modiolus modiolus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robicheau, Brent M; Breton, Sophie; Stewart, Donald T

    2017-03-20

    In the majority of metazoans paternal mitochondria represent evolutionary dead-ends. In many bivalves, however, this paradigm does not hold true; both maternal and paternal mitochondria are inherited. Herein, we characterize maternal and paternal mitochondrial control regions of the horse mussel, Modiolus modiolus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). The maternal control region is 808bp long, while the paternal control region is longer at 2.3kb. We hypothesize that the size difference is due to a combination of repeated duplications within the control region of the paternal mtDNA genome, as well as an evolutionarily ancient recombination event between two sex-associated mtDNA genomes that led to the insertion of a second control region sequence in the genome that is now transmitted via males. In a comparison to other mytilid male control regions, we identified two evolutionarily Conserved Motifs, CMA and CMB, associated with paternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA. CMA is characterized by a conserved purine/pyrimidine pattern, while CMB exhibits a specific 13bp nucleotide string within a stem and loop structure. The identification of motifs CMA and CMB in M. modiolus extends our understanding of Sperm Transmission Elements (STEs) that have recently been identified as being associated with the paternal transmission of mitochondria in marine bivalves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Paternal age at birth is associated with offspring leukocyte telomere length in the nurses' health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, J; Du, M; Wong, J Y Y; Han, J; De Vivo, I

    2012-12-01

    Is the association between paternal age at birth and offspring leukocyte telomere length (LTL) an artifact of early life socioeconomic status (SES)? Indicators of early life SES did not alter the relationship between paternal age at birth and offspring LTL among a population of white female nurses. Telomere length is considered a highly heritable trait. Recent studies report a positive correlation between paternal age at birth and offspring LTL. Maternal age at birth has also been positively associated with offspring LTL, but may stem from the strong correlation with paternal age at birth. The Nurses' Health Study (NHS) is an ongoing prospective cohort study of 121 700 female registered nurses who were enrolled in 1976. Great effort goes into maintaining a high degree of follow-up among our cohort participants (>95% of potential person-years). In 1989-1990, a subset of 32 826 women provided blood samples from which we selected participants for several nested case-control studies of telomere length and incident chronic disease. We used existing LTL data on a total of 4250 disease-free women who also reported maternal and paternal age at birth for this study. Nested case-control studies of stroke, myocardial infarction, cancers of the breast, endometrium, skin, pancreas and colon, as well as colon adenoma, were conducted within the blood sub-cohort. Each study used the following study design: for each case of a disease diagnosed after blood collection, a risk-set sampling scheme was used to select from one to three controls from the remaining participants in the blood sub-cohort who were free of that disease when the case was diagnosed. Controls were matched to cases by age at blood collection (± 1 year), date of blood collection (± 3 months), menopausal status, recent postmenopausal hormone use at blood collection (within 3 months, except for the myocardial infarction case-control study), as well as other factors carefully chosen for each individual study. The

  20. Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying, E-mail: ying.chen@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Wang, Kai; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V.R. [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Knott, Jason G. [Developmental Epigenetics Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University (United States); Leach, Richard, E-mail: Richard.leach@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, Spectrum Health Medical Group (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Epithelial-like phenotype of trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells. •Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells exhibit trophoblast function. •Trophoblasts from iPS cells provides a proof-of-concept in regenerative medicine. -- Abstract: Background: During implantation, the blastocyst trophectoderm attaches to the endometrial epithelium and continues to differentiate into all trophoblast subtypes, which are the major components of a placenta. Aberrant trophoblast proliferation and differentiation are associated with placental diseases. However, due to ethical and practical issues, there is almost no available cell or tissue source to study the molecular mechanism of human trophoblast differentiation, which further becomes a barrier to the study of the pathogenesis of trophoblast-associated diseases of pregnancy. In this study, our goal was to generate a proof-of-concept model for deriving trophoblast lineage cells from induced pluripotency stem (iPS) cells from human fibroblasts. In future studies the generation of trophoblast lineage cells from iPS cells established from patient’s placenta will be extremely useful for studying the pathogenesis of individual trophoblast-associated diseases and for drug testing. Methods and results: Combining iPS cell technology with BMP4 induction, we derived trophoblast lineage cells from human iPS cells. The gene expression profile of these trophoblast lineage cells was distinct from fibroblasts and iPS cells. These cells expressed markers of human trophoblasts. Furthermore, when these cells were differentiated they exhibited invasive capacity and placental hormone secretive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Conclusion: Trophoblast lineage cells can be successfully derived from human iPS cells, which provide a proof-of-concept tool to recapitulate pathogenesis of patient placental trophoblasts in vitro.