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Sample records for european patch test

  1. Primin in the European standard patch test series for 20 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Claus; Engkilde, Kåre; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2007-01-01

    Primin was included in the European standard series (ESS) in 1984. In 2000, a primin-free variant of Primula obconica, the main source of contact allergy to primin, was introduced in the market. The aim of this study was to analyse the trends of primin allergy in 13 986 consecutively patch-tested...... allergy to primin was seen (P age groups. The frequency was 0.5% during 2000-2004. Contact allergy has been rare since 2000. The low frequency of positive patch test to primin does not support inclusion in the ESS in our region....

  2. Patch testing with the European baseline series fragrance markers: A 2016 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, C Y; White, J M L; White, I R; Banerjee, P; McFadden, J P

    2017-09-27

    Fragrance contact allergy is common and is currently screened for with the European baseline series fragrance markers: Fragrance Mix 1, Fragrance Mix 2, Myroxylon pereirae and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. To investigate the validity of patch testing with these fragrance markers in detecting fragrance allergy to 26 individual fragrance substances for which cosmetic ingredient labelling is mandatory in the European Union. We conducted a retrospective review of the patch test records of all eczema patients who underwent testing with the European baseline series extended with the individual fragrance substances during the period 2015-2016. 359 patients (17.2%) reacted to one or more allergens from the labelled fragrance substance series and/or a fragrance marker from the European baseline series. The allergens that were positive with the greatest frequencies were oxidised linalool (154; 7.4%, 95% CI 6.3%-8.6%), oxidised limonene (89; 4.3%, 95% CI 3.4%-5.2%) and Evernia furfuracea (44; 2.1%, 95% CI 1.5%-2.8%). Of the 319 patients who reacted to any of the labelled fragrance substances, only 130 (40.8%) also reacted to a baseline series fragrance marker. The sensitivity of our history-taking for fragrance allergy was 25.7%. With the evolving trends in fragrance allergy patch testing with Fragrance Mix 1, Fragrance Mix 2, Myroxylon pereirae and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde are no longer sufficient for screening for fragrance allergy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Recommendation to include fragrance mix 2 and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) in the European baseline patch test series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Magnus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Goossens, An

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The currently used fragrance mix in the European baseline patch test series (baseline series) fails to detect a substantial number of clinically relevant fragrance allergies. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether it is justified to include hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyr...

  4. Comparison of European Standard Patch Test Results of 330 Patients from an Occupational Diseases Hospital

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    Özge Gündüz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Contact dermatitis (CD is the most prevalent occupational skin disease with a significant impact on quality of life. Patch testing is used for the identification of responsible allergens which may improve protective and preventive measures in the workplace. Herein, we aim to identify the demographic characteristics and occupation of patients with early diagnosis of occupational CD and compare patch test results. Materials and Methods. The study included 330 patients referred to our clinic between April 2009 and April 2011 and who were patch-tested with 28-allergen European Standard Test. Results. 126 (38% patients were female and 204 (62% were male with a mean age of 36.12 (±13.13 years. Positive allergic reactions were observed in 182 (55% patients. Nickel sulphate (41/126 and potassium dichromate (39/204 were significantly the most common allergens in women and men, respectively (P<0.005. Additionally, the most common occupation in women was household activities (83/126 and in men was manufacturing (80/204. Conclusion. The allergens to which people become sensitized differ according to their working environment and occupation. Classification of occupations is important for identification of sensitization risks and monitoring of changes in allergen distribution of different occupations.

  5. European Society of Contact Dermatitis guideline for diagnostic patch testing -- recommendations on best practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D; Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Agner, Tove

    2015-01-01

    The present guideline summarizes all aspects of patch testing for the diagnosis of contact allergy in patients suspected of suffering, or having been suffering, from allergic contact dermatitis or other delayed-type hypersensitivity skin and mucosal conditions. Sections with brief descriptions an...

  6. Biocide patch tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Veien, Niels

    1985-01-01

    Routine patch testing with a series of 6 industrial biocides containing methylene-bis-thiocyanate (Cytox 3522), benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT), chlorocresol (Preventol CMK), 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (Kathon 893), polyhydroxymethylene monobenzylether (Preventol D2) or 1,3,5-tris (hydroxy......-ethyl) hexahydrotriazine (Grotan BK) was carried out in 6 Danish out-patient clinics to evaluate guinea pig allergy test results with the same compounds. A total of 1652 consecutive patients with dermatitis were tested. The usefulness of this patch test battery was limited. There were a few positive reactions to Cytox...... of male patients and atopics, but significant differences in the frequencies of occupational cases, hand eczemas, and leg ulcers/stasis dermatitis, indicating possible variations in referral patterns, use of patch tests, and/or environmental factors....

  7. Patch test with preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Sumit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 705 patients patch tested between March 88 to March 91, 317 were tested for sensitivity to preservatives with antigens obtained from Chemo technique AB, Sweden. Paraben was the commonest sensitizer (22.4% followed by Groton B K (8.1% and Triclosan (6.5%. We stress the need to consider these allergens as source of dermatitis and advocate complete labelling of topical preparations marketed.

  8. Characteristics of patients patch tested in the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network, 2009-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf; Giménez-Arnau, Ana

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patch test results often vary between departments, and also between countries. Such variation may be partly attributable to systematic effects introduced by patient characteristics, differing exposures, patient selection, or methodological differences. OBJECTIVE: To examine the amount...

  9. Patch testing with the "sesquiterpene lactone mix"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducombs, G; Benezra, C; Talaga, P

    1990-01-01

    6278 patients were patch tested with a sesquiterpene lactone mix (SL-mix) in 10 European clinics. 4011 patients were tested only with 0.1% SL-mix, 63 (approximately 1.5%) of whom were positive, with 26 (41%) of these cases being considered clinically relevant. There were no cases of active...

  10. Flu Vaccine Skin Patch Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Subscribe September 2017 Print this issue Flu Vaccine Skin Patch Tested En español Send us ... Each year, millions of people nationwide catch the flu. The best way to protect yourself is to ...

  11. Patch photopatch test at Manipal

    OpenAIRE

    Panja Arindrajit; Srinivas C; Shenoy S; Balachandran C

    1994-01-01

    Patch and photopatch testing was performed on 55 patients with history of photosensitivity using Scandanavian photo patch test antigens obtained from Chemotechnique Diagnostics AB Sweden. The commonest reactions were seen to perfume mix 4 (21.0%), PABA 3 (15.78%), promethazine hydrochloride 3 (15.78%), chlorpromazine hydrochloride 3 (15.78%), balsam of peru 2 (10.52%), usnic acid, hexachlorophane, musk ambrette and 6 methyl coumarin showed 1 positive reactio...

  12. Patch photopatch test at Manipal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panja Arindrajit

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Patch and photopatch testing was performed on 55 patients with history of photosensitivity using Scandanavian photo patch test antigens obtained from Chemotechnique Diagnostics AB Sweden. The commonest reactions were seen to perfume mix 4 (21.0%, PABA 3 (15.78%, promethazine hydrochloride 3 (15.78%, chlorpromazine hydrochloride 3 (15.78%, balsam of peru 2 (10.52%, usnic acid, hexachlorophane, musk ambrette and 6 methyl coumarin showed 1 positive reaction each (5.26% suggesting either phototoxicity or photo sensitization. Patch and photo patch test positive reaction suggesting allergic sensitisation was seen to balsam of peru 3 (23.0% perfume mix 3 (23.0% promethazine hydrochloride 2 (15.3% and PABA, 6 methyl coumarin, tribromosalicylanilide, atranorin and wood mix showed positive reaction in one case each (7.69%. We conclude that photoxic or photo allergic reaction is a problem in India and patch photo patch test should be performed in all cases of idiopathic light eruptions to rule out photo sensitisation and in cases where photo sensitivity of exogenous origin is suspected.

  13. Influence of Age on Patch Tests Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aouatef Mahfoudh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the influence of age on the patch-test results and to compare the profiles of skin sensitizers according to the age groups. Methods: It is an 8-year retrospective study involving entire medical records of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis at the Unity of Dermatology and Allergology in the Department of Occupational Medicine, University Hospital of Sousse in Tunisia. Study population was divided into two age groups (group 1: patients 40 years. The statistical significance level was taken as p<0.05. Results: Among the patients, 586 have had at least one positive reaction to the patch-test. Older individuals were 1.1 times more likely to have at least one positive reaction to the patch-test than younger ones. The most common allergens in both groups are potassium dichromate (34.2% vs. 38%, thiuram mix (6% vs. 11%, cobalt chloride (27% vs. 28.8%, balsam of Peru (6% vs. 11.3% and nickel sulphate (41% vs. 27.3%. A significant variation was noted for potassium dichromate in terms of intensity of skin reaction (p=0.00. Conclusion: More research is needed to elucidate the physiologic mechanisms of age on the patch-test results and to adapt the European Standard Battery to each age group in term of allergen type and their appropriate concentration.

  14. Diagnostic patch test concentration for Kathon CG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, H I

    1985-10-01

    Patch test studies, 21-day cumulative irritancy assays and Draize repeat insult patch tests with Kathon CG, were used to ascertain an appropriate diagnostic patch test concentration. A dilution of 100 ppm a.i. (aq. or pet.) appears to have low irritancy potential. Further observations are required to verify if this concentration is high enough to detect most cases of sensitization.

  15. Prevalence of benzocaine and lidocaine patch test sensitivity in Denmark: temporal trends and relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Engkilde, Kåre; Menné, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Allergens included in the European baseline series should result in positive patch test reactions in at least 1% of a patch test population. Inclusion of local anaesthetics other than benzocaine in the baseline series has previously been debated....

  16. Patch testing with methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone 200 ppm aq. detects significantly more contact allergy than 100 ppm. A multicentre study within the European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Magnus; Isaksson, Marléne; Gruvberger, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and methylisothiazolinone (MI) are the active ingredients in commonly used preservative systems (e.g. Kathon CG(®)). MCI/MI is present in the European baseline patch test series at 100 ppm aq. Since 1986, 200 ppm (dose 0.006 mg/cm(2)) has been used...

  17. Patch testing with Indian standard series

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    Narendra G

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hundred patients (61 males, 39 females suspected to have allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested with Indian standard series (ISS. Forty four showed one or more positive reactions. The frequent sensitizers observed were nickel sulphate-12 (15%, potassium dichromate-11 (13.75%, cobalt chloride and colophony-7 (8.75% each, fragrance mix and thiuram mix-6 (7.5% each. The ISS differs from the European Standard Series by inclusion of propylene glycol, nitrofurazone, gentamicin, chlorocresol, PEG-400 and ethylenediamine chloride where assesquiterpene lactone mix and primin allergens are excluded.

  18. Formaldehyde concentration in diagnostic patch testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trattner, A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to formaldehyde is common from both consumer products and industry. The reliability of the patch test is essential for the diagnosis of formaldehyde allergy as it is difficult to suspect from the patient's history. The recommended formaldehyde patch test concentration has been reduced over...... the last decades from 4-5% to 2% and is currently 1%. The changes have not been based upon formal studies, but driven by an intention to reduce irritancy and false-positive results. The aim of the present study was prospectively to compare the outcome of simultaneous testing with formaldehyde 1% and 2......% in consecutively patch-tested patients, with respect to frequency of positive patch test reactions, strength of patch test reactions to different formaldehyde test concentrations, irritancy and relevance. The study included 3734 consecutively patch tested patients. 121 gave a positive reaction to 1% and/or 2...

  19. Patch test results of the European baseline series among patients with occupational contact dermatitis across Europe - analyses of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy network, 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Maria; Jolanki, Riitta; Larese Filon, Francesca; Wilkinson, Mark; Kręcisz, Beata; Kieć-Świerczyńska, Marta; Bauer, Andrea; Mahler, Vera; John, Swen M; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is one of the most common occupational diseases in Europe. In order to develop effective preventive measures, detailed and up-to-date data on the incidence, main causes and professions at risk of occupational contact dermatitis are needed. To describe the pattern of patch test reactivity to allergens in the European baseline series of patients with occupational contact dermatitis in different occupations. We analysed data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy (ESSCA) network from 2002 to 2010, from 11 European countries. Allergens in the European baseline series associated with an at least doubled risk of occupational contact dermatitis include: thiuram rubber chemical accelerators, epoxy resin, and the antimicrobials methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, and formaldehyde. The highest risk of occupational contact dermatitis was found in occupations classified as 'other personal services workers', which includes hairdressers, nursing and other healthcare professionals, precision workers in metal and related materials, and blacksmiths, tool-makers and related trades workers. In the planning and implementation of measures aimed at preventing occupational contact dermatitis, the focus should be on the identified high-risk occupational groups and the most common occupational allergies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Patch test sensitivity to Kathon CG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, N; Roed-Petersen, J

    1986-03-01

    Among 1511 consecutive patients patch tested with Kathon CG at 100 ppm active ingredient, 13 (0.8%) gave a positive reaction. Use test with a lotion containing Kathon CG (8.6 ppm) revealed no reaction in 11 patients with a positive patch test. It is concluded that a positive patch test reaction to 100 ppm does not initiate eczema after use of products preserved with Kathon CG in the low concentrations (3-15 ppm) used in final products.

  1. Patch testing with methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone 200 ppm aq. detects significantly more contact allergy than 100 ppm. A multicentre study within the European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruze, Magnus; Isaksson, Marléne; Gruvberger, Birgitta; Andersen, Klaus E; Gonçalo, Margarida; Goossens, An; Johansen, Jeanne D; Maibach, Howard I; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Le Coz, Christophe-J; White, Ian R

    2014-07-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and methylisothiazolinone (MI) are the active ingredients in commonly used preservative systems (e.g. Kathon CG(®)). MCI/MI is present in the European baseline patch test series at 100 ppm aq. Since 1986, 200 ppm (dose 0.006 mg/cm(2)) has been used in Sweden without causing skin irritation. Centres in Spain, the United Kingdom and Ireland have also used 200 ppm in their baseline series. To find the optimal patch test concentration for MCI/MI. MCI/MI 100 ppm aq. and MCI/MI 200 ppm aq. were simultaneously patch tested in 3300 consecutively tested dermatitis patients at eight European patch test clinics and one US patch test clinic. With the Finn Chambers(®) technique (diameter 8 mm), 15 µl was micropipetted on to the filter paper in the chamber. The corresponding volume for Van der Bend(®) chambers was 20 µl, and that for IQ Chambers(®) was 25 µl. Contact allergy to MCI/MI at 100 and 200 ppm was found in 1.2% and 2.1% of patients, respectively (p < 0.001). MCI/MI 200 ppm aq. (dose 0.006 mg/cm(2) ) diagnoses significantly more contact allergy than the presently used concentration of 100 ppm (dose 0.003 mg/cm(2)), without resulting in more adverse reactions. MCI/MI at 200 ppm should therefore be considered for inclusion in the European baseline test series. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Ideal Base For Patch Testing

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    Ashok Kumar Bajaj

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to find out a suitable vehicle for patch testing in India. Various bases: tested were petrolatum, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400, lanolin, olive, oil and plastobase. The observations suggest that polythylene glycol 400 is the most suitable vehicle for patch testing.

  3. p-Phenylenediamine sensitization is more prevalent in central and southern European patch test centres than in Scandinavian: results from a multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bruze, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Positive patch test reactions to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are common. PPD is used in oxidative hair dyes and is also present in dark henna temporary 'tattoos'. Cross-sensitization to other contact allergens may occur. Because subjects sensitized to PPD are at risk of clinically severe...

  4. Allergic Contact Dermatitis: Patch Testing Beyond the TRUE Test

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Jenny L; Mowad, Christen M.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing syste...

  5. Patch Test Results of 775 Patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis

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    Simin Ada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis vary among countries and even between different geographical regions within the same country over time. It is of great importance to perform the patch test at certain intervals, to evaluate the results in different centers and to compare them afterwards. Our aim was to evaluate the patch test results in our patients with allergic contact dermatitis.Material and Method: The records of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis, who had been patch tested between May 1997 and March 2009, were analyzed retrospectively. The demographic features such as age and sex, localization of the contact dermatitis, and the patch test results were recorded. Results: Of the 775 patients, 581 (75.2% were females and 194 (25% males. Of all patients, 735 were patch tested with the European Standard Series, 318 - with both the European Standard Series and cosmetic series, and 40-with cosmetic series alone. Of the patients tested with the European Standard Series, 255 (34.7% had at least one positive reaction. The most frequent allergen in the European Standard Series was nickel sulfate (17.3%, followed by cobalt chloride (7.2%, potassium dichromate (3%, fragrance mix (2.9%, and p-phenylenediamine base (2.6%. Of the 358 patients tested with cosmetic series, 82 (22.9% had at least one positive reaction. The 5 most frequently observed cosmetic series allergens were octyl gallate (3.9%, thimerosal (2.2%, sorbitan sesquioleate (2%, Euxyl K 400 (2% and methyldibromo glutaronitrile (1.4%. Conclusion: Our study shows the contact allergen profile of our center over 12 years. The most common allergens and their frequency differ between centers in various cities in Turkey. Those geographical differences should be re-evaluated by further studies performed in the certain time period. The high frequency of reactions to octyl gallate is an important finding in patients suspected of cosmetic allergy

  6. Patch testing experience with 1000 patients

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    Bajaj A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patch testing is a definitive tool for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD. It reveals the prevalence and trends of contact sensitization in the community, thereby paving the way for better standard series. There is paucity of large series of patch-tested patients from India. Aim: To report the 9-year patch-test data from a single general dermatology centre in North India. Methods: Consecutive patients presenting with signs/symptoms of suspected ACD were patch tested from May 1997 to April 2006. The Indian Standard Series was used. Parthenium was tested only in selected patients and cetrimide and chloroxylenol were added to the series. Results: In total, records of 1000 patients (566 male, 434 female were analyzed, yielding 1155 positive reactions in 590 (59% patients. Footwear dermatitis was the commonest suspected diagnosis, followed by ACD to medicaments, cosmetic dermatitis and plant dermatitis. Out of the allergens that were tested in all the patients, positivity to nickel was the commonest (12.9%, followed by potassium dichromate (11.1% neomycin (7%, mercaptobenzthiazole (6.6%, nitrofurazone (6%, colophony (5.7%, fragrance mix (5.5% and cobalt chloride (5.4%. However, parthenium was the commonest allergen based on the proportion of patients tested with it (14.5%. In men, potassium dichromate (30% was the commonest sensitizer and in women, nickel (43% was the commonest to show patch-test positivity. Conclusion: Our study revealed higher prevalence of footwear and medicament dermatitis in comparison to existing data. Allergy to antiseptics is significant in our patients. Further collaborative studies involving patients from other parts of India are required to have an overall view of ACD in India.

  7. Patch testing with mineral wool (Rockwool).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnberg, A; Löwhagen, G B

    1977-01-01

    25% of 315 tested subjects exhibited skin reactions when patch tested with mineral wool. Coating of the mineral fibres with phenol-formaldehyde did not influence the skin reactions. The reactions seem to be induced mechanically, as the mineral without the fibres did not give any reactions. No allergic reactions to the chemical additives were demonstrated. Macroscopically, the reactions may simulate an allergic response; microscopically, they seem to be toxic, sometimes with prominent spongiosis.

  8. The sensitivity of patch test in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Yeşilova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Allergic diseases play an important role in the natural course of psoriasis. Atopic sensitization and con-tact dermatitis are common in patients with psoriasis. Since the symptoms are prolonged in patients who are resistant to therapy and exposure to itchy and external factors are common among these patients, the effects of contact aller-gens on triggering psoriasis are investigated. Contact allergens have an important role in activation and remission of psoriasis. We aimed to investigate contact sensitization rates in patients with psoriasis in the study.Material and Methods: Contact sensitization was investigated with the application of European standard series in twenty patients with psoriasis, twenty patients with contact dermatitis, and twenty healthy persons. Results: Among the whole study cases, positivity rate of patch test against one allergen at least was 25%. rate of patch test was 25% in patients with psoriasis, 35% in patients with contact dermatitis, and 15% in healthy persons. There were no significant differences between the groups according to sensitization to one or more allergens (p>0.05. There were no significant difference in clinical subgroup of psoriatic patients according to contact sensitiza-tion (p>0.05. The allergens in patients with psoriasis on patch test were as the followings: phenyldiamine, potassium dichromat, nickel, and cobalt.Conclusion: We think that the patch test has a major role in the diagnosis and elimination of allergens in patients with the chronic and resistant diseases and palmoplantar and flexural psoriasis.

  9. Dispelling the myths behind pediatric patch testing-experience from our tertiary care patch testing centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Steele, Tace; Brod, Bruce; Crawford, Glen H

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is now known to be a common problem in pediatric populations, accounting for up to 20% of all dermatitis seen in children. Seminal studies conducted over the past decade have demonstrated a prevalence rate in the range of 25% to 60% of children referred for epicutaneous patch testing. This patch test procedure is generally accepted as the gold standardin vivo technique to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis. However, the overwhelming majority of research studies to date have been conducted on adult populations. Increasingly, pediatric patients are undergoing patch test procedures with techniques that have been standardized and optimized almost exclusively in adults. With this article, we hope to emphasize common misconceptions and pitfalls encountered with this approach. In addition, we hope to stimulate research interest in this field so as to determine the optimum patch test conditions and techniques for children.

  10. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, K E; Johansen, J D

    2003-01-01

    elicitation reaction than patch testing with the allergen (hydroxycitronellal) alone, in patients previously patch tested positive to hydroxycitronellal. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction was defined as at least 1 day of patch test reading showing more positive patch tests...

  11. Evaluation of patch test results in patients with contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Yeşilova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Patch test is the most reliable method to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis and to find out the responsible contact allergen. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the patch test results of patients with contact dermatitis in our region.Materials and methods: One Hundred fifty patients (84 female and 66 male with contact dermatitis were patch tested with European standard test series. The testing has been standardized by the international Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG.Results: A majority of the lesions (36% were localized on the hands. In 31 female (58,4% and 21 male (4,6% patients (a total of 72 patients there were positive allergic reactions to at least one chemical. Nickel sulphate (13,3%, potassium dichromate (11,3% and cobalt chloride (8,6% were the most often allergens reacted.Conclusion: Nickel sensitivity is more common. Comparing with healthy controls contact sensitization may be more prevalent in patients with contact dermatitis.

  12. Patch test results with fragrance markers of the baseline series - analysis of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network 2009-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Duus Johansen, Jeanne; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. OBJECTIVE: To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. METHODS: Data of patie...

  13. Positive patch test reactions to oxidized limonene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: R-Limonene is a common fragrance terpene found in domestic and industrial products. R-Limonene autoxidizes on air exposure, and the oxidation products can cause contact allergy. In a recent multicentre study, 5.2% (range 2.3-12.1%) of 2900 patients showed a positive patch test reaction...... to oxidized R-limonene. OBJECTIVE: To study the exposure to limonene among consecutive dermatitis patients reacting to oxidized R-limonene in an international setting, and to assess the relevance of the exposure for the patients' dermatitis. METHODS: Oxidized R-limonene 3.0% (containing limonene...... hydroperoxides at 0.33%) in petrolatum was tested in 2900 consecutive dermatitis patients in Australia, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Singapore, Spain, and Sweden. A questionnaire assessing exposure to limonene-containing products was completed. RESULTS: Overall, exposure to products containing limonene was found...

  14. Routine patch testing with the sesquiterpene lactone mix in Europe: a 2-year experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandão, F M

    1999-01-01

    To test the screening value of the sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix in Europe today and describe epidemiological and clinical features of Compositae-sensitive patients, the SL mix 0.1% pet. was included in the standard patch test series in 11 European clinics. 10,695 patients were tested, and 106 (1...

  15. Cost benefit of patch testing with textile finish resins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1982-01-01

    Eleven years experience of textile finish resin patch testing of suspected textile dermatitis patients revealed 15 cases of allergic textile dermatitis among 428 patients tested. Ten of the 15 patients had a relevant positive patch test to one or more of a limited series of textile finishes; 1 wa...

  16. Nickel patch test reactivity and the menstrual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohold, A E; Halkier-Sørensen, L; Thestrup-Pedersen, K

    1994-01-01

    Premenstrual exacerbation of allergic contact dermatitis and varying allergic patch test responses have been reported at different points of the period. Using a dilution series of nickel sulphate, we studied the variation in patch test reactivity in nickel allergic women in relation...... were tested first on day 7-10 and the other half first on day 20-24. There was no difference in the degree of patch test reactivity, when the results from day 7-10 and day 20-24 were compared (p > 0.4). However, when we compared the patch test results from the first and second test procedure, we found...... of positive patch tests led to an increased skin reactivity towards the same allergen, when the patients were retested weeks later....

  17. Trends and developments in two decades of patch testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffers, W.A.; Schuttelaar, M.-L.A.; Coenraads, P.J.

    Introduction: Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 19.5%. The diagnosis is confirmed by patch tests. This study aims to visualise trends and developments in patch testing over 23 years and to evaluate the influence of legal restrictions with

  18. Routine Patch Testing In A Dermatology Clinic Of A Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) poses a great diagnostic challenge to the dermatologist as it mimics many common dermatoses. Patch test (PT) is used to establish the diagnosis of ACD and to exclude suspected allergens. Aim: This study reviewed the clinical presentations and patch test results of ...

  19. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2003-01-01

    elicitation reaction than patch testing with the allergen (hydroxycitronellal) alone, in patients previously patch tested positive to hydroxycitronellal. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction was defined as at least 1 day of patch test reading showing more positive patch tests...... with more positive patch tests on the forearm patch tested with SLS plus hydroxycitronellal and no day of patch test readings with more positive patch tests on the forearm tested with hydroxycitronellal (P = 0.0253). Estimation of the blood flow with laser Doppler supported these findings....

  20. A Pragmatic Approach to Patch Testing Atopic Dermatitis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jennifer K; Jacob, Sharon E; Nedorost, Susan T

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) may complicate the clinical course of atopic dermatitis (AD), and patch testing remains the criterion standard for diagnosing ACD. To date, there have been no guidelines or consensus recommendations on when and how to patch test individuals with AD. Failure...... in AD patients with dermatitis that fails to improve with topical therapy; with atypical/changing distribution of dermatitis, or pattern suggestive of ACD; with therapy-resistant hand eczema in the working population; with adult- or adolescent-onset AD; and/or before initiating systemic...... immunosuppressants for the treatment of dermatitis. A suggested patch testing algorithm for AD patients is provided....

  1. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...

  2. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: textile dye dermatitis patch testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Edwards, Ashley; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    The authors provide a framework for working up and counseling a patient with suspected textile dermatitis, focusing on identifying which textile materials are most likely to be the cause of the eczematous lesions, the current clinical guidelines, the utility and appropriateness of patch testing, the limitations of these guidelines, and our pro tempore recommendations. While there are many challenges to correctly identify and counsel patients on how to avoid the offending textile products in a patient with suspected textile dye dermatitis, there is value in following the guidelines set forth to help identify the causative textile(s). Although patch tests can be useful, dermatologists should understand the limitations of standardized patch testing for patients with suspected textile dye-induced dermatitis. These guidelines are expected to increase the likelihood of identifying the causative textile(s), so that patch testing can be supplemented with swatch testing and chemical dye extraction to help discover the allergenic dye.

  3. Patch-testing with plastics and glues series allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmidt, Eugenia; Farmer, Sara A; Davis, Mark D P

    2010-01-01

    Few US studies have reported results of patch testing with plastics and glues. To report our institution's results of testing patients suspected of allergy to plastics and glues with a comprehensive plastics and glues series and to compare these results with previously published data. Retrospective review of results of patch-testing with plastics and glues allergens at our institution between 2000 and 2007. In total, 444 patients were patch-tested with up to 56 plastics and glues allergens in the specialized series and up to five plastics and glues allergens in a baseline series. Positive-reaction rates were compared to other patch testing reports. Of patients, 97 (22%) had irritant reactions, and 201 (45%) had at least one allergic reaction. Bis(2-dimethylaminoethyl) ether 1%, benzoyl peroxide 1%, epoxy resin, bisphenol F 0.25%, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate 2%, and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate 0.1% had the highest allergy reaction rates. Testing with specialized series identified 193 patients with plastics and glues allergy, of whom 162 were not identified by testing with baseline series alone. For patients suspected of allergy to plastics and glues, patch-testing with specialized series of plastics and glues allergens is an important adjunct to patch-testing with baseline series.

  4. Okeanos Explorer (EX1601): Transit and Mission Patch Test

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Normal underway operations and mapping patch testing. Bathymetric mapping of either the Murray or Molokai Fracture Zones during the transit to Hawaii is planned, as...

  5. Patch and Prick Tests in Hand Eczema: Results of A Sixty Seven Patient Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Fettahlıoğlu Karaman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The patch and prick tests have a place in the management of patients with hand eczema. In this study, we investigated whether some of the clinical features patients with hand eczema could provide us with the predictability of skin test results. Methods: In Çukurova University Faculty of Medicine, 67 consecutive patients with hand eczema; evaluated in terms of duration of disease, morphology and severity. All of the patients were undergoes patch tested with the European Standard Series, and needle testing with routine aeroallergens. Results: Patch test with at least one allergen was positive in 46.3% of the patients; wheras this rate was 23.9% for prick test. The likelihood of having a contact sensitivity of patients complaining of hand eczema for at least three years was statistically more significant [odds ratio (OR 0.9]. Although statistically not significant, it is less likely to be sensitized to patients with keratotic and/or licheniform hand eczema (OR 0.3. The severity of hand eczema was not predictive of patch test, there was no indicator of needle test positivity. Conclusion: We strongly recommend patch testing in all patients with prolonged hand eczema.

  6. Investigation of the homogeneity of methacrylate allergens in commercially available patch test preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Kristian Fredløv; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer

    2013-01-01

    The homogeneity of methacrylates in commercial patch test preparations has not yet been investigated. Inhomogeneous patch test preparations may give rise to false-negative or false-positive patch test results in patients suspected of having methacrylate allergy.......The homogeneity of methacrylates in commercial patch test preparations has not yet been investigated. Inhomogeneous patch test preparations may give rise to false-negative or false-positive patch test results in patients suspected of having methacrylate allergy....

  7. Patch testing with markers of fragrance contact allergy. Do clinical tests correspond to patients' self-reported problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Veien, Niels

    1997-01-01

    in a questionnaire prior to patch testing with the European standard series. The questionnaire contained questions about skin symptoms from the use of scented and unscented products as well as skin reactions from contact with spices, flowers and citrus fruits that could indicate fragrance sensitivity. A highly...

  8. Tetrazepam drug sensitivity -- usefulness of the patch test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirker, C; Misic, A; Brinkmeier, T; Frosch, P J

    2002-09-01

    The muscle relaxant tetrazepam may cause severe cutaneous adverse effects. We report 4 cases of varying intensity: Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema-multiforme-like exanthema, maculopapular and maculo-urticarial exanthema. Patch testing with tetrazepam (10% in petrolatum) was strongly positive in the 2 patients with severe skin eruptions and weakly positive in the other 2. Oral rechallenge with tetrazepam was positive in 3 patients (1 not done). Diazepam, with a similar chemical structure to tetrazepam, was negative on patch testing and on oral challenge testing in 2 patients. Although the optimal patch test concentration of tetrazepam has still to be determined, it is a useful diagnostic tool to confirm sensitization, particularly in patients with severe bullous eruptions.

  9. OUR EXPERIENCE WITH ATOPY PATCH TESTS WITH AEROALLERGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Čelakovská

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of our study was to evaluate the importance of atopy patch testing with aeroallergens as a diagnostic method in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Method: The complet dermatological and allergological examinations were performed in 29 patients; 10 men, 19 women with the average age of 27.8 years, min. 17, max. 57 years; with the median SCORAD 24.2 points, s.d. 13.3 points. Wormwood, grass, dog dander, cat dander, dermatophagoides pharinae, dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and birch pollen were examined in diagnostic procedures. Skin prick tests, specific IgE were examined; the atopy patch tests were performed with aeroallergens for skin prick tests in concentration 1× skin prick tests. Results: Specific IgE and skin prick tests to one or more tested aeroallergens were positive altogether in 27 patients; atopy patch tests were positive only in one of these patients. Conclusion: For atopy patch testing with aeroallergens the concentration of 1× skin prick tests is low to confirme the eczematic reaction in patients suffering from allergy to inhallant allergens.

  10. Evaluation of Desensol As a Standard Patch Test Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Shah

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study undertaken to find out the usefulness of ′Desensol′ patch test kit to detect contact allergens, in 200 cases revealed 24 cases with negative patch test with all the antigens and 55 cases reacted to even the Vaseline control. -Excluding these 79 cases, the common contact allergens were potassium bichr6ma,te, (40.49%, TMTD(28.92%, PPD(24.79%, epoxy resin (23.14%, colophony (19.0%, nickel sulfate (19.0%, Framycetin (19.0% and nitrofurazone (19.0%. Desensol patch test kit is lacking in certain antigens while in our country due to varied environmental factors and social customs, a person is exposed to a large number of natural and man-made contact allergens. So usefulness of such a kit like. Desensol is limited.

  11. Patch Testing in Suspected Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod Kumar; Rekha Paulose

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1–5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common alle...

  12. Patch testing with markers of fragrance contact allergy. Do clinical tests correspond to patients' self-reported problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Veien, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between patients' own recognition of skin problems using consumer products and the results of patch testing with markers of fragrance sensitization. Eight hundred and eighty-four consecutive eczema patients, 18-69 years of age, filled...... in a questionnaire prior to patch testing with the European standard series. The questionnaire contained questions about skin symptoms from the use of scented and unscented products as well as skin reactions from contact with spices, flowers and citrus fruits that could indicate fragrance sensitivity. A highly...... significant association was found between reporting a history of visible skin symptoms from using scented products and a positive patch test to the fragrance mix, whereas no such relationship could be established to the Peru balsam in univariate or multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that the role...

  13. Routine patch testing with frullanolide mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducombs, G; Lepoittevin, J P; Berl, V

    2003-01-01

    Contact sensitivity to plants containing 1 or more sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) is difficult to diagnose. The mixture of SLs (SL mix) has been shown to detect only about 60% of sensitized individuals. In order to improve the diagnosis of sensitization to plants containing SLs, we have tested...

  14. Experimental patch testing with chromium-coated materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    Chromium coatings on metal alloys can be decorative, and prevent corrosion and metal ion release. We recently showed that handling of a chromium-containing disc resulted in chromium deposition on the skin. To examine patch test reactivity to chromium-coated discs. We included 15 patients: 10 chro...

  15. Patch testing for food-associated allergies in orofacial granulomatosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Food-associated allergies, especially to benzoates and cinnamon-related compounds, have been associated with orofacial granulomatosis and both standard and urticarial patch testing have been used to detect such allergies. Elimination diets have also been shown to be effective in some patients.

  16. Low patch test reactivity to nickel in unselected adolescents tested repeatedly with nickel in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is questionable how repeated patch tests with nickel sulphate in infancy affect nickel patch test reactivity at a later age. METHODS: The DARC cohort encompasses 562 infants invited to a clinical examination including patch tests with nickel sulphate 6 times during the first 36 mon...... an immunologic effect or the effect of nickel regulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. Patch Testing in Suspected Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Cosmetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1–5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis. Methods. Fifty patients with suspected ACD to cosmetics were patch-tested with 38 antigens of the Indian Cosmetic Series and 12 antigens of the Indian Standard Series. Results. The majority (58%) of patients belonged to the 21–40 years age group. The presence of ACD to cosmetics was confirmed in 38 (76%) patients. Face creams (20%), hair dyes (14%), and soaps (12%) were the most commonly implicated. The most common allergens identified were gallate mix (40%), cetrimide (28%), and thiomersal (20%). Out of a total of 2531 patches applied, positive reactions were obtained in 3.75%. Conclusion. Incidence of ACD to cosmetics was greater in females. Face creams and hair dyes were the most common cosmetic products implicated. The principal allergens were gallate mix, cetrimide, and thiomersal. PMID:25295057

  18. Patch test dose-response study of p-phenylenediamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosted, Heidi; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    The elicitation response in allergic contact dermatitis for the hair dye substance p-phenylenediamine (PPD) is dose dependent, but threshold concentrations have not previously been investigated. 15 PPD-sensitive patients participated in a serial dilution 48-hr patch test with PPD using 8...... concentrations of PPD ranging from 1 to 10 000 on the upper back. Petrolatum was applied as control. Three concentrations (50, 100 and 500 p.p.m. PPD) were also applied to the retroauricular area and on the lateral aspects of the upper arms. 14 of the 15 participants reacted to one or more of the test samples....... The threshold value for 10% of the tested persons (ED10) based on+or stronger reactions for PPD on the back was 38 p.p.m. (CI: 4.3-100). There were no statistically significant differences in the sensitivity of the three anatomical regions. The upper back is a suitable region for patch testing patients...

  19. Erythema-index of clinical patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jemec, G B; Johansen, J D

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methods for the precise non-invasive and continuous grading of disease intensity are potentially of great use in a clinical setting. The erythema index offers a good method for assessing UVR induced erythema. Due to the development of a convenient hand-held spectrometer, it is possible...... that the method could be used for the grading of eczematous reactions in a clinical setting as well. OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of the erythema index for the quantification of eczematous reactions using the Derma-Spectrometer (Cortex technology, Hadsund, Denmark) in a clinical setting. METHOD......: The erythema index of 56 patch test reactions ranging from +? to +++, was compared to regional controls and negative patch tests (189). The effects of intrumental application pressure was studied in 5 volunteers. Statistical analysis was carried out using Mann-Whitney and Jonckheere-Terpstra tests. RESULTS...

  20. Sensitization to dimethyl fumarate with multiple concurrent patch test reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammintausta, Kaija; Zimerson, Erik; Winhoven, Sandra; Susitaival, Päivikki; Hasan, Taina; Gruvberger, Birgitta; Williams, Jason; Beck, Michael; Bruze, Magnus

    2010-02-01

    Chairs and sofas imported from China to Europe were shown to contain dimethyl fumarate (DMF), a sensitizing, volatile chemical. Many of the sensitized patients also had positive patch test reactions to acrylates. To analyse the occurrence and strength of DMF sensitization and the appearance of concomitant reactions. Patch testing with DMF in concentrations of 0.1-0.00001% was carried out in 37 patients. Diethyl fumarate (DEF), diethyl maleate (DEM), dimethyl maleate (DMM), ethyl acrylate (EA), methyl acrylate (MA), and methyl methacrylate (MMA) were also tested with a dilution series at equimolar concentrations. The lowest concentration of DMF eliciting a reaction varied between 0.0001% and 0.1% and all but four patients reacted concurrently to DEF. DEM elicited positive patch test reactions in 21/37 patients and DMM reactions were seen in all 9 patients tested. EA elicited positive reactions in 13/37 patients and a positive MA reaction was seen in 7/37 patients, 2 of whom also reacted to MMA. The strength of the sensitization to DMF showed variation and concurrent reactions were common. Concurrent reactions to (meth)acrylates were seen in patients, who reacted to lower (0.001% or less) DMF concentration probably elicited by cross-reactivity.

  1. Increased sensitivity of patch testing by standardized tape stripping beforehand: a multicentre diagnostic accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickel, Heinrich; Kreft, Burkhard; Kuss, Oliver; Worm, Margitta; Soost, Stephanie; Brasch, Jochen; Pfützner, Wolfgang; Grabbe, Jürgen; Angelova-Fischer, Irena; Elsner, Peter; Fluhr, Joachim; Altmeyer, Peter; Geier, Johannes

    2010-05-01

    As a modification of patch testing, the strip patch test was established to obtain more sensitive and reliable test results. Comparative data on diagnostic accuracy for both tests are missing. To compare the diagnostic accuracy of strip patch tests and patch tests in detecting sensitizations in patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis by using patient history as the reference standard. In a multicentre, prospective, investigator-blinded study 790 patients were enrolled. The defined reference standard was established prior to patch testing. Patch tests were performed with nickel sulfate, potassium dichromate, and lanolin alcohol. Duplicate tests were simultaneously performed on both sides of the back, of which one randomly chosen side was tape stripped beforehand, according to a standardized procedure. Primary outcome was the difference in sensitivity between strip patch test and patch test. Seven hundred and eighty-seven patients were included in the analysis. Strip patch tests detected considerably more sensitization to nickel sulfate and potassium dichromate than patch tests: differences of sensitivities were 16.4% (95% CI, 8.7-24.1%) for nickel sulfate and 25.0% (95% CI, 8.9-41.0%) for potassium dichromate, both favouring the strip patch test. The standardized strip patch test proved to be accurate and clinically safe and is promising to improve diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis beyond the patch test.

  2. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF PATCH TEST IN HAND AND FOOT ECZEMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravani Sandhya Bellam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present study is undertaken to evaluate the results of patch test in 50 patients having hand and foot eczema attending skin OPD from October 2010 to September 2012 at KIMS, Narketpally. RESULTS Maximum number of cases in this study belong to 16-30 yrs. (46%.  In majority of cases, eczema was seen in both hands and feet (40%. Hand and foot eczema was commonly seen in construction workers (42.3%.  Mean duration of illness is 19.48 months.  42% of patients presented with acute eczema followed by subacute eczema (38% and then chronic eczema (20%.  Personal and family history of atopy was seen in only 4% and 6%, respectively.  Hand and foot eczema (42.3% was the commonest eczema followed by hand (30.74% and then foot eczema (11.53% and others (15.37%.  57.69% of patients are positive to more than one allergen and 42.3% were positive to single allergen.  Multiple allergens positivity is seen in construction workers (30.76%.  Potassium di chromate (28.5% is the common allergen found in patch test followed by Parthenium (16.6% followed by Paraphenylenediamine (14% and then Cobalt sulphate and Thiuram mix (9.5% and lastly Parabens mix, Nickel sulphate, Black rubber mix and Neomycin (4.7%.  Positive patch test is more commonly observed in patients having hands and or foot eczemas (42.30%. CONCLUSION Hand and foot eczema (42% was the commonest eczema followed by hand (30% and then foot eczema (11.5% and others (15.3%. Potassium dichromate is the commonest sensitiser (28.8%. We encountered a high degree of patch test positivity in our study group and the Indian standard series proved to be very useful.

  3. Patch test with ether extracts in salicaceae allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawhney M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 23 cases suggestive of airborne contact dermatitis were patch tested with ether extracts of flowers and leaves of populus sp. and salix sp. in a study conducted in Ladakh at an altitude of 3445 meters above sea level. Overall positivity was found in 12 (52.17%, with populus sp. alone in 7 (30. 43%, salix sp. alone in 4 17.39% and to both in one (8.33%.

  4. Patch Test Results in Patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis / Mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Su

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The aims of our study were to determine the frequency of positive patch reactions and the most common allergens in patients with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD and/or mucositis(M who underwent with T.R.U.E. “Thin-layer Rapid-Use Epicutaneous” test and evaluate supplemantal series used with T.R.U.E. test effect on patch test results.Material and Method: In this study 161 ACD, 5 ACM, 1 ACD and ACM were enrolled. While 139 of all patients were patch tested with T.R.U.E. test alone,out of 28 patients were tested for T.R.U.E. test and also with supplemental series that included textile colours (9 of tested patients, plastic and glues (9, dental screening (6, backery (2, cosmetic (1 and plastic and glues and dental screening (1. Supplemental series were chosen according to patient’s occupation and clinic presentation. The data from our patients were analyzed as percentage. The relationship between contact sensitization and atopic status was evaluated with Yate’s correlation x2 test.Results: Eighty-six male, 81 female were taken into this study. The median age was 36.5.While 25.9% of 139 patients tested with T.R.U.E. test alone,46.4% of 28 patients applied supplemental series in addition to T.R.U.E. test showed positive reaction to one or more allergens. The most common allergens were nickel sulphate (14.4%, potassium dichromate (4.8%, fragrance mix (2.9% and colophony (2.9%. The most common supplemental allergens were octil gallat (50% in bakery and copper sulphate, goldsodiumthiosulphate (42.8% in dental screening. Positive patch reactions were detected 83.3% in 6 patients with AKM, 80% of these positive reactions was againts dental screening. The rate of contact sensitization between atopics and non-atopics was not significant (p>0.05. Conclusion: We suggest in presence of mucositis and/or occupational dermatoses using supplemental series in addition to T.R.U.E. test would be more beneficial in identifing the

  5. Patch test results in patients with allergic contact dermatitis in Yozgat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Çölgeçen Özel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Patch testing is valuable in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD as well as in determining the causative agent and thus is helpful in prevention of the disease and also provides information for the patient Material and Method: Hundred and sixty-eight patients (94 female and 74 male with ACD were patch tested with European standard series. Patch test result were assessed according to suggestion of International Contact Dermatitis Research Group at 48 and 72 hours after initial application. Results: Of the patients, 64.3% were between 16-45 years of age and majority of the lesions (57.1% were localized on the hands. A total of 86 (51.1% patients had one or more positive patch test reactions. The most common allergens were nickel sulfate (20.2% followed by potassium dichromate (8.3%, cobalt chloride (7.1%, fragrance mix (7.1%, paraphenylendiamine base (6%, paraben mix 3.6%, N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (3.6%, wool alcohols (3.6%, formaldehyde (3.6%, quaternium-15 (3.6%. Positive reactions to nickel sulfate were more common among women, especially those in younger group. Frequency of contact allergy to neomycin sulfate, epoxy resin, 4-tert-butylphenolformaldehyde resin, sesquiterpenelactone mix, primin, 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-1, budesonide, lyral were relatively low (1.2%, while no positive reaction was obtained to clioquinol and methyldibromoglutaronitrile in any case. Conclusion: Since no similar study has been previously performed in our area, this study provides information about contact allergen profile in patients underwent skin patch test with a diagnosis of AKD at Yozgat. The most frequent allergens detected with ASS and frequency rates may vary among different facilities at various cities of Turkey. A standard series for our country may be created after assessment of regional variability by new studies conducted in same time zone.

  6. Patch test reactivity to feverfew-containing creams in feverfew-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Fretté, Xavier C; Andersen, Klaus E

    2010-09-01

    The Compositae plant feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) has long been recognized as an important sensitizer in European Compositae-allergic patients, mainly because of its content of the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide. Recently, a parthenolide-depleted feverfew extract with claimed anti-inflammatory properties has been developed for use in cosmetics. The aim of the study was to test, on the basis of patch test reactions, whether persons with contact allergy to feverfew could tolerate creams containing this feverfew extract. Seven patients with feverfew contact allergy were patch tested with two creams containing the feverfew extract. Subsequently, the creams were analysed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry to detect parthenolide. Four of the patients tested positive to one of the creams; reactivity was associated with simultaneous positive reactions to parthenolide. This cream was analysed about 2 years later, and no parthenolide was detected, probably because of degradation of the compound. Topical products containing parthenolide-depleted feverfew extracts may elicit positive patch test reactions in feverfew-sensitive patients. The reactivity may be enhanced by simultaneous testing with parthenolide, but the reactivity is lost over time, probably because of degradation of parthenolide.

  7. Kathon CG: cosmetic allergy and patch test sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, A C; Liem, D H; Weyland, J W

    1985-02-01

    Three cases of contact allergy to Kathon CG, a preservative for cosmetics and toiletries containing, as active ingredients, 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one are presented. In two patients, Kathon CG was contained in a moisturizing cream, and the third was sensitized by a diagnostic patch test. Although it has been used extensively in cosmetics and toiletries for 9 years in Europe and 4 years in the USA, these appear to be the first case reports of non-occupational sensitization to Kathon CG.

  8. Routine patch testing with the preservative system Kathon CG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, A C; Bruynzeel, D P; Schroeff, J G; Bos, J D

    1988-04-01

    Synopsis Of 1620 patients routinely patch tested with Kathon CG 100 p.p.m. aqua for suspected allergic contact dermatitis, 81 (5.0%) had a positive reaction. Sixty-two reactions (3.8%) were relevant for the dermatitis for which the patient consulted the dermatologist. Most patients were females who presented with dermatitis of the hands and/or face. Forty-six per cent of the patients had become sensitized by using cosmetic products on healthy skin. The other 54% had pre-existing dermatitis, especially atopic dermatitis and irritant dermatitis. Most reactions were caused by moisturizing creams.

  9. [Epicutaneous patch testing in delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions induced by antiepileptic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mahmoud, Lobna; Bahloul, Najla; Ghozzi, Hanen; Kammoun, Brahim; Hakim, Ahmed; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Kammoun, Sami; Zeghal, Khaled

    2017-10-01

    Antiepileptic drugs are widely used and are associated with numerous side effects including skin eruptions. Epicutaneous tests have been used with variable success in skin drug reactions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the profitability of epicutaneous tests in delayed hypersensitivity reactions induced by antiepileptic drugs. We analyzed all cases of allergic skin reactions to antiepileptic drugs notified in regional pharmacovigilance center of Sfax (Tunisia) between June 1, 2014 and April 30, 2016. The imputation score, determined using the French imputation method, should be at least doubtful. Patch-tests were performed in accordance with the general Europen network on Drug Allergy/European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (ENDA/EAACI) guidelines. Patch-tests were read according to the generally accepted criteria of the International contact dermatitis research group (ICDRG). In our study, 20 patients were included, among which 23 events were observed. The drug involved in delayed hypersensitivity reactions was carbamazepine in 11 cases, phenobarbital in 10 cases and valproic acid in 4 cases. The clinical reactions caused by the drug were classified as maculopapular exanthema (11 cases), DRESS syndrome (6 cases), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (2 cases), fixed drug eruption (2 cases) and erythroderma (2 cases). Patch-tests were positive in 19 patients (95 %). Cross-reactivity between antiepileptic drugs was observed in 4 cases: between valproic acid and carbamazepine in 2 cases between valproic acid and phenobarbital in 1 case and between phenobarbital and carbamazepine in 1 case. In this study, patch testing was a safe and useful method in confirming the culprit drug in delayed hypersensitivity reactions induced by antiepileptic drugs. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of patch test in identification of causative agent in drug rashes due to antiepileptics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatve Maneesha

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Patch test was evaluated for the identification of causative agent in cutaneous eruptions due to antiepileptics. Patch tests were carried out in twenty patients and ten controls with carbamazepine, phenytoin sodium, phenobarbitone and sodium valproate. Sodium valproate was found tobe irritant in 1 and 5% concentration and further dilution is recommended for patch testing. Patch test was positive in 14 (70% patients and in 7 with suspected drug alone, and remaining 7 were positive with more than one antiepileptic drug. We recommended patch test for identification of causative drug in rashes due to antiepileptics.

  11. Reactivity to patch tests with nickel sulfate and fragrance mix in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jøhnke, H; Norberg, L A; Vach, W

    2004-01-01

    The pattern of patch test reactivity to nickel sulfate and fragrance mix was studied with respect to patch test performance, reproducibility and clinical relevance in a population of unselected infants followed prospectively from birth to 18 months of age. TRUE Testtrade mark patches with nickel ...

  12. Prevailence of Patch Test Positivity with Some Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the suitability of some chemicals to act as bases for antigens for patch tests, patch tests were performed with these agents in patients having contact dermatitis. Propylene glycol′used as such produced positive reactions in 25 (50% patients of which 12 were 2 + or more, polyethylene glycol 200 produced positive reactions in 9 (18% cases of which 4 cases were 2 + or more, a mixture of liquid paraffin and hard paraffin gave rise to positive reactions in 10 (10% cases 3 of these being 2 +, a mixture of liquid paraffin and bees wax was positive in 14 (14,Yo cases 3 of these being 2 +, yellow petrolatum was positive in 4 (8% cases, one of which was 2 +, white petrolatum was positive in S (6% cases all of these being + reactions only, and glycerol gave rise to a I + reaction in only one (2% caw. In tropical countries, water should be as base for as many antigens as possible for others, a control test with the b must be included.

  13. [Hypersensitivity to fluindione (Previscan). Positive skin patch tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, E; Roth, B; Grange, A; Grange, F; Tortel, M-C; Guillaume, J-C

    2005-12-01

    Fluindione (Previscan) is an oral anticoagulant belonging to the vitamin K antagonist class and is very widely used in France. While bleeding is a common complication, severe immunoallergic reactions are less frequent. The authors report a case of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. A 75 year-old woman was hospitalized for diffuse erythematous papular rash associated with facial oedema. These symptoms appeared 3 weeks after the beginning of treatment with fluindione, allopurinol and perindopril. Laboratory tests showed hyperleukocytosis, mixed hepatitis and moderate renal failure, with the entire picture being evocative of drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction. The eruption was associated with eosinophilia, hepatic cytolysis with cholestasis, and acute renale failure. While allopurinol and perindopril were stopped definitively, fluindione was only suspended temporarily following overdosage. On reintroduction, rapid recurrence of clinical and biologic signs was observed with increased severity. The skin rash resolved completely on withdrawal of the drug. Patch tests performed later were positive for fluindione and negative for allopurinol and perindopril. These manifestations were consistent with the diagnosis of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome due to fluindione. Very few cases have been described with fluindione despite widespread prescription of the treatment is in France. While there may be no skin involvement, immunoallergic signs such as fever, hepatitis and acute tubular interstitial nephritis have been described with fluindione and these may be related to this syndrome (DRESS - Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms). Skin patch testing, which is easily performed, can be extremely helpful in determining a causal relationship with medication.

  14. Patch test sensitivity to the preservative Kathon CG in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, A; Guimaraens, D; Condé-Salazar, L

    1990-05-01

    Kathon CG is a very well studied preservative used in cosmetics and toiletries. It is effective in low concentrations (3 to 15 ppm active ingredients) and exhibits outstanding antimicrobial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, yeasts and fungi. Although this biocide is not considered to pose a toxicological hazard at recommended use levels, the sensitizing potential of Kathon CG has been established. From November 1988 to June 1989, we patch tested 626 unselected contact dermatitis patients with Kathon CG solution containing 200 ppm active ingredients and obtained 22 (3.5%) positive reactions. Relevance was established in 7 of the 22 patients. Women were predominantly sensitized, the principal source of sensitization being cosmetics.

  15. Contact allergy to popular perfumes; assessed by patch test, use test and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    The frequency of contact allergy to the 10 best-selling women's perfumes was studied in 335 consecutive female eczema patients by patch testing. The diagnostic ability of the fragrance mix, in relation to these products, was evaluated. Of eczema patients, 6.9% had a positive patch test to one...... or more of the perfumes, and 56.5% of these had a concurrent positive reaction to the fragrance mix. Hence, testing with the patients' own cosmetics is a significant part of diagnosing perfume allergy. The clinical relevance of the patch-test reactions to the commercial perfumes was equal...... to that of the fragrance mix, as judged from the patient's history and use testing with one of the perfumes. At least three of the chemically defined sensitizers in the fragrance mix were detected in all the perfumes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which indicates that the fragrance mix is a good imitation...

  16. A Pragmatic Approach to Patch Testing Atopic Dermatitis Patients: Clinical Recommendations Based on Expert Consensus Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennifer K; Jacob, Sharon E; Nedorost, Susan T; Hanifin, Jon M; Simpson, Eric L; Boguniewicz, Mark; Watsky, Kalman L; Lugo-Somolinos, Aida; Hamann, Carsten R; Eberting, Cheryl Lee; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) may complicate the clinical course of atopic dermatitis (AD), and patch testing remains the criterion standard for diagnosing ACD. To date, there have been no guidelines or consensus recommendations on when and how to patch test individuals with AD. Failure to patch test when appropriate may result in overlooking an important and potentially curable complicating comorbidity. In this article, we present consensus recommendations regarding when to perform patch testing in the AD patient, best practices, and common pitfalls. Patch testing should be considered in AD patients with dermatitis that fails to improve with topical therapy; with atypical/changing distribution of dermatitis, or pattern suggestive of ACD; with therapy-resistant hand eczema in the working population; with adult- or adolescent-onset AD; and/or before initiating systemic immunosuppressants for the treatment of dermatitis. A suggested patch testing algorithm for AD patients is provided.

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis in Danish children referred for patch testing - a nationwide multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anne Birgitte; Deleuran, Mette; Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard

    2014-01-01

    -17 years, 25.1% had one or more positive patch test reactions. The associated relevance was 66.4%. The most common sensitizers were metals, fragrances, and hair dyes. The frequency of positive patch test reactions and allergic contact dermatitis was significantly higher among girls. CONCLUSIONS: Allergic...... during 2003-2011, to examine the frequency and relevance of positive patch test reactions, and to assess the most common allergens. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the patch test data from the Danish National Database of Contact Allergy was performed. RESULTS: Of 2594 children and adolescents aged 1...

  18. Testing the keystone community concept: effects of landscape, patch removal, and environment on metacommunity structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resetarits, Emlyn J; Cathey, Sara E; Leibold, Mathew A

    2018-01-01

    Although the influence of regional processes on local patches is well studied, the influence of local patches and their spatial arrangement on regional processes is likely to be complex. One interesting idea is the keystone community concept (KCC); this posits that there may be some patches that have a disproportionately large effect on the metacommunity compared to other patches. We experimentally test the KCC by using replicate protist microcosm metacommunities with single-patch removals. Removing single patches had no effect on average community richness, evenness and biomass of our metacommunities, but did cause metacommunities to be assembled significantly less by local environmental conditions and more by spatial effects related to stochastic factors. Overall our results show that local patch removal can have large regional effects on structural processes, but indicate that more experiments are needed to find evidence of keystone communities. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Diagnostic performance of the atopy patch test with inhalant allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuiano, N; Diddi, G; Delvecchio, M; Incorvaia, C

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of the atopy patch test (APT) compared with skin prick testing (SPT) and in vitro IgE measurement in a large group of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) with or without respiratory symptoms (RS). The study included 521 patients (292 males, 229 females; age, 0.5-18 years; median age, 6 years) with AD and RS with different clinical presentations: current AD, 47 patients (Group A); current AD and RS, 72 patients (Group B), past AD and RS, 69 patients (Group C); and RS only, 280 patients (Group D). Fifty-three healthy individuals served as controls. All participants underwent the APT, SPT, and CAP/RAST with the most common inhalant allergens. The presence of a control group allowed calculation of specificity and positive and negative predictive values. A significant difference was found for a positive APT versus both SPT and CAP/RAST (P RAST. The differences for APT were significant in all group comparisons except group B vs C and group C vs D. In the control group, the APT was positive in 2% of cases (specificity of 96.2%), SPT was positive in 6% of cases (specificity of 88.4%), and CAP/RAST was positive in 4% of cases (specificity of 92.5%). In young patients sensitized to inhalant allergens with AD in addition to RS, the APT has a superior diagnostic performance to SPT and in vitro IgE measurement.

  20. Relationship Between Atopy Patch Test with Foods and SCORAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kutlu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The relationship between food and atopic dermatitis (AD is controversial. Atopy patch test (APT gained prominence due to low specificity of “fresh prick tests” (FPT with foods, commonly late occurrence of lesions in AD and, thus, the inconsistencies in anamneses, and being the provocative tests time consuming and risky, as well as due to the role of T lymphocytes in the pathophysiology of the disease. In this study, we investigated the relationship of APT and FPT made with food with SCORAD index assessing the disease severity.Materials and Methods: Forty-five children (21 males and 24 females aged between 2-15 years who were diagnosed with AD in our outpatient clinic between May 2006 and May 2007 were included in the study. FPT and APT with eggs, milk and wheat flour were performed in all patients. The severity of illness was assessed using the SCORAD index. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 11.0 for Windows. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

  1. Positive nickel patch tests in infants are of low clinical relevance and rarely reproducible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, Charlotte G; Kjaer, Henrik F; Eller, Esben

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported patch test reactivity to nickel sulphate in a cohort of unselected infants tested repeatedly at 3-18 months of age. A reproducible positive reaction at 12 and 18 months was selected as a sign of nickel sensitivity provided a patch test with an empty Finn chamber was ne...

  2. Relationship between formaldehyde and quaternium-15 contact allergy. Influence of strength of patch test reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton C.; Blok, Janine; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To test our hypothesis that patients with stronger patch test reactions to formaldehyde are more likely to react to quaternium-15, attesting to the aetiological role for formaldehyde in such co-reactivity. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients patch tested with formaldehyde and

  3. Quantitative aspects of isoeugenol contact allergy assessed by use and patch tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, K E; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    The clinical implications of sensitization to the fragrance material isoeugenol were studied in 19 subjects. Patch testing with serial dilutions of isoeugenol and a repeated open application test (ROAT) were performed. The minimum effect level under patch test conditions was below 0.01% isoeugeno...

  4. Reduction of Antigen Exposure Time in Patch Tests To 24 Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D K Jayant

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of patch tests obtained with 24 hour and 48 hour occlusion periods using antigen impregnated-discs′ (AID and antigen-containing-saucers(ACS were studied in 168 patients. Of the 411 patches appr, 4 the results in 400 (97.3210/o patch tests were concordant (91 positive and 309 negative reactions with both the 24 hour and the 48 hour occlusions tests, while 10 patch test reactions were positive only with 48 hour occlusion, and 1 patch test reaction were positive only With 24 hour occlusion. Of the 91 patch test reactions positive with both the 24 hour and the 48 hour occlusion tests, 81 patch test reactions were equally severe, while 10 patch test reactions were stronger with the 48 hour occlusion test. The discordant reactions were obtained with Lantana camera (3, inerium variabilis (4, Allium cepa (1, and potassium dichromate. (1, while concordant results were found with Parthenium hysterophorus, Calotropis procera, Argemone meacana, nitrofurazone, neomycin, nickel sulphate an paraphenyl-nediamine. The discordant reactions were obtained almost equally in the summer, winter and rainy seasons.

  5. Repeated patch testing to nickel during childhood do not induce nickel sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard Christiansen, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    chamber was negative. The objective of this study is to follow-up on infants with suspected nickel sensitivity. Methods: A total of 562 infants were included in the cohort and patch tested with nickel sulphate. The 26 children with a positive patch test to nickel sulphate at 12 and 18 months were offered...

  6. Course of Skin Symptoms and Quality of Life in Children Referred for Patch Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anne B; Sommerlund, Mette; Deleuran, Mette

    2015-01-01

    for patch testing, a retrospective questionnaire was sent to children and adolescents referred for patch testing during a 9-year period. Persistent eczema at follow-up was strongly associated to atopic dermatitis, but was not explained by gender, age, contact allergy or time span from patch testing...... to follow-up. Among patients without atopic dermatitis, 23.5% reported to suffer from chronic eczema. Persistent eczema increased the risk of severe impairment of life quality. Our findings indicate a significant risk of childhood eczema becoming chronic and affecting life quality considerably. Patch......Children are patch tested in the same manner as adults, but little has been done to establish whether positive or negative findings influence the course of skin symptoms. To uncover the course of skin symptoms and the impact of persistent eczema on life quality in paediatric patients referred...

  7. Association of CD69 Up-Regulation on CD4+ CLA+ T cells versus patch test, strip patch test and clinical history in nickel sensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Dickel H; Kuss O; Kamphowe J; Altmeyer P; Höxtermann S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective The patch test (PT) with its modification - the strip patch test (SPT) - is the standard in vivo procedure to diagnose an allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). To date, none of the in vitro tests for the diagnosis of ACD fulfils the requirements of an easy, valid and reliable test. To investigate the prediction ability of a flow cytometric assay of CD69 up-regulation on CD4+ CLA+ T cells in nickel-sensitive and non-nickel-sensitive patients. Methods In a prospective, investiga...

  8. Nonferromagnetic material inserted magnetostrictive patch bonding technique for torsional modal testing of a ferromagnetic cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Il; Kim, Yoon Young

    2010-03-01

    Torsional vibration testing requires pure torsional mode transduction. However, no reliable technique is available for exciting torsional vibrations in ferromagnetic cylinders for a relatively wide range of frequencies. A magnetostrictive patch bonding excitation method developed for nonferromagnetic cylinders, based on the magnetostrictive principle, may be considered for ferromagnetic cylinders. However, the direct bonding of a magnetostrictive patch onto a ferromagnetic cylinder fails because the applied magnetic field spreads to both the patch and the cylinder and thus generates unwanted modes of vibration such as longitudinal modes. Thus, a modified or new technique must be developed in order to concentrate the applied magnetic field mainly on the patch, while causing the patch deformation to fully transfer to the cylinder. This paper presents a modified magnetostrictive patch bonding excitation and measurement technique suitable for ferromagnetic cylinders. The key idea is to insert a nonferromagnetic material between the test cylinder and the magnetostrictive patch. Because the thickness of the material or the gap size critically affects the torsional vibration test by the magnetostrictive patch bonding method, a series of numerical and experimental investigations to find the optimal gap size are conducted. Other factors affecting the developed modal testing method are also considered. The validity of the developed method is checked by comparing the experimentally obtained eigenfrequencies of a test ferromagnetic cylinder with the theoretical eigenfrequencies.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: the Ottawa hospital patch-testing clinic experience, 1996 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeling, Marcia; Pratt, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis in children is a significant clinical problem. Patch testing is a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis. To determine the frequency and relevance of positive patch-test results in children and to identify the most common allergens in children at our clinic. Retrospective chart review of 100 children and adolescents, aged 4 to 18 years, who were patch-tested at the Ottawa Hospital patch-testing clinic between 1996 and 2006. The children were patch-tested with the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) standard series, supplementary series if indicated, and their own products if available. Seventy percent of children had at least one positive patch-test reaction; 55.8% of positive patch-test reactions were relevant. The ratio of females to males was 62:38. The most common allergens were nickel sulfate (26%), cobalt (14%), fragrance mix (7%), neomycin (7%), colophony (6%), formaldehyde (4%), lanolin (4%), quaternium-15 (4%), and para-phenylenediamine (4%). Nickel co-reacted with cobalt (68%) and palladium (100%). Of children tested, 41% had a history of atopic dermatitis. The frequency of positive and relevant allergens in children is similar to that in adults as compared with data from the NACDG 2001-2002 study period. Differences between the top 10 allergens in children and adults were seen. Nickel and cobalt were more common allergens in children, and colophony, lanolin, and para-phenylenediamine ranked in the top 10 allergens among children.

  10. Patch testing with thin-layer chromatograms of chamomile tea in patients allergic to sesquiterpene lactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Kerstin; Gruvberger, Birgitta; Möller, Halvor; Persson, Lena; Hindsén, Monica; Zimerson, Erik; Svensson, Ake; Bruze, Magnus

    2007-10-01

    Patients with contact allergy to sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) are usually hypersensitive to Asteraceae plant products such as herbal teas. The objective of this study was to show sensitizers in chamomile tea by patch testing with thin-layer chromatograms. Tea made from German chamomile was separated by thin-layer chromatography. Strips of the thin-layer chromatograms were used for patch testing SL-positive patients. 15 (43%) of 35 patients tested positively to 1 or more spots on the thin-layer chromatogram, with many individual reaction patterns. Patch testing with thin-layer chromatograms of German chamomile tea showed the presence of several allergens.

  11. Association between positive patch tests to epoxy resin and fragrance mix I ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer; Vølund, Aage; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Paulsen, Evy

    2009-03-01

    Both epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and fragrance mix I are included in the European baseline series of contact allergens. A significant association between positive reactions to epoxy resin and fragrance mix has been reported by others. To investigate and possibly reproduce this association with the use of TRUE((R)) test data and supplementary tests with fragrance mix ingredients from the Department of Dermatology, Odense University Hospital. Six thousand one hundred and fifteen consecutive eczema patients tested from 1995 to 2007 were included, and test results from all patients tested with fragrance mix ingredients were analysed. One hundred and forty-five (2.4%) were positive to epoxy resin and 282 (4.6%) were positive to fragrance mix I. Nineteen were positive to both giving an odds ratio of 3.3, which is significant (95% CI 2.0-5.4). Analysis of association to individual fragrance mix ingredients showed a significant association to alpha-amyl cinnamal and isoeugenol. The significant association between positive reactions to epoxy resin and fragrance mix I was reproduced. However, the clinical implications are not clarified, and even though the association may be coincidental, the fact that it can be reproduced with a different patch test system and in a different population speaks against a random result. Further studies may help to interpret the association.

  12. Charysanthemum contact dermatitis: Clinical patterns and patch testing with ethanolic extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanwar R

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients with suspected chrysanthemum contact dermatitis and 20 age and sex matched controls were patch tested with ethanolic extracts of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Eighteen (45% patients demonstrated positive patch tests. Out of these 10 (56% patients gave a history of photoaggravation and 9 (50% of seasonal variation. Dermatitis involving hands and face only, widespread dermatitis and airborne contact dermatitis were the common clinical patterns seen. Patients with occupational exposure to chrysanthemums demonstrated the maximum positive reactions. All the 18 patients showed positive patch tests with the extracts of flowers, 17 with leaves, 16 with whole plant and only 4 with the stem.

  13. Evaluation of patch test reactivities in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; Khurrum, Huma; Gad Al Rab, Mohamed O

    2017-06-01

    Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is one of the mysteries of dermatology. An association between spontaneous CIU and contact allergy sensitization is possible. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that contact allergy might play a role in disease in CIU patients. Furthermore, we examined if patch testing should be routinely performed in patients with chronic urticaria (CU). Ultimately, we concluded that patch testing should be included among the diagnostic procedures for CU.

  14. Patch test responses to rockwool of different diameters evaluated by cutaneous blood flow measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, H C; Lee, H G; Paik, N W

    1991-04-01

    Rockwool is a man-made mineral fiber used mainly for insulation, which can cause mechanical skin irritation. This study was performed to evaluate the irritant potential of rockwools of different diameters and to compare the change of blood flow, measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, at different patch test occlusion times with rockwools. Rockwool A (mean diameter 4.20 +/- 1.96 mu) was more irritating than rockwool B (mean diameter 3.20 +/- 1.5 mu). The difference was more clearly observed in a 48-h patch test than in an 8-h or 24-h test. We concluded that laser Doppler blood flow measurement was a useful experimental tool for the evaluation of irritant patch test responses to mechanical irritants like rockwool, and that 48 h or more of occlusion time was necessary to produce irritant patch test responses to certain types of rockwool.

  15. Oral prednisone suppresses allergic but not irritant patch test reactions in individuals hypersensitive to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anveden, Ingegärd; Lindberg, Magnus; Andersen, Klaus E

    2004-01-01

    A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, crossover study was designed to investigate the effects of prednisone on allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 24 subjects with known allergy to nickel were recruited and patch tested with a nickel sulfate dilution series in aqueous solution, 5% nickel...... sulfate in petrolatum and 2 dilution series of the irritants nonanoic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate. The subjects were tested x2, both during treatment with prednisone 20 mg oral daily and during placebo treatment. The total number of positive nickel patch test reactions decreased significantly...... in patients during prednisone treatment. The threshold concentration to elicit a patch test reaction increased and the overall degree of reactivity to nickel sulfate shifted towards weaker reactions. The effect of prednisone treatment on the response to irritants was divergent with both increased...

  16. Evaluation and Management of Patch Test-Negative Patients With Generalized Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen M

    Patients with generalized dermatitis are common in dermatology practices. Allergic contact dermatitis is often suspected, and patients frequently undergo patch testing. When the patch testing result is negative, further evaluation and management of these patients are challenging. The purpose of this study was to survey members of the American Contact Dermatitis Society regarding the evaluation and management of patch test-negative patients with generalized dermatitis. Generalized dermatitis was the most common term identified for patch test-negative patients with diffuse dermatitis. After having negative expanded patch testing results, most physicians proceeded with additional testing including skin biopsy, complete blood cell count with differential, and liver and renal function tests. The most commonly used systemic treatment is prednisone, followed by methotrexate. Narrow-band ultraviolet B (UVB) is the most commonly used light source. Antihistamines are frequently prescribed. Food allergy is not felt to be causative. This cohort of patients experiences significant impairment in quality of life, stress on personal relationships, and time off work. The management of patch test-negative patients with generalized dermatitis is challenging. This study provides insight into management of these complex patients. It also demonstrates practice gaps in the management of these patients, indicating a need for further studies to direct the evaluation and management of this patient population.

  17. EX1101: Ship Shakedown and Patch Tests on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer (EM302)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project will involve the shakedown of all Okeanos Explorer ship capabilities and a patch test of the Kongsberg EM302 multibeam system. Operations for this...

  18. Hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants-diagnostic algorithm and suggested patch test series for clinical use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalock, Peter C; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    algorithm to guide the selection of screening allergen series for patch testing is provided. At a minimum, an extended baseline screening series and metal screening is necessary. Static and dynamic orthopaedic implants, intravascular stent devices, implanted defibrillators and dental and gynaecological......Cutaneous and systemic hypersensitivity reactions to implanted metals are challenging to evaluate and treat. Although they are uncommon, they do exist, and require appropriate and complete evaluation. This review summarizes the evidence regarding evaluation tools, especially patch and lymphocyte...... transformation tests, for hypersensitivity reactions to implanted metal devices. Patch test evaluation is the gold standard for metal hypersensitivity, although the results may be subjective. Regarding pre-implant testing, those patients with a reported history of metal dermatitis should be evaluated by patch...

  19. Several Treatments on Nonconforming Element Failed in the Strict Patch Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ming Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For nonconforming finite elements, it has been proved that the models whose convergence is controlled only by the weak form of patch tests will exhibit much better performance in complicated stress states than those which can pass the strict patch tests. However, just because the former cannot provide the exact solutions for the patch tests of constant stress states with a very coarse mesh (strict patch test, their usability is doubted by many researchers. In this paper, the non-conforming plane 4-node membrane element AGQ6-I, which was formulated by the quadrilateral area coordinate method and cannot pass the strict patch tests, was modified by three different techniques, including the special numerical integration scheme, the constant stress multiplier method, and the orthogonal condition of energy. Three resulting new elements, denoted by AGQ6M-I, AGQ6M-II, and AGQ6M, can pass the strict patch test. And among them, element AGQ6M is the best one. The original model AGQ6-I and the new model AGQ6M can be treated as the replacements of the well-known models Q6 and QM6, respectively.

  20. Attitudes about Advances in Sweat Patch Testing in Drug Courts: Insights from a Case Study in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzer, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Drug courts are reinventing the drug testing framework by experimenting with new methods, including use of the sweat patch. The sweat patch is a band-aid like strip used to monitor drug court participants. The validity and reliability of the sweat patch as an effective testing method was examined, as well as the effectiveness, meaning how likely…

  1. Patch testing with hair cosmetic series in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Frosch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    of the present review was to collect information on the current practice of using 'hair cosmetic series', and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning consumer/professional exposure and regulatory aspects to finally derive a recommendation for a 'European hair cosmetic series'. The methods...... (Annex II of the Cosmetics Regulation). An up-to-date 'European hair cosmetics series', as recommended in the present article, should (i) include broadly used and/or potent contact allergens, (ii) eliminate substances of only historical concern, and (iii) be continually updated as new evidence emerges....

  2. Patch Test Results with Standard and Cosmetic Series in Patients with Suspected Cosmetic-Induced Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay Hacıoğlu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Our aim was to evaluate the hypersensitivity to cosmetic chemicals in patients with clinically suspected cosmetic-induced contact dermatitis in Bursa and the South Marmara Region (Turkey by patch testing with standard and cosmetic series.Material and Method: Seventy-three patients with clinically suspected contact dermatitis due to cosmetics were patch tested by the European standard series and cosmetic series. The patch test results were analyzed as percentages. x2 test was used to demonstrate the relationship between cosmetic products and cosmetic allergens.Results: 90.4% of patients in our study group were female and 9.6% were male; the median age was 37.5 (range 16-71 years. The most commonly involved parts of the body were the face (49.3%, hands (16.4%, periocular region (6.8%, lips (6.8%, and the neck (5.5%. The most common offending cosmetic products causing allergic contact dermatitis were soaps and cleansing lotions (32.8%, moisturizer creams (21.9%, make-up (15.0%, and hair dyes (9.6%. 41.0% of patients showed positive reaction to at least one cosmetic allergen included in either standard or cosmetic series. The cosmetic allergens in the standard series and the rates of positivity were as follows: fragrance mix (6.8%, lanolin alcohols (5.5%, paraphenylenedaimine (2.7%, colophony (1.4%, paraben mix (1.4%, formaldehyde (1.4%, and methylchloroisothiazolinone (Kathon CG in descending order. The most common offending cosmetic allergen groups were preservatives (21.9%, antioxidants (8.2% and fragrances (6.8%. Conclusion: Allergic or irritant contact dermatitis due to cosmetics should be considered in cases of eczema involving face, neck, eyelids, lips, scalp or hands. Patch testing with cosmetic series beside standard series would be more helpful in detecting the responsible allergen(s.

  3. Hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants-diagnostic algorithm and suggested patch test series for clinical use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalock, Peter C; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    transformation tests, for hypersensitivity reactions to implanted metal devices. Patch test evaluation is the gold standard for metal hypersensitivity, although the results may be subjective. Regarding pre-implant testing, those patients with a reported history of metal dermatitis should be evaluated by patch...... testing. Those without a history of dermatitis should not be tested unless considerable concern exists. Regarding post-implant testing, a subset of patients with metal hypersensitivity may develop cutaneous or systemic reactions to implanted metals following implant. For symptomatic patients, a diagnostic...... algorithm to guide the selection of screening allergen series for patch testing is provided. At a minimum, an extended baseline screening series and metal screening is necessary. Static and dynamic orthopaedic implants, intravascular stent devices, implanted defibrillators and dental and gynaecological...

  4. Increased retest reactivity by both patch and use test with methyldibromoglutaronitrile in sensitized individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil

    2006-01-01

    -exposure by both a patch test challenge and a use test with a liquid soap preserved with MDBGN. MDBGN dermatitis was elicited on the back and arms of sensitized individuals. One month later the previously eczematous areas were challenged with MDBGN. On the back, the test sites were patch-tested with a serial...... dilution of MDBGN and a use test was performed on the arms with an MDBGN-containing soap. A statistically significant increased response was seen on the areas with previous dermatitis on the back. Eight of the nine patients who developed dermatitis on the arms from the MDBGN-containing soap had...

  5. Patch test reactivity to feverfew-containing creams in feverfew-allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Fretté, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    anti-inflammatory properties has been developed for use in cosmetics. Objective: The aim of the study was to test, on the basis of patch test reactions, whether persons with contact allergy to feverfew could tolerate creams containing this feverfew extract. Patients/Materials/Methods: Seven patients...... with feverfew contact allergy were patch tested with two creams containing the feverfew extract. Subsequently, the creams were analysed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry to detect parthenolide. Results: Four of the patients tested positive to one of the creams; reactivity was associated...... with simultaneous positive reactions to parthenolide. This cream was analysed about 2 years later, and no parthenolide was detected, probably because of degradation of the compound. Conclusions: Topical products containing parthenolide-depleted feverfew extracts may elicit positive patch test reactions in feverfew...

  6. Multicenter Patch Testing With Methylisothiazolinone and Methylchloroisothiazolinone/Methylisothiazolinone Within the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Marléne; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus E

    2017-01-01

    patients (7.3%). The frequency of contact allergy varied from 0.8% to 10.9% in different centers. Simultaneous reactivity to 200 ppm of MCI/MI was found in 67.3% of the MI-positive patients. Contact allergy to MI alone without any simultaneous contact allergy to 200 ppm of MCI/MI was diagnosed in 93......BACKGROUND: The preservatives methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) and MI are well-known contact sensitizers. Recently, an increase in the contact allergy frequency for MI 0.2% aqueous (aq) has been seen in many European countries paralleled with an increase in MCI/MI allergy....... Many of the MI-allergic patients do not react to MCI/MI 0.01% or 0.02% because the concentration of MI in these preparations is too low (25 and 50 ppm, respectively) to elicit a positive patch test reaction. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to MI...

  7. Evaluation of canine adverse food reactions by patch testing with single proteins, single carbohydrates and commercial foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Cornelia; Mariani, Claire; Mueller, Ralf S

    2017-10-01

    Adverse food reaction (AFR) is an important differential diagnosis for the pruritic dog. It is usually diagnosed by feeding an elimination diet with a novel protein and carbohydrate source for eight weeks followed by subsequent food provocation. A previous study demonstrated that patch testing dogs with foods had a high sensitivity and negative predictability for selection of elimination diet ingredients. The aim of this study was to investigate patch testing with proteins, carbohydrates and dry commercial dog food in dogs to determine whether there was value in patch testing to aid the diagnosis of canine adverse food reaction. Twenty five privately owned dogs, with confirmed AFR, underwent provocation trials with selected food antigens and patch testing. For proteins, carbohydrates and dry dog food the sensitivity of patch testing was 100%, 70% and 22.2%, respectively; the negative predictive values of patch testing were 100%, 79% and 72%. The positive predictive values of patch testing for proteins and carbohydrates were 75% and 74%, respectively. This study confirmed that patch testing may be useful for the selection of a suitable protein source for an elimination diet in dogs with suspected AFR, but not as a diagnostic tool for canine AFR. Results for proteins are more reliable than for carbohydrates and the majority of positive patch test reactions were observed with raw protein. Patch testing with commercial dog food does not seem to be useful. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. Correlation between stated and measured concentrations of acrylate and methacrylate allergens in patch-test preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Anthony Teik-Jin; Bruze, Magnus; Zimerson, Erik; Sörensen, Osten; Goh, Chee-Leok; Koh, David Soo-Quee; Isaksson, Marléne

    2011-01-01

    Contact allergy to acrylates and methacrylates is not uncommon. The allergy is confirmed by patch-testing patients with commercial patch-test preparations. To investigate acrylate and methacrylate allergens used for patch testing in nine different dermatology departments from Europe, America, Asia, and Australia. The acrylate and methacrylate (methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and triethylene glycol diacrylate) allergen samples were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography to measure the allergen content. Variation in measured versus stated concentrations was seen in these samples. The ratio of measured to stated concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 1.1. Only 22 (63%) of 35 samples were within the arbitrary acceptable limits of 80 to 120% of the stated concentrations. The results may have implications for individual diagnosis and prevention and when test results from various centers are compared.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis: patch testing results at Mount Sinai Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jane Y; Al Naami, Munera; Markowitz, Orit; Hadi, Suhail M

    2010-01-01

    Patch testing is an important diagnostic tool commonly used to identify allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis, especially in cases where the diagnosis is not clearly apparent. The authors report the patch test results from 2004-2008 and compare the results with the North American Contact Dermatitis Group and Mayo Clinic. Four hundred thirty-four patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis underwent standardized patch testing with a tray consisting of 50 allergens at Mount Sinai Medical Center. Two hundred ninety patients (66.8%) had positive reactions to at least one allergen. The most frequent contact allergens included nickel sulfate (13%), fragrance mix (9.6%), propylene glycol (7.8%), neomycin sulfate (6.6%), thimerosal (6.4%), bacitracin (6.2%), and sodium gold thiosulfate (5.8%).

  10. The importance of patch tests in the differential diagnosis of adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travassos, Ana Rita; Pacheco, David; Antunes, Joana; Silva, Raquel; Almeida, Luís Soares; Filipe, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Exudative erythema multiforme is an acute self-limited skin disease often associated with infections (usually viral), and also with systemic diseases and drugs. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus, who presented at the emergency clinic with exudative erythema multiforme which started 10 days after taking amoxicillin and clavulanic acid for tonsillitis together (almost simultaneously) with the pneumococcal vaccine. Rowell's syndrome was also considered to be a possibility. Skin patch tests were carried with the standard battery of patches (GPEDC) and the active ingredients of the suspected drugs (Chemotechnique ®), with readings at D2 and D3. The tests were positive for amoxicillin 10% pet (++), ampicillin 10% pet (+ +) and penicillin G potassium 10% pet (+). We accepted the diagnosis of erythema multiforme due to amoxicillin, confirmed by patch testing.

  11. Ethosome formulation of contact allergens may enhance patch test reactions in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2010-01-01

    Background: Ethosomes and liposomes are ultra-small vesicles capable of encapsulating drugs and cosmetic ingredients for topical use, thereby potentially increasing bioavailability and clinical efficacy. So far, few reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic ingredients in vesicular...... carrier systems may increase the allergenicity potential. Objectives: To investigate the effect of ethosome formulation of isoeugenol and methyldibromo glutaronitrile on the elicitation response under patch test conditions and by repeated open applications. Patients/Materials/Methods: A total of 27...... volunteer patients with a previous positive patch test reaction to either isoeugenol or methyldibromo glutaronitrile were included in the study. In all patients, a serial dilution patch test was performed with the allergen in question formulated in ethosomes and in an ethanol/water solution. In addition...

  12. Clinical patch test data evaluated by multivariate analysis. Danish Contact Dermatitis Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, J; Menné, T; Tanghøj, P

    1989-01-01

    patch tested with the standard series of the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG) by members of the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group (DCDG) over a period of 6 months. For the 8 test allergens most often found positive (nickel, fragrance-mix, cobalt, chromate, balsam of Peru, carba...

  13. EAACI Position Paper for practical patch testing in Allergic Contact Dermatitis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2015-01-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in children appears to be on the increase, and contact sensitization may already begin in infancy. The diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires a careful evaluation of a patient's clinical history, physical examination and skin testing. Patch testing is the gold ...

  14. Colophony in mascara as a cause of eyelid dermatitis. Chemical analyses and patch testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlberg, A T; Lidén, C; Ehrin, E

    1991-01-01

    Contact allergy to various components in cosmetics may cause eyelid dermatitis. Of 8 mascaras analysed with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), 3 contained colophony. Patients with contact allergy to colophony showed positive patch test reactions when tested with the two mascaras with the highest content of colophony. One mascara without colophony but containing nickel, gave positive reactions in persons with contact allergy to nickel.

  15. An 8-year experience with routine SL mix patch testing supplemented with Compositae mix in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hausen, B M

    2001-01-01

    Routine patch testing with sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix, supplemented with Compositae mix (CM) and other Compositae extracts and allergens where appropriate, was evaluated over an 8-year period. 190 of 4386 patients tested (4.3%) were Compositae-sensitive, 143 females (mean age 51.5 years) and 47...

  16. Standardization of the TRUE Test imidazolidinyl urea and diazolidinyl urea patches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Björkner, B

    2001-01-01

    The preservatives imidazolidinyl urea (IMID, Germall 115) and diazolidinyl urea (DU, Germall II) are commonly used in cosmetic products and are well-known sensitizers. The aim of the present study was to establish the optimal patch test concentration in hydrophilic dried-in vehicle (TRUE Test...

  17. Unpreferred plants affect patch choice and spatial distribution of European brown hares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, D. P. J.; Bakker, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    Many herbivore species prefer to forage on patches of intermediate biomass. Plant quality and forage efficiency are predicted to decrease with increasing plant standing crop which explains the lower preference of the herbivore. However, often is ignored that on the long-term, plant species

  18. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... the diagnostic significance of the histological classification of allergic and irritant cutaneous reactions in punch biopsies....

  19. Ethosome formulation of contact allergens may enhance patch test reactions in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Simonsson, Carl; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus E

    2010-10-01

    Ethosomes and liposomes are ultra-small vesicles capable of encapsulating drugs and cosmetic ingredients for topical use, thereby potentially increasing bioavailability and clinical efficacy. So far, few reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic ingredients in vesicular carrier systems may increase the allergenicity potential. To investigate the effect of ethosome formulation of isoeugenol and methyldibromo glutaronitrile on the elicitation response under patch test conditions and by repeated open applications. A total of 27 volunteer patients with a previous positive patch test reaction to either isoeugenol or methyldibromo glutaronitrile were included in the study. In all patients, a serial dilution patch test was performed with the allergen in question formulated in ethosomes and in an ethanol/water solution. In addition, a repeated open application test (ROAT) was performed in a subset of 16 patients, and lag time until a positive response was recorded. Both contact allergens encapsulated in ethosomes showed significantly enhanced patch test reactions as compared with the allergen preparation in ethanol/water without ethosomes. No significant difference in the median lag time was recorded between preparations in the ROAT. Encapsulating potential contact allergens in ethosomes may increase the challenge response as compared with the same concentrations in an ethanol/water base without ethosomes. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Kathon CG reactivity in 1396 consecutively patch tested patients in the Copenhagen area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menné, T; Hjorth, N

    1988-10-01

    In 1396 consecutively patch tested patients 18 (1.3%) reacted to Kathon CG. Relevance was established in 4 of the 18 patients. The frequency of positive reactions to Kathon CG in eczema patients seems to have been stable in Denmark during the period 1983 to 1988.

  1. 10 years of patch testing with the (meth)acrylate series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, L; Jolanki, R; Estlander, T

    1997-12-01

    Statistics on 10 years of patch testing with 30 (meth)acrylates were compiled. Altogether 275 patients were patch tested and 48 patients (17.5%) had an allergic reaction to at least 1 (meth)acrylate. The (meth)acrylates most often provoking an allergic patch test reaction were 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA; 12.1%), 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA; 12.0%) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA; 11.4%). No allergic reactions were caused by 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA), 2,2-bis[4-(methacryloxy)phenyl]propane (BIS-MA), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), oligotriacrylate 480 (OTA 480), N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAA), or ethyl cyanoacrylate (ECA). The frequency of allergic patch test reactions presented cannot be considered as a "ranking" list of the most sensitizing (meth)acrylate compounds. In order to be able to judge the sensitization capacity of various (meth)acrylate compounds in humans, it would be necessary to have detailed information on the exposure history of the patients studied, including the purity of the (meth)acrylate compounds. Currently, this is not possible because (meth)acrylate-containing products regularly contain undeclared (meth)acrylate compounds.

  2. EX1201: Ship Shakedown and Patch Tests on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between 20100214 and 20120223

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EX1201 is the 2012 shakedown mission of NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer (EX) and will perform system patch tests of the vessel’s Kongsberg EM302 multibeam sonar....

  3. Patch testing with markers of fragrance contact allergy. Do clinical tests correspond to patients' self-reported problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Veien, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between patients' own recognition of skin problems using consumer products and the results of patch testing with markers of fragrance sensitization. Eight hundred and eighty-four consecutive eczema patients, 18-69 years of age, filled...... significant association was found between reporting a history of visible skin symptoms from using scented products and a positive patch test to the fragrance mix, whereas no such relationship could be established to the Peru balsam in univariate or multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that the role...

  4. Atopy patch test (APT) in the diagnosis of food allergy in children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Soloni Afra Pires; Dortas Junior, Sergio Duarte; Pires, Andrea Huguenim Silva; Abe, Augusto Tiaqui; Valle, Solange Oliveira Rodrigues; Coelho, Vilma Perez; Hahnstadt, Ludwig Ruppert; França, Alfeu Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Atopic Dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Food allergens are important in the pathogenesis in 1/3 of the cases. Several mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of Atopic Dermatitis. Immediate reactions are identified by both measurement of specific IgE and skin prick test. Atopy Patch Test seems to be relevant in the investigation of patients with suspected delayed-type reactions. To evaluate the standardization of this method concerning allergen concentration, occlusion time and interpretation, and determine the specificity and sensitivity of the Atopy Patch Test according to the skin prick test and specific IgE levels in food allergy diagnosis in children with Atopic Dermatitis. Seventy-two children, aged 2-12 years were selected and followed at the allergy clinic of the Hospital São Zacharias. Skin prick test, specific IgE and food Atopy Patch Test (cow's milk, egg, soy and wheat) were carried out. Three groups were submitted to the Atopy Patch Test: (1) Atopic Dermatitis with or without Rhinitis and Asthma; (2) Rhinitis and or Asthma without AD; (3) Healthy individuals. In group 1, 40% of the patients presented positive reactions. The longer the exposure time (48h and 72h), the higher the sensitivity. In group 2, the test was more specific than sensitive for all the extracts, with increased sensitivity the longer the time of exposure (72h). In group 3, 8.3% presented positive tests. APT evidenced a great diagnostic value in late-phase reactions to food, with high specificity. It showed to be a specific and reliable tool in comparison with the healthy group's results.

  5. North American Contact Dermatitis Group patch test results: 2009 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshaw, Erin M; Belsito, Donald V; Taylor, James S; Sasseville, Denis; DeKoven, Joel G; Zirwas, Matthew J; Fransway, Anthony F; Mathias, C G Toby; Zug, Kathryn A; DeLeo, Vincent A; Fowler, Joseph F; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Storrs, Frances J; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-01-01

    Patch testing is an important diagnostic tool for determination of substances responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. This study reports the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) patch testing results from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2010. At 12 centers in North America, patients were tested in a standardized manner with a screening series of 70 allergens. Data were manually verified and entered into a central database. Descriptive frequencies were calculated, and trends were analyzed using χ2 statistics. A total of 4308 patients were tested. Of these, 2614 (60.7%) had at least 1 positive reaction, and 2284 (46.3%) were ultimately determined to have a primary diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Four hundred twenty-seven (9.9%) patients had occupationally related skin disease. There were 6855 positive allergic reactions. As compared with the previous reporting period (2007-2008), the positive reaction rates statistically decreased for 20 allergens (nickel, neomycin, Myroxylon pereirae, cobalt, formaldehyde, quaternium 15, methydibromoglutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol, methylchlorisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, potassium dichromate, diazolidinyl urea, propolis, dimethylol dimethylhydantoin, 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol, methyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate, glyceryl thioglycolate, dibucaine, amidoamine, clobetasol, and dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea; P allergic reaction to a non-NACDG allergen. Hypothetically, approximately one quarter of reactions detected by NACDG allergens would have been missed by TRUE TEST (SmartPractice Denmark, Hillerød, Denmark). These results affirm the value of patch testing with many allergens.

  6. PATTERN OF PATCH TEST ALLERGEN POSITIVITY IN CHRONIC URTICARIA PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN TELANGANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeem Sadath Haneef

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Patch test is the gold standard for detection of causative allergens in allergic contact dermatitis. Though chronic urticaria is a multifactorial condition, a sizeable number of such patients are thought to be due to various contact allergens. Hence, a hospital based prospective study of patch test positivity to various allergens was conducted in patients suffering from chronic urticaria. AIMS To evaluate the pattern of allergen positivity in chronic urticaria patients by patch test using Indian Standard Series. SETTINGS & DESIGN Prospective investigational study was conducted at Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy department of a tertiary care hospital attached to a postgraduate training institute in Telangana state of India. METHODS & MATERIAL Thirty chronic urticaria patients, above 18 years of age were evaluated with patch test of Indian standard series. Two of these patients had prior history of contact sensitivity to rubber and paraphenylenediamine. Patch test was done by application of allergens of Indian standard series over upper back. Patch test site was examined after 48 hours and after 72 hours. Patch test was considered positive if erythema, erythematous papules or vesicles were found at the site of application of corresponding allergen. RESULTS Patch test was positive in 4 out of 30 patients of chronic urticaria, fragrance, black rubber mix, paraphenylenediamine and parthenium being the allergens in 1 patient each. Patients with positive patch test to black rubber mix and paraphenylenediamine had prior history of contact allergy. CONCLUSION Patch test is a simple, noninvasive, inexpensive and useful diagnostic test in a difficult to evaluate condition of chronic urticaria, irrespective of feasibility of avoidance of potential allergens.

  7. Patch testing with a textile dye mix – a multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Kristina; Agner, Tove; Andersen, Klaus E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disperse dyes are well-known contact sensitizers. However, they are not included in the majority of commercially available baseline patch test series. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the outcome of patch testing with a textile dye mix (TDM) consisting of eight disperse dyes at dermatology...... and 17, all at 1.0%, and Disperse Blue 106 and Disperse Blue 124, each at 0.3%, provisionally included in the baseline series. Eighty-seven per cent of the patients allergic to the TDM were also tested with the eight separate dyes. RESULTS: Contact allergy to TDM was found in 108 patients (3.......7%). The frequency of contact allergy varied from 2.1% to 6.9% in different centres. Simultaneous reactivity to p-phenylenediamine was found in 57 of the TDM-positive patients (53%). The most frequent dye allergen among the TDM-positive patients was Disperse Orange 3. The contact allergy could have explained...

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics. Retrospective analysis of 819 patch-tested patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, L; Blondeel, A; Song, M

    2002-01-01

    Cosmetics have been used since the oldest known civilisations, and nowadays almost everybody resorts to beauty products. Considering the increasing incidence of contact dermatitis, the aim of the study is to determine the impact of allergy to cosmetics. From January 1998 to December 1999, 819 patients were subjected to epicutaneous tests for suspicion of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The results were analysed retrospectively in the total population and in that of children under 16: the interest has been focused on cosmetics. 297 patients (36.3%) with ACD to 1 or more cosmetic ingredients have been detected. 34 (48.6%) out of 70 children patch tested showed an ACD: cosmetics represented the first cause. For two decades, the incidence of ACD has been rising; two main reasons can be put forward: a rising product consumption and a more exhaustive allergen research in patch testing. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Dose-response assessments of Kathon biocide (I). Diagnostic use and diagnostic threshold patch testing with sensitized humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J E; Cardin, C W; Maibach, H I

    1985-03-01

    Nearly all effective, commercially available preservatives possess skin sensitization potential. This manuscript describes a program of diagnostic patch and practical use testing of consumer products that contained Kathon CG, a relatively new biocide. A series of threshold diagnostic patch tests demonstrated that the minimal elicitation concentration in occluded patch testing of allergic subjects considerably exceeded the concentrations of the biocide typically present in normal diluted use of the test products. Use testing further confirmed a threshold exposure for eliciting allergic reactions. It showed that even subjects who have delayed contact hypersensitivity to Kathon CG used rinse-off personal care products preserved with this agent without experiencing elicitation of these allergies.

  10. Patch testing with markers of fragrance contact allergy. Do clinical tests correspond to patients' self-reported problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Veien, Niels

    1997-01-01

    significant association was found between reporting a history of visible skin symptoms from using scented products and a positive patch test to the fragrance mix, whereas no such relationship could be established to the Peru balsam in univariate or multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that the role...

  11. Patch testing in Israeli children with suspected allergic contact dermatitis: A retrospective study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafrir, Yaron; Trattner, Akiva; Hodak, Emmillia; Eldar, Oren; Lapidoth, Moshe; Ben Amitai, Dan

    2017-11-16

    Childhood allergic contact dermatitis is recognized as a significant clinical problem. The objective was to evaluate the rate of positive patch tests in Israeli children with clinically suspected allergic contact dermatitis, identify possible sex and age differences, compare results with those in Israeli adults, and review pediatric studies in the literature. The study sample included 343 children and adolescents (197 female, 146 male; 1-18 years of age, mean age 11.8 years) with clinically suspected allergic contact dermatitis who underwent patch testing with a standard pediatric series of 23 allergens at a tertiary medical center from 1999 to 2012. Data on clinical characteristics and test results were collected retrospectively from the medical files. Ninety-eight subjects (28.6%) (75 girls [38.1%], 23 boys [15.8%]) had at least one positive reaction. The most frequent reactions were to nickel sulfate, followed by potassium dichromate and cobalt chloride. Nickel sulfate sensitivity was more common in girls, especially those younger than 3 years and older than 12 years. The prevalence of contact sensitization was similar in subjects with and without atopic dermatitis (50% and 51%, respectively). Nickel is the most common allergen in Israeli children, especially girls. Patch testing should be performed in children with clinically suspected allergic contact dermatitis regardless of atopic background. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Evaluation of allergic vesicular reaction to patch test using in vivo confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardigò, Marco; Longo, Caterina; Cristaudo, Antonio; Berardesca, Enzo; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2012-02-01

    Confocal microscopy has been successfully applied both in oncologic and inflammatory diseases. In particular, it has been proved as a useful tool for the in vivo detection of microscopical changes occurring in allergic reactions. To evaluate microscopic changes occurring in positive patch test reactions. Eight patients with history of allergic dermatitis and positive patch test reaction were analysed by means of confocal microscopy. Confocal microscopy showed the presence of spongiotic vesicle preferentially localized around the adnexal ducts that appeared to be in the middle of the spongiotic phenomena. Confocal microscopy offered for the first time new insight into vesicle formation and development, showing that adnexal ducts can play a role in allergic reaction. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Asthma from diisocyanates is not mediated through a Type IV, patch-test-positive mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, L; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Keskinen, H

    2001-04-01

    The mechanism of occupational asthma from diisocyanates (DI)(1-10)(Fig. 1) is not fully known; only about 10%-30% of such patients have specific IgE antibodies to DI (3, 11, 12). A T-cell mediated response has been considered to be involved in DI asthma (13) and we therefore wondered whether patch testing might be of any help in its diagnosis.

  14. Patch testing with dermatophagoides and its correlation with chronic eczema and atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapur Chetna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic eczema is commonly encountered in the Indian set up. So also is atopic dermatitis. House dust mites (Dermatophagoides are implicated in various diseases like atopic dermatitis, asthma, and perennial rhinitis. It has also been proven that patch testing with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP is important for detection of contact sensitization in chronic dermatitis. Aims: To study clinical characteristics of DP mix positive patients with regards to chronic dermatitis and atopic dermatitis. Methods: Dermatology outpatients presenting to the department of Skin and STD of Kasturba Medical College (KMC, with clinically diagnosed atopic dermatitis and chronic eczema were chosen for the study. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were well demarked. Eighty six randomly selected patients of dermatitis were subjected to patch testing with standard series and DP mix. Results: Of the 86, 50 (58% showed positive reaction to DP mix. Among these positive patients, chronic dermatitis was seen in 42 (84% with involvement of exposed parts in 37 (74%. Atopic dermatitis was seen in 19 patients (38% from DP positive group whereas it was observed in 4 patients (17% from the other group. Conclusion: Dermatophagoides mix positivity was statistically significant in chronic eczema as well as atopic dermatitis. Patch testing is an important tool to detect delayed type allergy to house dust mite.

  15. Comparison of Marketed Cosmetic Products Constituents with the Antigens Included in Cosmetic-related Patch Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Seung Hyun; Choi, You Won; Myung, Ki Bum

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently, cosmetic series (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden) is the most widely used cosmetic-related patch test in Korea. However, no studies have been conducted on how accurately it reflects the constituents of the cosmetics in Korea. Objective We surveyed the constituents of various cosmetics and compare with the cosmetic series, to investigate whether it is accurate in determining allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics sold in Korea. Methods Cosmetics were classified into 11 categories and the survey was conducted on the constituents of 55 cosmetics, with 5 cosmetics in each category. The surveyed constituents were classified by chemical function and compared with the antigens of cosmetic series. Results 155 constituents were found in 55 cosmetics, and 74 (47.7%) of constituents were included as antigen. Among them, only 20 constituents (27.0%) were included in cosmetic series. A significant number of constituents, such as fragrance, vehicle and surfactant were not included. Only 41.7% of antigens in cosmetic series were found to be in the cosmetics sampled. Conclusion The constituents not included in the patch test but possess antigenicity are widely used in cosmetics. Therefore, the patch test should be modified to reflect ingredients in the marketed products that may stimulate allergies. PMID:20711261

  16. Effects of time and recall of patch test results on quality of life (QoL) after testing. Cross-sectional study analyzing QoL in hand eczema patients 1, 5 and 10 years after patch testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Wasim N; Lindberg, Magnus

    2017-08-01

    Patch testing can improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL). To study the impact on HRQOL of elapsed time after patch testing (1-10 years), and how the outcome of testing and patients' recall affects HRQOL. The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire was sent to all patients (aged 18-65 years) who were patch tested for suspected contact allergy in 2009, 2005 and 2000 at the Department of Dermatology in Örebro. The response rate was 51% (n = 256). The DLQI score was significantly lower at 10 years after patch testing (mean DLQI = 5.5) than at 1 year (mean DLQI = 7.7). Work was the most impaired aspect. A binary logistic model showed that only time (10 years after testing) was associated with no effect, a light effect or a moderate effect (DLQI test results concerning full recall, partial recall or no recall of diagnosed allergens. Although there was an improvement in HRQOL over time, the work aspect remained a major problem. The improvement was not affected by the outcome of testing and patients' recall of test results. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Patch testing with own cosmetics-- prospective study of testing and reporting of adverse effects to the Swedish Medical Products Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammela, Monica; Lindberg, Magnus; Isaksson, Marléne; Inerot, Annica; Rudel, Jana; Berne, Berit

    2012-07-01

    The Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) provides a voluntary reporting system for adverse reactions to cosmetics. However, the reporting is sparse, and the products involved are sometimes difficult to identify. To investigate how often patients referred for patch testing were tested with the cosmetic products that they had been using themselves, and to improve the reporting to the MPA by the use of photographic documentation of product labels. Consecutive patients at five dermatology departments who were patch tested with their own cosmetics were included. Reports including protocols of positive patch test results for the patients' own cosmetics and photographs/photocopies of product labels were sent to the MPA. Three hundred and sixteen of 948 patients (33%) were tested with their own cosmetics, and 15% of these tested positive with one or more products. The number of reports was more than three times higher than in corresponding periods in earlier years. For 79% of the products, photographs/photocopies of the containers were submitted, and for 30%, batch numbers were submitted. For a substantial number of patients, their own cosmetics were suspected of causing adverse reactions and were therefore tested. During the study, the number of reports to the MPA tripled, and the relevant products were easier to identify. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Evaluation of patients with oral lichenoid lesions by dental patch testing and results of removal of the dental restoration material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Buket Şahin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Oral lichenoid lesions (OLL are contact stomatitis characterized by white reticular or erosive patches, plaque-like lesions that are clinically and histopathologically indistinguishable from oral lichen planus (OLP. Amalgam dental fillings and dental restoration materials are among the etiologic agents. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the standard and dental series patch tests in patients with OLL in comparison to a control group and evaluate our results. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three patients with OLL or OLP and 30 healthy control subjects, who had at least one dental restoration material and/or dental filling, were included in the study. Both groups received standard series and dental patch test and the results were evaluated simultaneously. Results: The most frequent allergens in the dental series patch test in the patient group were palladium chloride (n=4; 12.12% and benzoyl peroxide (n=2, 6.06%. Of the 33 patients with OLL; 8 had positive reaction to allergents in the standard patch test series and 8 had positive reaction in the dental patch test series. There was no significant difference in the rate of patch test reaction to the dental and standard series between the groups. Ten patients were advised to have the dental restoration material removed according to the results of the patch tests. The lesions improved in three patients [removal of all amalgam dental fillings (n=1, replacement of all amalgam dental fillings with an alternative filling material (n=1 and replacement of the dental prosthesis (n=1] following the removal or replacement of the dental restoration material. Conclusion: Dental patch test should be performed in patients with OLL and dental restoration material. Dental filling and/or prosthesis should be removed/replaced if there is a reaction against a dental restoration material-related allergen.

  19. [European Portuguese EARS test battery adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Marisa; Ramos, Daniela; Oliveira, Graça; Alves, Helena; Anderson, Ilona; Magalhães, Isabel; Martins, Jorge H; Simões, Margarida; Ferreira, Raquel; Fonseca, Rita; Andrade, Susana; Silva, Luís; Ribeiro, Carlos; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes

    2014-01-01

    The use of adequate assessment tools in health care is crucial for the management of care. The lack of specific tools in Portugal for assessing the performance of children who use cochlear implants motivated the translation and adaptation of the EARS (Evaluation of Auditory Responses to Speech) test battery into European Portuguese. This test battery is today one of the most commonly used by (re)habilitation teams of deaf children who use cochlear implants worldwide. The goal to be achieved with the validation of EARS was to provide (re)habilitation teams an instrument that enables: (i) monitoring the progress of individual (re)habilitation, (ii) managing a (re)habilitation program according to objective results, comparable between different (re)habilitation teams, (iii) obtaining data that can be compared with the results of international teams, and (iv) improving engagement and motivation of the family and other professionals from local teams. For the test battery translation and adaptation process, the adopted procedures were the following: (i) translation of the English version into European Portuguese by a professional translator, (ii) revision of the translation performed by an expert panel, including doctors, speech-language pathologists and audiologists, (iii) adaptation of the test stimuli by the team's speechlanguage pathologist, and (iv) further review by the expert panel. For each of the tests that belong to the EARS battery, the introduced adaptations and adjustments are presented, combining the characteristics and objectives of the original tests with the linguistic and cultural specificities of the Portuguese population. The difficulties that have been encountered during the translation and adaptation process and the adopted solutions are discussed. Comparisons are made with other versions of the EARS battery. We defend that the translation and the adaptation process followed for the EARS test battery into European Portuguese was correctly conducted

  20. Patch Testing To a Textile Dye Mix by the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Marléne; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus E

    2015-01-01

    .2%. The most frequent dye allergen in the TDM-positive patients was D Orange 3. CONCLUSIONS: Over 30% of the TDM allergic patients had been missed if only the international baseline series was tested. Contact allergy to TDM could explain or contribute to dermatitis in over 20% of the patients. Textile dye mix......BACKGROUND: Disperse dyes are well-known contact sensitizers not included in the majority of commercially available baseline series. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcome of patch testing to a textile dye mix (TDM) consisting of 8 disperse dyes. METHODS: Two thousand four hundred ninety...... should be considered for inclusion into the international baseline series....

  1. Erythema multiforme due to contact with weeds: a recurrence after patch testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, M; Mimica-Dukić, N; Poljacki, M; Boza, P

    2003-01-01

    Erythema multiforme (EM) as a complication of patch testing (PT) is rare. A 52-year-old woman with a 13-year history of episodes of EM, after contact with weeds during home gardening, had had no recent history of herpes simplex, other infection, drug ingestion or vaccination. On examination, EM lesions were distributed on the exposed skin. 5 weeks after complete resolution, PT and photopatch testing (PPT) were done with fresh plants she brought in. She was PT with a standard series and the Hermal-Trolab plants, woods, tars, balsams and flavors series. Intradermal testing, with a 3 + reaction to mixed weed pollens, was done 3 weeks later. Specific IgE to weed pollens class 1 (CAP-Pharmacia) was detected. Eczematous PT reactions were obtained with fresh leaves: common chickweed (Stellaria media Caryophyllaceae), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Compositae), field-milk thistle (Sonchus arvensis Compositae) and white clover (Trifolium repens Leguminosae). Photoaggravation was seen to common chickweed and dandelion. Positive PT was also seen with alantolactone. By the 4-day reading, a typical EM had commenced, coming up to quite the same extent as seen on admission. There was no photosensitivity (UV skin tester, K. Waldmann). In the essential oil obtained from common chickweed, thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the well-known contact allergens borneol, menthol, linalool, 1,8-cineole, and other terpenes such as epoxy-dehydro-caryophyllene, monoterpene alcohol-ester and caryophyllene. Up to now, no data on essential oil in Stellaria media (common chickweed) have been reported. It can be concluded that EM developed due to contact with weeds, and recurred after patch testing. Neither blistering nor eczematous lesions have been seen on her skin, making this case very unusual. As far as the world literature is concerned, this is only the 4th report of EM developing in association with patch testing.

  2. Testing metapopulation concepts: effects of patch characteristics and neighborhood occupancy on the dynamics of an endangered lagomorph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Hughes, Phillip T.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Metapopulation ecology is a field that is richer in theory than in empirical results. Many existing empirical studies use an incidence function approach based on spatial patterns and key assumptions about extinction and colonization rates. Here we recast these assumptions as hypotheses to be tested using 18 years of historic detection survey data combined with four years of data from a new monitoring program for the Lower Keys marsh rabbit. We developed a new model to estimate probabilities of local extinction and colonization in the presence of nondetection, while accounting for estimated occupancy levels of neighboring patches. We used model selection to identify important drivers of population turnover and estimate the effective neighborhood size for this system. Several key relationships related to patch size and isolation that are often assumed in metapopulation models were supported: patch size was negatively related to the probability of extinction and positively related to colonization, and estimated occupancy of neighboring patches was positively related to colonization and negatively related to extinction probabilities. This latter relationship suggested the existence of rescue effects. In our study system, we inferred that coastal patches experienced higher probabilities of extinction and colonization than interior patches. Interior patches exhibited higher occupancy probabilities and may serve as refugia, permitting colonization of coastal patches following disturbances such as hurricanes and storm surges. Our modeling approach should be useful for incorporating neighbor occupancy into future metapopulation analyses and in dealing with other historic occupancy surveys that may not include the recommended levels of sampling replication.

  3. EX1101: Ship Shakedown and Patch Tests on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between March 16 and April 1, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project will involve the shakedown of all Okeanos Explorer ship capabilities and a patch test of the Kongsberg EM302 multibeam system. Operations for this...

  4. The dose-response relationship between the patch test and ROAT and the potential use for regulatory purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise Arup; Voelund, Aage; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2009-01-01

    . OBJECTIVES: The aim was to develop an equation that could predict the response to an allergen in a ROAT based on the dose-response curve derived by patch testing. MATERIALS/METHODS: Results from two human experimental elicitation studies with non-volatile allergens, nickel and the preservative methyldibromo...... glutaronitrile (MDBGN), were analysed by logistic dose-response statistics. The relation for volatile compounds was investigated using the results from experiments with the fragrance chemicals hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde and isoeugenol. RESULTS: For non-volatile compounds, the outcome of a ROAT...... can be estimated from the patch test by: ED(xx)(ROAT) = 0.0296 ED(xx)(patch test). For volatile compounds, the equation predicts that the response in the ROAT is more severe than the patch test response, but it overestimates the response. CONCLUSIONS: This equation may be used for non...

  5. Patch testing for allergic contact dermatitis: Three years retrospective results in Tekirdağ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Erfan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to allergens in individuals who were sensitized with same allergens before. The causative allergens may change in time as well as vary among geographical and population based differences. Materials and Methods: The characteristics of 169 patients-107 (63.3% male, 62 (36.7% female, who patch tested between 2011- 2014 with allergic contact dermatitis diagnosis and test results were retrospectively analysed. Results: The mean age of all patients who had the most frequent occupation as service sector/house wife (26.6% were 41.06 years and the mean disease duration of all patients was 19.5 months. The most frequent localization of disease was hands (n: 105,%73 and %50.3 of patients had positivity with at least one allergen. The most frequent seven allergens with positivity were nickel sulfate (n: 50, %29.6, cobalt chloride (n: 23, %13.6, potassium dichromate (n: 22, %13, sesquiterpene lactone mix (n: 18, %10.7, thiuram (n: 10, %5.9, clioquinol mix (n: 10, %5.9 and 4-tert-butilfenol formaldehyde resin (n: 10, %5.9, respectively. On the other hand in all patients there were no positivity with N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine, epoxy resin, balsam of peru, formaldehyde, quaternium-15, primin, tixocortol-21-pivalate, fragrance mix-2. Conclusion: In comparison of this study which first reports patch test results of patients in Tekirdağ-a city in Trakya region and other studies that report patch test results of different regions of our country; the mean age of patients of present study were older and there were similar results for occupations and localization of disease in between eastern region and present study. We believe that further studies are needed to specify allergen characteristics of Trakya region using multicenter studies, which include other cities as well.

  6. Pesticide patch test series for the assessment of allergic contact dermatitis among banana plantation workers in panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penagos, Homero; Ruepert, Clemens; Partanen, Timo; Wesseling, Catharina

    2004-09-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are frequent among agricultural workers and require targeted interventions. Patch testing is necessary for differential diagnosis, but patch testing with pesticides is uncommon. This study explores the frequency of ACD and sensitization to pesticides among highly exposed banana plantation workers. Frequently and recently used pesticides on banana plantations in Divala, Panama, were documented. A pesticide patch test tray specific for this population was prepared. A structured interview was administered to 366 participants, followed by a complete skin examination. The pesticide patch test series, as well as a standard patch test series, was applied to 37 workers with dermatoses likely to be pesticide related and to 23 control workers without dermatoses. The pesticide patch tests identified 15 cases (41%) of ACD (20 positive reactions) among the 37 workers diagnosed with pesticide dermatosis. Three controls had allergic reactions to pesticides (4 positive reactions). The pesticides were carbaryl (5 cases), benomyl (4 cases), ethoprophos (3), chlorothalonil (2), imazalil (2), glyphosate (2), thiabendazole (2), chlorpyrifos (1), oxyfluorfen (1), propiconazole (1), and tridemorph (1). Ethoprophos and tridemorph had not been previously identified as sensitizers. Thus, the prevalence of ACD was 0.03 (15 of 366). On the basis of observed prevalences of positive patch-test reactions among the subgroups with and without dermatoses, we estimated that > or = 16% of the entire population may be sensitized to pesticides. Sensitization to pesticides among banana plantation workers is a frequent occupational health problem. Pesticide patch test trays should be used in assessing skin diseases in highly exposed workers.

  7. Patch testing with markers of fragrance contact allergy. Do clinical tests correspond to patients' self-reported problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Veien, N

    1997-01-01

    significant association was found between reporting a history of visible skin symptoms from using scented products and a positive patch test to the fragrance mix, whereas no such relationship could be established to the Peru balsam in univariate or multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that the role...... of Peru balsam in detecting relevant fragrance contact allergy is limited, while most fragrance mix-positive patients are aware that the use of scented products may cause skin problems....

  8. Is there a role of food additives in recurrent aphthous stomatitis? A prospective study with patch testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülseren, Duygu; Hapa, Asli; Ersoy-Evans, Sibel; Elçin, Gonca; Karaduman, Ayşen

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common disease of the oral mucosa with an unknown etiology. This study aimed to determine if food additives play a role in the etiology of RAS as well as to determine if patch testing can be used to detect which allergens cause RAS. This prospective study included 24 patients with RAS and 22 healthy controls. All the participants underwent patch testing for 23 food additives. In total, 21 (87.5%) RAS patients and 3 (13.6%) controls had positive patch test reactions to ≥1 allergens; the difference in the patch test positivity rate between groups was significant (P < 0.05). The most common allergen that elicited positive patch test results in the patient group was cochineal red (n = 15 [62.5%]), followed by azorubine (n = 11 [45.8%]) and amaranth (n = 6 [25%]). The present findings show that food additives might play a role in the etiology of RAS and that patch testing could be a method for determining the etiology of RAS. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Course of contact allergy in consecutive eczema patients patch tested with TRUE Test panels 1 and 2 at least twice over a 12-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2005-01-01

    -year period using the TRUE Test standardized patch test system. Out of 297 positive reactions, 66% remained positive in a 2nd test, 10% were scored as doubtful and 24% as negative. Among the previously recorded doubtful reactions, 13% were positive in the 2nd test, 13% were again doubtful and 74......% negative. In relation to the degree of patch test reactivity, 48% of the + reactions were reproducible, compared to 87% of ++ and +++ reactions. No difference in reproducibility was observed between patients tested with a short or a long-time interval between tests. With the use of the TRUE Test panels 1...... and 2, methodological factors are minimized. The variation in patch test positivity may then be attributed to biological variation, which depends on several individual factors such as patch test reading, patient-related factors such as changed immunological sensitivity, regional variation of the skin...

  10. Topical botanically derived products: use, skin reactions, and usefulness of patch tests. A multicentre Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Monica; Borghi, Alessandro; Gallo, Rosella; Schena, Donatella; Pigatto, Paolo; Lauriola, Maria Michela; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Stingeni, Luca; Vincenzi, Colombina; Foti, Caterina; Virgili, Annarosa

    2014-02-01

    The evidence on the safety of topical preparations containing botanical extracts is limited. To assess (i) the use of botanically derived compounds in a large population, (ii) the incidence of cutaneous side-effects, and (iii) the diagnostic usefulness of patch testing. A questionnaire was used in 2661 patients to assess both the prevalence and type of topical botanical preparations used, and the occurrence of adverse skin reactions. Patients declaring adverse reactions were patch tested with (i) the Italian (SIDAPA) baseline series, (ii) an additional botanical series, and (iii) the patients' own products. Of the patients, 1274 (48%) reported the use of topical botanical products; 139 patients (11%) commented on adverse cutaneous reactions; 75 (54%) showed positive reactions with the Italian baseline series. Among the 122 patients tested with the botanical series, 19 (16%) showed positive reactions, in many cases with concomitant relevant positivity to at least one allergen of the Italian series connected with cosmetics. The commonest botanically derived allergens were propolis, Compositae extracts, and Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil. Contact allergy is a possible adverse effect of natural products. Baseline series supplemented with the commonest botanical allergens may be adequate for detecting most of the cases of contact allergy to natural topical products. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The European standard series in 9 European countries, 2002/2003 - First results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, W; Hegewald, J; Aberer, W; Ayala, F; Bircher, AJ; Brasch, J; Coenraads, PJ; Schuttelaar, Marielouise; Elsner, P; Fartasch, M; Mahler, V.; Fortina, AB; Frosch, PJ; Fuchs, T; Johansen, JD; Menne, T; Jolanki, R; Krecisz, B; Kiec-Swierczynska, M; Larese, F; Orton, D; Peserico, A; Rantanen, T; Schnuch, A

    Since January 2001, the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), supported by European Union funding (contract QLK4-CT-2001-00343), has started to collect patch-test data. This comprises a standardized clinical history and the patch-test results using the European standard series,

  12. Characterization of the decomposition of compounds derived from imidazolidinyl urea in cosmetics and patch test materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takahiro; Takeda, Akihiro; Asada, Akiko; Kajimura, Keiji

    2012-11-01

    Imidazolidinyl urea releases formaldehyde through decomposition. However, there have been few reports on the chemistry of imidazolidinyl urea in cosmetics. The aim of this study was to characterize imidazolidinyl urea-derived compounds in cosmetics and to determine which compounds are responsible for the cross-reactivity with diazolidinyl urea. We analysed imidazolidinyl urea dissolved in aqueous solutions, imidazolidinyl urea patch test materials and imidazolidinyl urea-preserved cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography/photodiode array detection and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results were compared with those obtained with a diazolidinyl urea aqueous solution. In the analysed cosmetic samples and patch test materials, imidazolidinyl urea was primarily composed of allantoin, (4-hydroxymethyl-2,5-dioxo-imidazolidine-4-yl)-urea (HU), (3,4-bis-hydroxymethyl-2,5-dioxo-imidazolidine-4-yl)-urea (3,4-BHU), and (3-hydroxymethyl-2,5-dioxo-imidazolidine-4-yl)-urea. Two of the imidazolidinyl urea-derived major decomposition compounds - HU and 3,4-BHU - are common in the diazolidinyl urea-decomposed compound present in cosmetics. These compounds are possible causative agents of the cross-reactivity between diazolidinyl urea and imidazolidinyl urea. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Occupational Contact Dermatitis: Workers' Compensation Patch Test Results of Portland, Oregon, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Garrett; Zinsmeister, Chris; Norris, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Workers are exposed to potential irritants and allergens with constant introduction of new industrial chemicals in the workplace. Characterize the final diagnoses, demographics, occupations, exposures, clinical presentations, patch test results, dermatologic histories, and risk factors of workers evaluated for suspected work-related allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). A retrospective chart review of 310 workers' compensation independent medical examinations evaluated for suspected work-related ACD was performed. Workers were seen in a community dermatology clinic in Portland, Oregon, from 2005 to 2014. Evaluation included history, physical examination, patch testing, and further diagnostic workup when indicated. Hand dermatitis was the most common presentation (n = 148, 47.7%). Prevalent occupations included health care workers (n = 51, 16.5%), custodial staff (n = 41, 13.2%), and machinists (n = 36, 11.6%). Allergic contact dermatitis (47.5%) was more common than irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) (38.9%) in those diagnosed as having occupational skin disease (n = 185). The highest-frequency work-related allergens were thiuram mix (21 of 88, 23.9%), carba mix (20 of 88, 22.7%), potassium dichromate (9 of 88, 10.2%), and epoxy resin (9 of 88, 10.2%). Allergic contact dermatitis and ICD are common occupational skin disorders. In this population of workers' compensation referrals, ACD was more common, with 73.3% of those cases work related, compared with 86.7% of ICD. Blue collar work and wet work were risk factors for the development of ACD and ICD.

  14. Level of use and safety of botanical products for itching vulvar dermatoses. Are patch tests useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Monica; Virgili, Annarosa; Toni, Giulia; Minghetti, Sara; Tiengo, Silvia; Borghi, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Topical remedies based on botanical ingredients are popular. To assess: (i) the usage of botanical substances in subjects affected with itching and chronic vulvar complaints; (ii) the incidence of side-effects associated with their use and the frequency of contact allergy; (iii) the diagnostic usefulness of patch testing. Sixty-six patients were provided with a questionnaire to assess the prevalence and type of topical botanical preparations used and the occurrence of adverse reactions. Patients were patch tested with (i) the Italian baseline series, (ii) a topical medicament series, and (iii) a botanical series. Forty-two patients (63.6%) reported the use of natural topical products on the vulva. Seven (16.7%) noted adverse reactions; 27 showed positive reactions with the baseline series; 14 (21.2%) had at least one relevant reaction, mainly to allergens in topical products and cosmetics; and 2 (3%) showed positive reactions to the botanical series. Of the 7 patients complaining of adverse effects of botanical products, 3 (42.8%) showed relevant sensitization. The use of natural topical products is widespread among women affected with itching vulvar diseases. Contact dermatitis is a possible adverse effect. Botanical series are of questionable usefulness, owing to the wide variety of botanical ingredients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of patients with oral lichenoid lesions by dental patch testing and results of removal of the dental restoration material

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Buket Şahin; Fatma Çetinözman; Nihal Avcu; Ayşen Karaduman

    2016-01-01

    Background and Design: Oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) are contact stomatitis characterized by white reticular or erosive patches, plaque-like lesions that are clinically and histopathologically indistinguishable from oral lichen planus (OLP). Amalgam dental fillings and dental restoration materials are among the etiologic agents. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the standard and dental series patch tests in patients with OLL in comparison to a control group and evaluate our result...

  16. Visual and laser Doppler perfusion scanning assessments of Kathon CG patch test reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, B; Fischer, T

    1998-12-01

    Testing procedure for Kathon CG (Diagnostics AB, Tygelsjö, Sweden) is not standardized. To improve test results for Kathon CG. Eleven subjects were tested with Kathon CG patch tests applied from 6 to 96 hours. Tests were read visually and by a laser Doppler perfusion scanning technique at time points ranging from 6 to 240 hours. There were large differences in the perfusion profiles of subjects tested in identical fashion. Beginning reactions were detected earlier with the laser Doppler scanning than with the visual assessment technique. There was no obvious agreement between peak perfusion values of reactions and application times. Both assessment techniques were effective at distinguishing between positive and negative subjects at an adequate dose and application time. This distinction was possible using a shorter reading time with the laser Doppler scanning for all subjects. Six-hour applications were sufficient to detect all positive subjects so tested regardless of assessment technique. With that application time, positive and negative subjects were most effectively identified using long reading times regardless of assessment technique. The shortest application time used on all subjects, 24 hours, was effective and 6-hour applications with long reading times for all subjects so tested. Doses lower than 0.0040 mg/cm2 resulted in false-negative tests.

  17. Stability of selected volatile contact allergens in different patch test chambers under different storage conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Kristian Fredløv; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer

    2012-01-01

    storage conditions. Methods. Petrolatum samples of methyl methacrylate (MMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate (2-HPA), cinnamal and eugenol in patch test concentrations were stored in three different test chambers (IQ chamber™, IQ Ultimate™, and Van der Bend® transport...... during storage in the refrigerator. For these two chamber systems, the contact allergen concentration dropped below the stability limit in the following order: MMA, cinnamal, 2-HPA, eugenol, and 2-HEMA. In the Van der Bend® transport container, the contact allergens exhibited acceptable stability under...... both storage conditions, whereas MMA and 2-HPA required cool storage for maintenance of the limit. Conclusion. The Van der Bend® transport container was the best device for storage of samples of volatile contact allergens....

  18. Common Allergens Identified Based on Patch Test Results in Patients with Suspected Contact Dermatitis of the Scalp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleid, Nouf M.; Fertig, Raymond; Maddy, Austin; Tosti, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Background Contact dermatitis of the scalp is common and might be caused by many chemicals including metals, ingredients of shampoos and conditioners, dyes, or other hair treatments. Eliciting a careful history and patch tests are necessary to identify the responsible allergen and prevent relapses. Objectives To identify allergens that may cause contact dermatitis of the scalp by reviewing patch test results. Methods We reviewed the records of 1,015 patients referred for patch testing at the Dermatology Department of the University of Miami. A total of 226 patients (205 females and 21 males) with suspected scalp contact dermatitis were identified, and the patch test results and clinical data for those patients were analyzed. Most patients were referred for patch testing from a specialized hair clinic at our institution. Results The most common allergens in our study population were nickel (23.8%), cobalt (21.0%), balsam of Peru (18.2%), fragrance mix (14.4%), carba mix (11.6%), and propylene glycol (PG) (8.8%). The majority of patients were females aged 40–59 years, and scalp itching or burning were reported as the most common symptom. Conclusion Frequent sources of allergens for metals include hair clasps, pins, and brushes, while frequent sources of allergens for preservatives, fragrance mix, and balsam of Peru include shampoos, conditioners, and hair gels. Frequent sources of allergens for PG include topical medications. PMID:28611994

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis and changes in the frequency of the causative allergens demonstrated with patch testing in 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, Martin; Karlova, Iva

    2015-09-01

    The frequency of contact allergens is often regionally different and hence it regional identification is important for the prevention of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The aim of the study was to determine the most common contact allergens in the etiology of ACD from 2008-2012 and evaluate their dynamics in comparison with similar studies in the Czech Republic and internationally carried out in previous years. A total of 1941 patients with suspected ACD were examined using the patch tests from the European Standard Series. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The most common contact allergy was to nickel (15.4%), the second most frequent allergen was Balsam of Peru (11.6%). The top five allergens in the whole sample also included, in descending order, fragrance-mix I (7.1%), cobalt chloride (6.4%), and Kathon CG (4.0%). While the order of contact allergens causing sensitisation in women is consistent with the results of the whole sample, in men instead of cobalt and Kathon CG, epoxy resin and chromium appeared among the five most common allergens. In the Czech Republic, despite existing EU legislation, action to reduce the frequency of sensitization to nickel failed in contrast to other EU countries. In addition to nickel, consistent preventive measures should be focused mainly on sensitization to Balsam of Peru, cobalt, epoxy resins, chromium and aromatic substances and preservatives used in the cosmetic industry.

  20. Compositae dermatitis in a Danish dermatology department in one year (I). Results of routine patch testing with the sesquiterpene lactone mix supplemented with aimed patch testing with extracts and sesquiterpene lactones of Compositae plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hausen, B M

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of Compositae sensitivity, the recently-developed sesquiterpene lactone mix (SL mix) was included in the standard patch test series. Patients with positive reactions to this or patients suspected of having a Compositae allergy were supplementarily tested with a Compos...

  1. Dose-response assessments of Kathon biocide. (II). Threshold prophetic patch testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, C W; Weaver, J E; Bailey, P T

    1986-07-01

    Biocidal preservative agents are important in preventing the growth of pathogenic and nonpathogenic organisms in a variety of personal care, household and industrial products. Nearly all effective, commonly used preservative materials possess skin sensitization potential. In a series of 13 prophetic human repeat insult patch tests involving a total of 1450 subjects, no skin sensitization was induced at concentrations of 10 ppm, 6 ppm or 5 ppm (1121 subjects) or at 15 ppm (200 subjects) of a new isothiazolinone preservative mixture (Kathon CG). Delayed contact hypersensitivity was induced in 1 of 84 subjects at 12.5 ppm and in 2 of 45 subjects at 20 ppm. These results add further support to the previously reported conclusion that use of this new biocide at the very low concentrations required for effective preservation of rinse-off products involves an extremely low risk of clinical dermatoses.

  2. Sites of dermatitis in a patch test population: hand dermatitis is associated with polysensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, B C; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, T

    2009-01-01

    . Methods A matched case-control study was carried out including 394 polysensitized and 726 single/double-sensitized patients who responded to a postal questionnaire. All subjects were recruited from a hospital patch test population. Results The hands were the most frequent and the anogenital region...... was the least frequent skin area affected with dermatitis. Dermatitis on the hands/wrists [odds ratio (OR) 1.58], in the armpits (OR 1.56) and on the back (OR 1.91) was positively associated with polysensitization. The hands were the only skin area with dermatitis which maintained the association...... compared with single/double-sensitized patients. Conclusions Special awareness in patients with hand dermatitis seems justified either to prevent development of multiple contact allergies or to document polysensitization as an aetiological factor....

  3. Utility of the Atopy Patch Test in the Diagnosis of Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Fuiano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The diagnostic work-up of allergic rhinitis (AR is first and foremost based on the combination of clinical history data and results of skin prick tests (SPT. Other tests, including specific IgE measurement, nasal challenge, and, as a third option, component resolved diagnosis or basophil activation test, may be useful when the diagnosis is difficult because of polysensitization or when negative results of SPT are observed despite a suggestive history for allergy. The atopy patch test (APT that assesses the type 4 delayed hypersensitivity allergy is currently not sufficiently used. The data obtained in recent studies on the diagnostic utility of the APT in patients with AR was reviewed. Data Sources: Review of the literature. Conclusion:  The data from available studies show that the APT is frequently positive in patients with AR, especially when there is a positive history for atopic dermatitis. Very often, APT is the only positive test and therefore performing only SPT or in vitro IgE measurement may lead to an erroneous diagnosis of nonallergic rhinitis. Recent data suggest a role for APT not only for diagnosis but also in epidemiological investigation on respiratory allergy.

  4. Nickel allergy in patch-tested female hairdressers and assessment of nickel release from hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Milting, Kristina; Bregnhøj, Anne

    2009-01-01

    the proportion of hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks that released an excessive amount of nickel and to determine the prevalence of nickel allergy among patch-tested female hairdressers. MATERIALS: Random hairdressers' stores in Copenhagen were visited. The dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test was used to assess...

  5. Patch testing with a new fragrance mix detects additional patients sensitive to perfumes and missed by the current fragrance mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Pirker, Claudia; Rastogi, Suresh C

    2005-01-01

    The currently used 8% fragrance mix (FM I) does not identify all patients with a positive history of adverse reactions to fragrances. A new FM II with 6 frequently used chemicals was evaluated in 1701 consecutive patients patch tested in 6 dermatological centres in Europe. FM II was tested in 3 c...

  6. Patch test results with patients' own perfumes, deodorants and shaving lotions: results of the IVDK 1998-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uter, W; Geier, J; Schnuch, A; Frosch, P J

    2007-03-01

    Assessment of the value of patch testing patients' own perfumes, eau de toilette, deodorants and shaving lotions with regard to diagnosing contact allergy to fragrances, and an analysis of the spectrum of concurrent patch test reactions to single fragrance allergens. Data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK; http://www.ivdk.org) regarding patch test results with above products brought in by the patient, considered as possible cause of contact dermatitis, were retrospectively analysed. Between 1998 and 2002, 1468 patients were patch tested with 2557 single products (deodorants, n = 1094; eau de toilette, n = 598; perfume, n = 530; and pre- or after-shave, n = 325; remainder not classifiable), mostly 'as is'. Positive reactions were observed in 129 patients (to 191 products). In 58 of these patients, no further patch test reactions to the fragrance mix (FM-I), Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru) or 4-(4-hydroxy-4-methyl-pentyl)-3-cyclohexencarboxaldehyde (e.g. Lyral(R)) were found. A strong association between contact sensitivity to the above commercial allergens and positive reactions to products was observed. Some single compounds such as ylang-ylang oil, propolis and especially oak moss absolute are important allergens in the 'perfume-positive' subgroup, but less in a subgroup positive to own deodorants. Patch testing this scope of products, brought in by the patient, can be regarded as a simple, safe and effective method to diagnose clinically relevant contact sensitization - the more so, as the composition of such products is ever-changing, and the sensitivity of established 'screening allergens' is thus insufficient.

  7. High frequency of false-positive reactions in attempted patch testing with acrylate/methacrylate mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Anthony T-J; Bruze, Magnus; Zimerson, Erik; Goossens, An; Goh, Chee-Leok; Isaksson, Marléne

    2012-09-01

    Although acrylate/methacrylate allergy has been frequently reported, until now patch testing with this group of allergens has been unwieldy, requiring the application of large supplementary series in most centres. To formulate and evaluate two mixes of acrylate/methacrylate allergens in three centres (Malmö, Singapore, and Leuven). All patients tested with the baseline series during the study period were also patch tested with the mixes. Mix 1 consisted of: triethyleneglycol diacrylate (TREGDA) 0.1% wt/wt, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) 1.0% wt/wt and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate 1.0% wt/wt in petrolatum. Mix 2 consisted of: TREGDA 0.1% wt/wt and 2-HEMA 2.0% wt/wt in pet. The separate components of the two mixes were also tested simultaneously. There were 25 (5 males; 20 females) positive reactions to mix 1 with 16 in Malmö, 8 in Singapore, and 1 in Leuven. Positive reactions to mix 2 were seen only in Malmö, in 8 female patients. Thus, the positive reaction rate for mix 1 was 8.3% overall (Malmö 7.7%, Singapore 18.6%, and Leuven 2.1%), and that for mix 2 was 2.7% overall (Malmö 3.8%, Singapore 0%, and Leuven 0%). Of the 16 positive reactions to mix 1 in Malmö, only 4 were considered to be true allergic reactions, as the component allergen testing gave totally negative results in 12/16. For mix 2, only 3/8 positive reactions were considered to be true allergic reactions, as the component testing was negative in 5/8. Many doubtful (10-20%) and positive but non-allergic reactions were recorded, leading to early termination of the study. Although this was an unsuccessful attempt to formulate an acrylate/methacrylate mix, our experience will be useful for those embarking on future attempts to do this. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Severe allergic reactions to para-phenylenediamine in children and adolescents: should the patch test concentration of PPD be changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spornraft-Ragaller, Petra; Kämmerer, Eva; Gillitzer, Claus; Schmitt, Jochen

    2012-04-01

    Semipermanent henna tattoos containing para-phenylenediamine (PPD) are a well-known cause of severe contact dermatitis, mainly in children. Another relevant exposure source to PPD are hair dyes, which are increasingly used by children and have also been reported to cause intense facial and scalp dermatitis. German patch test guidelines for children recommend that PPD should only be tested in patients who have had a henna tattoo, and then at a reduced concentration of PPD 0.5 % for 24 hours. We report on patch test results in four patients, three children and one adolescent, with a history of contact dermatitis to henna tattoos or hair dye. We used the recommended or even lower patch test concentrations of PPD with 24-hours exposure in all patients. All patients showed very strong patch test reactions to PPD and cross-reactions to related compounds even after dilution of PPD to as low as 0.05 %. Therefore, we suggest that in children with a history of allergic reactions to this compound, a titration test should be performed beginning at a concentration of maximal 0.05 %. This procedure has also been proposed previously based on a larger cases series in adults. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  9. Size Matters: Observed and Modeled Camouflage Response of European Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to Different Substrate Patch Sizes during Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josef, Noam; Berenshtein, Igal; Rousseau, Meghan; Scata, Gabriella; Fiorito, Graziano; Shashar, Nadav

    2017-01-01

    Camouflage is common throughout the phylogenetic tree and is largely used to minimize detection by predator or prey. Cephalopods, and in particular Sepia officinalis cuttlefish, are common models for camouflage studies. Predator avoidance behavior is particularly important in this group of soft-bodied animals that lack significant physical defenses. While previous studies have suggested that immobile cephalopods selectively camouflage to objects in their immediate surroundings, the camouflage characteristics of cuttlefish during movement are largely unknown. In a heterogenic environment, the visual background and substrate feature changes quickly as the animal swim across it, wherein substrate patch is a distinctive and high contrast patch of substrate in the animal's trajectory. In the current study, we examine the effect of substrate patch size on cuttlefish camouflage, and specifically the minimal size of an object for eliciting intensity matching response while moving. Our results indicated that substrate patch size has a positive effect on animal's reflectance change, and that the threshold patch size resulting in camouflage response falls between 10 and 19 cm (width). These observations suggest that the animal's length (7.2–12.3 cm mantle length in our case) serves as a possible threshold filter below which objects are considered irrelevant for camouflage, reducing the frequency of reflectance changes—which may lead to detection. Accordingly, we have constructed a computational model capturing the main features of the observed camouflaging behavior, provided for cephalopod camouflage during movement. PMID:28144221

  10. Patch test study of 90 patients with tattoo reactions: negative outcome of allergy patch test to baseline batteries and culprit inks suggests allergen(s) are generated in the skin through haptenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Jørgen; Hutton Carlsen, Katrina

    2014-11-01

    Tattoo reactions, especially in red tattoos, are often suggested as allergic in nature, however, systematic evaluation by patch testing has not performed in the past. To report the results of patch testing in 90 patients with non-infectious chronic tattoo reactions. From 2009 to 2013 at the 'Tattoo Clinic', Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg University Hospital, 90 patients were patch tested with batteries of baseline allergens, disperse dyes/textile allergens, and a selection of tattoo ink stock products, which, according to case observations, were problematic, supplemented with individual culprit inks when accessible. Patients with reactions to the tattoo colour red, the most predominant colour associated with skin reactions, showed negative patch test results with common allergens. Outcomes were also negative in patients who had experienced concomitant reactions in another hitherto tolerated tattoo of the same colour as the problematic tattoo. The allergen or allergens responsible for tattoo reactions are not present directly in tattoo ink stock products. This is despite the fact that clinical histories suggest that the vast majority of clinical reactions, especially reactions to red and red nuances, are likely to be allergic events caused by the injected inks. We suggest that the responsible allergen results from a complicated and slow process of haptenization, which may even include photochemical cleavage of red azo pigment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Reaction profile in patch testing with allergens formed during vulcanization of rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Christer; Pontén, Ann; Svedman, Cecilia; Bergendorff, Ola

    2014-05-01

    Vulcanization of rubber changes its allergen pattern. To estimate the contact allergic reactivity profile of users of finished rubber products. Twenty-four patients with known contact allergy to rubber accelerators were patch tested with 21 compounds found in chemical analyses of vulcanized rubber products. No diphenylguanidine, p-phenylenediamine antioxidants or thioureas were included in the study. Thiuram monosulfides formed during vulcanization showed generally stronger test reactions than the corresponding thiuram disulfides. We also obtained more positive thiuram reactions to the monosulfides than to the disulfides. A positive reaction to a dithiocarbamate was accompanied by a positive reaction to the corresponding thiuram, except for 1 patient. The nitrogen substituents showed only minor differences between the methyl, ethyl and pentamethylene groups, but the butyl derivatives gave, in most cases, a negative response. Dialkylthiocarbamyl benzothiazole sulfides, formed between thiurams and mercaptobenzothiazoles during vulcanization, showed strong test reactions in almost all patients who were sensitive to dithiocarbamates, thiurams, or mercaptobenzothiazoles. We found thiuram monosulfides to be better markers of thiuram sensitivity than the corresponding disulfides or dithiocarbamates. Surprisingly, the dialkylthiocarbamyl benzothiazole sulfides were good markers of both thiuram and mercaptobenzothiazole sensitivity. This is an unexpected finding that needs to be confirmed in a larger study. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of suspected cosmetic induced facial dermatoses with the use of Indian standard series and cosmetic series patch test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Madhur Kant; Gupta, Astha; Soodan, Puneet Singh; Mishra, Nitin; Gahalaut, Pratik

    2015-03-01

    Awareness about skin beauty or cosmetic elegance has received worldwide attention in the present day youth oriented society. Along with careful detailed history and thorough examination patch test is considered cornerstone in diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Fifty patients suspected clinical diagnosis of contact facial dermatitis due to attended the Department of Dermatology, were included in a hospital based study. The patch test was applied on the upper back of using 32 allergens present in Indian cosmetic series and 20 known allergens in Indian standard battery series procured from Systopic Pharmaceutical Ltd, after applying the patch test, the patient was asked to come after 48h and 72h for reading the results of the patch test. Out of 50 patients there were 32 (64%) females (housewives 36%) patients and 18 (36%) male (farmers 12%). Itching was the most common presenting symptom in 39 patients (78%) least was hypopigmentation and pain in 2%. Forehead was the most common site of involvement in 25 patients (50%) least were cheeks in 15 patients (30%). Erythema was the commonest morphological presentation seen in 36 patients (72%). Hair dye was suspected in maximum number of patients that is 13 (26%). Most common antigen showing patch test positivity was paraphenylenediamine in nine patients (18%). There are significantly more chances of developing positive test reaction with Indian standard series compared to cosmetic series. (p=.0053 using Fischer Exact test). In India there is no legislation regarding labeling ingredients on cosmetics as in the western countries, so labelling of the contents of cosmetic products should be the main challenge in cosmetic dermatitis is to identify.

  13. Two decades of occupational (meth)acrylate patch test results and focus on isobornyl acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffers, Wietske A; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A

    2013-08-01

    Acrylates constitute an important cause of occupational contact dermatitis. Isobornyl acrylate sensitization has been reported in only 2 cases. We encountered an industrial process operator with occupational contact dermatitis caused by isobornyl acrylate. (i) To investigate whether it is relevant to add isobornyl acrylate to the (meth)acrylate test series. (ii) To report patients with (meth)acrylate contact allergy at an occupational dermatology clinic. Our patch test database was screened for positive reactions to (meth)acrylates between 1993 and 2012. A selected group of 14 patients was tested with an isobornyl acrylate dilution series: 0.3%, 0.1%, 0.033%, and 0.01%. Readings were performed on D2, D3, and D7. One hundred and fifty-one patients were tested with our (meth)acrylate series; 24 had positive reactions. Most positive reactions were to 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, and diethyleneglycol diacrylate. Hypothetical screening with 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, ethoxylated bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate and trimethylolpropane triacrylate identified 91.7% of the 24 patients. No positive reactions were observed in 14 acrylate-positive patients tested with the isobornyl acrylate dilution series. The 0.3% isobornyl acrylate concentration induced irritant reactions in 3 patients. We report a rare case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by isobornyl acrylate. However, this study provides insufficient support for isobornyl acrylate to be added to a (meth)acrylate series. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Allergy patch test reading from photographic images: disagreement on ICDRG grading but agreement on simplified tripartite reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivens, U; Serup, J; O'goshi, K

    2007-02-01

    The International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG) system for clinical scoring of allergic patch test reactions is well established in clinical dermatology for detailed scoring of allergic reactions. The degree of redness and the presence of swelling, papules, vesicles and bullae are assessed based on visual examination and palpation of reactions. In photographic assessment used in research and tele-dermatology, the scoring is solely based on visual examination of photos. The aim of the study was to evaluate inter-expert variation in patch test reading using photographic images, with ICDRG reading as a reference. Five experienced senior dermatologists each scored 55 positive patch test reactions from 16 slides in an office environment. The slides showed pictures of patch tests with different allergens. The scoring system by ICDRG with six categories for scoring was used. The five dermatologists performed the scoring very differently. When the scoring system was simplified to a tripartite scoring system, the scoring was performed almost similarly by the five clinicians. Based on the present results, it is proposed that the number of scoring categories should be minimized and simplified into negative (including doubtful) reactions, positive reactions and irritant reactions. Such simplified tripartite reading is proposed for research purposes and for tele-dermatology, when scoring is based on photographic images.

  15. Additive value of patch testing custom epoxy materials from the workplace at the occupational disease specialty clinic in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Marie-Claude; Holness, D Linn; Dekoven, Joel; Skotnicki, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to epoxy resins is one of the major causes of occupationally induced ACD. Testing of custom epoxy materials from the workplace is often performed to diagnose ACD. The objective of this study was to investigate the additive value of patch testing custom-made epoxy materials. We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of 24 patients who were tested to custom epoxy resin materials between January 2002 and July 2011. For 11 patients (46%), the testing of their materials from work had no additional value (negative results). For 13 patients (54%), there was an additional value of testing custom allergens. Of those, 7 patients (54%) had positive reactions to custom epoxy materials that reinforced the test results found with the commercially available allergens, and 6 (46%) patients had positive reactions only to custom epoxy materials. Therefore, for 6 patients (25%), there was a definite additive value of testing custom epoxy materials because the allergy was discovered with custom testing and not with the commercially available allergens. Because of the high percentage (54%) of patients with additive value of patch testing custom epoxy materials, we think that the inclusion of actual workplace epoxy materials should be strongly considered when patch testing patients with occupational epoxy exposure.

  16. Patch testing with rubber series in Europe: a critical review and recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Katharine L; Uter, Wolfgang; Geier, Johannes; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Mahler, Vera; Crépy, Marie-Noëlle; Schuttelaar, Marie Louise; Bauer, Andrea; Wilkinson, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Rubber additives constitute an important group of contact allergens, particularly in certain occupations. To collect information regarding the current practice of using a 'rubber series' in Europe, and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning the prevalence of allergy in order to derive a recommendation for a 'European rubber series'. The following were performed: (i) a survey targeting all members of the COST action 'StanDerm' consortium, (ii) analysis of rubber contact allergy data in the database of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies, and (iii) a literature review. Information from 13 countries was available, from one or several departments of dermatology, and occasionally occupational health. Apart from some substances tested only in single departments, a broad overlap regarding important allergens was evident, but considerable variation existed between departments. An up-to-date 'European rubber series' is recommended, with the exclusion of substances only of historical concern. A 'supplementary rubber series' containing allergens of less proven importance, requiring further analysis, is recommended for departments specializing in occupational contact allergy. These should be continually updated as new evidence emerges. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Patch testing and cross sensitivity study of adverse cutaneous drug reactions due to anticonvulsants: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiny, T N; Mahajan, Vikram K; Mehta, Karaninder S; Chauhan, Pushpinder S; Rawat, Ritu; Sharma, Rajni

    2017-03-26

    To evaluate the utility of patch test and cross-sensitivity patterns in patients with adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) from common anticonvulsants. Twenty-four (M:F = 13:11) patients aged 18-75 years with ACDR from anticonvulsants were patch tested 3-27 mo after complete recovery using carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbitone, lamotrigine, and sodium valproate in 10%, 20% and 30% conc. in pet. after informed consent. Positive reactions persisting on D3 and D4 were considered significant. Clinical patterns were exanthematous drug rash with or without systemic involvement (DRESS) in 18 (75%), Stevens-Johnsons syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) overlap and TEN in 2 (8.3%) patients each, SJS and lichenoid drug eruption in 1 (4.2%) patient each, respectively. The implicated drugs were phenytoin in 14 (58.3%), carbamazepine in 9 (37.5%), phenobarbitone in 2 (8.3%), and lamotrigine in 1 (4.7%) patients, respectively. Twelve (50%) patients elicited positive reactions to implicated drugs; carbamazepine in 6 (50%), phenytoin alone in 4 (33.3%), phenobarbitone alone in 1 (8.3%), and both phenytoin and phenobarbitone in 1 (8.33%) patients, respectively. Cross-reactions occurred in 11 (92%) patients. Six patients with carbamazepine positive patch test reaction showed cross sensitivity with phenobarbitone, sodium valproate and/or lamotrigine. Three (75%) patients among positive phenytoin patch test reactions had cross reactions with phenobarbitone, lamotrigine, and/or valproate. Carbamazepine remains the commonest anticonvulsant causing ACDRs and cross-reactions with other anticonvulsants are possible. Drug patch testing appears useful in DRESS for drug imputability and cross-reactions established clinically.

  18. Comparison of the dental serial patch test outcomes of lichen planus patients with and without oral involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Altunışık

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Lichen planus (LP is a chronic and enflammatory cutaneous disease. Numereous diseases and agents have been accused in the etiology of LP. The materials used in dental treatment are one of these factors. We aimed to compare the results of dental series patch test in LP patients with and without oral involvement to determine whether the dental restorative materials play a role in the etiology of LP and to detect the effect of dental materials in cases where there is no oral involvement. Materials and Methods: The study involved a total of 38 patients who were admitted to the Dermatology Department and Dentistry Faculty Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department and were diagnosed with LP clinically and/or histopathologically. Nineteen of patients had oral involvement and the other 19 patients had no oral involvement. All of the patients received dental serial patch test. Results: Fourteen of the 19 patients with oral involvement (73.7% and 15 patients without oral involvement (78.9% showed positive reaction against at least one material. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of patch test positivity (p=1.00. The allergens that mostly caused positive reaction against patch test in the group with oral involvement were copper sulfate and cobalt (II cloride hexahydrate (23.3%. In the group without oral involvement the most common allergen that caused positive reaction was copper sulfate (%47.3. Conclusion: The similarity of the allergens that caused positive reaction and the rate of positivity in dental serial patch test in the groups with and without oral involvement promote that the dental restorative materials may trigger the disease even in cases without oral LP. This study is a preliminary study due to the lack of a healthy control group and the small number of subjects.

  19. European wind turbine procedure development blade test methods and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulder, B.H.; Dam, J.J.D. van; Delft, D.R.V. van [and others

    1999-03-01

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by performing the second task of the `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development` project are presented. This project is performed within and with financial support of the Standards, Measurements and Testing programme of the European Commission. (au)

  20. Survey of Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Patch Test among Clothing Employees in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Xin; Gao, Bing-Ai; Cheng, Hai-Yan; Li, Lin-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Occupational population-based epidemiological data relating to occupational contact allergies in the Chinese clothing industry are limited. To investigate the prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) and to identify the causative allergens among clothing employees in China, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 529 clothing employees at 12 clothing factories in Beijing. All employees were subjected to an interview using self-administered questionnaire and skin examination, and those who were diagnosed with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) were patch tested. In the present survey, we found that the overall 1-year prevalence of OACD among the clothing employees was 8.5%. The 1-year prevalence of OACD among workers (10.8%) was significantly higher than that among managers (3.2%). The lesions were primarily on the hands and wrists in workers, but the face and neck in managers. The major allergens were nickel sulfate and cobalt dichloride in workers and colophony and p-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin in managers. In conclusion, workers are at a higher risk of OACD compared with managers in the Chinese clothing industry. In addition to hand dermatitis in workers, airborne contact dermatitis on the face and neck should be also addressed in managers.

  1. Role of atopy patch test for diagnosis of food allergy-related gastrointestinal symptoms in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyaviwat, Onsuree; Pacharn, Punchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Vichyanond, Pakit; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong

    2015-12-01

    Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge is the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy. However, it is a time-consuming procedure and requires onsite medical supervision and resuscitating medicines and devices on hand. The objective of this study was to compare the atopy patch test (APT) with the oral food challenge test (OFC) in children with suspected food allergy-related gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. A prospective self-controlled study enrolled children with a history of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms. Skin prick test (SPT) and APT using lyophilized and commercial allergen extracts for cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, and shrimp were evaluated, and OFC was performed. Thirty-nine patients (25 boys, median age 2.4 yrs) with 76 events of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms were enrolled. SPT was positive in 11/76 events (14.5%). Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratio were calculated related to the food challenge outcome. Of 41 OFC, 30 (73.2%) were positive. APT using lyophilized allergen extracts yielded high sensitivity (80%) and high positive predictive value (85.7%). APT using commercial allergen extracts yielded low sensitivity (30%) but high specificity (90%). The negative predictive value of APT using lyophilized and commercial allergen extracts was 53.8% and 32.2%, respectively. All cases with positive APT using lyophilized allergen extracts together with positive SPT also had positive OFC. In contrast to commercial extracts, APT with lyophilized allergen extracts is reliable, safe, and maybe useful for the diagnosis of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms in children. OFC is still needed in most of the cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sensitization to Rubber Accelerators in Northeastern Italy: The Triveneto Patch Test Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttazzo, Silvia; Prodi, Andrea; Fortina, Anna Belloni; Corradin, Maria Teresa; Larese Filon, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Natural and synthetic rubbers containing rubber accelerators are well-known causes of occupational skin disease. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by rubber gloves is frequent and has almost exclusively been attributed to contact sensitization to accelerators. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of rubber accelerators sensitization in the population living in northeastern Italy, to find time trend and a correlation with occupations, and to investigate co-sensitization between rubber accelerators. A population of 23,774 subjects was patch tested in 6 cities in northeastern Italy in the years 1996 to 2012 using carba mix 3%, thiuram mix 1%, benzothiazole (MBT) mix 1%, and isopropyl phenyl paraphenylamine diamine (IPPD) mix 0.6%. The overall frequency of carbamates, MBT, thiurams, and IPPD mix sensitization was 3.4%, 0.65%, 1.75%, and 0.83%, respectively. On a logistic regression analysis (control group: white-collar workers), we found a statistically significant association to carbamates (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.7) and thiurams (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3) for health care workers. Thiuram sensitivity was also significantly associated with dermatitis in maids and restaurant workers (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.6), hairdressers (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.8-7.1), shop assistants (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2-6.8), construction workers (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.7-4.1), mechanics (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.4), and professional drivers (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2-5.9). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that rubber accelerators have an important role in allergic contact dermatitis in the northeast of Italy and their sensitization is associated significantly with occupations that wear gloves or use chemical substances. Between rubber accelerators tested, carbamates sensitization is prevalent and increasing during considered years.

  3. Food allergy-related paediatric constipation: the usefulness of atopy patch test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrigou, Ekaterini I; Pitsios, Constantinos; Panagiotou, Ioanna; Chouliaras, Georgios; Kitsiou, Sofia; Kanariou, Mary; Roma-Giannikou, Eleftheria

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the implication of food allergy as a cause of paediatric constipation and to determine the diet period needed to tolerate the constipation-causing foods. Fifty-four children aged 6 months to 14 years (median, 42 months) suffering from chronic constipation (without anatomic abnormalities, cοeliac disease or hypothyroidism), unresponsive to a 3-month laxative therapy, were prospectively evaluated. All participants were evaluated for allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, rice, corn, potato, chicken, beef and soy, using skin tests (SPT), serum specific IgE and atopy patch test (APT). A withdrawal of the APT-positive foods was instructed. Thirty-two children had positive APT; 15 were positive to one; six, to two and 11, to three or more food allergens, wheat and egg being the commonest. After withdrawing the APT-positive foods for an 8-week period, constipation had improved in 28/32 children, but a relapse of constipation was noticed after an oral food challenge, so they continued the elimination diet. Tolerance to food allergens was achieved in only 6/28 after 6 months, compared to 25/28 after 12 months and to all after a 2-year-long elimination. Food allergy seems to be a significant etiologic factor for chronic constipation not responding to treatment, in infants and young children. APT was found to be useful in evaluating non-IgE allergy-mediated constipation, and there was no correlation of APT with IgE detection. Tolerance was adequately achieved after 12 months of strict food allergen elimination.

  4. THE FIRST BULGARIAN STANDARDIZED SERIES FOR EPICUTANEOUS PATCH TESTING FOR ALLERGIES TO DENTAL MATERIALS AND ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dencheva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The teeth and teeth rows restoration in the maxillofacial area is the last stage of the ongoing patient treatment and a basic purpose for the dental doctors. For this purpose a different set of modern and classic contemporary dental materials is used. The choice of each material during the treatment of every patient with proven allergy to different kind of allergens is very specific and strictly individual. In the everyday oral diagnostics a standardized set of allergens for diagnostics is used for proving the allergy to dental materials. The set has been developed on the base of all existing and permitted by the Bulgarian authorities dental materials, as well as professional series.The difference between the developed and standardized allergens for diagnostics used in our country and the existing ready-for-use series is that the first are made of the final product (material in the form introduced to the oral cavity and persisting there for a different period of time, sometimes for tenths of years. This enables the possibility for early or late contact allergic reactions with symptoms in the oral cavity and on the skin, maxillofacial area, head and neck, as well as the entire organism.The current article introduces the readers to the results obtained by the realization of the research project №28/2011 “Research on the type of sensibilisation to contemporary dental materials and development of set of allergens for its diagnosing through epicutaneous patch testing” funded by the Committee of Medical science of MU Sofia (CMC. Through the project became possible the creation and the initial research of the first Bulgarian series for epicutaneous testing whose aim is to prove the allergenic potential of the most frequently used by the dental doctors dental materials.

  5. Course of Skin Symptoms and Quality of Life in Children Referred for Patch Testing - A Long-term Follow-up Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anne B; Sommerlund, Mette; Deleuran, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Children are patch tested in the same manner as adults, but little has been done to establish whether positive or negative findings influence the course of skin symptoms. To uncover the course of skin symptoms and the impact of persistent eczema on life quality in paediatric patients referred...... for patch testing, a retrospective questionnaire was sent to children and adolescents referred for patch testing during a 9-year period. Persistent eczema at follow-up was strongly associated to atopic dermatitis, but was not explained by gender, age, contact allergy or time span from patch testing...... to follow-up. Among patients without atopic dermatitis, 23.5% reported to suffer from chronic eczema. Persistent eczema increased the risk of severe impairment of life quality. Our findings indicate a significant risk of childhood eczema becoming chronic and affecting life quality considerably. Patch...

  6. Patch Testing with Decyl and Lauryl Glucoside: How Well Does One Screen for Contact Allergic Reactions to the Other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Rachel K; Belsito, Donald V

    Alkyl glucoside surfactants, present in many cosmetic products, can cause allergic contact dermatitis. Decyl glucoside has been part of the North American Contact Dermatitis Group standard allergen panel since 2009. This study aimed to identify rates and relevance of positive patch test reactions to decyl and lauryl glucosides and to determine how well one of these glucosides screens for contact allergic reactions to the other. A retrospective analysis was performed on 897 patients suspected of having a cosmetic-related dermatitis and patch tested with both decyl and lauryl glucosides between 2009 and 2016. Forty-eight patients (5%) had positive reactions to decyl glucoside and/or lauryl glucoside. Among the alkyl glucoside-allergic patients, 65% had positive reactions to both decyl and lauryl glucosides. In 41% of cases, reactions were of definite or probable relevance. In approximately 55% of cases, reactions were of possible relevance. Sixty-five percent of glucoside-allergic patients exhibited co-reactions to decyl and lauryl glucosides. Thus, neither glucoside is an adequate screen for allergy to the other. Given that these reactions are often relevant, clinicians should patch test with decyl, lauryl, and other alkyl glucosides in cases of suspected cosmetic allergy.

  7. The skin prick test - European standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinzerling, Lucie; Mari, Adriano; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bresciani, Megon; Burbach, Guido; Darsow, Ulf; Durham, Stephen; Fokkens, Wytske; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Haahtela, Tari; Bom, Ana Todo; Wöhrl, Stefan; Maibach, Howard; Lockey, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase

  8. The skin prick testEuropean standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana), alder (Alnus incana), birch (Betula alba), plane (Platanus vulgaris), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense), Olive (Olea europaea), mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), Alternaria alternata (tenuis), Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica). Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes. PMID:23369181

  9. The skin prick testEuropean standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzerling Lucie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana, alder (Alnus incana, birch (Betula alba, plane (Platanus vulgaris, cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense, Olive (Olea europaea, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Alternaria alternata (tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica. Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes.

  10. Testing Pearl Model In Three European Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouraoui, F.; Bidoglio, G.

    The Plant Protection Product Directive (91/414/EEC) stresses the need of validated models to calculate predicted environmental concentrations. The use of models has become an unavoidable step before pesticide registration. In this context, European Commission, and in particular DGVI, set up a FOrum for the Co-ordination of pes- ticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS). In a complementary effort, DG research supported the APECOP project, with one of its objective being the validation and im- provement of existing pesticide fate models. The main topic of research presented here is the validation of the PEARL model for different sites in Europe. The PEARL model, actually used in the Dutch pesticide registration procedure, was validated in three well- instrumented sites: Vredepeel (the Netherlands), Brimstone (UK), and Lanna (Swe- den). A step-wise procedure was used for the validation of the PEARL model. First the water transport module was calibrated, and then the solute transport module, using tracer measurements keeping unchanged the water transport parameters. The Vrede- peel site is characterised by a sandy soil. Fourteen months of measurements were used for the calibration. Two pesticides were applied on the site: bentazone and etho- prophos. PEARL predictions were very satisfactory for both soil moisture content, and pesticide concentration in the soil profile. The Brimstone site is characterised by a cracking clay soil. The calibration was conducted on a time series measurement of 7 years. The validation consisted in comparing predictions and measurement of soil moisture at different soil depths, and in comparing the predicted and measured con- centration of isoproturon in the drainage water. The results, even if in good agreement with the measuremens, highlighted the limitation of the model when the preferential flow becomes a dominant process. PEARL did not reproduce well soil moisture pro- file during summer months, and also under-predicted the arrival of

  11. EX1301: Ship Shakedown and Patch Test Exploration, NE Canyons and Seamounts on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between 20130318 and 20130405

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following annual ship shakedown and patch tests, EX1301 will complete the comprehensive mapping of the Northeast canyons and the adjacent continental shelf carried...

  12. The value of patch testing patients with a scattered generalized distribution of dermatitis: retrospective cross-sectional analyses of North American Contact Dermatitis Group data, 2001 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, Kathryn A; Rietschel, Robert L; Warshaw, Erin M; Belsito, Donald V; Taylor, James S; Maibach, Howard I; Mathias, C G Toby; Fowler, Joseph F; Marks, James G; DeLeo, Vincent A; Pratt, Melanie D; Sasseville, Denis; Storrs, Frances J

    2008-09-01

    A scattered generalized distribution (SGD) of dermatitis is a challenging problem; patch testing is a strategy for evaluating allergic contact dermatitis as a relevant factor. We sought to analyze patient characteristics and most frequently relevant positive allergens in patients presenting for patch testing with SGD. We conducted retrospective cross-sectional analysis of North American Contact Dermatitis Group 2001 to 2004 data. Patients with SGD were compared with patients without SGD. Of 10,061 patients, 14.9% (n = 1497) had only a SGD. Men and patients with a history of atopic eczema were more likely to have dermatitis in a SGD (P cosmetics/beauty preparations/skin and health care products, clothing, and topical corticoids. This was a retrospective analysis of patch-tested patients with SGD suspected to have allergy. A total of 49% of patients with SGD had at least one relevant positive allergen, thus demonstrating the benefit of patch testing these patients.

  13. Contact dermatitis in hairdressers, 10 years later: patch-test results in 300 hairdressers (1994 to 2003) and comparison with previous study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valks, Ruud; Conde-Salazar, Luis; Malfeito, Juan; Ledo, Silvia

    2005-03-01

    In the last 20 years, the hairdressing profession has undergone important modifications, mainly because of a change in the substances and techniques used and improved occupational education. To evaluate the modifications in the hairdressing profession and its actual risk of occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD). We studied all 300 hairdressers seen in our department from 1994 to 2003 and compared the results with those of a previous study of 379 hairdressers who attended our department from 1980 to 1993. All were patch-tested with the European Standard series and specific hairdressing products. As previously, most of the workers were women (93%), with a mean age (23.7 years) slightly higher than that of the workers in our previous study. We found a significant increase in the frequency of positive patch-test responses (78.3% vs 58.8%) and OACD (58% vs 48.8%) with respect to our previous study. We also observed a significant increase in sensitization to most allergens, including p-phenylenediamine base (54% vs 45.9%), 4-aminobenzene (40.7% vs 31.9%), ammonium thioglycolate (2.7% to 12.3%), ammonium persulfate (7.9% to 14.3%), p-toluenediamine sulfate (6.8% to 15.3%), p-aminodiphenylamine (2.9% to 7.7%), o-nitro-4-phenylenediamine (2.1% to 7.3%), and aminophenols (0% to 9%), whereas a decrease was found in sensitization to Disperse Orange (17% vs 32.7%) and thioglycolic acid (15.3% to 3%). The high frequency and increase of sensitizations among hairdressers require urgent measures to improve protective measures and their application.

  14. Multicenter Patch Testing With Methylchloroisothizoline/Methylisothiazolinone in 100 and 200 ppm Within the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engfeldt, Malin; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The preservative methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) is a well-known contact sensitizer. Historically, there have been different opinions on the optimal patch test concentration of MCI/MI, and both 0.01% and 0.02% aqueous (aq.) have been proposed. In 2011, based...... in the baseline series. RESULTS: Contact allergy to MCI/MI at 0.01% and 0.02% was found in 3.7% and 5.6% of the patients, respectively (P contact allergy than 0.01% (dose, 3 μg/cm), without resulting...

  15. Multicenter Patch Testing With a Resol Resin Based on Phenol and Formaldehyde Within the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, M.; Ale, I.; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-01-01

    Background Contact allergy to phenol-formaldehyde resins (PFRs) based on phenol and formaldehyde is not detected by a p-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin included in most baseline patch test series. Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the contact allergy rate to PFR-2.......2%) reacted to PFR-2. Of those 28 individuals, one had a positive reaction to formaldehyde and 2 to p-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin. Simultaneous allergic reactions were noted to colophonium in 3, to Myroxylon pereirae in 5, and to fragrance mix I in 8. Conclusions The contact allergy frequency...

  16. Cyclical and patch-like GDNF distribution along the basal surface of Sertoli cells in mouse and hamster testes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Sato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In mammalian spermatogenesis, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF is one of the major Sertoli cell-derived factors which regulates the maintenance of undifferentiated spermatogonia including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs through GDNF family receptor α1 (GFRα1. It remains unclear as to when, where and how GDNF molecules are produced and exposed to the GFRα1-positive spermatogonia in vivo. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show the cyclical and patch-like distribution of immunoreactive GDNF-positive signals and their close co-localization with a subpopulation of GFRα1-positive spermatogonia along the basal surface of Sertoli cells in mice and hamsters. Anti-GDNF section immunostaining revealed that GDNF-positive signals are mainly cytoplasmic and observed specifically in the Sertoli cells in a species-specific as well as a seminiferous cycle- and spermatogenic activity-dependent manner. In contrast to the ubiquitous GDNF signals in mouse testes, high levels of its signals were cyclically observed in hamster testes prior to spermiation. Whole-mount anti-GDNF staining of the seminiferous tubules successfully visualized the cyclical and patch-like extracellular distribution of GDNF-positive granular deposits along the basal surface of Sertoli cells in both species. Double-staining of GDNF and GFRα1 demonstrated the close co-localization of GDNF deposits and a subpopulation of GFRα1-positive spermatogonia. In both species, GFRα1-positive cells showed a slender bipolar shape as well as a tendency for increased cell numbers in the GDNF-enriched area, as compared with those in the GDNF-low/negative area of the seminiferous tubules. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data provide direct evidence of regionally defined patch-like GDNF-positive signal site in which GFRα1-positive spermatogonia possibly interact with GDNF in the basal compartment of the seminiferous tubules.

  17. Association between positive patch tests to epoxy resin and fragrance mix I ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer; Vølund, Aage

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and fragrance mix I are included in the European baseline series of contact allergens. A significant association between positive reactions to epoxy resin and fragrance mix has been reported by others. OBJECTIVE: To investigate and po...

  18. The sensitization potential of sunscreen after ablative fractional skin resurfacing using modified human repeated insult patch test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchai, Waranya; Sathaworawong, Angkana; Wongpraparut, Chanisada; Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima

    2015-10-01

    Ablative fractional skin resurfacing has become popular and proven to be useful in treating scars, photoaging and wrinkles. Although post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is the most common complication especially in dark-skinned patients like Asian. Several modalities have been used to overcome the PIH. To determine the sensitization potential of sunscreen applied immediately after ablative fractional skin resurfacing. Sixty volunteers were recruited. Of these 30 subjects were from previous ablative fractional skin resurfacing study who applied broad-spectrum sunscreen containing anti-inflammatory agent starting on the first day after resurfacing and another 30 non-resurfacing subjects had applied the same sunscreen on the intact skin. All subjects were patch/photopatch tested for sensitization study by using modified human repeated insult patch test (HRIPT). There were significantly higher sensitization rate of UV-filter, octocrylene and the sunscreen in resurfacing group than in non-resurfacing group. Early application of sunscreen after ablative fractional skin resurfacing has increased the incidence of sensitization potential of sunscreen. The sunscreen is recommended to start using from D3 after fractional ablative skin resurfacing to ensure the complete recovery of skin barrier and minimize the risk of sensitization.

  19. Skin Irritation to Glass Wool or Continuous Glass Filaments as Observed by a Patch Test among Human Japanese Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    TSUNODA, Masashi; KIDO, Takamasa; MOGI, Sachiyo; SUGIURA, Yumiko; MIYAJIMA, Eriko; KUDO, Yuichiro; KUMAZAWA, Tatenao; AIZAWA, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Glass wool and continuous glass filaments have been used in industry. We examined the irritability of those among Japanese. A patch test was performed on 43 volunteers for the followings: glass wool for non-residential use with and without a urea-modified phenolic resin binder, that for residential use with and without the binder, and continuous glass filaments with diameters of 4, 7, 9, and 13 µm. Materials were applied to an upper arm of each volunteer for 24 h. The skin was observed at 1 and 24 h after the removal. At 1 h after removal, slight erythema was observed on the skin of a woman after the exposure to glass wool for residential use without the binder. Erythema was observed on the skin of another woman at 1 h after a 24-h exposure to glass wool for non-residential use without the binder. There were no reactions at 24 h after the removal. The low reactions in the patch test suggested that the irritability caused by glass wool, irrespective of a resin component, could be induced mechanically, and that the irritability caused by continuous glass filaments with resin could be slight and either mechanical or chemical. PMID:25070402

  20. Parametric Sensitivity Tests- European PEM Fuel Cell Stack Test Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    As fuel cells are increasingly commercialized for various applications, harmonized and industry-relevant test procedures are necessary to benchmark tests and to ensure comparability of stack performance results from different parties. This paper reports the results of parametric sensitivity tests...

  1. [Frequency of Food-Sensitization by Prick-to-Prick Skin Tests and Atopy Patch Tests in Children with Allergic Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Epelstein, Jonathan; Rosas-Vargas, Miguel Ngel; Del-Rio-Navarro, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is a health problem that has increased its prevalence in the last decade, and plays a role in the multiple symptoms of allergic diseases like asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis. It has become the new epidemic with significant implications. To describe the frequency of sensitization to food antigens by skin tests, prick-to-prick and atopy patch tests, in a group of allergic children in a pediatric hospital. We retrospectively reviewed the results of skin tests with foods, prick-to-prick and atopy patch tests, in the clinical records of 170 and 140 children respectively, with a diagnosis of asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, food allergy or eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and analyzed the results with measures of central tendency and chi2 test. Immediate hypersensitivity tests with fresh foods (prick-to-prick) were positive in 135 cases. Cowís milk was positive in 28.8%, followed by egg white with 20.1% and banana in 19.4%. In the group of 1 to 5 years, cowís milk was positive in 26.9% (p chocolate with 50.5%. In the group with atopic dermatitis soybean was positive in 55.6% (p <0.05). In the group of 1 to 5 years, soybean was positive in 52.1% (p <0.05). In children with various allergic diseases, with prick-to-prick skin tests, cowís milk was the food allergen with more frequent positive results. When we used atopy patch tests, soybean was the food with more positive results. We observe sensitization to different foods, according to the mechanism of injury, type I or IV, which is dependent on the type of skin tests used.

  2. NedWind 25 Blade Testing at NREL for the European Standards Measurement and Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larwood, S.; Musial, W.; Freebury, G.; Beattie, A.G.

    2001-04-19

    In the mid-90s the European community initiated the Standards, Measurements, and Testing (SMT) program to harmonize testing and measurement procedures in several industries. Within the program, a project was carried out called the European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development. The second part of that project, called Blade Test Methods and Techniques, included the United States and was devised to help blade-testing laboratories harmonize their testing methods. This report provides the results of those tests conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  3. Changes in the Patch Test Population Over a Ten-Year Period at the Contact Dermatitis Clinic, Siriraj Hospital: A University-Based Tertiary Care Hospital in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutasinee Phaitoonwattanakij

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several factors which have an impact on patch test results. In the past, comparing the populations between different institutes, without appropriate indicators was difficult. Thus, the MOAHLFA index (Male, Occupational, Atopic dermatitis, Hand dermatitis, Leg dermatitis, Face dermatitis and Age above 40 years was developed. However, the study of this index in Thailand is limited. Objective: To investigate the MOAHLFA index in patch testing population in the Contact Dermatitis Clinic at Siriraj Hospital. Methods: The clinical parameters of patients who underwent patch testing at Contact Dermatitis Clinic, Siriraj Hospital during 10 years were studied. Results: Our patch test population showed a statistically significant increase in the proportion of male and patients aged above 40 years while a statistical decrease was found in those with occupational skin diseases with a history of atopic dermatitis, and lesions on the hands during a decade. Conclusion: This study revealed patch-test population attending Siriraj contact dermatitis clinic changed in 10-years period. According to MOAHLFA index, the changes were increasing of male, aged >40 years but decreasing of atopic, occupational-related contact allergy patients.

  4. [Drug patch tests in the investigation of a fixed drug eruption subsequent to 2 courses of cyclophosphamide in combination with mesna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaigue, S; Boye, T; Pasquine, C; Guetta, K; Alla, P; Ponte-Astoul, J; Morand, J-J

    2015-01-01

    When fixed drug eruption occurs following use of cyclophosphamide and mesna, it is difficult to establish which drug is responsible. We report a new case of patch tests that resulted in withdrawal of mesna and enabled continued treatment with cyclophophamide. A 57-year-old female patient with multiple sclerosis presented increasingly severe cutaneous lesions after successive courses of cyclophosphamide. Twenty-four hours after her latest treatment, she presented at the ER with a worse eruption than those to date and including facial lesions. The clinical diagnosis was a fixed drug eruption, and patch tests for mesna one month later were positive. Fixed drug eruption always occurs after recurrent treatment and the investigation must be precise. Patch tests may be used to determine which drug could be responsible. The most conclusive test comprises withdrawal of the incriminated drug with no further signs of drug eruption on resumption of the other medication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Atopy patch tests in young adult patients with atopic dermatitis and controls: dose-response relationship, objective reading, reproducibility and clinical interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, Anette; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    The clinical interpretation and reproducibility of atopy patch tests was studied in 23 selected young adult patients with atopic dermatitis and 25 healthy controls using standard inhalant allergens. Non-invasive measurements were used for objective assessment of test reactions and the participants......-dependent results were obtained with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, grass and cat with a reproducibility rate of 0.69 to 0.81 in patients and 0.60-0.96 in controls. A unique finding was a significant positive correlation between a positive atopy patch test, allergen dose and increase in transepidermal water loss...

  6. Children with Atopic Dermatitis Should Always be Patch-tested if They Have Hand or Foot Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Marléne; Olhardt, Sanna; Rådehed, Jeanette; Svensson, Åke

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease among children in industrialised countries. Many factors influence this disease in a negative way and contact allergy is one such factor. The aim of the study was to examine the frequency of contact allergy among children with the diagnosis atopic dermatitis. Contact allergy was found in 22/82 children (26.8%), the most common from Amerchol L101 (11.0%), potassium dichromate (7.3%), and nickel sulfate (4.9%). A statistically significant difference in contact allergy frequency was demonstrated for those with hand and/or foot eczema compared to those without. Children with atopic dermatitis who suffer from hand and/or foot dermatitis should always be patch-tested to evaluate whether they have a relevant contact allergy and thus allergic contact dermatitis.

  7. Quantitative aspects of isoeugenol contact allergy assessed by use and patch tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    in 4/19 (20%) of the test subjects. The ROAT was performed with a test solution of 0.2% isoeugenol in ethanol, which is the recommended maximum concentration used in perfumes, ethanol being applied as vehicle control. 4 weeks was the maximum exposure period. The upper arm was used as test site the 1st...

  8. Lidocaine patch (5%) is no more potent than placebo in treating chronic back pain when tested in a randomised double blind placebo controlled brain imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The 5% Lidocaine patch is used for treating chronic neuropathic pain conditions such as chronic back pain (CBP), diabetic neuropathy and complex regional pain syndrome, but is effective in a variable proportion of patients. Our lab has reported that this treatment reduces CBP intensity and associated brain activations when tested in an open labelled preliminary study. Notably, effectiveness of the 5% Lidocaine patch has not been tested against placebo for treating CBP. In this study, effectiveness of the 5% Lidocaine patch was compared with placebo in 30 CBP patients in a randomised double-blind study where 15 patients received 5% Lidocaine patches and the remaining patients received placebo patches. Functional MRI was used to identify brain activity for fluctuations of spontaneous pain, at baseline and at two time points after start of treatment (6 hours and 2 weeks). Results There was no significant difference between the treatment groups in either pain intensity, sensory and affective qualities of pain or in pain related brain activation at any time point. However, 50% patients in both the Lidocaine and placebo arms reported a greater than 50% decrease in pain suggesting a marked placebo effect. When tested against an untreated CBP group at similar time points, the patch treated subjects showed significantly greater decrease in pain compared to the untreated group (n = 15). Conclusions These findings suggest that although the 5% Lidocaine is not better than placebo in its effectiveness for treating pain, the patch itself induces a potent placebo effect in a significant proportion of CBP patients. PMID:22531485

  9. Primary irritation index and safety zone of cosmetics: retrospective analysis of skin patch tests in 7440 Korean women during 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, S M; Ham, H; Choi, E J; Shin, M K; An, S S; Kim, H O; Koh, J S

    2014-02-01

    Cosmetics are products used over long periods by the public, and their safety is very important. Several types of human tests are used widely for the evaluation of cosmetics including single patch tests, in-use tests, human repeated insult patch test (HRIPT). However, there is no clear and well-defined published objective and standardized criteria for primary skin irritation in regard to the large variety of cosmetic products. This study analysed human patch tests conducted from May 2001 to December 2012 with 4606 materials of prototype or finished cosmetic products on 7440 normal Korean women aged 18-60 years. The tested products were patched under occlusion for 24 or 48 h, and skin tolerance was assessed twice at 30 min and 24 h after patch removal using a 5-step scale according to the CTFA guidelines. Human patch tests for cosmetics were performed of 4606 cases, and 30-33 subjects participated in each case. The response in each case was calculated based on total subject number, skin reaction intensity and the number of respondents. The calculated response was standardized using the z-score, and a safety zone was provided in terms of human primary irritation in accordance with the human skin reaction evaluation criteria and usage or formula of cosmetics. This study established the safety criteria for irritation in the cosmetics field. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. The Role of Atopy Patch Test in Diagnosis of Food Allergy in Atopic Eczema/Dermatitis Syndrom in Patients over 14 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Čelakovská

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies concerning the importance of food allergy in adolescents and adult patients with atopic eczema exist. The atopy patch tests with food have mostly been studied in infants and children since food allergy plays a role especially in this age group. Aim: The evaluation of the contribution of atopy patch tests in the diagnostic work-up of food allergy (to wheat, cow milk, peanuts, soya and eggs in the patients with atopic eczema older than 14 years of age. Method: 120 patients were examined in the study in the diagnostic work-up of food allergy – 86 women and 34 men, the mean age 26.5 (s.d. 9.8 and the median SCORAD at the beginning of the study 32.9 (s.d. 14.0. Complete dermatological and allergological examinations in the diagnostic work-up of food allergy were performed (assessment of personal history, assessment of serum specific IgE, skin prick tests, atopy patch tests, diagnostic hypoallergenic diet, food challenge tests with egg, soy, wheat, cow milk and double – blind, placebo – controlled food challenge test with cow milk and wheat. The results of atopy patch tests were compared with the results of other diagnostic methods in the diagnosis of food allergy. Results: The food allergy to cow milk and wheat was confirmed in double – blind, placebo controlled food challenge test in few patients in our study (4 %. The suspicion of food allergy to egg is in 8 %, to peanuts in 13 % and to soya in 4 % of patients in our study. The assessment of atopy patch tests response seems to be of great importance. The reaction in atopy patch tests with more papules has the greatest diagnostic accuracy for predicting the result of challenge tests. At the beginning and at the end of diagnostic hypoallergenic diet the severity of atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome was recorded in all patients enrolled in the study by evaluating SCORAD. The decrease of SCORAD was statistically important. Conclusion: Atopy patch tests alone cannot be used as a

  11. Comparison of simultaneous patch testing with parthenolide and sesquiterpene lactone mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orion, E; Paulsen, E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1998-01-01

    Several studies have pointed out that the sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix is a safe, though inadequate, screen for Compositae allergy. To test the usefulness of the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide as a supplementary Compositae screening test to the mix, both were included in the standard series...

  12. Growing pains : how drug testing keeps workers and assets safe in a booming oil patch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulgaard, T.S.

    2006-06-15

    Drug abuse has become a subject of concern to the oil and gas industry, where mistakes in the operation of large machines can result in injury, death and the loss of millions of dollars. Pre-employment urine tests are becoming standard procedure in the oil field. Many supervisors refuse to let employees start work without a clear test. Urine samples are tested for the presence of cannabis, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines and phencyclidine. When a worker is injured or killed on the job, or after an uncommon error that causes significant damage, all parties involved are tested as soon as possible and a receipt of the results are expedited. The Alberta Human Rights and Citizenship Commission is now addressing the issue of drug testing, and has ascertained that drug and alcohol testing are only allowable in certain circumstances, and that it is discriminatory to test potential or existing employees for drug and alcohol use if the testing is not reasonable or justifiable. They have also suggested that there is a duty to accommodate persons with disabilities in the workplace. Drug and alcohol dependency fall within the meaning of disabled. Under the Construction Owner's Association of Alberta's Canadian Model for a Safe Workplace, testing must work in concert with treatment. Current employees are directed to seek help via an employee assistant plan. Workers and supervisors report that drug use is rampant in work camps. Industry-wide, fail rates for those who take part in drug testing are quoted by experts as ranging from between 2 to 14 per cent. 2 figs.

  13. Occupational contact dermatitis in painters - an analysis of patch test data from the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Anja Pahlow; Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Zachariae, Claus

    2012-01-01

    in the painters than in the group of controls. Sensitizations to the following allergens from the European baseline series were associated with the occupation and were statistically significant: methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, epoxy resin, formaldehyde, and quaternium-15. Three different...... isothiazolinones emerged as the most frequent sensitizers of the allergens tested in addition to the baseline series. Conclusions. The results indicate that painters have an increased risk of developing occupational hand eczema. Isothiazolinones and epoxy resin proved to be the two most frequent sensitizers...

  14. The Spanish standard patch test series: 2016 update by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervella-Garcés, M; García-Gavín, J; Silvestre-Salvador, J F

    2016-09-01

    The Spanish standard patch test series, as recommended by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC), has been updated for 2016. The new series replaces the 2012 version and contains the minimum set of allergens recommended for routine investigation of contact allergy in Spain from 2016 onwards. Four haptens -clioquinol, thimerosal, mercury, and primin- have been eliminated owing to a low frequency of relevant allergic reactions, while 3 new allergens -methylisothiazolinone, diazolidinyl urea, and imidazolidinyl urea- have been added. GEIDAC has also modified the recommended aqueous solution concentrations for the 2 classic, major haptens methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone, which are now to be tested at 200ppm in aqueous solution, and formaldehyde, which is now to be tested in a 2% aqueous solution. Updating the Spanish standard series is one of the functions of GEIDAC, which is responsible for ensuring that the standard series is suited to the country's epidemiological profile and pattern of contact sensitization. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Certification Tests on Cold Patch Asphalt Repair Materials for Use in Airfield Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    calculating the amount of bitumen absorbed by the aggregate, and in providing target values for the compaction of pav- ing mixtures (ASTM D2041). A weighed...pavement structure consisted of 5 in. of HMA over 8 in. of limestone, 6 in. of stabilized clay gravel, 16 in. of clay gravel and, finally, the...test section. HMA Limestone Stabilized Clay Gravel Clay Gravel Subgrade 5” 8” 6” 16 ERDC/GSL TR-10-14 30 Repairs The test area

  16. Final tests and performances verification of the European ALMA antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Gianpietro; Rampini, Francesco

    2012-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is under erection in Northern Chile. The array consists of a large number (up to 64) of 12 m diameter antennas and a number of smaller antennas, to be operated on the Chajnantor plateau at 5000 m altitude. The antennas will operate up to 950 GHz so that their mechanical performances, in terms of surface accuracy, pointing precision and dimensional stability, are very tight. The AEM consortium constituted by Thales Alenia Space France, Thales Alenia Space Italy, European Industrial Engineering (EIE GROUP), and MT Mechatronics is assembling and testing the 25 antennas. As of today, the first set of antennas have been delivered to ALMA for science. During the test phase with ESO and ALMA, the European antennas have shown excellent performances ensuring the specification requirements widely. The purpose of this paper is to present the different results obtained during the test campaign: surface accuracy, pointing error, fast motion capability and residual delay. Very important was also the test phases that led to the validation of the FE model showing that the antenna is working with a good margin than predicted at design level thanks also to the assembly and integration techniques.

  17. Aligning English grammar testing with European language standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodrič Radmila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, foreign language testing has gained in significance with the advent of The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (2001 (CEFR, a European language document which set comparable standards for learning, teaching and assessing foreign languages. The CEFR was used to set the research aim of this paper - testing grammar at level B2. The main aim of the research was to determine grammatical competence at level B2 and additional aims included: (a determining which particular areas of grammar need to be learned by students at level B2, (b formulating grammatical descriptors for each individual area of grammar, (c determining the test’s threshold level which would fulfil the criteria for grammatical competence at level B2, and (d determining the extent to which students have mastered the given areas. The pre-testing was followed by the main testing on the sample of 164 students in two secondary schools. The results indicated that the quantity and quality of grammatical competence was lower than expected: 47% of the population failed to fulfil the basic level of grammatical competence. The causes may be attributed to the factors of a subjective and objective nature. Level B2 is demanding qualitatively as well as quantitatively, regarding both the formal and the functional complexity and scope of language use, which requires intensive language production, high levels of motivation and sound working habits in order to master the given grammatical structures.

  18. Patch test results of hand eczema patients : relation to clinical types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, M B; Christoffers, W A; Coenraads, P J; Schuttelaar, M L A

    BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis is a well-known cause of hand eczema, although the influence of contact allergens on different clinical types of hand eczema remains still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To identify most common positive tested allergens among hand eczema patients and to define the

  19. Two decades of occupational (meth)acrylate patch test results and focus on isobornyl acrylate

    OpenAIRE

    Christoffers, Wietske A; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acrylates constitute an important cause of occupational contact dermatitis. Isobornyl acrylate sensitization has been reported in only 2 cases. We encountered an industrial process operator with occupational contact dermatitis caused by isobornyl acrylate. OBJECTIVES: (i) To investigate whether it is relevant to add isobornyl acrylate to the (meth)acrylate test series. (ii) To report patients with (meth)acrylate contact allergy at an occupational dermatology clinic. PATIENTS/MATER...

  20. Definitions of genetic testing in European legal documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Orsolya; Soini, Sirpa; Kääriäinen, Helena; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Nippert, Irmgard; Rogowski, Wolf; Nys, Herman; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Schmidtke, Jörg; Sequeiros, Jorge

    2012-04-01

    The definition of "genetic testing" is not a simple matter, and the term is often used with different meanings. The purpose of this work was the collection and analysis of European (and other) legislation and policy instruments regarding genetic testing, to scrutinise the definitions of genetic testing therewith contained the following: 60 legal documents were identified and examined-55 national and five international ones. Documents were analysed for the type (context) of testing and the material tested and compared by legal fields (privacy and confidentiality, data protection, biobanks, insurance and labour law, forensic medicine); some instruments are very complex and deal with various legal fields at the same time. There was no standard for the definitions used, and different approaches were identified (from wide general, to some very specific and technically based). Often, legal documents did not contain any definitions, and many did not distinguish between genetic testing and genetic information. Genetic testing was more often defined in non-binding legal documents than in binding ones. Definitions are core elements of legal documents, and their accuracy and harmonisation (particularly within a particular legal field) is critical, not to compromise their enforcement. We believe to have gathered now the evidence for adopting the much needed differentiation between (a) "clinical genetics testing", (b) "genetics laboratory-based genetic testing" and (c) "genetic information", as proposed before.

  1. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 2: Power quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P.; Friis Pedersen, T. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Gerdes, G.; Klosse, R.; Santier, F. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Robertson, N.; Davy, W. [NEL, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Koulouvari, M.; Morfiadakis, E. [CRES, Pikermi (Greece); Larsson, Aa. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2001-05-01

    The present report describes the work done in the power quality subtask of the European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Developments project funded by the EU SMT program. The objective of the power quality subtask has been to make recommendations and provide background for new standards for measurement and testing of wind turbine power quality. The focus in the work has been to support the ongoing standardisation work in IEC with a new standard IEC61400-21 for measurement and assessment of power quality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines. The work has also been based on the power quality measuremnet procedure in the Measnet cooperation of European test stations for wind turbines. The first working item of the project has been to verify the state of the art of the measurement procedures by analyses and comparisons of the measurements and data processing software of the participating partners. The next item has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines, considering both wind turbines with fixed rotor speed(s) and wind turbines with variable speed drives. (au)

  2. Evaluation of the medical devices benchmark materials in the controlled human patch testing and in the RhE in vitro skin irritation protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandárová, Helena; Bendova, Hana; Letasiova, Silvia; Coleman, Kelly P; De Jong, Wim H; Jírova, Dagmar

    2018-01-01

    Several irritants were used in the in vitro irritation medical device round robin. The objective of this study was to verify their irritation potential using the human patch test (HPT), an in vitro assay, and in vivo data. The irritants were lactic acid (LA), heptanoic acid (HA), sodium dodecyl

  3. Winter season, frequent hand washing, and irritant patch test reactions to detergents are associated with hand dermatitis in health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Adrienne; Baron, Elma; Fekedulegn, Desta; Kashon, Michael; Yucesoy, Berran; Johnson, Victor J; Domingo, Diana Santo; Kirkland, Brent; Luster, Michael I; Nedorost, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Irritant hand dermatitis (IHD) is common in health care workers. We studied endogenous irritant contact dermatitis threshold by patch testing and exogenous factors such as season and hand washing for their association with IHD in health care workers. Irritant patch testing with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium hydroxide, and benzalkonium chloride at varying concentrations was measured in 113 health care workers. Examination for hand dermatitis occurred at 1-month intervals for a period of 6 months in the Midwestern United States. Positive patch testing to low-concentration SLS was associated with IHD (P = 0.0310) after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, season, history of childhood flexural dermatitis, mean indoor relative humidity, and glove and hand sanitizer usage. Subjects with a positive patch test to SLS were 78% more likely to have occurrence of IHD (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-3.45). Hand washing frequency (≥10 times a day; IRR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.39) and cold season (IRR = 2.76; 95% CI, 1.35-5.65) were associated with IHD. No association was found between history of childhood flexural dermatitis and IHD in this population. Both genetic and environmental factors are important in the etiology of IHD and should be considered in designing strategies to protect, educate, and treat susceptible individuals.

  4. The diagnostic accuracy of the atopy patch test in diagnosing hypersensitivity to cow's milk and hen's egg in unselected children with and without atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, Morten; Andersen, Klaus E; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that the atopy patch test (APT) may make oral challenge superfluous in diagnosing children with food hypersensitivity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical relevance of APT in predicting hypersensitivity to cow's milk and hen's egg in 486 unselected c...

  5. Risks and possibilities in patch testing with contaminated personal objects: usefulness of thin-layer chromatograms in a patient with acrylate contact allergy from a chemical burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Marléne; Zimerson, Erik

    2007-08-01

    We report a case of a chemical burn from dipropylene glycol diacrylate (DPGDA) spilt on working shoes, followed by active sensitization, thus giving an occupational allergic contact dermatitis on the patient's dorsal feet. Diagnostic tests included patch testing with acetone extracts made from the different shoe layers and thin-layer chromatograms. An invisible spot on the thin-layer chromatography plate gave a test eczema and was further investigated with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DPGDA was detected in the spot.

  6. Formaldehyde in cosmetics in patch tested dermatitis patients with and without contact allergy to formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauksson, Inese; Pontén, Ann; Isaksson, Marléne; Hamada, Haneen; Engfeldt, Malin; Bruze, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    Formaldehyde is a well-known contact sensitizer. Formaldehyde releasers are widely used preservatives in cosmetics. To survey the release of formaldehyde in cosmetics brought by patients investigated because of suspected allergic contact dermatitis, to compare it with information given by the manufacturers on the packages, and to investigate whether formaldehyde-allergic patients are potentially exposed to more cosmetics releasing formaldehyde than dermatitis patients without contact allergy to formaldehyde. Cosmetics from 10 formaldehyde-allergic and 30 non-allergic patients (controls) matched for age and sex were investigated with the chromotropic acid spot test, which is a semiquantitative method measuring the release of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde was found in 58 of 245 (23.7%) products. Twenty-six of 126 (20.6%) leave-on products released formaldehyde, and 17 of 26 (65.4%) of these were not declared to contain formaldehyde or formaldehyde releasers. Among the rinse-off products, there were 32 of 119 (26.8%) formaldehyde-releasing products, and nine of 32 (28.0%) of these were not labelled as containing formaldehyde or formaldehyde releasers. Five of 10 formaldehyde-allergic patients brought leave-on products with ≥ 40 ppm formaldehyde, as compared with 4 of 30 in the control group (p = 0.029). Cosmetic products used by formaldehyde-allergic patients that are not declared to contain formaldehyde or formaldehyde-releasing preservatives should be analysed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Development of a novel noninvasive adhesive patch test for the evaluation of pigmented lesions of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerami, Pedram; Alsobrook, John P; Palmer, Tara J; Robin, Howard S

    2014-08-01

    The accurate clinical assessment of melanocytic neoplasms is a challenge for clinicians. Currently, obtaining a biopsy specimen and conducting a histologic examination is the standard of care. The incidence of melanoma in white populations is high, resulting in a large number of biopsy specimens. The objective of this study is to develop a noninvasive genomic method using mRNA to classify pigmented skin lesions as either benign or malignant. An adhesive patch method was used to obtain cells from the surface of melanocytic lesions. mRNA was extracted and a genomic signature was formulated in a training set of benign and malignant melanocytic neoplasms and subsequently tested in a validation set. A 2-gene signature assessing the expression levels of CMIP and LINC00518 was able to differentiate melanomas from nevi in an independent validation set of 42 melanomas and 22 nevi with a sensitivity of 97.6% and specificity of 72.7%. Larger and more diverse sets of melanomas and nevi are needed for additional validation of the molecular expression profiling in various subsets of melanocytic neoplasms. Our data suggest that mRNA molecular signatures can serve as a highly useful noninvasive method of differentiating melanoma from nevi and decrease the number of unnecessary biopsies. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alcohol flushing and positive ethanol patch test in patients with coronary spastic angina: possible role of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuji; Morita, Sumio; Harada, Eisaku; Shono, Makoto; Morikawa, Yoshinobu; Murohara, Toyoaki; Yasue, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Coronary spasm plays an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and angina pectoris caused by coronary spasm or coronary spastic angina (CSA) is prevalent in Japan. However, the precise mechanisms underlying coronary spasm are unclear. Alcohol intolerance is prevalent among East Asians, and we previously reported that coronary spasm could be induced by alcohol intake in CSA patients. We herein examined whether CSA is associated with alcohol intolerance in Japanese subjects. The study subjects consisted of 80 CSA patients (57 men/ 23 women, mean age 62 ± 12) and 52 non-CSA patients (25 men/27 women, mean age 63 ± 10). The ethanol patch test (EPT) and questionnaire which evaluates flushing after ethanol intake, along with an examination of clinical features and laboratory chemistry data for CHD risk factors were done. Gender (male) and smoking were higher (p=0.007, and p=0.019, respectively) and plasma HDL cholesterol level was lower (p=0.035) in the CSA patients than in the non-CSA patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis including age, EPT, smoking, and plasma HDL cholesterol level as independent variables revealed that positive EPT and smoking were significant predictors of CSA (p=0.011 and p=0.016, respectively). Positive EPT and alcohol flushing following alcohol intake, as well as smoking and plasma levels of HDL cholesterol, were significantly associated with CSA in Japanese patients. Therefore, alcohol ingestion as well as smoking is a significant risk factor for CSA in Japanese.

  9. Allergic contact stomatitis to dodecyl gallate? A review of the relevance of positive patch test results to gallates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Palmer, Amanda M; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-08-01

    Gallic acid esters or gallates are antioxidants used as preservatives in food and cosmetics. Few cases of gallates causing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have been reported in the literature. We present a case report of a 42-year-old beauty therapist who presented with a swollen tongue. Patch testing was positive to dodecyl gallate, commonly reported as being present in edible oil and oily foods such as margarine. Our patient avoided foods presumed to contain gallates and at the 6-week review reported a substantial improvement in her tongue symptoms. We reviewed our database and found 16 (7%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to dodecyl gallate, seven (15%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to propyl gallate and six (3%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to octyl gallate. Most reactions were attributed to margarine, moisturising cream and lipstick. These products are often mentioned in the literature as containing gallates; however, ingredient labelling and discussions with manufacturers made it difficult to establish whether they are currently present in foods. Ascertaining relevance for these reactions is not always possible. © 2012 The Authors Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  10. European accelerator facilities for single event effects testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, L.; Nickson, R.; Harboe-Sorensen, R. [ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Hajdas, W.; Berger, G.

    1997-03-01

    Single event effects are an important hazard to spacecraft and payloads. The advances in component technology, with shrinking dimensions and increasing complexity will give even more importance to single event effects in the future. The ground test facilities are complex and expensive and the complexities of installing a facility are compounded by the requirement that maximum control is to be exercised by users largely unfamiliar with accelerator technology. The PIF and the HIF are the result of experience gained in the field of single event effects testing and represent a unique collaboration between space technology and accelerator experts. Both facilities form an essential part of the European infrastructure supporting space projects. (J.P.N.)

  11. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 2: Power quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gerdes, G.

    2001-01-01

    for measurement and testing of wind turbine power quality. The focus in the work has been to support the ongoing standardisation work in IEC with a new standard IEC61400-21 for measurement and assessment of powerquality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines. The work has also been based on the power......The present report describes the work done in the power quality subtask of the European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Developments project funded by the EU SMT program. The objective of the power quality subtask has been to make recommendations andprovide background for new standards...... partners. The next item has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and windfarm summation on the power quality of wind turbines, considering both wind turbines with fixed rotor speed(s) and wind turbines with variable speed drives....

  12. Offering prenatal diagnostic tests: European guidelines for clinical practice [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirton, Heather; Goldsmith, Lesley; Jackson, Leigh; Lewis, Celine; Chitty, Lyn

    2014-05-01

    For over four decades, it has been possible to offer prenatal diagnostic testing for fetal abnormalities. Prenatal testing is now available for a wide range of monogenic disorders as well as chromosomal abnormalities and should be provided within the ethical framework of informed consent and autonomous choice. However, there are no published guidelines for health professionals from varied disciplines who offer prenatal diagnosis (PND) in a range of possible settings including departments of maternity, obstetrics and clinical genetics. We used an Expert Group technique to develop a set of guidelines for provision of prenatal diagnostic services. Thirteen European health professionals, all experts in PND, participated in a workshop to develop the guidelines, which were then subjected to a wide consultation process. The objective of PND was defined as providing prenatal diagnostic testing services (for genetic conditions) that enable families to make informed choices consistent with their individual needs and values and which support them in dealing with the outcome of such testing. General principles, logistical considerations, clinical care and counselling topics are all described and are equally applicable to invasive and non-invasive testing. These guidelines provide a framework for ethical clinical care; however, they are flexible enough to enable practitioners to adapt them to their particular setting. Ideally, an individualised approach to each family is required to ensure autonomous choice and informed consent regarding prenatal diagnostic testing within the local ethical and legal framework.

  13. Wireless link design using a patch antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E

    2000-08-11

    A wireless link was designed using a patch antenna. In the process, several different models were tested. Testing proved a patch antenna was a viable solution for building a wireless link within the design specifications. Also, this experimentation provided a basis for future patch antenna design.

  14. CMS Test of the European DataGrid Testbed

    CERN Document Server

    Biasotto, Massimo; Capiluppi, Paolo; Charlot, Claude; Colling, David; MacEvoy, Barry C; Tallini, Hugh; Corvo, Marco; Fanzago, Federica; Verlato, Marco; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fantinel, Sergio; Gaillac, Anne-Marie; Grandi, Claudio; Augustin, I; Lefébure, Véronique; Stockinger, Heinz; Maroney, Owen; Nebrensky, H; Semeniouk, Igor; Blaising, J J; Burke, Samuel; Chierici, A; Cavalli, A; Ciaschini, V; Field, L; Groep, D; Hernández, F; Italiano, A; Kunszt, Peter Z; Lajili, N; Laure, Erwin; Leonardi, Emanuele; Loomis, C; Prelz, F; Reale, M; Schulz, M; Sciabà, Andrea; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Templon, J A; Tortone, G

    2003-01-01

    Starting in the middle of November 2002, the CMS experiment undertook an evaluation of the European, DataGrid Project (EDG) middleware using its event simulation programs. A joint CMS-EDG task force performed a iestress testle by submitting a large number of jobs to many distributed sites. The EDG testbed was complemented with additional CMS-dedicated resources. A total of ~ 10000 jobs consisting of two different computational types were submitted from four different locations in Europe over a period of about one month. Nine sites were active, providing integrated resources of more than 500 CPUs and about 5 TB of disk space (with the additional use of two Mass Storage Systems). Detailed descriptions of the adopted procedures, the problems encountered and the corresponding solutions are reported. Results and evaluations of the test, both from the CMS and the EDG perspectives, are described (Version 2).

  15. Trends in patch-test results and allergen changes in the standard series: a Mayo Clinic 5-year retrospective review (January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Ashley B; Yiannias, James A; Keeling, James H; Hall, Matthew R; Camilleri, Michael J; Drage, Lisa A; Torgerson, Rochelle R; Fett, Debra D; Prakash, Amy V; Scalf, Leigh Ann; Allen, Eve M; Johnson, Janis S; Singh, Nidhi; Nordberg Linehan, Diane L; Killian, Jill M; Davis, Mark D P

    2014-02-01

    Patch testing is essential for identification of culprits causing allergic contact dermatitis. We sought to identify trends and allergen changes in our standard series during 2006 to 2010, compared with our previous report (2001-2005). We conducted a retrospective review of patch-test results. A total of 3115 patients were tested with a mean of 73.0 allergens. Since our prior report, 8 allergens were added to the standard series; 14 were deleted. Significantly higher rates of allergic positive reaction were documented for carba mix, 3%, and Disperse Orange 3, 1%. Rates were lower for 10 allergens: neomycin sulfate, 20%; gold sodium thiosulfate, 0.5%; hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)triazine, 1%; disperse blue 124, 1%; disperse blue 106, 1%; diazolidinyl urea, 1%; hexylresorcinol, 0.25%; diazolidinyl urea, 1% aqueous; 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, 0.25%; and lidocaine, 5%. Many final patch-test readings for many allergens were categorized as mild reactions (erythema only). Overall allergenicity and irritancy rates declined significantly since our prior report. Results were generally comparable with those in a North American Contact Dermatitis Group report from 2005 to 2006. This was a retrospective study; there is a lack of long-term follow-up. Since our previous report, our standard series composition has changed, and overall rates of allergenicity and irritancy have decreased. Notably, many final patch-test readings showed mild reactions. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Patch testing with a new fragrance mix detects additional patients sensitive to perfumes and missed by the current fragrance mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Peter J; Pirker, Claudia; Rastogi, Suresh C; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Goossens, An; White, Ian R; Uter, Wolfgang; Arnau, Elena Giménez; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2005-04-01

    The currently used 8% fragrance mix (FM I) does not identify all patients with a positive history of adverse reactions to fragrances. A new FM II with 6 frequently used chemicals was evaluated in 1701 consecutive patients patch tested in 6 dermatological centres in Europe. FM II was tested in 3 concentrations - 28% FM II contained 5% hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral), 2% citral, 5% farnesol, 5% coumarin, 1% citronellol and 10%alpha-hexyl-cinnamic aldehyde; in 14% FM II, the single constituents' concentration was lowered to 50% and in 2.8% FM II to 10%. Each patient was classified regarding a history of adverse reactions to fragrances: certain, probable, questionable, none. Positive reactions to FM I occurred in 6.5% of the patients. Positive reactions to FM II were dose-dependent and increased from 1.3% (2.8% FM II), through 2.9% (14% FM II) to 4.1% (28% FM II). Reactions classified as doubtful or irritant varied considerably between the 6 centres, with a mean value of 7.2% for FM I and means ranging from 1.8% to 10.6% for FM II. 8.7% of the tested patients had a certain fragrance history. Of these, 25.2% were positive to FM I; reactivity to FM II was again dose-dependent and ranged from 8.1% to 17.6% in this subgroup. Comparing 2 groups of history - certain and none - values for sensitivity and specificity were calculated: sensitivity: FM I, 25.2%; 2.8% FM II, 8.1%; 14% FM II, 13.5%; 28% FM II, 17.6%; specificity: FM I, 96.5%; 2.8% FM II, 99.5%; 14% FM II, 98.8%; 28% FM II, 98.1%. 31/70 patients (44.3%) positive to 28% FM II were negative to FM I, with 14% FM II this proportion being 16/50 (32%). In the group of patients with a certain history, a total of 7 patients were found reacting to FM II only. Conversely, in the group of patients without any fragrance history, there were significantly more positive reactions to FM I than to any concentration of FM II. In conclusion, the new FM II detects additional patients sensitive to fragrances missed

  17. Overview of the Acoustic Testing of the European Service Module Structural Test Article (E-STA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, William; Fogt, Vince; Le Plenier, Cyprien; Duval, Francois; Durand, Jean-Francois; Staab, Lucas D.; Hozman, Aron; Mcnelis, Anne; Bittinger, Samantha; Thirkettle, Anthony; hide

    2017-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) and their prime contractor Airbus Defense Space (ADS) are developing the European Service Module (ESM) for integration and utilization with other modules of NASAs Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. As part of this development, ESA, ADS, NASA and the Lockheed Martin Company performed a series of reverberant acoustic tests in April-May 2016 on the ESM Structural Test Article (E-STA), the mechanical mock-up of the ESM designated for mechanical tests. Testing the E-STA under acoustic qualification loads verifies whether it can successfully withstand the medium and high frequency mechanical environment occurring during the vehicles lift-off and atmospheric phases of flight. The testing occurred at the Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF) at the NASA Glenn Research Centers Plum Brook Station site in Sandusky, OH, USA. This highly successful acoustic test campaign excited the E-STA to acoustic test levels as high as 149.4 dB Overall Sound Pressure Level. This acoustic testing met all the ESA and ADSs test objectives, including establishingverifying the random vibration qualification test levels for numerous hardware components of the ESM, and qualifying the ESMs Solar Array Wing electrical power system. This paper will address the test objectives, the test articles configuration, the test instrumentation and excitation levels, the RATF site and capabilities, the series of acoustic tests performed, and the technical issues faced and overcome to result in a successful acoustic test campaign for the ESM. A discussion of several test results is also included.

  18. Contact allergy to (meth)acrylates in the dental series in southern Sweden: simultaneous positive patch test reaction patterns and possible screening allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Anthony T J; Isaksson, Marléne; Zimerson, Erik; Goh, Chee Leok; Bruze, Magnus

    2006-10-01

    Contact allergy to dental allergens is a well-studied subject, more so among dental professionals than dental patients. 1632 subjects had been patch tested to either the dental patient series or dental personnel series at the department of Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Malmö, Sweden. Positive patch tests to (meth)acrylate allergens were seen in 2.3% (30/1322) of the dental patients and 5.8% (18/310) of the dental personnel. The most common allergen for both groups was 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), followed by ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, and methyl methacrylate. 47 (29 dental patients and 18 dental personnel) out of these 48 had positive patch tests to 2-HEMA. All 30 subjects who had a positive reaction to EGDMA had a simultaneous positive reaction to 2-HEMA. One dental patient reacted only to 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]propane (bis-GMA). From our data, screening for (meth)acrylate contact allergy with 2-HEMA alone would have picked up 96.7% (29/30) of our (meth)acrylate-allergic dental patients and 100% (18/18) of our (meth)acrylate-allergic dental personnel. The addition of bis-GMA in dental patients would increase the pick-up rate to 100%.

  19. Occupational Contact Dermatitis in Mechanics and Repairers Referred for Patch Testing: Retrospective Analysis From the North American Contact Dermatitis Group 1998-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshaw, Erin M; Hagen, Solveig L; Sasseville, Denis; Maibach, Howard I; DeKoven, Joel G; Belsito, Donald V; Fowler, Joseph F; Zug, Kathryn A; Taylor, James S; Mathias, C G Toby; Fransway, Anthony F; DeLeo, Vincent A; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Zirwas, Matthew J; Storrs, Frances J

    Contact dermatoses are common in mechanic and repair occupations. This study aimed to (1) estimate the prevalence of occupationally related contact dermatitis among mechanics/repairers patch tested from 1998 to 2014 by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group, (2) characterize responsible allergens and irritants, and their sources, and (3) compare results among 3 occupational subgroups (mechanics, electrical/electronic, and other). A cross-sectional analysis of patients patch tested by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group between 1998 and 2014. Of 38,784 patients patch tested, 691 (1.8%) were mechanics/repairers. Male sex (93.5%) and hand involvement (59.5%) were common overall. Occupationally related skin disease was more prevalent among vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics/repairers (52.7%) and other mechanics/repairers (41.4%) than electrical/electronic equipment mechanics/repairers (21.3%). Overall, carba mix, thiuram mix, and methylchloroisothiazolone/methylisothiazolone were the most common occupation-related clinically relevant allergens. Gloves, automotive vehicles, solvents, oils, lubricants, and fuels were the most common sources of responsible allergens. Common occupationally related allergens included rubber accelerators and the preservative methylchloroisothiazolone/methylisothiazolone.

  20. Testing practices in the 21st century: developments and European psychologists' opinions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.; Muñiz, J.; Bartram, D.; Boben, D.; Egeland, J.; Fernández-Hermida, J.R.; Frans, Ö.; Gintiliené, G.; Hagemeister, C.; Halama, P.; Iliescu, D.; Jawarowska, A.; Jiménez, P.; Manthouli, M.; Matesic, K.; Schittekatte, M.; Sümer, H.C.; Urbánek, T.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of the European Federation of Psychologists’Associations (EFPA) Standing Committee on Tests and Testing (SCTT) is the improvement of testing practices in European countries. In order to reach this goal, the SCTT carries out various actions and projects, some of which are described in

  1. Buprenorphine Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buprenorphine patches are used to relieve severe pain in people who are expected to need pain medication ... Transdermal buprenorphine comes as a patch to apply to the skin. The patch is usually applied to the skin ...

  2. House dust mite-related allergic diseases: role of skin prick test, atopy patch test, and RAST in the diagnosis of different manifestations of allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuiano, Nicola; Fusilli, Saverio; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2010-07-01

    The atopy patch test (APT) was recently defined as an important tool in diagnosis of atopic dermatitis (AD) and also of rhinitis and asthma caused by hypersensitivity to the house dust mites. We evaluated 465 children (279 males and 186 females) aged 0.4-17.6 years (mean 6.6 +/- 3.8 years), by dividing them into four groups: group A, current AD (40 patients); group B, current AD with respiratory symptoms (156 patients); group C, past AD with respiratory symptoms (203 patients); and the control group, respiratory symptoms with no history of AD (66 patients). The APT was significantly more frequently positive in groups with current AD (groups A and B) or past AD (group C) than in the control group, while skin prick test (SPT) and radioallergosorbent test (RAST) were significantly more frequently positive in the control group. With multivariate analysis, for APT, significant differences were found in the comparison between group A vs group B (odds ratio (OR) 1.55) and between group A vs group C (OR 1.81). The mean age was significantly lower in group A than in groups B, C, and the control group and with less significance in groups C vs D. Children sensitized to mites with current or past AD, with or without respiratory symptoms, have a different response to diagnostic tests, which is characterized by a highly significantly more frequent positive APT in comparison with subjects who have respiratory symptoms but a negative history for AD, who show the common response to SPT and RAST.

  3. Spin Glass Patch Planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenlong; Mandra, Salvatore; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a patch planting method for creating arbitrarily large spin glass instances with known ground states. The scaling of the computational complexity of these instances with various block numbers and sizes is investigated and compared with random instances using population annealing Monte Carlo and the quantum annealing DW2X machine. The method can be useful for benchmarking tests for future generation quantum annealing machines, classical and quantum mechanical optimization algorithms.

  4. The European standard series in 9 European countries, 2002/2003 -- first results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, W; Hegewald, J; Aberer, W

    2005-01-01

    Since January 2001, the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), supported by European Union funding (contract QLK4-CT-2001-00343), has started to collect patch-test data. This comprises a standardized clinical history and the patch-test results using the European standard series...... observed. The prevalence of contact allergy to Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru) (5.8%) is coming close to the frequency found with the fragrance mix (6.4%). Regarding contact allergy to chromium compounds, different frequencies were noted in the 2 centres focused on occupational dermatitis (2...

  5. European Scientists prepare to test the limits of Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "European Scientists are gearing up for a series of experiments that will probe deeper into the nature of matter than ever before. At the end of August the Scientific Information Port (PIC), a centre for technology based at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) began work on the first stage of the European project Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The aim of the project is to study the origins of mater by reproducing conditions similar to those produced during the Big Bang." (1 page)

  6. Can contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine explain the high rates of terpene hydroperoxide allergy? - An epidemiological study based on consecutive patch test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennike, Niels Højsager; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2017-02-01

    Contact allergy to linalool hydroperoxides (Lin-OOHs) and limonene hydroperoxides (Lim-OOHs) is common. Similarly to what occurs with the terpene hydroperoxides, reactive intermediates formed from p-phenylenediamine (PPD) can cause oxidative modifications of tryptophan residues on proteins in mechanistic studies. To test the hypothesis that patients sensitized to PPD are at increased risk of concomitant reactivity to either of the terpene hydroperoxides, owing to a 'common pathway' of skin protein oxidation. A database study of consecutively patch tested eczema patients (n = 3843) from 2012 to 2015, tested concomitantly with PPD, Lim-OOHs and Lin-OOHs, was performed. Associations were examined by level of concordance and odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, sex, and contact allergy to fragrance mix I and fragrance mix II. Concomitant reactions to PPD were seen in 2.2% of Lim-OOH-positive patients and in 4.9% of Lin-OOH-positive patients. Neither proportion was higher than expected by chance. No association existed between PPD and Lim-OOH patch test reactivity. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, PPD allergy was associated with an insignificantly increased risk (OR 2.11, 95%CI:0.92-4.80) of a positive patch test reaction to Lin-OOHs. PPD sensitization cannot explain the high rates of sensitization to Lin-OOHs and/or Lim-OOHs. Contact allergy to oxidized linalool is more strongly associated with fragrance allergy than with PPD allergy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Oceanographic data collected during the EX1401 (Ship Shakedown and Patch Test Exploration) expedition on NOAA Ship OKEANOS EXPLORER in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-06 to 2014-02-09 (NODC Accession 0116846)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To begin the 2014 NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer field season, a ship shakedown and multibeam patch test was performed off the coast of Rhode Island over Veatch Canyon....

  8. Oceanographic data collected during the EX1601 Transit and Mission Patch Test on NOAA Ship OKEANOS EXPLORER in the North Pacific Ocean from 2016-01-20 to 2016-02-07 (NCEI Accession 0145341)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Normal underway operations and mapping patch testing. Bathymetric mapping of either the Murray or Molokai Fracture Zones during the transit to Hawaii was planned, as...

  9. Patch test reactivity to a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy and stainless steel in metal-allergic patients in correlation to the metal ion release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summer, Burkhard; Fink, Ulrich; Zeller, Richard; Rueff, Franziska; Maier, Sonja; Roider, Gabriele; Thomas, Peter

    2007-07-01

    Nickel, chromium, and cobalt released from stainless steel and CoCrMo alloys have been postulated to trigger hypersensitivity reactions. The objective of this study was to assess the ion release from a CoCrMo alloy and stainless steel in vitro and the cutaneous reactivity to it by patch test. 52 metal-allergic patients and 48 non-allergic controls were patch tested to stainless steel and CoCrMo discs. In addition, using atomic absorption spectrometry, the release of nickel, cobalt, and chromium from both materials was assessed upon 2-day exposure to distilled water, artificial sweat (AS), and cell culture medium. There was low nickel ion release from stainless steel (0.3-0.46 microg/cm(2)/2 days) and CoCrMo discs (up to 0.33 microg/cm(2)/2 days) into the different elution media. Chromium release from the 2 materials was also very low (0.06-0.38 microg/cm(2)/2 days from stainless steel and 0.52-1.36 microg/cm(2)/2 days from CoCrMo alloy). In contrast, AS led to abundant cobalt release (maximally 18.94 microg/cm(2)/2 days) from the CoCrMo discs, with concomitant eczematous reaction upon patch testing: 0 of the 52 metal-allergic patients reacted to stainless steel discs and 5 of the 52 patients to CoCrMo discs (all 5 patients were cobalt allergic and 3 also nickel and chromium allergic). None of the controls reacted to the discs. Apart from nickel being a focus of allergological research, our results point to the possibly underestimated association of cobalt release and potential hyperreactivity to CoCrMo alloy.

  10. Are European Equity Style Indexes Mean Reverting? Testing the Validity of the Efficient Market Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Berneburg, Marian

    2004-01-01

    The article tests for a random walk in European equity style indexes. After briefly introducing the efficient market hypothesis, equity styles in general and the used statistical techniques (Variance Ratio Test and modified Rescaled Range Test) it is shown that a random walk in European equity style indexes cannot be rejected. At least in the period since the mid 70s, for which this research has been conducted, the weak form efficient market hypothesis seems to hold.

  11. Testing causes for the European mid-Paleocene inversions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.B.; Stephenson, Randell; Hansen, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    conventionally been held responsible. A second stage of inversion of the same structures occurred in the mid-Paleocene; however, this differed in structural style by being domal and non-ruptural with amplitudes on the order of ~102m. Furthermore, within the chronostratigraphic resolution, the onset of the mid....... This model explains the domal, non-ruptural inversion style, the amplitude of the inversion, and the formation of secondary marginal troughs that controlled the deposition of post-mid Paleocene Paleogene sediments in central and northwest Europe. The problem addressed in this paper is the possible cause......-European plate interaction, 2) the mid-ocean rift system of the Atlantic Ocean, and 3) the uplift of the North Atlantic lithosphere by the rising Iceland plume. Of these, the effects of 2) and 3) are relatively straightforward, giving rise to compression radiating away from the region of action, while...

  12. Results of patch testing to personal care product allergens in a standard series and a supplemental cosmetic series: an analysis of 945 patients from the Mayo Clinic Contact Dermatitis Group, 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, David A; Yiannias, James A; Prakash, Amy V; Davis, Mark D P; Farmer, Sara A; el-Azhary, Rokea A

    2010-11-01

    Patch testing to a standard screening series of allergens in combination with supplemental cosmetic allergens is often used to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis due to personal care products. To report results of patch testing to skin care product allergens contained in a standard series and a supplemental cosmetic series and to compare efficacy of this combined series in detecting positive reactions to personal care product allergens with the efficacy of various standard screening series. Positive reaction rates to skin care product allergens were tabulated for patients who underwent patch testing to both standard and cosmetic series allergens at Mayo Clinic between 2000 and 2007. Data were compared with skin care allergens detected on standard screening series, including the thin-layer rapid use epicutaneous (TRUE) test. Of 945 patch-tested patients, 68.4% had at least one positive reaction and 47.3% had at least two positive reactions. Also, 49.4% of patients reacted to at least one preservative; 31.2% reacted to at least one fragrance/botanical additive. Compared with use of our standard series and cosmetic series, use of the TRUE test would have missed 22.5% of patients with preservative allergy, 11.3% with fragrance/botanical allergy, and 17.3% with vehicle allergy. Various allergens tested over time, patch test reading by residents, and lack of confirmation of allergen in personal care products. Standard patch-test screening series miss a substantial number of patients with skin care product ingredient allergy. Copyright © 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Patch testing with the textile dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3 and some of their potential metabolites, and simultaneous reactions to para-amino compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskiene, Laura; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus; Ryberg, Kristina; Isaksson, Marlene

    2012-09-01

    It is known that, in vitro, human skin bacteria are able to split disperse azo dyes into the corresponding aromatic amines, some of which are sensitizers in the local lymph node assay. We hypothesize that the molecules of disperse dyes migrate onto the skin while garments are worn, and are metabolized and degraded by commensal skin bacteria. These molecules penetrate the skin and induce sensitization. To evaluate the elicitation capacities of the possible azo-degradation products of the selected azo disperse dyes in patients allergic to them and to compare it with the elicitation capacities of other para-compounds. Ten patients allergic to Disperse Yellow 3 (DY3) and/or Disperse Orange 1 (DO1) were patch tested with a dilution series of the purified dyes 4-nitroaniline and p-aminodiphenylamine in concentrations equimolar to those of purified DO1 in the dilution series, as well as 4-aminoacetanilide and 2-amino-p-cresol in concentrations equimolar to those of purified DY3 in the dilution series. Results. Three patterns of patch test reactions could be seen. The 6 patients who were positive to DO1 and DY3 also reacted to p-aminodiphenylamine and 2-amino-p-cresol. Two patients were positive to DO1 only, and both reacted to p-aminodiphenylamine, but to neither 4-aminoacetanilide or 2-amino-p-cresol. Two patients did not react to DO1 or DY3 on this occasion. We show that it is possible that the major sensitizers in contact allergy to DO1 and DY3 are their metabolites, p-aminodiphenylamine and 2-amino-p-cresol, respectively, which might be formed by the azoreductase pathway of skin bacteria. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Patch testing with 2.0% (0.60 mg/cm2) formaldehyde instead of 1.0% (0.30 mg/cm2) detects significantly more contact allerg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontén, Ann; Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Agner, Tove

    2013-01-01

    Background.The currently used patch test concentration for formaldehyde is 1.0% (wt/vol) in water. However, clinical experience and previous studies suggest that 1.0% might be insufficient for detecting an optimized number of clinically relevant cases of contact allergy to formaldehyde. Objectives.......To validate earlier patch test results for comparison of 1% (wt/vol) and 2% (wt/vol) formaldehyde in water, and to investigate co-reactivity with quaternium-15. Materials and methods.In 12 dermatology clinics, 3591 patients were routinely patch tested simultaneously with 2.0% (wt/vol) (0.60 mg/cm(2) ) and 1.......0% (wt/vol) (0.30 mg/cm(2) ) formaldehyde. Micropipettes were used for delivering the exact dosage of the allergen. Results.Significantly more patients reacted to 2.0% formaldehyde than to 1.0% (3.4% versus 1.8%, p

  15. 20 Years of standard patch testing in an eczema population with focus on patients with multiple contact allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2007-01-01

    (Me)isothiazolinone, and primin and poor for paraben mix. 5.1% were multiple allergic, primarily women, and 90% got diagnosed by the first test. Frequency of multiple allergies increased with age. More multiple- than mono/double-allergic patients were tested multiple times. Persistency and sensitivity rates in a Danish eczema...

  16. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly Junonia coenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Haddad

    2000-06-01

    Habitat corridors have been proposed to reduce patch isolation and increase population persistence in fragmented landscapes. This study tested whether patch colonization was increased by the presence and various length corridors. The specific butterfly species tested has been shown to use corridors, however, the results indicate that neither the distance between patches or the presence of a corridor influenced colonization.

  17. Metrology to enable high temperature erosion testing - A new european initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fry, A.T.; Gee, M.G.; Clausen, Sønnik

    2014-01-01

    is required. However, limitations in current measurement capability within this form of test prevent the advancement. A new European initiative, METROSION, on the development of high temperature solid particle erosion testing has a primary aim to develop this metrological framework. Several key parameters...

  18. European/U.S. cooperative flight testing - Some food for thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Ronald M.

    1987-01-01

    Increasing numbers of flight test teams are participating in cooperative European/U.S. flight test programs due to the growth in international aircraft R&D. Preparing for and participating in these overseas assignments can be complicated by such factors as language barriers, unfamiliar flight test procedures, lack of adequate flight experience and unexpected weather trends. A visiting test pilot's checklist is presented which outlines the tasks of the various phases (i.e., concept, planning, preparation, execution, analysis, and data presentation).

  19. Genetic testing in the European Union: does economic evaluation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoñanzas, Fernando; Rodríguez-Ibeas, R; Hutter, M F; Lorente, R; Juárez, C; Pinillos, M

    2012-10-01

    We review the published economic evaluation studies applied to genetic technologies in the EU to know the main diseases addressed by these studies, the ways the studies were conducted and to assess the efficiency of these new technologies. The final aim of this review was to understand the possibilities of the economic evaluations performed up to date as a tool to contribute to decision making in this area. We have reviewed a set of articles found in several databases until March 2010. Literature searches were made in the following databases: PubMed; Euronheed; Centre for Reviews and Dissemination of the University of York-Health Technology Assessment, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, NHS Economic Evaluation Database; and Scopus. The algorithm was "(screening or diagnosis) and genetic and (cost or economic) and (country EU27)". We included studies if they met the following criteria: (1) a genetic technology was analysed; (2) human DNA must be tested for; (3) the analysis was a real economic evaluation or a cost study, and (4) the articles had to be related to any EU Member State. We initially found 3,559 papers on genetic testing but only 92 articles of economic analysis referred to a wide range of genetic diseases matched the inclusion criteria. The most studied diseases were as follows: cystic fibrosis (12), breast and ovarian cancer (8), hereditary hemochromatosis (6), Down's syndrome (7), colorectal cancer (5), familial hypercholesterolaemia (5), prostate cancer (4), and thrombophilia (4). Genetic tests were mostly used for screening purposes, and cost-effectiveness analysis is the most common type of economic study. The analysed gene technologies are deemed to be efficient for some specific population groups and screening algorithms according to the values of their cost-effectiveness ratios that were below the commonly accepted threshold of 30,000€. Economic evaluation of genetic technologies matters but the number of published studies is still

  20. Contact allergy to acrylates/methacrylates in the acrylate and nail acrylics series in southern Sweden: simultaneous positive patch test reaction patterns and possible screening allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teik-Jin Goon, Anthony; Bruze, Magnus; Zimerson, Erik; Goh, Chee-Leok; Isaksson, Marléne

    2007-07-01

    In a recent study we showed that all our dental personnel/patients were detected with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) and 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (bis-GMA). We studied 90 patients tested to the acrylate and nail acrylics series at our department over a 10 year period to see whether screening allergens could be found. Patch testing with an acrylate and nail acrylics series was performed. Among the 10 acrylate/methacrylate-allergic occupational dermatitis patients tested to the acrylate series, the most common allergens were triethyleneglycol diacrylate (TREGDA, 8), diethyleneglycol diacrylate (5), and 1,4-butanediol diacrylate (BUDA, 5). All 10 of these patients would have been picked up by a short screening series combining TREGDA, 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA), and BUDA or 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA). Among the 14 acrylate/methacrylate-allergic nail patients, the most common allergens were ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA, 11), 2-HEMA, (9), and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (9). Screening for 3 allergens i.e. 2-HEMA plus EGDMA plus TREGDA, would have detected all 14 nail patients. A short screening series combining 2-HEMA, EGDMA, TREGDA, 2-HPMA, bis-GMA, and BUDA or HDDA would have picked up all our past study patients (dental, industrial, and nail) with suspected allergy to acrylate/methacrylate allergens.

  1. Patch testing with a new fragrance mix - reactivity to the individual constituents and chemical detection in relevant cosmetic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Rastogi, Suresh C; Pirker, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    test (ROAT) of FM II are described. Furthermore, cosmetic products which had caused a contact dermatitis in patients were analysed for the presence of the individual constituents. In 1701 patients, the individual constituents of the medium (14%) and the highest (28%) concentration of FM II were...

  2. Patch-Based Segmentation with Spatial Consistency: Application to MS Lesions in Brain MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Roey Mechrez; Jacob Goldberger; Hayit Greenspan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic lesion segmentation method based on similarities between multichannel patches. A patch database is built using training images for which the label maps are known. For each patch in the testing image, k similar patches are retrieved from the database. The matching labels for these k patches are then combined to produce an initial segmentation map for the test case. Finally an iterative patch-based label refinement process based on the initial segmentation map i...

  3. Analysis of the cool down related cavity performance of the European XFEL vertical acceptance tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenskat, Marc; Schaffran, J.

    2017-09-15

    For the European X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) cavity production, the cold radio-frequency (RF) test of the cavities at 2 K after delivery from the two vendors was the mandatory acceptance test. It has been previously reported, that the cool down dynamics of a cavity across T{sub c} has a significant influence on the observed intrinsic quality factor Q{sub 0}, which is a measure of the losses on the inner cavity surface. A total number of 367 cool downs is used to analyze this correlation and we show that such a correlation is not observed during the European XFEL cavity production.

  4. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Part 2. Patch test relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, experimental provocation tests, amount of formaldehyde released, and assessment of risk to consumers allergic to formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton; White, Ian R; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of an article on formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics. The patch test relationship between the releasers in cosmetics to formaldehyde contact allergy is reviewed and it is assessed whether products preserved with formaldehyde-releasers may contain enough free formaldehyde to pose a threat to individuals with contact allergy to formaldehyde. There is a clear relationship between positive patch test reactions to formaldehyde-releasers and formaldehyde contact allergy: 15% of all reactions to 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and 40-60% of the reactions to the other releasers are caused by a reaction to the formaldehyde in the test material. There is only fragmented data on the amount of free formaldehyde in cosmetics preserved with formaldehyde donors. However, all releasers (with the exception of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, for which adequate data are lacking) can, in the right circumstances of concentration and product composition, release >200 p.p.m. formaldehyde, which may result in allergic contact dermatitis. Whether this is actually the case in any particular product cannot be determined from the ingredient labelling. Therefore, we recommend advising patients allergic to formaldehyde to avoid leave-on cosmetics preserved with quaternium-15, diazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, or imidazolidinyl urea, acknowledging that many would tolerate some products.

  5. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that use hormones, such as the birth control pill or birth control ring , a girl uses the birth control patch based on her monthly menstrual cycle. She puts on the patch on the first day of her menstrual cycle or the first Sunday after her menstrual cycle begins. She will change the ...

  6. Nitroglycerin Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not go away after a short time. Nitroglycerin patches may no longer work as well after you have used them for ... times or the way that you apply nitroglycerin patches to avoid headaches because then the medication may not work as well. Your doctor may tell you to ...

  7. Estradiol Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of estradiol patches to the breasts or to skin that is oily, damaged, cut, or irritated. Do not apply estradiol patches to the waistline where they may be rubbed off by tight clothing or ... off by sitting. Be sure that the skin in the area where you plan to apply ...

  8. European radiation protection in the Essen practice test; Europaeischer Strahlenschutz im Essener Praxistest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Bernd; Ludwig, Sabine; Peinsipp, Norbert (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    The proceeding of the meeting European radiation protection in the Essen practice test includes contributions to the following issues: basic radiation protection standards; clearance values and permitted activities; optimization, guidance values for dose limits; radon and radiation protection standards; radiation protection - eye lens; RPE (radiation protection expert)/RPO (radiation protection officer); environmental radiation protection; radiation protection in medicine.

  9. Development and testing of attachment methods for pop-up satellite archival transmitters in European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Økland, Finn; Thorstad, Eva B.; Westerberg, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    Background Four methods for attaching pop-up satellite transmitters to European eel were tested in the laboratory by recording long-term tag retention, growth and survival; short-term behavioral responses; and physical damage from attachments. Results All eels survived until they lost their tag...

  10. Generic patch inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia

    2010-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to keep them up to date with respect to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spdiff, that identifies common changes...... made in a set of files and their updated versions, and extracts a generic patch performing those changes. Library developers can use our tool to extract a generic patch based on the result of manually updating a few typical driver files, and then apply this generic patch to other drivers. Driver...

  11. Oxybutynin Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... soap and water. Do not use alcohol, nail polish remover, or other solvents. Apply a new patch ... else take your medication. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription.It is ...

  12. Lidocaine Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidocaine patches are used to relieve the pain of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN; the burning, stabbing pains, ... for months or years after a shingles infection). Lidocaine is in a class of medications called local ...

  13. Fentanyl Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanyl patches are used to relieve severe pain in people who are expected to need pain medication ... and who cannot be treated with other medications. Fentanyl is in a class of medications called opiate ( ...

  14. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables, ... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  15. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    3004-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  16. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  17. Identification of causative chemicals of allergic contact dermatitis using a combination of patch testing in patients and chemical analysis. Application to cases from rubber footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniwa, M A; Isama, K; Nakamura, A; Kantoh, H; Itoh, M; Miyoshi, K; Saito, S; Shono, M

    1994-01-01

    5 cases of allergic contact dermatitis from rubber footwear were investigated by a combination of patch testing in patients and chemical analysis of causative rubber products. Our studies revealed 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and benzothiazyl disulfide (MBTS) (typical allergenic accelerators) as causative chemicals in 3 cases from children's rubber shoes, ladies' rubber boots and ladies' canvas shoes. These 3 patients reacted to mercaptobenzothiazole-type accelerators including MBT and MBTS. MBT and MBTS were determined in each item of causative footwear by chemical analysis, including extraction by shaking with acetone-chloroform (1:1) mixture at room temperature and determination using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Subsequently, we identified styrenated phenol (SP), a newly found allergenic antioxidant, as a causative chemical in a case from ladies' canvas shoes. The patient reacted to SP but not to MBT and MBTS, though SP, MBT and MBTS were determined in the causative shoes by gas chromatography (GC), GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and HPLC. We also identified p-tert-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin (PTBP-F-R), (a known allergenic adhesive ingredient) as a causative chemical in a case from ladies' sneakers. The patient reacted to PTBP-F-R but not to p-tert-butylphenol (PTBP), MBT and MBTS. These 4 compounds were determined in the causative sneakers by GC, GC-MS and HPLC. Thus, our studies revealed that not only known allergens, such as MBT, MBTS and PTBP-F-R, but also a newly found one, such as SP, were important causes of allergic contact dermatitis from rubber footwear.

  18. Patch Test Results from an Occupational and Contact Dermatitis Clinic in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Southern India: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadagopan, Kumaravel; Kalappan, Deepa; Sivaprakasam, Nirmala; Vinoth

    2017-08-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis, accounting for 95% of cases of occupational dermatoses, is the most common occupational skin disease. To find out the various allergens in different occupational and environmental settings causing contact allergy, from our patients presented with contact dermatitis. It was a retrospective study from the data in hospital outpatient register over one year period, which includes patients with age ranging from 11 years to 73 years. Patch test was done with total of 24 allergens from Indian standard battery and Indian standard series and with materials suspected to cause contact allergy. Result was expressed in terms of percentage. Contact dermatitis constitutes about 0.75% of total dermatological cases in our Dermatology Outpatient Department. A total of 358 contact dermatitis were included in this study with M:F ratio 2.25:1 and majority of the cases in the age group of 26-55 years. Out of 358 cases, 157 cases were positive to at least one allergen. Building construction workers constitute about 35.75% (128 cases) of total contact dermatitis cases, among which potassium dichromate (39 out of 57) is the most common allergen, followed by nickel (31) and cobalt (28). In other occupations, contact allergy to parthenium, hair dye, foot wear, paint, kum-kum , turmeric, detergents and cosmetics were also present in significant number and none was positive for vegetables, dettol, kerosene and native medication. This study gives an idea about the common occupation and population who are prone to develop contact dermatitis in our environmental setting and also about the most common sensitizers involved in various occupation and environment.

  19. The sensitizing potential of metalworking fluid biocides (phenolic and thiazole compounds) in the guinea-pig maximization test in relation to patch-test reactivity in eczema patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1984-01-01

    The sensitizing potential of seven industrial antimicrobial agents was evaluated using the guinea-pig maximization test. Preventol O extra (o-phenylphenol) did not produce a sensitization reaction. Preventol ON extra (sodium salt of o-phenylphenol), Preventol GD (dichlorophene) and Proxel XL and ...

  20. European recommendations for the clinical use of HIV drug resistance testing: 2011 update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Camacho, Ricardo J; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    the following recommendations concerning the indications for resistance testing: for HIV-1 (i) test earliest sample for protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance in drug-naive patients with acute or chronic infection; (ii) test protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance at virologic failure......The European HIV Drug Resistance Guidelines Panel, established to make recommendations to clinicians and virologists, felt that sufficient new information has become available to warrant an update of its recommendations, explained in both pocket guidelines and this full paper. The Panel makes......) consider testing earliest detectable plasma RNA when a successful nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing therapy was inappropriately interrupted; (v) genotype source patient when postexposure prophylaxis is considered; for HIV-2, (vi) consider resistance testing where treatment change...

  1. Reliability of health-related physical fitness tests in European adolescents. The HELENA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, F B; Artero, E G; Ruiz, J R; Vicente-Rodriguez, G; Bergman, P; Hagströmer, M; Ottevaere, C; Nagy, E; Konsta, O; Rey-López, J P; Polito, A; Dietrich, S; Plada, M; Béghin, L; Manios, Y; Sjöström, M; Castillo, M J

    2008-11-01

    To examine the reliability of a set of health-related physical fitness tests used in the European Union-funded Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study on lifestyle and nutrition among adolescents. A set of physical fitness tests was performed twice in a study sample, 2 weeks apart, by the same researchers. A total of 123 adolescents (69 males and 54 females, aged 13.6+/-0.8 years) from 10 European cities participated in the study. Flexibility, muscular fitness, speed/agility and aerobic capacity were tested using the back-saver sit and reach, handgrip, standing broad jump, Bosco jumps (squat jump, counter movement jump and Abalakov jump), bent arm hang, 4 x 10 m shuttle run, and 20-m shuttle run tests. The ANOVA analysis showed that neither systematic bias nor sex differences were found for any of the studied tests, except for the back-saver sit and reach test, in which a borderline significant sex difference was observed (P=0.044). The Bland-Altman plots graphically showed the reliability patterns, in terms of systematic errors (bias) and random error (95% limits of agreement), of the physical fitness tests studied. The observed systematic error for all the fitness assessment tests was nearly 0. Neither a learning nor a fatigue effect was found for any of the physical fitness tests when repeated. The results also suggest that reliability did not differ between male and female adolescents. Collectively, it can be stated that the reliability of the set of physical fitness tests examined in this study is acceptable. The data provided contribute to a better understanding of physical fitness assessment in young people.

  2. Mechanical testing of different hip protectors according to a European Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Lukas A; von Skrbensky, Gobert; Holzer, Gerold

    2009-11-01

    The effect of hip protectors depends on two factors: (1) mechanical features and (2) wearing time, which depends on the user's compliance. Various biomechanical studies have been performed to test hip protectors' ability in reducing impacts. However, none of these has shown the ability to simulate a fall in a natural way. Therefore, we tested conventional and newly designed hip protectors that might raise user's compliance using a standardised mechanical test. Mechanical testing was performed according to a European Standard testing method for protective impact clothing (EN 1621-1) where an impact is released vertically onto the hip protectors with an energy of 50J. Seven different hip protectors were tested three times each. Using this test, four of the hip protectors were able to reduce the impact below a suggested fracture threshold. The two newly designed hip protectors using special absorption materials were superior (9.10kN, 12.65kN) to the other commercially available hip protectors (21.97-50.62kN), which differ in their mechanical testing performance. This is the first study using a standardised mechanical test on hip protectors and allows an objective comparison because only mechanical properties are tested. New hip protectors with improved mechanical properties are superior to conventional hip protectors. Furthermore, they allow a more appealing design that increases the comfort of the wearer. Mechanical testing should be performed as a first step and has to be followed up by clinical trials to determine and clarify their overall effect.

  3. Image inpainting by patch propagation using patch sparsity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zongben; Sun, Jian

    2010-05-01

    This paper introduces a novel examplar-based inpainting algorithm through investigating the sparsity of natural image patches. Two novel concepts of sparsity at the patch level are proposed for modeling the patch priority and patch representation, which are two crucial steps for patch propagation in the examplar-based inpainting approach. First, patch structure sparsity is designed to measure the confidence of a patch located at the image structure (e.g., the edge or corner) by the sparseness of its nonzero similarities to the neighboring patches. The patch with larger structure sparsity will be assigned higher priority for further inpainting. Second, it is assumed that the patch to be filled can be represented by the sparse linear combination of candidate patches under the local patch consistency constraint in a framework of sparse representation. Compared with the traditional examplar-based inpainting approach, structure sparsity enables better discrimination of structure and texture, and the patch sparse representation forces the newly inpainted regions to be sharp and consistent with the surrounding textures. Experiments on synthetic and natural images show the advantages of the proposed approach.

  4. Century Tide Nicotine Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Century Tide Nicotine Patch, a hi-tech smoking control therapy, is designed in accordance with the scientific principle of nicotine replacement. The therapy is promoted by the World Health Organization. Meanwhile, it also integrates traditional Chinese medical therapy and adopts advanced TTS technology.

  5. Testosterone Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone transdermal patches work ... Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat ...

  6. Food-related life styles in Singapore: Testing a Western European research instrument in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Brunsø, Karen; Crippen, Kaye

    The food-related life style instrument developed by the MAPP research group has, up til now, been applied mainly in the context of European cultures. The purpose of the present study is to apply the food-related life style instrument in a new and very different cultural setting, to compare results......, and to interpret similarities and differences found. For this purpose, data have been collected in Singaporean families using the food-related life style instrument. A total of 89 questionnaires form the basis of the analysis. First, the cross-cultural validity of the instrument is tested, and secondly...

  7. Fixed Base Modal Survey of the MPCV Orion European Service Module Structural Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, James P.; Akers, J. C.; Suarez, Vicente J.; Staab, Lucas D.; Napolitano, Kevin L.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the MPCV Orion European Service Module Structural Test Article (E-STA) underwent sine vibration testing using the multi-axis shaker system at NASA GRC Plum Brook Station Mechanical Vibration Facility (MVF). An innovative approach using measured constraint shapes at the interface of E-STA to the MVF allowed high-quality fixed base modal parameters of the E-STA to be extracted, which have been used to update the E-STA finite element model (FEM), without the need for a traditional fixed base modal survey. This innovative approach provided considerable program cost and test schedule savings. This paper documents this modal survey, which includes the modal pretest analysis sensor selection, the fixed base methodology using measured constraint shapes as virtual references and measured frequency response functions, and post-survey comparison between measured and analysis fixed base modal parameters.

  8. Drug testing in Europe: monitoring results of the Trans European Drug Information (TEDI) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Tibor M; Nagy, Constanze; Bücheli, Alexander; Martins, Daniel; Ugarte, Miren; Beduwe, Cécile; Ventura Vilamala, Mireia

    2017-02-01

    Drug testing is a harm reduction strategy that has been adopted by certain countries in Europe. Drug users are able to hand in their drugs voluntarily for chemical analysis of composition and dose. Drug users will be alerted about dangerous test results by the drug testing systems directly and through warning campaigns. An international collaborative effort was launched to combine data of drug testing systems, called the Trans European Drug Information (TEDI) project. Drug testing systems of Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, Austria, Portugal, and the Netherlands participated in this project. This study presents results of some of the main illicit drugs encountered: cocaine, ecstasy and amphetamine and also comments on new psychoactive substances (NPS) detected between 2008 and 2013. A total of 45 859 different drug samples were analyzed by TEDI. The drug markets of the distinct European areas showed similarities, but also some interesting differences. For instance, purity of cocaine and amphetamine powders was generally low in Austria, whilst high in Spain and the Netherlands. And the market for ecstasy showed a contrast: whereas in the Netherlands and Switzerland there was predominantly a market for ecstasy tablets, in Portugal and Spain MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) crystals were much more prevalent. Also, some NPS appearing in ecstasy seemed more specific for one country than another. In general, prevalence of NPS clearly increased between 2008 and 2013. Drug testing can be used to generate a global picture of drug markets and provides information about the pharmacological contents of drugs for the population at risk. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Motion of the dayside polar cap boundary during substorm cycles: II. Generation of poleward-moving events and polar cap patches by pulses in the magnetopause reconnection rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data from the EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter VHF and CUTLASS (Co-operative UK Twin-Located Auroral Sounding System HF radars, we study the formation of ionospheric polar cap patches and their relationship to the magnetopause reconnection pulses identified in the companion paper by Lockwood et al. (2005. It is shown that the poleward-moving, high-concentration plasma patches observed in the ionosphere by EISCAT on 23 November 1999, as reported by Davies et al. (2002, were often associated with corresponding reconnection rate pulses. However, not all such pulses generated a patch and only within a limited MLT range (11:00-12:00 MLT did a patch result from a reconnection pulse. Three proposed mechanisms for the production of patches, and of the concentration minima that separate them, are analysed and evaluated: (1 concentration enhancement within the patches by cusp/cleft precipitation; (2 plasma depletion in the minima between the patches by fast plasma flows; and (3 intermittent injection of photoionisation-enhanced plasma into the polar cap. We devise a test to distinguish between the effects of these mechanisms. Some of the events repeat too frequently to apply the test. Others have sufficiently long repeat periods and mechanism (3 is shown to be the only explanation of three of the longer-lived patches seen on this day. However, effect (2 also appears to contribute to some events. We conclude that plasma concentration gradients on the edges of the larger patches arise mainly from local time variations in the subauroral plasma, via the mechanism proposed by Lockwood et al. (2000.

  10. In-pile testing of HCPB submodules. Feasibility study for the European Blanket project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Laan, J.G.; Bakker, K.; Fokkens, J.H.; Haverkate, B.R.W.; Sciolla, C.M. [ECN Nuclear Research, Petten (Netherlands); Conrad, R. [JRC-IAM, HFR-Unit, Petten (Netherlands)

    1998-02-01

    Full size module systems of the candidate DEMO blanket concepts selected for the European Blanket Project (EBP) will be tested in ITER, presently called Test Blanket modules (TBM). The Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) is one of the two concepts developed in the European Union (EU). This development path consists of several scaling steps, including integral testing of a subsized module at realistic operation conditions. As part of the HCPB development work for the TBMs, ECN performed jointly with JRC/IAM at Petten a feasibility study for irradiation tests of subsized HCPB modules. The first stage of the study was concluded with a report on the conceptual design of an in-pile test of a single submodule with a helium cooling loop. Such test was considered technically feasible, but would require significant project duration and expenditures. Further development of detailed objectives for in-pile tests was recommended, in particular in view of the different parameters for the HCPB-ITM and DEMO-concept. This objective has been modified by the EBP in fall 1997. For the final stage of the study the test objective has been: the in-pile testing of the thermal/mechanical behaviour of the HCPB ceramic breeder beds, while giving lower priority to tritium transport issues (release, permeation). Several configuration options in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, Netherlands, to perform in-pile test of HCPB submodules have been considered. Neutronics analyses along with thermal and structural analyses have been made for selected options and several HFR peripheral in-tank positions. These pre-design analyses show that the whole range of breeder bed power densities and temperature levels, which are relevant to the HCPB DEMO and BTM designs, can be reached with the options presented. The options are all cooled by the reactor coolant flow. The use of an helium loop is not compulsory and is considered as an unnecessary complication with regard to the present test objectives

  11. A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Sela, Erika; Blaha, Ludek; Braunbeck, Thomas; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; García-Franco, Mauricio; Guinea, Joaquin; Klüver, Nils; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanneberger, Katrin; Tobor-Kapłon, Marysia; Witters, Hilda; Belanger, Scott; Benfenati, Emilio; Creton, Stuart; Cronin, Mark T D; Eggen, Rik I L; Embry, Michelle; Ekman, Drew; Gourmelon, Anne; Halder, Marlies; Hardy, Barry; Hartung, Thomas; Hubesch, Bruno; Jungmann, Dirk; Lampi, Mark A; Lee, Lucy; Léonard, Marc; Küster, Eberhard; Lillicrap, Adam; Luckenbach, Till; Murk, Albertinka J; Navas, José M; Peijnenburg, Willie; Repetto, Guillermo; Salinas, Edward; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Spielmann, Horst; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Whale, Graham; Wheeler, James R; Winter, Matthew J

    2013-12-01

    Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory testing. Hence, there is a strong demand for replacement, reduction and refinement strategies and methods. However, until now alternative approaches have only rarely been used in regulatory settings. This review provides an overview on current regulations of chemicals and the requirements for animal tests in environmental hazard and risk assessment. It aims to highlight the potential areas for alternative approaches in environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Perspectives and limitations of alternative approaches to animal tests using vertebrates in environmental toxicology, i.e. mainly fish and amphibians, are discussed. Free access to existing (proprietary) animal test data, availability of validated alternative methods and a practical implementation of conceptual approaches such as the Adverse Outcome Pathways and Integrated Testing Strategies were identified as major requirements towards the successful development and implementation of alternative approaches. Although this article focusses on European regulations, its considerations and conclusions are of global relevance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Oceanographic data collected during the EX1301 (Ship Shakedown and Patch Test Exploration, NE Canyons and Seamounts) expedition on NOAA Ship OKEANOS EXPLORER in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2013-03-18 to 2013-04-05 (NODC Accession 0107211)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following annual ship shakedown and patch tests, EX1301 completed the comprehensive mapping of the Northeast canyons and the adjacent continental shelf carried out...

  13. Con-Patch: When a Patch Meets its Context

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Yaniv; Elad, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the similarity between patches in images is a fundamental building block in various tasks. Naturally, the patch-size has a major impact on the matching quality, and on the consequent application performance. Under the assumption that our patch database is sufficiently sampled, using large patches (e.g. 21-by-21) should be preferred over small ones (e.g. 7-by-7). However, this "dense-sampling" assumption is rarely true; in most cases large patches cannot find relevant nearby examples...

  14. Development/Testing of a Monitoring System Assisting MCI Patients: The European Project INLIFE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimakamis, Evangelos; Karavidopoulou, Vaia; Kilintzis, Vassilios; Stefanopoulos, Leandros; Papageorgiou, Valentini

    2017-01-01

    INLIFE is a project cofounded from the European Union aiming in prolonging independent living of elderly people with cognitive impairment based on open, seamless ICT services supporting communication, daily activities, providing health services and professional care to the elderly. The main innovation stems from ICT solutions offering 19 different services adapted on specific characteristics elderly people with mild cognitive impairment, early and later stages of Dementia, cognitive impairment and co-morbid condition, as well as their formal and informal caregivers. All services have different focus areas and are incorporated into a unified system based on cloud architecture implemented in patients of 6 European countries, including Greece. More than 1200 patients, caregivers and healthcare providers participate in the pilot testing of the project. Primary parameter for assessing the effectiveness of the interventions is their impact on the quality of life of the elderly patients and their caregivers, contributing to prolonging independent living of the affected. A special digital platform has been developed in the Greek pilot site aiming to adapt and monitor all the implemented applications. This includes a medical decision support system that receives biosignals from patients and interaction interfaces in which all participants are involved. Recruitment and patients' participation has already started in the pilot site of Thessaloniki for the services that are to be tested in Greece.

  15. Performance testing of HEPA filters: Progress towards a European standard procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyment, J.

    1997-08-01

    Proposals for a future European testing procedure for {open_quotes}High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters (HEPA and ULPA){close_quotes} are being developed by CEN (Comite Europeen de Normalisation). The new standard will be given the status of national standard in participating countries, conflicting national standards being withdrawn. The standard will comprise 5 parts covering the grouping and classification of HEPA and ULPA filters according to their efficiency, fundamental principles of testing, marking etc (in part 1). Part 2 will cover aerosol production, measurement principles, counting equipment and statistics. Parts 3-5 will cover testing flat sheet media, leak testing of filter elements and the efficiency testing of filter elements respectively. The efficiency test methods allow the use of either homogeneous monodisperse or polydisperse aerosols for the determination of particulate filtration efficiencies as a function of particle size. The particle size at which maximum penetration occurs is first determined in flat sheet media tests; tests on filter elements (constructed using the same filter medium) may be carried out using either a homogeneous monodisperse aerosol of the size at which maximum penetration occurs (MPPS) or a polydisperse aerosol whose median size is close to the MPPS. Tests with monodisperse aerosols may be conducted using condensation nucleus counting equipment; tests using polydisperse test aerosols require the use of optical sizing particle counters. When determining the efficiency of filter elements the downstream aerosol concentrations may be determined from air samples obtained using either an overall method (single point sampling after mixing) or a scan method. The scan method also allows {open_quotes}local{close_quotes} efficiency values to be determined. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants......, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was applied to examine the genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Cuttings of Tradescantia clone #4430 were exposed to ambient air at 65 monitoring sites in 10 conurbations employing a standardised methodology. The tests revealed an elevated genotoxic potential mainly...... at those urban sites which were exposed to severe car traffic emissions. This bioassay proved to be a suitable tool to detect local ‘hot spots' of mutagenic air pollution in urban areas. For its use in routine monitoring programmes, however, further standardisation of cultivation and exposure techniques...

  17. European recommendations for the clinical use of HIV drug resistance testing: 2011 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Camacho, Ricardo J; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; de Luca, Andreu; Palmisano, Lucia; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Soriano, Vincent; Walter, Hauke; Sönnerborg, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The European HIV Drug Resistance Guidelines Panel, established to make recommendations to clinicians and virologists, felt that sufficient new information has become available to warrant an update of its recommendations, explained in both pocket guidelines and this full paper. The Panel makes the following recommendations concerning the indications for resistance testing: for HIV-1 (i) test earliest sample for protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance in drug-naive patients with acute or chronic infection; (ii) test protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance at virologic failure, and other drug targets (integrase and envelope) if such drugs were part of the failing regimen; (iii) consider testing for CCR5 tropism at virologic failure or when a change of therapy has to be made in absence of detectable viral load, and in the latter case test DNA or last detectable plasma RNA; (iv) consider testing earliest detectable plasma RNA when a successful nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing therapy was inappropriately interrupted; (v) genotype source patient when postexposure prophylaxis is considered; for HIV-2, (vi) consider resistance testing where treatment change is needed after treatment failure. The Panel recommends genotyping in most situations, using updated and clinically evaluated interpretation systems. It is mandatory that laboratories performing HIV resistance tests take part regularly in external quality assurance programs, and that they consider storing samples in situations where resistance testing cannot be performed as recommended. Similarly, it is necessary that HIV clinicians and virologists take part in continuous education and discuss problematic clinical cases. Indeed, resistance test results should be used in the context of all other clinically relevant information for predicting therapy response.

  18. Proficiency testing to detect Trichinella larvae in meat in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucci, G; Tonanzi, D; Cherchi, S; Galati, F; Bella, A; Interisano, M; Ludovisi, A; Amati, A; Pozio, E

    2016-11-15

    According to the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/1375 (replacing the Commission Regulation (EC) No 2075/2005), all animals, which are potential carriers of Trichinella spp. larvae, should be tested at the slaughterhouse or game-handling establishments according to one of the approved tests. One of the core duties of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Parasites is to organize proficiency testing (PT), as stated in the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 882/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The aim of this work was to evaluate the results of PTs of the digestion method carried out by the National Reference Laboratories for Parasites (NRLPs) over a nine year period (2007-2015). Participating laboratories received a panel of samples consisting in 35g or 100g of minced pork or horse meat spiked with Trichinella spiralis live larvae. The number of spiked samples varied from 2 to 9 over the years. A negative control was also included in the panel, except during the 2015 PT, when only positive samples were used. The percentage of NRLPs, which passed the PT, increased from 83.3% in 2007 to 100% in 2014. Considering the number of recovered larvae, the heterogeneity in participant's results reduced overtime. The values of the overall mean difference between spiked and recovered larvae decreased during the study period, witnessing a general improvement of NRLPs performance and confirming the effectiveness of PT for a good performance of this test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Standardized tape stripping prior to patch testing induces upregulation of Hsp90, Hsp70, IL-33, TNF-α and IL-8/CXCL8 mRNA: new insights into the involvement of 'alarmins'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickel, Heinrich; Gambichler, Thilo; Kamphowe, Jeanette; Altmeyer, Peter; Skrygan, Marina

    2010-10-01

    The strip patch test is recommended if patch test results are presumed to be false-negative. It is under discussion whether the cutaneous inflammation induced by tape stripping is a pivotal element in enhancing the allergic contact dermatitis response. To investigate epidermal mRNA expression of mediators implicated in the regulation of inflammation induced by tape stripping according to our standardized protocol in human skin. Thirty-one healthy volunteers (median age 26 years, range 18-62 years) participated in the study. We measured epidermal mRNAs coding for cytokines [tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-33, IL-10, IL-8/CXCL8, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2)/MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5)/RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed, and presumably secreted), IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)], an adhesion molecule [intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (ICAM-1)], heat shock proteins (Hsp27, Hsp70 and Hsp90), and the inflammasome complex [NACHT-LRR-PYD-containing protein-3 (NALP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC)/CARD5 (caspase recruitment domain-containing protein-5) and caspase-1] in tape-stripped skin of the upper back relative to untreated skin of the upper back, using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technology. Epidermal mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, Hsp90, Hsp70, IL-33, and IL-8/CXCL8 were significantly upregulated, whereas CCL5/RANTES expression was significantly downregulated 6 hr after standardized tape stripping. Tape stripping the skin according to our standardized protocol shows immunostimulatory effects, with induction of keratinocyte-derived 'alarmins' and cytokines mounting an immune response, which may contribute to the increased sensitivity of the strip patch test versus the patch test. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Development in harmonisation of proficiency testing (for vapours, gasses, and dusts) in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, P; Tylee, B

    1998-12-01

    A network has been established of the 11 major proficiency schemes in the European Union concerned with the occupational hygiene and environmental analyses of chemicals and dusts in the air. A comparison of all the schemes was carried out and a compendium is being produced. This will allow users of the schemes such as testing laboratories, customers, and regulatory bodies to choose the scheme that is most suited to their purpose. All schemes have been compared with the revised ISO Guide 43, published in 1997. The performance statistics in most schemes conform to the criteria in European Standard EN 482 that define the acceptability limits for overall uncertainty in measurement. However, the performance statistics and assessment strategies of the different schemes vary. While many of the schemes supply similar sample material such as lead on filters and benzene on charcoal, there are a number of sample types that many schemes would like to introduce. However, it would be uneconomic to do this on a national basis and the network is developing procedures to introduce them throughout the member countries. Additionally, there are countries that have no schemes at present and may wish to introduce them. The network will provide a framework to help set up schemes in these areas.

  1. Development and testing of a European Union-wide farm-level carbon calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; De Camillis, Camillo; Leip, Adrian; Nisini, Luigi; Pelletier, Nathan; Haastrup, Palle

    2015-01-01

    Direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture accounted for approximately 10% of total European Union (EU) emissions in 2010. To reduce farming-related GHG emissions, appropriate policy measures and supporting tools for promoting low-C farming practices may be efficacious. This article presents the methodology and testing results of a new EU-wide, farm-level C footprint calculator. The Carbon Calculator quantifies GHG emissions based on international standards and technical specifications on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and C footprinting. The tool delivers its results both at the farm level and as allocated to up to 5 main products of the farm. In addition to the quantification of GHG emissions, the calculator proposes mitigation options and sequestration actions that may be suitable for individual farms. The results obtained during a survey made on 54 farms from 8 EU Member States are presented. These farms were selected in view of representing the diversity of farm types across different environmental zones in the EU. The results of the C footprint of products in the data set show wide range of variation between minimum and maximum values. The results of the mitigation actions showed that the tool can help identify practices that can lead to substantial emission reductions. To avoid burden-shifting from climate change to other environmental issues, the future improvements of the tool should include incorporation of other environmental impact categories in place of solely focusing on GHG emissions. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2015;11:404–416. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. Key Points The methodology and testing results of a new European Union-wide, farm-level carbon calculator are presented. The Carbon Calculator reports life cycle assessment-based greenhouse gas emissions at farm and product levels and recommends farm- specific mitigation actions. Based on the results obtained from testing the tool in 54

  2. Food-related lifestyles in Singapore: Testing a Western European research instrument in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Brunsø, Karen; Crippen, Kaye

    The food-realaed life style instrument developed by the MAPP research group has, up till now, been applied mainly in the context of European cultures. The purpose of the present study is to apply the food-related life style instrument in a new and different cultural setting, to compare results......, and to interpret similarities and differences found. For this purpose, data have been collected in Singaporean families using the food-related life style insrurment. A total of 89 questionnaires form the basis of the analysis. First, the cross-cultural validity of the instrument is tested, and secondly......, in the light of those results, we interpret the results in relationship to local food cultures....

  3. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results in European countries: an ESCMID cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Céline; Tebano, Gianpiero; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Jarlier, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel. Of 38 countries, 36 chose to participate in the survey. Selective reporting of AST results was implemented in 11/36 countries (31%), was partially implemented in 4/36 (11%) and was limited to local initiatives or was not adopted in 21/36 (58%). It was endorsed as standard of care by health authorities in only three countries. The organisation of selective reporting was everywhere discretionally managed by each laboratory, with a pronounced intra- and inter-country variability. The most frequent application was in uncomplicated community-acquired infections, particularly urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections. The list of reported antibiotics ranged from a few first-line options, to longer reports where only last-resort antibiotics were hidden. Several barriers to implementation were reported, mainly lack of guidelines, poor system support, insufficient resources, and lack of professionals' capability. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results is poorly implemented in Europe and is applied with a huge heterogeneity of practices. Development of an international framework, based on existing initiatives and identified barriers, could favour its dissemination as one important element of antibiotic stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. The Jules Horowitz reactor (JHR), a European material testing reactor (MTR), with extended experimental capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A.; Bergamaschi, Y.; Bouilloux, Y.; Bravo, X.; Guigon, B.; Rommens, M.; Tremodeux, P. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]|[CEA Saclay Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2003-07-01

    The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is the European MTR (Material Testing Reactor) designed to provide, after 2010, the necessary knowledge for keeping the existing power plants in operation and to design innovative reactors types with new objectives such as: minimizing the radioactive waste production, taking into account additional safety requirements, preventing risks of nuclear proliferation... To achieve such an ambitious objective. The JHR is designed with a high flexibility in order to satisfy the current demand from European industry, research and to be able to accommodate future requirements. The JHR will offer a wide range of performances and services in gathering, in a single site at Cadarache, all the necessary functionalities and facilities for an effective production of results: e.g. fuel fabrication laboratories, preparation of the instrumented devices, interpretation of the experiments, modelling. The JHR must rely on a top level scientific environment based on experts teams from CEA and EC and local universities. With a thermal flux of 7,4.10{sup 14} ncm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and a fast flux of 6,4.10{sup 14} ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, it is possible to carry out irradiation experiments on materials and fuels whatever the reactor type considered. It will also be possible to carry out locally, fast neutron irradiation to achieve damage effect up to 25 dpa/year. (dpa = displacement per atom.) The study of the fuels behavior under accidental conditions, from analytical experiments, on a limited amount of irradiated fuel, is a major objective of the project. These oriented safety tests are possible by taking into account specific requirements in the design of the facility such as the tightness level of the containment building, the addition of an alpha hot cell and a laboratory for on line fission products measurement. (authors)

  5. Preparation of Mucoadhesive Patches for Buccal Administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop mucoadhesive patches for buccal administration of metoprolol succinate and to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo bioadhesion. Methods: The mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared by solvent casting technique using two different mucoadhesive polymers. The formulations were tested for in vitro ...

  6. HIV pre-test information, discussion or counselling? : A review of guidance relevant to the WHO European Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, Stephen A; Delpech, Valerie; Raben, Dorthe; Casabona, Jordi; Tsereteli, Nino; de Wit, John

    In the context of a shift from exceptionalism to normalisation, this study examines recommendations/evidence in current pan-European/global guidelines regarding pre-test HIV testing and counselling practices in health care settings. It also reviews new research not yet included in guidelines. There

  7. Reliability of a new test battery for fitness assessment of the European Astronaut corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Nora; Thieschäfer, Lutz; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Damann, Volker; Mester, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    To optimise health for space missions, European astronauts follow specific conditioning programs before, during and after their flights. To evaluate the effectiveness of these programs, the European Space Agency conducts an Astronaut Fitness Assessment (AFA), but the test-retest reliability of elements within it remains unexamined. The reliability study described here presents a scientific basis for implementing the AFA, but also highlights challenges faced by operational teams supporting humans in such unique environments, especially with respect to health and fitness monitoring of crew members travelling not only into space, but also across the world. The AFA tests assessed parameters known to be affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity: aerobic capacity (VO2max), muscular strength (one repetition max, 1 RM) and power (vertical jumps), core stability, flexibility and balance. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC3.1), standard error of measurement and coefficient of variation were used to assess relative and absolute test-retest reliability. Squat and bench 1 RM (ICC3.1 = 0.94-0.99), hip flexion (ICC3.1 = 0.99) and left and right handgrip strength (ICC3.1 = 0.95 and 0.97), showed the highest test-retest reliability, followed by VO2max (ICC3.1 = 0.91), core strength (ICC3.1 = 0.78-0.89), hip extension (ICC3.1 = 0.63), the countermeasure (ICC3.1 = 0.76) and squat (ICC3.1 = 0.63) jumps, and single right- and left-leg jump height (ICC3.1 = 0.51 and 0.14). For balance, relative reliability ranged from ICC3.1 = 0.78 for path length (two legs, head tilted back, eyes open) to ICC3.1 = 0.04 for average rotation velocity (one leg, eyes closed). In a small sample (n = 8) of young, healthy individuals, the AFA battery of tests demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability for most parameters except some balance and single-leg jump tasks. These findings suggest that, for the application with astronauts, most AFA tests appear appropriate to

  8. Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, Andreas [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: aklumpp@uni-hohenheim.de; Ansel, Wolfgang [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Klumpp, Gabriele [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Calatayud, Vicent [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, c/Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Garrec, Jean Pierre [INRA Nancy, Laboratoire Pollution Atmospherique, 54280 Champenoux (France); He Shang [INRA Nancy, Laboratoire Pollution Atmospherique, 54280 Champenoux (France); Penuelas, Josep [Unitat Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Ed. C, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ribas, Angela [Unitat Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Ed. C, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ro-Poulsen, Helge [Botanical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 2D, 1353 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Rasmussen, Stine [Botanical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 2D, 1353 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Sanz, Maria Jose [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, c/Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Vergne, Phillippe [ENS Lyon and Lyon Botanical Garden, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2006-02-15

    Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was applied to examine the genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Cuttings of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 were exposed to ambient air at 65 monitoring sites in 10 conurbations employing a standardised methodology. The tests revealed an elevated genotoxic potential mainly at those urban sites which were exposed to severe car traffic emissions. This bioassay proved to be a suitable tool to detect local 'hot spots' of mutagenic air pollution in urban areas. For its use in routine monitoring programmes, however, further standardisation of cultivation and exposure techniques is recommended in order to reduce the variability of results due to varying environmental conditions. - The Tradescantia micronucleus test can be used to assess genotoxic potential at urban sites.

  9. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing: a systematic review of european guidelines, recommendations, and position statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad; Ianuale, Carolina; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania

    2015-10-01

    Personalized healthcare is expected to yield promising results, with a paradigm shift toward more personalization in the practice of medicine. This emerging field has wide-ranging implications for all the stakeholders. Commercial tests in the form of multiplex genetic profiles are currently being provided to consumers, without the physicians' consultation, through the Internet, referred to as direct-to-consumer genetic tests (DTC GT). The objective was to review all the existing European guidelines on DTC GT, and its associated interventions, to list all the supposed benefits and harms, issues and concerns, and recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of position statements, policies, guidelines, and recommendations, produced by professional organizations or other relevant bodies for use of DTC GT in Europe. Seventeen documents met the inclusion criteria, which were subjected to thematic analysis, and the texts were coded for statements related to use of DTC GT. Professional societies and associations are currently more suggestive of potential disadvantages of DTC GT, recommending improved genetic literacy of both populations and health professionals, and implementation research on the genetic tests to integrate public health genomics into healthcare systems.

  10. Patch testing with fragrances: results of a multicenter study of the European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group with 48 frequently used constituents of perfumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, P J; Pilz, B; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1995-01-01

    ), citronellol (1) and amyl salicylate (1)). The remaining 41 fragrances were negative. 28 irritant or doubtful reactions on day 3/4 were observed to a total of 19 FF materials (more than 1 reaction: 5% citronellol (2), 1% amyl salicylate (2), 1% isononyl acetate (3), 0.1% musk xylol (2), 1% citral (2), and 1...

  11. Retracted article: Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Nan Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Retraction (http://www.efri.uniri.hr/prikaz.asp?txt_id=7366 This is to notify our respectful reading public that the Editorial Board of the journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business has retracted the following article from publication: “Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries“, by Hsu-Ling Chang, Chi-Wei Su, Meng-Nan Zhu, published in our journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business, 2011, vol. 29 (1, pp. 51-63 and almost concurrently published in the journal Eastern European Economics, 2011, vol. 49 (3, pp. 54-65. Being in contact with Josef C Brada, Professor Emeritus, Editor of the journal Eastern European Economics (EEE, we realized that the paper had been sent to both journals, although first published in the EEE and then in our Journal. According to professor Brada’s and our analysis, the paper published in these two journals is exactly the same, except for minor differences in wording, most likely due to editing the text before publication. The outstanding differences are in the title and the fact that the paper published in our Journal has three authors and in EEE journal has two. Whatsoever, owing to the fact that the article had been sent to both journals almost at the same time, it had been impossible to find out the case during the review procedure. Due to this unpleasant situation, our Editorial Board would like to inform our valuable readers that all the necessary measures to retract the paper from our publication have been undertaken and according to publishing ethical principles, cooperation with the authors of the retracted paper have been stopped. Although, in this case neither EEE nor our Journal had any

  12. The test beamline of the European Spallation Source – Instrumentation development and wavelength frame multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woracek, R., E-mail: robin.woracek@esss.se [European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, P.O. Box 176, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Hofmann, T.; Bulat, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Sales, M. [Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Habicht, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Andersen, K. [European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, P.O. Box 176, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Strobl, M. [European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, P.O. Box 176, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-12-11

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), scheduled to start operation in 2020, is aiming to deliver the most intense neutron beams for experimental research of any facility worldwide. Its long pulse time structure implies significant differences for instrumentation compared to other spallation sources which, in contrast, are all providing short neutron pulses. In order to enable the development of methods and technology adapted to this novel type of source well in advance of the first instruments being constructed at ESS, a test beamline (TBL) was designed and built at the BER II research reactor at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB). Operating the TBL shall provide valuable experience in order to allow for a smooth start of operations at ESS. The beamline is capable of mimicking the ESS pulse structure by a double chopper system and provides variable wavelength resolution as low as 0.5% over a wide wavelength band between 1.6 Å and 10 Å by a dedicated wavelength frame multiplication (WFM) chopper system. WFM is proposed for several ESS instruments to allow for flexible time-of-flight resolution. Hence, ESS will benefit from the TBL which offers unique possibilities for testing methods and components. This article describes the main capabilities of the instrument, its performance as experimentally verified during the commissioning, and its relevance to currently starting ESS instrumentation projects.

  13. Development of European creep crack growth testing code of practice for industrial specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, B.; Nikbin, K. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Petrovski, B. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (DE). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde (IFW)

    2004-07-01

    The integrity and residual life assessment of high temperature components require defects, detected or assumed to exist, through minimum allowable limits of detectable flaws using nondestructive testing methods. It relies on information obtained from the material's mechanical, uniaxial creep, creep crack initiation and growth properties. The information derived from experiments needs to be validated and harmonised following a Code of Practice that data variability between different institutions can be reduced to a minimum. The present paper reports on a Code of Practice (CoP) being prepared within the framework of the partially European Commission funded project CRETE. The novel aspect of the presented CoP is the inclusion of component relevant industrial specimen geometries. It covers testing and analysis of Creep Crack growth (CCG) in metallic materials at elevated temperature using six different cracked geometries that have been validated in. It aims to give advice on testing, measurements and analysis of creep crack growth data for a range of creep brittle to creep ductile materials using component service relevant specimen geometries and sizes. The CoP may be used for material selection criteria and inspection requirements for damage tolerant applications. In quantitative terms, these types of tests can be used to assess the individual and combined effects of metallurgical, fabrication, operating temperature, and loading conditions on creep crack growth life. Further issues will be addressed including material properties, damage and crack growth related constraint effect, stress relaxation and stress-strain fields, residual stresses, partitioning displacement, analysis of elasticcreep, elastic compliance measurements.

  14. Antimicrobial properties of natural coniferous rosin in the European Pharmacopoeia challenge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipponen, Arno; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2011-10-01

    Rosins (resins) are natural products of the coniferous trees. Purified rosin from the trunk of Norway spruce (Picea abies) is antibacterial against the gram-positive bacteria, but not against the gram-negative bacteria in agar plate diffusion test. In this study, we examined the antimicrobial properties of the coniferous rosin against bacteria and yeasts using the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) challenge test. The microbes tested were Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans. To prepare challenge media, purified rosin was mixed with a biologically inert salve in varying concentrations. The microbes were inoculated (5 × 10(5) microbes (bacteria) or 5 × 10(4) microbes (yeast, C.albicans)) into 10 g of the rosin-containing challenge medium for 14 days at maximum. Samples were taken from the media for re-cultivation of the microbes at time intervals of 1 h, 24 h, 4, 7, and 14 days. The microbicidal efficacy of the challenge media was estimated by reduction of the number of the colony forming units (CFU) of microbes in the test samples. A reduction of more than 10(3) CFU for bacteria and 10(2) CFU for fungi in 7 days was considered to indicate a significant microbicidal action. Pure rosin was antimicrobial within 24 h against all microbes tested. The 0.5% rosin-salve medium (w/w) did not differ in microbicidal effects from the rosin-free salve medium (control). A raise of the rosin concentration resulted in increase of the microbicidal effect of the rosin-salve medium against all micro-organisms tested. Rosin concentration of 10% (w/w) in the medium significantly reduced the colonization of S. aureus (including MRSA) within 24 h and significantly reduced the colonization of all other micro-organisms within 4 days. Rosin is strongly microbicidal against a wide range of microbes, against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and against C. albicans

  15. A importância das provas epicutâneas de contacto no diagnóstico diferencial de reações a medicamentos The importance of patch tests in the differential diagnosis of adverse drug reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Travassos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O eritema exsudativo multiforme é uma erupção aguda, autolimitada, frequentemente associada a infecções (geralmente virais, doenças sistêmicas e fármacos. Apresenta-se o caso de uma mulher de 39 anos, com o diagnóstico de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, que recorreu à Urgência com quadro de eritema exsudativo multiforme, com início 10 dias após tomar amoxicilina e ácido clavulânico por amigdalite e, quase simultaneamente, receber a vacina antipneumocócica. Colocou-se também a hipótese de síndrome de Rowell. Efetuaram-se testes epicutâneos de contacto com bateria básica (portuguesa e princípios ativos dos fármacos suspeitos (Chemotechnique®. Encontrou-se hipersensibilidade à amoxicilina 10% vas (++, à ampicilina 10% vas (++ e à penicilina G potássica 10% vas (+, atribuindo-se à amoxicilina a causa mais provável do eritema exsudativo multiformeExudative erythema multiforme is an acute self-limited skin disease often associated with infections (usually viral, and also with systemic diseases and drugs. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus, who presented at the emergency clinic with exudative erythema multiforme which started 10 days after taking amoxicillin and clavulanic acid for tonsillitis together (almost simultaneously with the pneumococcal vaccine. Rowell's syndrome was also considered to be a possibility. Skin patch tests were carried with the standard battery of patches (GPEDC and the active ingredients of the suspected drugs (Chemotechnique ®, with readings at D2 and D3. The tests were positive for amoxicillin 10% pet (++, ampicillin 10% pet (+ + and penicillin G potassium 10% pet (+. We accepted the diagnosis of erythema multiforme due to amoxicillin, confirmed by patch testing

  16. Shutdown dose rate analysis of European test blanket modules shields in ITER Equatorial Port #16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez, Rafael, E-mail: rjuarez@ind.uned.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Sauvan, Patrick; Perez, Lucia [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Panayotov, Dobromir; Vallory, Joelle; Zmitko, Milan; Poitevin, Yves [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Sanz, Javier [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Nuclear analysis for European TBMs and shields, in ITER Equatorial Port #16, has been conducted in support of the ‘Concept Design Review’ from ITER. • The objective of the work is the characterization of the Shutdown Dose Rates at Equatorial Port #16 interspace. • The role played by the TBM and TBM shields, the equatorial port gaps and the vacuum vessel permeation, in terms of neutron flux transmission is assessed. • The role played by the TBM, TBM shields, Port Plug Frame, Pipe Forest and the machine in terms of activation is also investigated. - Abstract: ‘Fusion for Energy’ (F4E) is designing, developing, and implementing the European Helium-Cooled Lead-Lithium (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) for ITER (Nuclear Facility INB-174). An essential element of the Conceptual Design Review (CDR) of these TBSs is the demonstration of capability of Test Blanket Modules (TBM) and their shields to fulfil their function and comply with the design requirements. One of the TBM shields highly relevant design aspects is the project target for shutdown dose rates (SDDR) in the interspace. We investigated two functions of the TBMs and TBM shields—the neutron flux attenuation along the shields, and the reduction of the activation of the components contributing to SDDR. It is shown that TBMs and TBM shields reduce significantly the neutron flux in the port plug (PP). In terms of neutron flux attenuation, the TBM shield provides sufficient neutron flux reduction, being responsible for 5 × 10{sup 6} n/cm{sup 2} s at port interspace, while the EPP gaps and BSM gaps are responsible for 5 × 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2} s each. When considering closed upper, lower and lateral neighbour equatorial ports (thus, excluding the cross-talk between ports), a SDDR of 121 μSv/h averaged near the port closure flange was obtained, out of which, only 4 μSv/h are due to the activation of TBMs and TBM shields. Maximum SDDR in the range

  17. Geo-energy Test Beds: part of the European Plate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael; Schofield, David; Luton, Christopher; Haslinger, Florian; Henninges, Jan; Giardini, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    For 2020, the EU has committed to cutting its greenhouse gas emissions to 20% below 1990 levels and further cuts are being decided for 2050. This commitment is one of the headline targets of the Europe 2020 growth strategy and is being implemented through binding legislation. This decarbonisation of the EU economy is one dimension of an overall EU energy and climate framework that is mutually interlinked with the need to ensure energy security, promote a fully integrated energy market, promote energy efficiency and promote research innovation and competitiveness. Power generation will have to take a particularly large part in emissions reductions (-54 to -68% by 2030 and -93 to -99% by 2050), mainly by focussing on increasing surface renewables (wind, tidal and solar) but also on carbon capture and storage on fossil fuel and biofuel power plants, shale gas, nuclear and geothermal power. All the above generation technologies share common geological challenges around containment, safety and environmental sustainability. In a densely populated continent, this means that high levels of subsurface management are needed to fully realise the energy potential. In response to this need, across Europe, public and private sector funded, experimental test and monitoring facilities and infrastructures (Geo-energy Test Beds, GETB) are being developed. These GETB investigate the processes, technology and practices that facilitate the sustainable exploitation of Geo-energy resources and are of intense interest to the public and regulators alike. The vision of EPOS IP Work Package 17 (wp17) is to promote research and innovation in Geo-energy that reflects core European energy priorities through provision of virtual access to data and protocols and trans-national access to GETB experiments. This will be achieved through provision of access to continuous strategic observations, promotion of the integrated use of data and models from European GETB, development of underpinning research

  18. Automated Spray Pothole Patching Truck

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The RA-300 patcher, manufactured by Rosco Manufacturing, Madison, S.D., is a fully automated spray patching road maintenance vehicle, which fills potholes and cracks on the road. A operator can control all patching functions with the control panel and joystick from the safety and comfort of the truck cab.

  19. HIV pre-test practices: an online survey examining perceptions of informed consent and pre-test information delivery in health care settings across the WHO European Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Stephen; Casabona, Jordi; Tsereteli, Nino; Raben, Dorthe; de Wit, John

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to gather health professionals' perceptions about gaining informed consent and delivering HIV pre-test information. An online self-report survey was completed by 338 respondents involved in HIV testing in 55 countries in the WHO European Region. Nearly two thirds (61.5%) of respondents thought that HIV testing guidelines used in their country of work included recommendations about pre-test information; 83% thought they included recommendations regarding obtaining informed consent. One third (34%) of respondents thought that written informed consent was required; respondents from Eastern Europe and Central Asia were more likely to perceive this as required. Respondents from Western Europe thought pre-test information about the following aspects was significantly less likely to be addressed than respondents in other regions: the right to decline a test; services available after a positive test; laws/regulations impacting someone being tested and receiving a positive test result; potential risks for a client taking an HIV test; the possible need for partner notification after a positive test result. Results offer insight into perceived HIV pre-test practices in all but two national settings across the WHO European Region, and can be used in the development and evaluation of future HIV testing guidelines in the WHO European Region. Findings highlight that practices of obtaining written informed consent depart from current guidelines in some HIV testing settings. Furthermore, findings underscore that it is uncommon for pre-test information to address legal and social risks and harms that people testing HIV-positive may incur. This differs from the most recent global WHO guidelines emphasising the importance of such information, and raises important questions regarding the implications and appropriateness of the currently dominant focus of recommendations on streamlining the HIV testing process.

  20. Does corporate social responsibility put reputation at risk by inviting activist targeting? An empirical test among European SMEs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is believed to improve a company’s reputation. However,CSR may also put reputation at risk by making the company a more attractive target for activists’campaigns. We test this effect on a sample of 1355 European small and medium-sized enterprises(SMEs). We find

  1. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB...

  2. Finalization of the conceptual design of the auxiliary circuits for the European test blanket systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, A., E-mail: antonio.aiello@enea.it [ENEA UTIS – C.R. Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Ghidersa, B.E. [Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) – Institut für Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik (INR), D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Utili, M. [ENEA UTIS – C.R. Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Vala, L. [Sustainable Energy (SUSEN), Technological Experimental Circuits, Centrum vyzkumu Rez s.r.o. (CV Rez), Hlavni c.p. 130, CZ-250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Ilkei, T. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest H-1525 (Hungary); Di Gironimo, G.; Mozzillo, R.; Tarallo, A. [CREATE/University of Naples Federico II, Department of Industrial Engineering, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Ricapito, I.; Calderoni, P. [TBM& MD Project, Fusion for Energy, EU Commission, Carrer J. Pla, 2, Building B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    In view of the ITER conceptual design review, the design of the ancillary systems of the European test blanket systems presented in [1] has been updated and made consistent with the ITER requirements for the present design phase. Europe is developing two concepts of TBM, the helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL) and the helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) one, having in common the cooling media, pressurized helium at 8 MPa [2]. TBS, namely helium cooling system (HCS), coolant purification system (CPS), lead lithium loop and tritium extraction/removal system (TES–TRS) have the purpose to cool down the TBM and to remove tritium to be driven to TEP from breeder and coolant. These systems are placed in port cell 16 (PC#16), chemical and volume control system (CVCS) area and tritium building. Starting from the pre-conceptual design developed in the past, more mature technical interfaces with the ITER facility have been consolidated and iterative design activities were performed to comply with design requirements/specifications requested by IO to conclude the conceptual design phase. In this paper the present status of design of the TBS is presented together with the preliminary integration in ITER areas.

  3. Estuarine sediment acute toxicity testing with the European amphipod Corophium multisetosum Stock, 1952.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ré, Ana; Freitas, Rosa; Sampaio, Leandro; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor

    2009-09-01

    This study assessed the use of the European amphipod Corophium multisetosum Stock [Stock, J.H., 1952. Some notes on the taxonomy, the distribution and the ecology of four species of the genus Corophium (Crustacea, Malacostraca). Beaufortia 21, 1-10] in estuarine sediment acute toxicity testing. The sensitivity of adults to the reference toxicant CdCl(2) was determined in water-only 96 h exposures in salinity 2. LC(50) values ranged from 0.33mgCd(2+)L(-1) at 22 degrees C to 0.57mgCd(2+)L(-1) at 15 degrees C. Adult survival was studied in control sediment with water salinity from 0 to 36 and with fine particles content (sediment, dry weight. Experiments were conducted at 15, 18 and 22 degrees C and the results indicate that the species can be used under the full salinity range although higher mortality was observed at the lower salinity in the higher water temperature, and at the higher salinity in the lower water temperature. The species also tolerated the studied range of sediment fines content and showed the highest sensitivity at intermediate values of fines, especially at the higher temperature, thus advising that tests which have to accommodate sediments with a wide range in fines content should preferably be conducted at 15 degrees C rather than at 22 degrees C. The response in natural sediments was studied in samples collected yearly from 1997 to 2006, at a site located off the Tagus Estuary, western Portugal. A major flood event in winter 2000-2001 induced detectable alterations in sediment baseline descriptors (grain-size, redox potential and total volatile solids), organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, DDT metabolites and gamma-HCH) and the macrofauna benthic community. Mortality of the amphipod diminished significantly from the before to the after flood period, in close agreement with diminishing sediment contamination and increasing benthic fauna diversity, in the same time period. C. multisetosum is suitable to conduct acute sediment toxicity tests and

  4. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): Promoting Alternative Methods in Europe and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    COZIGOU, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public–private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders....

  5. Mild test anxiety influences neurocognitive performance among African Americans and European Americans: Identifying interfering and facilitating sources

    OpenAIRE

    Thames, AD; Panos, SE; Arentoft, A; Byrd, DA; Hinkin, CH; Arbid, N

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 American Psychological Association. The current study examined ethnic/racial differences in test-related anxiety and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in a community sample of African American (n = 40) and European American (n = 36) adults. The authors hypothesized the following: (a) Test-anxiety related to negative performance evaluation would be associated with lower neurocognitive performance, whereas anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation would be associated with hig...

  6. Pilot study testing a European human biomonitoring framework for biomarkers of chemical exposure in children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exley, Karen; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to a number of environmental chemicals in UK mothers and children has been assessed as part of the European biomonitoring pilot study, Demonstration of a Study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES). For the European-funded project, 17 countries...... tested the biomonitoring guidelines and protocols developed by COPHES. The results from the pilot study in the UK are presented; 21 school children aged 6-11 years old and their mothers provided hair samples to measure mercury and urine samples, to measure cadmium, cotinine and several phthalate...... on environment, health and lifestyle. Mercury in hair was higher in children who reported frequent consumption of fish (geometric mean 0.35 μg/g) compared to those that ate fish less frequently (0.13 μg/g, p = 0.002). Cadmium accumulates with age as demonstrated by higher levels of urinary cadmium in the mothers...

  7. Whole-GUV patch-clamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Matthias; Mosgaard, Lars D; Bornschlögl, Thomas; Dieudonné, Stéphane; Bassereau, Patricia; Toombes, Gilman E S

    2017-01-10

    Studying how the membrane modulates ion channel and transporter activity is challenging because cells actively regulate membrane properties, whereas existing in vitro systems have limitations, such as residual solvent and unphysiologically high membrane tension. Cell-sized giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) would be ideal for in vitro electrophysiology, but efforts to measure the membrane current of intact GUVs have been unsuccessful. In this work, two challenges for obtaining the "whole-GUV" patch-clamp configuration were identified and resolved. First, unless the patch pipette and GUV pressures are precisely matched in the GUV-attached configuration, breaking the patch membrane also ruptures the GUV. Second, GUVs shrink irreversibly because the membrane/glass adhesion creating the high-resistance seal (>1 GΩ) continuously pulls membrane into the pipette. In contrast, for cell-derived giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs), breaking the patch membrane allows the GPMV contents to passivate the pipette surface, thereby dynamically blocking membrane spreading in the whole-GMPV mode. To mimic this dynamic passivation mechanism, beta-casein was encapsulated into GUVs, yielding a stable, high-resistance, whole-GUV configuration for a range of membrane compositions. Specific membrane capacitance measurements confirmed that the membranes were truly solvent-free and that membrane tension could be controlled over a physiological range. Finally, the potential for ion transport studies was tested using the model ion channel, gramicidin, and voltage-clamp fluorometry measurements were performed with a voltage-dependent fluorophore/quencher pair. Whole-GUV patch-clamping allows ion transport and other voltage-dependent processes to be studied while controlling membrane composition, tension, and shape.

  8. *New*: CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  9. *New* CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  10. Asphyxiation with a Fentanyl Patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron S. Mansfield

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Narcotics are frequently prescribed to alleviate pain in patients with serious medical illnesses such as cancer. Because of their nonoral route of administration, fentanyl patches are now being frequently prescribed. However, the widespread use of fentanyl patches has been associated with medication errors and misuse [Butts and Jatoi: J Opioid Manag 2011;7:35-45]. The transdermal delivery of fentanyl may lead to unusual, unanticipated complications. Herein, we describe a fentanyl patch complication, which, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported.

  11. The European ITER test blanket modules: Progress in development of fabrication technologies towards standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmitko, Milan, E-mail: milan.zmitko@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Josep Pla 2, Barcelona (Spain); Thomas, Noël [ATMOSTAT, F-94815 Villejuif (France); LiPuma, Antonella; Forest, Laurent [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cogneau, Laurence [CEA-DRT, 38000 Grenoble (France); Rey, Jörg; Neuberger, Heiko [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Postfach 3640, Karlsruhe (Germany); Poitevin, Yves [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Josep Pla 2, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Significant progress on the development of welding procedures for European TBM achieved. • Fabrication processes feasibility based on diffusion and fusion welding demonstrated. • An optimized welding scenario/sequence for TBM box assembly identified. • Future qualification of pF/WPS proposed through realization of a number of QMUs. - Abstract: The paper reviews progress achieved in development of fabrication technologies and procedures applied for manufacturing of the TBM sub-components, like, HCLL and HCPB cooling plates, HCLL/HCPB stiffening plates, and HCLL/HCPB first wall and side caps. The used technologies are based on fusion and diffusion welding techniques taking into account specificities of the EUROFER97 steel. Development of a standardized procedure complying with professional codes and standards (RCC-MRx), a preliminary fabrication/welding procedure specification (pF/WPS), is described based on fabrication and non-destructive and destructive characterization of feasibility mock-ups (FMU) aimed at assessing the suitability of a fabrication process for fulfilling the design and fabrication specifications. The main FMUs characterization results are reported (e.g. pressure resistance and helium leak tightness tests, mechanical properties and microstructure at the weld joints, geometrical characteristics of the sub-components and internal cooling channels) and the key pF/WPS steps and parameters are outlined. Also, fabrication procedures for the TBM box assembly are presently under development for the establishment of an optimized assembly sequence/scenario and development of standardized welding procedure specifications. In conclusions, further steps towards the pF/WPS qualification are briefly discussed.

  12. Development and testing of a European Union-wide farm-level carbon calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; De Camillis, Camillo; Leip, Adrian; Nisini, Luigi; Pelletier, Nathan; Haastrup, Palle

    2015-07-01

    Direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture accounted for approximately 10% of total European Union (EU) emissions in 2010. To reduce farming-related GHG emissions, appropriate policy measures and supporting tools for promoting low-C farming practices may be efficacious. This article presents the methodology and testing results of a new EU-wide, farm-level C footprint calculator. The Carbon Calculator quantifies GHG emissions based on international standards and technical specifications on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and C footprinting. The tool delivers its results both at the farm level and as allocated to up to 5 main products of the farm. In addition to the quantification of GHG emissions, the calculator proposes mitigation options and sequestration actions that may be suitable for individual farms. The results obtained during a survey made on 54 farms from 8 EU Member States are presented. These farms were selected in view of representing the diversity of farm types across different environmental zones in the EU. The results of the C footprint of products in the data set show wide range of variation between minimum and maximum values. The results of the mitigation actions showed that the tool can help identify practices that can lead to substantial emission reductions. To avoid burden-shifting from climate change to other environmental issues, the future improvements of the tool should include incorporation of other environmental impact categories in place of solely focusing on GHG emissions. © 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  13. Blockade of patch-based μ opioid receptors in the striatum attenuates methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and reduces activation of the patch compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Kristen A; Logan, Mary Caroline; Fisher, Trevor J; Logue, Jordan B

    2017-02-05

    The behavioral effects of methamphetamine (METH) are mediated by the striatum, which is divided into the patch compartment, which mediates limbic and reward functions, and the matrix compartment, which mediates sensorimotor tasks. METH treatment results in repetitive behavior that is related to enhanced relative activation of the patch versus the matrix compartment. The patch, but not the matrix compartment contains a high density of μ opioid receptors, and localized blockade of patch-based μ opioid receptors attenuates METH-induced patch-enhanced activity and repetitive behaviors. Numerous studies have examined patch-enhanced activity and the contribution of patch-associated μ opioid receptors to METH-induced repetitive behavior, but it is not known whether patch-enhanced activity occurs during METH-mediated reward, nor is it known if patch-based μ opioid receptors contribute to METH reward. The goals of this study were to determine if blockade of patch-based μ opioid receptors alters METH-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), as well activation of the patch and matrix compartments following METH-mediated CPP. A biased conditioning paradigm was used to assess CPP, and conditioning occurred over an 8-d period. Animals were bilaterally infused in the striatum with the μ-specific antagonist CTAP or vehicle prior to conditioning. Animals were tested for preference 24h after the last day of conditioning, sacrificed and the brains processed for immunohistochemistry. Blockade of patch-based μ opioid receptors reduced METH-induced CPP, and reduced patch-enhanced c-Fos expression in the striatum following METH-mediated CPP. These data indicate that patch-enhanced activity is associated with METH-mediated reward and patch-based μ opioid receptors contribute to this phenomenon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Examination of the Structural Response of the Orion European Service Module to Reverberant and Direct Field Acoustic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Hughes, William O.; Larko, Jeffrey M.; Bittinger, Samantha A.; Le-Plenier, Cyprien; Fogt, Vincent A.; Ngan, Ivan; Thirkettle, Anthony C.; Skinner, Mitch; Larkin, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), comprised of the Service Module, the Crew Module, and the Launch Abort System, is the next generation human spacecraft designed and built for deep space exploration. Orion will launch on NASAs new heavy-lift rocket, the Space Launch System. The European Space Agency (ESA) is responsible for providing the propulsion sub-assembly of the Service Module to NASA, called the European Service Module (ESM). The ESM is being designed and built by Airbus Safran Launchers for ESA. Traditionally, NASA has utilized reverberant acoustic testing for qualification of spaceflight hardware. The ESM Structural Test Article (E-STA) was tested at the NASA Plum Brook Stations (PBS) Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility in April-May 2016. However, Orion is evaluating an alternative acoustic test method, using direct field acoustic excitation, for the MPCVs Service Module and Crew Module. Lockheed Martin is responsible for the Orion proof-of-concept direct field acoustic test program. The E-STA was exposed to direct field acoustic testing at NASA PBS in February 2017. This paper compares the dynamic response of the E-STA structure and its components to both the reverberant and direct field acoustic test excitations. Advantages and disadvantages of direct field acoustic test excitation method are discussed.

  15. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-04-13

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries' National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013-2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories.

  16. Formulation Optimization of Arecoline Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Chu Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The response surface methodology (RSM including polynomial equations has been used to design an optimal patch formulation with appropriate adhesion and flux. The patch formulations were composed of different polymers, including Eudragit RS 100 (ERS, Eudragit RL 100 (ERL and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP, plasticizers (PEG 400, and drug. In addition, using terpenes as enhancers could increase the flux of the drug. Menthol showed the highest enhancement effect on the flux of arecoline.

  17. Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...08-2015 Publication Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna David A. Tonn Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St., Code 00L...Distribution A An antenna for mounting on a ground plane includes a dielectric substrate for mounting on the ground plane. A conductive patch

  18. Metamaterial Embedded Wearable Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an indigenous low-cost metamaterial embedded wearable rectangular microstrip patch antenna using polyester substrate for IEEE 802.11a WLAN applications. The proposed antenna resonates at 5.10 GHz with a bandwidth and gain of 97 MHz and 4.92 dBi, respectively. The electrical size of this antenna is 0.254λ×0.5λ. The slots are cut in rectangular patch to reduce the bending effect. This leads to mismatch the impedance at WLAN frequency band; hence, a metamaterial square SRR is embedded inside the slot. A prototype antenna has been fabricated and tested, and the measured results are presented in this paper. The simulated and measured results of the proposed antenna are found to be in good agreement. The bending effect on the performance of this antenna is experimentally verified.

  19. Bilaterally Weighted Patches for Disparity Map Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández Julià

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual correspondence is the key for 3D reconstruction in binocular stereovision. Local methods perform block-matching to compute the disparity, or apparent motion, of pixels between images. The simplest approach computes the distance of patches, usually square windows, and assumes that all pixels in the patch have the same disparity. A prominent artifact of the method is the "foreground fattening effet" near depth discontinuities. In order to find a more appropriate support, Yoon and Kweon introduced the use of weights based on color similarity and spatial distance, analogous to those used in the bilateral filter. This paper presents the theory of this method and the implementation we have developed. Moreover, some variants are discussed and improvements are used in the final implementation. Several examples and tests are presented and the parameters and performance of the method are analyzed.

  20. Comparison of the NASA Common Research Model European Transonic Wind Tunnel Test Data to NASA Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Melissa; Quest, Juergen; Rudnik, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations of the NASA Common Research Model have been conducted in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility, the NASA Ames 11-ft wind tunnel, and the European Transonic Wind Tunnel. In the NASA Ames 11-ft wind tunnel, data have been obtained at only a chord Reynolds number of 5 million for a wing/body/tail = 0 degree incidence configuration. Data have been obtained at chord Reynolds numbers of 5, 19.8 and 30 million for the same configuration in the National Transonic Facility and in the European Transonic Facility. Force and moment, surface pressure, wing bending and twist, and surface flow visualization data were obtained in all three facilities but only the force and moment and surface pressure data are presented herein.

  1. Religion as reassurance? Testing the insecurity theory in 26 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, T.; van Tubergen, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we extend insecurity theory by examining the influence of various kinds of insecurities on religiosity. Religiosity is operationalized in terms of a public dimension (church attendance) and a private dimension (subjective religiosity). Using data from four rounds of the European

  2. Effects of patch-size on populations of intertidal limpets, Siphonaria spp., in a linear landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Cole

    Full Text Available Organisms with different life-histories and abilities to disperse often utilise habitat patches in different ways. We investigated the influence of the size of patches of rock (separated by stretches of sand on the density of pulmonate limpets (Siphonaria spp. along 1500 km of the linear landscape of the South African coastline. We compared the influence of patch-size on two congeneric species with different modes of development, S. serrata a direct developer, and S. concinna a planktonic developer. We tested the spatial and temporal consistency of the effects of patch-size by sampling 7 independent regions spanning the distributional range of both species of limpets, and by sampling one region at monthly intervals for 1 year. Within each region or month, 4 small patches (60 m in length were sampled. Across the entire geographic range and throughout the year, there were more of both species of limpets in large patches than in small patches. In most regions, there was greater variability in large patches than small patches. Variability within patches in a single region was similar throughout the year, with greater variability of both species in large than in small patches. We found little influence of the mode of development on the response of limpets to patch-size. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding patterns of distribution of species with respect to habitat heterogeneity in linear landscapes, and contradict the idea that organism mobility at an early ontogenetic stage directly affects habitat use.

  3. Capsaicin 8% patch treatment for amputation stump and phantom limb pain: a clinical and functional MRI study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Privitera R; Birch R; Sinisi M; Mihaylov IR; Leech R; Anand P

    2017-01-01

    ...% patch in reducing chronic amputation stump and phantom limb pain, associated hypersensitivity with quantitative sensory testing, and changes in brain cortical maps using functional MRI (fMRI) scans. Methods: A capsaicin 8% patch (Qutenza...

  4. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibae Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS, and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under −20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of −35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  5. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibae; Hassan, Arshad; Lee, Chong Hyun; Bae, Jinho

    2017-12-18

    In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS), and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under -20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of -35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF) tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  6. Methylphenidate Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG; a test that measures electrical activity in the brain); mental illness; circulation problems ... hearing voices that do not exist) frequent, painful erections erection that lasts longer than 4 hours numbness, ...

  7. *NEW* CRITICAL Windows Security patches

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 3 October and 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued new CRITICAL security patches MS03-040 and MS03-039. They must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security holes and patches are at: MS03-039: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp MS03-040: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-040.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-040.asp

  8. Micromachined patch-clamp apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat

    2012-12-04

    A micromachined patch-clamp apparatus is disclosed for holding one or more cells and providing electrical, chemical, or mechanical stimulation to the cells during analysis with the patch-clamp technique for studying ion channels in cell membranes. The apparatus formed on a silicon substrate utilizes a lower chamber formed from silicon nitride using surface micromachining and an upper chamber formed from a molded polymer material. An opening in a common wall between the chambers is used to trap and hold a cell for analysis using the patch-clamp technique with sensing electrodes on each side of the cell. Some embodiments of the present invention utilize one or more electrostatic actuators formed on the substrate to provide mechanical stimulation to the cell being analyzed, or to provide information about mechanical movement of the cell in response to electrical or chemical stimulation.

  9. Short term study of human skin irritation by single application closed patch test: assessment of four multiple emulsion formulations loaded with botanical extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tariq; Akhtar, Naveed

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of skin irritation potential is a major concern in safety assessment of cosmetics, when long-term use of these products are expected. Non-invasive bioengineering probes have been used previously to measure skin irritation potential of cosmetic ingredients. Experimentation carried out to weigh up the skin irritation potential of four multiple emulsion formulations via visual and non-invasive measurements. Immediate effects of formulations and comparison of two assessment techniques were also tried to establish. Four multiple emulsion formulations one control (without botanical active) and three containing the functional botanical actives plus additives were tested in this study using the following techniques: transepidermal water loss (TEWL), COLIPA visual scoring method (CVSM), Mexameter MPA 5 (Courage + Khazaka, Germany) and capacitance [Corneometer MPA 5 (Courage + Khazaka, Germany)]. Visual examination and non-invasive measurements were performed at baseline and after 24 h. The formulations were applied on the forearm of 12 healthy volunteers of same sexes aged 20-25 years. We found that none of the formulation produced irritation both on visual and instrumental evaluation. However, formulations MeB and MeC have comparable immediate effects on dryness, erythema, melanin and TEWL. Formulation MeC produced more effective results on different parameters, may be due to synergistic effect of two extracts, while MeA failed to produce any immediate effects on skin parameters. Moreover results of both assessment methods are parallel to each other. None of the formulation produce irritant effects, barrier impairment effects or immediate effects except for the formulation MeC which produced appreciable results than other formulations but statistically these results were insignificant (p > 0.05). Based on these results, it could be concluded that formulations may be implied safely as skin rejuvenating candidates.

  10. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): promoting alternative methods in Europe and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public-private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives.

  11. Recommendations for quality improvement in genetic testing for cystic fibrosis European Concerted Action on Cystic Fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dequeker, E; Cuppens, H; Dodge, J; Estivill, [No Value; Goossens, M; Pignatti, PF; Scheffer, H; Schwartz, M; Schwarz, M; Tummler, B; Cassiman, JJ

    These recommendations for quality improvement of cystic fibrosis genetic diagnostic testing provide general guidelines for the molecular genetic testing of cystic fibrosis in patients/individuals. General strategies for testing as well as guidelines for laboratory procedures, internal and external

  12. Synchrotron Radiation Test Validations of European XFEL MCP-based Detectors at DORIS Beamline BW1

    OpenAIRE

    Syresin, E.; Grebentsov, A. Yu.; Sinn, Harald; Novikov, Dmitri; Yurkov, Mikhail; Shabunov, A. V.; Zamiatin, N. I.; Basta, R.; Fiala, T.; Hedbavny, P.; Brovko, O.I.; Freund, Wolfgang; Gruenert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Radiation detectors based on micro channel plates (MCP) are planned for installation at the European XFEL. Main purpose of these detectors is searching a signature of lasing and further fine tuning of the FEL process. Detectors operate in a wide dynamic range from the level of spontaneous emission to the saturation level (between a few nJ and 25 mJ), and in a wide wavelength range from 0.05 nm to 0.4 nm for SASE1 and SASE2, and from 0.4 nm to 4.43 nm for SASE3. Photon pulse energies are measu...

  13. Proficiency Testing of Feed Constituents: A Comparative Evaluation of European and Developing Country Laboratories and Its Implications for Animal Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, H P S; Strnad, I; Mittendorfer, J

    2016-10-06

    Proficiency tests, with two feed samples each year, for various constituents (proximate, macro- and microminerals, feed additives, and amino acids) were conducted in 2014 and 2015. A total of 40 and 50 European and 73 and 63 developing country feed analysis laboratories participated in the study in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The data obtained from these two sets of laboratories in each year enabled a comparison of the performance of the European and developing country laboratories. Higher standard deviation and several-fold higher coefficients of variation were obtained for the developing country laboratories. The coefficients of variation for chemical composition parameters, macrominerals, microminerals, and amino acids were higher by up to 9-fold, 14-fold, 10-fold, and 14-fold, respectively, for the developing country laboratories compared with the European laboratories in 2014, while the corresponding values for 2015 were 4.6-fold, 4.4-fold, 9-fold, and 14-fold higher for developing county laboratories. Also, higher numbers of outliers were observed for developing countries (2014, 7.6-8.7% vs 2.9-3.0%; 2015, 7.7-9.5% vs 4.2-7.0%). The results suggest higher need for developing country feed analysis laboratories to improve the quality of data being generated. The likely impact of higher variability of the data generated in developing countries toward safe and quality preparation of animal diets, their impact on animal productivity, and possible ways to improve the quality of data from developing countries are discussed.

  14. Enhancement of levodopa stability when complexed with β-cyclodextrin in transdermal patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaidat, Rana; Al-Shar'i, Nizar; Tashtoush, Bassam; Athamneh, Tamara

    2016-11-03

    Levodopa is a promising candidate for administration via the transdermal route because it exhibits a short plasma half-life and has a small window of absorption in the upper section of the small intestine. The aim of this study was to prepare stable levodopa transdermal patches. Both xanthan gum and Carbopol 971 polymers were selected with ethylcellulose constituting the backing layer of the prepared patches. The effect of adding β-cyclodextrin on the prepared patches was investigated. The uniformity in thickness, weight and content of the studied patches was acceptable. Physicochemical characterization revealed that there was no interaction between levodopa and the applied polymer. The results proved that levodopa precipitated as an amorphous form in carbopol patches. Controlled drug release was achieved for all the tested patches over a 6 h period. However, increased permeation was achieved for the carbopol patches. Although cyclodextrin did not enhance levodopa permeation, the stability study confirmed that levodopa stability was enhanced when complexed with β-cyclodextrin. The cumulative amount of drug released from carbopol patches is slightly higher than that of xanthan patches. The optimal stability was achieved in the carbopol/levodopa:β-cyclodextrin patch. The levodopa-β-cyclodextrin complex was successfully characterized using X-ray diffraction, NMR analysis and molecular dynamics simulations. In conclusion, carbopol/levodopa:β-cyclodextrin patches can be considered as a promising stable and effective transdermal drug-delivery system.

  15. MS lesion segmentation using a multi-channel patch-based approach with spatial consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechrez, Roey; Goldberger, Jacob; Greenspan, Hayit

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents an automatic method for segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) in Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of the brain. The approach is based on similarities between multi-channel patches (T1, T2 and FLAIR). An MS lesion patch database is built using training images for which the label maps are known. For each patch in the testing image, k similar patches are retrieved from the database. The matching labels for these k patches are then combined to produce an initial segmentation map for the test case. Finally a novel iterative patch-based label refinement process based on the initial segmentation map is performed to ensure spatial consistency of the detected lesions. A leave-one-out evaluation is done for each testing image in the MS lesion segmentation challenge of MICCAI 2008. Results are shown to compete with the state-of-the-art methods on the MICCAI 2008 challenge.

  16. Advancing the 3Rs in Regulatory Toxicology - Carcinogenicity Testing: Scope for Harmonisation and Advancing the 3Rs in Regulated Sectors of the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Different government agencies operating in the European Union regulate different types of chemical products, but all require testing for carcinogenicity to support applications for product marketing and commercialisation. A conference was held in Brussels in 2013 where ...

  17. Habitat patch size and isolation as predictors of occupancy and number of argyrodine spider kleptoparasites in Nephila webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnarsson, Ingi

    2011-02-01

    How fully a suitable habitat patch is utilized by organisms depends crucially on patch size and isolation. Testing this interplay is made difficult in many systems by the arbitrariness of defining a "habitat patch", measuring its boarders, and relatively low detection probability of the inhabitants. Spider webs as habitat patches for obligate web kleptoparasites are free from these problems. Each individual web is a highly discrete and readily measured habitat patch, and the detection probability of argyrodine spider kleptoparasites is very nearly 1. Hence, spider webs emerge as simple systems for ecological models such as patch occupancy and metapopulation biology. Recently, I showed that the distribution of kleptoparasites among host webs relates both to web (patch) size as well as patch connectivity. Here, I test the relative importance of patch size versus isolation in explaining patch occupancy and abundance of inhabitants. I find that (1) web size is the better predictor of patch occupancy and abundance. (2) Web size is overall positively correlated with abundance, but predicts it most precisely among interconnected webs and not at all among the most isolated webs. Hence, patch occupancy and inhabitant abundance is explained by a rather complex interplay between patch size and isolation.

  18. Nurses' perceptions of the benefits and adverse effects of hand disinfection: alcohol-based hand rubs vs. hygienic handwashing: a multicentre questionnaire study with additional patch testing by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, N; Becker, D; Jappe, U; John, S M; Ladwig, A; Spornraft-Ragaller, P; Uter, W; Löffler, H

    2009-03-01

    Nurses have a high risk of developing hand eczema due to hand disinfection procedures. To investigate the perception of nurses regarding the adverse effects of hand washing (HW) and alcoholic disinfection (ADI), and to obtain data on the prevalence of hand dermatitis and sensitization to alcohols and alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs). A self-administered questionnaire survey, carried out as a pilot study (PS), followed by a modified multicentre study (MC) in five hospitals. Patch tests to ethanol (80%), 1-propanol (60%), 2-propanol (70%) and ABHRs were performed in a subsample. The majority (PS 60.1%; MC 69.5%) of nurses considered ADI to be more damaging than HW. Mostly, ADI and HW were suspected to have irritant effects (ADI 79.2%/52.1%; HW 65.5%/36.2%) compared with an allergenic potential (ADI 10.4%/5.8%; HW 7.8%/3.9%). The prevalence of hand dermatitis in the MC was 13.4% by self-diagnosis and 22.4% by symptom-based questions. In 50 tested individuals no sensitization and only two irritant reactions to alcohols and three single-positive reactions to ABHRs were observed, none of the latter related to alcohols. Although ADI is known to cause less skin irritation than HW, nurses perceive ADI as more damaging, resulting in: (i) a low compliance with ADI and (ii) a higher prevalence of hand dermatitis because the more deleterious HW is preferred. This may result in an increase in occupational disease and nosocomial infections. Educational programmes should promote ADI as a procedure with good efficiency and skin tolerability to reduce the prevalence of hand eczema in nurses and to enhance compliance with hand hygiene standards.

  19. Patch testing with constituents of Compositae mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    to parthenolide or parthenolide-containing extracts, followed by German chamomile, yarrow, and arnica. As German chamomile is a weak sensitizer, the results suggest cross-reactions or reactions to unknown allergens. No one was positive to Roman chamomile. Conclusions. Even though parthenolide seems...

  20. Patch testing with corticosteroid mixes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, M; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandão, F M

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated whether a corticosteroid mix containing tixocortol pivalate, budesonide, and hydrocortisone-17-butyrate could detect contact allergy to corticosteroids. 2 corticosteroid mixes, 1 with a high (mix I) and 1 with a low (mix II) concentration and the 3 individual constituents,...

  1. Ahemeral light regimens test the photoperiodic threshold of the european starling (Sturnus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, R. G.

    1980-03-01

    Male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were held for three consecutive photoperiod oscillations (ahemeral years) composed of 30-h day lengths, i.e., the “daily” light and dark each lasted three hours longer than under the natural daily photoperiod at latitude 38°N. These starlings had no gonad metamorphosis during the 45 actual months necessary to complete the three ahemeral photoperiod oscillations; nor did subsequent exposure to continuous illumination elicit gonad response. It is concluded that the daily duration of light and darkness (although certainly operant in controlling starling sexual cycles under temperate-zone photoperiod oscillations) is not the critical factor establishing a sexual cycle under the ahemeral regimen. Rather, it appears that this species must experience a daily duration of light of 12 hours or less (a definitive photoperiodic threshold) before photo-induction of a sexual cycle is possible.

  2. Parametric Sensitivity Tests—European Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Test Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    As fuel cells are increasingly commercialized for various applications, harmonized and industry-relevant test procedures are necessary to benchmark tests and to ensure comparability of stack performance results from different parties. This paper reports the results of parametric sensitivity tests...

  3. Testing the Effectiveness of Environmental Variables to Explain European Terrestrial Vertebrate Species Richness across Biogeographical Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Mouchet

    Full Text Available We compared the effectiveness of environmental variables, and in particular of land-use indicators, to explain species richness patterns across taxonomic groups and biogeographical scales (i.e. overall pan-Europe and ecoregions within pan-Europe. Using boosted regression trees that handle non-linear relationships, we compared the relative influence (as a measure of effectiveness of environmental variables related to climate, landscape (or habitat heterogeneity, land-use intensity or energy availability to explain European vertebrate species richness (birds, amphibians, and mammals at the continental and ecoregion scales. We found that dominant land cover and actual evapotranspiration that relate to energy availability were the main correlates of vertebrate species richness over Europe. At the ecoregion scale, we identified four distinct groups of ecoregions where species richness was essentially associated to (i seasonality of temperature, (ii actual evapotranspiration and/or mean annual temperature, (iii seasonality of precipitation, actual evapotranspiration and land cover and (iv and an even combination of the environmental variables. This typology of ecoregions remained valid for total vertebrate richness and the three vertebrate groups taken separately. Despite the overwhelming influence of land cover and actual evapotranspiration to explain vertebrate species richness patterns at European scale, the ranking of the main correlates of species richness varied between regions. Interestingly, landscape and land-use indicators did not stand out at the continental scale but their influence greatly increased in southern ecoregions, revealing the long-lasting human footprint on land-use-land-cover changes. Our study provides one of the first multi-scale descriptions of the variability in the ranking of correlates across several taxa.

  4. HIV testing among Portuguese men who have sex with men--results from the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C; Fuertes, R; Lucas, R; Martins, A; Campos, M J; Mendão, L; Schmidt, A J; Barros, H

    2013-10-01

    To describe HIV testing behaviour and context of MSM in Portugal participating in the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS). Data for the Portuguese sample were extracted and those for 5187 participants were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to quantify the association between participants' characteristics and HIV testing behaviour and context. Seventy-two percent of the participants had ever been tested for HIV and among those ever tested, 11% were diagnosed with HIV. Primary care was the most common testing setting for HIV-negative men (37%). Compared to those never tested, men who had ever taken an HIV test had higher educational level (aOR 1.89, 95% CI 1.67-2.14) and identified themselves as gay/homosexual more frequently (aOR 1.94 , 95% CI 1.70-2.20). HIV testing odds significantly increased with the number of sexual partners in the previous 12 months. Those who reported unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with a partner of unknown or serodiscordant HIV status in the previous 12 months were less likely to report an HIV test (aOR 0.38, 95% CI 0.33-0.44). Among those never tested or who tested negative, 41% and 22% reported UAI with a partner of unknown or serodiscordant status in the previous 12 months, respectively. Among men with diagnosed HIV, 72% were currently on antiretroviral therapy and 58% reported an undetectable viral load. More than one third (38%) of those who had detectable or unknown/undisclosed viral load reported at least one episode of UAI with a partner of unknown or serodiscordant HIV status in the last 12 months. Actual interventions should focus on: improving testing uptake and counselling; increasing treatment coverage; achieving and maintaining an undetectable viral load; and intensifying prevention efforts focused on consistent condom use. © 2013 British HIV Association.

  5. Activity of the European high heat flux test facility: FE200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobin-Vastra, I. [AREVA Centre Technique de Framatome, FE200, Porte Magenta BP181, 71200 Le Creusot Cedex (France) and EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: isabelle.bobinvastra@framatome-anp.com; Escourbiac, F. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)]. E-mail: escourbi@drfc.cad.cea.fr; Merola, M. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: mario.merola@tech.efda.org; Lorenzetto, P. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: lorenzp@tech.efda.org

    2005-11-15

    FE200 is an electron beam (EB) 200 kW test facility resulting since 1991 from partnership between Framatome Technical Centre in Le Creusot (France) and Tore Supra team in CEA Cadarache (France). It is dedicated to high heat flux testing of small and medium-sized plasma facing components. The performed tests are thermal fatigue tests (100,000 since 1992), critical heat fluxes, disruptions, glancing incidence tests on materials such as Cu-Al25 and CuCrZr alloys, carbon fibre composite (CFC) or tungsten (W). The thermal fatigue behaviour of some primary first wall (PFW), hypervapotron and divertor components is described.

  6. Do European Standard Disinfectant tests truly simulate in-use microbial and organic soiling conditions on food preparation surfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B; Morin, V N; Rödger, H-J; Holah, J; Bird, C

    2010-04-01

    The results from European standard disinfectant tests are used as one basis to approve the use of disinfectants in Europe. The design of these laboratory-based tests should thus simulate as closely as possible the practical conditions and challenges that the disinfectants would encounter in use. No evidence is available that the organic and microbial loading in these tests simulates actual levels in the food service sector. Total organic carbon (TOC) and total viable count (TVC) were determined on 17 visibly clean and 45 visibly dirty surfaces in two restaurants and the food preparation surfaces of a large retail store. These values were compared to reference values recovered from surfaces soiled with the organic and microbial loading, following the standard conditions of the European Surface Test for bactericidal efficacy, EN 13697. The TOC reference values for clean and dirty conditions were higher than the data from practice, but cannot be regarded as statistical outliers. This was considered as a conservative assessment; however, as additional nine TOC samples from visibly dirty surfaces were discarded from the analysis, as their loading made them impossible to process. Similarly, the recovery of test organisms from surfaces contaminated according to EN 13697 was higher than the TVC from visibly dirty surfaces in practice; though they could not be regarded as statistical outliers of the whole data field. No correlation was found between TVC and TOC in the sampled data, which re-emphasizes the potential presence of micro-organisms on visibly clean surfaces and thus the need for the same degree of disinfection as visibly dirty surfaces. The organic soil and the microbial burden used in EN disinfectant standards represent a realistic worst-case scenario for disinfectants used in the food service and food-processing areas.

  7. Patch-Based Segmentation with Spatial Consistency: Application to MS Lesions in Brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechrez, Roey; Goldberger, Jacob; Greenspan, Hayit

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic lesion segmentation method based on similarities between multichannel patches. A patch database is built using training images for which the label maps are known. For each patch in the testing image, k similar patches are retrieved from the database. The matching labels for these k patches are then combined to produce an initial segmentation map for the test case. Finally an iterative patch-based label refinement process based on the initial segmentation map is performed to ensure the spatial consistency of the detected lesions. The method was evaluated in experiments on multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion segmentation in magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain. An evaluation was done for each image in the MICCAI 2008 MS lesion segmentation challenge. Results are shown to compete with the state of the art in the challenge. We conclude that the proposed algorithm for segmentation of lesions provides a promising new approach for local segmentation and global detection in medical images.

  8. Fentanyl Patch Can Be Deadly to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fentanyl Patch Can Be Deadly to Children Share Tweet ... from accidental exposure to a skin patch containing fentanyl, a powerful pain reliever. As a result of ...

  9. Bye-Bye Flu Shot, Hello Patch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166897.html Bye-Bye Flu Shot, Hello Patch? Early results look promising for ... TUESDAY, June 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental flu vaccine patch with dissolving microneedles appears safe and ...

  10. Evaluation of concrete pavement patching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This final report presents the results of a study undertaken to improve in concrete pavement patching techniques. Activities included an evaluation of the suitability of the impact hammer and maturity calculations for determining when a patch is read...

  11. European infrastructures for R&D and test of superconducting radio-frequency cavities and cryo-modules

    CERN Document Server

    Weingarten, W

    2011-01-01

    The volume is copyright CERN and can be distributed under CC-BY license. The need for a European facility to build and test superconducting RF accelerating structures and cryo‐modules (SRF test facility) was extensively discussed during the preparation of EuCARD [1,2]. It comprised a distributed network of equipment across Europe to be assessed and, if needed, completed by hardware. It also addressed the quest for a deeper basic understanding, a better control and optimisation of the manufacture of superconducting RF structures with the aim of a substantial improvement of the accelerating gradient, a reduction of its spread and a cost minimisation. However, consequent to EU budget restrictions, the proposal was not maintained. Instead, a more detailed analysis was requested by a sub‐task inside the EuCARD Network [3] AccNet ‐ RFTech [4]. The main objective of this “SRF sub‐task” consists of intensifying a collaborative effort between European accelerator labs. The aim focused on planning and later...

  12. Improved image registration by sparse patch-based deformation estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Wu, Guorong; Wang, Qian; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-01-15

    Despite intensive efforts for decades, deformable image registration is still a challenging problem due to the potential large anatomical differences across individual images, which limits the registration performance. Fortunately, this issue could be alleviated if a good initial deformation can be provided for the two images under registration, which are often termed as the moving subject and the fixed template, respectively. In this work, we present a novel patch-based initial deformation prediction framework for improving the performance of existing registration algorithms. Our main idea is to estimate the initial deformation between subject and template in a patch-wise fashion by using the sparse representation technique. We argue that two image patches should follow the same deformation toward the template image if their patch-wise appearance patterns are similar. To this end, our framework consists of two stages, i.e., the training stage and the application stage. In the training stage, we register all training images to the pre-selected template, such that the deformation of each training image with respect to the template is known. In the application stage, we apply the following four steps to efficiently calculate the initial deformation field for the new test subject: (1) We pick a small number of key points in the distinctive regions of the test subject; (2) for each key point, we extract a local patch and form a coupled appearance-deformation dictionary from training images where each dictionary atom consists of the image intensity patch as well as their respective local deformations; (3) a small set of training image patches in the coupled dictionary are selected to represent the image patch of each subject key point by sparse representation. Then, we can predict the initial deformation for each subject key point by propagating the pre-estimated deformations on the selected training patches with the same sparse representation coefficients; and (4) we

  13. European recommendations for the clinical use of HIV drug resistance testing: 2011 update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Camacho, Ricardo J; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    the following recommendations concerning the indications for resistance testing: for HIV-1 (i) test earliest sample for protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance in drug-naive patients with acute or chronic infection; (ii) test protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance at virologic failure......) consider testing earliest detectable plasma RNA when a successful nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing therapy was inappropriately interrupted; (v) genotype source patient when postexposure prophylaxis is considered; for HIV-2, (vi) consider resistance testing where treatment change...... is needed after treatment failure. The Panel recommends genotyping in most situations, using updated and clinically evaluated interpretation systems. It is mandatory that laboratories performing HIV resistance tests take part regularly in external quality assurance programs, and that they consider storing...

  14. Diagnosis of O. volvulus infection via skin exposure to diethylcarbamazine: clinical evaluation of a transdermal delivery technology-based patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadzi, K; Opoku, Nicholas O; Attah, Simon K; Lazdins-Helds, Janis K; Kuesel, Annette C

    2015-10-09

    Elimination of onchocerciasis in Africa is now regarded as an achievable goal in many areas. This makes monitoring changes in infection prevalence a key component of control programmes. Monitoring is currently based on determining the presence of O. volvulus microfilariae in skin snips, an invasive, labour-intensive method. The Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) had established procedures to detect O. volvulus infections via the localized skin reaction induced by killing of microfilariae upon skin exposure to diethylcarbamazine via a patch (OCP-patch). Large scale OCP - patch use is difficult due to labour-intensive patch preparation. At the request of TDR, a manufacturer specialized in transdermal-delivery systems developed a ready-to-use diethylcarbamazine (DEC) containing patch (LTS-2 patch). To qualify this patch for large scale studies of its sensitivity and specificity, this study evaluated its ease of application, ability to detect infection and DEC exposure related adverse reactions compared to the OCP-patch in 30 infected individuals. Each participant with 0.2-36.8 O. volvulus microfilariae/mg skin received the OCP-patch and 4 days later the LTS-2 patch at the left and right iliac crest, respectively, for 24 h. Presence and characteristics of local skin reactions were assessed at patch removal and 6 h later. Skin reaction and Mazzotti reaction rates were compared with Fisher's exact and a paired t-test, respectively. The LTS-2 patch could be applied within 10 s. Mild itching occurred at 63.3 % of OCP-patch (duration 8.9 ± 11.8 h) and 26.7 % of LTS-2 patch sites (duration 1.0 ± 2.5 h) and was the most frequent Mazzotti reaction. At patch removal after 24 h, a diagnostic local skin reaction was present under 90 % of OCP-patches and 83 % of LTS-2 patches; 6 h later, it was present at 93 % of OCP-patch and 100 % of LTS-2 patch sites. The data suggest that safety, tolerability and ability to detect infections of the LTS-2 patch are comparable to

  15. Evaluation of the Discrepancy between the European Pharmacopoeia Test and an Adopted United States Pharmacopoeia Test Regarding the Weight Uniformity of Scored Tablet Halves: Is Harmonization Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Ghoush, Abeer Abu; Al-Ramahi, Rowa'; Are'r, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there exists any discrepancy between the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) and adopted United States Pharmacopeia (USP) tests concerning the weight uniformity measurements of tablet halves after splitting. The USP method does not contain provisions to evaluate split tablets, so here we adopt their whole tablet weight uniformity method. Twenty-nine different commercial scored tablets (local and imported) were divided. The split units were individually weighed and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for each product was calculated and then evaluated according to both the adopted USP and the Ph. Eur. tests of weight uniformity. Twenty out of the 29 products tested failed the USP test, while 14 of them failed the Ph. Eur. test. Nine products passed both the USP and Ph. Eur. tests. Six products passed the Ph. Eur. test but failed the USP test, with all of these products having an RSD greater than 6%. The correlation coefficient between the weight and content of split halves for three randomly selected products-corotenol 100 mg, corotenol 50 mg, and lorazepam 2.5 mg-was found to be 0.986, 0.998, and 0.72, respectively. A clear difference can be seen between outcomes obtained by the two compendial tablet splitting methods with regard to weight uniformity. Results from the USP test showed that tighter measures are needed to pass the test. Our results argue that the Ph. Eur. should revise the existing weight uniformity test on scored tablets to include the RSD parameter in it. The USP should include this adopted test as a specific test for scored tablet halves, not just whole tablets. Manufacturers in some cases will need to improve the quality of the produced scored tablets in order to pass the USP test, especially those with low therapeutic indices. Finally, harmonization between the pharmacopoeias regarding the weight uniformity testing of split tablets is warranted. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there

  16. A step forward in the quality control testing of inactivated rabies vaccines - extensive evaluation of European vaccines by using alternative methods to the in vivo potency tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servat, Alexandre; Kempff, Sébastien; Brogat, Valère; Litaize, Estelle; Schereffer, Jean-Luc; Cliquet, Florence

    2015-03-01

    The mouse challenge test still remains the reference method for the potency determination of human and animal inactivated rabies vaccines, and it is still widely used throughout the world. This test suffers from many disadvantages - it is expensive and time consuming, uses a large number of mice, causes significant animal distress, and suffers from high variability. Recently, the European Pharmacopoeia has recognised the use of a serological potency assay (SPA) as an alternative method to the challenge test. This new test is based on the determination of rabies neutralising antibody titres in vaccinated mice, by using the modified Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (mRFFIT). With the objective of adopting this new method for the batch release of inactivated rabies vaccines, we evaluated its performance on a large collection of rabies vaccines currently assessed in our laboratory. The Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test (FAVNt) was used in parallel with the mRFFIT, and the results were compared to the mouse challenge test. Our results demonstrate that the SPA is capable of estimating the potency of vaccines formulated with a potency margin well above the minimum of 1IU/dose. For low potency vaccines, this new method demonstrated some limitations, due to the recurrent invalidation of the assay. We have also demonstrated the superior sensitivity of the FAVNt when compared to the mRFFIT, and the importance of minimising the risk of detecting non-responders in vaccinated mice. 2015 FRAME.

  17. A test of the species-people correlation for stream macro-invertebrates in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautasso, Marco; Fontaneto, Diego

    2008-12-01

    Many recent studies have shown that over large scales there are positive correlations between plant and vertebrate species richness and human population presence. It is unknown whether this pattern applies also to Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies), and Trichoptera (caddisflies) (EPT), which are common bio-indicators of the naturalness of streams. Most local studies report higher species richness of these macro-invertebrates where human influences on water quality are lower. Using a newly collated taxonomic data set, we studied whether the species richness of EPT is related to human population size in European countries. Analyses controlled for country area, plant species richness, and mean annual temperature and precipitation. We found a significant increase in the number of EPT species with increasing human population size, plant species richness, and decreasing temperature. Our analysis confirmed the scale dependence of the human population-biodiversity correlation. Although stream macro-invertebrates are traditionally used as indicators of pristine ecosystems over local to regional scales, over broad scales more populated regions have more EPT species than less populated ones. This finding underlines the importance of scale in ecology and implies that there is a challenge also for the broadscale conservation of EPT diversity.

  18. Food quality affects secondary consumers even at low quantities: an experimental test with larval European lobster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherina L Schoo

    Full Text Available The issues of food quality and food quantity are crucial for trophic interactions. Although most research has focussed on the primary producer-herbivore link, recent studies have shown that quality effects at the bottom of the food web propagate to higher trophic levels. Negative effects of poor food quality have almost exclusively been demonstrated at higher food quantities. Whether these negative effects have the same impact at low food availability in situations where the majority if not all of the resources are channelled into routine metabolism, is under debate. In this study a tri-trophic food chain was designed, consisting of the algae Rhodomonas salina, the copepod Acartia tonsa and freshly hatched larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. The lobster larvae were presented with food of two different qualities (C:P ratios and four different quantities to investigate the combined effects of food quality and quantity. Our results show that the quality of food has an impact on the condition of lobster larvae even at very low food quantities. Food with a lower C:P content resulted in higher condition of the lobster larvae regardless of the quantity of food. These interacting effects of food quality and food quantity can have far reaching consequences for ecosystem productivity.

  19. Food Quality Affects Secondary Consumers Even at Low Quantities: An Experimental Test with Larval European Lobster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoo, Katherina L.; Aberle, Nicole; Malzahn, Arne M.; Boersma, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    The issues of food quality and food quantity are crucial for trophic interactions. Although most research has focussed on the primary producer – herbivore link, recent studies have shown that quality effects at the bottom of the food web propagate to higher trophic levels. Negative effects of poor food quality have almost exclusively been demonstrated at higher food quantities. Whether these negative effects have the same impact at low food availability in situations where the majority if not all of the resources are channelled into routine metabolism, is under debate. In this study a tri-trophic food chain was designed, consisting of the algae Rhodomonas salina, the copepod Acartia tonsa and freshly hatched larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. The lobster larvae were presented with food of two different qualities (C∶P ratios) and four different quantities to investigate the combined effects of food quality and quantity. Our results show that the quality of food has an impact on the condition of lobster larvae even at very low food quantities. Food with a lower C∶P content resulted in higher condition of the lobster larvae regardless of the quantity of food. These interacting effects of food quality and food quantity can have far reaching consequences for ecosystem productivity. PMID:22442696

  20. APE: the Active Phasing Experiment to test new control system and phasing technology for a European Extremely Large Optical Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonte, F.; Yaitskova, N.; Derie, F.; Constanza, A.; Brast, R.; Buzzoni, B.; Delabre, B.; Dierickx, P.; Dupuy, C.; Esteves, R.; Frank, C.; Guisard, S.; Karban, R.; Koenig, E.; Kolb, J.; Nylund, M.; Noethe, L.; Surdej, I.; Courteville, A.; Wilhelm, R.; Montoya, L.; Reyes, M.; Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Dohlen, K.; Ferrari, M.; Langlois, M.

    2005-08-01

    The future European Extremely Large Telescope will be composed of one or two giant segmented mirrors (up to 100 m of diameter) and of several large monolithic mirrors (up to 8 m in diameter). To limit the aberrations due to misalignments and defective surface quality it is necessary to have a proper active optics system. This active optics system must include a phasing system to limit the degradation of the PSF due to misphasing of the segmented mirrors. We will present the lastest design and development of the Active Phasing Experiment that will be tested in laboratory and on-sky connected to a VLT at Paranal in Chile. It includes an active segmented mirror, a static piston plate to simulate a secondary segmented mirror and of four phasing wavefront sensors to measure the piston, tip and tilt of the segments and the aberrations of the VLT. The four phasing sensors are the Diffraction Image Phase Sensing Instrument developed by Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Pyramid Phasing Sensor developed by Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, the Shack-Hartmann Phasing Sensor developed by the European Southern Observatory and the Zernike Unit for Segment phasing developed by Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille. A reference measurement of the segmented mirror is made by an internal metrology developed by Fogale Nanotech. The control system of Active Phasing Experiment will perform the phasing of the segments, the guiding of the VLT and the active optics of the VLT. These activities are included in the Framework Programme 6 of the European Union.

  1. Foraging decisions, patch use, and seasonality in egrets (Aves: ciconiiformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Feeding snowy (Egretta thula) and great (Casmerodius albus) egrets were observed during 2 breeding seasons in coastal New Jersey and 2 brief winter periods in northeast Florida (USA). A number of tests based on assumptions of foraging models, predictions from foraging theory, and earlier empirical tests concerning time allocation and movement in foraging patches was made. Few of the expectations based on foraging theory and/or assumptions were supported by the empirical evidence. Snowy egrets fed with greater intensity and efficiency during the breeding season (when young were being fed) than during winter. They also showed some tendency to leave patches when their capture rate declined, and they spent more time foraging in patches when other birds were present nearby. Great egrets showed few of these tendencies, although they did leave patches when their intercapture intervals increased. Satiation differences had some influence on feeding rates in snowy egrets, but only at the end of feeding bouts. Some individuals of both species revisited areas in patches that had recently been exploited, and success rates were usually higher after the 2nd visit. Apparently, for predators of active prey, short-term changes in resource availability ('resource depression') may be more important than resource depletion, a common assumption in most optimal foraging theory models.

  2. Extended occupant safety through virtual testing: objectives of the European project VITES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Happee, R.; Baldauf, H.; Puppini, R.; Oakley, C.

    2001-01-01

    Increasingly stringent international passenger safety norms and the need to reduce vehicle body weight for environmental and protection requirements demand efficient and innovative design methods. Computer simulation, or virtual testing, allows an integrated evaluation of these aspects in the early

  3. Practicability of passenger vehicle driving emission tests according to new European Union procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pielecha Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article compares driving test data using the latest legislative proposals applicable to passenger cars. Several measurements were performed on the same test route in accordance with the RDE test guidelines, which requires a number of criteria to be met. These criteria include: the length of the measuring segments, their overall test time share, and the dynamic characteristics of the drive. A mobile device for reading the EOBD System information was used to record the engine and vehicle operating parameters during tests. This allowed for the monitoring of parameters such as: load value, engine speed and vehicle velocity. The obtained results were then analyzed for their compatibility with the RDE procedure requirements. Despite the same research route, the obtained results were not the same. The analysis also uses the two-dimensional operating time share characteristics expressed in vehicle velocity and acceleration co-ordinates. As a result it was possible to compare the dynamic properties, share of operating time and, consequently, to check the validity of conducted drive tests in terms of their practicability and emission values.

  4. Cultural effects on neurodevelopmental testing in children from six European countries: an analysis of NUTRIMENTHE Global Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Miguel; Luna, Juan de Dios; Torres-Espínola, Francisco J; Martínez-Zaldívar, Cristina; Anjos, Tania; Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; Weber, Martina; Grote, Veit; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Verduci, Elvira; Poncelet, Pascale; Escribano, Joaquín; Tiemeier, Henning; Koletzko, Berthold; Campoy, Cristina

    2017-06-07

    Cultural background is an important variable influencing neuropsychological performance. Multinational projects usually involve gathering data from participants from different countries and/or different cultures. Little is known about the influence of culture on neuropsychological testing results in children and especially in European children. The objectives of this study were to compare neuropsychological performance of children from six European countries (Belgium, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland and Spain) using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and to apply a statistical procedure to reduce the influence of country/cultural differences in neuropsychological performance. As expected, the results demonstrated differences in neuropsychological performance among children of the six countries involved. Cultural differences remained after adjusting for other confounders related to neuropsychological execution, such as sex, type of delivery, maternal age, gestational age and maternal educational level. Differences between countries disappeared and influence of culture was considerably reduced when standardised scores by country and sex were used. These results highlight the need for developing specific procedures to compare neuropsychological performance among children from different cultures to be used in multicentre studies.

  5. Theorising European Integration: revisiting neo-functionalism and testing its suitability for explaining the development of EC competition policy?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGowan, Lee

    2007-01-01

    When Ernst B. Haas presented neofunctionalism (NF) as the first theory of European integration in the late 1950s in his analysis of the European Coal and Steel Community his approach seemed both highly innovative and plausible...

  6. Daptomycin antimicrobial activity tested against methicillin-resistant staphylococci and vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated in European medical centers (2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watters Amy A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide with potent activity and broad spectrum against Gram-positive bacteria currently used for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections and bacteremia, including right sided endocarditis. We evaluated the in vitro activity of this compound and selected comparator agents tested against clinical strains of staphylococci and enterococci collected in European medical centers in 2005. Methods A total of 4,640 strains from 23 medical centers located in 10 European countries, Turkey and Israel (SENTRY Program platform were tested for susceptibility by reference broth microdilution methods according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines and interpretative criteria. Mueller-Hinton broth was supplemented to 50 mg/L Ca++ for testing daptomycin. Results for oxacillin (methicillin-resistant staphylococci and vancomycin-resistant enterococci were analyzed separately. Results Oxacillin resistance rates among Staphylococcus aureus varied from 2.1% in Sweden to 42.5% in the United Kingdom (UK and 54.7% in Ireland (29.1% overall, while vancomycin resistance rates varied from 0.0% in France, Sweden and Switzerland to 66.7% in the UK and 71.4% in Ireland among Enterococcus faecium (17.9% overall. All S. aureus strains were inhibited at daptomycin MIC of 1 mg/L (MIC50/90, 0.25/0.5 mg/L; 100.0% susceptible and only one coagulase-negative staphylococci strain (0.1% showed an elevated (>1 mg/L daptomycin MIC value (4 mg/L. Among E. faecalis (MIC50/90, 0.5/1 mg/L; 100% susceptible the highest daptomycin MIC value was 2 mg/L; while among E. faecium (MIC50/90, 2/4 mg/L; 100% susceptible the highest MIC result was 4 mg/L. Conclusion Daptomycin showed excellent in vitro activity against staphylococci and enterococci collected in European medical centers in 2005 and resistance to oxacillin, vancomycin or quinupristin/dalfopristin did not compromise its activity overall against these

  7. A nanofibrous electrospun patch to maintain human mesenchymal cell stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, L; Furman, N Toledano; Wang, Xin; Lupo, C; Martinez, J O; Mohamed, M; Taraballi, F; Tasciotti, E

    2017-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively investigated in regenerative medicine because of their crucial role in tissue healing. For these properties, they are widely tested in clinical trials, usually injected in cell suspension or in combination with tridimensional scaffolds. However, scaffolds can largely affect the fates of MSCs, inducing a progressive loss of functionality overtime. The ideal scaffold must delay MSCs differentiation until paracrine signals from the host induce their change. Herein, we proposed a nanostructured electrospun gelatin patch as an appropriate environment where human MSCs (hMSCs) can adhere, proliferate, and maintain their stemness. This patch exhibited characteristics of a non-linear elastic material and withstood degradation up to 4 weeks. As compared to culture and expansion in 2D, hMSCs on the patch showed a similar degree of proliferation and better maintained their progenitor properties, as assessed by their superior differentiation capacity towards typical mesenchymal lineages (i.e. osteogenic and chondrogenic). Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis and longitudinal non-invasive imaging of inflammatory response revealed no sign of foreign body reaction for 3 weeks. In summary, our results demonstrated that our biocompatible patch favored the maintenance of undifferentiated hMSCs for up to 21 days and is an ideal candidate for tridimensional delivery of hMSCs. The present work reports a nanostructured patch gelatin-based able to maintain in vitro hMSCs stemness features. Moreover, hMSCs were able to differentiate toward osteo- and chondrogenic lineages once induces by differentiative media, confirming the ability of this patch to support stem cells for a potential in vivo application. These attractive properties together with the low inflammatory response in vivo make this patch a promising platform in regenerative medicine.

  8. A large-scale deforestation experiment: Effects of patch area and isolation on Amazon birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Stouffer, P.C.; Bierregaard, R.O.; Lovejoy, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    As compared with extensive contiguous areas, small isolated habitat patches lack many species. Some species disappear after isolation; others are rarely found in any small patch, regardless of isolation. We used a 13-year data set of bird captures from a large landscape-manipulation experiment in a Brazilian Amazon forest to model the extinction-colonization dynamics of 55 species and tested basic predictions of island biogeography and metapopulation theory. From our models, we derived two metrics of species vulnerability to changes in isolation and patch area. We found a strong effect of area and a variable effect of isolation on the predicted patch occupancy by birds.

  9. Testing the fire-sale FDI hypothesis for the European financial crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, G.U.; Kling, G.; Gerritsen, D.

    2014-01-01

    Using a panel of corporate transactions in 27 EU countries from 1999 to 2012, we investigate the impact of the financial crisis on the market for corporate assets. In particular, we test the ‘fire-sale FDI’ hypothesis by analyzing the number of cross-border transactions, the price of corporate

  10. Testing the Fire-Sale FDI Hypothesis for the European Financial Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kling, G.; Gerritsen, Dirk; Weitzel, Gustav Utz

    2014-01-01

    Using a panel of corporate transactions in 27 EU countries from 1999 to 2012, we investigate the impact of the financial crisis on the market for corporate assets. In particular, we test the ‘fire-sale FDI’ hypothesis by analyzing the number of cross-border transactions, the price of corporate

  11. En Route towards European Clinical breakpoints for veterinary antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toutain, Pierre Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter; Ferran, Aude A.; Mevius, Dik; Pelligand, Ludovic; Veldman, Kees T.; Lees, Peter

    2017-01-01

    VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve

  12. The test beamline of the European Spallation Source - Instrumentation development and wavelength frame multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woracek, R.; Hofmann, T.; Bulat, M.

    2016-01-01

    wavelength band between 1.6 A and 10 A by a dedicated wavelength frame multiplication (WFM) chopper system. WFM is proposed for several ESS instruments to allow for flexible time-of-flight resolution. Hence, ESS will benefit from the TBL which offers unique possibilities for testing methods and components...

  13. Food-related lifestyles in Singapore: Preliminary testing of a Western European research instrument in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Brunsø, Karen

    1999-01-01

    The food-related lifestyle instrument developed by the MAPP research group has, up till now, been applied mainly in the context of European cultures. The purpose of the present study is to apply the food-related life style instrument in a new and very different cultural setting, to compare results......, and to interpret similarities and differences found. For this purose, data have been collected in Singaporean families using the food-related life style instrument. A total of 89 questionnaires form the basis of the analysis. The cross-cultural validity of the instrument is tested and, in the light of those...... results, we interpret the results in relationship to local food cultures....

  14. A Comparison of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in General Population Surveys in nine European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Knibbe, Ronald; Derickx, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    Aims: This study explored the suitability of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) for cross-national comparable estimates of problem drinking in general populations. On the item level the focus is on responsiveness to cross-national and gender differences. For the set of items...... the focus is on intercorrelations between items, indicating to what extent the AUDIT constitutes a scale. Methods: General population surveys from nine European countries were included. Cross-tabulations were used to analyse cross-national and gender differences in scores on the items. Reliability analysis......'. The reliability analysis shows that in eight of the nine countries frequency of drinking lowers the alpha. Injury and concern of others lead to a lower internal consistency in three countries. Conclusions: There was sufficient variation between countries in the pattern of responses and variation in gender...

  15. HIV testing in Europe: Evaluating the impact, added value, relevance and usability of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)'s 2010 HIV testing guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ann K; Sperle, Ida; Raben, Dorthe; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Jakobsen, Stine Finne; Tavoschi, Lara

    2017-11-01

    An evaluation of the 2010 ECDC guidance on HIV testing, conducted in October 2015-January 2016, assessed its impact, added value, relevance and usability and the need for updated guidance. Data sources were two surveys: one for the primary target audience (health policymakers and decision makers, national programme managers and ECDC official contact points in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries and one for a broader target audience (clinicians, civil society organisations and international public health agencies); two moderated focus group discussions  (17 participants each); webpage access data; a literature citation review; and an expert consultation (18 participants) to discuss the evaluation findings. Twenty-three of 28 primary target audience and 31 of 51 broader target audience respondents indicated the guidance was the most relevant when compared with other international guidance. Primary target audience respondents in 11 of 23 countries reported that they had used the guidance in development, monitoring and/or evaluation of their national HIV testing policy, guidelines, programme and/or strategy, and 29 of 51 of the broader target audience respondents reported having used the guidance in their work. Both the primary and broader target audience considered it important or very important to have an EU/EEA-level HIV testing guidance (23/28 and 46/51, respectively). The guidance has been widely used to develop policies, guidelines, programmes and strategies in the EU/EEA and should be regularly updated due to continuous developments in the field in order to continue to serve as an important reference guidance in the region.

  16. Robust Tracking with Discriminative Ranking Middle-Level Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The appearance model has been shown to be essential for robust visual tracking since it is the basic criterion to locating targets in video sequences. Though existing tracking-by-detection algorithms have shown to be greatly promising, they still suffer from the drift problem, which is caused by updating appearance models. In this paper, we propose a new appearance model composed of ranking middle-level patches to capture more object distinctiveness than traditional tracking-by-detection models. Targets and backgrounds are represented by both low-level bottom-up features and high-level top-down patches, which can compensate each other. Bottom-up features are defined at the pixel level, and each feature gets its discrimination score through selective feature attention mechanism. In top-down feature extraction, rectangular patches are ranked according to their bottom-up discrimination scores, by which all of them are clustered into irregular patches, named ranking middle-level patches. In addition, at the stage of classifier training, the online random forests algorithm is specially refined to reduce drifting problems. Experiments on challenging public datasets and our test videos demonstrate that our approach can effectively prevent the tracker drifting problem and obtain competitive performance in visual tracking.

  17. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 1: Measurement method to verify wind turbine performance characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, R.; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Dunbabin, P.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently significant standardisation work ongoing in the context of wind farm energy yield warranty assessment and wind turbine power performance testing. A standards maintenance team is revising the current IEC (EN) 61400-12 Ed 1 standard forwind turbine power performance testing....... The standard is being divided into four documents. Two of them are drafted for evaluation and verification of complete wind farms and of individual wind turbines within wind farms. This document, and the project itdescribes, has been designed to help provide a solid technical foundation for this revised...... standard. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge, regarding existing methodologies or to carry out basic research in support offundamentally new procedures. The work has given rise to recommendations in all areas of the work, including site calibration procedures, nacelle...

  18. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 1: Measurement method to verify wind turbine performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R.; Friis Pedersen, T.; Dunbabin, P.; Antoniou, I.; Frandsen, S.; Klug, H.; Albers, A.; Lee, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently significant standardisation work ongoing in the context of wind farm energy yield warranty assessment and wind turbine power performance testing. A standards maintenance team is revising the current IEC (EN) 61400-12 Ed 1 standard for wind turbine power performance testing. The standard is being divided into four documents. Two of them are drafted for evaluation and verification of complete wind farms and of individual wind turbines within wind farms. This document, and the project it describes, has been designed to help provide a solid technical foundation for this revised standard. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge, regarding existing methodologies or to carry out basic research in support of fundamentally new procedures. The work has given rise to recommendations in all areas of the work, including site calibration procedures, nacelle anemometry, multi-variate regression analysis and density normalisation. (au)

  19. Tests of a silica aerogel Cerenkov detector to be used in European Hybrid Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, P J; Kesteman, J; Norrby, J; Pingot, O; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Lancker, L

    1981-01-01

    An 18 module Cerenkov detector with a total sensitive area of 2.3 m /sup 2/ having silica aerogel as radiator is being tested in a particle beam at CERN PS. The modules having a sensitive area of 23*55 cm/sup 2/ give typically a Cerenkov signal for beta =1 particles of 12 photoelectrons for silica aerogel of refractive index 1.03 and a thickness of 15 cm. (0 refs).

  20. Mitral valve mechanics following posterior leaflet patch augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahmani, Azadeh; Rasmussen, Ann Qvist; Hønge, Jesper Langhoff

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim of the study: Attention towards the optimization of mitral valve repair methods is increasing. Patch augmentation is one strategy used to treat functional ischemic mitral regurgitation (FIMR). The study aim was to investigate the force balance changes in specific chordae...... tendineae emanating from the posterior papillary muscle in a FIMR-simulated valve, following posterior leaflet patch augmentation. Methods: Mitral valves were obtained from 12 pigs (body weight 80 kg). An in vitro test set-up simulating the left ventricle was used to hold the valves. The left ventricular...... pressure was regulated with water to simulate different static pressures during valve closure. A standardized oval pericardial patch (17 × 29 mm) was introduced into the posterior leaflet from mid P2 to the end of the P3 scallop. Dedicated miniature transducers were used to record the forces exerted...

  1. Temporary patching of damaged UF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, A.L. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Patching techniques based on application of epoxy resins have been developed for temporarily repairing UF{sub 6} cylinders which have sustained relatively minor damage and must be safely emptied. The method is considerably faster and simpler than metallurgical weld repairs. Laboratory tests, detailed operational procedures, and case histories of experience at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are described.

  2. Project status of manufacturing of European toroidal coils ITER. Validation tests; Estado del proyecto de fabricacion de las bobinas toroidales european para el ITER. Ensayos de validacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pando, F.; Felipe, A.; Madorran, A.; Pallisa, J.; Dormicch, O.; Valle, N.; D' Urzo, C.; Marin, M.; Pesenti, P.; Lucas, J.; Moreno, N.; Bonito-Oliva, A.; Harrison, R.; Bellesia, B.; Cornelis, M.; Cornella, J.

    2015-07-01

    The toroidal field coils are the ITER magnets responsible for confining the plasma inside the vacuum vessel. The consortium formed by IBERDROLA Ingenieria y Construccion, ASG Superconductors y ELYTT Energy is the responsible for the supply of 10 coils that the european agency F4E has to supply for the ITER project. At present, the coils are been manufactured in La Spezia (Italy), after the qualification of all the manufacturing process and the sucessfull manufacturing of a full scale prototype. (Author)

  3. Incompletely informed shorebirds that face a digestive constraint maximize net energy gain when exploiting patches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, JA; Schenk, IW; Bos, O; Piersma, T; Schenk, Ingrid W.; Moore, Allen J.

    Foragers that feed on hidden prey are uncertain about the intake rate they can achieve as they enter a patch. However, foraging success can inform them, especially if they have prior knowledge about the patch quality distribution in their environment. We experimentally tested whether and how red

  4. Metrology to enable high temperature erosion testing - A new european initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fry, A.T.; Gee, M.G.; Clausen, Sønnik

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of high temperature energy generation plant and aero-engines is critically impacted by solid particle erosion, particularly at elevated temperatures. This damage process can reduce the efficiency of turbines by as much as 7 to 10%, and in the case of a large power plant cause...... an additional emission of 250,000 tonnes of CO2 over the lifetime of the plant [1]. The cause and type of solid particle erosion varies across different industries and locations in plant, for instance the particles could be volcanic ash in aero-engines, fly ash in boilers, exfoliated scale in steam turbines...... or mineral matter in oil excavation. In all cases the performance of materials can be improved through better surface engineering and coatings, but the development of these is restricted due to lack of generic models, well controlled and instrumented tests and international standards. A framework is required...

  5. En Route towards European Clinical breakpoints for veterinary antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toutain, Pierre Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve...... challenges for the determination of specific CBPs for animal species, drug substances and disease conditions. VetCAST will adopt EUCAST approaches: the initial step will be data assessment; then procedures for decisions on the CBP; and finally the release of recommendations for CBP implementation......-clinical pharmacokinetic data [this PK/PD break-point is the highest possible MIC for which a given percentage of animals in the target population achieves a critical value for the selected PK/PD index (fAUC/MIC or fT > MIC)] and (iii) when possible, a clinical cut-off, that is the relationship between MIC and clinical...

  6. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  7. Slime moulds use heuristics based on within-patch experience to decide when to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latty, Tanya; Beekman, Madeleine

    2015-04-15

    Animals foraging in patchy, non-renewing or slowly renewing environments must make decisions about how long to remain within a patch. Organisms can use heuristics ('rules of thumb') based on available information to decide when to leave the patch. Here, we investigated proximate patch-departure heuristics in two species of giant, brainless amoeba: the slime moulds Didymium bahiense and Physarum polycephalum. We explicitly tested the importance of information obtained through experience by eliminating chemosensory cues of patch quality. In P. polycephalum, patch departure was influenced by the consumption of high, and to a much lesser extent low, quality food items such that engulfing a food item increased patch-residency time. Physarum polycephalum also tended to forage for longer in darkened, 'safe' patches. In D. bahiense, engulfment of any food item increased patch residency irrespective of that food item's quality. Exposure to light had no effect on the patch-residency time of D. bahiense. Given that these organisms lack a brain, our results illustrate how the use of simple heuristics can give the impression that individuals make sophisticated foraging decisions. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Evolution of sexual dichromatism in relation to nesting habits in European passerines: a test of Wallace's hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, J J; Moreno, J

    2012-08-01

    Wallace proposed in 1868 that natural rather than sexual selection could explain the striking differences in avian plumage dichromatism. Thus, he predicted that nesting habits, through their association with nest predation, could drive changes in sexual dichromatism by enabling females in cavity nesters to become as conspicuous as males, whereas Darwin (1871, The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, John Murray, London) argued that sexual selection was the sole explanation for dichromatism. Sexual dichromatism is currently used as indicating the strength of sexual selection, and therefore testing Wallace's claim with modern phylogentically controlled methodologies is of prime interest for comparing the roles of natural and sexual selection in affecting the evolution of avian coloration. Here, we have related information on nest attendance, sexual dichromatism and nesting habits (open and cavity nesting) to male and female plumage conspicuousness in European passerines. Nest incubation attendance does not explain male or female plumage conspicuousness but nest type does. Moreover, although females of monochromatic and cavity nesting species are more conspicuous than females of other species, males of monochromatic and open nesting species are those with more cryptic plumage. Finally, analyses of character evolution suggest that changes in nesting habits influence the probability of changes in both dichromatism and plumage conspicuousness of males but do not significantly affect those in females. These results strongly suggest a role of nesting habits in the evolution of plumage conspicuousness of males, and a role for sexual selection also in females, both factors affecting the evolution of sexual dichromatism. We discuss our findings in relation to the debate that Darwin and Wallace maintained more than one century ago on the importance of natural and sexual selection in driving the evolution of plumage conspicuousness and sexual dichromatism in birds

  9. Patch definition in metapopulation analysis: a graph theory approach to solve the mega-patch problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Kyle C; Siegel, David A; Raimondi, Peter T; Alberto, Filipe

    2014-02-01

    The manner in which patches are delineated in spatially realistic metapopulation models will influence the size, connectivity, and extinction and recolonization dynamics of those patches. Most commonly used patch-definition methods focus on identifying discrete, contiguous patches of habitat from a single temporal observation of species occurrence or from a model of habitat suitability. However, these approaches are not suitable for many metapopulation systems where entire patches may not be fully colonized at a given time. For these metapopulation systems, a single large patch of habitat may actually support multiple, interacting subpopulations. The interactions among these subpopulations will be ignored if the patch is treated as a single unit, a situation we term the "mega-patch problem." Mega-patches are characterized by variable intra-patch synchrony, artificially low inter-patch connectivity, and low extinction rates. One way to detect this problem is by using time series data to calculate demographic synchrony within mega-patches. We present a framework for identifying subpopulations in mega-patches using a combination of spatial autocorrelation and graph theory analyses. We apply our approach to southern California giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) forests using a new, long-term (27 years), satellite-based data set of giant kelp canopy biomass. We define metapopulation patches using our method as well as several other commonly used patch delineation methodologies and examine the colonization and extinction dynamics of the metapopulation under each approach. We find that the relationships between patch characteristics such as area and connectivity and the demographic processes of colonizations and extinctions vary among the different patch-definition methods. Our spatial-analysis/graph-theoretic framework produces results that match theoretical expectations better than the other methods. This approach can be used to identify subpopulations in metapopulations

  10. Smart thermal patch for adaptive thermotherapy

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-11-12

    A smart thermal patch for adaptive thermotherapy is provided. In an embodiment, the patch can be a stretchable, non-polymeric, conductive thin film flexible and non-invasive body integrated mobile thermal heater with wireless control capabilities that can be used to provide adaptive thermotherapy. The patch can be geometrically and spatially tunable on various pain locations. Adaptability allows the amount of heating to be tuned based on the temperature of the treated portion.

  11. Compliance and patching and atropine amblyopia treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyun

    2015-09-01

    In the past 20 years, there has been a great advancement in knowledge pertaining to compliance with amblyopia treatments. The occlusion dose monitor introduced quantitative monitoring methods in patching, which sparked our initial understanding of the dose-response relationship for patching amblyopia treatment. This review focuses on current compliance knowledge and the impact it has on patching and atropine amblyopia treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Atopy patch test (APT in the diagnosis of food allergy in children with atopic dermatitis Teste de contato atópico (TCA no diagnóstico de alergia alimentar em crianças com dermatite atópica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soloni Afra Pires Levy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atopic Dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Food allergens are important in the pathogenesis in 1/3 of the cases. Several mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of Atopic Dermatitis. Immediate reactions are identified by both measurement of specific IgE and skin prick test. Atopy Patch Test seems to be relevant in the investigation of patients with suspected delayed-type reactions. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the standardization of this method concerning allergen concentration, occlusion time and interpretation, and determine the specificity and sensitivity of the Atopy Patch Test according to the skin prick test and specific IgE levels in food allergy diagnosis in children with Atopic Dermatitis. METHODS: Seventy-two children, aged 2-12 years were selected and followed at the allergy clinic of the Hospital São Zacharias. Skin prick test, specific IgE and food Atopy Patch Test (cow's milk, egg, soy and wheat were carried out. Three groups were submitted to the Atopy Patch Test: (1 Atopic Dermatitis with or without Rhinitis and Asthma; (2 Rhinitis and or Asthma without AD; (3 Healthy individuals. RESULTS: In group 1, 40% of the patients presented positive reactions. The longer the exposure time (48h and 72h, the higher the sensitivity. In group 2, the test was more specific than sensitive for all the extracts, with increased sensitivity the longer the time of exposure (72h. In group 3, 8.3% presented positive tests. CONCLUSION: APT evidenced a great diagnostic value in late-phase reactions to food, with high specificity. It showed to be a specific and reliable tool in comparison with the healthy group's results.FUNDAMENTOS: A Dermatite Atópica é uma doença inflamatória crônica da pele. Os alimentos são importantes na patogênese da doença em 1/3 dos casos. Diversos mecanismos estão envolvidos na fisiopatogenia da dermatite Atópica. As reações imediatas são identificadas pela dosagem de IgE específica e

  13. Patch layout generation by detecting feature networks

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yuanhao

    2015-02-01

    The patch layout of 3D surfaces reveals the high-level geometric and topological structures. In this paper, we study the patch layout computation by detecting and enclosing feature loops on surfaces. We present a hybrid framework which combines several key ingredients, including feature detection, feature filtering, feature curve extension, patch subdivision and boundary smoothing. Our framework is able to compute patch layouts through concave features as previous approaches, but also able to generate nice layouts through smoothing regions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework by comparing with the state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Relating the South Atlantic Anomaly and geomagnetic flux patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra-Nova, Filipe; Amit, Hagay; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Pinheiro, Katia J.

    2017-05-01

    The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is a region of weak geomagnetic field intensity at the Earth's surface, which is commonly attributed to reversed flux patches (RFPs) on the core-mantle boundary (CMB). While the SAA is clearly affected by the reversed flux region below the South Atlantic, we show that the relation between the intensity minimum at Earth's surface and RFPs is not straightforward. We map a field-dependent intensity kernel (Constable, 2007a) to study the relation between the radial geomagnetic field at the CMB and the field intensity at Earth's surface. Synthetic tests highlight the role of specific patches (reversed and normal) in determining the location of the surface intensity minimum and demonstrate that the SAA can indeed be explained by a few intense patches. We show that the level of axial dipolarity of the field determines the stability of the relation between the SAA minimum and RFPs. The present position of the SAA minimum is determined by the interplay among several robust geomagnetic flux patches at the CMB. The longitude of the SAA minimum appears near the longitude of the Patagonia RFP due to the low-latitude normal flux patches (NFPs) near Africa and mid-Atlantic which diminish the effect of the Africa RFPs. The latitude of the SAA minimum is lower than the Patagonia RFP latitude due to the South Pacific high-latitude NFP and the axial dipole effect. The motion of the SAA minimum is explained by the motions and changes in intensity of these robust geomagnetic flux patches. Simple secular variation (SV) scenarios suggest that while the SAA path can be explained by advection, its intensity decrease requires magnetic diffusion. In addition these SV scenarios provide some speculative predictions for the SAA.

  15. Long-lasting patch reactions to gold sodium thiosulfate occurs frequently in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus E; Jensen, Charlotte D

    2007-01-01

    In a skin irritancy study in healthy volunteers with 3 metal salts, aqueous gold sodium thiosulfate (GSTS) in a dilution series caused unexpectedly frequent and strong patch test reactions on volar forearm skin in 22 of 31 participants (71%). The reactions showed morphological features consistent...... of skin and/or mucosal complaints related to exposure to gold items. The results indicate that inclusion of GSTS in routine patch testing may cause problems regarding interpretation and clinical relevance of positive GSTS patch tests, which fulfil the clinical criteria of a contact allergy....

  16. Comparison of result judgment algorithm of test for interfering factors in the bacterial endotoxins test among Chinese, Japanese, European, American, and Indian pharmacopeias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yusheng; Cai, Tong; Gao, Hua; Tan, Dejiang; Zhang, Yuchen; Zhang, Guolai

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial endotoxins test (BET) is a method used to detect or quantify endotoxins (lipo-polysaccharide, LPS) and is widely used in the quality control of parenteral medicines/vaccines and clinical dialysis fluid. It is also used in the diagnosis of endotoxemia and in detection of environment air quality control. Although BET has been adopted by most pharmacopoeias, result judgment algorithms (RJAs) of the test for interfering factors in the BET still differ between certain pharmacopoeias. We have evaluated RJAs of the test for interfering factors for the revision of BET described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 (CHP2010). Original data from 1 748 samples were judged by RJAs of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 2011 (JP2011), the European Pharmacopoeia 7.0 (EP7.0), the United States Pharmacopoeia 36 (USP36), and the Indian Pharmacopoeia 2010 (IP2010), respectively. A SAS software package was used in the statistical analysis. The results using CHP2010 and USP36, JP2011, EP7.0, and IP2010 had no significant difference (P = 0.7740). The results using CHP2010 of 1 748 samples showed that 132 samples (7.6%) required an additional step; nevertheless there was no such requirement when using the other pharmacopeias. The kappa value of two RJAs (CHP2010 and EP7.0) was 0.6900 (0.6297-0.7504) indicating that the CHP2010 and other pharmacopoeias have good consistency. The results using CHP2010 and USP36, JP2011, EP7.0, and IP2010 have different characteristics. CHP2010 method shows a good performance in Specificity, mistake diagnostic rate, agreement rate, predictive value for suspicious rate, and predictive value for passed rate. The CHP2010 method only had disadvantages in sensitivity compared with other pharmacopeias. We suggest that the Chinese pharmacopoeia interference test be revised in accordance with the USP36, JP2011, EP7.0, and IP2010 judgment model.

  17. Fast exact nearest patch matching for patch-based image editing and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chunxia; Liu, Meng; Nie, Yongwei; Dong, Zhao

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents an efficient exact nearest patch matching algorithm which can accurately find the most similar patch-pairs between source and target image. Traditional match matching algorithms treat each pixel/patch as an independent sample and build a hierarchical data structure, such as kd-tree, to accelerate nearest patch finding. However, most of these approaches can only find approximate nearest patch and do not explore the sequential overlap between patches. Hence, they are neither accurate in quality nor optimal in speed. By eliminating redundant similarity computation of sequential overlap between patches, our method finds the exact nearest patch in brute-force style but reduces its running time complexity to be linear on the patch size. Furthermore, relying on recent multicore graphics hardware, our method can be further accelerated by at least an order of magnitude (≥10×). This greatly improves performance and ensures that our method can be efficiently applied in an interactive editing framework for moderate-sized image even video. To our knowledge, this approach is the fastest exact nearest patch matching method for high-dimensional patch and also its extra memory requirement is minimal. Comparisons with the popular nearest patch matching methods in the experimental results demonstrate the merits of our algorithm. © 2011 IEEE

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (EUCAST document E.DEF 8.1)--report of the Subcommittee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobniewski, F; Rüsch-Gerdes, S; Hoffner, S

    2007-12-01

    This review describes the methods available for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The methods have been developed over several decades and are restricted to specialised centres in most European countries, as they are technically demanding, require appropriate isolation facilities and can be difficult to interpret. The absolute concentration, resistance ratio and proportion methods can all give accurate results, provided that they are carefully quality-controlled and standardised. Automated rapid culture and molecular methods have been evaluated at large reference centres and in multicentre collaborations, and perform well for testing susceptibility to most first- and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Accuracy is more important than rapid testing, and this is most reliably achieved if drug susceptibility tests are done in a small number of well-equipped, experienced laboratories that participate and perform well in an international drug susceptibility testing quality assessment scheme. The WHO Supranational Laboratory Quality Control Network offers a global scheme that assesses the ability of participating laboratories to identify isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin resistance. Second-line drug resistance testing is currently being standardised, and such testing should only be performed at the national reference laboratories in western and central European countries because of the relatively small number of cases and the concomitant difficulty of maintaining testing proficiency in multiple centres performing small numbers of tests. There is a need to expand international external quality assessment to include second-line drug susceptibility testing.

  19. Perceptions of point-of-care infectious disease testing among European medical personnel, point-of-care test kit manufacturers, and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaman WE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wendy E Kaman,1 Eleni-Rosalina Andrinopoulou,2 John P Hays11Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of Biostatistics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The NetherlandsBackground: The proper development and implementation of point-of-care (POC diagnostics requires knowledge of the perceived requirements and barriers to their implementation. To determine the current requirements and perceived barriers to the introduction of POC diagnostics in the field of medical microbiology (MM-POC a prospective online survey (TEMPOtest-QC was established.Methods and results: The TEMPOtest-QC survey was online between February 2011 and July 2012 and targeted the medical community, POC test diagnostic manufacturers, general practitioners, and the general public. In total, 293 individuals responded to the survey, including 91 (31% medical microbiologists, 39 (13% nonmedical microbiologists, 25 (9% employees of POC test manufacturers, and 138 (47% members of the general public. Responses were received from 18 different European countries, with the largest percentage of these living in The Netherlands (52%. The majority (>50% of medical specialists regarded the development of MM-POC for blood culture and hospital acquired infections as “absolutely necessary”, but were much less favorable towards their use in the home environment. Significant differences in perceptions between medical specialists and the general public included the: (1 Effect on quality of patient care; (2 Ability to better monitor patients; (3 Home testing and the doctor-patient relationship; and (4 MM-POC interpretation. Only 34.7% of the general public is willing to pay more than €10 ($13 for a single MM-POC test, with 85.5% preferring to purchase their MM-POC test from a pharmacy.Conclusion: The requirements for the proper implementation of MM-POC were found to be generally similar between medical

  20. Erratum: Erratum to: Effects of self-attraction and loading at a regional scale: a test case for the Northwest European Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irazoqui Apecechea, Maialen; Verlaan, Martin; Zijl, Firmijn; Le Coz, Camille; Kernkamp, Herman

    2017-12-01

    The article Effects of self-attraction and loading at a regional scale: a test case for the Northwest European Shelf, written by Maialen Irazoqui Apecechea, Martin Verlaan, Firmijn Zijl, Camille Le Coz and Herman Kernkamp, was originally published Online First without open access.

  1. Impact of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing by Dutch general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, Saskia; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Hirdes, Willem H.; Steffens, Martijn G.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Nijman, Rien M.; Blanker, Marco H.

    Objective To determine the impact of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) publication in 2009 on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level testing by Dutch general practitioners (GPs) in men aged 40 years. Materials and Methods Retrospective study with a Dutch insurance

  2. American and European Mix Design Approaches Combined : Use of NCHRP Performance Indicators to Analyze Comité Européen de Normalisation Test Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florio, E.; Berti, C.; Kasbergen, C.; Villani, M.M.; Scarpas, Athanasios; Erkens, Sandra; Sangiorgi, Cesare; Lantieri, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a project that is part of NL-LAB, a larger, long-term program at Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, which aims to establish the predictive capacity of the current European functional tests for Dutch asphalt concrete (AC) mixtures. In this NL-LAB program, the functional

  3. Developing and pilot testing a comprehensive health literacy communication training for health professionals in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaper, Marise S; Sixsmith, Jane; Koot, Jaap A R; Meijering, Louise B; van Twillert, Sacha; Giammarchi, Cinzia; Bevilacqua, Roberta; Barry, Margaret M; Doyle, Priscilla; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Winter, Andrea F

    2018-01-01

    Skills to address different health literacy problems are lacking among health professionals. We sought to develop and pilot test a comprehensive health literacy communication training for various health professionals in Ireland, Italy and the Netherlands. Thirty health professionals participated in the study. A literature review focused on evidence-informed training-components. Focus group discussions (FGDs) explored perspectives from seventeen professionals on a prototype-program, and feedback from thirteen professionals following pilot-training. Pre-post questionnaires assessed self-rated health literacy communication skills. The literature review yielded five training-components to address functional, interactive and critical health literacy: health literacy education, gathering and providing information, shared decision-making, enabling self-management, and supporting behaviour change. In FGDs, professionals endorsed the prototype-program and reported that the pilot-training increased knowledge and patient-centred communication skills in addressing health literacy, as shown by self-rated pre-post questionnaires. A comprehensive training for health professionals in three European countries enhances perceived skills to address functional, interactive and critical health literacy. This training has potential for wider application in education and practice in Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I; Kinggaard Holm, D; Galea, G; Aranko, K; Korhonen, M; Nordstrom, K

    2013-11-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB) and haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in order to identify different practices and to explore whether recommendations can be made for harmonization. An online questionnaire was used for data collection in 2011, and 43 replies were received covering 71 product answers from 13 countries. Estimated percentages of tissue and cell banking covered by EBA member blood banks as a proportion of all collections of each individual country varied markedly. There were also major differences in the amounts of products collected and discarded and in proportions tissues provided for grafting. However, discarding of certain collections also reflects the practice of increasing the likelihood of the very best units being used for transplantation. Harmonization of possible practices should focus on matching supply with demand and on identifying the most efficient operators. This could allow for the development of practices for minimizing unnecessary collections. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  5. Gravity Survey of the Rye Patch KGRA, Rye Patch, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, M. R.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Rye Patch Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) is located in Pershing County Nevada on the west side of the Humboldt Range and east of the Rye Patch Reservoir approximately 200 km northeast of Reno, Nevada. Previous studies include an earlier gravity survey, 3-D seismic reflection, vertical seismic profiling (VSP) on a single well, 3-D seismic imaging, and a report of the integrated seismic studies. Recently, Presco Energy conducted an aeromagnetic survey and is currently in the process of applying 2-D VSP methods to target exploration and production wells at the site. These studies have indicated that geothermal fluid flow primarily occurs along faults and fractures and that two potential aquifers include a sandstone/siltstone member of the Triassic Natchez Pass Formation and a karst zone that occurs at the interface between Mesozoic limestone and Tertiary volcanics. We hypothesized that addition of a high-resolution gravity survey would better define the locations, trends, lengths, and dip angles of faults and possible solution cavity features. The gravity survey encompassed an area of approximately 78 km2 (30 mi2) within the boundary of the KGRA along with portions of 8 sections directly to the west and 8 sections directly to the east. The survey included 203 stations that were spaced at 400 m intervals. The simple Bouguer anomaly patterns were coincident with elevation, and those patterns remained after terrain corrections were performed. To remove this signal, the data were further processed using wave-length (bandpass) filtering techniques. The results of the filtering and comparison with the recent aeromagnetic survey indicate that the location and trend of major fault systems can be identified using this technique. Dip angles can be inferred by the anomaly contour gradients. By further reductions in the bandpass window, other features such as possible karst solution channels may also be recognizable. Drilling or other geophysical methods such as a

  6. Transdermal patches: history, development and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Michael N; Kalia, Yogeshvar N; Horstmann, Michael; Roberts, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    Transdermal patches are now widely used as cosmetic, topical and transdermal delivery systems. These patches represent a key outcome from the growth in skin science, technology and expertise developed through trial and error, clinical observation and evidence-based studies that date back to the first existing human records. This review begins with the earliest topical therapies and traces topical delivery to the present-day transdermal patches, describing along the way the initial trials, devices and drug delivery systems that underpin current transdermal patches and their actives. This is followed by consideration of the evolution in the various patch designs and their limitations as well as requirements for actives to be used for transdermal delivery. The properties of and issues associated with the use of currently marketed products, such as variability, safety and regulatory aspects, are then described. The review concludes by examining future prospects for transdermal patches and drug delivery systems, such as the combination of active delivery systems with patches, minimally invasive microneedle patches and cutaneous solutions, including metered-dose systems. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Immunoisolation Patch System for Cellular Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An immunoisolation patch system, and particularly a patch system comprising multiple immunoisolation microcapsules, each encapsulating biological material such as cells for transplantation, which can be used in the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of disease in large animals and humans without the need for immunosuppression.

  8. Analysis and modelling of the pollutant emissions from European cars regarding the driving characteristics and test cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Michel; Rapone, Mario

    Within the European research project ARTEMIS, significant works have been conducted to analyse the hot emissions of pollutant from the passenger cars regarding the driving cycles and to propose modelling approaches taking into account large but heterogeneous datasets recorded in Europe. The review and analysis of a large range of test cycles enabled first the building-up of a set of contrasted cycles specifically designed for characterizing the influence of the driving conditions. These cycles were used for the measurement of the pollutants emission rates from nine passenger cars on a chassis dynamometer. Emissions measured on 30 vehicles tested on cycles adapted to their motorization (i.e., cycles for high- or low-powered cars, inducing thus a significant difference in the dynamic) were also considered for analysing the influence of the cycles and of the kinematic parameters on the hot emission rates of the regulated pollutants (CO, HC, NO x, CO 2, PM). An analyses of variance demonstrated the preponderance of the driving type (urban, rural road, motorway), of the vehicle category (fuel, emission standard) and emitting status (high/normal emitter) and thus the pertinence of analysing and modelling separately the corresponding emissions. It also demonstrated that Urban driving led systematically to high diesel emission rates and to high CO 2, HC and NO x emissions from petrol cars. Congested driving implied high CO 2 (diesel and petrol) and high diesel NO x emission. On motorway, the very high speeds generated high CO 2, while unsteady speeds induced diesel NO x and petrol CO over-emissions. A search for pertinent kinematic parameters showed that urban diesel emissions were mostly sensitive to stops and speed parameters, while petrol emissions were rather sensitive to acceleration parameters. On the motorway, diesel NO x and CO 2 emissions rates increased with the speed variability and occurrence of high speeds, while CO 2 and CO over-emission from petrol cars were

  9. Revisiting susceptibility testing in MDR-TB by a standardized quantitative phenotypic assessment in a European multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambau, E; Viveiros, M; Machado, D; Raskine, L; Ritter, C; Tortoli, E; Matthys, V; Hoffner, S; Richter, E; Perez Del Molino, M L; Cirillo, D M; van Soolingen, D; Böttger, E C

    2015-03-01

    Treatment outcome of MDR-TB is critically dependent on the proper use of second-line drugs as per the result of in vitro drug susceptibility testing (DST). We aimed to establish a standardized DST procedure based on quantitative determination of drug resistance and compared the results with those of genotypes associated with drug resistance. The protocol, based on MGIT 960 and the TB eXiST software, was evaluated in nine European reference laboratories. Resistance detection at a screening drug concentration was followed by determination of resistance levels and estimation of the resistance proportion. Mutations in 14 gene regions were investigated using established techniques. A total of 139 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients with MDR-TB and resistance beyond MDR-TB were tested for 13 antituberculous drugs: isoniazid, rifampicin, rifabutin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, streptomycin, para-aminosalicylic acid, ethionamide, amikacin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, moxifloxacin and linezolid. Concordance between phenotypic and genotypic resistance was >80%, except for ethambutol. Time to results was short (median 10 days). High-level resistance, which precludes the therapeutic use of an antituberculous drug, was observed in 49% of the isolates. The finding of a low or intermediate resistance level in 16% and 35% of the isolates, respectively, may help in designing an efficient personalized regimen for the treatment of MDR-TB patients. The automated DST procedure permits accurate and rapid quantitative resistance profiling of first- and second-line antituberculous drugs. Prospective validation is warranted to determine the impact on patient care. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Testing the performance of three nonlinear methods of time seriesanalysis for prediction and downscaling of European daily temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Miksovsky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the usability of the method of local linear models (LLM, multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP NN and radial basis function neural network (RBF NN for the construction of temporal and spatial transfer functions between different meteorological quantities, and compared the obtained results both mutually and to the results of multiple linear regression (MLR. The tested methods were applied for the short-term prediction of daily mean temperatures and for the downscaling of NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, using series of daily mean, minimum and maximum temperatures from 25 European stations as predictands. None of the tested nonlinear methods was recognized to be distinctly superior to the others, but all nonlinear techniques proved to be better than linear regression in the majority of the cases. It is also discussed that the most frequently used nonlinear method, the MLP neural network, may not be the best choice for processing the climatic time series - LLM method or RBF NNs can offer a comparable or slightly better performance and they do not suffer from some of the practical disadvantages of MLPs. Aside from comparing the performance of different methods, we paid attention to geographical and seasonal variations of the results. The forecasting results showed that the nonlinear character of relations between climate variables is well apparent over most of Europe, in contrast to rather weak nonlinearity in the Mediterranean and North Africa. No clear large-scale geographical structure of nonlinearity was identified in the case of downscaling. Nonlinearity also seems to be noticeably stronger in winter than in summer in most locations, for both forecasting and downscaling.

  11. Targeted testing with diethylthiourea often reveals clinically relevant allergic contact dermatitis caused by neoprene rubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Anne B-H; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2012-01-01

    Background. Diethylthiourea is widely used in the rubber industry, particularly in neoprene rubber, and may cause allergic contact dermatitis. However, as thiourea allergens are not part of the European baseline series, the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis caused by thiourea compounds......, and positive reactions were found in 15% (13/88). Thus, 15% (37/239) had positive patch test reactions to diethylthiourea, all with current clinical relevance and all strong. Conclusion. Clinical suspicion of neoprene rubber allergy and subsequent aimed patch testing with diethylthiourea give a high yield...

  12. The contributions of the European cosmetics industry to the development of alternatives to animal testing: dialogue with ECVAM and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Odile

    2002-12-01

    COLIPA (the European Federation of the Cosmetics Industry) represents 24 international companies and 2000 small and medium-sized enterprises. Together with ECVAM, COLIPA has been involved in the development and validation of alternative methods since the beginning of the validation efforts. The work of the Steering Committee on Alternatives to Animal Testing (SCAAT) is based on collaboration between companies, but also with academia, trade associations, the Scientific Committee on Cosmetics and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP), European Commission Directorates General, and ECVAM. Some success has been achieved, but some validation efforts have failed. One lesson is that the search for alternatives requires a lot of humility.

  13. [Surgical correction of conjunctival sac narrowing after orbital implantation using polyester fiber heart patches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bing-Song; Xie, Cui-Hua; Chen, Lin-Jiang; Xiong, Ke; Yang, Juan

    2017-10-20

    To test the feasibility of correcting conjunctival sac narrowing following orbital implantation using polyester fiber heart patches instead of the skin autograft. Twelve patients of conjunctival sac narrowing after orbital implantation (including 3 with orbital implant exposure) admitted in Nanfang Hospital between 2012 and 2016 received surgical correction of the conjunctival sac using polyester fiber heart patches. During the surgery, the central conjunctival sac was opened, the exposed area was covered with suitable polyester fiber heart patches, and the palpebral margin was sutured. Three months after the operation, 10 patients showed improved appearance after implantation of the prosthetic eye. Two patients received a second operation to remove the patches due to graft rejection and infections and skin autograft was implanted for reconstruction of the conjunctival sac. Polyester fiber heart patches are ideal materials for repairing Conjunctival sac narrowing and orbital implant exposure, but this approach is not suitable in cases of severe narrowing or occlusion of the conjunctival sac.

  14. Combined Approach of Patch-Surfer and PL-PatchSurfer for Protein-Ligand Binding Prediction in CSAR 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Shin, Woong-Hee; Kim, Hyungrae; Kihara, Daisuke

    2016-06-27

    The Community Structure-Activity Resource (CSAR) benchmark exercise provides a unique opportunity for researchers to objectively evaluate the performance of protein-ligand docking methods. Patch-Surfer and PL-PatchSurfer, molecular surface-based methods for predicting binding ligands of proteins developed in our group, were tested on both CSAR 2013 and 2014 benchmark exercises in combination with an empirical scoring function-based method, AutoDock, while we only participated in CSAR 2013 using Patch-Surfer. The prediction results for Phase 1 task in CSAR 2013 showed that Patch-Surfer was able to rank all the four designed binding proteins within top ranks, outperforming AutoDock Vina. In Phase 2 of 2013, PL-PatchSurfer correctly selected the correct ligand pose for two target proteins. PL-PatchSurfer performed reasonably well in ranking ligands according to their binding affinity and in selecting near-native ligand poses in 2013 Phase 3 and 2014 Phase 1, respectively, although AutoDock Vina showed better performance. Lastly, in the 2014 Phase 2 exercise, the PL-PatchSurfer scores computed for ligands to target protein pairs correlated well with their pIC50 values, which was better or comparable to results by other participants. Overall, our methods showed fairly good performance in CSAR 2013 and 2014. Unique characteristics of the methods are discussed in comparison with AutoDock.

  15. Image quality assessment based on inter-patch and intra-patch similarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhou

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a full-reference (FR image quality assessment (IQA scheme, which evaluates image fidelity from two aspects: the inter-patch similarity and the intra-patch similarity. The scheme is performed in a patch-wise fashion so that a quality map can be obtained. On one hand, we investigate the disparity between one image patch and its adjacent ones. This disparity is visually described by an inter-patch feature, where the hybrid effect of luminance masking and contrast masking is taken into account. The inter-patch similarity is further measured by modifying the normalized correlation coefficient (NCC. On the other hand, we also attach importance to the impact of image contents within one patch on the IQA problem. For the intra-patch feature, we consider image curvature as an important complement of image gradient. According to local image contents, the intra-patch similarity is measured by adaptively comparing image curvature and gradient. Besides, a nonlinear integration of the inter-patch and intra-patch similarity is presented to obtain an overall score of image quality. The experiments conducted on six publicly available image databases show that our scheme achieves better performance in comparison with several state-of-the-art schemes.

  16. Reconfigurable Wideband Circularly Polarized Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khidre, Ahmed

    vice versa, with the aid of two RF PIN diodes that act as RF switches. The proposed structure which is simple; consists of a single-layer single fed radiating E-shaped patch and RF switch placed on each of its slots at an appropriate location. The design targets WLAN IEEE 802.11b/g frequency band (2.4- 2.5 GHz) as one example of the wireless applications. The idea is based on the first proposed design. In other words, if one of the switches is ON and the other is OFF, the two slot lengths will become effectively unequal and circular polarization will be obtained. If the states of the two switches are reversed, circular polarization with opposite orientation will be obtained at the same frequency band. Full-wave simulator Ansoft HFSS is again used for the analysis. Complete detailed DC biasing circuit of the switches for integration with the antenna is presented. Also, characterizations of the microwave components used in the biasing circuit are discussed. Antenna prototype has been fabricated and tested. Simulation results along with the measured one, for the reflection coefficient, axial ratio, radiation pattern, and antenna gain agree well, showing wide bandwidth and high gain for the two circularly polarized modes.

  17. Comparison of European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and Etest methods with the CLSI broth microdilution method for echinocandin susceptibility testing of Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M A; Castanheira, M; Diekema, D J; Messer, S A; Moet, G J; Jones, R N

    2010-05-01

    The antifungal broth microdilution (BMD) method of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and the Etest agar diffusion method were compared with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) BMD method M27-A3 for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin susceptibility testing of 133 clinical isolates of Candida species. The isolates were characterized for the presence or absence of fks1 and/or fks2 gene mutations and included 34 isolates of C. glabrata (4 mutant strains), 32 of C. albicans (1 mutant strain), 25 of C. parapsilosis, 19 of C. guilliermondii, 12 of C. tropicalis (2 mutant strains), and 11 of C. krusei. Excellent essential agreement (EA; within 2 dilutions) between the CLSI and EUCAST and CLSI and Etest MIC results was observed. The overall EA between the EUCAST and CLSI results ranged from 89.5% (caspofungin) to 99.2% (micafungin), whereas the EA between the Etest and CLSI results ranged from 90.2% (caspofungin) to 93.2% (anidulafungin). The categorical agreement (CA) between methods for each antifungal agent was assessed using previously determined epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs). Excellent CA (>90%) was observed for all comparisons between the EUCAST and CLSI results with the exceptions of C. glabrata and caspofungin (85.3%) and C. krusei and caspofungin (54.5%). The CA between the Etest and CLSI results was also excellent for all comparisons, with the exception of C. krusei and caspofungin (81.8%). All three methods were able to differentiate wild-type (WT) strains from those with fks mutations. With anidulafungin as the test reagent, the CLSI method identified 5 of 7 mutant strains, whereas the EUCAST method and the Etest identified 6 of 7 mutant strains. With either caspofungin or micafungin as the test reagent, the CLSI method identified all 7 mutant strains and the EUCAST method identified 6 of 7 mutant strains. The Etest identified all 7 mutant strains using caspofungin as the reagent. All three

  18. Comparison of European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and Etest Methods with the CLSI Broth Microdilution Method for Echinocandin Susceptibility Testing of Candida Species▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Castanheira, M.; Diekema, D. J.; Messer, S. A.; Moet, G. J.; Jones, R. N.

    2010-01-01

    The antifungal broth microdilution (BMD) method of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and the Etest agar diffusion method were compared with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) BMD method M27-A3 for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin susceptibility testing of 133 clinical isolates of Candida species. The isolates were characterized for the presence or absence of fks1 and/or fks2 gene mutations and included 34 isolates of C. glabrata (4 mutant strains), 32 of C. albicans (1 mutant strain), 25 of C. parapsilosis, 19 of C. guilliermondii, 12 of C. tropicalis (2 mutant strains), and 11 of C. krusei. Excellent essential agreement (EA; within 2 dilutions) between the CLSI and EUCAST and CLSI and Etest MIC results was observed. The overall EA between the EUCAST and CLSI results ranged from 89.5% (caspofungin) to 99.2% (micafungin), whereas the EA between the Etest and CLSI results ranged from 90.2% (caspofungin) to 93.2% (anidulafungin). The categorical agreement (CA) between methods for each antifungal agent was assessed using previously determined epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs). Excellent CA (>90%) was observed for all comparisons between the EUCAST and CLSI results with the exceptions of C. glabrata and caspofungin (85.3%) and C. krusei and caspofungin (54.5%). The CA between the Etest and CLSI results was also excellent for all comparisons, with the exception of C. krusei and caspofungin (81.8%). All three methods were able to differentiate wild-type (WT) strains from those with fks mutations. With anidulafungin as the test reagent, the CLSI method identified 5 of 7 mutant strains, whereas the EUCAST method and the Etest identified 6 of 7 mutant strains. With either caspofungin or micafungin as the test reagent, the CLSI method identified all 7 mutant strains and the EUCAST method identified 6 of 7 mutant strains. The Etest identified all 7 mutant strains using caspofungin as the reagent. All three

  19. Robustness of metacommunities with omnivory to habitat destruction: disentangling patch fragmentation from patch loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jinbao; Bearup, Daniel; Wang, Yeqiao; Nijs, Ivan; Bonte, Dries; Li, Yuanheng; Brose, Ulrich; Wang, Shaopeng; Blasius, Bernd

    2017-06-01

    Habitat destruction, characterized by patch loss and fragmentation, is a major driving force of species extinction, and understanding its mechanisms has become a central issue in biodiversity conservation. Numerous studies have explored the effect of patch loss on food web dynamics, but ignored the critical role of patch fragmentation. Here we develop an extended patch-dynamic model for a tri-trophic omnivory system with trophic-dependent dispersal in fragmented landscapes. We found that species display different vulnerabilities to both patch loss and fragmentation, depending on their dispersal range and trophic position. The resulting trophic structure varies depending on the degree of habitat loss and fragmentation, due to a tradeoff between bottom-up control on omnivores (dominated by patch loss) and dispersal limitation on intermediate consumers (dominated by patch fragmentation). Overall, we find that omnivory increases system robustness to habitat destruction relative to a simple food chain. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Combining the American and European mix design approaches: : utilization of NCHRP performance indicators for analysis of CEN-test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florio, E.; Berti, C.; Kasbergen, C.; Villani, M.M.; Scarpas, Athanasios; Erkens, Sandra; Sangiorgi, Cesare; Lantieri, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the functional approach described in the 2008 European Asphalt Concrete standards was selected, specifying mixtures by their stiffness, fatigue resistance, permanent deformation, moisture sensitivity and limited composition data. The requirements for the functional specifications

  1. An Angiotensin II type 1 receptor activation switch patch revealed through Evolutionary Trace analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Yao, Rong; Ma, Jian-Nong

    2010-01-01

    ) displayed phenotypes associated with changed activation state, such as increased agonist affinity or basal activity, promiscuous activation, or constitutive internalization highlighting the importance of testing different signaling pathways. We conclude that this evolutionary important patch mediates...

  2. An angiotensin II type 1 receptor activation switch patch revealed through evolutionary trace analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Yao, Rong; Ma, Jian-Nong

    2010-01-01

    ) displayed phenotypes associated with changed activation state, such as increased agonist affinity or basal activity, promiscuous activation, or constitutive internalization highlighting the importance of testing different signaling pathways. We conclude that this evolutionary important patch mediates...

  3. Patch shape, connectivity, and foraging by oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrock, John, L.; Danielson, Brent J

    2005-06-01

    We examined how corridors and patch shape affect foraging by the oldfield mouse (Peromyscus polionotus) by deploying foraging trays and live traps in experimental landscapes with 3 different patch types: patches connected with a corridor, unconnected patches with projecting corridorlike portions (winged patches), and unconnected rectangular patches. Corridors did not lead to different levels of activity of P. polionotus among the 3 patch types. Rather, corridors influenced activity by changing patch shape: foraging in seed trays and total number of captures of P. polionotus tended to be greater at the patch center than at the patch edge, but only in connected and winged patches where corridors or wings increased the amount of patch edge relative to the amount of core habitat in the patch. P. polionotus avoided open microhabitats near the patch edge in winged and connected patches, but not open microhabitats near the patch interior, suggesting that predation risk caused shifts in foraging near edges in connected and winged patches. Foraging in corridors and wings was generally low, suggesting that both are high-risk habitats where predation risk is not ameliorated by proximity to vegetative cover. By changing patch shape, corridors caused changes in within-patch activity of P. polionotus, changing foraging patterns and potentially altering the dynamics of P. polionotus and the seeds they consume.

  4. Survey of European and Major ISC Facilities for Supporting Mars and Sample Return Mission Aerothermodynamics and Tests Required for Thermal Protection System and Dynamic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Bugel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of future sample return missions to Mars, asteroids, and comets, investigated by the European Space Agency, a review of the actual aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics capabilities in Europe for Mars entry of large vehicles and high-speed Earth reentry of sample return capsule has been undertaken. Additionally, capabilities in Canada and Australia for the assessment of dynamic stability, as well as major facilities for hypersonic flows available in ISC, have been included. This paper provides an overview of European current capabilities for aerothermodynamics and testing of thermal protection systems. This assessment has allowed the identification of the needs in new facilities or upgrade of existing ground tests for covering experimentally Mars entries and Earth high-speed reentries as far as aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and thermal protection system testing are concerned.

  5. Does light pollution alter daylength? A test using light loggers on free-ranging European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominoni, Davide M; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-05-05

    Artificial light at night is one of the most apparent environmental changes accompanying anthropogenic habitat change. The global increase in light pollution poses new challenges to wild species, but we still have limited understanding of the temporal and spatial pattern of exposure to light at night. In particular, it has been suggested by several studies that animals exposed to light pollution, such as songbirds, perceive a longer daylength compared with conspecifics living in natural darker areas, but direct tests of such a hypothesis are still lacking. Here, we use a combination of light loggers deployed on individual European blackbirds, as well as automated radio-telemetry, to examine whether urban birds are exposed to a longer daylength than forest counterparts. We first used activity data from forest birds to determine the level of light intensity which defines the onset and offset of daily activity in rural areas. We then used this value as threshold to calculate the subjective perceived daylength of both forest and urban blackbirds. In March, when reproductive growth occurs, urban birds were exposed on average to a 49-min longer subjective perceived daylength than forest ones, which corresponds to a 19-day difference in photoperiod at this time of the year. In the field, urban blackbirds reached reproductive maturity 19 day earlier than rural birds, suggesting that light pollution could be responsible of most of the variation in reproductive timing found between urban and rural dwellers. We conclude that light at night is the most relevant change in ambient light affecting biological rhythms in avian urban-dwellers, most likely via a modification of the perceived photoperiod. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensitivity testing of the model set-up used for calculation of photochemical ozone creation potentials (POCP) under European conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenstedt, J.; Pleijel, K.

    1998-02-01

    Photochemical Ozone Creation Potentials (POCP) is a method to rank VOC, relative to other VOC, according to their ability to produce ground level ozone. To obtain POCP values valid under European conditions, a critical analysis of the POCP concept has been performed using the IVL photochemical trajectory model. The critical analysis has concentrated on three VOC (ethene, n-butane and o-xylene) and has analysed the effect on their POCP values when different model parameters were varied. The three species were chosen because of their different degradation mechanisms in the atmosphere and thus their different abilities to produce ozone. The model parameters which have been tested include background emissions, initial concentrations, dry deposition velocities, the features of the added point source and meteorological parameters. The critical analysis shows that the background emissions of NO{sub x} and VOC have a critical impact on the POCP values. The hour of the day for the point source emission also shows a large influence on the POCP values. Other model parameters which have been studied have not shown such large influence on the POCP values. Based on the critical analysis a model set-up for calculation of POCP is defined. The variations in POCP values due to changes in the background emissions of NO{sub x} and VOC are so large that they can not be disregarded in the calculation of POCP. It is recommended to calculate POCP ranges based on the extremes in POCP values instead of calculating site specific POCP values. Four individual emission scenarios which produced the extremes in POCP values in the analysis have been selected for future calculation of POCP ranges. The scenarios are constructed based on the emissions in Europe and the resulting POCP ranges are thus intended to be applicable within Europe 67 refs, 61 figs, 16 tabs

  7. Generic Patch Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2008-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to update drivers in response to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spfind, that identifies common changes made...... in a set of pairs of files and their updated versions, and extracts a generic patch performing those changes. Library developers can use our tool to extract a generic patch based on the result of manually updating a few typical driver files, and then apply this generic patch to other drivers.  Driver...

  8. Streamlining of plant patches in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand; Pedersen, Morten Lauge

    2008-01-01

    1. Plants in shallow streams often grow in well-defined monospecific patches experiencing a predictable unidirectional flow, though of temporally variable velocity. During maximum patch development in summer we studied: (i) the shape and streamlining of 59 patches of Callitriche cophocarpa, (ii...... gradients developed across the exposed outer surfaces as the diverted flow accelerated. Because drag processes are additive, and exist at different spatial scales and Reynolds numbers on the surface and inside of plant canopies, direct measurements on entire canopies under controlled conditions are needed...

  9. Prospective randomized study of carotid endarterectomy with Fluoropassiv thin wall carotid patch versus venous patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, R; Lansink, K W W; Blomme, A M; Fritschy, W M

    2008-07-01

    The practice of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) with patch angioplasty is more effective compared to primary closure. However, the type of patch material remains a controversy. The Fluoropassiv thin wall carotid patch is a polyester patch with an interpenetrating, nanometer-scale, solvent-applied surface modification, based on a biocompatible fluoropolymer. The present pilot study is the first clinical trial evaluating results of CEA with Fluoropassiv versus venous patch. Eighty-seven patients were randomized to 42 Fluoropassiv patching and 45 venous patching. Patients were observed by a vascular surgeon and a neurologist and scanned using duplex ultrasound with a follow-up of 2 years. No patients were lost to follow-up. Restenosis was defined as a Peak Systolic Velocity ratio >2.6, lumen reduction >50%. Perioperative stroke rate was 2.4% in the Fluoropassiv group and 8.9% in the venous group (p=0.02; 1 regressive, 4 non-regressive strokes). Multivariate analysis showed that bilateral carotid stenosis and stroke as indication for CEA were related to perioperative stroke. There was no link between perioperative stroke and patch type after correction for these factors. Patch type had no influence on operation time, clamp time, cranial nerve damage, hypertension, hematoma, infections, time to discharge, or early thromboembolic events. There were no significant differences between the Fluoropassiv and the venous group for cumulative mortality (respectively 4.4 vs 4.8%), patch occlusion (4.8 vs 2.2%), or stroke rate during 2 year follow-up (2.2 vs 2.4%). This first clinical study with the Fluoropassiv thin wall carotid patch showed no enhanced thrombogenicity compared to a venous patch. The Fluoropassiv patch is not related to a higher rate of postoperative bleeding events either.

  10. Tolerability of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% patch for peripheral neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppin JF

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available John F Peppin1, Kristine Majors2, Lynn R Webster3, David M Simpson4, Jeffrey K Tobias5, Geertrui F Vanhove51The Pain Treatment Center of the Bluegrass, Lexington, KY, USA; 2Integrated Clinical Trial Services, Inc, West Des Moines, IA, USA; 3Lifetree Clinical Research and Pain Clinic, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 4Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 5NeurogesX, Inc, San Mateo, CA, USABackground/purpose: NGX-4010 (QUTENZA™; NeurogesX Inc, San Mateo, CA, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, is licensed in the European Union for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP in nondiabetic adults and in the United States for the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN. While NGX-4010 treatment is associated with a low risk of systemic adverse events, patch application-related pain is common and may be managed with local cooling and/or oral analgesics. This article characterizes the tolerability of NGX-4010 and will help to guide any pain management.Methods: This integrated analysis of tolerability data collected from the NGX-4010 clinical study program included 1696 patients with PNP. Patch application-related pain on the treatment day was captured as Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS “pain now” scores while “average pain for the past 24 hours” NPRS scores were analyzed for 7 days following treatment. Other tolerability assessments included the percentage of patients completing ≥90% of the intended treatment duration and patients using medication for patch application-related pain.Results: The mean maximum change in “pain now” NPRS scores from pretreatment levels during and after patch application was 2.6 for all patients. This pain was transient and resolved following patch removal. Mean “average pain for the past 24 hours” NPRS scores returned to baseline by the evening of the treatment day for patients with PHN, and the evening of day 2 for patients with human immunodeficiency virus

  11. Fabrication and vertical test experience of the European X-ray Free Electron Laser 3.9 GHz superconducting cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pierini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the experience of the production, processing and qualification testing of the superconducting radio frequency cavities at 3.9 GHz for the third harmonic system at the European XFEL (EXFEL injector. The rf structure concept, originally developed for the FLASH FEL facility, was adapted to the new interfaces provided by the EXFEL design and the cavities were procured from a qualified vendor, delivered ready for the testing at the INFN infrastructure. A total of 23 cavities, three prototypes and two batches of 10, have been realized and tested up to specifications.

  12. Statistical analyses of correlation between fluconazole MICs for Candida spp. assessed by standard methods set forth by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (E.Dis. 7.1) and CLSI (M27-A2).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Tudela, J.L.; Donnelly, J.P.; Pfaller, M.A.; Chryssantou, E.; Warn, P.; Denning, D.W.; Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Barchiesi, F.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.

    2007-01-01

    The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing recently published a standard for determining the susceptibility of fermentative yeasts to antifungals. From the beginning, the EUCAST and its North American counterpart, the

  13. Shallow ATRIS Seafloor Images - West Turtle Shoal Patch Reef, Rawa PatchReef, Dustan Rocks Patch Reef, and Thor Patch Reef, Florida, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Underwater digital images, single-beam bathymetry, and global-positioning system (GPS) data were collected September 29-30, 2011 around Dustan Rocks Patch Reef, Thor...

  14. Ethinyl Estradiol and Norelgestromin Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but it does not prevent the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; the virus that causes acquired ... contraceptive patch may increase the risk of developing endometrial and breast cancer, gallbladder disease, liver tumors, heart ...

  15. Preparation of Mucoadhesive Oral Patches Containing Tetracycline Hydrochloride and Carvacrol for Treatment of Local Mouth Bacterial Infections and Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaidat, Rana M.; Bader, Ammar; Al-Rajab, Wafa; Abu Sheikha, Ghassan; Obaidat, Aiman A.

    2011-01-01

    The specific aim of this work was to prepare mucoadhesive patches containing tetracycline hydrochloride and carvacrol in an attempt to develop a novel oral drug delivery system for the treatment of mouth infections. The bilayered patches were prepared using ethyl cellulose as a backing layer and carbopol 934 as a matrix mucoadhesive layer. Patches were prepared with different loading amounts of tetracycline hydrochloride and carvacrol. The antimicrobial activity was assessed for the prepared patches using the disc-diffusion method against the yeast Candida albicans and five bacterial strains, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus bronchispti. In this work, we highlighted the possibility of occurrence of a synergistic action between carvacrol and tetracycline. The best formulation was selected based on microbiological tests, drug release, ex-vivo mucoadhesive performance, and swelling index. Physical characteristics of the selected formulations were determined. These included pH, patch thickness, weight uniformity, content uniformity, folding endurance, and patch stability. PMID:21617783

  16. Development of the World-wide harmonized Light duty Test Cycle (WLTC) and a possible pathway for its introduction in the European legislation

    OpenAIRE

    TUTUIANU MONICA; BONNEL Pierre; CIUFFO BIAGIO; HANIU Takahiro; ICHIKAWA Noriyuki; MAROTTA Alessandro; PAVLOVIC JELICA; STEVEN Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the World-wide harmonized Light duty Test Cycle (WLTC), developed under the Working Party on Pollution and Energy (GRPE) and sponsored by the European Union (with Switzerland) and Japan. India, Korea and USA have also actively contributed. The objective was to design the harmonized driving cycle from "real world" driving data in different regions around the world, combined with suitable weighting factors. To this aim, driving data and traffic statistics of light duty vehic...

  17. Sediment patterns near a model patch of reedy emergent vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Elizabeth M.; Nepf, Heidi M.

    2012-12-01

    This laboratory study describes the sediment patterns formed in a sand bed around circular patches of rigid vertical cylinders, representing a patch of reedy emergent vegetation. The patch diameter was much smaller than the channel width. Two patch densities (solid volume fraction 3% and 10%) and two patch diameters (22 and 10 cm) were considered. For flows above the threshold of sediment motion, patterns of sediment erosion and deposition were observed around and within the patch. Scouring within the patch was positively correlated with turbulent kinetic energy in the patch. For sparse patches, sediment scoured from within the patch was mostly deposited within one patch diameter downstream of the patch. For dense patches, which experience greater flow diversion, sediment scoured from the patch was carried farther downstream before deposition along the patch centerline. Differences between the sparse and dense patch patterns of deposition are explained in the context of flow diversion and wake structure, which are related to a nondimensional flow blockage parameter. While sediment was redistributed near the patch, observations suggest that net deposition was not recorded at the reach scale.

  18. Which lessons can we learn from the European Union legal framework of medicines for the regulation of direct-to-consumer genetic tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hellemondt, Rachèl; Hendriks, Aart; Breuning, Martijn

    2012-01-01

    The legal framework of the European Union (EU) for regulating access to and supply of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests is very liberal compared to the legal and regulatory framework for (internet) medicines. Nevertheless, both health related products can cause equally serious damage to the well being of individuals. In this contribution we examine whether the legal framework of the EU for the safety and responsible use of (internet) medicines could be an example for regulating access to and supply of DTC genetic tests. The EU laws governing medicines can, notwithstanding their shortcomings, serve as an example for (central) authorising the marketing of DTC genetic tests on the internal market in accordance with strict criteria regarding predictive value and clinical usefulness. Furthermore, a legal framework controlling DTC genetic tests also should introduce system supervision as well as quality criteria with respect to the information to be provided to consumers in order to enhance health protection. However, DTC genetic tests purchased through online ordering are difficult to supervise by any agency. Adequately protecting individuals against questionable testing kits calls for international vigilance and comprehensive measures by the international community. For Europe, it is important to rank the regulation of DTC genetic tests on the European regulatory agenda.

  19. Are the testing needs of key European populations affected by hepatitis B and hepatitis C being addressed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sperle, Ida; Spina, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Organization European Region following PRISMA criteria. RESULTS: 136 English-language studies from 24 countries published between January 2007 and June 2013 were found. Most studies took place in 6 countries: France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. 37 studies (27%) addressed...

  20. Validation of the European Proxy KIDSCREEN-52 Pilot Test Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire: First Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robitail, S.; Simeoni, M.-C.; Erhart, M.; Ravens-Sieberer, U.; Bruil, J.; Auquier, P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The KIDSCREEN project aims to develop a European cross-cultural generic self-administered Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) instrument for children and adolescents. Proxy measures HRQoL should be a useful and practical alternative to assess children's HRQoL. The KIDSCREEN pilot study

  1. Weakly Supervised PatchNets: Describing and Aggregating Local Patches for Scene Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Wang, Limin; Wang, Yali; Zhang, Bowen; Qiao, Yu

    2017-02-09

    Traditional feature encoding scheme (e.g., Fisher vector) with local descriptors (e.g., SIFT) and recent convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are two classes of successful methods for image recognition. In this paper, we propose a hybrid representation, which leverages the discriminative capacity of CNNs and the simplicity of descriptor encoding schema for image recognition, with a focus on scene recognition. To this end, we make three main contributions from the following aspects. First, we propose a patch-level and end-to-end architecture to model the appearance of local patches, called PatchNet. PatchNet is essentially a customized network trained in a weakly supervised manner, which uses the image-level supervision to guide the patch-level feature extraction. Second, we present a hybrid visual representation, called VSAD, by utilizing the robust feature representations of PatchNet to describe local patches and exploiting the semantic probabilities of PatchNet to aggregate these local patches into a global representation. Third, based on the proposed VSAD representation, we propose a new state-of-the-art scene recognition approach, which achieves an excellent performance on two standard benchmarks: MIT Indoor67 (86.2%) and SUN397 (73.0%).

  2. Variability in testing policies and impact on reported Clostridium difficile infection rates: results from the pilot Longitudinal European Clostridium difficile Infection Diagnosis surveillance study (LuCID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K; Davis, G; Barbut, F; Eckert, C; Petrosillo, N; Wilcox, M H

    2016-12-01

    Lack of standardised Clostridium difficile testing is a potential confounder when comparing infection rates. We used an observational, systematic, prospective large-scale sampling approach to investigate variability in C. difficile sampling to understand C. difficile infection (CDI) incidence rates. In-patient and institutional data were gathered from 60 European hospitals (across three countries). Testing methodology, testing/CDI rates and case profiles were compared between countries and institution types. The mean annual CDI rate per hospital was lowest in the UK and highest in Italy (1.5 vs. 4.7 cases/10,000 patient bed days [pbds], p testing rate was highest in the UK compared with Italy and France (50.7/10,000 pbds vs. 31.5 and 30.3, respectively, p tested for CDI across all countries. Overall, only 64 % of hospitals used recommended testing algorithms for laboratory testing. Small hospitals were significantly more likely to use standalone toxin tests (SATTs). There was an inverse correlation between hospital size and CDI testing rate. Hospitals using SATT or assays not detecting toxin reported significantly higher CDI rates than those using recommended methods, despite testing similar testing frequencies. These data are consistent with higher false-positive rates in such (non-recommended) testing scenarios. Cases in Italy and those diagnosed by SATT or methods NOT detecting toxin were significantly older. Testing occurred significantly earlier in the UK. Assessment of testing practice is paramount to the accurate interpretation and comparison of CDI rates.

  3. Preparation and evaluation of cosmetic patches containing lactic and glycolic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdavi H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alpha-hydroxy acids such as glycolic acid (GA and lactic acid (LA, are used in cosmetic patches. The important fact in cosmetic patches is its suitable adhesion and peel properties. Aim: The objective of this study was to prepare LA- and GA-containing cosmetic patches and evaluate in-vitro/in-vivo correlation of adhesion properties. Methods: Pressure-sensitive adhesives with different concentrations of GA and LA were cast on a polyethylene terephthalate film. The patches were evaluated for peel adhesive strength. On the basis of in vitro adhesion properties the patches were selected for wear performance tests and skin irritation potential. Results: The adhesion properties (adhesion to steel plate and skin and cohesive strength tests indicated the substantial influence of GA and LA concentrations. Based on in vitro adhesion studies the patches containing 3% (w/w GA were selected for in vivo studies. In vivo studies show that a formulation containing 3% GA displays good adhesion on the skin, but it leaves little residues on the skin. Skin Irritation studies on healthy human volunteers showed negligible erythema at the site of application after 48h. Conclusion: The noninvasive patch test model was found useful for detecting irritant skin reactions to the cosmetic patch containing GA. Our results demonstrated a strong correlation between the adhesion to steel plate and adhesion to skin. But a weak correlation between the degree of adhesive residue on the skin in in vitro and in vivo tests was observed for the formulation containing 3% (w/w GA.

  4. Pollen flow between connected and isolated flower patches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, MM; Velterop, O; Benedek, P; Richards, KW

    2001-01-01

    Pollen flow between artificial patches of Scabiosa columbaria (Dipsacaceae), mainly pollinated by syrphids, was studied in a seminatural environment. Three linearly arranged patches of 30 heads each were used. The central patch served both as pollen donor and receptor patch (complete flowers), the

  5. Coevolution of patch-type dependent emigration and patch-type dependent immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigang, Helene C

    2017-08-07

    The three phases of dispersal - emigration, transfer and immigration - are affecting each other and the former and latter decisions may depend on patch types. Despite the inevitable fact of the complexity of the dispersal process, patch-type dependencies of dispersal decisions modelled as emigration and immigration are usually missing in theoretical dispersal models. Here, I investigate the coevolution of patch-type dependent emigration and patch-type dependent immigration in an extended Hamilton-May model. The dispersing population inhabits a landscape structured into many patches of two types and disperses during a continuous-time season. The trait under consideration is a four dimensional vector consisting of two values for emigration probability from the patches and two values for immigration probability into the patches of each type. Using the adaptive dynamics approach I show that four qualitatively different dispersal strategies may evolve in different parameter regions, including a counterintuitive strategy, where patches of one type are fully dispersed from (emigration probability is one) but individuals nevertheless always immigrate into them during the dispersal season (immigration probability is one). I present examples of evolutionary branching in a wide parameter range, when the patches with high local death rate during the dispersal season guarantee a high expected disperser output. I find that two dispersal strategies can coexist after evolutionary branching: a strategy with full immigration only into the patches with high expected disperser output coexists with a strategy that immigrates into any patch. Stochastic simulations agree with the numerical predictions. Since evolutionary branching is also found when immigration evolves alone, the present study is adding coevolutionary constraints on the emigration traits and hence finds that the coevolution of a higher dimensional trait sometimes hinders evolutionary diversification. Copyright © 2017

  6. Cooperative effort between Consorcio European Spallation Source--Bilbao and Oak Ridge National Laboratory spallation neutron source for manufacturing and testing of the JEMA-designed modulator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, David E [ORNL

    2017-01-02

    The JEMA modulator was originally developed for the European Spallation Source (ESS) when Spain was under consideration as a location for the ESS facility. Discussions ensued and the Spallation Neutron Source Research Accelerator Division agreed to form a collaboration with ESS-Bilbao (ESS-B) consortium to provide services for specifying the requirements for a version of the modulator capable of operating twelve 550 kW klystrons, monitoring the technical progress on the contract with JEMA, installing and commissioning the modulator at SNS, and performing a 30 day full power test. This work was recently completed, and this report discusses those activities with primary emphasis on the installation and testing activities.

  7. Lecture 11: Systemtap : Patching the linux kernel on the fly

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The presentation will describe the usage of Systemtap, in CERN Scientific Linux environment. Systemtap is a tool that allows developers and administrators to write and reuse simple scripts to deeply examine the activities of a live Linux system. We will go through the life cycle of a system tap module : creation, packaging, deployment. It will focus on how we used it recently at CERN as a workaround to patch a 0-day. Thomas Oulevey is a member if the IT department at CERN where he is an active member of the Linux team which supports 9’000 servers, 3’000 desktop systems and more than 5’000 active users. Before CERN he worked at the former astrophysics department of CERN, now called the European Southern Observatory, based in Chile. He was used to maintain the core telescope Linux systems and monitoring infrastructure.

  8. Two decades of p-phenylenediamine and toluene-2,5-diamine patch testing - focus on co-sensitizations in the European baseline series and cross-reactions with chemically related substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Tatiana A.; Heijnen, Rakita W.; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A.

    Background. Cross-reactions and co-sensitizations are of great importance in understanding contact allergy and exposure sources. Objectives. To investigate common cross-reactions and co-sensitizations in p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-sensitized and toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA)-sensitized individuals.

  9. An evaluation of the suitability of the European suspension test to reflect in vitro activity of antiseptics against clinically significant organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, D N; Babb, J R; Bradley, C R

    1999-01-01

    The effectiveness of four antiseptics representing soluble phenolics (Dettol), Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QAC) (Dettol Hospital Concentrate: DHC), mixed QAC/chlorhexidine (Hibicet Hospital Concentrate: HHC) and povidone iodine (Betadine) was assessed using the proposed phase 2 step 1 European Suspension test. The in vitro activity of the antiseptics against two of the proposed challenge strains, i.e. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was compared with that of 14 problematic clinical isolates of bacteria from a range of genera, including some multiple antibiotic resistant strains, and a clinical isolate of Candida albicans. In addition to the 5 min contact time recommended in the European test, a 1 min time was included. All four products, at their recommended use dilutions and a contact time of 5 min, achieved a Microbicidal Effect (ME) log reduction of at least 5 against the majority of organisms. Differences in activity between products were more pronounced and therefore the tests more discriminatory, when the contact time was reduced to 1 min. The clinical strains were not overtly more resistant to antiseptics than the standard test strains, suggesting that the CEN test strains mimic the antiseptic susceptibility of clinical isolates.

  10. PL-PatchSurfer: A Novel Molecular Local Surface-Based Method for Exploring Protein-Ligand Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjie Hu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Structure-based computational methods have been widely used in exploring protein-ligand interactions, including predicting the binding ligands of a given protein based on their structural complementarity. Compared to other protein and ligand representations, the advantages of a surface representation include reduced sensitivity to subtle changes in the pocket and ligand conformation and fast search speed. Here we developed a novel method named PL-PatchSurfer (Protein-Ligand PatchSurfer. PL-PatchSurfer represents the protein binding pocket and the ligand molecular surface as a combination of segmented surface patches. Each patch is characterized by its geometrical shape and the electrostatic potential, which are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor (3DZD. We first tested PL-PatchSurfer on binding ligand prediction and found it outperformed the pocket-similarity based ligand prediction program. We then optimized the search algorithm of PL-PatchSurfer using the PDBbind dataset. Finally, we explored the utility of applying PL-PatchSurfer to a larger and more diverse dataset and showed that PL-PatchSurfer was able to provide a high early enrichment for most of the targets. To the best of our knowledge, PL-PatchSurfer is the first surface patch-based method that treats ligand complementarity at protein binding sites. We believe that using a surface patch approach to better understand protein-ligand interactions has the potential to significantly enhance the design of new ligands for a wide array of drug-targets.

  11. Assessment of the effectiveness of nontransdermal energy patches on muscle endurance and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Bert H; Smith, Doug B; Stemm, John D; Warren, Aric J; O'Brien, Matt S; Glass, Rob G

    2008-05-01

    Claims of recently developed energy patches suggest that organic nanoscale biomolecular "antennas" produced by L and D-stereoisomers resonate at frequencies in unison with molecules in the cells inducing electron flow to assists in recruiting calcium ions, allowing greater muscle fiber recruitment during muscle contraction. The purpose of the study was to assess the efficacy of energy patches in the performance of selected muscle power and endurance measures. After a 5-minute warm-up and stretch, 41 college varsity football players (age, 20.37 +/- 1.24 years; height, 169.91 +/- 7.44 cm; weight, 109.45 +/- 19.85 kg) were pre-tested on 102-kg maximal bench press repetitions, standing vertical jump, grip strength, peak torque, torque to body weight, total work, average power, and average torque as measured by 50 repetitions of leg extensions at 180 degrees .s. The following week, the players were randomly assigned the experimental or placebo patches. After placement of the patches, the participants again completed a 5-minute warm-up, followed by the identical pre-test protocol. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to compare resultant data. No significant group interaction effects were found between experimental and placebo patches for maximal bench press repetitions (p = 0.48), vertical jump distance (p = 0.39), grip strength (p = 0.29), total work (p = 0.26), torque to body weight (p = 0.05), average peak torque (p = 0.08), and average power (p = 0.05). A significant increase occurred in the experimental group for peak torque (p = 0.04). It was concluded that the energy patches significantly improved performance over placebo patches in one of the eight variables tested and registered near significance in two additional variables. However, inconsistency in overall results demands further studies to determine the reliability in improvement of performance in the presence of energy patches.

  12. Dermoscopy of shagreen patch: A first report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Gundalli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The name is derived from French phrase peau chagrinee which is usually found on lower back, buttock and thigh. The major manifestations of Tuberous sclerosis include skin lesions in more than 95%, mental retardation in approximately 50%, autism, seizures in approximately 85%. The incidence at birth is estimated to be 1 in 5800. We report case of shagreen patch in a 27 year female which is present since birth. However there is no history of seizures or consanginous marriage in our case. Associated features are naevus comedonicus and naevus collagenosis, facial angiofibroma. Shagreen patch are present in mandibular area of face. Although, diagnosis is easy, it can be mistaken for inflammatory verrucous epidermal nevus, plaques of other inflammatory skin conditions. Diagnosis is usually on clinical background. Sometimes biopsy is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Dermoscopy, a non-invasive, in vivo technique for the microscopic examination of pigmented skin lesions, has the potential to improve the diagnostic accuracy. Dermoscopy of Shagreen patch showed reddish-brown strands with white dots giving a cobblestone appearance It can be utilized as a diagnostic aide in the diagnosis of Shagreen patch. Authors evaluated the dermoscopic patterns of Shagreen patch and hence, it is useful in diagnosis.

  13. Surface patterning of nanoparticles with polymer patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueiri, Rachelle M.; Galati, Elizabeth; Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse; Klinkova, Anna; Larin, Egor M.; Querejeta-Fernández, Ana; Han, Lili; Xin, Huolin L.; Gang, Oleg; Zhulina, Ekaterina B.; Rubinstein, Michael; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2016-10-01

    Patterning of colloidal particles with chemically or topographically distinct surface domains (patches) has attracted intense research interest. Surface-patterned particles act as colloidal analogues of atoms and molecules, serve as model systems in studies of phase transitions in liquid systems, behave as ‘colloidal surfactants’ and function as templates for the synthesis of hybrid particles. The generation of micrometre- and submicrometre-sized patchy colloids is now efficient, but surface patterning of inorganic colloidal nanoparticles with dimensions of the order of tens of nanometres is uncommon. Such nanoparticles exhibit size- and shape-dependent optical, electronic and magnetic properties, and their assemblies show new collective properties. At present, nanoparticle patterning is limited to the generation of two-patch nanoparticles, and nanoparticles with surface ripples or a ‘raspberry’ surface morphology. Here we demonstrate nanoparticle surface patterning, which utilizes thermodynamically driven segregation of polymer ligands from a uniform polymer brush into surface-pinned micelles following a change in solvent quality. Patch formation is reversible but can be permanently preserved using a photocrosslinking step. The methodology offers the ability to control the dimensions of patches, their spatial distribution and the number of patches per nanoparticle, in agreement with a theoretical model. The versatility of the strategy is demonstrated by patterning nanoparticles with different dimensions, shapes and compositions, tethered with various types of polymers and subjected to different external stimuli. These patchy nanocolloids have potential applications in fundamental research, the self-assembly of nanomaterials, diagnostics, sensing and colloidal stabilization.

  14. Diurnal and seasonal occurrence of polar patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rodger

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the diurnal and seasonal variation of polar patches, as identified in two years of HF-radar data from Halley, Antarctica during a period near sunspot maximum, shows that there is a broad maximum in occurrence centred about magnetic noon, not local noon. There are minima in occurrence near midsummer and midwinter, with maxima in occurrence between equinox and winter. There are no significant correlations between the occurrence of polar patches and the corresponding hourly averages of the solar wind and IMF parameters, except that patches usually occur when the interplanetary magnetic field has a southward component. The results can be understood in terms of UT and seasonal differences in the plasma concentration being convected from the dayside ionosphere into the polar cap. In summer and winter the electron concentrations in the polar cap are high and low, respectively, but relatively unstructured. About equinox, a tongue of enhanced ionisation is convected into the polar cap; this tongue is then structured by the effects of the interplanetary magnetic field, but these Halley data cannot be used to separate the various competing mechanisms for patch formation. The observed diurnal and seasonal variation in the occurrence of polar patches are largely consistent with predictions of Sojka et al. (1994 when their results are translated into the southern hemisphere. However, the ionospheric effects of flux transfer events are still considered essential in their formation, a feature not yet included in the Sojka et al. model.

  15. SuperPatchMatch: an Algorithm for Robust Correspondences using Superpixel Patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Remi; Ta, Vinh-Thong; Bugeau, Aurelie; Coupe, Pierrik; Papadakis, Nicolas

    2017-05-29

    Superpixels have become very popular in many computer vision applications. Nevertheless, they remain underexploited since the superpixel decomposition may produce irregular and non stable segmentation results due to the dependency to the image content. In this paper, we first introduce a novel structure, a superpixel-based patch, called SuperPatch. The proposed structure, based on superpixel neighborhood, leads to a robust descriptor since spatial information is naturally included. The generalization of the PatchMatch method to SuperPatches, named SuperPatchMatch, is introduced. Finally, we propose a framework to perform fast segmentation and labeling from an image database, and demonstrate the potential of our approach since we outperform, in terms of computational cost and accuracy, the results of state-of-the-art methods on both face labeling and medical image segmentation.

  16. Adhesive RFID Sensor Patch for Monitoring of Sweat Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Daniel P; Ratterman, Michael E; Griffin, Daniel K; Hou, Linlin; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R; Hagen, Joshua A; Papautsky, Ian; Heikenfeld, Jason C

    2015-06-01

    Wearable digital health devices are dominantly found in rigid form factors such as bracelets and pucks. An adhesive radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensor bandage (patch) is reported, which can be made completely intimate with human skin, a distinct advantage for chronological monitoring of biomarkers in sweat. In this demonstration, a commercial RFID chip is adapted with minimum components to allow potentiometric sensing of solutes in sweat, and surface temperature, as read by an Android smartphone app with 96% accuracy at 50 mM Na(+) (in vitro tests). All circuitry is solder-reflow integrated on a standard Cu/polyimide flexible-electronic layer including an antenna, but while also allowing electroplating for simple integration of exotic metals for sensing electrodes. Optional paper microfluidics wick sweat from a sweat porous adhesive allowing flow to the sensor, or the sensor can be directly contacted to the skin. The wearability of the patch has been demonstrated for up to seven days, and includes a protective textile which provides a feel and appearance similar to a standard Band-Aid. Applications include hydration monitoring, but the basic capability is extendable to other mM ionic solutes in sweat (Cl(-), K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+), and Zn(2+)). The design and fabrication of the patch are provided in full detail, as the basic components could be useful in the design of other wearable sensors.

  17. Thickness variation study of RFID-based folded patch antennas for strain sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaohua; Wu, Terence; Lantz, Gabriel; Wang, Yang; Leon, Roberto T.; Tentzeris, Manos M.

    2011-04-01

    This paper explores folded patch antennas for the development of low-cost and wireless smart-skin sensors that monitor the strain in metallic structures. When the patch antenna is under strain/deformation, its resonance frequency varies accordingly. The variation can be easily interrogated and recorded by a wireless reader that also provides power for the antenna operation. The patch antenna adopts a specially selected substrate material with low dielectric constant, as well as an inexpensive off-the-shelf radiofrequency identification (RFID) chip for signal modulation. A thicker substrate increases RFID signal-to-noise ratio, but reduces the strain transfer efficiency. To experimentally study the effect of substrate thickness, two prototype folded patch antennas with different substrate thicknesses have been designed and manufactured. For both prototypes, tensile testing results show strong linearity between the interrogated resonance frequency and the strain experienced by the antenna. Longer interrogation range is achieved with the larger substrate thickness.

  18. Fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency in presence of sub-patch geometric complexity

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that faults are not planar surfaces. Instead they exhibit self-similar or self-affine properties that span a wide range of spatial (sub-micrometer to tens-of-kilometer). This geometric fault roughness has a distinct impact on amount and distribution of stresses/strains induced in the medium and on other portions of the fault. However, when numerically simulated (for example in multi-cycle EQ rupture simulations or Coulomb failure stress calculations) this roughness is largely ignored: individual fault patches --the incremental elements that build the fault surface in the respective computer models-- are planar and fault roughness at this and lower spatial scales is not considered. As a result, the fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency may be systematically too large in those numerical simulations with respect to the "actual" efficiency level. Here, we investigate the effect of sub-patch geometric complexity on fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency. For that, we sub-divide a fault patch (e.g., 1x1km) into a large number of sub-patches (e.g., 20x20m) and determine amount of induced stresses at selected positions around that patch for different levels and realizations of fault roughness. For each fault roughness level, we compute mean and standard deviation of the induced stresses, enabling us to compute the coefficient of variation. We normalize those values with stresses from the corresponding single (planar) fault patch, providing scaling factors and their variability for stress transfer efficiency. Given a certain fault roughness that is assumed for a fault, this work provides the means to implement the sub-patch fault roughness into investigations based on fault-patch interaction schemes.

  19. Patch-Based Segmentation with Spatial Consistency: Application to MS Lesions in Brain MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roey Mechrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automatic lesion segmentation method based on similarities between multichannel patches. A patch database is built using training images for which the label maps are known. For each patch in the testing image, k similar patches are retrieved from the database. The matching labels for these k patches are then combined to produce an initial segmentation map for the test case. Finally an iterative patch-based label refinement process based on the initial segmentation map is performed to ensure the spatial consistency of the detected lesions. The method was evaluated in experiments on multiple sclerosis (MS lesion segmentation in magnetic resonance images (MRI of the brain. An evaluation was done for each image in the MICCAI 2008 MS lesion segmentation challenge. Results are shown to compete with the state of the art in the challenge. We conclude that the proposed algorithm for segmentation of lesions provides a promising new approach for local segmentation and global detection in medical images.

  20. Dissolving Polymer Microneedle Patches for Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sean P.; Koutsonanos, Dimitrios G.; Martin, Maria del Pilar; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Zarnitsyn, Vladimir; Murthy, Niren; Compans, Richard W.; Skountzou, Ioanna; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza prophylaxis would benefit from a vaccination method enabling simplified logistics and improved immunogenicity without the dangers posed by hypodermic needles. Here, we introduce dissolving microneedle patches for influenza vaccination using a simple patch-based system that targets delivery to skin’s antigen-presenting cells. Microneedles were fabricated using a biocompatible polymer encapsulating inactivated influenza virus vaccine for insertion and dissolution in the skin within minutes. Microneedle vaccination generated robust antibody and cellular immune responses in mice that provided complete protection against lethal challenge. Compared to conventional intramuscular injection, microneedle vaccination resulted in more efficient lung virus clearance and enhanced cellular recall responses after challenge. These results suggest that dissolving microneedle patches can provide a novel technology for simpler and safer vaccination with improved immunogenicity that could facilitate increased vaccination coverage. PMID:20639891

  1. Economic evaluation of HIV testing for men who have sex with men in community-based organizations - results from six European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Julian; Rosado, Ricardo; Amri, Omar; Morel, Stéphane; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chanos, Sophocles; Cigan, Bojan; Lobnik, Miha; Fuertes, Ricardo; Pichon, François; Kaye, Per Slaaen; Agustí, Cristina; Fernàndez-López, Laura; Lorente, Nicolas; Casabona, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    The non-decreasing incidence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) has motivated the emergence of Community Based Voluntary Counselling and Testing (CBVCT) services specifically addressed to MSM. The CBVCT services are characterized by facilitated access and linkage to care, a staff largely constituted by voluntary peers, and private not-for-profit structures outside the formal health system institutions. Encouraging results have been measured about their effectiveness, but these favourable results may have been obtained at high costs, questioning the opportunity to expand the experience. We performed an economic evaluation of HIV testing for MSM at CBVCT services, and compared them across six European cities. We collected retrospective data for six CBVCT services from six cities (Copenhagen, Paris, Lyon, Athens, Lisbon, and Ljubljana), for the year 2014, on the number of HIV tests and HIV reactive tests, and on all expenditures to perform the testing activities. The total costs of CBVCTs varied from 54,390€ per year (Ljubljana) to 245,803€ per year (Athens). The cost per HIV test varied from to 41€ (Athens) to 113€ (Ljubljana). The cost per HIV reactive test varied from 1966€ (Athens) to 9065€ (Ljubljana). Our results show that the benefits of CBVCT services are obtained at an acceptable cost, in comparison with the literature (values, mostly from the USA, range from 1600$ to 16,985$ per HIV reactive test in clinical and non-clinical settings). This result was transversal to several European cities, highlighting that there is a common CBVCT model, the cost of which is comparable regardless of the epidemiological context and prices. The CBVCT services represent an effective and "worth it" experience, to be continued and expanded in future public health strategies towards HIV.

  2. Patch esophagoplasty: esophageal reconstruction using biologic scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieponice, Alejandro; Ciotola, Franco F; Nachman, Fabio; Jobe, Blair A; Hoppo, Toshitaka; Londono, Ricardo; Badylak, Stephen; Badaloni, Adolfo E

    2014-01-01

    Standard techniques for surgical reconstruction of the esophagus remain suboptimal. Primary closure of diseased or injured esophagus has been associated with high morbidity, primarily due to leak and stricture, and synthetic materials are contraindicated due to the high risk of erosion and infection. Degradable bioscaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) have recently shown promising results in both pre-clinical and clinical settings to prevent stricture after extended endoscopic mucosal resection. We propose a novel surgical technique that utilizes an ECM scaffold as a reconstructive patch to augment the esophageal diameter during primary repair. Four patients requiring esophageal reconstruction underwent a patch esophagoplasty using an ECM scaffold composed of porcine urinary bladder ECM. The full thickness wall of the esophagus was replaced with an ECM patch that was sutured to the edges of the remaining esophagus, similar to the patch angioplasty performed in vascular procedures. All patients had a favorable clinical outcome with immediate recovery from the procedure and reinstated oral intake after 7 days. One patient had a micro leak at day 5 that closed spontaneously 2 days after drainage. Follow-up studies including barium swallow and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) showed adequate esophageal emptying through the surgical segment in all patients. The EGD showed complete mucosal remodeling at 2 months, with approximately 20% area contraction at the patch level. The area of the defect was indistinguishable from surrounding healthy tissue. Biopsy of the patch area showed normal squamous epithelium. One of the patients had a separate intrathoracic stricture that required further surgery. Clinical outcomes were otherwise favorable in all cases. An alternative for the treatment of esophageal stenosis is presented which uses a biological scaffold and an innovative surgical procedure. Additional work, including prospective studies and long-term follow

  3. Efficacy testing of cosmetic products. A proposal to the European Community by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Ministry of Environment and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, J

    2001-08-01

    Regulations for cosmetic products primarily address safety of the products that may be used by large populations of healthy consumers. Requirements for documentation of efficacy claims are only fragmentary. This synopsis aims to review and conclude a set of standards that may be acceptable to the European Community, and the cosmetic industry, as a legal standard for efficacy documentation in Europe in the future. Ethical, formal, experimental, statistical and other aspects of efficacy testing are described, including validation, quality control and assurance. The importance of user relevant clinical end points, a controlled randomized trial design and evidence-based cosmetic product documentation, validation of methods, statistical power estimation and proper data handling, reporting and archiving is emphasized. The main principles of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) good clinical practice (GCP) should be followed by the cosmetics industry in a spirit of good documentation standard and scientific soundness, but full GCP is not considered mandatory in the field of cosmetics. Documentation by validated bio-instrumental methods may be acceptable, but efficacy documentation based on information about raw materials, reference to literature and laboratory experiments are only acceptable in exceptional cases. Principles for efficacy substantiation of cosmetic products in Europe, as described in this synopsis, are officially proposed by the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy to the European Community as a basis for an amendment to the Cosmetics Directive or otherwise implemented as a European Community regulation.

  4. Genotoxicity testing approaches for the safety assessment of substances used in food contact materials prior to their authorization in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Castoldi, Anna F; Crebelli, Riccardo; Barthélémy, Eric; Maurici, Daniela; Wölfle, Detlef; Volk, Katharina; Castle, Laurence

    2017-06-01

    Food contact materials are all materials and articles intended to come directly or indirectly into contact with food. Before being included in the positive European "Union list" of authorized substances (monomers, other starting substances and additives) for plastic food contact materials, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) must assess their safety "in use". If relevant for risk, the safety of the main impurities, reaction and degradation products originating from the manufacturing process is also evaluated. Information on genotoxicity is always required irrespective of the extent of migration and the resulting human exposure, in view of the theoretical lack of threshold for genotoxic events. The 2008 EFSA approach, requiring the testing of food contact materials in three in vitro mutagenicity tests, though still acceptable, is now superseded by the 2011 EFSA Scientific Committee's recommendation for only two complementary tests including a bacterial gene mutation test and an in vitro micronucleus test, to detect two main genetic endpoints (i.e., gene mutations and chromosome aberrations). Follow-up of in vitro positive results depends on the type of genetic effect and on the substance's systemic availability. In this study, we provide an analysis of the data on genotoxicity testing gathered by EFSA on food contact materials for the period 1992-2015. We also illustrate practical examples of the approaches that EFSA took when evaluating "non standard" food contact chemicals (e.g., polymeric additives, oligomer or other reaction mixtures, and nanosubstances). Additionally, EFSA's experience gained from using non testing methods and/or future possibilities in this area are discussed. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:361-374, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Genome-wide association study of alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) scores in 20 328 research participants of European ancestry.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Roige, S; Fontanillas, P.; Elson, SL; 23andMe Research Team,; Gray, JC; De Wit, H.; Davis, LK; MacKillop, J.; Palmer, AA

    2017-01-01

    Genetic factors contribute to the risk for developing alcohol use disorder (AUD). In collaboration with the genetics company 23andMe, Inc., we performed a genome-wide association study of the alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT), an instrument designed to screen for alcohol misuse over the past year. Our final sample consisted of 20 328 research participants of European ancestry (55.3% females; mean age = 53.8, SD = 16.1) who reported ever using alcohol. Our results showed that th...

  6. External quality assessment for KRAS testing is needed: setup of a European program and report of the first joined regional quality assessment rounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellon, Ellen; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Tejpar, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    . In an effort to ensure optimal, uniform, and reliable community-based KRAS testing throughout Europe, a KRAS external quality assessment (EQA) scheme was set up. The first large assessment round included 59 laboratories from eight different European countries. For each country, one regional scheme organizer...... their own preferred method for histological evaluation, DNA isolation, and mutation analysis. In this study, we analyze the setup of the KRAS scheme. We analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the regional scheme organization by analyzing the outcome of genotyping results, analysis of tumor percentage...

  7. European non-invasive trisomy evaluation (EU-NITE) study: a multicenter prospective cohort study for non-invasive fetal trisomy 21 testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, E J; Jacobsson, B; van Scheltema, P A; de Boer, M A; Hoffer, M J V; Hollemon, D; Westgren, M; Song, K; Oepkes, D

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the performance of a directed non-invasive prenatal testing method of cell-free DNA analysis for fetal trisomy 21 (T21) by shipping the whole blood samples from Europe to a laboratory in the USA. A European multicenter prospective, consecutive cohort study was performed enrolling pregnant women from Sweden and the Netherlands. Blood samples were drawn just prior to a planned of invasive diagnostic procedure in a population at increased risk for fetal T21 and then shipped to the USA without any blood processing. Chromosome-selective sequencing was carried out on chromosome 21 with reporting high risk or low risk of T21. Karyotyping or rapid aneuploidy detection was used as the clinical reference standard. Of the 520 eligible study subjects, a T21 test result was obtained in 504/520 (96.9%). Risk assessment was accurate in 503/504 subjects (99.8%). There was one false negative result for T21 (sensitivity 17/18, 94.4%, and specificity 100%). This is the first prospective European multicenter study showing that non-invasive prenatal testing using directed sequencing of cell-free DNA applied to blood samples shipped across the Atlantic Ocean, is highly accurate for assessing risk of fetal T21. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Pre-clinical development of antifungal susceptibility test methods for the testing of the novel antifungal agent E1210 versus Candida: comparison of CLSI and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Watanabe, Naoaki; Castanheira, Mariana; Messer, Shawn A; Jones, Ronald N

    2011-11-01

    To compare European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and CLSI broth microdilution (BMD) methods for testing the novel antifungal E1210 against a recent collection of 102 clinical isolates of Candida spp. Candida isolates (102) were tested by CLSI and EUCAST methods; 21 Candida albicans, 20 Candida glabrata, 25 Candida parapsilosis, 24 Candida tropicalis and 12 Candida krusei, including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates. CLSI and EUCAST MIC endpoints of 50% and 100% inhibition were determined using visual reading at 24 and 48 h of incubation and spectrophotometric reading at 24 h of incubation, respectively. E1210 CLSI MIC results ranged from ≤0.008 to only 1 mg/L (excluding C. krusei) depending on species, duration of incubation and endpoint criteria (EC). E1210 was not active against C. krusei (MIC(50) >16 mg/L). Overall essential agreement (EA; ±2 doubling dilutions) between the 24 and 48 h CLSI readings was 100% and 97.6% using the 50% and 100% inhibition EC, respectively. Slightly more trailing growth at 48 h was observed with the 100% inhibition EC. Comparison of the 50% and 100% endpoints at 24 h of incubation showed an overall EA of 100%. Comparison of CLSI and EUCAST read at 24 h of incubation and either 50% or 100% inhibition revealed an EA of 97.8% using the 50% inhibition EC and 88.9% using the 100% inhibition EC. E1210 was found to have potent in vitro activity against Candida spp. when tested by both CLSI and EUCAST BMD methods, with the highest overall EA (97.8%) obtained when E1210 MIC results were read after 24 h of incubation using a partial inhibition EC.

  9. Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Marianne; Vowell, Julie

    2013-01-01

    "Soil, Seeds, and the Pumpkin Patch!" is an integrated unit designed to provide elementary school teachers with ideas for using hands-on activities, fostering inquiry and valuable discussion, and using technology as a learning tool. This unit integrates science with language arts, mathematics, literature, and technology. During this unit, students…

  10. Catching Patches: Filling-in between edges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, R.J. van; Vergeer, M.L.T.

    2008-01-01

    The patches that appear at the crossings in the Hermann grid are known to disappear when the straight contours in the grid are distorted, eg by curvature (Geier et al, 2004 Perception 33 Supplement, 53). Here, we present an illusion based on Hermann-grid-like gratings in which the contours are

  11. Learning Dictionaries of Discriminative Image Patches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Remarkable results have been obtained using image models based on image patches, for example sparse generative models for image inpainting, noise reduction and superresolution, sparse texture segmentation or texton models. In this paper we propose a powerful and yet simple approach for segmentati...

  12. Patch-mosaic burning: a new paradigm for savanna fire management in protected areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Parr

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The shift in ecological thinking, from equilibrium to non-equilibrium processes has been accompanied by a move to encourage heterogeneity rather than homogeneity in landscapes. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity is thought to be a major source of biotic diversity, and disturbances such as fire, producing heterogeneity are now recognised as being important. A patch-mosaic system of burning is based on the premise that fire pattern is a surrogate for diversity, and produces a range of patches in the landscape with unique patch characteristics and fire histories. A patch-mosaic system of burning is supported historically and empirically through field studies. However, there is a need for more research into the effects of various aspects of patch and fire variables on biotic diversity, especially in savannas where our understanding is particularly poor. Landscape-scale experiments, like those to be established in the Kruger National Park, South Africa are necessary to test different burning regimes. Challenges to patch- mosaic burning include determining the 'natural' range of variation for fire parameters, implementing random ignitions, and cost-effective fire scar mapping at the appropriate resolution. An adaptive management approach should be adopted to deal with the ignorance and uncertainties that characterise the management of savanna ecosystems. This should be applied with both modelling and monitoring as key elements in this process.

  13. A method to visualize transdermal nickel permeation in mouse skin using a nickel allergy patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Tomoko; Uo, Motohiro; Wada, Takahiro; Hongo, Toshio; Omagari, Daisuke; Komiyama, Kazuo; Oikawa, Masakazu; Kusama, Mikio; Mori, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Metal patch test is often used in clinical settings when metal-induced contact dermatitis is suspected. However, the transdermal permeation behavior of metal ions from the patch test remains unclear. Current patch tests using high concentrations of metal salt solutions have some side effects, e.g. acute skin reactions to high concentrations of metal salt. To resolve these, estimating metal ion transdermal permeation is wished. In this study, synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and micro-focused particle-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) were used to visualize the time-dependent Ni permeation in mouse skin. The cross-sectional diffusion of Ni was visualized in a time-dependent manner. Our results indicate that maximum Ni permeation occurs after 24 h of patch treatment, and the permeated Ni content was high in the epidermis and spread into the dermis beyond the basal layer. This method may be useful to determine the appropriate solution concentration and duration of administration for the patch test. PMID:26484550

  14. Developing a Nicotine Patch Adherence Intervention for HIV-positive Latino Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, William G.; Galvan, Frank H.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes two phases of formative research that were undertaken to develop a smoking cessation treatment module that has the goal of improving adherence with the nicotine patch in HIV-positive Latino smokers. Each research phase (Phase I and II) was conducted independent of the other and used different methods to inform the development of the intervention. Phase I interviewed n=14 smokers who had previous experience using the nicotine patch to gain detailed understanding of how, when, and why they used it; their perceived barriers to using it; and their perspective on ways to improve adherence to it. Phase II provided n=35 smokers with brief smoking cessation treatment and nicotine patches, then interviewed them in “near real time” over a two month period about their use of the patch during a quit attempt (e.g., perceived barriers and facilitators). Authors of the paper conducted a qualitative analysis of the themes emerging from the interview transcripts across these two phases. Results indicated that consistent use of the nicotine patch was associated with maintaining high motivation for use (i.e., not necessarily motivation to quit, but motivation to continue patch use); linking its use with established daily routines (e.g., with taking other medications, with brushing teeth); and maintaining realistic expectations for patch efficacy (e.g., that users may still experience some level of craving and/or withdrawal). This information will used to develop and pilot test a brief treatment module that focuses on improving nicotine patch adherence. PMID:27070097

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Rivastigmine Transdermal Patch Based on Chitosan Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mohsen; Ganji, Fariba; Taghizadeh, Seyyed Mojtaba; Daraei, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a novel approach for preparation of a 6-day transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) as treatment for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. The spray drying method was used to prepare microparticles containing the anti-Alzheimer drug, Rivastigmine, in combination with the natural polymer, chitosan, for transdermal drug delivery applications. The content of the drug was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method which was validated as per FDA guidelines. The morphology and size range of the microparticles were determined; and the effect of drug concentration in the solution injected into the spray dryer on the particles characterizations was studied. The stability of Rivastigmine at high temperature was confirmed using FTIR analysis as well as a validate HPLC assay. The obtained results show that the drug was stable at high temperatures with 7 to 42% loading in the microparticles, and the higher drug concentrations of the solution injected into the spray dryer resulted in increase of the drug loading, surface drug and microparticles distortion. The TDDS containing the microparticles was also prepared with microparticle to dry adhesive ratios of 5, 10 and 15% using acrylic adhesive. Based on adhesion properties of the patches, gained from the probe tack and the peel adhesion 180° tests, and the 15% patch by having more drug content per unit area of the patch, and still having similar adhesion properties was compared to the microparticles-free patch of 5.1% Rivastigmine salt (equivalent to the drug content of the 15% patch) from the permeation point of view by using Franz cell diffusion over 6 days. The drug permeation rate from the microparticle-free patch was slower than the 15% microparticles patch, which is the result of crystallization of Rivastigmine salt in the acrylic adhesive. The 6-day-prepared TDDS can be considered as an alternative for one-week application of 6 Exelon patches.

  16. [High-resolution patch-clamp technique based on feedback control of scanning ion conductance microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Xiao-Fan; Lu, Hu-Jie; Zhang, Yan-Jun

    2010-06-25

    The ion channels located on the cell fine structures play an important role in the physiological functions of cell membrane. However, it is impossible to achieve precise positioning on the nanometer scale cellular microstructures by conventional patch-clamp technique, due to the 200 nm resolution limit of optical microscope. To solve this problem, we have established a high-resolution patch-clamp technique, which combined commercial scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) and patch-clamp recording through a nanopipette probe, based on SICM feedback control. MDCK cells were used as observation object to test the capability of the technique. Firstly, a feedback controlled SICM nanopipette (approximately 150 MOmega) non-contactly scanned over a selected area of living MDCK cells monolayer to obtain high-resolution topographic images of microvilli and tight-junction microstructures on the MDCK cells monolayer. Secondly, the same nanopipette was non-contactly moved and precisely positioned over the microvilli or tight-junction microstructure under SICM feedback control. Finally, the SICM feedback control was switched off, the nanopipette slowly contacted with the cell membrane to get a patch-clamp giga-ohm sealing in the cell-attached patch-clamp configuration, and then performed ion channel recording as a normal patch-clamp electrode. The ion channel recordings showed that ion channels of microvilli microstructure opened at pipette holding potential of -100, -60, -40, 0, +40, +60, +100 mV (n=11). However, the opening of ion channels of tight-junction microstructure was not detected at pipette holding potential of -100, -40, 0, +40, +100 mV (n=9). These results suggest that our high-resolution patch-clamp technique can achieve accurate nanopipette positioning and nanometer scale high-resolution patch-clamp recording, which may provide a powerful tool to study the spatial distribution and functions of ion channel in the nanometer scale microstructures of living

  17. PatchSurfers: Two methods for local molecular property-based binding ligand prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woong-Hee; Bures, Mark Gregory; Kihara, Daisuke

    2016-01-15

    Protein function prediction is an active area of research in computational biology. Function prediction can help biologists make hypotheses for characterization of genes and help interpret biological assays, and thus is a productive area for collaboration between experimental and computational biologists. Among various function prediction methods, predicting binding ligand molecules for a target protein is an important class because ligand binding events for a protein are usually closely intertwined with the proteins' biological function, and also because predicted binding ligands can often be directly tested by biochemical assays. Binding ligand prediction methods can be classified into two types: those which are based on protein-protein (or pocket-pocket) comparison, and those that compare a target pocket directly to ligands. Recently, our group proposed two computational binding ligand prediction methods, Patch-Surfer, which is a pocket-pocket comparison method, and PL-PatchSurfer, which compares a pocket to ligand molecules. The two programs apply surface patch-based descriptions to calculate similarity or complementarity between molecules. A surface patch is characterized by physicochemical properties such as shape, hydrophobicity, and electrostatic potentials. These properties on the surface are represented using three-dimensional Zernike descriptors (3DZD), which are based on a series expansion of a 3 dimensional function. Utilizing 3DZD for describing the physicochemical properties has two main advantages: (1) rotational invariance and (2) fast comparison. Here, we introduce Patch-Surfer and PL-PatchSurfer with an emphasis on PL-PatchSurfer, which is more recently developed. Illustrative examples of PL-PatchSurfer performance on binding ligand prediction as well as virtual drug screening are also provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA): results with the European baseline series, 2013/14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uter, W; Amario-Hita, J C; Balato, A; Ballmer-Weber, B; Bauer, A; Belloni Fortina, A; Bircher, A; Chowdhury, M M U; Cooper, S M; Czarnecka-Operacz, M; Dugonik, A; Gallo, R; Giménez-Arnau, A; Johansen, J D; John, S M; Kieć-Świerczyńska, M; Kmecl, T; Kręcisz, B; Larese Filon, F; Mahler, V; Pesonen, M; Rustemeyer, T; Sadowska-Przytocka, A; Sánchez-Pérez, J; Schliemann, S; Schuttelaar, M L; Simon, D; Spiewak, R; Valiukevičienė, S; Weisshaar, E; White, I R; Wilkinson, S M

    2017-09-01

    Contact allergy is a common condition and can severely interfere with daily life or professional activities. Due to changes in exposures, such as introduction of new substances, new products or formulations and regulatory intervention, the spectrum of contact sensitization changes. To evaluate the current spectrum of contact allergy to allergens present in the European baseline series (EBS) across Europe. Retrospective analysis of data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA, www.essca-dc.org) in consecutively patch-tested patients, 2013/14, in 46 departments in 12 European countries. Altogether, 31 689 patients were included in the analysis. Compared to a similar analysis in 2004, the prevalence of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone went up to around 20% in several departments. In comparison, contact allergy to the metals nickel, cobalt and chromium remained largely stable, at 18.1%, 5.9% and 3.2%, respectively, similar to mostly unchanged prevalence with fragrance mix I, II and Myroxylon pereirae (balsam of Peru) at 7.3%, 3.8% and 5.3%, respectively. In the subgroup of departments diagnosing (mainly) patients with occupational contact dermatitis, the prevalence of work-related contact allergies such as epoxy resin or rubber additives was found to be increased, compared to general dermatology departments. Continuous surveillance of contact allergy based on network data offers the identification of time trends or persisting problems, and thus enables focussing in-depth research (subgroup analyses, exposure analysis) on areas where it is needed. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. Serosal patching impairs intestinal adaptation following enterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, L E; Thompson, J S

    1992-02-01

    Increasing intestinal absorptive surface by mucosal regeneration on serosal patched intestinal defects is a potential surgical treatment for the short bowel syndrome. We previously found in long-term studies that serosal patching in dogs undergoing 75% enterectomy was deleterious to intestinal adaptation and absorption. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of serosal patching on the early morphologic and functional changes in postresectional adaptation and to examine the role of polyamine metabolic pathways in this process. Five unoperated New Zealand white rabbits (GP I) served as controls. Twelve other rabbits underwent either 50% distal enterectomy alone (GP II) or simultaneously had two 2 x 5-cm full-thickness ileal defects patched with adjacent cecal serosa (GP III). Animals in GP II gained an average of 7.2 +/- 5.3% body weight, whereas GP III animals lost 5.6 +/- 9.0% body weight (P less than 0.05). Intestinal remnant length was significantly less in GP III 3 weeks postoperatively (66 +/- 11 vs 85 +/- 8 cm, P less than 0.05) as was mucosal protein content (4.1 +/- 1.8% vs 6.2 +/- 1.9%) but villus height was similar in GPs II and III (505 +/- 131 vs 508 +/- 110 microns). In vitro mucosal function was similar in all three groups. Crypt cell production rate was significantly lower while ornithine decarboxylase and diamine oxidase activity were higher in GP III compared to GP II. However, polyamine levels were similar in all three groups. Serosal patching impairs intestinal adaptation following massive enterectomy. This is due in part to a decrease in proliferative activity which is not directly related to altered polyamine levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Light transmission and preference of eye patches for occlusion treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan Heo

    Full Text Available To investigate light transmission and preference for six eye patches for occlusion therapy.Six patches were examined, including; Ortopad Fun Pack, Ortopad Flesh, Kawamoto A-1, Kawamoto A-2, 3M Opticlude, and Everade Eye Guard. The size and the presence of a light blocking pad of patches were investigated. The amount of light transmitted through the patches was evaluated, using a digital light meter and a model eye, in three different environments; indoors with fluorescent light, outdoors on a sunny day, and strong light from illuminator. After patching the normal eye, the flash visual evoked potential (VEP was measured. Thirty patients with amblyopia or horizontal strabismus, who received occlusion therapy as initial treatment, were included. After using all six patches, patients completed a 7-item questionnaire regarding the patch preference for size, color and shape, adhesive power, pain with removal, skin irritation after removing patch, parent's preference and overall opinion.All patches had a light-blocking pad, except the 3M Nexcare. Ortopad had the strongest light blocking power in the three environments, and the 3M Nexcare had the weakest power. In flash VEP, Ortopad and Kawamoto patches showed flat, but 3M Nexcare and Everade Eye Guard showed normal response. There were significant preferential differences among the patches in all the items of the questionnaire (P<0.05. In comparison between the patches respectively, 3M Nexcare received the lowest satisfaction in pain when removing a patch and skin irritation after removing a patch. Kawamoto A-2 received the lowest score in the overall satisfaction.We found differences in the light-blocking power and in the preference of the various patches for the occlusion treatment. This is a pilot study regarding only characteristics and preferences of patches. Further clinical studies regarding the relationship between characteristics or preferences of patches and outcomes of occlusion treatment