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Sample records for european mistletoe effects

  1. Effects of European mistletoe (Viscum album L. subsp. album) extracts on activity rhythms of the Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Alper; Turker, Arzu Ucar; Gunduz, Bulent

    2008-01-01

    Antitumor drugs may have some significant nervous system side-effects such as disrupted sleep, eating and drinking patterns. European Mistletoe has been investigated for many decades for its potential use against cancer. To test the hypothesis that the non-antineoplastic effects of mistletoe might be mediated by the actions on the circadian timing system, we have applied mistletoe extracts and vehicle and have measured locomotor activity, feeding and drinking rhythms under constant darkness. Four groups (vehicle, 20 mg kg(-1) ip injection, 40 mg kg(-1) ip injection and 6 g kg(-1) oral administration) were performed for both heat-treated and freeze-dried extracts. None of the administrations changed the locomotor activity, feeding and drinking rhythms in the groups except for 40 mg kg(-1) freeze-dried injected group. The locomotor activity levels decreased in 40 mg kg(-1) freeze-dried extract injected group. These results suggest that, side-effects of mistletoe on circadian timing system of the Syrian hamster depend on the dose and the preparation method of the extract.

  2. Transcriptomic and proteomic insight into the effects of a defined European mistletoe extract in Ewing sarcoma cells reveals cellular stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardziok, M; Meierhofer, D; Börno, S; Timmermann, B; Jäger, S; Boral, Sengül; Eggert, A; Delebinski, C I; Seifert, G

    2017-04-28

    The hydrophobic triterpenes, oleanolic and betulinic acid as well as the hydrophilic mistletoe lectins and viscotoxins possess anticancer properties. They do all occur in combination in European mistletoe (Viscum album L.). Commercial Viscum album L. extracts are aqueous, excluding the insoluble triterpenes. We have previously shown that mistletoe lectins and triterpene acids are effective against Ewing sarcoma in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. We recreated a total mistletoe effect (viscumTT) by combining an aqueous extract (viscum) and a triterpene extract (TT) solubilised with cyclodextrins and analysed the effects of viscumTT and the single extracts on TC-71 Ewing sarcoma cells in vitro by transcriptomic and proteomic profiling. Treatment with the extracts strongly impacted Ewing sarcoma cell gene and protein expression. Apoptosis-associated and stress-activated genes were upregulated, proteasomal protein abundance enhanced and ribosomal and spliceosomal proteins downregulated. The mechanism of action of viscum, TT and viscumTT in TC-71 and MHH-ES-1 cells suggests the involvement of the unfolded protein response. While viscum and viscumTT extract treatment indicate response to oxidative stress and activation of stress-mediated MAPK signalling, TT extract treatment suggests the involvement of TLR signalling and autophagy. Since the combinatory extract viscumTT exerts highly effective pro-apoptotic effects on Ewing sarcoma cells in vitro, this phytopolychemotherapy could be a promising adjuvant therapeutic option for paediatric patients with Ewing sarcoma.

  3. mistletoe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: The extract of the leaves of Viscum album (mistletoe) has been used for centuries in traditional medicine in many parts of the world. However, like many medicinal plants, the belief that things of natural origin are safe may not be entirely true. The blood is a good indicator of health and pathological ...

  4. Novel GHB-derived natural products from European mistletoe (Viscum album).

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    Amer, Bashar; Juvik, Ole Johan; Francis, George W; Fossen, Torgils

    2013-08-01

    The European white-berry mistletoe [Viscum album L. (Loranthaceae)] is among the oldest known medicinal plants. At present the most important application of mistletoe extracts is in the treatment of cancer. However, natural products specific to mistletoe have rarely been encountered in the current literature. To discover novel natural products specific to European mistletoe. European mistletoe was extracted with methanol, purified to partition against diethyl ether and further purified with XAD-7 column chromatography. Pure compounds were separated by Sephadex column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The structures of the novel compounds were established using a combination of several 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry. A new type of natural product derived from the methyl ester of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) coupled to hydroxybenzoic acids, namely 3-(3'-carbomethoxypropyl) gallic acid and 3-(3'-carbomethoxypropyl)-7→3″-protocatechoyl galloate were characterized from European white-berry mistletoe. Condensation of the 3-hydroxyl of gallic acid with the 4-hydroxyl of GHB significantly reduced the radical scavenging properties of the former compound. The characterized compounds define a novel group of natural products that may be of particular interest because it appears that the two new compounds are not closely related to any known natural product.

  5. Use and safety of intratumoral application of European mistletoe (Viscum album L) preparations in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Megan L; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

    2015-03-01

    Intratumoral (IT) injection of European mistletoe (Viscum album L) preparations might induce local tumor response through combined cytotoxic and immunomodulatory actions of the preparations. Although promising in vitro and in vivo data, along with clinical case studies suggest the need for validation of this hypothesis in prospective trials, the safety of IT mistletoe injections has yet to be thoroughly assessed. The present study summarizes the practice and safety of off-label IT mistletoe therapy within the Network Oncology, a conjoint clinical registry of German hospitals and outpatients specialized in anthroposophic and integrative medicine. Demographic, diagnosis and treatment data of cancer patients who received IT mistletoe applications between 2007 and 2013 were assessed. Suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were analyzed in terms of type, frequency, severity, seriousness and potential risk factors. A total of 123 cancer patients received 862 IT mistletoe injections (preparations from Abnoba, Helixor and Iscucin). The most commonly applied preparations were Abnoba viscum Fraxini (71 patients) and Helixor Mali (54 patients). Of the total patients, 26 patients (21.1%) experienced 74 ADRs. All ADRs were in response to either Abnoba viscum Fraxini (25.4% of exposed patients) or Helixor Mali (18.5% of exposed patients). ADRs were mostly body temperature or immune related and of mild (83.8%) or moderate (14.9%) intensity. Only one possible ADR was described as severe (hypertension) and no serious ADRs occurred. The frequency of ADRs to IT mistletoe injections was 3 times and 5 times higher than has previously been found for subcutaneous and intravenous applications of mistletoe, respectively. IT injection of mistletoe preparations resulted in a relatively high frequency of ADRs. Nearly all ADRs were mild to moderate however, and no serious ADRs occurred. Furthermore, it is possible that immune-related ADRs such as pyrexia and local inflammatory reactions might

  6. Investigation of the Effect of Aqeous Mistletoe Leaf Extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous leaf extract of the mistletoe was investigated for hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolaemic effect in diabetic rabbits. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rabbits in groups I-II by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at 100mg/kg body weight. Following confirmation of hyperglycaemia, groups I and II ...

  7. The importance of clinical mistletoe cancer therapy and korean mistletoe pharmacopuncture preparation development and application possibility for oriental medicine

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    Ok-Byung Choi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Mistletoe extracts have been in use for around 85 years, predominantly in the area of cancer therapy. Today mistletoe preparations are among the most prescribed drugs in cancer medicine, thus constituting a standard biological therapy in the area of oncology. The purpose of this study is to analyze the practical implications of mistletoe cancer therapy, their clinical status, their preparation techniques and companies. Contents : Mistletoe therapy for cancer has been developed within the context of anthroposophical medicine. One major effect of mistletoe extract is that it stimulates the immune system and cancer defences. In Germany, a total of eight different mistletoe preparations are available, five developed by Anthroposophic Medicine and three evolved from research in phytotherapy. Therapy always consists of an introductory phase in order to test the patient′s tolerance, find the right dosage and choose the most suitable preparation. This paper covers the background of mistletoe medical plant materials, mistletoe therapy for cancer, the anthroposophical medicine and clinical research, the practical regulation of treatment, preparation of mistletoe drugs. Result & suggestion : Mistletoe extracts are a complementary teratment of cancer, widely used in intergrative cancer care. The study of the integration of korean mistletoe extracts to oriental cancer medicine, its development and feasibility in Korea are urgently needed. The products, substances, compositions of european mistletoe drugs are very similar to those of oriental medicine theory. Applying the mistletoe cancer therapy and its preparation techniques to oriental medicine, the herbal acupuncture preparation should be modernized and korean mistletoe products are to be developed. To this end, government and herbal acupuncture society need to interact each other for the development of oriental mistletoe cancer medicine.

  8. Proliferation, Apoptosis and Invasion effects of mistletoe alkali on human osteosarcoma U2OS in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Wang, Yishu; Pang, Lei; Zhang, Lihong; Zhai, Yingxian; Zhou, Houlan

    2016-04-25

    To evaluate the effects of mistletoe alkali on human Osteosarcoma cells (U2OS) in vitro. Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone tumor, although there are a lot of therapies such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, its prognosis is still very poor. There is increasing interest in the protective biological function of natural antioxidants contained in Chinese medicinal herbs, which are candidates for the prevention of tumors. Mistletoe alkali is one of the compounds extracted from Viscum coloratum (Komar.) Nakai, one kind of mistletoe, whose extracts contribute to the improvement of the prognosis of patients with malignancies. The effect of mistletoe alkali on the growth of U2OS cells was compared with 5-FU, using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). The influence of mistletoe alkali on U2OS's proliferation and apoptosis were tested by TUNEL staining and immunocytochemical (ICC) staining of caspase 3 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Additionally, the invasion ability of U2OS cells was detected using a Boyden chamber trans-well migration assay. CCK-8 assays gave an IC50 of 7μg/ml for mistletoe alkali. Compared to 5-FU, mistletoe alkali inhibited U2OS proliferation and induced apoptosis more effectively. The invasion ability of U2OS was also weaker in mistletoe alkali than in 5-FU. Mistletoe alkali significantly inhibited growth and invasion abilities of U2OS cells and induced their apoptosis in vitro. Mistletoe alkali may be a more effective drug for Human Osteosarcoma than the standard chemotherapeutic drug 5-FU.

  9. Modelling of the Distribution of European Mistletoe (Viscum album with Dependence on Local Factors in the Castle Park in Lednice

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    Tivadar Baltazár

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The European mistletoe (Viscum album infection intensity and frequency of their host taxa individuals was monitored within the sections of the Castle Park in Lednice during the last four years. The data analysis was carried out only with these infected host taxa which occur in the park the most frequently: Acer campestre, A. platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus, Crataegus monogyna, C. pedicellata, Juglans nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Tilia cordata and T. platyphyllos. For the statistical modelling it was used total 3039 individuals, among them 1424 are already infected by mistletoe (47%. Nine local factors (tree age, development stage, location of individuals, physiological and biomechanical aspect of vitality, tree height, diameter at breast height, crown projection area and crown volume were examined with dependence on mistletoe infection. Due to our results, all of examined factors have strong impact to the infection in the majority of host taxa; except of vitality, this relationship is directly proportional. No statistical significant impact was observed in case of Crataegus pedicellata. There is a big difference among the hosts, the largest mistletoe amount was observed in case of Juglans nigra. It was also proved that neither host nor mistletoe distribution are spread uniformly.

  10. [Mistletoe (Viscum album) preparations: an optional drug for cancer patients?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Sela, Gil; Gershony, Avishay; Haim, Nissim

    2006-01-01

    Extracts and preparations from the parasitic plant mistletoe (Viscum album L.) have been used in the treatment of cancer for decades. Mistletoe treatment for cancer was introduced in 1920 by Steiner and Wegman, founders of the Anthroposophical medical method. Today, mistletoe extracts are the most frequently prescribed unconventional cancer therapies in Germany, as in some other European countries. Full clinical data about the efficacy of the mistletoe preparations is still missing. The preparations are usually given as subcutaneous injections, but other routes of administration are also used. Numerous preclinical and in-vitro studies have reported immunostimulatory, cytotoxic and proapoptotic effects. More than 15 prospective clinical trials using mistletoe extracts in patients with different malignancies have been reported. In most of these studies the authors reported that mistletoe extracts had therapeutic benefit in terms of response rate, overall survival, quality of life and reduction in side-effects of the oncological treatment. Unfortunately, almost all of these reported studies had at least one major weakness that questioned their reliability. Side effects of the different mistletoe preparation used in human studies are generally minimal and non-life threatening. In the current review recent studies, including two phase II studies from our center, are included. In the future, data that will be obtained from good quality studies might facilitate reaching firm conclusions regarding the therapeutic benefit of mistletoe preparation for oncological treatment.

  11. Effects of Mistletoe on the lipid profile and aorta of Triton WR-1339 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of mistletoe on the lipid profile and aorta of triton wr-1339 treated Wistar rats was investigated in this study. 30 male Wistar rats (150g to 200g final weight) were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each and were fed on normal rat chows, treated with triton and/or mistletoe extract for 6 weeks. The group treated with triton ...

  12. European Mistletoe

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    ... Resources CME/CEU and Online Lectures Online Continuing Education Series Distinguished Lecture Series Integrated Medicine Research Lecture ... trees such as apple, oak, pine, and elm trees. Where the term “mistletoe” is used in this ... We encourage you to discuss any decisions about treatment or care with your health care ...

  13. Disappearance of an advanced adenomatous colon polyp after intratumoural injection with Viscum album (European mistletoe) extract: a case report.

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    von Schoen-Angerer, Tido; Goyert, Andreas; Vagedes, Jan; Kiene, Helmut; Merckens, Harald; Kienle, Gunver S

    2014-12-01

    Extracts of Viscum album (European mistletoe) have immune-stimulatory and cytotoxic effects, with trials showing a well-established effect on the quality of life and prolonged survival in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Regression of tumours following intratumoural injection with Viscum album extract has been documented in individual cases. However, its influence on colon polyps has not been investigated. We present the case of a 78-year-old Caucasian male who had undergone hemi-colectomy for a stage IIIC colon cancer but who refused adjuvant chemotherapy. Five years later a newly detected high-grade dysplasia colon adenoma was discovered; however, the adenoma could not be resected endoscopically and the patient did not consent to surgery. Intratumoural injections with Viscum album L extract (Quercus; Iscador®Qu) were administered twice in an attempt to limit tumour growth. Eight months after the second intratumoural injection the adenoma had disappeared and biopsy revealed no intraepithelial dysplasia or adenoma. This is the first report showing complete regression of a colon adenoma after intratumoural injection with Viscum album extract. Prospective studies should evaluate if the treatment effect is reproducible and if this approach could be a useful pre-operative measure for colon adenomas too large for endoscopic resection.

  14. Adverse Drug Reactions and Expected Effects to Therapy with Subcutaneous Mistletoe Extracts (Viscum album L.) in Cancer Patients.

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    Steele, Megan L; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Background. In Europe, mistletoe extracts are widely used as a complementary cancer therapy. We assessed the safety of subcutaneous mistletoe as a conjunctive therapy in cancer patients within an anthroposophic medicine setting in Germany. Methods. A multicentre, observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Suspected mistletoe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were described by frequency, causality, severity, and seriousness. Potential risk factors, dose relationships and drug-drug interactions were investigated. Results. Of 1923 cancer patients treated with subcutaneous mistletoe extracts, 283 patients (14.7%) reported 427 expected effects (local reactions <5 cm and increased body temperature <38°C). ADRs were documented in 162 (8.4%) patients who reported a total of 264 events. ADRs were mild (50.8%), moderate (45.1%), or severe (4.2%). All were nonserious. Logistic regression analysis revealed that expected effects were more common in females, while immunoreactivity decreased with increasing age and tumour stage. No risk factors were identified for ADRs. ADR frequency increased as mistletoe dose increased, while fewer ADRs occurred during mistletoe therapy received concurrent with conventional therapies. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that mistletoe therapy is safe. ADRs were mostly mild to moderate in intensity and appear to be dose-related and explained by the immune-stimulating, pharmacological activity of mistletoe.

  15. Adverse Drug Reactions and Expected Effects to Therapy with Subcutaneous Mistletoe Extracts (Viscum album L. in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. Steele

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Europe, mistletoe extracts are widely used as a complementary cancer therapy. We assessed the safety of subcutaneous mistletoe as a conjunctive therapy in cancer patients within an anthroposophic medicine setting in Germany. Methods. A multicentre, observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Suspected mistletoe adverse drug reactions (ADRs were described by frequency, causality, severity, and seriousness. Potential risk factors, dose relationships and drug-drug interactions were investigated. Results. Of 1923 cancer patients treated with subcutaneous mistletoe extracts, 283 patients (14.7% reported 427 expected effects (local reactions <5 cm and increased body temperature <38°C. ADRs were documented in 162 (8.4% patients who reported a total of 264 events. ADRs were mild (50.8%, moderate (45.1%, or severe (4.2%. All were nonserious. Logistic regression analysis revealed that expected effects were more common in females, while immunoreactivity decreased with increasing age and tumour stage. No risk factors were identified for ADRs. ADR frequency increased as mistletoe dose increased, while fewer ADRs occurred during mistletoe therapy received concurrent with conventional therapies. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that mistletoe therapy is safe. ADRs were mostly mild to moderate in intensity and appear to be dose-related and explained by the immune-stimulating, pharmacological activity of mistletoe.

  16. Effect of Mistletoe on Growth of Scotch Pine (Pinus silvestris L.

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    Turan Sönmez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study is to investigate of effect of mistletoe (Viscum album on growth of Scotch pine. The measurements were done on the pure Scotch pine stands of Koçimek locality (Gölbaşı village, Uzundere town, Erzurum province, Turkey. Diameter, double bark thickness, tree-rings and height was measured a total of 60 trees. 30 of them are infested with mistletoe and the others are without mistletoe. To investigate how does mistletoe affects annual tree diameter increment, height growth and double bark thickness, the SPSS package program was used. We tested all data for normal distribution at first. After that, we used paired samples t-test. As a result of this test mistletoe have unfavorable affected diameter increment, double bark thickness and height growth of Scotch pine. The annual diameter increment of Scotch pine trees were reduced by about 40% within 10 years, the height growth of these trees were reduced by about 47% and the double bark thickness of these trees reduced by about 25%.

  17. Effect of mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose on dry eye in postmenopausal women

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    Nan Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the protective effect of mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose eye drops on dry eye in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Sixty postmenopause female patients diagnosed of dry eye were assigned randomly to mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose eye drops treatment group (n=30 and control group treated with normal saline eye drops (n=30. The subjective symptoms of ocular surface, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI, tear film function tests, tear protein and corneal morphology by confocal scanning microscopy were analyzed before treatment and at 1, 2, 4 and 8wk after treatment respectively. To ensure the safety of the trial, all patients were examined with systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, urine creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen at 8wk after treatment. RESULTS: There were no obvious differences between two groups before the treatment (P>0.05. In two months after the treatment, the symptoms of ocular surface, OSDI, tear protein, and tear film function were only slightly changed in normal saline eye drops group. However, all indices were improved after the treatment of mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose eye drops group (P<0.05. In addition, the average amount of corneal epithelium basal cells and inflammatory cells of mistletoe treated group were 3174±379 and 38±25 cells/mm2, significantly decreased as compared to the control group with 4309±612 and 158± 61 cells/mm2, respectively. In the control group, although nerves still maintained straight under corneal epithelium, the number of nerves were significantly decreased, as compared with normal female. In the mistletoe treated group, the number of nerves was only slightly reduced, compared with normal female. CONCLUSION: Mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose eye drops can alleviate the symptoms and signs of dry eye symptoms.

  18. Bidirectional anatomical effects in a mistletoe-host relationship: Psittacanthus schiedeanus mistletoe and its hosts Liquidambar styraciflua and Quercus germana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoletzi, Eliezer; Angeles, Guillermo; Ceccantini, Gregório; Patrón, Araceli; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2016-06-01

    During the interactions between a parasitic plant and its host, the parasite affects its host morphologically, anatomically, and physiologically, yet there has been little focus on the effect of hosts on the parasite. Here, the functional interactions between the hemiparasitic mistletoe Psittacanthus schiedeanus and its hosts Liquidambar styraciflua and Quercus germana were interpreted based on the anatomical features of the vascular tissues. Using standard techniques for light and transmission electron microscopy, we studied the effects of P. schiedeanus on the phloem anatomy of Liquidambar styraciflua and Quercus germana and vice versa. The phloem of P. schiedeanus has larger sieve elements, companion cells, and sieve plate areas when it is parasitizing L. styraciflua than Q. germana; however, the parasite produces systemic effects on the phloem of its hosts, reducing the size of phloem in L. styraciflua but increasing it in Q. germana. Those seem to be the bidirectional effects. No direct connections between the secondary phloem of the parasite and that of its hosts were observed. Parenchymatic cells of L. styraciflua in contact with connective parenchyma cells of the parasite develop half-plasmodesmata, while those of Q. germana do not. The bidirectional effects between the parasite and its hosts comprise modifications in secondary phloem that are potentially affected by the phenology of its hosts, a combination of hormonal agents such as auxins, and the symplasmic or apoplasmic pathway for solutes import. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  19. Effects of forests, roads and mistletoe on bird diversity in monoculture rubber plantations

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    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Huang, Guohualing; Yasuda, Mika; Quan, Rui-Chang; Goodale, Eben; Corlett, Richard T.; Tomlinson, Kyle W.

    2016-02-01

    Rising global demand for natural rubber is expanding monoculture rubber (Hevea brasilensis) at the expense of natural forests in the Old World tropics. Conversion of forests into rubber plantations has a devastating impact on biodiversity and we have yet to identify management strategies that can mitigate this. We determined the life-history traits that best predict bird species occurrence in rubber plantations in SW China and investigated the effects of surrounding forest cover and distance to roads on bird diversity. Mistletoes provide nectar and fruit resources in rubber so we examined mistletoe densities and the relationship with forest cover and rubber tree diameter. In rubber plantations, we recorded less than half of all bird species extant in the surrounding area. Birds with wider habitat breadths and low conservation value had a higher probability of occurrence. Species richness and diversity increased logarithmically with surrounding forest cover, but roads had little effect. Mistletoe density increased exponentially with rubber tree diameters, but was unrelated to forest cover. To maximize bird diversity in rubber-dominated landscapes it is therefore necessary to preserve as much forest as possible, construct roads through plantations and not forest, and retain some large rubber trees with mistletoes during crop rotations.

  20. Cytotoxic effects of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.

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    Klingbeil, Ma Fátima G; Xavier, Flávia C A; Sardinha, Luiz R; Severino, Patricia; Mathor, Monica B; Rodrigues, Rodrigo V; Pinto, Décio S

    2013-11-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is a complex disease with several etiologic factors and different molecular changes that may trigger certain events; it is also globally one of the most common malignancies in this topography. Extracts from Viscum album L. (VA) (mistletoe) have been used as adjuvant therapies with promising results in several types of cancer, mainly in European countries. In vitro studies have demonstrated that various types of VA may have cytotoxicity in carcinoma cells, activating the apoptotic cascade or leading cells to necrosis. This study aimed to verify the effects of three types of VA extracts (Iscador Qu Spezial, Iscador P and Iscador M) in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue cell lines SCC9 and SCC25, not previously studied. A concentration of 0.3 mg/ml (IC50) of the drugs induced apoptosis, affecting gene expression and protein levels of AKT, PTEN and CYCLIN D1. It was concluded that VA extracts have a cytotoxic effect on SCC9 and SCC25 cell lines, but while SCC9 cell line was more resistant to the action of the drugs, Iscador Qu Spezial and Iscador M have higher cytotoxic potential in both cell lines compared to Iscador P.

  1. Interaction of standardized mistletoe (Viscum album) extracts with chemotherapeutic drugs regarding cytostatic and cytotoxic effects in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Weissenstein, Ulrike; Kunz, Matthias; Urech, Konrad; Baumgartner, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the importance of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to cancer patients, there is an increasing need to learn more about possible interactions between CAM and anticancer drugs. Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) belongs to the medicinal herbs that are used as supportive care during chemotherapy. In the in vitro study presented here the effect of standardized mistletoe preparations on the cytostatic and cytotoxic activity of several common conventional chemotherapeutic drug...

  2. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium oxycedri) and damage caused by dwarf mistletoe to family Cupressaceae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Humaira Abdul Wahid; Muhammad Younas Khan Barozai; Muhammad Din

    2015-01-01

    .... Their damaging effects are growth reduction, branch distortions, and decreased longevity. All mistletoes take water and nutrients by tapping the host xylem but differ in their dependence on the host for carbon. Dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium spp...

  3. Mistletoe, friend and foe: synthesizing ecosystem implications of mistletoe infection

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    Griebel, Anne; Watson, David; Pendall, Elise

    2017-11-01

    Biotic disturbances are affecting a wide range of tree species in all climates, and their occurrence is contributing to increasing rates of tree mortality globally. Mistletoe is a widespread group of parasitic plants that establishes long-lasting relationships with a diverse range of host tree species. With climate change, ecophysiological stress is increasing, potentially making trees more susceptible to mistletoe infection, which in turn leads to higher forest mortality rates. The perception of mistletoe presence in individual trees and forest stands is divided within the scientific community, leading to an ongoing debate regarding its impacts. Forest managers concerned about stand health and carbon sequestration may view mistletoe as a foe that leads to reduced productivity. In contrast, ecologists may see mistletoe as a friend, in light of the wildlife habitat, biodiversity and nutrient cycling it promotes. However, individual studies typically focus on isolated effects of mistletoe presence within their respective research area and lack a balanced, interdisciplinary perspective of mistletoe disturbance. With this conceptual paper we aim to bring together the positive and negative impacts of mistletoe presence on tree physiology, soil nutrient cycling as well as stand health and stand dynamics. We focus on the role of mistletoe-induced tree mortality in ecosystem succession and biodiversity. In addition, we present potential modifications of mistletoe presence on the energy budget and on forest vulnerability to climate change, which could feed back into stand dynamics and disturbance patterns. Lastly, we will identify the most pressing remaining knowledge gaps and highlight priorities for future research on this widespread agent of biotic disturbance.

  4. Parasites boost productivity: effects of mistletoe on litterfall dynamics in a temperate Australian forest.

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    March, Wendy A; Watson, David M

    2007-11-01

    The importance of litter in regulating ecosystem processes has long been recognised, with a growing appreciation of the differential contribution of various functional plant groups. Despite the ubiquity of mistletoes in terrestrial ecosystems and their prominence in ecological studies, they are one group that have been overlooked in litter research. This study evaluated the litter contribution from a hemiparasitic mistletoe, Amyema miquelii (Lehm. ex Miq.) Tiegh., in an open eucalypt forest (Eucalyptus blakelyi, E. dwyeri and E. dealbata), at three scales; the forest stand, single trees and individual mistletoes. Litter from mistletoes significantly increased overall litterfall by up to 189%, the amount of mistletoe litter being proportional to the mistletoe biomass in the canopy. The high litter input was due to a much higher rate of mistletoe leaf turnover than that of host trees; the host litterfall and rate of leaf turnover was not significantly affected by mistletoe presence. The additional litter from mistletoes also affected the spatial and temporal distribution of litterfall due to the patchy distribution of mistletoes and their prolonged period of high litterfall. Associated with these changes in litterfall was an increase in ground litter mass and plant productivity, which reflects similar findings with root-parasitic plants. These findings represent novel mechanisms underlying the role of mistletoes as keystone resources and provide further evidence of the importance of parasites in affecting trophic dynamics.

  5. Thinning and prescribed fire effects on dwarf mistletoe severity in an eastern Cascade Range dry forest, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Hessburg; Nicholas A. Povak; R. Brion Salter

    2008-01-01

    Forest thinning and prescribed fire practices are widely used, either separately or in combination, to address tree stocking, species composition, and wildland fire concerns in western US mixed conifer forests. We examined the effects of these fuel treatments alone and combined on dwarf mistletoe infection severity immediately after treatment and for the following 100...

  6. Protective effects of Korean mistletoe lectin on radical-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boh Kyung; Choi, Mi Jin; Park, Kun Young; Cho, Eun Ju

    2010-01-01

    The radical scavenging effects and protective activities against oxidative stress of Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) lectin were investigated in vitro and with a cellular system using LLC-PK(1) renal epithelial cells. The Korean mistletoe lectin (KML) showed 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity with an IC(50) value of 42.6 microg/ml. It also exerted nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion (O(2)(-)), and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities in concentration-dependent manners. These results suggest that KML is a promising antioxidant by scavenging free radicals. Furthermore, under the LLC-PK(1) cellular model, the cells showed declines in viability and increases in lipid peroxidation through oxidative stress induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and pyrogallol, generators of NO and O(2)(-), respectively. However, KML significantly and dose-dependently inhibited cell cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, 3-morpholinosydnonimnie (SIN-1), a generator of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) formed by simultaneously releases of NO and O(2)(-), caused cytotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and NO overproduction in the LLC-PK(1) cells while KML ameliorated ONOO(-)-induced oxidative damage. Furthermore, overexpressions of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible NO synthase induced by SIN-1 were observed, but KML down-regulated the expression levels of both genes. KML also reduced SIN-1-induced nuclear factor kappa B expression and the phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B alpha in LLC-PK(1) cells. These results indicate that KML has protective activities against oxidative damage induced by free radicals.

  7. Parasitic Mistletoes of the Genera Scurrula and Viscum: From Bench to Bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Chee Lim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The mistletoes, stem hemiparasites of Asia and Europe, have been used as medicinal herbs for many years and possess sophisticated systems to obtain nutrients from their host plants. Although knowledge about ethnomedicinal uses of mistletoes is prevalent in Asia, systematic scientific study of these plants is still lacking, unlike its European counterparts. This review aims to evaluate the literature on Scurrula and Viscum mistletoes. Both mistletoes were found to have anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antihypertensive properties. Plants from the genus Scurrula were found to inhibit cancer growth due to presence of phytoconstituents such as quercetin and fatty acid chains. Similar to plants from the genus Viscum, Scurrula also possesses TNFα activity to strengthen the immune system to combat cancer. In line with its anticancer activity, both mistletoes are rich in antioxidants that confer protection against cancer as well as neurodegeneration. Extracts from plants of both genera showed evidence of vasodilation and thus, antihypertensive effects. Other therapeutic effects such as weight loss, postpartum and gastrointestinal healing from different plants of the genus Scurrula are documented. As the therapeutic effects of plants from Scurrula are still in exploration stage, there is currently no known clinical trial on these plants. However, there are few on-going clinical trials for Viscum album that demonstrate the functionalities of these mistletoes. Future work required for exploring the benefits of these plants and ways to develop both parasitic plants as a source of pharmacological drug are explained in this article.

  8. Parasitic Mistletoes of the Genera Scurrula and Viscum: From Bench to Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ya Chee; Rajabalaya, Rajan; Lee, Shirley Huan Fang; Tennakoon, Kushan U; Le, Quang-Vuong; Idris, Adi; Zulkipli, Ihsan N; Keasberry, Natasha; David, Sheba R

    2016-08-17

    The mistletoes, stem hemiparasites of Asia and Europe, have been used as medicinal herbs for many years and possess sophisticated systems to obtain nutrients from their host plants. Although knowledge about ethnomedicinal uses of mistletoes is prevalent in Asia, systematic scientific study of these plants is still lacking, unlike its European counterparts. This review aims to evaluate the literature on Scurrula and Viscum mistletoes. Both mistletoes were found to have anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antihypertensive properties. Plants from the genus Scurrula were found to inhibit cancer growth due to presence of phytoconstituents such as quercetin and fatty acid chains. Similar to plants from the genus Viscum, Scurrula also possesses TNFα activity to strengthen the immune system to combat cancer. In line with its anticancer activity, both mistletoes are rich in antioxidants that confer protection against cancer as well as neurodegeneration. Extracts from plants of both genera showed evidence of vasodilation and thus, antihypertensive effects. Other therapeutic effects such as weight loss, postpartum and gastrointestinal healing from different plants of the genus Scurrula are documented. As the therapeutic effects of plants from Scurrula are still in exploration stage, there is currently no known clinical trial on these plants. However, there are few on-going clinical trials for Viscum album that demonstrate the functionalities of these mistletoes. Future work required for exploring the benefits of these plants and ways to develop both parasitic plants as a source of pharmacological drug are explained in this article.

  9. Interaction of a standardized mistletoe (Viscum album) preparation with antitumor effects of Trastuzumab in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenstein, U; Kunz, M; Urech, K; Regueiro, U; Baumgartner, S

    2016-08-04

    Besides conventional anticancer therapy many breast cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) like the medicinal herb mistletoe (Viscum album L.). To gain more knowledge about possible herb-drug interactions between CAM and conventional anticancer medications, in the present in vitro study we investigated the effect of a standardized mistletoe preparation on the action of Trastuzumab, a drug used for the treatment of Her-2 positive breast cancer. The Her-2 positive human breast carcinoma cell line SK-BR-3 was treated with Trastuzumab. Different doses of the drug were combined with Viscum album extract (VAE) in clinically relevant doses. Proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were analyzed. No inhibition of antitumor efficacy of Trastuzumab by VAE was detected. VAE and Trastuzumab, either alone or in combination, inhibited proliferation of SK-BR-3 cells in vitro. At higher concentrations VAE induced apoptosis, which was not observed for Trastuzumab. Cells treated with Trastuzumab underwent a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and cells treated with VAE a G2/M arrest. After application of the two drugs in combination both G0/G1 and G2/M arrest was observed. VEGF secretion of SK-BR-3 cells was significantly inhibited by sole treatment with Trastuzumab or VAE. Combined treatment of Trastuzumab and VAE at clinically relevant doses showed additive inhibitory effects on VEGF secretion. VAE did not interfere with cytostatic effects of Trastuzumab on SK-BR-3 cells in vitro. Our in vitro results suggest that no risk of safety by herb drug interactions has to be expected from the exposition of cancer cells to Trastuzumab and VAE simultaneously. In contrast, VAE and Trastuzumab seem to exhibit complementary anti-cancer effects in vitro.

  10. Effects of Methanolic and Hexane-Derived Dwarf Mistletoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With DMT showing promise as a source of biosurfactants and/or antimicrobials, we wished to assess the effects DMT extracts on eukaryotic cells, particularly with respect to necrosis (toxic cell death) and apoptosis (programmed cell death). We prepared a crude methanolic extract from the DMT (A. americanum) as well as ...

  11. Two mistletoes are too many?: Interspecific occurrence of mistletoes on the same host tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Arruda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mistletoe can have a major impact on the fitness of the host plant. If there is more than one species of mistletoe on the same host tree, the overall impact might be amplified. We report the occurrence of more than one species of mistletoe on the same host tree. Although it is not a rule in the field, to our knowledge, there have been no studies of this topic. In most cases, two species of mistletoe were recorded on the same host tree, although we recorded three species of mistletoe on one occasion. This demonstrates that different species of mistletoe can be compatible with the same host species. Therefore, compatibility (structural and physiological might be an important factor for the occurrence of mistletoe. Recent studies have shown that if the mistletoe does not "recognize" the host species, the deposited seeds will germinate but the haustorium will not penetrate the host branch. This is probably the primary mechanism in the establishment of more than one species of mistletoe on the same host, which can trigger a cascade of harmful effects for the host species.

  12. Protein Fractions from Korean Mistletoe (Viscum Album coloratum Extract Induce Insulin Secretion from Pancreatic Beta Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Wook Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mistletoe (Viscum Album coloratum has been known as a medicinal plant in European and Asian countries. Recent data show that biological activity of mistletoe alleviates hypertension, heart disease, renal failure, and cancer development. In this study, we report the antidiabetic effect of Korean mistletoe extract (KME. KME treatments enhanced the insulin secretion from the pancreatic β-cell without any effects of cytotoxicity. PDX-1 and beta2/neuroD known as transcription factors that regulate the expression of insulin gene were upregulated by treatment of the KME protein fractions isolated by ion-exchange chromatography after ammonium sulfate precipitation. Furthermore, these KME protein fractions significantly lowered the blood glucose level and the volume of drinking water in alloxan induced hyperglycemic mice. Taken together with the findings, it provides new insight that KME might be served as a useful source for the development of medicinal reagent to reduce blood glucose level of type I diabetic patients.

  13. Protein Fractions from Korean Mistletoe (Viscum Album coloratum) Extract Induce Insulin Secretion from Pancreatic Beta Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Wook; Yang, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Jong-Bae

    2014-01-01

    Mistletoe (Viscum Album coloratum) has been known as a medicinal plant in European and Asian countries. Recent data show that biological activity of mistletoe alleviates hypertension, heart disease, renal failure, and cancer development. In this study, we report the antidiabetic effect of Korean mistletoe extract (KME). KME treatments enhanced the insulin secretion from the pancreatic β -cell without any effects of cytotoxicity. PDX-1 and beta2/neuroD known as transcription factors that regulate the expression of insulin gene were upregulated by treatment of the KME protein fractions isolated by ion-exchange chromatography after ammonium sulfate precipitation. Furthermore, these KME protein fractions significantly lowered the blood glucose level and the volume of drinking water in alloxan induced hyperglycemic mice. Taken together with the findings, it provides new insight that KME might be served as a useful source for the development of medicinal reagent to reduce blood glucose level of type I diabetic patients.

  14. Immunomodulating effects of Korean mistletoe lectin in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan-Ho; Kim, Joon-Ki; Kim, Hyo-Yeon; Park, Sung-Min; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2009-12-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of Korean mistletoe lectin (KML), one of the major active components in Viscum album L. var. coloratum, were investigated in vitro in immune cell proliferation and natural killer (NK) cell- and macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, and in vivo in the forced swim test and cold stress. In mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation of murine splenocytes, concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide significantly increased the proliferation of T cell and B cell lymphocytes, respectively. KML exposure increased lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogen. KML also increased the splenic NK cell and macrophage activities in vitro. Exposure to KML increased production of cytokines such as interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 by macrophages. Two-week treatment with KML (30, 100, 300 and 600 microg/kg) increased the recruitment of lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages. In the forced swim test, the immobility time was significantly attenuated by treatment with KML (300 and 600 microg/kg). In a cold stress experiment, spleen and thymus weight increased in KML-treated mice, while the weight of adrenal gland was lower than that in vehicle-treated mice. The levels of serum aminotransferases, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase were decreased by KML treatment. KML treatment also induced increases in the percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells in thymus. Our results suggest that KML enhances the immune system through modulation of lymphocytes, NK cells, and macrophages.

  15. Antiproliferative effects of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extract in urinary bladder carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urech, Konrad; Buessing, Arndt; Thalmann, George; Schaefermeyer, Heinrich; Heusser, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antiproliferative potency of Viscum album extract (VA-E) in human bladder carcinoma cell lines with regard to its possible use for intravesical therapy of superficial bladder cancer. Proliferation (MTT-test or 3H-thymidine incorporation), necrotic disintegration (3H-thymidine release of prelabelled cells) and portions of apoptotic and/or necrotic cells (Annexin-V binding, propidium iodide (PI) labelling and DNA-fluorescence profiles by flow cytometry) were measured in four different human bladder carcinoma cell lines (T24, TCCSUP, J82 and UM-UC3) cultured in vitro. Antiproliferative effects of VA-E were observed in the four bladder carcinoma cell lines tested. Metabolic activity could also be completely abrogated by short-time contact of the cells with VA-E. Apoptosis and necrosis, as underlying mechanisms of action, were differentially expressed by the different cell lines. VA-E and cytotoxic proteins, i.e., mistletoe lectins (ML) and viscotoxins (VT), were able to block the growth of bladder carcinoma cells. Together with the immunomodulating properties of VA-E, the observed antiproliferative potency might give a rationale for the topical intravesical application of VA-E for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer.

  16. Mistletoe infection in an oak forest is influenced by competition and host size

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matula, Radim; Svátek, Martin; Pálková, Marcela; Volařík, Daniel; Vrška, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Host size and distance from an infected plant have been previously found to affect mistletoe occurrence in woody vegetation but the effect of host plant competition on mistletoe infection has not been empirically tested...

  17. Intratumoral Mistletoe (Viscum album L) Therapy in Patients With Unresectable Pancreas Carcinoma: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Friedemann; Atxner, Jan; Buchwald, Dirk; Happe, Antje; Popp, Stephan; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald

    2014-07-01

    Pancreatic carcinoma remains one of the main causes for cancer-related death. Intratumoral application of anticancer agents is discussed as a promising method for solid tumors such as pancreatic cancer. Endoscopic ultrasound provides a good tool to examine and treat the pancreas. European mistletoe (Viscum album L) is a phytotherapeutic commonly used in integrative oncology in Central Europe. Its complementary use seeks to induce immunostimulation and antitumoral effects as well as alleviate chemotherapeutic side effects. Intratumoral mistletoe application has induced local tumor response in various cancer entities. This off-label use needs to be validated carefully in terms of safety and benefits. Here we report on 39 patients with advanced, inoperable pancreatic cancer, who received in total 223 intratumoral applications of mistletoe, endoscopic ultrasound guided or under transabdominal ultrasound control. No severe procedure-related events were reported. Adverse drug reactions were mainly increased body temperature or fever in 14% and 11% of the applications, respectively. Other adverse drug reactions, such as pain or nausea, occurred in less than 7% of the procedures. No severe adverse drug reaction was recorded. Patients received standard first- and second-line chemotherapy and underwent adequate palliative surgical interventions as well as additive subcutaneous and partly intravenous mistletoe application. A median survival of 11 months was observed for all patients, or 11.8 and 8.3 months for stages III and IV, respectively. Due to the multimodal therapeutic setting and the lack of a control group, the effect of intratumoral mistletoe administration alone remains unclear. This retrospective analysis suggests that intratumoral-applicated mistletoe might contribute to improve survival of patients with pancreatic cancer. In conclusion, the application is feasible and safe, and its efficacy should be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. © The Author

  18. Interaction of standardized mistletoe (Viscum album) extracts with chemotherapeutic drugs regarding cytostatic and cytotoxic effects in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenstein, Ulrike; Kunz, Matthias; Urech, Konrad; Baumgartner, Stephan

    2014-01-08

    Given the importance of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to cancer patients, there is an increasing need to learn more about possible interactions between CAM and anticancer drugs. Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) belongs to the medicinal herbs that are used as supportive care during chemotherapy. In the in vitro study presented here the effect of standardized mistletoe preparations on the cytostatic and cytotoxic activity of several common conventional chemotherapeutic drugs was investigated using different cancer cell lines. Human breast carcinoma cell lines HCC1937 and HCC1143 were treated with doxorubicin hydrochloride, pancreas adenocarcinoma cell line PA-TU-8902 with gemcitabine hydrochloride, prostate carcinoma cell line DU145 with docetaxel and mitoxantrone hydrochloride and lung carcinoma cell line NCI-H460 was treated with docetaxel and cisplatin. Each dose of the respective chemotherapeutic drug was combined with Viscum album extract (VAE) in clinically relevant concentrations and proliferation and apoptosis were measured. VAE did not inhibit chemotherapy induced cytostasis and cytotoxicity in any of our experimental settings. At higher concentrations VAE showed an additive inhibitory effect. Our in vitro results suggest that no risk of safety by herb drug interactions has to be expected from the exposition of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs and VAE simultaneously.

  19. Mistletoe Infection in an Oak Forest Is Influenced by Competition and Host Size

    OpenAIRE

    Radim Matula; Martin Svátek; Marcela Pálková; Daniel Volařík; Tomáš Vrška

    2015-01-01

    Host size and distance from an infected plant have been previously found to affect mistletoe occurrence in woody vegetation but the effect of host plant competition on mistletoe infection has not been empirically tested. For an individual tree, increasing competition from neighbouring trees decreases its resource availability, and resource availability is also known to affect the establishment of mistletoes on host trees. Therefore, competition is likely to affect mistletoe infection but evid...

  20. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) evolution in populations of the hyperparasitic European mistletoe pathogen fungus, Sphaeropsis visci (Botryosphaeriaceae): The utility of ITS2 secondary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poczai, Péter; Varga, Ildikó; Hyvönen, Jaakko

    2015-03-01

    We investigated patterns of nucleotide polymorphism in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region for Sphaeropsis visci, a hyperparasitic fungus that causes the leaf spot disease of the hemiparasite European mistletoe (Viscum album). Samples of S. visci were obtained from Hungary covering all major infected forest areas. For obtaining PCR products we used a fast and efficient direct PCR approach based on a high fidelity DNA polymerase. A total of 140 ITS sequences were subjected to an array of complementary sequence analyses, which included analyses of secondary structure stability, nucleotide polymorphism patterns, GC content, and presence of conserved motifs. Analysed sequences exhibited features of functional rRNAs. Overall, polymorphism was observed within less conserved motifs, such as loops and bulges, or, alternatively, as non-canonical G-U pairs within conserved regions of double stranded helices. The secondary structure of ITS2 provides new opportunities for obtaining further valuable information, which could be used in phylogenetic analyses, or at population level as demonstrated in our study. This is due to additional information provided by secondary structures and their models. The combined score matrix was used with the methods implemented in the programme 4SALE. Besides the pseudoprotein coding method of 4SALE, the molecular morphometric character coding also has potential for gaining further information for phylogenetic analyses based on the geometric features of the sub-structural elements of the ITS2 RNA transcript. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaction of standardized mistletoe (Viscum album) extracts with chemotherapeutic drugs regarding cytostatic and cytotoxic effects in vitro

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weissenstein, Ulrike; Kunz, Matthias; Urech, Konrad; Baumgartner, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to cancer patients, there is an increasing need to learn more about possible interactions between CAM and anticancer drugs. Mistletoe (Viscum album L...

  2. Safety and effects of two mistletoe preparations on production of Interleukin-6 and other immune parameters - a placebo controlled clinical trial in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Roman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Germany, Iscucin® Populi (IP, a preparation from mistletoe growing on the poplar tree, is used in cancer therapy while Viscum Mali e planta tota (VM, a preparation from mistletoe growing on the apple tree, is used in patients with osteoarthritis. Since mistletoe preparations are suspected to induce production of potentially tumor promoting cytokines like interleukin (IL-6, further studies on the immunological effects are of interest. Methods In this 3-armed randomized, double blind clinical trial healthy volunteers received increasing doses of either IP (strength F, 0.0125%, G, 0.25% and H, 5%, each for 4 weeks, or VM (1:1000 [D3], 1:100 [D2] and 2% each for 4 weeks or placebo (isotonic solution subcutaneously twice per week over a period of 12 weeks. Physical examination was performed weekly. Routine laboratory parameters and immunological parameters (C-reactive protein (CRP, differential blood count, lymphocyte subsets, immunoglobulins, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were analysed every 4 weeks. Results 71 subjects were included in the study (IP = 30, VM = 21, placebo = 20 of whom 69 concluded it according to protocol. Application of IP strengths G and H caused strong local reactions at the site of injection. In parallel, a distinct eosinophilia (p Conclusion Treatment with IP results in eosinophilia and an increase of CD4 cells but not in an increase of IL-6 or CRP. No safety concerns regarding the two mistletoe preparations have been raised by this study. EudraCT-Number 2007-002166-35. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01378702

  3. Mistletoe infection in an oak forest is influenced by competition and host size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matula, Radim; Svátek, Martin; Pálková, Marcela; Volařík, Daniel; Vrška, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Host size and distance from an infected plant have been previously found to affect mistletoe occurrence in woody vegetation but the effect of host plant competition on mistletoe infection has not been empirically tested. For an individual tree, increasing competition from neighbouring trees decreases its resource availability, and resource availability is also known to affect the establishment of mistletoes on host trees. Therefore, competition is likely to affect mistletoe infection but evidence for such a mechanism is lacking. Based on this, we hypothesised that the probability of occurrence as well as the abundance of mistletoes on a tree would increase not only with increasing host size and decreasing distance from an infected tree but also with decreasing competition by neighbouring trees. Our hypothesis was tested using generalized linear models (GLMs) with data on Loranthus europaeus Jacq., one of the two most common mistletoes in Europe, on 1015 potential host stems collected in a large fully mapped plot in the Czech Republic. Because many trees were multi-stemmed, we ran the analyses for both individual stems and whole trees. We found that the probability of mistletoe occurrence on individual stems was affected mostly by stem size, whereas competition had the most important effects on the probability of mistletoe occurrence on whole trees as well as on mistletoe abundance. Therefore, we confirmed our hypothesis that competition among trees has a negative effect on mistletoe occurrence.

  4. Mistletoe infection in an oak forest is influenced by competition and host size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Matula

    Full Text Available Host size and distance from an infected plant have been previously found to affect mistletoe occurrence in woody vegetation but the effect of host plant competition on mistletoe infection has not been empirically tested. For an individual tree, increasing competition from neighbouring trees decreases its resource availability, and resource availability is also known to affect the establishment of mistletoes on host trees. Therefore, competition is likely to affect mistletoe infection but evidence for such a mechanism is lacking. Based on this, we hypothesised that the probability of occurrence as well as the abundance of mistletoes on a tree would increase not only with increasing host size and decreasing distance from an infected tree but also with decreasing competition by neighbouring trees. Our hypothesis was tested using generalized linear models (GLMs with data on Loranthus europaeus Jacq., one of the two most common mistletoes in Europe, on 1015 potential host stems collected in a large fully mapped plot in the Czech Republic. Because many trees were multi-stemmed, we ran the analyses for both individual stems and whole trees. We found that the probability of mistletoe occurrence on individual stems was affected mostly by stem size, whereas competition had the most important effects on the probability of mistletoe occurrence on whole trees as well as on mistletoe abundance. Therefore, we confirmed our hypothesis that competition among trees has a negative effect on mistletoe occurrence.

  5. Mistletoe ecophysiology: Host-parasite interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Glatzel; B. W. Geils

    2009-01-01

    Mistletoes are highly specialized perennial flowering plants adapted to parasitic life on aerial parts of their hosts. In our discussion on the physiological interactions between parasite and host, we focus on water relations, mineral nutrition, and the effect of host vigour. When host photosynthesis is greatest, the xylem water potential of the host is most negative....

  6. Pine and mistletoes: how to live with a leak in the water flow and storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweifel, R.; Bangerter, S.; Rigling, A.; Sterck, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    The mistletoe, Viscum album, living on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) has been reported barely to regulate its transpiration and thus heavily to affect the gas exchange of its host. The extent of this mistletoe effect and its underlying mechanism has, so far, only been partially analysed. In this

  7. African mistletoes (loranthaceae); ethnopharmacology, chemistry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African mistletoes (loranthaceae); ethnopharmacology, chemistry and medicinal values: An update. ... little is known about their biology (taxonomy, host/plant relationship, ecology, toxicology, physiological characteristics, etc.) and chemistry (chemical constituents' profile). Some pharmacological studies carried out on the ...

  8. NCCAM/NCI Phase 1 Study of Mistletoe Extract and Gemcitabine in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Mansky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. European Mistletoe (Viscum album L. extracts (mistletoe are commonly used for cancer treatment in Europe. This phase I study of gemcitabine (GEM and mistletoe in advanced solid cancers (ASC evaluated: (1 safety, toxicity, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD, (2 absolute neutrophil count (ANC recovery, (3 formation of mistletoe lectin antibodies (ML ab, (4 cytokine plasma concentrations, (5 clinical response, and (6 pharmacokinetics of GEM. Methods. Design: increasing mistletoe and fixed GEM dose in stage I and increasing doses of GEM with a fixed dose of mistletoe in stage II. Dose limiting toxicities (DLT were grade (G 3 nonhematologic and G4 hematologic events; MTD was reached with 2 DLTs in one dosage level. Response in stage IV ASC was assessed with descriptive statistics. Statistical analyses examined clinical response/survival and ANC recovery. Results. DLTs were G4 neutropenia, G4 thrombocytopenia, G4 acute renal failure, and G3 cellulitis, attributed to mistletoe. GEM 1380 mg/m2 and mistletoe 250 mg combined were the MTD. Of 44 patients, 24 developed nonneutropenic fever and flu-like syndrome. GEM pharmacokinetics were unaffected by mistletoe. All patients developed ML3 IgG antibodies. ANC showed a trend to increase between baseline and cycle 2 in stage I dose escalation. 6% of patients showed partial response, 42% stable disease. Median survival was 200 days. Compliance with mistletoe injections was high. Conclusion. GEM plus mistletoe is well tolerated. No botanical/drug interactions were observed. Clinical response is similar to GEM alone.

  9. Evaluation of Preclinical Assays to Investigate an Anthroposophic Pharmaceutical Process Applied to Mistletoe (Viscum album L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Baumgartner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from European mistletoe (Viscum album L. developed in anthroposophic medicine are based on specific pharmaceutical procedures to enhance remedy efficacy. One such anthroposophic pharmaceutical process was evaluated regarding effects on cancer cell toxicity in vitro and on colchicine tumor formation in Lepidium sativum. Anthroposophically processed Viscum album extract (APVAE was produced by mixing winter and summer mistletoe extracts in the edge of a high-speed rotating disk and was compared with manually mixed Viscum album extract (VAE. The antiproliferative effect of VAE/APVAE was determined in five cell lines (NCI-H460, DU-145, HCC1143, MV3, and PA-TU-8902 by WST-1 assay in vitro; no difference was found between VAE and APVAE in any cell line tested (P>0.14. Incidence of colchicine tumor formation was assessed by measurement of the root/shoot-ratio of seedlings of Lepidium sativum treated with colchicine as well as VAE, APVAE, or water. Colchicine tumor formation decreased after application of VAE (−5.4% compared to water, P<0.001 and was even stronger by APVAE (−8.8% compared to water, P<0.001. The high-speed mistletoe extract mixing process investigated thus did not influence toxicity against cancer cells but seemed to sustain morphostasis and to enhance resistance against external noxious influences leading to phenomenological malformations.

  10. Effects of Korean mistletoe lectin (Viscum album coloratum) on proliferation and cytokine expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and T-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Su-Yun; Park, Won-Bong

    2007-10-01

    The anti-cancer activity of mistletoe has been ascribed to a combination of cytotoxic and immunological effects. We previously showed that Korean mistletoe lectin (Viscum album L. var. coloratum agglutinin, VCA) can stimulate IFN-gamma production and modulate proliferation in murine splenocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of VCA on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC) and T-lymphocytes. The addition of VCA resulted in a significant inhibition of proliferation at higher concentrations (at 2-8 ng/mL, 1-8 ng/mL in hPBMC and T-lymphocytes, respectively) but an induction at lower concentrations (at 4-16 pg/mL, 4-32 pg/mL in hPBMC and T-lymphocytes, respectively). Further studies were carried out to determine if the pro-proliferative or anti-proliferative activity exhibited by VCA was correlated with apoptosis and cytokine secretion. As a result, the apoptotic cell number increased to 26% after 48 h of VCA treatment (10 ng/mL) in the presence of anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies. On the other hand, without anti-CD3/CD28 antibody stimulants, VCA did not arrest cell cycle. In addition, it was shown that VCA could induce IL-2 secretion was dose-dependently increased by VCA in stimulated (anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies) (at 0.25-2 ng/mL) and non-stimulated (at 3-25 pg/mL) human T-lymphocytes. Also, at low and non-toxic concentrations of VCA, the RT-PCR result confirmed the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-gamma. These data may suggest new perspective to modulate the balance between cell growth, cytokine production and programmed cell death therapeutically.

  11. the effects of a nigerian specie of viscum album (mistletoe) leaf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioline

    effects of each dose of extract on the arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate of normotensive and hypertensive rats. Some pharmacological agents like .... received 100,000 IU penicillin (i.m.) to prevent postoperative infection. All rats were ..... adverse effect of the extract. From the present study, the extract has probably a ...

  12. Impact of Mistletoe Triterpene Acids on the Uptake of Mistletoe Lectin by Cultured Tumor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Mulsow

    Full Text Available Complementary treatment possibilities for the therapy of cancer are increasing in demand due to the severe side effects of the standard cytostatics used in the first-line therapy. A common approach as a complementary treatment is the use of aqueous extracts of Viscum album L. (Santalaceace. The therapeutic activity of these extracts is attributed to Mistletoe lectins which are Ribosome-inactivating proteins type II. Besides these main constituents the extract of Viscum album L. comprises also a mixture of lipophilic ingredients like triterpene acids of the oleanane, lupane and ursane type. However, these constituents are not contained in commercially available aqueous extracts due to their high lipophilicity and insolubility in aqueous extraction media. To understand the impact of the extract ingredients in cancer therapy, the intracellular uptake of the mistletoe lectin I (ML by cultured tumor cells was investigated in relation to the mistletoe triterpene acids, mainly oleanolic acid. Firstly, these hydrophobic triterpene acids were solubilized using cyclodextrins ("TT" extract. Afterwards, the uptake of either single compounds (isolated ML and the aqueous "viscum" extract or in combination with the TT extract (ML+TT, viscumTT, was analyzed. The uptake of ML was studied inTHP-1-, HL-60-, 143B- and Ewing TC-71-cells and determined after 30, 60 and 120 minutes by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay which quantifies the A-chain of the hololectin. It could be shown that the intracellular uptake after 120 minutes amounted to 20% in all cell lines after incubation with viscumTT. The studies further revealed that the uptake in THP-1-, HL-60- and Ewing TC-71-cells was independent of the addition of TT extract. Interestingly, the uptake of ML by 143B-cells could only be measured after addition of triterpenes pointing to resistance to mistletoe lectin.

  13. Impact of Mistletoe Triterpene Acids on the Uptake of Mistletoe Lectin by Cultured Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulsow, Katharina; Enzlein, Thomas; Delebinski, Catharina; Jaeger, Sebastian; Seifert, Georg; Melzig, Matthias F.

    2016-01-01

    Complementary treatment possibilities for the therapy of cancer are increasing in demand due to the severe side effects of the standard cytostatics used in the first-line therapy. A common approach as a complementary treatment is the use of aqueous extracts of Viscum album L. (Santalaceace). The therapeutic activity of these extracts is attributed to Mistletoe lectins which are Ribosome-inactivating proteins type II. Besides these main constituents the extract of Viscum album L. comprises also a mixture of lipophilic ingredients like triterpene acids of the oleanane, lupane and ursane type. However, these constituents are not contained in commercially available aqueous extracts due to their high lipophilicity and insolubility in aqueous extraction media. To understand the impact of the extract ingredients in cancer therapy, the intracellular uptake of the mistletoe lectin I (ML) by cultured tumor cells was investigated in relation to the mistletoe triterpene acids, mainly oleanolic acid. Firstly, these hydrophobic triterpene acids were solubilized using cyclodextrins (“TT” extract). Afterwards, the uptake of either single compounds (isolated ML and the aqueous “viscum” extract) or in combination with the TT extract (ML+TT, viscumTT), was analyzed. The uptake of ML was studied inTHP-1-, HL-60-, 143B- and Ewing TC-71-cells and determined after 30, 60 and 120 minutes by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay which quantifies the A-chain of the hololectin. It could be shown that the intracellular uptake after 120 minutes amounted to 20% in all cell lines after incubation with viscumTT. The studies further revealed that the uptake in THP-1-, HL-60- and Ewing TC-71-cells was independent of the addition of TT extract. Interestingly, the uptake of ML by 143B-cells could only be measured after addition of triterpenes pointing to resistance to mistletoe lectin. PMID:27088729

  14. Growth and Reproductive Performance of Rabbits Fed Mistletoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten (10) rabbit does of mixed breeds aged between 5 – 6 months were used to study the effect of feeding mistletoe on feed intake, body weight and reproductive performance of rabbits. Following a pre - treatment period of two weeks during which the does were allowed to acclimatize to the environment, they were randomly ...

  15. Effects of Dwarf Mistletoe on Stand Structure of Lodgepole Pine Forests 21-28 Years Post-Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in Central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne, Michelle C.; Shaw, David C.; Woolley, Travis J.; Queijeiro-Bolaños, Mónica E.

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21–28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its potential to

  16. Mistletoe in the treatment of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Sakallı Çetin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a malignant neoplasia drives from melanocytes. Malignant melanoma, the most causing death, is seen in the third place at skin cancer. Malignant melanoma shows intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and variability in the course of the disease which are distinct features separating from other solid tumors. These features prevent the development and standardization of non-surgical treatment models of malignant melanoma. Although there is a large number of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma, it hasn’t been demonstrated the survival advantage of adjuvant treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Because of the different clinical course of malignant melanoma, the disease is thought to be closely associated with immune system. Therefore, immunomodulatory therapy models were developed. Mistletoe stimulates the immune system by increasing the number and activity of dendritic cells, thus it has been shown to effect on tumor growth and metastasis of malignant melanoma patient. Outlined in this review are the recent developments in the understanding the role of mistletoe as a complementary therapy for malignant melanoma. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 145-152

  17. Antioxidant activity and protective effects of cocoa and kola nut mistletoe (Globimetula cupulata against ischemia/reperfusion injury in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts

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    Afolabi Clement Akinmoladun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Protection against cardiomyocyte damage following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is highly desirable in patients with ischemic heart disease. Hydromethanol extracts of Globimetula cupulata (mistletoe growing on cocoa (CGCE and kola nut (KGCE trees were assessed for antioxidant content and cardioprotective potential against I/R. Graded concentrations (1–50 μg/mL of CGCE or KGCE were tested on Langendorff-perfused rat hearts to evaluate the effects on the flow rate, heart rate, and force of cardiac contraction, while another set of hearts were subjected to biochemical analyses. Both extracts showed good antioxidant content and activity, but KGCE (EC50: 24.8±1.8 μg/mL showed higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity than CGCE (70.2±4.5 μg/mL. Both extracts at 3 μg/mL reversed (p < 0.001 membrane peroxidation and the significant decrease in nitrite level, coronary flow rate, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity caused by the I/R cycle. It is concluded that G. cupulata protects against ischemia–reperfusion injury in rat hearts via augmenting endogenous antioxidants and significant restoration of altered hemodynamic parameters.

  18. Disproportionate Declines in Ground-Foraging Insectivorous Birds after Mistletoe Removal.

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    David M Watson

    Full Text Available Insectivorous birds have been recognized as disproportionately sensitive to land-use intensification and habitat loss, with those species feeding primarily on the ground exhibiting some of the most dramatic declines. Altered litter inputs and availability of epigeic arthropods have been suggested to underlie reduced abundances and shrinking distributions but direct evidence is lacking. I used a patch-scale removal experiment in southern Australia to evaluate whether ground-feeding insectivores are especially vulnerable to altered litter-fall. Building on work demonstrating the importance of mistletoe litter to nutrient dynamics, litter was reduced by removing mistletoe (Loranthaceae from one set of eucalypt woodlands, responses of birds three years after mistletoe removal compared with otherwise similar control woodlands containing mistletoe. Despite not feeding on mistletoes directly, insectivores exhibited the greatest response to mistletoe removal. Among woodland residents, ground-foraging insectivores showed the most dramatic response; treatment woodlands losing an average of 37.4% of their pre-treatment species richness. Once these 19 species of ground-foraging insectivores were excluded, remaining woodland species showed no significant effect of mistletoe removal. This response reflects greater initial losses in treatment woodlands during the study (which coincided with a severe drought and double the number of species returning to control woodlands (where mistletoe numbers and litter were not manipulated post-drought. These findings support the productivity-based explanation of declining insectivores, suggesting diminished litter-fall reduced habitat quality for these birds via decreased availability of their preferred prey. In addition to altered prey availability, interactions between litter-fall and epigeic arthropods exemplify the importance of below-ground / above-ground linkages driving ecosystem function.

  19. Dwarf mistletoes: Biology, pathology, and systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth; Delbert Wiens

    1996-01-01

    Arceuthobium (dwarf mistletoes), a well defined but morphologically reduced genus of the family Viscaceae, is parasitic on Pinaceae in the Old and New Worlds and on Cupressaceae in the Old World. Although conifer forests in many parts of the Northern Hemisphere are infested with dwarf mistletoes, those most commonly infested are in western North...

  20. Fuel and stand characteristics in ponderosa pine infested with mountain pine beetle, Ips spp., and southwestern dwarf mistletoe in Colorado's northern Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Gene Klutsch

    2008-01-01

    The effect of forest disturbances, such as bark beetles and dwarf mistletoes, on fuel dynamics is important for understanding forest dynamics and heterogeneity. Fuel loads and other fuel parameters were assessed in areas of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) infested with southwestern dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium vaginatum...

  1. Efficacy and safety of mistletoe preparations (Viscum album) for patients with cancer diseases. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Jörg; Iten, Felix; Hostanska, Katarina; Saller, Reinhard

    2009-08-01

    Mistletoe is often used as a complementary approach in oncology. Despite experimental anti-tumour effects and several reviews there remains controversy about its clinical role. Potentially relevant trials were identified to perform a systematic review (databases: e.g. EMBASE, MEDLINE; hand search: e.g. bibliographies; search terms: e.g. mistletoe). To be included, randomised or comparative clinical trials at least had to examine mistletoe preparations standardized according to manufacturing process and to describe interventions explicitly. Additionally, cohort studies were included for reasons of external validity. Results were summarised in tables. 18 clinical trials (>6,800 participants) were included. Their internal quality was mostly low. Due to heterogeneity between trials a meta-analysis was impossible. Regarding efficacy, findings were inconsistent regarding life expectancy, relation to tumour entity, dosing and treatment duration. Yet, studies indicate that quality of life (QoL) is improved. As these findings do not seem to be limited to one of the different parenteral mistletoe preparations reviewed the treatment may be summarised under the umbrella term 'mistletoe therapy'. Regarding safety, 1 serious adverse event (AE) related to mistletoe was described; non-serious AEs were local reactions at injection site. Allergic reactions were rare. Supportive 'mistletoe therapy' seems safe and beneficial for QoL in adult patients with solid tumours. But there is an urgent need to confirm its efficacy in patient-centred care in a complex oncological setting. This has to be evaluated systematically in prospective observational trials with validated, multidimensional patient-rated QoL questionnaires and comparisons of different preparations and dosages. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Review article: Influence of Viscum album L (European mistletoe) extracts on quality of life in cancer patients: a systematic review of controlled clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Gunver S; Kiene, Helmut

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate controlled clinical studies on the efficacy and effectiveness of Viscum album for quality of life (QoL) in cancer. The authors conducted a search of 7 electronic databases and reference lists and had extensive consultations with experts. They carried out a criteria-based assessment of methodological study quality. The authors identified 26 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 10 non-RCTs that investigated the influence of V album extracts (VAEs) on QoL in malignant diseases; 26 studies assessed patient-reported QoL. Questionnaires were mostly well established and validated. Half of the studies investigated VAEs concomitant with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery. Some studies were well designed, whereas others had minor or major methodological weaknesses. Among the 26 RCTs, 22 reported a QoL benefit, 3 indicated no difference, and 1 did not report any result. All the non-RCTs reported a QoL benefit. Of the studies with higher methodological quality, most reported a benefit, whereas 1 found no difference. Improvements were mainly in regard to coping, fatigue, sleep, exhaustion, energy, nausea, vomiting, appetite, depression, anxiety, ability to work, and emotional and functional well-being in general and, less consistently, in regard to pain, diarrhea, general performance, and side effects of conventional treatments. VAEs were well tolerated. VAEs seem to have an impact on QoL and reduction of side effects of conventional therapies (chemotherapy, radiation) in experimental trials as well as in routine daily application. The influence on fatigue especially should be investigated further.

  3. Evaluation of Preclinical Assays to Investigate an Anthroposophic Pharmaceutical Process Applied to Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Stephan; Flückiger, Heidi; Kunz, Matthias; Scherr, Claudia; Urech, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) developed in anthroposophic medicine are based on specific pharmaceutical procedures to enhance remedy efficacy. One such anthroposophic pharmaceutical process was evaluated regarding effects on cancer cell toxicity in vitro and on colchicine tumor formation in Lepidium sativum. Anthroposophically processed Viscum album extract (APVAE) was produced by mixing winter and summer mistletoe extracts in the edge of a high-speed rotating disk and was compared with manually mixed Viscum album extract (VAE). The antiproliferative effect of VAE/APVAE was determined in five cell lines (NCI-H460, DU-145, HCC1143, MV3, and PA-TU-8902) by WST-1 assay in vitro; no difference was found between VAE and APVAE in any cell line tested (P > 0.14). Incidence of colchicine tumor formation was assessed by measurement of the root/shoot-ratio of seedlings of Lepidium sativum treated with colchicine as well as VAE, APVAE, or water. Colchicine tumor formation decreased after application of VAE (-5.4% compared to water, P cancer cells but seemed to sustain morphostasis and to enhance resistance against external noxious influences leading to phenomenological malformations.

  4. Difficulties and Perspectives of Immunomodulatory Therapy with Mistletoe Lectins and Standardized Mistletoe Extracts in Evidence-Based Medicine

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    Tibor Hajtó

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscum album preparations are aqueous mistletoe plant extracts used in complementary and alternative medicine as immunomodulators in cancer therapy. However, evidence of immunological efficacy of mistletoe extracts (MEs used in clinical trials is often lacking. Mechanisms involved in anti-tumor properties of ME and mistletoe lectins (MLs modify both innate and adaptive immune systems, according to animal model experiments. In the background of these effects, a selective binding of ML on CD75 ganglioside receptors of interleukin 12 (IL-12-producing macrophages or dendritic cells can play an important role. Immunological effects of ME correlate with their lectin activity, showing a bell-shaped dose-response curve of efficacy. Therefore, a correct determination of MLs for the standardization of commercial ME is essential. However, plant MLs exhibit heterogeneity, which most likely results from post-translational processing. In addition, amino acid analysis of ML has revealed numerous conservative substitutions along their amino acid sequence. Consequently, ML research needs new perspectives, and the advantages and disadvantages of purified and biologically better defined ML preparations are also discussed in this article.

  5. Survival of cancer patients treated with mistletoe extract (Iscador: a systematic literature review

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    Büssing Arndt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Europe, extracts from Viscum album (VA-E, the European white-berry mistletoe, are widely used to treat patients with cancer. Methods We searched several databases such as Cochrane, EMBASE, NCCAM, NLM, DIMDI, CAMbase, and Medline. Inclusion criteria were controlled clinical studies on parameters associated with survival in cancer patients treated with Iscador. Outcome data were extracted as they were given in the publication, and expressed as hazard ratios (HR, their logarithm, and the respective standard errors using standard formulas. Results We found 49 publications on the clinical effects of Iscador usage on survival of cancer patients which met our criteria. Among them, 41 studies and strata provided enough data to extract hazard ratios (HR and their standard errors (Iscador versus no extra treatment. The majority of studies reported positive effects in favour of the Iscador application. Heterogeneity of study results was moderate (I2 = 38.3%, p Conclusions Pooled analysis of clinical studies suggests that adjuvant treatment of cancer patients with the mistletoe extract Iscador is associated with a better survival. Despite obvious limitations, and strong hints for a publication bias which limits the evidence found in this meta-analysis, one can not ignore the fact that studies with positive effects of VA-E on survival of cancer patients are accumulating. Future studies evaluating the effects of Iscador should focus on a transparent design and description of endpoints in order to provide greater insight into a treatment often being depreciated as ineffective, but highly valued by cancer patients.

  6. Response of dwarf mistletoe-infested ponderosa pine to thinning: 2. Dwarf mistletoe propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis F. Roth; James W. Barrett

    1985-01-01

    Propagation of dwarf mistletoe in ponderosa pine saplings is little influenced by thinning overly dense stands to 250 trees per acre. Numerous plants that appear soon after thinning develop from formerly latent plants in the suppressed under-story. Subsequently, dwarf mistletoe propagates nearly as fast as tree crowns enlarge but the rate differs widely among trees....

  7. Proteomic fingerprinting of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) via combinatorial peptide ligand libraries and mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Barberán, María; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Nicoletti, Maria; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Fasoli, Elisa; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2017-07-05

    Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs), coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, have been used to investigate in depth the proteome of Viscum album L. (VA), commonly named European mistletoe, in order to provide a first proteomic fingerprinting. For this purpose, the proteins were captured via CPLLs at two different pH values (acidic and neutral). A total of 648 non-redundant proteins were identified by using two different databases. The two pH values, chosen for bead incubations, have contributed to increment the capture ability: 56% and 31% of CPLLs species were respectively recognized at pH7.2 and at pH2.2. Finally the biological function of identified proteins was evaluated in order to understand their role on human health and the potential benefits of mistletoe extracts in medicine. Viscum album L. (VA) extracts are recently used as supporting medicine for cancer therapy, improving patients' survival and increasing their quality of life in medicine. These anticancer effects are investigated and they are probably due to mistletoe's capability to favor tumor cell's death and to modulate the immune system. Although the increasing interest in VA medical benefits, the role of its components in human health remains unclear. In order to exploit this aspect, it is important to comprehensively study proteins present in Viscum album L. (VA) extracts. Nevertheless, since plant proteomics analysis is in most cases handicapped by the presence of high-abundance proteins masking the detection of the low-abundance ones, it is important to overcome this challenge. In this sense, combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) have been used to reduce the dynamic protein concentration range to enable the identification of a higher amount of proteins than employing conventional methods. In this work, a total of 648 non-redundant proteins were identified: 56% and 31% of CPLLs species were respectively recognized at pH7.2 and at pH2.2. This deep proteome identification

  8. Mistletoe infection of woody plant species at Bahir Dar University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of woody plants composition and invasion by mistletoes was conducted in Bahir Dar University main campus vegetation. A total of 28009 individual trees were checked for mistletoes infection and 764 trees were found parasitized. Three species of mistletoes were identified. Erianthemum dregi was more frequent and ...

  9. Absence of tumor growth stimulation in a panel of 16 human tumor cell lines by mistletoe extracts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Gerhard; Fiebig, Heinz-Herbert

    2002-04-01

    Extracts of Viscum album (mistletoe) are widely used as complementary cancer therapies in Europe. The mistletoe lectins have been identified as the main active principle of mistletoe extracts. They have been shown to exhibit cytotoxic effects as well as immunomodulatory activities. The latter is exemplified by induction of cytokine secretion and increased activity of natural killer cells. Recent reports, however, indicated possible tumor growth stimulation by mistletoe extracts. Therefore, the three aqueous mistletoe extracts (Iscador M special, Iscador Qu special and Iscador P) were evaluated for antiproliferative and/or stimulatory effects in a panel of 16 human tumor cell lines in vitro using a cellular proliferation assay. The results show no evidence of stimulation of tumor growth by any of the three Iscador preparations, comprising central nervous system, gastric, non-small cell lung, mammary, prostate, renal and uterine cancer cell lines, as well as cell lines from hematological malignancies and melanomas. On the contrary, Iscador preparations containing a high lectin concentration (Iscador M special and Iscador Qu special) showed antitumor activity in the mammary cancer cell line MAXF 401NL at the 15 microg/ml dose level with a more than 70% growth inhibition compared to untreated control cells. In addition, a slight antitumor activity (growth inhibition 30-70%) was found in three tumor cell lines for Iscador M special and in seven tumor cell lines for Iscador Qu special, respectively. Iscador P, which contains no mistletoe lectin I, showed no antiproliferative activity.

  10. Mistletoe alkaloid fractions alleviates carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis through inhibition of hepatic stellate cell activation via TGF-β/Smad interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Wang, Chi; Li, Ying-Ying; Wang, Xue-Cong; An, Jian-Duo; Wang, Yun-Jiao; Wang, Xue-Jiang

    2014-12-02

    Mistletoe (Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai) has long been categorized as a traditional herbal medicine in Asia. In addition to its application in cancer therapy, mistletoe has also been used in the treatment of chronic hepatic disorders in China. In the present study, we investigated the antifibrotic effect and mechanisms of action of mistletoe extracts in a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. An experimental model of hepatic fibrosis was established by intraperitoneal injection of rats with CCl4 for 8 weeks. Rats were subsequently treated with a mistletoe alkaloid fraction preparation via oral administration (120mg/kg daily for 8 weeks) or with distilled water as a control. Histopathological changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson׳s trichrome staining. The expression of markers relevant to hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation in the liver was assessed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The anti-fibrosis activity and mechanisms of action of mistletoe alkaloid fractions were further investigated in the HSC-T6 HSC line, following treatment with mistletoe alkaloid fractions (12mg/ml) for 48h. Hepatic fibrosis decreased markedly in CCl4-treated animals following treatment with mistletoe alkaloid fractions, compared to controls. The mRNA levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), procollagen I and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) were significantly downregulated, by about 40%, 40% and 45%, respectively, in liver tissues from rats treated with mistletoe alkaloid fractions. Furthermore, significant downregulation of TGF-β1, TGF-β1 receptor, phosphorylated Smad 2 and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) proteins, by about 45%, 30% and 40%, respectively, was also observed in liver tissues from mistletoe alkaloid fractions-treated rats. In contrast, Smad 7 levels were significantly increased by about 30% in mistletoe alkaloid

  11. Functional feedbacks by dwarf mistletoe of pine into global climate change in a Yellowstone forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, K.; Hanely, J.

    2009-12-01

    Dwarf mistletoe is a defoliating, carbon-sink pathogen that significantly affects host physiology, and nutrient and water relations. This pathogen is forecast to increase in range and severity in response to global climate change due to effects on host tree physiology. Via impacts on host tree photosynthetic capacity, dwarf mistletoe could directly influence soil processes that that are responsible for the release one of the world’s greatest sources of atmospheric CO2. Despite the obvious ramifications for global climate change (GCC) and potential for feedbacks into the process, no studies have been put forth measuring effects on terrestrial ecology and carbon relations. In this study we investigated effects of dwarf mistletoe infection of pines in Yellowstone on soil fungal species and functional diversity, activities of soil enzymes actively involved in woody breakdown (hence having direct impact on carbon sequestration), and soil CO2 efflux. Despite the wealth of knowledge regarding primary effects of dwarf mistletoe on host physiological process, there is virtually no information regarding secondary effects, for example on the organisms that rely upon host photosynthate, and that in turn play pivotal roles in carbon cycling and terrestrial ecology. In this study we provide the first look at these impacts. Results: 1) direct genetic tests indicate significant decreases in soil fungal species diversity and richness; 2) culture-based methods (Fungilogs) indicate a significant increase in the number of carbon substrates utilized by soil fungi (see table); 3) direct measures of soil enzyme activity indicate significant increases in woody substrate breakdown (see table); 4) direct in situ measures of soil CO2 efflux indicate a doubling of CO2 flux from soils (Pforest tree physiology. These feedbacks are likely to have significant impact on global carbon budgets, and thus influence rate and magnitude of global climate change.Effects of dwarf mistletoe on soil enzyme

  12. Fermented Mistletoe Extract as a Multimodal Antitumoral Agent in Gliomas

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    Oliver Podlech

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, commercially available extracts from the white-berry mistletoe (Viscum album L. are widely used as a complementary cancer therapy. Mistletoe lectins have been identified as main active components and exhibit cytotoxic effects as well as immunomodulatory activity. Since it is still not elucidated in detail how mistle toe extracts such as ISCADOR communicate their effects, we analyzed the mechanisms that might be responsible for their antitumoral function on a molecular and functional level. ISCADOR-treated glioblastoma (GBM cells down-regulate central genes involved in glioblastoma progression and malignancy such as the cytokine TGF-β and matrix-metalloproteinases. Using in vitro glioblastoma/immune cell co-cultivation assays as well as measurement of cell migration and invasion, we could demonstrate that in glioblastoma cells, lectin-rich ISCADOR M and ISCADOR Q significantly enforce NK-cell-mediated GBM cell lysis. Beside its immune stimulatory effect, ISCADOR reduces the migratory and invasive potential of glioblastoma cells. In a syngeneic as well as in a xenograft glioblastoma mouse model, both pretreatment of tumor cells and intratumoral therapy of subcutaneously growing glioblastoma cells with ISCADOR Q showed delayed tumor growth. In conclusion, ISCADOR Q, showing multiple positive effects in the treatment of glioblastoma, may be a candidate for concomitant treatment of this cancer.

  13. Metapopulation dynamics of the mistletoe and its host in savanna areas with different fire occurrence.

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    Grazielle Sales Teodoro

    Full Text Available Mistletoes are aerial hemiparasitic plants which occupy patches of favorable habitat (host trees surrounded by unfavorable habitat and may be possibly modeled as a metapopulation. A metapopulation is defined as a subdivided population that persists due to the balance between colonization and extinction in discrete habitat patches. Our aim was to evaluate the dynamics of the mistletoe Psittacanthus robustus and its host Vochysia thyrsoidea in three Brazilian savanna areas using a metapopulation approach. We also evaluated how the differences in terms of fire occurrence affected the dynamic of those populations (two areas burned during the study and one was fire protected. We monitored the populations at six-month intervals. P. robustus population structure and dynamics met the expected criteria for a metapopulation: i the suitable habitats for the mistletoe occur in discrete patches; (ii local populations went extinct during the study and (iii colonization of previously non-occupied patches occurred. The ratio of occupied patches decreased in all areas with time. Local mistletoe populations went extinct due to two different causes: patch extinction in area with no fire and fire killing in the burned areas. In a burned area, the largest decrease of occupied patch ratios occurred due to a fire event that killed the parasites without, however, killing the host trees. The greatest mortality of V. thyrsoidea occurred in the area without fire. In this area, all the dead trees supported mistletoe individuals and no mortality was observed for parasite-free trees. Because P. robustus is a fire sensitive species and V. thyrsoidea is fire tolerant, P. robustus seems to increase host mortality, but its effect is lessened by periodic burning that reduces the parasite loads.

  14. Immunological response to mistletoe (Viscum album L.) in cancer patients: a four-case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardin, Nilo Esvalter

    2009-03-01

    European mistletoe (Viscum album) has been used in complementary cancer treatment, but little is known concerning its effects on immunological parameters, although there is evidence that Viscum may stimulate the immune system. In this study, a trial was conducted with cancer patients to determine whether Viscum album extracts could improve the results of immune tests. These were: white blood cell count (leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes), CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, intradermal tests of delayed hypersensitivity (candidin, trichophytin, purified protein derivative-PPD), complement C3 and C4, and immunoglobulin A, G and M. Four patients received seven doses of subcutaneous Viscum album 20 mg, twice weekly. Immunological tests were carried out before and after treatment, and an increase in several parameters of humoral and cellular immunity were shown. Apart from reactions around the injection sites, treatment was well tolerated and all patients benefited from it. These results suggest that Viscum album can enhance humoral and cellular immune responses in cancer patients, but further studies attesting to the possible clinical impact of these immunological effects are necessary. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Mistletoes as parasites: Host specificity and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, D A; Carpenter, M A

    1998-03-01

    Recent research on parasite evolution has highlighted the importance of host specialization in speciation, either through host-switching or cospeciation. Many parasites show common patterns of host specificity, with higher host specificity where host abundance is high and reliable, phylogenetically conservative host specificity, and formation of races on or in different host species. Recent advances in our understanding of host specificity and speciation patterns in a variety of animal parasites provides valuable insights into the evolutionary biology of mistletoes.

  16. Vectors, viscin, and Viscaceae: mistletoes as parasites, mutualists, and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliann E. Aukema

    2003-01-01

    Mistletoes are aerial, hemiparasitic plants found on trees throughout the world. They have unique ecological arrangements with the host plants they parasitize and the birds that disperse their seeds. Similar in many respects to vector-borne macroparasites, mistletoes are often detrimental to their hosts, and can even kill them. Coevolution has led to resistance...

  17. Mistletoes on Hardwoods in the United States (FIDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Scharpf; Frank G. Hawksworth

    1974-01-01

    The traditional use of mistletoes during holiday seasons, their involvement in folklore and legend, their consumption by domestic and wild animals, and their use for medicinal purposes make mistletoes of widespread interest to the public. The fact that these plants are parasites that injure and eventually kill trees both conifers and hardwoods is not well known. Two...

  18. Study of Mistletoe in Joben Resort Forest Mount Rinjani Lombok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuni Dwi Fikriani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mistletoes are one group of hemiparasite plants, including the Lorantaceae family that have potential as medicinal. These hemiparasite plants can attack flowering plant (Magnoliophyta and non-floweing plant (Pinophyta, especially on the main stems, branches and twigs. The objective of this research is to identify the species of mistletoe and its hosts, make identification key, descriptions, and to make a distribution map of mistletoe in Joben Resort forest south of Mount Rinjani Lombok. This study is descriptive explorative research with three kinds of collecting sample methods i.e exploration, continous strip sampling, and delenation method. The research found five species of mistletoes are included in three genera i.e Amyema cuernosensis, Amyema enneantha, Amyema tristis, Macrosolen retusus and Scurrula artropurpurea. These five kinds of mistletoe are associated with 23 hosts species of plants, 18 genera from 13 families. The most favorite host of these mistletoes is Ficus septica, and the most agresive mistletoe is Scurrula artropurpurea. The important finding of the research is finding new species or new record of mistletoes. The benefit of these new record or new species is providing new material of new medicinal for treating some diseases such as various cancers.

  19. First report of Phytophthora ramorum infecting mistletoe in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.L. Riley; G.A. Chastagner

    2011-01-01

    In 2005 and 2006, white fir and Douglas-fir growing in a Christmas tree plantation near Los Gatos, CA, under a black walnut tree infected with mistletoe tested positive for Phytophthora ramorum, the cause of Sudden Oak Death. Isolation from a symptomatic mistletoe inflorescence stalk was positive for P. ramorum. In 2007,...

  20. Prospective controlled cohort studies on long-term therapy of ovairian cancer patients with mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts iscador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossarth-Maticek, Ronald; Ziegler, Renatus

    2007-01-01

    Mistletoe extracts such as Iscador are commonly used as complementary/anthroposophic medications for many cancer indications, particularly for solid cancers. The efficacy of this complementary therapy is still controversial. Does long-term therapy with mistletoe extracts Iscador show any effect on survival and psychosomatic self-regulation of patients with ovarian cancer? Prospective recruitment and long-term follow-up in controlled cohort studies. (1) Two randomized matched-pair studies: OvarRand (ovarian cancer patients without distant metastases; 21 pairs) and OvarMetRand (ovarian cancer patients with distant metastases; 20 pairs); patients having no mistletoe therapy were matched for prognostic factors. By paired random allocation, one of the patients of each pair was suggested therapy with mistletoe extracts Iscador to be applied by her attending physician. (2) Two non-randomized matched-pair studies: Ovar (ovarian cancer patients without distant metastases; 75 pairs) and OvarRand (ovarian cancer patients with distant metastases; 62 pairs); patients that already received therapy with mistletoe extracts Iscador were matched by the same criteria to control patients without therapy with mistletoe extracts Iscador. For overall survival in the randomized studies, the effect in favor of therapy with mistletoe extracts Iscador was significant in OvarMetRand but not in OvarRand; hazard ratio estimate and 95% confidence interval: 0.40 (0.15, 1.03) and 0.33 (0.12, 0.92), respectively. In the non-randomized studies Ovar and OvarMet, the results adjusted for relevant prognostic variables were 0.47 (0.31, 0.69) and 0.62 (0.37, 1.05). Psychosomatic self-regulation in the Iscador group increases significantly within 12 months on a scale from 1 to 6 compared with the control group in the randomized study OvarRand as well as in the non-randomized study Ovar on patients with ovarian cancer without distant metastases; estimate of the median difference and 95% confidence interval

  1. European side markers effect on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, A.; Theeuwes, J.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 new European legislation regarding side-markers for passenger cars became effective. Volvo requested the TNO-Human Factors Research Institute (HFRI) to investigate the possible safety benefit of this European side-markers configuration. A test panel at TNO- HFRI was used to determine the

  2. Paediatric medulloblastoma cells are susceptible to Viscum album (Mistletoe) preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzak, T J; Rist, L; Eggenschwiler, J; Grotzer, M A; Viviani, A

    2006-01-01

    Medulloblastoma constitute more than 20% of all paediatric brain tumours and are the most common malignant brain tumours in children. Adjuvant chemotherapy has seen a strong increase in the use of complementary medicine for cancer treatment. Evidence for cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Viscum album (Mistletoe) in vitro is available, however, no data concerning paediatric tumours, especially paediatric brain tumours, has been provided so far. In order to compare the receptiveness of medulloblastoma cells to different Viscum album preparations, in vitro cytotoxic effects of eight Viscum album extracts on four different paediatric medulloblastoma cell lines were analysed by MTT-Tests. Lectin contents of the extracts were determined to correlate them with the mitochondrial activity of mistletoe-treated cells. Flowcytometric analyses with Annexin V-FITC staining were carried out to quantify the amount of apoptotic cells compared to necrotic and viable cells. Data obtained with the medulloblastoma cell lines, Daoy, D342, D425 and UW-288-2, treated with Viscum album preparations from eight dissimilar host trees (Iscucin Abietis, Pini, Populi, Mali, Salicis, Crataegi, Quercus and Tiliae), indicated a significant growth-inhibition of all cell lines, yet the cell susceptibility was dissimilar against the different extracts. The decrease in mitochondrial activity and increase in apoptosis correlated with the lectin content of the used preparation in a dose-dependent manner. These in vitro results show that paediatric medulloblastoma cells respond to Viscum album preparations, by undergoing cell death through apoptosis and that this growth-inhibition correlates with the lectin content of the used preparation.

  3. Safety and efficacy of the long-term adjuvant treatment of primary intermediate- to high-risk malignant melanoma (UICC/AJCC stage II and III) with a standardized fermented European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extract. Results from a multicenter, comparative, epidemiological cohort study in Germany and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Matthias; Bock, Paul R; Hanisch, Jürgen; Karasmann, Marita; Schneider, Berthold

    2005-01-01

    Mistletoe therapy is the most frequently used complementary treatment in cancer patients in Germany and Switzerland. However, its safety and efficacy were controversially discussed, also in case of malignant melanoma (MM). The present study should evaluate the therapeutic safety and efficacy of a long-term therapy with a standardized fermented European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extract Iscador (FME) during post-surgical aftercare of primary intermediate to high-risk MM (UICC/AJCC stage II-III) patients and compare it with an untreated parallel control group from the same cohort. The study was designed as a multicenter, comparative, retrolective, epidemiological cohort study with parallel groups, carried out according to the guidelines of Good Epidemiological Practice (GEP). All patients suffered from surgically treated and histopathologically confirmed primary MM in UICC/AJCC stage II-III without distant metastases. In the study group, FME was administered subcutaneously 2-3 times weekly for at least three months, while the untreated control group was merely observed ("watchful waiting"). In both groups some patients also received radio-, chemo-, and/or immunotherapy. The patients were followed until the last visit or until death. Unselected, chronologically ordered, and standardized anonymous data from medical records that satisfied the predefined eligibility criteria were included for the "per protocol" analysis. Safety was assessed by the number of patients with FME-associated adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and by the search for tumor enhancement. The primary endpoint of efficacy was the adjusted tumor-related survival. Secondary end-points were the overall-, the disease-free- and the brain metastasis-free survival. The survival results were analyzed after adjustment for baseline imbalances, treatment regimens and other potential confounders by the Cox proportional hazard regression method. 686 eligible patients (329 FME vs. 357 controls) from 35 centers were

  4. Coronary Artery Manifestation of Ormond Disease: The "Mistletoe Sign".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Suhai, Ferenc Imre; Czimbalmos, Csilla; Tóth, Attila; Becker, David; Kiss, Emese; Ferencik, Maros; Hoffmann, Udo; Vagó, Hajnalka; Merkely, Béla

    2017-02-01

    A 69-year-old woman presented with symptoms of presumed cardiac involvement of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, otherwise known as Ormond disease. Distinct pericoronary tissue proliferations were depicted at cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography. On images, the coronary manifestation was termed the "mistletoe sign." The presence of the mistletoe sign on cardiac MR and coronary CT angiographic images is probably rare, but it might be a characteristic manifestation of retroperitoneal fibrosis. With the increasing number of noninvasive cardiac imaging tests performed worldwide, the recognition of the mistletoe sign could be helpful in diagnosing retroperitoneal fibrosis. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  5. Anaphylactic reactions after therapeutic injection of mistletoe (Viscum album L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, N; Kopferschmitt-Kubler, M; Cabalion, J; Purohit, A; Alt, M; Pauli, G

    2001-01-01

    Mistletoe (Viscum album) is a plant that is semiparasitic of several trees: apple, oak, pine trees, etc. Because of the probable cytolytic action of one of the leaf's most abundant composites, in some countries mistletoe is used as a complementary medicine. Although only a few adverse reactions have been noted (cephalea, fever), cases of anaphylactic shock have been described. We present three cases of severe reaction after injection of mistletoe extract. Two of the patients had cancer. The third, whose brother had cancer, used the plant for preventive purposes. We discuss the danger of possible severe reactions due to the use of products employed in so-called alternative therapies.

  6. Mistletoe lectin is not the only cytotoxic component in fermented preparations of Viscum album from white fir (Abies pectinata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenschwiler, Jenny; von Balthazar, Leopold; Stritt, Bianca; Pruntsch, Doreen; Ramos, Mac; Urech, Konrad; Rist, Lukas; Simões-Wüst, A Paula; Viviani, Angelika

    2007-05-10

    Preparations of mistletoe (Viscum album) are the form of cancer treatment that is most frequently used in the complementary medicine. Previous work has shown that these preparations are able to exert cytotoxic effects on carcinoma cells, the extent of which might be influenced by the host tree species and by the content of mistletoe lectin. Using colorimetric assays, we have now compared the cytotoxic effects of Viscum album preparations (VAPs) obtained from mistletoe growing on oak (Quercus robur and Q. petraea, VAP-Qu), apple tree (Malus domestica,, VAP-M), pine (Pinus sylvestris, VAP-P) or white fir (Abies pectinata, VAP-A), on the in vitro growth of breast and bladder carcinoma cell lines. While MFM-223, KPL-1, MCF-7 and HCC-1937 were the breast carcinoma cell lines chosen, the panel of tested bladder carcinoma cells comprised the T-24, TCC-SUP, UM-UC-3 and J-82 cell lines. Each of the VAPs inhibited cell growth, but the extent of this inhibition differed with the preparation and with the cell line. The concentrations of VAP-Qu, VAP-M and VAP-A which led to a 50 % reduction of cell growth (IC50) varied between 0.6 and 0.03 mg/ml. Higher concentrations of VAP-P were required to obtain a comparable effect. Purified mistletoe lectin I (MLI) led to an inhibition of breast carcinoma cell growth at concentrations lower than those of VAPs, but the sensitivity towards purified MLI did not parallel that towards VAPs. Bladder carcinoma cells were in most cases more sensitive to VAPs treatment than breast carcinoma cells. The total mistletoe lectin content was very high in VAP-Qu (54 ng/mg extract), intermediate in VAP-M (25 ng/mg extract), and very low in VAP-P (1.3 ng/mg extract) and in VAP-A (1 ng/mg extract). As to be expected from the low content of mistletoe lectin, VAP-P led to relatively weak cytotoxic effects. Most remarkably, however, the lectin-poor VAP-A revealed a cytotoxic effect comparable to, or even stronger than, that of the lectin-rich VAP-Qu, on all

  7. Mistletoe lectin is not the only cytotoxic component in fermented preparations of Viscum album from white fir (Abies pectinata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Mac

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preparations of mistletoe (Viscum album are the form of cancer treatment that is most frequently used in the complementary medicine. Previous work has shown that these preparations are able to exert cytotoxic effects on carcinoma cells, the extent of which might be influenced by the host tree species and by the content of mistletoe lectin. Methods Using colorimetric assays, we have now compared the cytotoxic effects of Viscum album preparations (VAPs obtained from mistletoe growing on oak (Quercus robur and Q. petraea, VAP-Qu, apple tree (Malus domestica,, VAP-M, pine (Pinus sylvestris, VAP-P or white fir (Abies pectinata, VAP-A, on the in vitro growth of breast and bladder carcinoma cell lines. While MFM-223, KPL-1, MCF-7 and HCC-1937 were the breast carcinoma cell lines chosen, the panel of tested bladder carcinoma cells comprised the T-24, TCC-SUP, UM-UC-3 and J-82 cell lines. Results Each of the VAPs inhibited cell growth, but the extent of this inhibition differed with the preparation and with the cell line. The concentrations of VAP-Qu, VAP-M and VAP-A which led to a 50 % reduction of cell growth (IC50 varied between 0.6 and 0.03 mg/ml. Higher concentrations of VAP-P were required to obtain a comparable effect. Purified mistletoe lectin I (MLI led to an inhibition of breast carcinoma cell growth at concentrations lower than those of VAPs, but the sensitivity towards purified MLI did not parallel that towards VAPs. Bladder carcinoma cells were in most cases more sensitive to VAPs treatment than breast carcinoma cells. The total mistletoe lectin content was very high in VAP-Qu (54 ng/mg extract, intermediate in VAP-M (25 ng/mg extract, and very low in VAP-P (1.3 ng/mg extract and in VAP-A (1 ng/mg extract. As to be expected from the low content of mistletoe lectin, VAP-P led to relatively weak cytotoxic effects. Most remarkably, however, the lectin-poor VAP-A revealed a cytotoxic effect comparable to, or even stronger

  8. Immunomodulatory activity of a lupane triterpenoid ester isolated from the eastern Nigeria mistletoe, Loranthus micranthus (Linn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogechukwu, Omeje Edwin; Ogoamaka, Osadebe Patience; Sylvester, Nworu Chukwuemeka; Kawamura, Akira; Proksch, Peter

    2011-07-01

    To provide further evidence for the ethnomedicinal use of the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe, Loranthus micranthus (L. micranthus), as an immunostimulant. Solvent fractions from the crude extract of the mistletoe plant was obtained and screened by the cell mediated delayed type hypersensitivity reaction (DTHR) model in mice. Then the immunomodulatory potentials of a major lupane triterpenoid ester isolated from an active hexane fraction of the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe was investigated. Three lupeol-based triterpenoid esters: 7β 15α-dihydroxyl-lup-20(29)-ene-3β-palmitate (I), 7β, 15α-dihydroxyl-lup-20(29)-ene-3β-stearate (II) and 7β, 15α-dihydroxyl-lup-20(29)-ene-3β-decadecanoate (III) were isolated from the plant leaves epiphyting on a local kola nut tree and were characterized. Compound 1 was subjected to cell proliferation studies using C57Bl/6 splenocytes at three dose levels (5, 25 and 100 μg/mL) in presence of controls. Furthermore, the effect of this compound on IL-8 receptor expression was evaluated at three doses (1, 5 and 10 μg/mL) using the real time polymerase chain reaction assay. This triterpenoid ester produced some enhancement of the splenocytes at the tested doses but at doses higher than 5 μg/mL caused inhibition of the IL-8 receptor expression. The present findings support the ethnomedicinal use of the Eastern Nigeria Mistletoe in the management of diseases affecting the immune system. The triterpenoid(s) have some immunomodulatory abilities on splenocytes and IL-8 receptors and may partly account for the overall immunomodulatory activity of this plant. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Animal vectors of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Ostry; Thomas H. Nicholls; D.W. French

    1983-01-01

    Describes a study to determine the importance of animals in the spread of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce. Radio telemetry, banding, and color-marking techniques were used to study vectors of this forest pathogen.

  10. Evaluation of Chemical Properties of Mistletoe Leaves from Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viscum album) growing on three different trees: avocado pear (Persea Americana), African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) and kola (Kola nitida) was undertaken. Fresh mistletoe leaves were obtained from the three different trees and thoroughly ...

  11. The influence of climatic niche preferences on the population genetic structure of a mistletoe species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Barahona, Santiago; González, Clementina; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2017-06-01

    The prevalent view on genetic structuring in parasitic plants is that host-race formation is caused by varying degrees of host specificity. However, the relative importance of ecological niche divergence and host specificity to population differentiation remains poorly understood. We evaluated the factors associated with population differentiation in mistletoes of the Psittacanthus schiedeanus complex (Loranthaceae) in Mexico. We used genetic data from chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites to study population genetic structure and tested its association with host preferences and climatic niche variables. Pairwise genetic differentiation was associated with environmental and host preferences, independent of geography. However, environmental predictors appeared to be more important than host preferences to explain genetic structure, supporting the hypothesis that the occurrence of the parasite is largely determined by its own climatic niche and, to a lesser degree, by host specificity. Genetic structure is significant within this mistletoe species complex, but the processes associated with this structure appear to be more complex than previously thought. Although host specificity was not supported as the major determinant of population differentiation, we consider this to be part of a more comprehensive ecological model of mistletoe host-race formation that incorporates the effects of climatic niche evolution. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Homeopathic mistletoe adverse reaction mimics nodal involvement in18F-FDG PET/CT performed for evaluation of response to chemotherapy in lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, P; Sánchez, R; Mut, T; Balaguer, D; Latorre, I; Rodríguez, H

    Some patients use complementary medicine. We present a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma, scanned with 18 F-FDG PET/CT for evaluation of response after chemotherapy, who was self-administering mistletoe as a homeopathic medicine product. The careful review of the images of the entire scan and patient collaboration in anamnesis were crucial to avoid a false positive result. A review of the published scientific data on the effects of mistletoe is also presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  13. Local and landscape-scale biotic correlates of mistletoe distribution in Mediterranean pine forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roura-Pascual, N.; Brotons, L.; Garcia, D.; Zamora, R.; Caceres, M. de

    2012-11-01

    The study of the spatial patterns of species allows the examination of hypotheses on the most plausible ecological processes and factors determining their distribution. To investigate the determinants of parasite species on Mediterranean forests at regional scales, occurrence data of the European Misletoe (Viscum album) in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) were extracted from forest inventory data and combined with different types of explanatory variables by means of generalized linear mixed models. The presence of mistletoes in stands of Pinus halepensis seems to be determined by multiple factors (climatic conditions, and characteristics of the host tree and landscape structure) operating at different spatial scales, with the availability of orchards of Olea europaea in the surroundings playing a relevant role. These results suggest that host quality and landscape structure are important mediators of plant-plant and plant-animal interactions and, therefore, management of mistletoe populations should be conducted at both local (i.e. clearing of infected host trees) and landscape scales (e.g. controlling the availability of nutrient-rich food sources that attract bird dispersers). Research and management at landscape-scales are necessary to anticipate the negative consequence of land-use changes in Mediterranean forests. (Author) 38 refs.

  14. Efficacy of mistletoe for chemical pleurodesis in rats without malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyo Yeong; Cho, Jeong Su; Kim, Yeong Dae; I, Hoseok; Kim, Yeon Ji; Kim, Ahrong; Lee, Chang Hun

    2015-01-01

    Chemical pleurodesis is an effective treatment modality to reduce recurrence of malignant effusion. Several agents have been used in chemical pleurodesis but, it is not yet clear which is better. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley rats were used and classified into three groups: a group intrapleurally injected normal saline (group A, n=6), 400mg/kg talc (group B, n=6), and 9mg/kg mistletoe extraction (ME) (group C, n=6). Autopsy was performed to evaluate the pleural adhesion, pathologic examination of pleura and lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis 4 weeks after pleurodesis. Both group B and C showed an obvious pleural adhesion and there was no significant difference in grade of pleural adhesion between two groups (p=0.58). The parietal pleural thickness in talc group than ME group was significantly thicker (p=0.002) and the visceral pleura of talc group showed marked foreign body reaction with fibrosis and many multinucleated giant cells associated with talc crystal. This study suggests that pleurodesis using ME in condition without malignancy has comparable effect to pleurodesis using talc. However, additional experimental study in large animal or clinical trials would be required to prove a safety and an efficacy of pleurodesis using ME. PMID:28352717

  15. The influence of mistletoes on birds in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuria, Iriana; Castellanos, Ignacio; Gates, J. Edward

    2014-11-01

    Mistletoes are hemiparasitic flowering plants that function as keystone resources in forests and woodlands of temperate regions, where a positive relationship between mistletoe density and avian species richness has been observed. Mistletoes have been less studied in tropical regions and the relationship between birds and mistletoes has seldom been explored in tropical agricultural systems. Therefore, we studied the presence of infected trees and infection prevalence (i.e., number of parasitized trees/total number of trees) by Psittacanthus (Loranthaceae) mistletoes in 23 hedgerows located in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico during the dry and rainy seasons, and investigated the relationship between bird species richness and abundance and the abundance of mistletoes. We found a mean of 74 mistletoe plants per 100-m transect of only one species, Psittacanthus calyculatus. Thirty-one percent of the trees surveyed were infected and tree species differed in infection prevalence, mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) being the most infected species with 86% of the surveyed trees infected. For both seasons, we found a positive and significant association between bird species richness and number of mistletoe plants. The same pattern was observed for total bird abundance. Many resident and Neotropical migratory birds were observed foraging on mistletoes. Our results show that mistletoes are important in promoting a higher bird species richness and abundance in tropical agricultural landscapes.

  16. Cell biological and analytical studies on mistletoe lectins and triterpenes (Viscum album L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mulsow, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Complementary treatment possibilities for cancer diseases are increasing in demand due to the severe side effects of the standard first-line therapy. A common approach as a complementary treatment is the use of aqueous extracts of Viscum album L. (Santalaceae). The therapeutic activity of the extracts is attributed to the N-glycosidase-activity of the mistletoe lectins which are ribosome-inactivating proteins type II. Besides these constituents, the spectrum of Viscum album L. comprises al...

  17. Spatial distribution of oak mistletoe as it relates to habits of oak woodland frugivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan A Wilson

    Full Text Available This study addresses the underlying spatial distribution of oak mistletoe, Phoradendron villosum, a hemi-parasitic plant that provides a continuous supply of berries for frugivorous birds overwintering the oak savanna habitat of California's outer coast range. As the winter community of birds consuming oak mistletoe varies from group-living territorial species to birds that roam in flocks, we asked if mistletoe volume was spatially autocorrelated at the scale of persistent territories or whether the patterns predicted by long-term territory use by western bluebirds are overcome by seed dispersal by more mobile bird species. The abundance of mistletoe was mapped on trees within a 700 ha study site in Carmel Valley, California. Spatial autocorrelation of mistletoe volume was analyzed using the variogram method and spatial distribution of oak mistletoe trees was analyzed using Ripley's K and O-ring statistics. On a separate set of 45 trees, mistletoe volume was highly correlated with the volume of female, fruit-bearing plants, indicating that overall mistletoe volume is a good predictor of fruit availability. Variogram analysis showed that mistletoe volume was spatially autocorrelated up to approximately 250 m, a distance consistent with persistent territoriality of western bluebirds and philopatry of sons, which often breed next door to their parents and are more likely to remain home when their parents have abundant mistletoe. Using Ripley's K and O-ring analyses, we showed that mistletoe trees were aggregated for distances up to 558 m, but for distances between 558 to 724 m the O-ring analysis deviated from Ripley's K in showing repulsion rather than aggregation. While trees with mistletoe were aggregated at larger distances, mistletoe was spatially correlated at a smaller distance, consistent with what is expected based on persistent group territoriality of western bluebirds in winter and the extreme philopatry of their sons.

  18. Spatial distribution of oak mistletoe as it relates to habits of oak woodland frugivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ethan A; Sullivan, Patrick J; Dickinson, Janis L

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the underlying spatial distribution of oak mistletoe, Phoradendron villosum, a hemi-parasitic plant that provides a continuous supply of berries for frugivorous birds overwintering the oak savanna habitat of California's outer coast range. As the winter community of birds consuming oak mistletoe varies from group-living territorial species to birds that roam in flocks, we asked if mistletoe volume was spatially autocorrelated at the scale of persistent territories or whether the patterns predicted by long-term territory use by western bluebirds are overcome by seed dispersal by more mobile bird species. The abundance of mistletoe was mapped on trees within a 700 ha study site in Carmel Valley, California. Spatial autocorrelation of mistletoe volume was analyzed using the variogram method and spatial distribution of oak mistletoe trees was analyzed using Ripley's K and O-ring statistics. On a separate set of 45 trees, mistletoe volume was highly correlated with the volume of female, fruit-bearing plants, indicating that overall mistletoe volume is a good predictor of fruit availability. Variogram analysis showed that mistletoe volume was spatially autocorrelated up to approximately 250 m, a distance consistent with persistent territoriality of western bluebirds and philopatry of sons, which often breed next door to their parents and are more likely to remain home when their parents have abundant mistletoe. Using Ripley's K and O-ring analyses, we showed that mistletoe trees were aggregated for distances up to 558 m, but for distances between 558 to 724 m the O-ring analysis deviated from Ripley's K in showing repulsion rather than aggregation. While trees with mistletoe were aggregated at larger distances, mistletoe was spatially correlated at a smaller distance, consistent with what is expected based on persistent group territoriality of western bluebirds in winter and the extreme philopatry of their sons.

  19. Gene expression profiles of different breast cancer cells compared with their responsiveness to fermented mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts Iscador from oak (Quercus), pine (Pinus), white fir (Abies) and apple tree (Malus) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenschwiler, Jenny; Patrignani, Andrea; Wagner, Ulrich; Rehrauer, Hubert; Schlapbach, Ralph; Rist, Lukas; Ramos, Mac H; Viviani, Angelika

    2006-06-01

    Cytotoxicity assays in vitro (MTT test) showed that the different breast cancer cell lines Kpl-1, MCF-7 and Mfm-223 respond differently to the mistletoe (Viscum album L.) preparations Iscador. Quercus (Qu), Abies (A), Malus (M) and Pinus (P). In order to determine the differences in the responsiveness of the cells more exactly, the gene expression profiles were determined by cells, which were treated with Mistletoe extracts, compared with untreated control cells. Such differences can be analysed in more detail by looking at the gene expression using Human Whole Genome microarray chips (41,000 genes). The results of the transcriptome analyses suggested that Iscador preparations influenced the overregulation of genes regarding immune defense, stress response, apoptosis and cell-cell adhesion pathways. Within the Mfm-223-Zellen was the Genexpression in MCF-7 and Kpl-1. The MCF-7 cells were affected on the genes which are involved in cell-cell contacts whereas Kpl-1 responded to the mistletoe extracts by changing the mRNA levels of the immune and stress response pathways. Concerning the effects of the mistletoe extract, we conclude that Iscador Qu and M have a greater influence on the immune defense and stress response genes whereas Iscador A tends to affect the cell-cell adhesion and cytoskeleton pathways. In summary, cDNA microarray analyses give us information on whether a cancer cell is sensitive to mistletoe extracts in relation to how many genes are significantly overrepresented after mistletoe treatment, and whether a particular mistletoe extract is more effective on a specific cancer cell than the other preparation.

  20. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Negron

    2012-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  1. Dwarf Mistletoe of Ponderosa Pine in the Southwest (FIDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Lightle; Melvyn J. Weiss

    1974-01-01

    Southwestern dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobuim vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum) occurs essentially throughout the range of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum) from northern Mexico through western Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico into Colorado and central Utah. In Arizona and New Mexico it is present on more than one-third of the commercial forest acreage and is...

  2. Effects of a Liberalized European Gas Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-07-01

    , firms, these must be made to behave in a way that improves efficiency. In fact, an increase in the number of actors in such markets, per se, may increase cost, and, thus, represent a waste of resources. Usually, but not necessarily, state owned firms are privatised (even though the government may hold a significant share, or control over, the ownership), the operation of vertically integrated services are separated (''unbundled''), competition is established when possible and regulation introduced when necessary (when competition does not work). In the case of natural gas, the U.S. and Canada liberalized their markets in the mid 1980s. Later, gas markets in the U.K., and then Australia and New Zealand, followed. Now, in the European natural gas industry, both market growth and infrastructural developments, as well as political decision making, forcing competition on to firms, is now creating a more competitive environment. In order to analyze these issues in relation to Norway as a major natural gas exporter we have studied the development of EU energy policies, price effects of liberalism, energy taxation, the economics of non-renewable (exhaustible) resources and regulatory economics as well as foreign policy issues concerning security-of-supply issues. The complexity and interdisciplinary insights needed to analyze the European gas market makes it even more complex than analyses of the global oil market. In the European gas market, the problem of choosing the right in-depth level and correct parameters and discipline to apply, becomes particularly apparent and challenging. For most analysts and policy makers, it seems to be an overwhelming task to describe exactly how a liberalized European gas market works, how it should be organized and will develop. In this analysis of the political economy of European gas, we will nevertheless try to shed some light on the causes and effects of what may happen.

  3. Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Megan L.; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this “off-label” application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is describ...

  4. Volatility Spillover Effects in European Equity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper quantifies the magnitude and time-varying nature of volatility spillovers from the aggregate European (EU) and US market to 13 local European equity markets.I develop a shock spillover model that decomposes local unexpected returns into a country speciffic shock, a regional European

  5. Mistletoe specialist frugivores: latterday "Johnny Appleseeds" or self‑serving market gardeners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David M; Rawsthorne, John

    2013-08-01

    Many plants use birds to disperse their propagules, but mistletoes are especially reliant on their services. As aerial parasites, mistletoe seeds need to be deposited upon branches of suitable hosts, and mistletoe specialist frugivores (from eight different avian families) have long been regarded as their coevolved dispersers. Like the pioneer Johnny 'Appleseed' Chapman who established nurseries that helped open up land for settlement, these birds are considered benevolent dispersers of this keystone resource and often invoked as illustrative examples of mutualistic interactions. We have compared recent research on these specialists with studies of other birds with broader diets (generalists) which also disperse mistletoe seed. Rather than mutualists, we suggest that mistletoe specialist frugivores are better considered exploitative, with multiple lineages evolving independently to capitalize on this reliable, nutritious resource. Although mistletoe specialist frugivores are quantitatively important seed dispersers in some regions, their specialized diet restricts them to areas with high mistletoe densities, resulting in contagious dispersal patterns. By intensifying existing infections, mistletoe specialist frugivores increase their own medium-term food security-akin to market gardeners profiting from intensive cultivation. Exploring the ecological and evolutionary implications of this proposition, we evaluate the consequences of different dispersal patterns on mistletoe fitness and highlight the neglected role of dietary generalists in the stabilization of plant-animal interactions.

  6. A mistletoe tale: postglacial invasion of Psittacanthus schiedeanus (Loranthaceae) to Mesoamerican cloud forests revealed by molecular data and species distribution modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Gándara, Etelvina; Vásquez-Aguilar, Antonio Acini; Ramírez-Barahona, Santiago; Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andrés Ernesto; González, Clementina; Mejía Saules, María Teresa; Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo

    2016-04-12

    Ecological adaptation to host taxa is thought to result in mistletoe speciation via race formation. However, historical and ecological factors could also contribute to explain genetic structuring particularly when mistletoe host races are distributed allopatrically. Using sequence data from nuclear (ITS) and chloroplast (trnL-F) DNA, we investigate the genetic differentiation of 31 Psittacanthus schiedeanus (Loranthaceae) populations across the Mesoamerican species range. We conducted phylogenetic, population and spatial genetic analyses on 274 individuals of P. schiedeanus to gain insight of the evolutionary history of these populations. Species distribution modeling, isolation with migration and Bayesian inference methods were used to infer the evolutionary transition of mistletoe invasion, in which evolutionary scenarios were compared through posterior probabilities. Our analyses revealed shallow levels of population structure with three genetic groups present across the sample area. Nine haplotypes were identified after sequencing the trnL-F intergenic spacer. These haplotypes showed phylogeographic structure, with three groups with restricted gene flow corresponding to the distribution of individuals/populations separated by habitat (cloud forest localities from San Luis Potosí to northwestern Oaxaca and Chiapas, localities with xeric vegetation in central Oaxaca, and localities with tropical deciduous forests in Chiapas), with post-glacial population expansions and potentially corresponding to post-glacial invasion types. Similarly, 44 ITS ribotypes suggest phylogeographic structure, despite the fact that most frequent ribotypes are widespread indicating effective nuclear gene flow via pollen. Gene flow estimates, a significant genetic signal of demographic expansion, and range shifts under past climatic conditions predicted by species distribution modeling suggest post-glacial invasion of P. schiedeanus mistletoes to cloud forests. However, Approximate

  7. Immunostimulatory properties of mistletoe extracts and their application in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Wrotek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For a long time cancer immunotherapy was overshadowed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, “Science”, one of the world’s top scientific journals, named the stimulation of the body’s own immune system to fight cancer cells as the “breakthrough of the year”. In Germany, Switzerland and Austria, extracts derived from mistletoe (Viscum album L. such as Iscador, Abnobaviscum, Helixor, Iscar, Iscucin and Isorel have been used in oncology for many years. These extracts have immunomodulating and immunostimulating properties, as demonstrated by experimental studies as well as in clinical trials. The aim of our paper is to present immunological disorders associated with cancer, which can be counteracted by treatment with extracts derived from mistletoe. Although these drugs cannot replace conventionalcancer treatment, they may improve the patient’s quality and length of life.

  8. Pruning dwarf mistletoe brooms reduces stress on Jeffrey pines, Cleveland National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Scharpf; Richard S. Smith; Detlev Vogler

    1987-01-01

    Western dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium campylopodum) is a damaging parasite of Jeffrey pines (Pinus jeffreyi) in southern California. Infected branches that develop into brooms are believed to reduce tlee vigor and increase mortality. Brooms were pruned from Jeffrey pines with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection and live...

  9. Modelling dwarf mistletoe at three scales: life history, ballistics and contagion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald C. E. Robinson; Brian W. Geils

    2006-01-01

    The epidemiology of dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium) is simulated for the reproduction, dispersal, and spatial patterns of these plant pathogens on conifer trees. A conceptual model for mistletoe spread and intensification is coded as sets of related subprograms that link to either of two individual-tree growth models (FVS and TASS) used by managers to develop...

  10. Resistance of ponderosa pine to western dwarf mistletoe in central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Scharpf; Lewis F. Roth

    1992-01-01

    Ponderosa pines with little or no dwarf mistletoe in infested stands on the Deschutes, Ochoco, and Rogue River National Forests in Oregon were tested for resistance to dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium campylopodum). Small trees produced by grafting scions from the resistant and susceptible candidates onto seedling rootstock were planted in 1967-69...

  11. Chapter 7. Management strategies for dwarf mistletoes: Biological, chemical, and genetic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. F. Shamoun; L. E. DeWald

    2002-01-01

    The opportunity and need for management of mistletoe populations with biological, chemical, and genetic approaches are greatest for application to the dwarf mistletoes. Although much information is available on these management strategies (see reviews by Hawksworth 1972, Knutson 1978), significant research and development are still required for these to become...

  12. Wildland fires and dwarf mistletoes: A literature review of ecology and prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin E. Alexander; Frank G. Hawksworth

    1975-01-01

    Wildfires play a multiple role in the distribution of dwarf mistletoes - they may either inhibit or encourage these parasites depending primarily on the size and intensity of the burn. Many reports suggest that fire exclusion policies of the past half century have resulted in increased dwarf mistletoe levels as, well as increased fire behavior potential. Prescribed...

  13. The incidence of dwarf mistletoe in Minnesota black spruce stands detected by operational inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred Baker; Mark Hansen; John D. Shaw; Manfred Mielke; Dixon Shelstad

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed black spruce stands within 0.5 miles of US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots and compared dwarf mistletoe status with that of the FIA and Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) forest inventories. Our results differed from FIA results in 3 of 16 stands with FIA plots, with FIA most often not recording dwarf mistletoe in...

  14. Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L. Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. Steele

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this “off-label” application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6% reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4% or moderate severity (40.6%. No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%, versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%. ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended.

  15. A Review of the Bio-Activity Relationship of Mistletoes and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following six host trees and their mistletoes were investigated: Azadirachta indica (neem), Psidium guajava (guava), Pentaclethra macrophylla (oil-bean), Kola acuminata (cola nut), Persea americana (avocado), and Baphia nitida (cam wood). The work showed that of the six host trees and their mistletoes studied, four ...

  16. Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Megan L; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this "off-label" application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended.

  17. A stress "deafness" effect in European Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Susana; Butler, Joseph; Vigário, Marina; Frota, Sónia

    2015-03-01

    Research on the perception of word stress suggests that speakers of languages with non-predictable or variable stress (e.g., English and Spanish) are more efficient than speakers of languages with fixed stress (e.g., French and Finnish) at distinguishing nonsense words contrasting in stress location. In addition, segmental and suprasegmental cues to word stress may also impact on the ability of speakers to perceive stress. European Portuguese (EP) is a language with variable stress and vowel reduction. Previous studies on EP have identified duration as the main cue for stress. In the present study, we investigated the perception of word stress in EP, both in nuclear (NP) and post-nuclear (PN) positions, by means of three experiments. Experiment I was an ABX discrimination task with stress and phoneme contrasts, without vowel reduction. Experiments 2 and 3 were sequence recall tasks with stress and phoneme contrasts, vowel reduction being added to the stress contrast only in experiment 3. Results showed significantly higher error rates in the stress contrast condition than in the phoneme contrast condition, when duration alone (PN), or duration and pitch accents (NP), are present in the stimuli (experiments I and 2). When vowel reduction is added, EP speakers are able to perceive stress contrasts (experiment 3). The results show that vowel reduction appears to be the most robust cue for stress in EP. In the absence of vowel quality cues, a stress "deafness" effect may emerge in a language with non-predictable stress that combines both suprasegmental and segmental information to signal word stress. These findings have implications for claims of a prosodic-based cross-linguistic perception of word stress in the absence of vowel quality, and for stress "deafness" as a consequence of a predictable stress grammar.

  18. the effect of the european union (mpp6) infrastructural development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The study examined the effect of the European Union infrastructural development on the productivity of food crop farmers and ... Key words: rural infrastructure, agricultural productivity, infrastructural index, European Union Micro Project Program .... state is characterized by tropical climate with high humidity and ...

  19. Unexpected Different Binding of Mistletoe Lectins from Plant Extracts to Immobilized Lactose and N-acetylgalactosamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Hajtò

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mistletoe Extracts (ME are of growing interest to pharmacological research because of their apoptosisinducing/cytostatic and immunomodulatory effects. The standardization of the three different groups of Mistletoe Isolectins (ML-I, II and III is often rendered more diffi cult since the primary structures are nearly identical. Their classification is based on their Galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc-specifi city which was measured by various inhibitory assays. The aim of the present study was to improve the characterization of the direct binding activity of the isolectins from ME to immobilized lactose, GalNAc and to the oligosaccharide asialofetuin. After careful ultrafiltration of fresh ME, affinity chromatography was carried out using lactose- agarose, GalNAc—agarose and asialofetuin—affi gel 15 columns. MLs were further purified by Sephadex G-100 or by cation exchange chromatography which was adapted to a Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC system. Proteins from both fresh plants and commercial ME were able to bind immobilized lactose to a considerable extent. The majority of this lectin has a B-chain with a Molecular Weight (MW of 34kD and an A-chain with a MW of 29 kD (ML-I. Only a minor part of the lactose-binding proteins has a lower MW, namely 32kD and 27kD (MLII. However, neither MLs which were eluted from lactose columns, nor the proteins from fresh plant or ME showed a direct binding to the immobilized GalNAc. In spite of this deficiency, GalNAc was able to induce a considerable (25% and 32% inhibitory effect on their binding to immobilized asialofetuin indicating a discrepancy between the lectin binding and inhibiting effects of GalNAC. Consequently, for an improved standardization of ME more specific sugar molecules are necessary.

  20. Avian abundance and oak mistletoe survey data from the Willamette Valley, Oregon, 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Kyle R.; Hagar, Joan; Shaw, David C.

    2017-01-01

    This dataset includes two spreadsheets: The "Avian_abundance_oak_mistletoe_bird_data" spreadsheet contains data regarding Oregon White Oak tree (Quercus garryana) measurements such as height, diameter and crown volume along with microhabitat data including number of mistletoe infections, number of cavities, amount of dead wood, amount of loose/missing bark, amount of poison oak, amount of bole cracks, and presence of woodpecker sign, bark-beetle sign, and fungal fruiting bodies. The "Avian_abundance_oak_mistletoe_surveys_data" spreadsheet contains bird survey observations including data, time, temperature, precipitation, bird species observations, age/sex, and behavioral observations.

  1. POSSIBLE TRADE EFFECTS OF THE NEXT EUROPEAN UNION ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelescu-Ionescu Daniela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union next enlargement will constitute a significant qualitative change in the structure of the current Union, as the accession of the Western Balkan countries and of Turkey in particular will bring a brand new set of economic problems. It is expected that this enlargement to have a considerable effect for the new entrants, as well as for the European Union as a whole.\\r\

  2. Avian abundance and oak mistletoe survey data from the Willamette Valley, Oregon, 2013-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes two spreadsheets: The "Avian_abundance_oak_mistletoe_bird_data" spreadsheet contains data regarding Oregon White Oak tree (Quercus garryana)...

  3. Isolation of 18 microsatellite loci in the desert mistletoe Phoradendron californicum (Santalaceae) via 454 pyrosequencing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arroyo, Juan M; Munguia‐Vega, Adrian; Rodríguez‐Estrella, Ricardo; Bascompte, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the parasitic mistletoe Phoradendron californicum to investigate to what extent population genetic structure depends on host tree distribution within...

  4. Isolation and characterization of two Korean mistletoe lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Bong; Song, Seong Kyu; Yoon, Taek Joon; Yoo, Yung Choon; Lee, Kwan Hee; Her, Erk; Kim, Jong Bae

    2007-11-30

    Two isolectins (KML-IIU and the KML-IIL) were individually isolated from the previously reported Korean mistletoe lectin, KML-C, by using an immunoaffinity column. Molecular weights of the KML-IIU and the KML-IIL were 64 kDa and 60 kDa respectively. Both of the lectins were composed of heterogeneous A and B subunits linked with a disulfide bond, and showed the same carbohydrate-binding specificities for Gal and GalNAc. However, they are different not only in biophysical properties (glycosylation and amino acid compositions) but also bioactivities (cell killing and cytokine induction). The KML-IIL showed 17-145 times stronger in cytotoxicities to various human and mouse cancer cell lines than the KML-IIU. The KML-IIL also induced TNF-alpha secretion from mouse peritoneal macrophages 4.5 times better than the KML-IIU. The results demonstrated isolectins in Korean mistletoe were varied in bioactivities and the KML-IIL may be developed as an anti-cancer agent.

  5. Gas exchange and water balance of a mistletoe species and its mangrove hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, G; Rada, F; Sternberg, L; Burguera, J L; Burguera, M; Orozco, A; Montilla, M; Zabala, O; Azocar, A; Canales, M J; Celis, A

    1989-02-01

    The gas exchange and water relations of the hemiparasite Pthirusa maritima and two its mangrove host species, Conocarpus erectus and Coccoloba uvifera, were studied in an intertidal zone of the Venezuelan coast. Carbon uptake and transpiration, leaf osmotic and total water potential, as well as nutrient content in the xylem sap and leaves of mistletoes and hosts were followed through the dry and wet season. In addition, carbon isotope ratios of leaf tissue were measured to further evaluate water use efficiency. Under similar light and humidity conditions, mistletoes had higher transpiration rates, lower leaf water potentials, and lower water use efficiencies than their hosts. Potassium content was much higher in mistletoes than in host leaves, but mineral nutrient content in the xylem sap of mistletoes was relatively low. The resistance of the liquid pathway from the soil to the leaf surface of mistletoes was larger than the total liquid flow resistance of host plants. Differences in the daily cycles of osmotic potential of the xylem sap also indicate the existence of a high resistance pathway along the vascular connection between the parasite pathway along the vascular connection between the parasite and its host. P. maritima mistletoes adjust to the different physiological characteristics of the host species which it parasitizes, thus ensuring an adequate water and carbon balance.

  6. Comparative acute toxicities and immunomodulatory potentials of five Eastern Nigeria mistletoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadebe, Patience Ogoamaka; Omeje, Edwin Ogechukwu

    2009-11-12

    Traditionally, mistletoes of Eastern Nigeria origin, Loranthus micranthus Linn. have been used as immunostimulant for the management of certain diseases with high profile immune depleting potentials. This practice has remained till date without scientific validation. To obtain and validate evidence for or against its continued use as immunostimulant and afford data for further studies on this specie of mistletoe. The present work is an in vivo proof of ethnopharmacological concept of the age long immunomodulatory use of our local mistletoe. Aqueous-methanol extracts of the plant leaves from five different host trees were evaluated for immunomodulatory activity using four in vivo models in mice or rats, namely; total and differential leukocyte count (TLC and DLC), the cellular mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTHR) test, the humoral mediated antibody titration (AT) test and the cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression (CIM) test at different dose levels (100, 200 and 400 or 50, 100 and 250 mg kg(-1); depending on model) against standard controls. Phytochemical and acute toxicity tests were equally carried out on all the extracts. Results obtained indicate that all the mistletoes contained the same phytochemical constituents, although in varying amounts. The mistletoes exhibited statistically significantly different (p immunomodulatory (up-regulatory) activities in the overall order of that from Kola acuminata > Citrus spp > Persia americana > Parkia biglobosa > Pentaclatra macrophylla. LD(50) values were generally greater than 5000 mg/kg. The present study confirms the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe as a potent and safe alternative or complementary medicine for the management of immunodeficiency diseases.

  7. Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity Assay of Clove Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. Leaves Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Elsyana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT. Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity.

  8. Twenty-Five year (1982-2007) history of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe animal vectors and ethephon control on the Fraser Experimental Forest in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas. Nicholls

    2009-01-01

    This is a summary of the 25-year history of studies of mammal and bird vectors of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), ethephon control of dwarf mistletoe, and the ecology of the most important dwarf mistletoe vector, the gray jay (Persisoreus canadensis), on the USDA Forest Service, Fraser Experimental Forest...

  9. Leaf morphophysiology of a Neotropical mistletoe is shaped by seasonal patterns of host leaf phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalon, Marina Corrêa; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo; Domingos, Fabricius Maia Chaves Bicalho; Franco, Augusto Cesar

    2016-04-01

    Several mistletoe species are able to grow and reproduce on both deciduous and evergreen hosts, suggesting a degree of plasticity in their ability to cope with differences in intrinsic host functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of host phenology on mistletoe water relations and leaf gas exchange. Mistletoe Passovia ovata parasitizing evergreen (Miconia albicans) hosts and P. ovata parasitizing deciduous (Byrsonima verbascifolia) hosts were sampled in a Neotropical savanna. Photosynthetic parameters, diurnal cycles of stomatal conductance, pre-dawn and midday leaf water potential, and stomatal anatomical traits were measured during the peak of the dry and wet seasons, respectively. P. ovata showed distinct water-use strategies that were dependent on host phenology. For P. ovata parasitizing the deciduous host, water use efficiency (WUE; ratio of photosynthetic rate to transpirational water loss) was 2-fold lower in the dry season than in the wet season; in contrast, WUE was maintained at the same level during the wet and dry seasons in P. ovata parasitizing the evergreen host. Generally, mistletoe and host diurnal cycles of stomatal conductance were linked, although there were clear differences in leaf water potential, with mistletoe showing anisohydric behaviour and the host showing isohydric behaviour. Compared to mistletoes attached to evergreen hosts, those parasitizing deciduous hosts had a 1.4-fold lower stomatal density and 1.2-fold wider stomata on both leaf surfaces, suggesting that the latter suffered less intense drought stress. This is the first study to show morphophysiological differences in the same mistletoe species parasitizing hosts of different phenological groups. Our results provide evidence that phenotypical plasticity (anatomical and physiological) might be essential to favour the use of a greater range of hosts.

  10. The effect of the European union (MPP6) infrastructural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effect of the European Union infrastructural development on the productivity of food crop farmers and development of rural areas in Imo State. The specific objectives were to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of respondents, determine the extent of infrastructural development in the area ...

  11. Comparing effects of Winter Universiade (2011) and European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the views of the local spectators concerning the effects of the Winter Universiade and the European Youth Olympic Festival, two mega sport events held in Turkey in 2011. The participating group was composed of 878 local spectators who watched the games. The Mega Event ...

  12. Peer Effects on Obesity in a Sample of European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes peer effects on childhood obesity using data from the first two waves of the IDEFICS study, which applies several anthropometric and other measures of fatness to approximately 14,000 children aged two to nine participating in both waves in 16 regions of eight European countries...

  13. Management effects on European cropland respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugster, W.; Moffat, A.; Ceschia, E.

    2010-01-01

    Increases in respiration rates following management activities in croplands are considered a relevant anthropogenic source of CO2. In this paper, we quantify the impact of management events on cropland respiration fluxes of CO2 as they occur under current climate and management conditions. Our....... This allowed us to address the question of how management activities influence ecosystem respiration. This was done by comparing respiration fluxes during 7, 14, and 28 days after the management with those observed during the matching time period before management. Median increases in respiration ranged from...... factors other than management alone are also important at a given site. Temperature is the climatic factor that showed best correlation with site-specific respiration fluxes. Therefore, the effect of temperature changes between the time periods before and after management were taken into account...

  14. Diverse early dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium), ecological keystones of the Eocene Baltic amber biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Wilson, Carol A; Calvin, Clyde L; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2017-05-01

    Extant dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium M. Bieb., Viscaceae) are hemiparasites with complex roles in nature. They are one of the most severe pests in northern hemisphere conifer forests, but they also enhance the structural complexity and species diversity of the forests. Here, we describe the first pre-Miocene macrofossils of dwarf mistletoes. The fossils from Eocene Baltic amber provide new insights into the morphological evolution of the Arceuthobium lineage and its paleobiogeography. The amber inclusions were investigated with light microscopy and compared with extant Viscaceae and to historic descriptions of lost Baltic amber fossils with affinities to Viscaceae. Six fossil species of the Arceuthobium lineage, A. johnianum comb. nov., A. mengeanum comb. nov., A. conwentzii sp. nov., A. groehnii sp. nov., A. viscoides comb. nov. and A. obovatum sp. nov., occurred in source forests of Baltic amber, representing the oldest macrofossil evidence of dwarf mistletoes. They share morphological features of their bracts, internodes, fruits, and stomata with extant Arceuthobium. Differences from extant dwarf mistletoes, such as the perianth merosity, the nonfusion of squamate bracts and presence of oblanceolate expanded leaves, indicate their affiliation to an ancient lineage of the genus. The occurrence of six species of dwarf mistletoes in a single amber deposit suggests Arceuthobium was a keystone taxon of the Baltic amber source area. As in extant conifer forests, they probably influenced the structural complexity of the forest, not only leading to more open woodlands but also increasing species diversity, at least at a microhabitat scale. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  15. PRODUCTION POTENTIAL AND AGRICULTURAL EFFECTIVENESS IN EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Baer-Nawrocka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to assess the relation between agricultural production factors and effectiveness in European Union’s agriculture. For each country two synthetic coefficients were calculated using TOPSIS method. The first one characterises production factors relations, the latter one displays effectiveness of production factors. The objective of the research was to verify the correlation between these indices. The analysis proved that in many analysed countries the agricultural potential is correlated positively with the agricultural effectiveness

  16. Microenvironment in the canopy rivals the host tree water status in controlling sap flow of a mistletoe species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Da; Goldstein, Guillermo; Wang, Miao; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Ai-Ying; Liu, Yan-Yan; Hao, Guang-You

    2017-04-01

    Mistletoes absorb water from the vascular system of their hosts and thus the water use of mistletoes can be influenced by the water status of their hosts besides abiotic environmental conditions; however, there is a lack of studies on the dynamics of mistletoe water utilization in relation to both types of controlling factors. By building a canopy platform at 20 m above the ground, we monitored the dynamic changes of sap flow of Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai (Loranthaceae) in combination with continuous measurements of microclimatic variables and volumetric water content (VWC) of its host tree branch xylem. We found that the host tree VWC exhibited substantial fluctuations during sunny days but lower VWC of the host did not negatively affect the sap flow of V. coloratum. Hourly and daily mean transpiration rates (Esap) of V. coloratum calculated from sap flow measurements showed strong positive correlations with photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) measured in close vicinity to the point of mistletoe attachment. The mean Esap of V. coloratum was substantially higher than that of their host during clear days (4.55 ± 0.54 vs 2.01 ± 0.15 kg m-2 day-1). Moreover, the mistletoe-to-host transpiration ratio was not constant but became increasingly larger with the increase of PPFD or VPD on both hourly and daily bases, suggesting a weaker control of water loss in the mistletoe in comparison to its host species. The strong dependence of mistletoe Esap on micrometeorological variables and its decoupling from the host tree xylem water status suggests that the development of dense tree canopy functions as a potential mechanism for the host trees in reducing the competitive water use of mistletoes. These findings have important implications for the interactions between mistletoe species and their host trees in temperate forests. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  17. Supported employment: cost-effectiveness across six European sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Martin; Patel, Anita; Curran, Claire; Latimer, Eric; Catty, Jocelyn; Becker, Thomas; Drake, Robert E; Fioritti, Angelo; Kilian, Reinhold; Lauber, Christoph; Rössler, Wulf; Tomov, Toma; van Busschbach, Jooske; Comas-Herrera, Adelina; White, Sarah; Wiersma, Durk; Burns, Tom

    2013-02-01

    A high proportion of people with severe mental health problems are unemployed but would like to work. Individual Placement and Support (IPS) offers a promising approach to establishing people in paid employment. In a randomized controlled trial across six European countries, we investigated the economic case for IPS for people with severe mental health problems compared to standard vocational rehabilitation. Individuals (n=312) were randomized to receive either IPS or standard vocational services and followed for 18 months. Service use and outcome data were collected. Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted with two primary outcomes: additional days worked in competitive settings and additional percentage of individuals who worked at least 1 day. Analyses distinguished country effects. A partial cost-benefit analysis was also conducted. IPS produced better outcomes than alternative vocational services at lower cost overall to the health and social care systems. This pattern also held in disaggregated analyses for five of the six European sites. The inclusion of imputed values for missing cost data supported these findings. IPS would be viewed as more cost-effective than standard vocational services. Further analysis demonstrated cost-benefit arguments for IPS. Compared to standard vocational rehabilitation services, IPS is, therefore, probably cost-saving and almost certainly more cost-effective as a way to help people with severe mental health problems into competitive employment. Copyright © 2013 World Psychiatric Association.

  18. Peer effects on obesity in a sample of European children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A; Bammann, Karin; Eiben, Gabriele; Kourides, Yiannis; Kovács, Éva; Lauria, Fabio; Konstabel, Kenn; Santaliestra-Pasias, Alba M; Vyncke, Krishna; Pigeot, Iris

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzes peer effects on childhood obesity using data from the first two waves of the IDEFICS study, which applies several anthropometric and other measures of fatness to approximately 14,000 children aged two to nine participating in both waves in 16 regions of eight European countries. Peers are defined as same-sex children in the same school and age group. The results show that peer effects do exist in this European sample but that they differ among both regions and different fatness measures. Peer effects are larger in Spain, Italy, and Cyprus--the more collectivist regions in our sample--while waist circumference generally gives rise to larger peer effects than BMI. We also provide evidence that parental misperceptions of their own children's weight goes hand in hand with fatter peer groups, supporting the notion that in making such assessments, parents compare their children's weight with that of friends and schoolmates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reproductive ecology and isolation of Psittacanthus calyculatus and P. auriculatus mistletoes (Loranthaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Díaz Infante; Carlos Lara; María del Coro Arizmendi; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Juan Francisco Ornelas

    2016-01-01

    Background Relationships between floral biology and pollinator behavior are important to understanding species diversity of hemiparasitic Psittacanthus mistletoes (c. 120 species). We aimed to investigate trait divergence linked to pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation (RI) in two hummingbird-pollinated and bird-dispersed Psittacanthus species with range overlap. Methods We investigated the phylogenetic relationships, floral biology, pollinator assemblages, seed dispersers and host...

  20. Population dynamics of dwarf mistletoe on young true firs in the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E Scharpf; J. R. Jr. Parmeter

    1982-01-01

    Young red firs (Abies magnifica A. Murr.) and white firs (A. concolor [Gord. & Glend.] Lindl. ex Hildebr.) on the Stanislaus National Forest, California, were inoculated with seeds of dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium abietinum) for 5 successive years. Only 3 to 4 percent of about 7000 seeds placed on branches...

  1. Proceedings of the symposium on dwarf mistletoe control through forest management, April 11-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Scharpf; John R. Parmeter

    1978-01-01

    These Symposium papers cover bases of control, control planning and decisionmaking, control operations and accomplishments, refining and improving control techniques, and pest damage and integrated control. A program summary and a list of literature references on the dwarf mistletoes are included.

  2. Dwarf Mistletoe on Red Fir . . . infection and control in understory stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Scharpf

    1969-01-01

    Height and age of understory red fir (Abies magnifica A. Murr.) were related to dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobiilm campylopodum f. abietinum) infection from the surrounding overstory red fir on four National Forests in California. Percentage of trees infected and intensity of infection increased significantly as height of understory...

  3. Mistletoes and epiphytic lichens contribute to litter input in Nothofagus antarctica forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Rosina; Pastur, Guillermo Martínez; Lencinas, María Vanessa; Peri, Pablo Luis

    2015-10-01

    Litter input is one of the key components that define nutrient cycling in forests and the majority of studies only consider the tree components of litterfall. However, epiphytic species can play a crucial role in litter input throughout the growing season. This work evaluates changes in litter production by mistletoe (Misodendrum sp.) and epiphytic lichen (Usnea sp.), related to crown cover in mature unmanaged, second-growth and managed (thinned for silvopastoral use) forests in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). We used plastic traps to collect litterfall biomass from trees, lichens and mistletoes on a monthly basis over three consecutive years. Tree litter was considerable during autumn (March to May), which is typical of Nothofagus deciduous species in the Southern hemisphere. In contrast, peak litterfall from mistletoes and lichens occurred during spring and summer seasons. Tree litter (1954-3398 kg dry matter ha-1 year-1) was correlated with crown cover gradient being highest in second-growth forests and lowest in thinned sites. While litter input from mistletoes did not vary among forest types (307-333 kg dry matter ha-1 year-1), lichen litter (11-40 kg dry matter ha-1 year-1) was higher in unmanaged and thinned mature forests despite differences in tree crown cover. Contrary to what we expected, the management practices investigated here did not affect the biomass of canopy communities compared to unmanaged mature forests. Mistletoes and lichens significantly increased the spatial (forest type) and temporal complexity (extended period of falling) of litterfall in Nothofagus antarctica forests. This study provides a starting point to understand the ecological relevance of canopy communities in the Patagonian forests of southern Argentina.

  4. Host compatibility of the cloud forest mistletoe Psittacanthus schiedeanus (Loranthaceae) in Central Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buen, Lorena López de; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2002-01-01

    The consequences of the seed deposition of the parasitic mistletoe Psittacanthus schiedeanus were evaluated in a 32-mo study. We conducted a field seed inoculation experiment to determine variation in seed adhesion, seed germination, seedling establishment, and plant survival to reproduction among five host species and to evaluate whether these post-dispersal processes explain mistletoe prevalence and specificity at the regional scale. Seeds without an exocarp were inoculated onto branches of individuals of the five most common host species identified in nature in central Veracruz, México. Seed fate was monitored for 2 yr, at weekly intervals for the first 2 mo and at 2-mo intervals thereafter. The height and diameter of experimental host branches and canopy cover above them were measured to see if these factors affected mistletoe establishment. Significant differences in seed attachment and seed germination were found among host species. Fewer seeds remained attached on experimental branches of Quercus germana than those of Liquidambar styraciflua, Acacia pennatula, and Platanus mexicana. Although significant differences in seed germination were observed among species (significantly greater on A. pennatula), >70% of mistletoe seeds germinated within the first 5 wk on all host species. Towards the end of the inoculation experiment, more mistletoe seedlings survived, grew, and then flowered on Liquidambar styraciflua than on A. pennatula, P. mexicana, Q. germana, or Q. leiophylla. Host branch initial height and diameter did not affect seedling survival, but seedlings survived better on trees where the canopy was more open. Our results suggest that Liquidambar styraciflua is the most compatible host species with P. schiedeanus in central Veracruz. Not surprisingly, Liquidambar is by far the most common host tree for P. schiedeanus in this area as well. We suggest that the observed local specialization is a result of seed dispersal as consequence of bird foraging and

  5. European accelerator facilities for single event effects testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, L.; Nickson, R.; Harboe-Sorensen, R. [ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Hajdas, W.; Berger, G.

    1997-03-01

    Single event effects are an important hazard to spacecraft and payloads. The advances in component technology, with shrinking dimensions and increasing complexity will give even more importance to single event effects in the future. The ground test facilities are complex and expensive and the complexities of installing a facility are compounded by the requirement that maximum control is to be exercised by users largely unfamiliar with accelerator technology. The PIF and the HIF are the result of experience gained in the field of single event effects testing and represent a unique collaboration between space technology and accelerator experts. Both facilities form an essential part of the European infrastructure supporting space projects. (J.P.N.)

  6. Cancer Patients' Experiences of Using Mistletoe (Viscum album): A Qualitative Systematic Review and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Maggie; Bryant, Susan; Huntley, Alyson L; Feder, Gene

    2016-02-01

    Systematic reviews of mistletoe therapy (MT) trials in cancer show promising results in improvement of patients' quality of life during chemotherapy and reduction of fatigue. However, patients' experiences of side effects and the acceptability, tolerability, and perceived benefits of MT have not been systematically reviewed. The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesise the results of qualitative studies of cancer patients' experiences of using MT. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, PsychLIT, CINAHL, and AMED to identify qualitative studies of MT. Articles were screened independently by two reviewers and critically appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. A thematic synthesis of the findings was carried out. One hundred and seventy-three papers were identified; 156 were excluded at initial screening. Seventeen papers were read in full, 14 of which were excluded. Three articles about patients' experiences of MT alongside conventional treatment were included in the synthesis, either as a monotherapy (two articles) or as part of a package of anthroposophic treatment (one article). Patients reported demonstrable changes to their physical, emotional, and psychosocial well-being following MT, as well as a reduction in chemotherapy side effects. Self-reported side effects from MT were few, and the studies suggest good adherence to the therapy. Self-injection gave patients a sense of empowerment through involvement in their own treatment. A systematic search revealed a small number of qualitative studies of MT in cancer. These were effectively combined to provide a detailed overview of patients' experiences in order to complement the developing evidence base from trials. Given the variation in context of MT delivery across the articles, it is not possible to ascribe changes in patients' quality of life specifically to MT. The results of this review will help in the design of outcome measures that more fully

  7. Spatial variability of forest infection with Yellow Mistletoe (Loranthus europaeus) in Zagros forests of Iran using IDW and Kriging methods

    OpenAIRE

    SARAJ, Bahareh Sohrabi; KIADALIRI, Hadi; KAFAKI, Sasan Babaei; Akhavan, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Yellow Mistletoe (Loranthus europaeus) is one of the impacting pathogens in the Zagros forests of Iran. Spatial variability and mapping of this agent are important for its control and management. For this purpose, a forest patch of 37 ha in the Ilam province of Iran was selected, and 541 individual trees in 27 transects for species, severity and density of infections with Yellow Mistletoe as well as Cartesian coordinates were considered. To investigate the spatial variability and ma...

  8. The adverse effect of real effective exchange rate change on trade balance in European transition countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Begović

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most European transition countries have fixed or highly managed flexible exchange rate regimes. This exchange rate rigidity is sometimes argued to worsen the trade balance by keeping the currency overvalued. However, there is no unambiguous evidence that currency depreciation/devaluation positively affects trade balance and leads towards the adjustment, even in the short-run. Therefore, we examine the effect of real effective exchange rate (hereafter REER on trade balance in European transition economies over the period 2000-2015. By using fixed effect model for static and generalised method of moments for dynamic estimation, we find that there is an adverse effect of the REER on trade balance in European transition countries over the period 2000-2015. Namely, depreciation of REER deteriorates trade balance in European transition countries, which could be explained by high import dependence and low export capacity. This implies that policymakers in European transition countries should not use exchange rate policy to improve trade balance. This is important in the light of their accession towards European economic and monetary integration, implying that these countries should focus more on using fiscal, rather than monetary (and exchange rate, policy to adjust trade balance, which is one of the required real convergence towards the EU standards.

  9. Effects of bioenergy production on European nature conservation options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleupner, C.; Schneider, U. A.

    2009-04-01

    agriculture and forestry including bioenergy options. Results reveal that bioenergy targets have significant effects on conservation planning and nature conservation. The additional land utilization demands driven by bioenergy targets influence not only the restoration costs of wetland areas. Also wetland conservation targets in one place stimulate land use intensification elsewhere due to market linkages. It also implies that environmental stresses (to wetlands) may be transferred to other countries. In all the results show that an integrated modelling of environmental and land use changes in European scale is able to estimate the impacts of policy decisions in nature conservation and agriculture. As shown by the case study, the implementation of any targets concerning resource utilization need to be followed by adequate land use planning. References Schleupner C. (2007). Estimation of wetland distribution potentials in Europe. FNU-135, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg. Schneider U.A., J Balkovic, S. De Cara, O. Franklin, S. Fritz, P. Havlik, I. Huck, K. Jantke , A.M.I. Kallio, F. Kraxner, A. Moiseyev, M. Obersteiner, C.I. Ramos, C. Schleupner, E. Schmid, D. Schwab & R. Skalsky (2008). The European Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model - EUFASOM. FNU-156, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg.

  10. Standardization for Defence Procurement - European Handbook, recommendations Electromagnetic Environmental Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Malabiau, R.

    2006-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) would like to improve the competitiveness of the European Defence Industry. The large number of (national) standards, more than 10.000, is recognised by EC as a major constraint and cost driver [1]. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and more generally Electromagnetic

  11. The Effects of Great Britain's Exit from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarița Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union directly influences the economicdevelopment of Romania, which will force our country to take all the necessary measures in thecurrent economic conjuncture in order to anchor in the international trade relations.

  12. European demonstration program on the effect-based and chemical identification and monitoring of organic pollutants in European surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousova, Zuzana; Oswald, Peter; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Blaha, Ludek; Muz, Melis; Hu, Meng; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin; Di Paolo, Carolina; Tarcai, Zsolt; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Hollert, Henner; Koprivica, Sanja; Ahel, Marijan; Schollée, Jennifer E; Hollender, Juliane; Suter, Marc J-F; Hidasi, Anita O; Schirmer, Kristin; Sonavane, Manoj; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Creusot, Nicolas; Brion, Francois; Froment, Jean; Almeida, Ana Catarina; Thomas, Kevin; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Tufi, Sara; Ouyang, Xiyu; Leonards, Pim; Lamoree, Marja; Torrens, Victoria Osorio; Kolkman, Annemieke; Schriks, Merijn; Spirhanzlova, Petra; Tindall, Andrew; Schulze, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    Growing concern about the adverse environmental and human health effects of a wide range of micropollutants requires the development of novel tools and approaches to enable holistic monitoring of their occurrence, fate and effects in the aquatic environment. A European-wide demonstration program (EDP) for effect-based monitoring of micropollutants in surface waters was carried out within the Marie Curie Initial Training Network EDA-EMERGE. The main objectives of the EDP were to apply a simplified protocol for effect-directed analysis, to link biological effects to target compounds and to estimate their risk to aquatic biota. Onsite large volume solid phase extraction of 50 L of surface water was performed at 18 sampling sites in four European river basins. Extracts were subjected to effect-based analysis (toxicity to algae, fish embryo toxicity, neurotoxicity, (anti-)estrogenicity, (anti-)androgenicity, glucocorticoid activity and thyroid activity), to target analysis (151 organic micropollutants) and to nontarget screening. The most pronounced effects were estrogenicity, toxicity to algae and fish embryo toxicity. In most bioassays, major portions of the observed effects could not be explained by target compounds, especially in case of androgenicity, glucocorticoid activity and fish embryo toxicity. Estrone and nonylphenoxyacetic acid were identified as the strongest contributors to estrogenicity, while herbicides, with a minor contribution from other micropollutants, were linked to the observed toxicity to algae. Fipronil and nonylphenol were partially responsible for the fish embryo toxicity. Within the EDP, 21 target compounds were prioritized on the basis of their frequency and extent of exceedance of predicted no effect concentrations. The EDP priority list included 6 compounds, which are already addressed by European legislation, and 15 micropollutants that may be important for future monitoring of surface waters. The study presents a novel simplified

  13. Effect of biogeographic history on population vulnerability in European amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Perrin, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    The genetic diversity of populations, which contributes greatly to their adaptive potential, is negatively affected by anthropogenic habitat fragmentation and destruction. However, continental-scale losses of genetic diversity also resulted from the population expansions that followed the end of the last glaciation, an element that is rarely considered in a conservation context. We addressed this issue in a meta-analysis in which we compared the spatial patterns of vulnerability of 18 widespread European amphibians in light of phylogeographic histories (glacial refugia and postglacial routes) and anthropogenic disturbances. Conservation statuses significantly worsened with distances from refugia, particularly in the context of industrial agriculture; human population density also had a negative effect. These findings suggest that features associated with the loss of genetic diversity in post-glacial amphibian populations (such as enhanced fixation load or depressed adaptive potential) may increase their susceptibility to current threats (e.g., habitat fragmentation and pesticide use). We propose that the phylogeographic status of populations (i.e., refugial vs. post-glacial) should be considered in conservation assessments for regional and national red lists. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. The effect of nutrition on Asian and European pregnancies

    OpenAIRE

    Bissenden, J G; Scott, P H; Wharton, B A

    1981-01-01

    An assessment of the nutritional status of Asian and European pregnant women was made using anthropometric and biochemical methods. Asian women, having normal pregnancies and appropriate for gestational age infants, had a higher plane of nutrition than did the corresponding European women. Asian women having light-for-gestational-age infants, by comparison with the normal Asian mothers, put on less fat in the second trimester of pregnancy and had some biochemical evidence of poorer nutrition.

  15. Prolonged cytotoxic effect of aqueous extracts from dried viscum album on bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker-Basler, N; Zuzak, T J; Eggenschwiler, J; Rist, L; Simões-Wüst, A P; Viviani, A

    2007-03-01

    Aqueous extracts from whole dried mistletoe (Viscum album L., Iscucin) are often used in anti-cancer treatment. We studied the effect of extracts obtained from mistletoe bushes that grew on different host trees on bladder cancer cells by means of MTT-colorimetric cell proliferation/survival assays. The extracts possessed concentration-dependent cytotoxic properties whose extent varied with the host tree, but did not always correlate with the corresponding mistletoe lectin content. A 2-hours treatment of bladder cancer cells triggered a later, strong cytotoxic effect. This prolonged effect suggests that instillation with Iscucin has therapeutic potential for bladder cancer patients.

  16. European Viscum album: a potent phytotherapeutic agent with multifarious phytochemicals, pharmacological properties and clinical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Brahma N.; Saha, Chaitrali; Galun, Danijel; Upreti, Dalip K.; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Kaveri, Srini V.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Viscum album L. or European mistletoe (Loranthaceae), a semi-parasitic shrub, has been used as a traditional medicine in Europe for centuries to treat various diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disorder, epilepsy, infertility, hypertension and arthritis. V. album contains diverse phytochemicals, which exert a large number of biological and pharmacological activities. The aim of this review is to compile the developments in the domain of V. album and research trends, ...

  17. Contents and effects of contracts - Lessons to learn from the Common European Sales Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombi Ciacchi, Aurelia

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a critical analysis of the rules on the contents and effects of contracts included in the proposal for a Common European Sales Law (CESL). The European Commission published this proposal in October 2011 and then withdrew it in December 2014, notwithstanding the support the

  18. The effect of migration within the European Union/European Economic Area on the distribution of tuberculosis, 2007 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollo, Vahur; Kotila, Saara Magdalena; Ködmön, Csaba; Zucs, Phillip; van der Werf, Marieke Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Immigration from tuberculosis (TB) high-incidence countries is known to contribute notably to the TB burden in low-incidence countries. However, the effect of migration enabled by the free movement of persons within the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) on TB notification has not been analysed. We analysed TB surveillance data from 29 EU/EEA countries submitted for the years 2007-2013 to The European Surveillance System. We used place of birth and nationality as proxy indicators for native, other EU/EEA and non-EU/EEA origin of the TB cases and analysed the characteristics of the subgroups by origin. From 2007-2013, a total of 527,467 TB cases were reported, of which 129,781 (24.6%) were of foreign origin including 12,566 (2.4%) originating from EU/EEA countries other than the reporting country. The countries reporting most TB cases originating from other EU/EEA countries were Germany and Italy, and the largest proportion of TB cases in individuals came from Poland (n=1,562) and Romania (n=6,285). At EU/EEA level only a small proportion of foreign TB cases originated from other EU/EEA countries, however, the uneven distribution of this presumed importation may pose a challenge to TB programmes in some countries.

  19. A comparative study of aluminium and nutrient concentrations in mistletoes on aluminium-accumulating and non-accumulating hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalon, M C; Haridasan, M; Franco, A C

    2013-09-01

    Mistletoes offer a unique model to study interactions among Al and nutrients in vascular plants, because they grow and reproduce on hosts with distinct Al uptake strategies. We investigated Al distribution and nutrient relations of mistletoes on Al-accumulating and non-accumulating hosts. We hypothesised that mistletoes would exhibit similar leaf nutrient and Al concentrations as their host plants, but a strong compartmentalisation of Al when growing on Al-accumulators. We measured concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn in leaves and Al in leaves, seeds and branches of Phthirusa ovata and Psittacanthus robustus infecting Miconia albicans, an Al-accumulator, and Ph. ovata infecting Byrsonima verbascifolia, a non-Al-accumulator. High leaf concentrations of Al in Ph. ovata only occurred while parasitizing the Al-accumulating host; there was no accumulation in branches or seeds. In P. robustus, large concentrations of Al were found in leaves, branches and seeds. Mistletoe seed viability and leaf nutrient concentrations were not affected by Al accumulation. Passive uptake of Al, Ca, Mg, Mn and Cu in mistletoes was evidenced by significant correlations between mistletoes and host leaf concentrations, but not of N, P and K. Al was retranslocated to different plant organs in P. robustus, whereas it was mostly restricted to leaves in Ph. ovata. We suggest that Al might have some specific function in P. robustus, which only parasitizes Al-accumulator hosts, while the host generalist Ph. ovata can be considered a facultative Al-accumulator. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Supported employment : cost-effectiveness across six European sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapp, Martin; Patel, Anita; Curran, Claire; Latimer, Eric; Catty, Jocelyn; Becker, Thomas; Drake, Robert E.; Fioritti, Angelo; Kilian, Reinhold; Lauber, Christoph; Roessler, Wulf; Tomov, Toma; van Busschbach, Jooske; Comas-Herrera, Adelina; White, Sarah; Wiersma, Durk; Burns, Tom

    A high proportion of people with severe mental health problems are unemployed but would like to work. Individual Placement and Support (IPS) offers a promising approach to establishing people in paid employment. In a randomized controlled trial across six European countries, we investigated the

  1. The Effects of Institutional Change in European Soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Marco A.; Koning, Ruud H.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    The last decades have seen two profound changes in European soccer. First, international trade in talent has increased markedly. Second, international competitions such as the Champions League have become much more important. Using a theoretical model, we study how these changes affect competitive

  2. Reproductive ecology and isolation of Psittacanthus calyculatus and P. auriculatus mistletoes (Loranthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Infante, Sergio; Lara, Carlos; Arizmendi, María Del Coro; Eguiarte, Luis E; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between floral biology and pollinator behavior are important to understanding species diversity of hemiparasitic Psittacanthus mistletoes (c. 120 species). We aimed to investigate trait divergence linked to pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation (RI) in two hummingbird-pollinated and bird-dispersed Psittacanthus species with range overlap. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships, floral biology, pollinator assemblages, seed dispersers and host usage, and the breeding system and female reproductive success of two sympatric populations of P. calyculatus and P. auriculatus, and one allopatric population of P. calyculatus. Flowers in sympatry were also reciprocally pollinated to assess a post-mating component of RI. Hummingbird assemblages differed between calyculatus populations, while allopatric plants of calyculatus opened more but smaller flowers with longer lifespans and produced less nectar than those in sympatry. Bayesian-based phylogenetic analysis indicated monophyly for calyculatus populations (i.e. both populations belong to the same species). In sympatry, calyculatus plants opened more and larger flowers with longer lifespans and produced same nectar volume than those of auriculatus; populations shared pollinators but seed dispersers and host usage differed between species. Nectar standing crops differed between sympatric populations, with lower visitation in calyculatus. Hand pollination experiments indicated a predominant outcrossing breeding system, with fruit set after interspecific pollination two times higher from calyculatus to auriculatus than in the opposite direction. Given the low genetic differentiation between calyculatus populations, observed trait divergence could have resulted from changes regarding the local communities of pollinators and, therefore, expected divergence for peripheral, allopatric populations. Using RI estimates, there were fewer heterospecific matings than expected by chance in P. calyculatus

  3. Reproductive ecology and isolation of Psittacanthus calyculatus and P. auriculatus mistletoes (Loranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Díaz Infante

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Relationships between floral biology and pollinator behavior are important to understanding species diversity of hemiparasitic Psittacanthus mistletoes (c. 120 species. We aimed to investigate trait divergence linked to pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation (RI in two hummingbird-pollinated and bird-dispersed Psittacanthus species with range overlap. Methods We investigated the phylogenetic relationships, floral biology, pollinator assemblages, seed dispersers and host usage, and the breeding system and female reproductive success of two sympatric populations of P. calyculatus and P. auriculatus, and one allopatric population of P. calyculatus. Flowers in sympatry were also reciprocally pollinated to assess a post-mating component of RI. Results Hummingbird assemblages differed between calyculatus populations, while allopatric plants of calyculatus opened more but smaller flowers with longer lifespans and produced less nectar than those in sympatry. Bayesian-based phylogenetic analysis indicated monophyly for calyculatus populations (i.e. both populations belong to the same species. In sympatry, calyculatus plants opened more and larger flowers with longer lifespans and produced same nectar volume than those of auriculatus; populations shared pollinators but seed dispersers and host usage differed between species. Nectar standing crops differed between sympatric populations, with lower visitation in calyculatus. Hand pollination experiments indicated a predominant outcrossing breeding system, with fruit set after interspecific pollination two times higher from calyculatus to auriculatus than in the opposite direction. Conclusions Given the low genetic differentiation between calyculatus populations, observed trait divergence could have resulted from changes regarding the local communities of pollinators and, therefore, expected divergence for peripheral, allopatric populations. Using RI estimates, there were fewer

  4. Reproductive ecology and isolation of Psittacanthus calyculatus and P. auriculatus mistletoes (Loranthaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Infante, Sergio; Lara, Carlos; Arizmendi, María del Coro; Eguiarte, Luis E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Relationships between floral biology and pollinator behavior are important to understanding species diversity of hemiparasitic Psittacanthus mistletoes (c. 120 species). We aimed to investigate trait divergence linked to pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation (RI) in two hummingbird-pollinated and bird-dispersed Psittacanthus species with range overlap. Methods We investigated the phylogenetic relationships, floral biology, pollinator assemblages, seed dispersers and host usage, and the breeding system and female reproductive success of two sympatric populations of P. calyculatus and P. auriculatus, and one allopatric population of P. calyculatus. Flowers in sympatry were also reciprocally pollinated to assess a post-mating component of RI. Results Hummingbird assemblages differed between calyculatus populations, while allopatric plants of calyculatus opened more but smaller flowers with longer lifespans and produced less nectar than those in sympatry. Bayesian-based phylogenetic analysis indicated monophyly for calyculatus populations (i.e. both populations belong to the same species). In sympatry, calyculatus plants opened more and larger flowers with longer lifespans and produced same nectar volume than those of auriculatus; populations shared pollinators but seed dispersers and host usage differed between species. Nectar standing crops differed between sympatric populations, with lower visitation in calyculatus. Hand pollination experiments indicated a predominant outcrossing breeding system, with fruit set after interspecific pollination two times higher from calyculatus to auriculatus than in the opposite direction. Conclusions Given the low genetic differentiation between calyculatus populations, observed trait divergence could have resulted from changes regarding the local communities of pollinators and, therefore, expected divergence for peripheral, allopatric populations. Using RI estimates, there were fewer heterospecific matings

  5. Intranasal immunization with influenza virus and Korean mistletoe lectin C (KML-C) induces heterosubtypic immunity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seong Kyu; Moldoveanu, Zina; Nguyen, Huan H; Kim, Eui Ho; Choi, Kwan Yong; Kim, Jong Bae; Mestecky, Jiri

    2007-08-21

    The mucosal adjuvanticity of Korean mistletoe lectin C (KML-C) was investigated in mice intranasally immunized with inactivated influenza virus (H1N1). Mucosal and systemic immune responses were compared to those induced with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB). KML-C increased influenza-specific antibodies with dominant IgG1 subclass in serum, IgG in genital secretions and IgA in saliva, and significantly enhanced influenza-specific lymphocyte proliferation and cytotoxic activity in spleens and in mediastinal lymph nodes. When KML-C was used as a mucosal adjuvant, mice were completely protected from mortality after the challenge with a homologous (H1N1) mouse-adapted influenza virus. After challenge with heterologous (H3N2) influenza virus the level of heterosubtypic immunity in KML-C-treated mice was comparable to that of mice that received CTB as adjuvant. These findings suggest that KML-C may be used as an effective mucosal adjuvant.

  6. Host specificity and experimental assessment of the early establishment of the mistletoe Phoradendron crassifolium (Pohl ex DC. Eichler (Santalaceae in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Aparecida Messias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mistletoe establishment relies heavily on a seed reaching a proper host plant. Small frugivorous birds usually disperse large numbers of mistletoe seeds. However, in the field, mistletoes are absent from some potential available hosts. We investigated whether the mistletoe Phoradendron crassifolium has some preferences for specific host trees in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in southeast Brazil. We surveyed 397 tree individuals of 50 species within 25 families. Seven of those species (14% bore P. crassifolium infections. Although prevalence at the individual level was low (11.6%, there were marked deviations in infection levels among species and families. Most (87% of the infections (40 of 46 occurred in species belonging to the families Anacardiaceae (Lithraea molleoides and Tapirira guianensis and Siparunaceae (Siparuna guianensis, which nevertheless accounted for only 26% of the potential individual hosts (103 of 397. We also performed an experiment simulating bird behavior. We inoculated 480 mistletoe seeds to the bark of four potential hosts in field, following the fate of the seeds for five months. No differences in host preference were observed. The low specificity detected at the local level was confirmed by a survey of exsiccata collected over the geographical distribution of the mistletoe, suggesting that P. crassifolium prevalence is more dependent on dispersal limitation than on mistletoe-host compatibility.

  7. Spatial and seasonal variation in amino compounds in the xylem sap of a mistletoe (Viscum album) and its hosts (Populus spp. and Abies alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Peter; Eiblmeier, Monika; Hetzger, Ilka; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2004-06-01

    In a field study, the composition and concentrations of amino compounds in the xylem sap of the mistletoe, Viscum album L., and in the xylem sap of two host species, an evergreen conifer (Abies alba Mill.) and a deciduous broad-leaved tree (Populus x euramericana), were analyzed. The xylem sap of both hosts and mistletoe contained large, but similar amounts of total organic nitrogen in low molecular weight amino compounds (TONLW). Nevertheless, individual amino compounds accumulated in the xylem sap of mistletoe relative to the host xylem sap, indicating selective uptake. In the xylem sap of Populus, major amino compounds (asparagine (Asn) and glutamine (Gln)) and the bulk parameters, TONLW and proteinogenic amino acids, showed significant seasonal variation. In Abies and in mistletoe on either host, variation of amino compounds in xylem sap was largely explained by inter-annual differences, not by seasonal variation. In both hosts, TONLW in the xylem sap was dominated by Gln. There was a steady decrease in relative abundance of Gln from the host xylem sap to the mistletoe xylem sap and to the stems and leaves of mistletoe. Simultaneously, the abundance of arginine (Arg) increased. Arginine was the predominant amino compound in the stems and leaves of mistletoe, occurring at concentrations previously observed only in leaves of trees exposed to excess nitrogen. We conclude that Gln (2 mol N mol(-1)) delivered by the host xylem sap is converted, in mistletoe, to Arg (4 mol N mol(-1)) and that the organic carbon liberated from Gln contributes significantly to the parasite's heterotrophic carbon gain. Statistical analyses of the data support this conclusion. Accumulation of Arg in mistletoe is an indication of excess N supply as a result of the uptake of amino compounds from the host xylem sap and a lack of phloem uploading.

  8. European Natural Gas Seasonal Effects on Futures Hedging

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Beatriz; Torró, Hipòlit

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the first to discuss the design of futures hedging strategies in European natural gas markets (NBP, TTF and Zeebrugge). A common feature of energy prices is that conditional mean and volatility are driven by seasonal trends due to weather, demand, and storage level seasonalities. This paper follows and extends the Ederington and Salas (2008) framework and considers seasonalities in mean and volatility when minimum variance hedge ratios are computed. Our results show that hedging...

  9. EUROPEAN ENERGY INTERCONNECTION EFFECTS ON THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author wants to exemplify the extent to which economic growth in Romania is influenced by the current power system infrastructure investments in Europe. Electricity transmission infrastructure in Romania is at a turning point. The high level of security of supply, delivery efficiency in a competitive internal market are dependent on significant investment, both within the country and across borders. Since the economic crisis makes investment financing is increasingly difficult, it is necessary that they be targeted as well. The European Union has initiated the “Connecting Europe” through which investments are allocated to European energy network interconnection of energy. The action plan for this strategy will put a greater emphasis on investments that require hundreds of billions of euro in new technologies, infrastructure, improve energy intensity, low carbon energy technologies. Romania's energy challenge will depend on the new interconnection modern and smart, both within the country and other European countries, energy saving practices and technologies. This challenge is particularly important as Romania has recovered severe gaps in the level of economic performance compared to developed countries. Such investment will have a significant impact on transmission costs, especially electricity, while network tariffs will rise slightly. Some costs will be higher due to support programs in renewable energy nationwide.Measures are more economically sustainable to maintain or even reinforce the electricity market, which system can be flexible in order to address any issues of adequacy. These measures include investments in border infrastructure (the higher the network, so it is easier to evenly distribute energy from renewable sources, to measure demand response and energy storage solutions.An integrated European infrastructure will ensure economic growth in countries interconnected and thus Romania. Huge energy potential of

  10. Social and Cultural Effects of Romanian Migration in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Raluca CRISTIAN; PÃDURE³U Elena; SORLESCU Mariana

    2010-01-01

    Migration is a complex process and phenomenon with a multi-dimensional and multi-motivational feature, which generated and continues to generate a series of challenges, costs and social benefits that need to be managed by each country facing this issue, according to the national and local social scale in the current context of globalization. European Union had been focusing mainly on a philosophy of no visas for work and travel for citizens thus dealing with different specific situations abou...

  11. Antioxidant Potential of the Aerial Tissues of the Mistletoe Loranthus europaeus Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Katsarou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of extracts of aerial tissues (i.e. flowers, leaves, stems, twigs and berries of the mistletoe Loranthus europaeus that grow on oak trees in a natural forest, in the mainland of Greece. Total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of aerial issues of L. europaeus was evaluated by the Folin - Ciocalteu method , the Ferric r educing antioxidant power assay , the free radical DPPH · scavenging and the Co(II/EDTA induced luminol plateau chemiluminescence assay. Extracts of twigs and stems of L. europaeus exhibited higher antioxidant activity in comparison to that of fruits, leaves and flowers.

  12. Antioxidant Potential of the Aerial Tissues of the Mistletoe Loranthus europaeus Jacq.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Katsarou; Sophia Rhizopoulou; Panagiotis Kefalas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of extracts of aerial tissues (i.e. flowers, leaves, stems, twigs and berries) of the mistletoe Loranthus europaeus that grow on oak trees in a natural forest, in the mainland of Greece. Total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of aerial issues of L. europaeus was evaluated by the Folin - Ciocalteu method , the Ferric r educing antioxidant power assay , the free radical DPPH · scavenging and the Co(II)/EDTA induced luminol ...

  13. Spatial and population characteristics of dwarf mistletoe infected trees in an old-growth Douglas-fir - western hemlock forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Shaw; Jiquan Chen; Elizabeth A. Freeman; David M. Braun

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the distribution and severity of trees infected with western hemlock dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense (Rosendahl) G.N. Jones subsp. tsugense) in an old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) - western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.)...

  14. Assessment of shape changes of mistletoe berries: a new software approach to automatize the parameterization of path curve shaped contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbidge, Renatus; Feiten, Linus; Conradt, Oliver; Heusser, Peter; Baumgartner, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Photographs of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) berries taken by a permanently fixed camera during their development in autumn were subjected to an outline shape analysis by fitting path curves using a mathematical algorithm from projective geometry. During growth and maturation processes the shape of mistletoe berries can be described by a set of such path curves, making it possible to extract changes of shape using one parameter called Lambda. Lambda describes the outline shape of a path curve. Here we present methods and software to capture and measure these changes of form over time. The present paper describes the software used to automatize a number of tasks including contour recognition, optimization of fitting the contour via hill-climbing, derivation of the path curves, computation of Lambda and blinding the pictures for the operator. The validity of the program is demonstrated by results from three independent measurements showing circadian rhythm in mistletoe berries. The program is available as open source and will be applied in a project to analyze the chronobiology of shape in mistletoe berries and the buds of their host trees.

  15. Assessment of shape changes of mistletoe berries: a new software approach to automatize the parameterization of path curve shaped contours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renatus Derbidge

    Full Text Available Photographs of mistletoe (Viscum album L. berries taken by a permanently fixed camera during their development in autumn were subjected to an outline shape analysis by fitting path curves using a mathematical algorithm from projective geometry. During growth and maturation processes the shape of mistletoe berries can be described by a set of such path curves, making it possible to extract changes of shape using one parameter called Lambda. Lambda describes the outline shape of a path curve. Here we present methods and software to capture and measure these changes of form over time. The present paper describes the software used to automatize a number of tasks including contour recognition, optimization of fitting the contour via hill-climbing, derivation of the path curves, computation of Lambda and blinding the pictures for the operator. The validity of the program is demonstrated by results from three independent measurements showing circadian rhythm in mistletoe berries. The program is available as open source and will be applied in a project to analyze the chronobiology of shape in mistletoe berries and the buds of their host trees.

  16. Fuel and stand characteristics in p. pine infested with mountain pine beetle, Ips beetle, and southwestern dwarf mistletoe in Colorado's Northern Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Russell D. Beam; William R. Jacobi; Jose F. Negron

    2008-01-01

    In the ponderosa pine forests of the northern Front Range of Colorado, downed woody debris amounts, fuel arrangement, and stand characteristics were assessed in areas infested with southwestern dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and

  17. Immunomodulatory effects of Viscum album extracts on natural killer cells: review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braedel-Ruoff, Sibylla

    2010-04-01

    Extracts produced from Viscum album L. (mistletoe) are widely used in complementary medicine for the treatment of cancer. In many preclinical and clinical studies, Viscum album extracts were shown to exert immunomodulatory functions. Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. This article reviews clinical trials that address the influence of the mistletoe extract Iscador on NK cells and discusses the results with regard to the NK cell functions assayed, to putative underlying mechanisms, and to the role of different mistletoe components. Although many trials demonstrated a positive effect of Iscador treatment on NK cell function, further dedicated studies with optimized treatment schedules and comparable mistletoe doses are necessary to confirm these results regarding involvement of NK cells on the immunomodulatory functions of Iscador therapy and to investigate the clinical relevance of these findings. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Hemiparasitism effect on Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. and consequences to its major galling herbivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaise de Oliveira Bahia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMistletoes obtain nutrients and water from their hosts, with varying effects among those hosts. We assessed the factors that influence the colonization of the mistletoe Struthanthus flexicaulis on Baccharis dracunculifolia and the subsequent effects on host performance. We evaluated the incidence of S. flexicaulis according to size (height classes and architecture of the host as well as its effects on various physiological parameters of the host. Furthermore, we assessed the occurrence of insect galls induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae(Psyllidae, including the number of leaves infected, and the mortality of infected and non-infected branches. Taller hosts had a higher abundance of mistletoes (60%, p> 0.05. Physiological parameters of hosts were not affected by parasitism, although galling occurred more often (p 0.05 on infected branches. Taller individuals are more colonized by mistletoes and more architecturally complex hosts support a greater number of mistletoes. Mistletoe causes a top-down effect on host-associated organisms on parasitized branches. Mistletoes had a strong top-downeffect on B. dracunculifolia due to a reduction in the number of leaves on parasitized branches and the replacement of the bush crown, as well as an increased incidence of insect galls. Furthermore, the occurrence of a heavy parasite load increased the mortality rate of the host branches.

  19. Influence of Pleistocene glacial/interglacial cycles on the genetic structure of the mistletoe cactus Rhipsalis baccifera (Cactaceae) in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Rodríguez-Gómez, Flor

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographical work on cloud forest-adapted species provides inconsistent evidence on cloud forest dynamics during glacial cycles. A study of Rhipsalis baccifera (Cactaceae), a bird-dispersed epiphytic mistletoe cactus, was conducted to investigate genetic variation at sequence data from nuclear [internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 677 bp] and chloroplast (rpl32-trnL, 1092bp) DNA for 154 individuals across the species range in Mesoamerica to determine if such patterns are consistent with the expansion/contraction model of cloud forest during glacial cycles. We conducted population and spatial genetic analyses as well as gene flow and divergence time estimates between 24 populations comprising the distribution of R. baccifera in Mexico and Guatemala to gain insight of the evolutionary history of these populations, and a complementary species distribution modeling approach to frame information derived from the genetic analyses into an explicit paleoecological context. The results revealed a phylogeographical break at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and high levels of genetic diversity among populations and cloud forest areas. Despite the genetic differentiation of some R. baccifera populations, the widespread ITS ribotypes suggest effective nuclear gene flow via pollen and population differentiation shown by the rpl32-trnL suggests more restricted seed flow. Predictions of species distribution models under past last glacial maximum (LGM) climatic conditions and a significant signal of demographic expansion suggest that R. baccifera populations experienced a range expansion tracking the conditions of the cloud forest distribution and shifted to the lowlands with population connectivity during the LGM. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Acute effects of ozone on mortality from the "Air pollution and health : A European approach" project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryparis, A; Forsberg, B; Katsouyanni, K; Analitis, A; Touloumi, G; Schwartz, J; Samoli, E; Medina, S; Anderson, HR; Niciu, EM; Wichmann, HE; Kriz, B; Kosnik, M; Skorkovsky, J; Vonk, JM; Dortbudak, Z

    2004-01-01

    In the Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach (APHEA2) project, the effects of ambient ozone concentrations on mortality were investigated. Data were collected on daily ozone concentrations, the daily number of deaths, confounders, and potential effect modifiers from 23 cities/areas for at

  1. Effects-based integrated assessment modelling for the support of European air pollution abatement policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettelingh, J.P.; Posch, M.; Slootweg, J.; Reinds, G.J.; Vries, de W.; Gall, Le A.; Maas, R.

    2015-01-01

    Critical load and exceedance based indicators for effects of air pollution are used to define and compare air pollution abatement scenarios, thus assisting in the framing of policies and strategies, of emission abatement options. In this chapter the effects-based support of European air pollution

  2. Shareholder Wealth Effects of European Domestic and Cross-Border Takeover Bids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the short-term wealth effects of large (intra)European takeover bids.We find large announcement effects of 9% for target firms and a cumulative abnormal return that includes the price run-up over the two-month period prior to the announcement date of 23%.However, the share

  3. The effects of hypnosis on an elite senior European tour golfer: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pates, John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a hypnosis intervention on the performance and flow-state experiences of an elite senior European Tour golf professional. The experimental effect was assessed during 11 Senior European Tour golf events. Performance and flow data were analyzed using a single-subject design combined with a procedure to monitor the player's internal experience. The results indicated that the player's mean stroke average and mean flow scores increased from baseline to intervention. There were no overlapping data points between baseline and intervention conditions for both performance and flow-state scores. The qualitative data revealed hypnosis may positively control emotions, thoughts, feelings, and perceptions.

  4. Contagion effects of the global financial crisis in us and European real economy sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenourgios Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the contagion effects of the Global Financial Crisis (2007-2009 from the financial sector to the real economy by examining nine sectors of US and developed European region. We provide a regional analysis by testing stock market contagion on the aggregate level and the sector level, on the global level and the domestic/regional level. Results show evidence of global contagion in US and developed European aggregate stock market indices and all US sector indices, implying the limited benefits of portfolio diversification. On the other hand, most of the European regional sectors seem to be immune to the adverse effects of the crisis. Finally, all non-financial sectors of both geographical areas seem to be unaffected by their domestic financial systems. These findings have important implications for policy makers, investors and international organizations.

  5. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci in the mistletoe Psittacanthus schiedeanus (Loranthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Clementina; Harvey, Nick; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed for the parasitic Psittacanthus schiedeanus, a common mistletoe species on cloud forest-adapted tree hosts in Mesoamerica, to investigate intraspecific genetic patterns of diversity and genetic structure. • Using an enriched library, 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed in P. schiedeanus. All loci consisted of dinucleotide repeats. Average alleles per locus were 12 (4-17), and a total of 120 alleles were recorded across 39 individuals from four populations in Mexico. Primers were tested in 11 additional species, but only amplified successfully in P. calyculatus and P. angustifolius. • The polymorphic loci described will be useful in studies of genetic diversity and genetic population differentiation in natural populations of these parasitic plants, and will provide valuable information to understand the importance of host distribution.

  6. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci in the mistletoe Psittacanthus schiedeanus (Loranthaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Clementina; Harvey, Nick; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the parasitic Psittacanthus schiedeanus, a common mistletoe species on cloud forest–adapted tree hosts in Mesoamerica, to investigate intraspecific genetic patterns of diversity and genetic structure. • Methods and Results: Using an enriched library, 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed in P. schiedeanus. All loci consisted of dinucleotide repeats. Average alleles per locus were 12 (4–17), and a total of 120 alleles were recorded across 39 individuals from four populations in Mexico. Primers were tested in 11 additional species, but only amplified successfully in P. calyculatus and P. angustifolius. • Conclusions: The polymorphic loci described will be useful in studies of genetic diversity and genetic population differentiation in natural populations of these parasitic plants, and will provide valuable information to understand the importance of host distribution. PMID:25606357

  7. Development of quality standards of medicinal mistletoe - Helicanthes elastica (Desr.) Danser employing Pharmacopoeial procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil Kumar, K N; Ravishankar, B; Yashovarma, B; Rajakrishnan, R; Thomas, J

    2016-11-01

    Helicanthes elastica (Desr.) Danser (Loranthaceae), commonly known as Indian mango mistletoe, is a parasitic shrub found widely growing on mango trees in southern India. Development of monographic quality standards is need of the hour for Pharmacopoeial/extra-Pharmacopoeial and folk medicinal plants. Systematic pharmacognostical evaluation of leaves of H. elastica has been carried out employing Pharmacopoeial procedures of testing herbal drugs. Macro-microscopic features of H. elastica leaf were recorded. Ethanolic extract was tested positive for alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, tannins, saponins and phenols. HPTLC fingerprint profile was developed for the identification of extracts using reference standard β-sitosterol glucoside. Results of the present investigation would serve as a source of pharmacognostical information and a document to control the quality of H. elastica (Desr.) Danser.

  8. Effects of Climate Change on the European Nuclear Power Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Vögele, Stefan; Rübbelke, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    4 p. Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases cause climate change and this change in turn induces various direct impacts, e.g., changes in regional weather patterns. The frequency of heat waves and droughts in Europe is likely to rise. Yet, beyond these immediate effects of climate change, there are more indirect effects: Droughts in Europe will cause water scarcity and a lack in water supply will affect further sectors and critical infrastructures. An arising lack in water supply for ...

  9. Effect of Fertilization on the Morphological Development of European Hophormbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şemsettin Kulaç

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to help the mass production of seedlings, the effect of fertilization on the morphological development of hornbeam leafy European hophornbeam (Ostry carpinifolia Scop seedlings were investigated. For this, seedlings, which were obtained from the seeds coming from different European hophornbeam populations (Düzce-Yığılca, Antalya-Finike, Antalya-Akseki, Kastamonu-Şehdağ ve Adana-Saimbeyli from various parts of Turkey, were used. European hophornbeam seedlings were treated with different fertilizers, including urea, ammonium sulphate, compound fertilizer 15-15-15 and 20-20-0, and 6-9 months Osmocote release fertilizer, and effects of these fertilizers on the morphological characters were investigated. Fertilization contained the same amount of nitrogen, and was made in three different ways; (1 mixing with habitat, (2 topical application and (3 liquid application. The development of germinated European hophornbeam seeds, which were spring-sowed in the same medium were monitored during the vegetation period. At the end of vegetation period, seedlings were removed from the soil and morphological characteristics of root (seedling length, root collar diameter, root length, fresh root and stem weight of the seedlings, dried root and stem weight of the seedlings and bud number were measured. As a result, it was observed that fertilization positively affects the development of seedlings and depending on the fertilization type the seedlings of European hophornbeam populations were found to exhibit different improvements/growing. In addition, 6-9 months Osmocote release fertilizers were determined to be the best fertilizers affecting the morphological (diameter and height development of European hophornbeam populations effectively, and among the populations, Düzce and Kastamonu populations showed the best improvement/growing.

  10. A Natural Combination Extract of Viscum album L. Containing Both Triterpene Acids and Lectins Is Highly Effective against AML In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Delebinski, Catharina I.; Twardziok, Monika; Kleinsimon, Susann; Hoff, Florian; Mulsow, Katharina; Rolff, Jana; J?ger, Sebastian; Eggert, Angelika; Seifert, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous Viscum album L. extracts are widely used in complementary cancer medicine. Hydrophobic triterpene acids also possess anti-cancer properties, but due to their low solubility they do not occur in significant amounts in aqueous extracts. Using cyclodextrins we solubilised mistletoe triterpenes (mainly oleanolic acid) and investigated the effect of a mistletoe whole plant extract on human acute myeloid leukaemia cells in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. Single Viscum album L. extracts containi...

  11. Transparency and Coordinated Effects in European Merger Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Møllgaard, H. Peter; Overgaard, Per Baltzer

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we first outline the foundations in economic theory of so-called coordinated effects with a particular view to mergers and with a special focus on transparency. Then, we review a number of seminal merger cases in EU competition policy (Airtours, Sony/BMG, ABF/GBI Business) in light...

  12. I-MOVE: a European network to measure the effectiveness of influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenciano, M; Ciancio, Bc

    2012-09-27

    Since 2007, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) has supported I-MOVE (influenza monitoring vaccine effectiveness), a network to monitor seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). To set up I-MOVE, we conducted a literature review and a survey on methods used in the EU/EEA to measure IVE and held expert consultations to guide the development of generic protocols to estimate IVE in the EU/EEA. On the basis of these protocols, from the 2008/09 season, I-MOVE teams have conducted multicentre case–control, cohort and screening method studies, undertaken within existing sentinel influenza surveillance systems. The estimates obtained include effectiveness against medically attended laboratory-confirmed influenza and are adjusted for the main confounding factors described in the literature. I-MOVE studies are methodologically sound and feasible: the availability of various study designs, settings and outcomes provides complementary evidence, facilitating the interpretation of the results. The IVE estimates have been useful in helping to guide influenza vaccine policy at national and European level. I-MOVE is a unique platform for exchanging views on methods to estimate IVE. The scientific knowledge and experience in practical, managerial and logistic issues can be adapted to monitor surveillance of the effectiveness of other vaccines.

  13. Price effects of changing quantities supplied at the integrated european fish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Smit, Jos; Guillen, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the effect that changes in the quantities supplied from EU fish stocks have on fish prices. As opposed to earlier studies, this one is European- wide, taking international market integration into account. Average own-price flexibilities for fresh captured fish are found...

  14. The Blurred Boundaries and Multiple Effects of European Integration and Globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2015-01-01

    of how European integration contribute to, and are effected by, globalisation. By means of concrete research examples the chapter discusses the advantages of the research strategies and tools typically applied on the area and the challenges we face in this regard. This includes discussions of top...

  15. The effects of UV-B radiation on European heathland species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björn, Lars O.; Callaghan, T. V.; Johnsen, Ib

    1997-01-01

    The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on three examples of European shrub-dominated vegetation were studied in situ. The experiments were in High Arctic Greenland, northern Sweden and Greece, and at all sites investigated the interaction of enhanced UV-B radiation (simulating a 15% reduction in ...

  16. New market designs and their effect on economic performance in European Union's natural gas markets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, N.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Arentsen, Maarten J.

    2008-01-01

    The European gas market reform triggered new market designs which aimed to achieve competitive natural gas prices, efficiency gains, and security of gas supply. The paper analyses to what extent the effects of regulation-for-competition on eco-nomic performance in the form of natural gas prices,

  17. The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA): Effects after 24 and 30 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Hein; Dijk, Froukje; Wetzels, Joyce; Mudde, Aart; Kremers, Stef; Ariza, Carles; Vitoria, Paulo Duarte; Fielder, Anne; Holm, Klavs; Janssen, Karin; Lehtovuori, Riku; Candel, Math

    2006-01-01

    The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) study in six countries tested the effects of a comprehensive smoking prevention approach after 24 (T3; N = 10751) and 30 months (T4; N = 9282). The programme targeted four levels, i.e. adolescents in schools, school policies, parents and the community. In Portugal, 12.4% of the T1…

  18. Physicochemical evaluation, nutraceutical composition and HPLC-UV fingerprint of Helicanthus elastica (Desr.) Danser (Indian Mango Mistletoe)

    OpenAIRE

    K N Sunil Kumar; R Shakila; S Amerjothy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Helicanthus elastica (Desr.) Danser (Loranthaceae) is less-known Indian medicinal mistletoe growing commonly on mango trees as hemiparsites. It is used to prevent abortion, in vescical calculi and kidney affections. These groups of plants are medicinally important as they are potential sources of anticancer, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial and antioxidant molecules. Materials and Methods: In the current study whole plant of H. elastica growing on mango trees is c...

  19. A Randomized Study on Postrelapse Disease-Free Survival with Adjuvant Mistletoe versus Oral Etoposide in Osteosarcoma Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Alessandra; Reif, Marcus; Mariani, Erminia; Ferrari, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background. Osteosarcoma is a highly malignant bone tumour. After the second relapse, the 12-month postrelapse disease-free survival (PRDFS) rate decreases below 20%. Oral Etoposide is often used in clinical practice after surgery as an “adjuvant” outside any protocol and with only limited evidence of improved survival. Viscum album fermentatum Pini (Viscum) is an extract of mistletoe plants grown on pine trees for subcutaneous (sc) injection with immunomodulatory activity. Methods. Encourage...

  20. Preparation of herbal tea as infusion or by maceration at room temperature using mistletoe tea as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Sebastian; Beffert, Markus; Hoppe, Katharina; Nadberezny, Dominik; Frank, Bruno; Scheffler, Armin

    2011-01-01

    Herbal tea can be prepared by infusion or maceration at room temperature resulting in different compositions of extractable constituents, which possibly influences the mode of action or safety profile. Knowledge on this topic is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the substantial differences between infusion and maceration as recommended preparation methods for the preparation of herbal mistletoe tea, a traditional remedy against cardiovascular diseases. No active substances are known but analytical marker substances such as proteins, triterpenoids, phenylpropane derivatives and flavonoids can be quantified within the herb and the different herbal tea preparations. Whereas phenylpropane derivatives were completely extracted by infusion and maceration, neither method dissolved viscotoxins. 43% of mistletoe lectins were extracted by maceration, whereas by infusion they are inactivated by thermal degradation. By contrast, oleanolic acid and betulinic acid are present in higher concentrations in infusates compared with macerates, but even infusion extracted less than 2%. Infusion extracted 43% of flavonoid-like substances and maceration only 31%. In conclusion this study determines some differences between both extraction methods on the profile of solved substances. The relevance of it should be determined in studies dealing with the efficacy of herbal mistletoe tea.

  1. Mistletoe (Viscum album) extract targets Axl to suppress cell proliferation and overcome cisplatin- and erlotinib-resistance in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Lee, ChuHee

    2017-12-01

    Mistletoe extract of Visucm album extract (VAE) contains many biologically active components and has been reported to be not only a complementary and alternative medicine, but also a potent therapeutic agent for many types of cancer. In this study, we examined the effect of VAE on expression and activation of Axl and scrutinized the involvement of Axl in the anti-cancer activity of VAE in parental and chemo-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. The levels of Axl protein and mRNA were determined by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR, respectively. Phosphorylation of Axl upon Gas6 stimulation was observed by Western blot analysis. For ectopic expression or gene silencing of Axl, the recombinant plasmid, pcDNA3-Axl, or specific siRNA targeting Axl were transfected into A549 and H460 cells using Lipofectamine 2000, respectively. The anti-cancer activity of mistletoe extract was examined against the parental cells and each of their cisplatin- or erlotinib-resistant cells using trypan blue exclusion assays and colony formation assay. The levels of Axl mRNA were also reduced by VAE treatment, implying the transcriptional downregulation of Axl expression by VAE. In addition, the phosphorylation of Axl protein upon its ligand, Gas6, stimulation was found to be abrogated by VAE. We next found cytotoxic effect of VAE on both the parental NSCLC cells and their variants which are resistant to cisplatin (A549/CisR and H460/CisR) or erlotinib (H460/ER and H1975/ER). Treatment of these cells with VAE caused a dose-dependent decrease of cell viability and clonogenicity. This anti-proliferative effect of VAE was attenuated in Axl-overexpressing cells, while it was augmented in cells transfected Axl specific siRNA. Next, we also found that in cisplatin-resistant cells and erlotinib-resistant cells, VAE treatment decreased Axl protein level, colonogenicity. The levels of several cell cycle regulator, p21 and apoptosis related protein, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, was

  2. The Effects of International Mobility on European Researchers: Comparing Intra-EU and U.S. Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veugelers, Reinhilde; Van Bouwel, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Using econometric analysis on survey data from European-born and European-educated researchers who are internationally mobile after their PhD within Europe or to the United States, we find significant positive effects from international mobility on scientific productivity, as well as several other positive career development effects. European…

  3. Hematologic reference intervals and age effect in European Strigiformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusti Montolio, Susana; Molina López, Rafael; Cray, Carolyn; Lavín González, Santiago; Nicolás Francisco, Olga; Marco Sánchez, Ignasi; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Cuenca Valera, Rafaela

    2017-09-01

    The clinical importance of hematologic testing in avian veterinary medicine is reflected in the increasing number of studies for the establishment of hematologic RIs of Strigiformes and other species. Age is an important physiologic factor in birds and the effect on hematology variable should be understood. The objective of this study was to determine baseline data of hematologic variables in 5 species of Iberian Strigiformes in different age classes. Nocturnal birds of prey were sampled at Wildlife Health Centers. Packed cell volume was determined by the microhematocrit centrifugation method, and RBC and WBC counts were determined using the direct hemocytometer count method with Natt and Herrick solution. Hemoglobin concentration was measured spectrophotometrically. The MCV, MCHC, and MHC were calculated using the standard formulas. The differential WBC count was performed by the routine microscopic evaluation of 200 cells on a blood smear manually stained with Wright stain. Thrombocyte blood count estimate was obtained from the blood film. No differences were observed between juveniles and adults for any variable evaluated in Tawny owl, Little owl, Scops owl, Long-eared owl, and Barn owl. In addition, PCV, RBC, and HGB of chicks were statistically significantly lower than in juveniles and adults, and total WBC was significantly higher in Tawny owl, Little owl, Scops owl, and Long-eared owl. Our findings provide evidence that laboratory data from chicks of Strigiformes are different compared to juveniles and adults; therefore, separate RIs were defined. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  4. Exploring subgroup effects by socioeconomic position of three effective school-based dietary interventions: the European TEENAGE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lien, N.; Haerens, L.; te Velde, S.J.; Mercken, L.; Klepp, K.I.; Moore, L.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Faggiano, F.; Lenthe, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore subgroup effects by high and low socioeconomic position (SEP) of three previously conducted, effective European interventions. Methods: Reanalyses stratified by SEP were conducted by the research groups of each study. All studies were school-based:

  5. Effects of atmospheric and climate change at the timberline of the Central European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Matyssek, Rainer; Luzian, Roland; Zwerger, Peter; Pindur, Peter; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This review considers potential effects of atmospheric change and climate warming within the timberline ecotone of the Central European Alps. After focusing on the impacts of ozone (O3) and rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, effects of climate warming on the carbon and water balance of timberline trees and forests will be outlined towards conclusions about changes in tree growth and treeline dynamics. Presently, ambient ground-level O3 concentrations do not exert crucial stress on adult conifers at the timberline of the Central European Alps. In response to elevated atmospheric CO2 Larix decidua showed growth increase, whereas no such response was found in Pinus uncinata. Overall climate warming appears as the factor responsible for the observed growth stimulation of timberline trees. Increased seedling re-establishment in the Central European Alps however, resulted from invasion into potential habitats rather than upward migration due to climate change, although seedlings will only reach tree size upon successful coupling with the atmosphere and thus loosing the beneficial microclimate of low stature vegetation. In conclusion, future climate extremes are more likely than the gradual temperature increase to control treeline dynamics in the Central European Alps. PMID:21379395

  6. The Health Effects of Climate Change in the WHO European Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Wolf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The evidence of observed health effects as well as projections of future health risks from climate variability and climate change is growing. This article summarizes new knowledge on these health risks generated since the IPCC fourth assessment report (AR4 was published in 2007, with a specific focus on the 53 countries comprising the WHO European Region. Many studies on the effects of weather, climate variability, and climate change on health in the European Region have been published since 2007, increasing the level of certainty with regard to already known health threats. Exposures to temperature extremes, floods, storms, and wildfires have effects on cardiovascular and respiratory health. Climate- and weather-related health risks from worsening food and water safety and security, poor air quality, and ultraviolet radiation exposure as well as increasing allergic diseases, vector- and rodent-borne diseases, and other climate-sensitive health outcomes also warrant attention and policy action to protect human health.

  7. The internationalisation of the Spanish food industry: the home market effect and European market integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, R.; García-Casarejos, N.; Gil-Pareja, S.; Llorca-Vivero, R.; Pinilla, V.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse, from a long-term perspective, the factors determining the process of the internationalisation of the Spanish agrifood industry. The paper concentrates on the empirical verification of the existence of a home market effect in the food and drink industries in Spain and on the effects on trade flows of integration into the European Union. With this aim in mind, we took into account the latest contributions to the estimation of the gravity equation for a sample of export flows from 13 agrifood subsectors between 1970 and 2012, with a destination of 175 markets. From the results of the study the existence of the “home market effect” stands out as the determining factor of the increasing process of internationalisation in the majority of the subsectors of the food industry. On this point, the presence of this effect is remarkable in the most dynamic industries, where the process of restructuring caused by the development of the internal market was more intense. Furthermore, the influence of the process of European integration has been shown by the literature to be a very important factor. Our results qualify in part the results of previous studies, since the positive effect appeared later than expected. The positive effects did not appear until the completion of the process of transition by the dismantling of the barriers established in the treaty of accession to the European Union. (Author)

  8. Marine environmental contamination: public awareness, concern and perceived effectiveness in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Rosseel, Yves; Calis, Tanja; Tediosi, Alice; Nadal, Martí; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    Given the potential of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness (PCE) in shaping pro-environmental behavior, the relationships between PCE, awareness of causes of contaminants in the marine environment, and concern about marine environmental contamination were investigated using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). PCE is the belief that an individual has in being able to make a difference when acting alone. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample size of 2824 participants. The analyses confirm that European citizens are concerned about marine environmental problems. Participants from the southern countries reported the highest concern. In addition, the study participants did not have a strong belief in themselves in being capable of making a difference in tackling marine environmental problems. However, a higher awareness, which was associated with a higher degree of concern, enhanced the belief that an individual can make a difference in tackling marine environmental problems, though only when a concrete action was proposed. Consequently, information campaigns focusing on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise public awareness about marine environmental problems and at the same time explicitly refer to concrete possible actions. The findings indicate that when only awareness and concern are raised without mentioning a concrete action, PCE might even decrease and render the communication effort ineffective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing the effects of 35 European-derived BMI-associated SNPs in Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Arkan; Peralta-Romero, Jesus; Suarez, Fernando; Gomez-Zamudio, Jaime; Burguete-Garcia, Ana I; Cruz, Miguel; Meyre, David

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity in Mexico has increased at an alarming rate in both adults and children. This study was undertaken to test in Mexican children the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that have been associated with body mass index (BMI) and obesity in Europeans. School-age children (N = 1,559, 5-17 years) were recruited in Mexico City. Thirty-five SNPs with established effects on BMI and obesity were genotyped and analyzed individually and as a combined gene score (GS). SNPs in FAIM2 (rs7138803), GPRC5BB (rs12444979), MTIF3 (rs4771122), TFAP2B (rs987237), TMEM18 (rs7561317), and the GS were significantly associated with BMI. The GS explained 0.9% of the variance of BMI. Also, SNPs in LRRN6C (rs10968576) and MC4R (rs17782313) were significantly associated with overweight and obesity categories, respectively. Importantly, the effect allele frequency of 26/35 SNPs (74.3%) differed significantly between Mexican children and European adults. No significant gene × environment or gene × gene interactions were detected after Bonferroni adjustment. Several SNPs first associated with BMI/obesity in European adults replicated well in Mexican children, and investigating differences in the distribution of effect alleles across ethnic populations may shed light on genetic susceptibilities of different populations to obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  10. Evaluation of the Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Phragmanthera capitata (Sprengel) Balle (Loranthaceae), a Mistletoe Growing on Rubber Tree, Using the Dilution Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohikhena, Franklin Uangbaoje; Wintola, Olubunmi Abosede; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2017-01-01

    The alarming increase in multidrug resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to conventional drugs in recent years has prompted the search for new leads in alternative remedies in natural products. Hence, this study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial properties of Phragmanthera capitata, a parasitic mistletoe growing on rubber trees. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the acetone, methanol, ethanol, and aqueous extracts were investigated using five gram-negative and five gram-positive bacteria and four fungi. A 96-well resazurin broth and agar dilution techniques were used for the determination of the Minimum Inhibitory and Bactericidal Concentrations. The antibacterial activity of the organic extracts had comparative effects on all the bacteria with a MIC of 1.25 to 5 mg/mL and MBC of 2.5 to 10 mg/mL. However, the acetone extract showed higher bactericidal effect while the aqueous extract was not active. The organic solvent extracts also showed antifungal activities on two of the fungi with a MIC of 1.25 mg/mL to 10 mg/mL. However, the aqueous extract had the highest activity inhibiting all the fungi with a MIC of ≤0.3125 to 1.25 mg/mL. The study supports the ethnomedicinal claims of P. capitata as a remedy for the diseases/infections caused by these organisms.

  11. The macroeconomic effects of migration from the new European Union member states to the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Iakova, Dora

    2015-01-01

    The United Kingdom allowed workers from the ten new European Union member countries immediate access to its labor market after the accession in 2004. This paper uses a general equilibrium framework to explore the dynamic adjustment of the UK economy to the postaccession surge in immigration. Simulations show that immigration is likely to have positive effects on economic growth, capital accumulation, consumption, and the public finances.

  12. Anorexia, Body Image and Peer Effects: Evidence from a Sample of European Women

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-Font, J; Jofre-Bonet, M.

    2011-01-01

    Excessive preoccupation with self-image (or identity) is regarded as a factor contributing to the proliferation of food disorders, especially among young women. This paper models how self-image and peer effects influence health-related behaviours, specifically food disorders. We empirically test this claim using data from the European survey. Our findings suggest that the larger the peers‟ body-mass, the lower the likelihood of being anorexic. Self-image is correlated with body weight. We use...

  13. Mistletoe lectin I in complex with galactose and lactose reveals distinct sugar-binding properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikeska, Ruth [Institute of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Hamburg, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Building 22a, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Wacker, Roland [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University of Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 4, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Arni, Raghuvir [Department of Physics, IBILCE/UNESP, São Jose do Rio Preto, São Paul (Brazil); Singh, Tej P. [Department of Biophysics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Mikhailov, Albert; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat [Institute of Crystallography of Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect 59, 117333 Moscow (Russian Federation); Voelter, Wolfgang [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University of Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 4, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Betzel, Christian, E-mail: betzel@unisgi1.desy.de [Institute of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Hamburg, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Building 22a, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    The structures of mistletoe lectin I in complex with lactose and galactose reveal differences in binding by the two known sites in subdomains α1 and γ2 and suggest the presence of a third low-affinity site in subdomain β1. The structures of mistletoe lectin I (ML-I) from Viscum album complexed with lactose and galactose have been determined at 2.3 Å resolution and refined to R factors of 20.9% (R{sub free} = 23.6%) and 20.9 (R{sub free} = 24.6%), respectively. ML-I is a heterodimer and belongs to the class of ribosome-inactivating proteins of type II, which consist of two chains. The A-chain has rRNA N-glycosidase activity and irreversibly inhibits eukaryotic ribosomes. The B-chain is a lectin and preferentially binds to galactose-terminated glycolipids and glycoproteins on cell membranes. Saccharide binding is performed by two binding sites in subdomains α1 and γ2 of the ML-I B-chain separated by ∼62 Å from each other. The favoured binding of galactose in subdomain α1 is achieved via hydrogen bonds connecting the 4-hydroxyl and 3-hydroxyl groups of the sugar moiety with the side chains of Asp23B, Gln36B and Lys41B and the main chain of 26B. The aromatic ring of Trp38B on top of the preferred binding pocket supports van der Waals packing of the apolar face of galactose and stabilizes the sugar–lectin complex. In the galactose-binding site II of subdomain γ2, Tyr249B provides the hydrophobic stacking and the side chains of Asp235B, Gln238B and Asn256B are hydrogen-bonding partners for galactose. In the case of the galactose-binding site I, the 2-hydroxyl group also stabilizes the sugar–protein complex, an interaction thus far rarely detected in galactose-specific lectins. Finally, a potential third low-affinity galactose-binding site in subunit β1 was identified in the present ML-I structures, in which a glycerol molecule from the cryoprotectant buffer has bound, mimicking the sugar compound.

  14. A cytotoxic type-2 ribosome inactivating protein (from leafless mistletoe) lacking sugar binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mrinal Kumar; Sharma, Radhey Shyam; Mishra, Vandana

    2011-12-01

    Articulatin-D, a 66 kDa ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) comprised of 29 kDa A-chain linked to 35 kDa B-chain, is purified from leafless mistletoe (Viscum articulatum) parasitic on Dalbergia sp. from Western Ghats (India). N-terminal sequence and LC-MS/MS analyses of A- and B-chain confirmed that articulatin-D is a type-2 RIP having high homology with other mistletoe lectins. Translation inhibition and diagnostic N-glycosidase activity of articulatin-D illustrate the presence of catalytically active A-chain. Its inability to: (i) bind to acid treated Sepharose CL-6B column, (ii) agglutinate trypsin-treated and untreated RBCs of human (A, B, O, AB), mice, rat, rabbit, buffalo, porcine, pigeon, cock, fish, sheep and goat even with 10mg/ml of purified articulatin-D, (iii) show change in circular dichroism spectra after addition of sugar to the native protein, (iv) bind to different sugars (galactose, lactose, gal-NAc, rhamnose, arabinose, fucose and mannose) immobilized on Sepharose 4B matrix, and (v) show change in enthalpy during titration with galactose confirm that the B-chain of articulatin-D lacks sugar binding activity. Despite this, articulatin-D is highly toxic as characterized with low IC(50) against different cancer cell lines (Jurkat: 0.31 ± 0.02 nM, MOLT-4: 0.51 ± 0.03 nM, U-937: 0.64 ± 0.07 nM, HL-60: 0.79 ± 0.11 nM, Raji: 1.45 ± 0.09 nM). Toxicity of RIPs has been ascribed to the absence/presence of B-chain with sugar binding activity. Identification of articulatin-D, the first cytotoxic RIP with B-chain lacking sugar binding activity opens new vistas in understanding cytotoxic action of RIPs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy in the European Union, with particular reference to transition countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rilind Kabashi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the short- to medium-term effects of fiscal policy on output and other macroeconomic variables in European Union countries between 1995 and 2012, with particular reference to transition countries. It applies Panel Vector Auto Regression with recursive identification of government spending shocks as the most appropriate method for the aim of the study and the sample used. The main results indicate that expansionary spending shocks have a positive, but a relatively low effect on output, with the fiscal multiplier around one in the year of the shock and the following year, and lower thereinafter. There are indications that this result is driven by the recent crisis, as multipliers are considerably lower in the pre-crisis period. Effects of fiscal policy are strongly dependent on country structural characteristics. Fiscal multipliers are higher in new European Union member states, in countries with low public debt and low trade openness. Further, spending shocks are followed by rising debt levels in old member states, which could be related well to the recent European debt crisis. Finally, the analysis of the transmission mechanism of fiscal policy yields results that are consistent with both extended Real Business Cycle models and extended New Keynesian models.

  16. Revenue, welfare and trade effects of European Union Free Trade Agreement on South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kore M.A. Guei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using the partial equilibrium WITS-SMART Simulation model to assess the impact of liberalisation under the Trade Development and Cooperation Agreement (TDCA of a free trade area between the European Union and South Africa. The identification of the impact of such agreement allows for trade policy negotiation adjustment that can be beneficial for South Africa. Aim: The aim of the study is to estimate and discuss the impact of a Free Trade Agreement (FTA with the European Union and South Africa. More specifically, the study intends to estimate the impact of revenue, welfare, imports, exports, trade creation and to come up with policies options for South Africa that can be used in negotiations and policy formulations. Setting: The study used international trade data (2012 available in the WITS-SMART model to assess bilateral trade agreement between the European Union and South Africa. Methods: To identify the impact on revenue, welfare, imports, exports and trade creation, the study simulated an FTA (0% tariff rate for all goods exchanged between the European Union and South Africa. Also, the elasticity of substitution used for the simulation model was 99%. Results: The findings of the study reveal that total trade effects in South Africa are likely to surge by US$ 1.036 billion with a total welfare valued at US$ 134 million. Dismantling tariffs on all European Union (EU goods would be beneficial to consumers through net trade creation. Total trade creation would be US$ 782 million. However, South African producers are likely to contribute a trade diversion of US$ 254 million which has a negative impact on consumer welfare. The country might also experience a revenue loss amounting to US$ 562 million because of the removal of tariffs. In trade, the country’s exports and imports to the EU are expected to increase by US$ 12.419 million and US$ 1.266 million, respectively. Conclusion: The European Union–South Africa FTA would

  17. The effects of the European Working Time Directive on surgical training: the basic surgical trainee's perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, B D

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: On the 1 August 2009, the implementation of European Working Time Directive became European law and was implemented in Galway University Hospital (GUH). AIMS: The aim of the study is to ascertain the opinion of the 25 surgical SHOs in GUH on the effect of the implementation of an EWTD compliant roster had on the quality of their training. METHODS: A questionnaire was circulated to all 25 surgical SHOs. RESULTS: Twenty-two (88%) SHOs report a reduction in the quality of their training. 18 (72%) report a reduction in the development of their operative skills. The SHOs believed the EWTD Rotas would encourage Irish graduates to train abroad. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical training faces a challenge with the implementation of EWTD Rotas. Major changes need to be made to the surgical training structure to train surgeons to the highest standard and to retain Irish-trained surgeons in the Irish healthcare system.

  18. Isolation of 18 Microsatellite Loci in the Desert Mistletoe Phoradendron californicum (Santalaceae Via 454 Pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Arroyo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the parasitic mistletoe Phoradendron californicum to investigate to what extent population genetic structure depends on host tree distribution within a highly fragmented landscape. Methods and Results: Fourteen unlinked polymorphic and four monomorphic nuclear microsatellite markers were developed using a genomic shotgun pyrosequencing method. A total of 187 alleles plus four monomorphic loci alleles were found in 98 individuals sampled in three populations from the Sonoran Desert in the Baja California peninsula (Mexico. Loci averaged 13.3 alleles per locus (range 4–28, and observed and expected heterozygosities within populations varied from 0.167–0.879 and 0.364–0.932, respectively. Conclusions: Levels of polymorphism of the reported markers are adequate for studies of diversity and fragmentation in natural populations of this parasitic plant. Cross-species amplifications in P. juniperinum and P. diguetianum only showed four markers that could be useful in P. diguetianum.

  19. TLR4-mediated activation of mouse macrophages by Korean mistletoe lectin-C (KML-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong-Jai; Hong, Ju-ho; Kwon, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Youngchan; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Kim, Jong-Bae; Song, Seong K

    2010-06-04

    Korean mistletoe lectin (KML-C) is an adjuvant that activates systemic and mucosal immune cells to release cytokines including TNF-alpha, which induces immunity against viruses and cancer cells. Although the immunomodulatory activity of KML-C has been well established, the underlying mechanism of action of KML-C has yet to be explored. When mouse peritoneal macrophages were treated with KML-C, both transcription and translation of TLR4 were upregulated. KML-C-induced TLR4 downstream events were similar to those activated by LPS: the upregulation of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK1); resulting in macrophage activation and TNF-alpha production. When TLR4 was blocked using a TLR4-specific neutralizing antibody, TNF-alpha production from the macrophages was significantly inhibited. Moreover, TLR4-deficient mouse macrophages treated with KML-C also secreted greatly reduced level of TNF-alpha secretion. Finally, TLR4 molecules were co-precipitated with KML-C, to which agarose beads were conjugated, indicating that those molecules are associated. These data indicate that KML-C activates mouse macrophages to secrete TNF-alpha by interacting with the TLR4 molecule and activating its signaling pathways. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Antimicrobial Potential of Helicanthus elastica (Desr. Danser - A less explored Indian mistletoe Growing on Mango Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppala Narayana Sunil Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Helicanthus elastica (Desr. Danser (Loranthaceae is a less-known medicinally important mistletoe species occurring in India. It is used to check abortion, and also in vesical calculi and kidney affections. There are no detailed studies reporting the antimicrobial potential of this plant. Based on the traditional use and the rich phenolic composition of the whole plant, the antimicrobial property of the alcohol extract was analyzed and the results are outlined in the present paper. For the analysis, zone of inhibition, and minimum inhibitory concentration were used, and the total activity was assayed by standard methodologies. The antimicrobial activity was studied against bacteria like Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Vibrio fischeri, and a fungus Candida albicans. Of the eight tested bacteria, the alcoholic extract of H. elastica was found to be active against K. pneumoniae, A. hydrophila, E. coli, and V. fischeri at concentration ranging from 250 to 500 μg/ml. C. albicans showed inhibition only at a concentration of 2000 μg/ml.

  1. Differential effects of Viscum album extract IscadorQu on cell cycle progression and apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsma, Marjan; Grommé, Monique; Ummelen, Monique; Dignef, Wendy; Tusenius, Karel Jan; Ramaekers, Frans C S

    2004-12-01

    Extracts from European mistletoe or Viscum album L. have been reported to exert cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of this anti-tumoral activity is however, largely unknown. In this study we tested the hypothesis that IscadorQu, an aqueous fermented extract from the European mistletoe grown on oaks, induces tumor regression by cell cycle inhibition and/or interference with apoptotic signaling pathways in cancer cells. Also a possible effect on angiogenesis, which is a prerequisite for tumor growth in vivo, is studied in endothelial cell cultures. Furthermore, we examined which apoptotic signaling route is activated by staining cells for specific pro-apoptotic proteins. To characterize these properties, 6 different human cancer cell lines, one epidermis derived cell line and 2 endothelial cell cultures were incubated with different concentrations of IscadorQu. Cell cycle kinetics parameters were measured by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse labeling and tubulin staining. Apoptotic responses were detected by M30 CytoDeath or Annexin V/propidium iodide assays. Characterization of the apoptotic pathway was performed by staining cells for active caspase 3, active caspase 8, cytochrome C and chloromethyl-X-rosamine. The results of this study show that sensitivity to IscadorQu treatment varies strongly between different cell lines. In sensitive cell lines, including tumor and endothelial cell cultures, IscadorQu caused early cell cycle inhibition followed by apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Apoptosis was induced by activating the mitochondrial but not the death receptor-dependent pathway.

  2. Peer Effects and Youth Smoking in the European Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikaj Silda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of peer smoking on individual smoking among youths in 10 countries that participated in the European Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS. I control for endogeneity in school selection and unobserved school-level characteristics through the use of school fixed-effects. I use instrumental variables to address the simultaneity in peer and individual behaviours. Identification arises by comparing students in different classes within the same school. On average, an increase in the share of classmates who smoke by 10 percentage points increases the probability that an individual in that class will smoke by 3 to 6.9 percentage points. The results imply that any policy intervention such as anti-smoking messages, smoking bans, or higher cigarette prices will be even more cost-effective because of the social multiplier effect of peers – policies affecting some individuals in a group will generate spillovers to others through the peer effect.

  3. The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA): short-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Hein; Mudde, Aart; Kremers, Stef; Wetzels, Joyce; Uiters, Ellen; Ariza, Carles; Vitória, Paulo Duarte; Fielder, Anne; Holm, Klavs; Janssen, Karin; Lehtuvuori, Riku; Candel, Math

    2003-12-01

    The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) resulted in a smoking prevention project for six European countries. It included activities on four levels: adolescents, schools, parents and out-of-school activities. Common goals and objectives were developed, but countries were also able to include additional objectives. National diversities required country-specific methods. The most important common element was a school-based programme consisting of at least five lessons paying attention to social influence processes and training in refusal skills. During the first year, significantly more smoking prevention activities were realized in experimental schools compared with control schools. Not all countries had the same number of lessons on resisting peer pressures. Significant cognitive changes were observed in Spain, resulting in more negative attitudes, increased self-efficacy levels and a more negative intention towards smoking in the experimental group. Counter-productive cognitive effects were observed in the UK. Significantly less onset of weekly smoking in experimental groups was found in Finland (4.7%) and Spain (3.1%). Counter-productive effects were observed in Denmark and the UK. In conclusion, while having common objectives, the ESFA approach allowed for a great deal of diversity. Fundamental research using dismantling designs is needed to be able to detect the most effective elements of smoking prevention programmes for different age groups. Attention to parenting styles and practices is also needed.

  4. Korean mistletoe lectin (KML-IIU) and its subchains induce nitric oxide (NO) production in murine macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Bong; Yoo, Yung Choon; Lee, Kwan Hee; Yoon, Ho Sup; Her, Erk; Kim, Jong Bae; Song, Seong Kyu

    2008-03-01

    Synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) is one of the important effector functions of innate immune cells. Although several reports have indicated mistletoe lectins induce immune cells to produce cytokines, studies regarding the activities of the lectins in the production of NO have been very limited. Here, we report on the induction of NO synthesis in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, by Korean mistletoe lectin (KML-IIU). When the macrophage cells were treated with KML-IIU in the presence of a suboptimal concentration of IFN-gamma, NO production was induced in a concentration-dependent manner. Significantly higher levels of NO were induced by subchains of the KML-IIU (A and B), which have lower toxicities, as compared to the hololectin. Furthermore, expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene was elevated in accordance with the level of NO production. When the synthase was inhibited by iNOS inhibitors (L-NIL and L-NAME), NO production was specifically reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Our studies demonstrate that the KML-IIU and its subchains induce NO production in murine macrophage cells via activation of the iNOS gene expression, suggesting that the KML-IIU subchains may be used as an immunomodulator to enhance the effector functions of innate immune cells.

  5. Extract from mistletoe, Viscum album L., reduces Hsp27 and 14-3-3 protein expression and induces apoptosis in C6 rat glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, E Ö; Arda, N; Aitken, A

    2012-08-24

    Extracts of mistletoe (Viscum album) are intensively used in complementary medicine, but their mechanisms are not fully understood in most cases, and the effects on metabolism have not been investigated in detail. However, some biologically active natural products are well known to provoke unexpected cellular responses. They reduce overexpression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in cancer cells. The aim of the current study was to determine whether methanolic extract of V. album, which possesses antioxidant activity, has an effect on expression levels of Hsp27 and 14-3-3 proteins in a C6 glioma cell line. For the first time, the apoptosis-inducing effect of this extract was also determined via caspase-3 activation in the cells. Overexpression of Hsps was induced by heat shock at 42°C for 1 h. Expression levels of Hsp27 and 14-3-3 proteins were determined using Western blot analysis. The apoptosis-inducing effect was also evaluated via caspase-3 activation in C6 glioma cells. Pretreatment of the cells with a nontoxic dose (100 μg/mL) of V. album extract before heat shock significantly reduced expression levels of Hsp27 (73%) and 14-3-3β (124%), 14-3-3γ (23%), and 14-3-3ζ (84%) proteins. Pretreatment with the extract before heat shock increased apoptosis via caspase-3 activation (60%) in C6 glioma cells. This result suggested that the methanolic extract of V. album downregulates expression of Hsp27 and 14-3-3 chaperone proteins and induces apoptosis, which warrants further exploration as a potential bioactive compound for cancer therapy.

  6. Acquisition of European research funds and its effect on international scientific collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/305349929; Scherngell, T.; Frenken, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253; Tijssen, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Framework Programmes (FPs) funded by the European Commission support transnational research collaborations in order to make the European Research Area more competitive. Some have raised concerns that the FPs compromise the cohesion policies of the European Commission aimed at reducing income

  7. Acquisition of European research funds and its effect on international scientific collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, Jarno; Scherngell, Thomas; Frenken, Koen; Tijssen, Robert

    The Framework Programmes (FPs) funded by the European Commission support transnational research collaborations in order to make the European Research Area more competitive. Some have raised concerns that the FPs compromise the cohesion policies of the European Commission aimed at reducing income

  8. The 2 °C global warming effect on summer European tourism through different indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillakis, Manolis G; Koutroulis, Aristeidis G; Tsanis, Ioannis K

    2016-08-01

    Climate and weather patterns are an essential resource for outdoor tourism activities. The projected changes in climate and weather patterns are expected to affect the future state of tourism. The present study aims to quantify the positive or negative effect of a 2 °C global warming on summertime climate comfort in the sense of exercising activities that involve light body activity. The well-established Climate Index for Tourism (CIT) and three variants of the widely used Tourism Climatic Index (TCI) were analyzed. Additionally, a new index based on TCI and CIT was tested and compared against the precious indices. Past and future climate data of five high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs) from different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) of the European Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (Euro-CORDEX) for a +2 °C period were used. The results indicate improvement in the climate comfort for the majority of European areas for the May to October period. For the June to August period, central and northern European areas are projected to improve, while marginal improvement is found for Mediterranean countries. Furthermore, in specific cases of adjacent Mediterranean areas such as the southern Iberian Peninsula, the June to August climate favorability is projected to reduce as a result of the increase to daytime temperature. The use of a set of different indices and different RCMs and RCPs samples a large fraction of the uncertainty that is crucial for providing robust regional impact information due to climate change. The analysis revealed the similarities and the differences in the magnitude of change across the different indices. Moreover, discrepancies were found in the results of different concentration pathways to the +2 °C global warming, with the RCP8.5 projecting more significant changes for some of the analyzed indices. The estimation of the TCI using different timescale climate data did not change the

  9. Ecological Effects of Land Use Changes on European Terrestrial Mountain Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cernusca, Alexander

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Initiative (TERI within Framework IV of the EU, ECOMONT aims at investigating ecological effects of land-use changes in European terrestrial mountain ecosystems. ECOMONT is coordinated by Prof Cernusca (University of Innsbruck and is carried out by eight European partner teams in the Eastern Alps, the Swiss Alps, the Spanish Pyrennees and the Scottish Highlands. ECOMONT focuses on an analysis of structures and processes in the context of land-use changes, scaling from the leaf to the landscape level. The following research topics are being investigated: Spatial distribution of vegetation and soil in the composite experimental sites; physical and chemical soil properties, SOM status and turnover; canopy structure, primary production, and litter decomposition; water relations of ecosystems and hydrology of catchment areas; microclimate and energy budget of ecosystems; gas exchange of single plants and ecosystems; gas exchange between the composite experimental sites and the atmosphere, population and plant biology of keyspecies, plant-animal interactions, potential risks through land-use changes; GIS; remote sensing - environmental mapping; modeling activities integrating from plant to ecosystem and landscape level. First results of ECOMONT show that land-use changes have strong impacts on vegetation composition, structure and processes, on soil physics and chemistry, and therefore strongly affect exchange processes with the atmosphere and biogeochemical cycles. Abandonment of traditional agricultural practices (grazing, mowing causes characteristic changes of the vegetation. In most cases a successional reversion over many decades reaches its climax with the vegetation growing naturally at the sites. Sometimes, however, abandonment can also lead fo a degradation of vegetation and soil. In spite of common principles of changes of vegetation, soils and related processes with altered land

  10. Determinants of FDI into Central and Eastern European Countries: Pull or Push Effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Polat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in foreign direct investments (FDI, substantial uncertainty still exists regarding what stimulates foreign investors to operate in a foreign market and uneven distribution of FDI across countries. Using panel data for 2001 -2012 period, the major determinants of the FDI inflows into the Central and Eastern European Countries are analysed in this study. Strong evidence are found that while EU CR indices, EU and USA real GDP growth rates and global financial crisis have power to explain FDI inflows among all other push factors, labour cost, electricity price, real exchange rate and host CR indices have strong influential on FDI as the most effective pull factors. However, study fails to find any effect of openness, tax rates on commercial profits, USA CR indices, interest rate differentials and host real GDP growth on FDI.

  11. Evaluation of surgical implantation of electronic tags in European eel and effects of different suture materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, Eva B.; Økland, Finn; Westerberg, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    Effects of implanting data-storage tags in European eel, Anguilla anguilla, and the suitability of different suture materials (braided permanent silk, permanent monofilament, absorbable and absorbable antibacterial) were examined. The tags consisted of an electronic unit and three floats on a wire......, making them flexible and able to follow the swimming movements of the eel. No mortality occurred, and tagged fish did not differ from the control fish in growth. Sutures were shed or dissolved slowly. After 4 weeks, there was no difference among the groups in the proportion of sutures left. After 6....... Antibacterial treatment had no effect on inflammation or healing rates. After 6 months, the tag started to become expelled through the incision in five fish (12%). The internal reaction appeared stronger around the floats, suggesting that the coating material of the floats created a tissue reaction, which...

  12. Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maas, Andrew I R; Menon, David K; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current classification of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is suboptimal, and management is based on weak evidence, with little attempt to personalize treatment. A need exists for new precision medicine and stratified management approaches that incorporate emerging technologies. OBJECTIVE......: To improve characterization and classification of TBI and to identify best clinical care, using comparative effectiveness research approaches. METHODS: This multicenter, longitudinal, prospective, observational study in 22 countries across Europe and Israel will collect detailed data from 5400 consenting...... in process and clinical care. Results will be integrated with living systematic reviews in a process of knowledge transfer. The study initiation was from October to December 2014, and the recruitment period was for 18 to 24 months. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research...

  13. Jack-of-all-trades effects drive biodiversity–ecosystem multifunctionality relationships in European forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Peter; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A.; Hector, Andy; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Berthold, Felix; Bonal, Damien; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Carnol, Monique; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Charbonnier, Yohan; Coomes, David; Coppi, Andrea; Bastias, Cristina C.; Muhie Dawud, Seid; De Wandeler, Hans; Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Grossiord, Charlotte; Guyot, Virginie; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Joly, François-Xavier; Jucker, Tommaso; Koricheva, Julia; Milligan, Harriet; Müller, Sandra; Muys, Bart; Nguyen, Diem; Pollastrini, Martina; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Selvi, Federico; Stenlid, Jan; Valladares, Fernando; Vesterdal, Lars; Zielínski, Dawid; Fischer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, ‘complementarity' and ‘selection', we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the ‘jack-of-all-trades' effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity–multifunctionality relationships in many of the world's ecosystems. PMID:27010076

  14. Temperature effects on gene expression and morphological development of European eel, Anguilla anguilla larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Mazurais, David; Servili, Arianna

    2017-01-01

    to first-feeding, and the linked expression of targeted genes [heat shock proteins (hsp), growth hormone (gh) and insulin-like growth factors (igf)] associated to larval performance of European eel, Anguilla anguilla. Temperature effects on larval morphology and gene expression were investigated throughout......Temperature is important for optimization of rearing conditions in aquaculture, especially during the critical early life history stages of fish. Here, we experimentally investigated the impact of temperature (16, 18, 20, 22 and 24°C) on thermally induced phenotypic variability, from larval hatch...... affected by temperature. In real time, increasing temperature from 16 to 22°C accelerated larval development, while larval gene expression patterns (hsp70, hsp90, gh and igf-1) were delayed at cold temperatures (16°C) or accelerated at warm temperatures (20-22°C). All targeted genes (hsp70, hsp90, gh, igf...

  15. Investigating the effects of ICT on innovation and performance of European hospitals: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Spyros; Loukis, Euripidis N

    2016-05-01

    Hospitals are making big investments in various types of ICT, so it is important to investigate their effects on innovation and performance. This paper presents an empirical study in this direction, based on data for 743 hospitals from 18 European countries. We specified and estimated econometrically five equations: one for product innovation, one for process innovation and three equations for the three different dimensions of (ICT-enabled) hospital performance. All five equations included various ICT-related variables reflecting ICT infrastructure and a series of important ICT applications, some of them hospital-specific, and some others of general business use, and also ICT personnel (viewed as a kind of 'soft' ICT investment), while the performance equations also included the two innovation measures.

  16. The mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and body mass index in the two European countries Denmark and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, T.; Winkens, Laura; Toft, Madeleine Broman; Pedersen, Susanne; Brouwer, Ingeborg; Visser, Marjolein; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    In two European countries with a different prevalence of depression, namely Denmark (high) and Spain (low), we assessed whether the mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and Body Mass Index (BMI) as found in earlier studies can be replicated and whether this mediation effect is

  17. Testing the Effectiveness of Environmental Variables to Explain European Terrestrial Vertebrate Species Richness across Biogeographical Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Mouchet

    Full Text Available We compared the effectiveness of environmental variables, and in particular of land-use indicators, to explain species richness patterns across taxonomic groups and biogeographical scales (i.e. overall pan-Europe and ecoregions within pan-Europe. Using boosted regression trees that handle non-linear relationships, we compared the relative influence (as a measure of effectiveness of environmental variables related to climate, landscape (or habitat heterogeneity, land-use intensity or energy availability to explain European vertebrate species richness (birds, amphibians, and mammals at the continental and ecoregion scales. We found that dominant land cover and actual evapotranspiration that relate to energy availability were the main correlates of vertebrate species richness over Europe. At the ecoregion scale, we identified four distinct groups of ecoregions where species richness was essentially associated to (i seasonality of temperature, (ii actual evapotranspiration and/or mean annual temperature, (iii seasonality of precipitation, actual evapotranspiration and land cover and (iv and an even combination of the environmental variables. This typology of ecoregions remained valid for total vertebrate richness and the three vertebrate groups taken separately. Despite the overwhelming influence of land cover and actual evapotranspiration to explain vertebrate species richness patterns at European scale, the ranking of the main correlates of species richness varied between regions. Interestingly, landscape and land-use indicators did not stand out at the continental scale but their influence greatly increased in southern ecoregions, revealing the long-lasting human footprint on land-use-land-cover changes. Our study provides one of the first multi-scale descriptions of the variability in the ranking of correlates across several taxa.

  18. Cost effectiveness of the new pneumococcal vaccines: a systematic review of European studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vooren, Katelijne; Duranti, Silvy; Curto, Alessandro; Garattini, Livio

    2014-01-01

    Diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) are a major global public health problem. Despite their importance, information on the burden of the different pneumococcal diseases is limited and estimates vary widely. We critically reviewed the full economic evaluations (FEEs) on the new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) conducted in the European Union (EU) to assess their potential contribution to public decision making. We selected the FEEs focussed on PCV-10 and PCV-13 and published in English from January 2007 until June 2013. We screened the selected articles to assess their main methodological features using a common checklist composed of epidemiological, clinical and economic items. All the ten studies selected were based on modelling and the time horizon was always long term. Two studies focused on adults, the remaining eight on infants. Only one study based herd immunity on national data, eight used foreign data or modelling and the last did not consider it. National prices and tariffs were claimed to be sources for unit costs in all studies; however, half of them assumed price parity when one vaccine was not yet marketed, and the figures varied within the countries where more than one study was conducted. Conclusions supported the economic utility of pneumococcal vaccination in all studies, raising some concern only in (i) the independent study, which found that PCV-13 was borderline cost effective, and (ii) the study sponsored by both manufacturers, which estimated an incremental ratio slightly above the national threshold for both PCV-10 and PCV-13. The European studies we analysed are mostly based on weak sources of data. Because of the limited information on vaccine effectiveness and lack of epidemiological and economic data, the need for extensive recourse to assumptions leads to great within- and between-study variability generated by authors' choices.

  19. REASONS AND EFFECTS OF THE ROMANIAN LABOUR FORCE MIGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ramona Frunză; Liviu George Maha; Claudiu Gabriel Mursa

    2009-01-01

    In the European Union countries and neighboring regions, the expansion will produce a redistribution of the labour force between industries and countries. After the Romania’s adhesion to theEuropean Union, the need for an increased productivity, the lack of capital, the competition on the EU market and the low wages have concurred to the intensification of the migration process of the labour force, especially to the West European countries. As example, from over two millions of Romanians work...

  20. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro, E-mail: alejandro.gallegoschmid@manchester.ac.uk; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F.; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%–44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%–109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (< 1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%–21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%–20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should

  1. The effect of alternate wetting and drying on methane fluxes on different varieties of European rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Viktoria; Cochrane, Nicole; Monaco, Stefano; Volante, Andrea; Orasen, Gabriele; Price, Adam; Arn Teh, Yit

    2017-04-01

    weighing the rachis, grain and straw on a 1 metre linear section from every variety of rice. Overall, there was no significant effect between AWD and PF systems on rough grain production (863 and 822 g DM m-2) or straw yield (776 and 813 g DM m-2) for PF and AWD, respectively. The alternate wetting and drying sites had significantly lower CH4 fluxes 0.197 ± 0.066 compared to the permanently flooded 0.557 ± 0.090 g C m-2 d-1, with Baldo (Italian) producing the highest emissions. Overall there was ˜ 40 % water saving. The results from this study highlight that this novel water management strategy for European rice can have multiple environmental benefits without sacrificing yield.

  2. Temperature effects on gene expression and morphological development of European eel, Anguilla anguilla larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian N Politis

    Full Text Available Temperature is important for optimization of rearing conditions in aquaculture, especially during the critical early life history stages of fish. Here, we experimentally investigated the impact of temperature (16, 18, 20, 22 and 24°C on thermally induced phenotypic variability, from larval hatch to first-feeding, and the linked expression of targeted genes [heat shock proteins (hsp, growth hormone (gh and insulin-like growth factors (igf] associated to larval performance of European eel, Anguilla anguilla. Temperature effects on larval morphology and gene expression were investigated throughout early larval development (in real time from 0 to 18 days post hatch and at specific developmental stages (hatch, jaw/teeth formation, and first-feeding. Results showed that hatch success, yolk utilization efficiency, survival, deformities, yolk utilization, and growth rates were all significantly affected by temperature. In real time, increasing temperature from 16 to 22°C accelerated larval development, while larval gene expression patterns (hsp70, hsp90, gh and igf-1 were delayed at cold temperatures (16°C or accelerated at warm temperatures (20-22°C. All targeted genes (hsp70, hsp90, gh, igf-1, igf-2a, igf-2b were differentially expressed during larval development. Moreover, expression of gh was highest at 16°C during the jaw/teeth formation, and the first-feeding developmental stages, while expression of hsp90 was highest at 22°C, suggesting thermal stress. Furthermore, 24°C was shown to be deleterious (resulting in 100% mortality, while 16°C and 22°C (~50 and 90% deformities respectively represent the lower and upper thermal tolerance limits. In conclusion, the high survival, lowest incidence of deformities at hatch, high yolk utilization efficiency, high gh and low hsp expression, suggest 18°C as the optimal temperature for offspring of European eel. Furthermore, our results suggest that the still enigmatic early life history stages of

  3. Need for a European approach to the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on cancer. ELF-EMF European Feasibility Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    A European feasibility study on environmental exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) and cancer was conducted. The study was motivated by public health concern about possible adverse health effects associated with ELF-EMF exposure. A review of completed research in Europe was conducted. Information on the methods and accessibility of new epidemiologic studies were requested and reviewed. Eight studies on environmental ELF-EMF exposure have been completed in Europe while 15 large studies are in progress. Although there is no known mechanism by which electric or magnetic fields of this frequency could play a role in the development of cancer or other adverse health effects, the results of the studies conducted so far provide some support for the hypothesis that they are associated with the incidence of childhood leukemia. The best use of available data will be made through a pooled re-analysis of data, particularly those on childhood tumors. It is recommended to apply multiple methods for exposure assessment in view of the heterogeneity in the methods used in different studies. New multicenter case-referent studies should not be initiated until the results of the large on-going studies have been reported. Prospective cohort studies will have to be very large to identify moderate excess risks resulting from environmental exposure to ELF-EMF, and their feasibility should be discussed after the results of the on-going case-referent studies have been reported. A European collaborative approach will lead to greater statistical power and will assess the exposure-effect association under differing exposure patterns and distributions of potential confounding factors.

  4. The European smoking prevention framework approach (ESFA): short-term effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, H. de; Mudde, A.; Kremers, S.; Wetzels, J.; Uiters, E.; Ariza, C.; Duarte Vitoria, P.; Fielder, A.; Holm, K.; Janssen, L.H.M.; Lehtuvuori, R.; Candel, M.

    2003-01-01

    The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) resulted in a smoking prevention project for six European countries. It included activities on four levels: adolescents, schools, parents and out-of-school activities. Common goals and objectives were developed, but countries were also able

  5. Tax Shift by Economic Functions and Its Effect on Economic Growth in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Szarowská

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine effects of tax shift on economic growth and provide a direct empirical evidence in the European Union (EU. It is used the Eurostat’s definition to categorize tax burden by economic functions and implicit tax rates of consumption, labour and capital are investigated. First, paper summarizes main development of tax shift in a whole EU till 2014 and followed empirical analysis is based on annual panel data of 22 EU Member States in years 1995–2012 (time span is divided into a pre-crisis and a post-crisis period. Explanatory variables are not examined in individual regressions, but the study uses Generalized Method of Moments applied on dynamic panel data and estimations are based on Arellan-Bond estimator (1991. Results confirm positive and statistically significant impact of consumption taxes and weaker but negative effect of labour taxation on economic growth. In a post-crisis period, findings report raising labour taxes as the strongest and the only significant variable. It suggests that harmful effect of labour taxation is enlarging in a time of unfavorable economic conditions. A tax shift on capital taxation has negative but often statistically insignificant impact on economic growth.

  6. Nectar secretion dynamic links pollinator behavior to consequences for plant reproductive success in the ornithophilous mistletoe Psittacanthus robustus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, T J; Galetto, L; Silva, W R

    2014-09-01

    The mistletoe Psittacanthus robustus was studied as a model to link flower phenology and nectar secretion strategy to pollinator behaviour and the reproductive consequences for the plant. The bright-coloured flowers presented diurnal anthesis, opened asynchronously throughout the rainy season and produced copious dilute nectar as the main reward for pollinators. Most nectar was secreted just after flower opening, with little sugar replenishment after experimental removals. During the second day of anthesis in bagged flowers, the flowers quickly reabsorbed the offered nectar. Low values of nectar standing crop recorded in open flowers can be linked with high visitation rates by bird pollinators. Eight hummingbirds and two passerines were observed as potential pollinators. The most frequent flower visitors were the hummingbirds Eupetomena macroura and Colibri serrirostris, which actively defended flowering mistletoes. The spatial separation between anthers, stigma and nectar chamber promotes pollen deposition on flapping wings of hovering hummingbirds that usually probe many flowers per visit. Seed set did not differ between hand-, self- and cross-pollinated flowers, but these treatments set significantly more seeds than flowers naturally exposed to flower visitors. We suggest that the limitation observed in the reproductive success of this plant is not related to pollinator scarcity, but probably to the extreme frequency of visitation by territorial hummingbirds. We conclude that the costs and benefits of plant reproduction depend on the interaction strength between flowers and pollinators, and the assessment of nectar secretion dynamics, pollinator behaviour and plant breeding system allows clarification of the complexity of such associations. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. THE IMPACT OF MACROECONOMIC FACTORS ON COMPETITION POLICY EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoi Ionut

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, more and more countries have enacted competition laws, understanding the importance of this process in providing a normal functioning of the economy. Analyzing competition policy effectiveness is important not only because of the recent extent of the phenomenon, but also because of the impact of competition policy effectiveness on economic development and, in the current economic climate, on the economic recovery process. For this reason, quantitative evaluation for competition policy effectiveness became very useful as data handling and understanding the whole phenomenon are easier this way and an international perspective is provided. This was made possible by various international institutions that have created a system of aggregated indicators for the evaluation of competition law enforcement and competition advocacy (perceived effectiveness. The purpose of our research is to identify the macroeconomic factors that influence the effectiveness of competition law implementation within the European Union Member States. We have tasted the influence of 13 macroeconomic, using panel data methodology and data from the last four years. We obtained ß coefficients statistically significant only for 11 of them. The results are consistent with prior analyzed studies and economic logic: positive influence from market division, intensity of local competition, ethical behavior of firms, strength of auditing and reporting standards, efficiency of legal framework in settling disputes, protection of minority shareholders’ interests, public trust of politicians, economic dimension and market size and negative influence from corruption level and diversion of public funds. Based on the achieved results we can perform an analysis of principal components leading to causal space reduction with minimal information loss and without informational redundancy, creating the premises for building a model that explains competition policy

  8. A multi-sites analysis on the ozone effects on Gross Primary Production of European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proietti, C. [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anav, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Exeter (United Kingdom); De Marco, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Sicard, P. [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard BP234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis-cedex (France); Vitale, M., E-mail: marcello.vitale@uniroma1.it [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) is both a greenhouse gas and a secondary air pollutant causing adverse impacts on forests ecosystems at different scales, from cellular to ecosystem level. Specifically, the phytotoxic nature of O{sub 3} can impair CO{sub 2} assimilation that, in turn affects forest productivity. This study aims to evaluate the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} on Gross Primary Production (GPP) at 37 European forest sites during the time period 2000–2010. Due to the lack of carbon assimilation data at O{sub 3} monitoring stations (and vice-versa) this study makes a first attempt to combine high resolution MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP) estimates and O{sub 3} measurement data. Partial Correlations, Anomalies Analysis and the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) were used to quantify the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} concentration and its uptake on GPP and to evaluate the most important factors affecting inter-annual GPP changes. Our results showed, along a North-West/South-East European transect, a negative impact of O{sub 3} on GPP ranging from 0.4% to 30%, although a key role of meteorological parameters respect to pollutant variables in affecting GPP was found. In particular, meteorological parameters, namely air temperature (T), soil water content (SWC) and relative humidity (RH) are the most important predictors at 81% of test sites. Moreover, it is interesting to highlight a key role of SWC in the Mediterranean areas (Spanish, Italian and French test sites) confirming that, soil moisture and soil water availability affect vegetation growth and photosynthesis especially in arid or semi-arid ecosystems such as the Mediterranean climate regions. Considering the pivotal role of GPP in the global carbon balance and the O{sub 3} ability to reduce primary productivity of the forests, this study can help in assessing the O{sub 3} impacts on ecosystem services, including wood production and carbon sequestration. - Highlights: • Assessment of the surface O{sub 3

  9. Cosmetics Europe Guidelines on the Management of Undesirable Effects and Reporting of Serious Undesirable Effects from Cosmetics in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Renner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU Cosmetics Regulation (EC No. 1223/2009 requires companies to collect and assess reports of adverse health effects from the cosmetic products (undesirable effects they market. Furthermore, undesirable effects that are considered as serious need to be reported to the national competent authorities. Cosmetics Europe, representing the European cosmetics industry, has developed these guidelines to promote a consistent practical approach for the management of undesirable effects and the notification of serious undesirable effects. Following these guidelines allows companies concerned to demonstrate due diligence and compliance with the legal requirements.

  10. Application of biomarkers for exposure and effect of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in naturally exposed european otters (Lutra lutra)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murk, A.J.; Leonards, P.E.G.; van Hattum, A.G.M.; Luit, R.; Vanderweiden, M.E.J.; Smit, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the serious decline of European otters (Lutra lutra) over the last decades, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are considered to be one of the major factors. As no experiments can be conducted with otters, an eco-epidemiological study was performed to derive no observed effect concentrations

  11. Effects of salinity and sea salt type on egg activation, fertilization, buoyancy and early embryology of European eel, Anguilla anguilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Butts, Ian; Munk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Improper activation and swelling of in vitro produced eggs of European eel, Anguilla anguilla, has been shown to negatively affect embryonic development and hatching. We investigated this phenomenon by examining the effects of salinity and sea salt type on egg dimensions, cell cleavage patterns a...

  12. Effective and Legitimate? Learning from the Lessons of 10 Years of Practice with the European Arrest Warrant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the European Arrest Warrant (EAW) and the issues which have emerged in its first 10 years of practice. After a first section explaining the choice for the principle of mutual recognition as expression of effectiveness and subsidiarity in judicial cooperation in criminal matters,

  13. Disentangling the effects of land-use change, climate and CO2 on projected future European habitat types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehsten, V; Sykes, M.T.; Scott, A.V.; Tzanopoulis, A.; Kallimanis, A.; Verburg, P.H.; Schulp, C.J.E.; Potts, S.G.; Vogiatzakis, I.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To project the potential European distribution of seven broad habitat categories (needle-leaved, broad-leaved, mixed and mediterranean forest, urban, grassland and cropland) in order to assess effects of land use, climate change and increase in CO2 on predicted habitat changes up to

  14. Effects of microplastics on European flat oysters, Ostrea edulis and their associated benthic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dannielle Senga

    2016-09-01

    Plastic pollution is recognised as an emerging threat to aquatic ecosystems, with microplastics now the most abundant type of marine debris. Health effects caused by microplastics have been demonstrated at the species level, but impacts on ecological communities remain unknown. In this study, impacts of microplastics on the health and biological functioning of European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) and on the structure of associated macrofaunal assemblages were assessed in an outdoor mesocosm experiment using intact sediment cores. Biodegradable and conventional microplastics were added at low (0.8 μg L(-1)) and high (80 μg L(-1)) doses in the water column repeatedly for 60 days. Effects on the oysters were minimal, but benthic assemblage structures differed and species richness and the total number of organisms were ∼1.2 and 1.5 times greater in control mesocosms than in those exposed to high doses of microplastics. Notably, abundances of juvenile Littorina sp. (periwinkles) and Idotea balthica (an isopod) were ∼2 and 8 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of either type of microplastic. In addition, the biomass of Scrobicularia plana (peppery furrow shell clam) was ∼1.5 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of microplastics. This work indicates that repeated exposure to high concentrations of microplastics could alter assemblages in an important marine habitat by reducing the abundance of benthic fauna. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of dietary quality on basal metabolic rate and internal morphology of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geluso, Keith; Hayes, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were fed either a low- or high-quality diet to test the effects of dietary quality on basal metabolic rate (BMR) and internal morphology. Basal metabolic rate did not differ significantly between the two dietary groups, but internal morphology differed greatly. Starlings fed the low-quality diet had heavier gastrointestinal tracts, gizzards, and livers. Starlings fed the high-quality diet had heavier breast muscles. Starlings on the low-quality diet maintained mass, while starlings on the high-quality diet gained mass. Dry matter digestibility and energy digestibility were lower for starlings fed the low-quality diet, and their food and water intake were greater than starlings on the high-quality diet. The lack of dietary effect on BMR may be the result of increased energy expenditure of digestive organs paralleling a reduction of energy expenditure of organs and tissues not related to digestion (i.e., skeletal muscle). This trade-off in energy allocation among organs suggests a mechanism by which organisms may alter BMR in response to a change in seasonal variation in food availability.

  16. Effective CKD care in European countries: challenges and opportunities for health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Aminu K; Levin, Adeera; Manns, Braden J; Feehally, John; Drueke, Tilman; Faruque, Labib; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Kernahan, Charles; Mann, Johannes; Klarenbach, Scott; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Tonelli, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important global public health problem that is associated with adverse health outcomes and high health care costs. Effective and cost-effective treatments are available for slowing the progression of CKD and preventing its complications, including cardiovascular disease. Although wealthy nations have highly structured schemes in place to support the care of people with kidney failure, less consideration has been given to health systems and policy for the much larger population of people with non-dialysis-dependent CKD. Further, how to integrate such strategies with national and international initiatives for control of other chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) merits attention. We synthesized the various approaches to CKD control across 17 European countries and present our findings according to the key domains suggested by the World Health Organization framework for NCD control. This report identifies opportunities to strengthen CKD-relevant health systems and explores potential mechanisms to capitalize on these opportunities. Across the 17 countries studied, we found a number of common barriers to the care of people with non-dialysis-dependent CKD: limited work force capacity, the nearly complete absence of mechanisms for disease surveillance, lack of a coordinated CKD care strategy, poor integration of CKD care with other NCD control initiatives, and low awareness of the significance of CKD. These common challenges faced by diverse health systems reflect the need for international cooperation to strengthen health systems and policies for CKD care. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The static welfare effects of the accession to the European Union on the Finnish agricultural markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. NIEMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Finland’s entry into the European Union in 1995 and the application of the Common Agricultural Policy have had major repercussions on Finland’s agriculture, which faces the major disadvantages of an unfavourable climate and farm structure. This paper attempts to measure the direct static welfare effects associated with the opening of Finnish agricultural markets for more competition. Using a standard comparative static partial equilibrium analysis in the Marshallian economic surplus framework, the welfare effects are calculated for eight major cereal and livestock commodities produced in Finland for the year 2003. The results suggest that farmers, despite the growth in direct payments, have incurred large annual welfare losses ranging from EUR 570 to EUR 600 million. Consumers, on the other hand, have gained from the accession between EUR 815 and 875 million annually. The taxpayers’ have gained – as a result of the decrease in the direct subsidies and export restitutions paid by the national budget – between EUR 470 and EUR 580 million. The net welfare benefit in Finland, in terms agricultural sector only, was a welfare benefit of EUR 500–700 million in 2003.;

  18. Longitudinal effects of the European smoking prevention framework approach (ESFA) project in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Carles; Nebot, Manel; Tomás, Zoa; Giménez, Emmanuel; Valmayor, Sara; Tarilonte, Visitación; De Vries, Hein

    2008-10-01

    To describe the effects of a Spanish smoking prevention programme in the context of an European project on regular smoking, in a sample of Barcelona adolescents. A quasi-experimental design was conducted. An experimental group (EG) (1080 pupils) was exposed to programme and compared with a control group (CG) (872 students). The intervention included a school-based programme (16 sessions in 3 years), reinforcement of a smoke-free school policy, smoking cessation for teachers, brochures for parents and other community-based activities involving youth clubs and tobacco sales. At 12 months, 4.5% of boys and 5.6% of girls were new smokers in the EG versus 6.7% and 11.7% in the CG (P < 0.001). At 36 months, 18.6% of boys and 31.2% of girls in the EG were regular smokers versus 21.6% of boys and 38.3% of girls in the CG (P < 0.001). The main factors associated with progression to regular smoking at 36 months were to be girl, to attend to a public school and to belong to the CG. These results endorse the effectiveness of multi-modal smoking prevention programmes, which include strategies with adults who influence adolescents.

  19. The Politics of Cutback Management in Thirteen European Countries: Statistical evidence on causes and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.M. Kickert (Walter); T. Randma-Liiv (Tiina)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe politics of fiscal consolidation in thirteen European countries are statistically analysed. Based on the political economy literature, political factors are identified that explain for the consolidation. Variables are selected representing strength of government and political

  20. What the Face and Body Reveal: In-Group Emotion Effects and Stereotyping of Emotion in African American and European American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuminello, Elizabeth R.; Davidson, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether 3- to 7-year-old African American and European American children's assessment of emotion in face-only, face + body, and body-only photographic stimuli was affected by in-group emotion recognition effects and racial or gender stereotyping of emotion. Evidence for racial in-group effects was found, with European American…

  1. Duration of Internet use and adverse psychosocial effects among European adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Calafat, Amador; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón; Juan, Montse; Duch, Mariangels; Skärstrand, Eva; Becoña, Elisardo; Talic, Sanela

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significant contributions from previous studies about the prevalence of problematic Internet use (PIU) among adolescents in Europe, important questions remain regarding adverse consequences of PIU. This study aims to assess the relation between duration of Internet use and adverse psychosocial effects among adolescents from six European countries. The final sample included 7,351 adolescents (50.8% male and 49.2% female; mean age: 14.6±1.90) recruited from randomly selected schools within the six study sites. Results showed that 12.9% of adolescents used Internet more than 20 hours per week. There was a significant relationship between duration of Internet use and frequency of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illegal drug use. Duration of Internet use is also significantly associated with school problems, with use of slot machines and with other psychosocial problems. These findings highlight the need to strengthen preventive efforts for reducing PIU and related consequences among adolescents. Key Words: Internet, adolescents, psychosocial problems.

  2. Men’s Fertility in Second Unions in Three European Countries: The Effect of Parenthood Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murinkó, Lívia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we investigate how fatherhood influences childbirth in the second union of men in three European countries. We use data from the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey for France (2005, Norway (2007/8 and Hungary (2004/5 and we apply piecewise exponential event history models. The analysis complements earlier literature by focusing on men, taking a comparative perspective, looking at change over time, considering both cohabiting and marital unions, and also differentiating between the effects of non-residential and (part- or full-time residential fatherhood. Findings show that the probability of childbearing in the second union is the lowest if both partners already have child(ren and highest if neither of them are parents. However we found different results if only one of the partners has pre-union children in the three countries. Findings are discussed in view of demographic trends, family and gender role attitudes, and relevant family policies.

  3. The lock-in effect and the greening of automotive cooling systems in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnåvold, Amalie; Van Passel, Steven

    2017-12-01

    As of 2017, the sale and use of the refrigerants most commonly used in automotive cooling systems - hydrofluorocarbons - are entirely banned in all new vehicles placed on the market in the European Union. These refrigerants have been recognised as potent greenhouse gases and, therefore, direct contributors to climate change. It is within this regulation-driven market that the technologies for a sustainable solution have been developed. However, this paper argues that the market for automotive cooling systems has been 'locked-in', which means that competing technologies, operating under dynamic increasing returns, will allow for one - potentially inferior technology - to dominate the market. Whilst such a situation is not uncommon, this paper discusses the way that regulation has reinforced a patented monopoly in 'picking winners': to the advantage of a synthetic chemical, R-1234yf, as opposed to the natural solution, which is CO 2 . By developing a generic conceptual framework of path dependence and lock-in, the presented evidence seeks to show how a snowballing effect has led to the intensification of differences in market share. We also argue that the automotive industry is potentially promoting short-term fixes, rather than long-term, sustainable and economically viable solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of fructose and sucralose on flow-mediated vasodilatation in healthy, white European males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Muhammad Qasim; Simpson, Elizabeth Jane; Macdonald, Ian Andrew

    2014-07-01

    To assess how acute consumption of fructose affects flow-mediated dilatation in brachial artery. The randomised cross-over study was conducted at the University of Nottingham's Medical School, Nottingham, United Kingdom in July 2009. Ten healthy, white European males visited the laboratory twice, on separate mornings. On each visit, the volunteers consumed water (3 ml/kg bodyweight) and rested semi-supine on the bed. After 30 minutes, baseline diastolic brachial artery diameter and blood velocity was measured. At 60 minutes, blood velocity and five scans of brachial artery diameter were recorded before a blood pressure cuff was inflated on the forearm for 5 minutes and at 50-60-70-80 and 90 sec after cuff deflation. Fifteen minutes later, the volunteers consumed 500 ml of test-drink containing either fructose (0.75 g/kg bodyweight) or sucralose (sweetness-matched with fructose drink); 45 minutes later, baseline and flow-mediated dilatation was re-measured. Pre-drink and post-drink baseline values were similar on two occasions (p > 0.05). Brachial artery diameter increased (p sucralose; a significant difference was noted in these flow-mediated dilatation responses (p sucralose were not different from those before and after fructose (p sucralose had no effect on flow-mediated dilatation measured at brachial artery.

  5. Effects of Familiarity on Idiom Comprehension in African American and European American Fifth Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Constance Dean; Harris, Joyce L

    1999-04-01

    In order to test the language experience hypothesis, the comprehension of high-, moderate-, and low-familiarity idioms was examined in African American (N=24) and European American (N= 24) fifth-grade students in the Mid-South. This study was designed to augment the existing literature on cross-cultural idiom comprehension, of which there is a paucity of research, and provide a look from a culturally diverse perspective at idiom comprehension in youth. Results indicate a significant effect of group on idioms rated as low-familiarity, whereas idioms rated as high- and moderate-familiarity did not distinguish the groups. Additionally, the current results indicate a pattern of comprehension that is different from that found in previous studies, based on levels of familiarity (Nippold & Rudzinski, 1993) that were established in a different U.S. geographic location. The influences of social and regional culture on idiom comprehension and familiarity is discussed, and a preliminary hypothesis is proposed to explain these influences.

  6. Composition of European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and association with health effects: fresh and processed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vasconcelos, Maria C B M; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira-Cardoso, Jorge V

    2010-08-15

    Chestnut fruits are highly regarded and widely consumed throughout Europe, America and Asia. Various commercial forms are available, e.g. fresh and industrially processed. There have been various reviews on the composition of chestnut fruits but there has not been a comprehensive review of the different health benefits that this fruit can provide. This review is focused on the composition and associated health effects of European fresh chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruits and their home-processed and industrial products, e.g. boiled, roasted, frozen, and 'marron glacées'. We also expand the knowledge of chestnut uses by presenting data for other chestnut materials that have potential applications as new foods, as sources of antioxidants, and as sources of other useful bioactives. There is considerable literature data on nutrients in fresh chestnut fruits but less information on bioactive non-nutrients such as phenolics. Chestnuts are mostly consumed as processed forms, and the different types of processing clearly affect the nutrient and non-nutrient composition of the fruits. The benefits that this fruit can provide for human and animal health are numerous, but it is clear that improvements can be made for both production and quality of chestnut products, e.g. genetic selection and optimizing industrial processing. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Long-term effects of chronic light pollution on seasonal functions of European blackbirds (Turdus merula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide M Dominoni

    Full Text Available Light pollution is known to affect important biological functions of wild animals, including daily and annual cycles. However, knowledge about long-term effects of chronic exposure to artificial light at night is still very limited. Here we present data on reproductive physiology, molt and locomotor activity during two-year cycles of European blackbirds (Turdus merula exposed to either dark nights or 0.3 lux at night. As expected, control birds kept under dark nights exhibited two regular testicular and testosterone cycles during the two-year experiment. Control urban birds developed testes faster than their control rural conspecifics. Conversely, while in the first year blackbirds exposed to light at night showed a normal but earlier gonadal cycle compared to control birds, during the second year the reproductive system did not develop at all: both testicular size and testosterone concentration were at baseline levels in all birds. In addition, molt sequence in light-treated birds was more irregular than in control birds in both years. Analysis of locomotor activity showed that birds were still synchronized to the underlying light-dark cycle. We suggest that the lack of reproductive activity and irregular molt progression were possibly the results of i birds being stuck in a photorefractory state and/or ii chronic stress. Our data show that chronic low intensities of light at night can dramatically affect the reproductive system. Future studies are needed in order to investigate if and how urban animals avoid such negative impact and to elucidate the physiological mechanisms behind these profound long-term effects of artificial light at night. Finally we call for collaboration between scientists and policy makers to limit the impact of light pollution on animals and ecosystems.

  8. Long-term effects of chronic light pollution on seasonal functions of European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominoni, Davide M; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-01-01

    Light pollution is known to affect important biological functions of wild animals, including daily and annual cycles. However, knowledge about long-term effects of chronic exposure to artificial light at night is still very limited. Here we present data on reproductive physiology, molt and locomotor activity during two-year cycles of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) exposed to either dark nights or 0.3 lux at night. As expected, control birds kept under dark nights exhibited two regular testicular and testosterone cycles during the two-year experiment. Control urban birds developed testes faster than their control rural conspecifics. Conversely, while in the first year blackbirds exposed to light at night showed a normal but earlier gonadal cycle compared to control birds, during the second year the reproductive system did not develop at all: both testicular size and testosterone concentration were at baseline levels in all birds. In addition, molt sequence in light-treated birds was more irregular than in control birds in both years. Analysis of locomotor activity showed that birds were still synchronized to the underlying light-dark cycle. We suggest that the lack of reproductive activity and irregular molt progression were possibly the results of i) birds being stuck in a photorefractory state and/or ii) chronic stress. Our data show that chronic low intensities of light at night can dramatically affect the reproductive system. Future studies are needed in order to investigate if and how urban animals avoid such negative impact and to elucidate the physiological mechanisms behind these profound long-term effects of artificial light at night. Finally we call for collaboration between scientists and policy makers to limit the impact of light pollution on animals and ecosystems.

  9. Effects of relative humidity on aerosol light scattering: results from different European sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zieger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aerosol water uptake on the aerosol particle light scattering coefficient (σsp is described in this study by comparing measurements from five European sites: the Jungfraujoch, located in the Swiss Alps at 3580 m a.s.l.; Ny-Ålesund, located on Spitsbergen in the Arctic; Mace Head, a coastal site in Ireland; Cabauw, a rural site in the Netherlands; and Melpitz, a regional background site in Eastern Germany. These sites were selected according to the aerosol type usually encountered at that location. The scattering enhancement factor f(RH, λ is the key parameter to describe the effect of water uptake on the particle light scattering. It is defined as the σsp(RH at a certain relative humidity (RH and wavelength λ divided by its dry value. f(RH at the five sites varied widely, starting at very low values of f(RH = 85%, λ = 550 nm around 1.28 for mineral dust, and reaching up to 3.41 for Arctic aerosol. Hysteresis behavior was observed at all sites except at the Jungfraujoch (due to the absence of sea salt. Closure studies and Mie simulations showed that both size and chemical composition determine the magnitude of f(RH. Both parameters are also needed to successfully predict f(RH. Finally, the measurement results were compared to the widely used aerosol model, OPAC (Hess et al., 1998. Significant discrepancies were seen, especially at intermediate RH ranges; these were mainly attributed to inappropriate implementation of hygroscopic growth in the OPAC model. Replacement of the hygroscopic growth with values from the recent literature resulted in a clear improvement of the OPAC model.

  10. Environmental assessment of microwaves and the effect of European energy efficiency and waste management legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-03-15

    More than 130 million microwaves are affected by European Union (EU) legislation which is aimed at reducing the consumption of electricity in the standby mode ('Standby Regulation') and at more sustainable management of end-of-life electrical and electronic waste ('WEEE Directive'). While legislation focuses on these two life cycle stages, there is little information on the environmental impacts of the entire life cycle of microwaves. To address this gap, this paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment of microwaves and assesses the environmental implications of the Standby Regulation and the WEEE Directive at the EU level. The impacts are first considered at the level of individual appliances and then at the EU level, with the aim of evaluating the potential environmental implications of the full implementation of the above two EU regulations by 2020. The effects of the electricity decarbonisation and the expected increase in the number of microwaves in use have also been considered. The results suggest that implementation of the EU regulation by 2020 will reduce the environmental impacts considered by 4%-9% compared to the current situation. The majority of these reductions is due to the Standby Regulation, with the contribution of the WEEE Directive being small (~0.3%). However, the expected decarbonisation of electricity will result in much higher reductions (6%-24%) for most impact categories. The results also show that the materials used to manufacture the microwaves, the manufacturing process and end-of-life disposal are environmental hot-spots for several impacts, including depletion of abiotic elements. Therefore, efforts to reduce the environmental impacts of a future electricity mix should be combined with the development of specific eco-design regulations for microwaves that stipulate optimisation of resource consumption. Possible future trends, such as shorter lifetimes and limited availability of some resources, make the development of such

  11. The effect of growth rate and ageing on colour variation of European pond turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Martín, José; Marzal, Alfonso; Bertolero, Albert

    2017-06-01

    Many chelonians have colourful dots, patches and stripes throughout their body that are made up, at least in part, of carotenoids. Therefore, turtles are very suitable models to study the evolution and functionality of carotenoid-based colouration. Recent studies suggested a close link between colouration and immune system in these taxa. However, more research is needed to understand the role of these colourful stripes and patches in turtle visual signalling. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between growth rate and colouration in European pond turtles. In particular, we wanted to answer the question of whether there is a trade-off between growth and colour expression. We also aimed to explore the effect of body size and age on colour variation. Turtles from a reintroduction-breeding program were recaptured, weighed and measured over an 8-year period to estimate their growth rates and age. We also measured with a spectrometer the reflectance of colour patches in two different body parts: shell and forelimb. We found that turtles with a faster growth rate had brighter limb stripes independently of their age. On the other hand, shell colouration was related to body size with larger turtles having brighter shell stripes and higher values of carotenoid chroma. Our results suggest that fast-growers may afford to express intense colourful limb stripes likely due to their higher intake of carotenoids that would modulate both growth and colour expression. However, shell colouration was related to body size probably due to ontogenetic differences in the diet, as juveniles are strictly carnivorous while adults are omnivorous. Alternatively, shell colouration might be involved in crypsis as the shell is visually exposed to predators.

  12. The Conflicting Aims of the European Neighborhood Policy and its Secondary Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castan Pinos, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    Protecting the external borders of the European Union (EU) has been one of the key priorities of European policymakers in the last decade. Extending border controls beyond EU territories in order to fight ongoing issues such as migration has been one of the major strategies conducted by the EU...... to guarantee the security of Europe’s borders. The European Neighborhood Policy has played a pivotal role in ensuring that the neighbors complied with the EU’s interest by offering political and economic rewards. Compliance is also enhanced through the “Seville Doctrine.” The paper challenges the idea...... that the “war on migrants” is a common shared interest for the EU and North African states, arguing that it is rather an EU security interest which does not necessarily correspond with the neighbors priorities. Finally, the paper focuses on the implementation of externalization in Morocco and critically...

  13. Differentiating the effects of climate and land use change on European biodiversity: A scenario analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaat, Jan E; Hellmann, Fritz A; van Teeffelen, Astrid J A; van Minnen, Jelle; Alkemade, Rob; Billeter, Regula; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Boitani, Luigi; Cabeza, Mar; Feld, Christian K; Huntley, Brian; Paterson, James; WallisDeVries, Michiel F

    2017-04-01

    Current observed as well as projected changes in biodiversity are the result of multiple interacting factors, with land use and climate change often marked as most important drivers. We aimed to disentangle the separate impacts of these two for sets of vascular plant, bird, butterfly and dragonfly species listed as characteristic for European dry grasslands and wetlands, two habitats of high and threatened biodiversity. We combined articulations of the four frequently used SRES climate scenarios and associated land use change projections for 2030, and assessed their impact on population trends in species (i.e. whether they would probably be declining, stable or increasing). We used the BIOSCORE database tool, which allows assessment of the effects of a range of environmental pressures including climate change as well as land use change. We updated the species lists included in this tool for our two habitat types. We projected species change for two spatial scales: the EU27 covering most of Europe, and the more restricted biogeographic region of 'Continental Europe'. Other environmental pressures modelled for the four scenarios than land use and climate change generally did not explain a significant part of the variance in species richness change. Changes in characteristic bird and dragonfly species were least pronounced. Land use change was the most important driver for vascular plants in both habitats and spatial scales, leading to a decline in 50-100% of the species included, whereas climate change was more important for wetland dragonflies and birds (40-50 %). Patterns of species decline were similar in continental Europe and the EU27 for wetlands but differed for dry grasslands, where a substantially lower proportion of butterflies and birds declined in continental Europe, and 50 % of bird species increased, probably linked to a projected increase in semi-natural vegetation. In line with the literature using climate envelope models, we found little divergence

  14. Interconnections between economic subsystems and the IT innovation in avoiding unpredictable effects of finance reforms in East-European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The tax measures are rapidly changing in East-European countries. The permanence is a concept rarely put in practice. The changes of fiscal policy are usually important, affecting the whole finance system and the investors need to adapt to these various changes. Under such circumstances, the management of information of any kind regarding the activity of investors becomes very important, the information gathered represent a statistic proof of the effects of the economic and finance reforms.

  15. Context effects on Scottish national and European self-categorization: the importance of category accessibility, fragility and relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutland, A; Cinnirella, M

    2000-12-01

    Self-categorization theory (SCT) argues that self-categorization is inherently variable and tied to changes in the intergroup context (Oakes, Haslam, & Turner, 1994; Turner, Oakes, Haslam, & McGarty, 1994). Two studies were conducted to investigate SCT's claim that self-categorization is context dependent (Study 1) and to identify factors that may affect the likelihood of context effects on self-categorization (Study 2). In the first study, Scottish students self-categorized themselves at the national and European levels of abstraction in four between-participant conditions: after stereotyping the English, after stereotyping the Germans, after stereotyping the Australians and in isolation. Context effects on self-categorization were found but only at the European level of abstraction. European identity decreased significantly with the inclusion of the English and Germans in the frame of reference, but remained stable with the Australians in the comparative context. These results suggest context effects on self-categorization are not necessarily straightforward and may depend upon important factors like category accessibility, category fragility and the perceived psychological relations between categories. A questionnaire was distributed to a matched sample of Scottish students (Study 2) to investigate the importance of these factors. The findings provided empirical weight to our contention that category accessibility, category fragility and perceived psychological category relations are important to the self-categorization process.

  16. The “mapping out” approach: effectiveness of marine spatial management options in European coastalwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soma, K.; Ramos, J.; Bergh, Ø.; Schulze, T.; Oostenbrugge, van H.; Duijn, van A.P.; Kopke, K.; Steinmüller, V.; Grati, F.; Mäkinen, T.; Stenberg, C.; Buisman, F.C.

    2014-01-01

    Marine spatial management is challenged by complex situations in European countries where multiple stakeholder interests and many management options have to be balanced. EU policy initiatives such as the proposed Marine Spatial Planning Directive, are in different ways targeting area allocation in

  17. Management effects on net ecosystem carbon and GHG budgets at European crop sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceschia, E.; Beziat, P.; Dejoux, J.F.; Elbers, J.A.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Jans, W.W.P.

    2010-01-01

    The greenhouse gas budgets of 15 European crop sites covering a large climatic gradient and corresponding to 41 site-years were estimated. The sites included a wide range of management practices (organic and/or mineral fertilisation, tillage or ploughing, with or without straw removal, with or

  18. Short-term effects of particulate air pollution on cardiovascular diseases in eight European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Tertre, A; Medina, S; Samoli, E; Forsberg, B; Michelozzi, P; Boumghar, A; Vonk, JM; Bellini, A; Atkinson, R; Ayres, JG; Sunyer, J; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: As part of the APHEA project this study examined the association between airborne particles and hospital admissions for cardiac causes (ICD9 390-429) in eight European cities (Barcelona, Birmingham, London, Milan, the Netherlands, Paris, Rome, and Stockholm). All admissions were

  19. Maize–planting date interaction and effect of Bt maize on European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of planting date and transgenic maize on maize yield following stalk injury by European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner). Transgenic and non-transgenic maize hybrids with short- and full-season maturity were planted in late April, mid-May and early June from 2006 to ...

  20. Popular Explanations of Poverty in Europe: Effects of Contextual and Individual Characteristics across 28 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepianka, D.; Gelissen, J.; van Oorschot, W.

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we describe and explain the differences in popular poverty attributions that exist within and between 28 European countries. On the basis of the existing literature we distinguish five predictors: awareness of the existence of poverty, personal experience of disadvantage,

  1. Improving the definition of fishing effort for important European fleets by accounting for the skipper effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchal, P.; Andersen, B.; Bromley, E.H.C.; Iriondo, A.; Mahevas, S.; Quirijns, F.J.; Tien, N.S.H.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to quantify, for a wide selection of European fisheries, fishing tactics and strategies and to evaluate the benefits of adjusting the definition of. fishing effort using these elements. Fishing tactics and strategies were identified by metiers choices and a series of

  2. Are EMS environmentally effective? The link between environmental management systems and environmental performance in European companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertin, J.; Berkhout, F.G.H.; Wagner, M.; Tyteca, D.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of a large dataset on the environmental performance of European companies in five industrial sectors, this paper examines the question of whether the presence of an environmental management system (EMS) has a positive impact on the eco-efficiency of companies. It begins with a

  3. Effects of climate change on yield potential of wheat and maize crops in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Diepen, van C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Yields of winter wheat, silage maize and grain maize in the main arable areas of the European Union (EU) were calculated with a simulation model, WOFOST, using historical weather data and average soil characteristics. The sensitivity of the model to individual weather variables was determined.

  4. MP-AzeFlu provides rapid and effective allergic rhinitis control in real life: A pan-European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Ludger; Bachert, Claus; Stjärne, Par; Dollner, Ralph; Larsen, Petter; Haahr, Peter; Agache, Ioana; Scadding, Glenis; Price, David

    2016-09-01

    The European Union has prioritized allergic rhinitis (AR) control. Contre les Maladies Chronique pour un Vieillissement Actif Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma has endorsed the visual analog scale (VAS) as the AR control language and incorporated it into a new AR treatment algorithm. Concurrently, the Respiratory Effectiveness Group and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology are striving to improve the quality of published real-life AR research. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of MP-AzeFlu by using a VAS in a well-designed, real-life, pan-European study. A total of 2988 patients (aged ≥ 12 years) with Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma defined moderate-to-severe AR from Germany, Sweden, Romania, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Norway were included. Patients (except from the United Kingdom) assessed symptom severity by using a VAS from 0 mm (not at all bothersome) to 100 mm (very bothersome) on days 0, 1, 3, 7, and the last visit (∼day 14) in the morning before MP-AzeFlu use. Patients' perceived level of disease control was assessed on day 3. A VAS score cutoff on day 3 for "well controlled" was determined, and the proportion of patients who achieved this response was calculated. MP-AzeFlu was associated with a mean VAS score reduction from 73.7 mm at baseline to 23.4 mm by the last visit. This reduction was significant (p Vieillissement Actif Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma, the Respiratory Effectiveness Group, and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology objectives, supporting MP-AzeFlu as the drug of choice for the treatment of moderate-to-severe AR.

  5. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  6. Management effectiveness and land cover change in dynamic cultural landscapes-assessing a central European biosphere reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohnesorge, B.; Plieninger, Tobias; Hostert, P.

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas are a central pillar of efforts to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services, but their contribution to the conservation and management of European cultural landscapes that have complex spatial-temporal dynamics is unclear. The conservation strategy of biosphere reserves aims...... to assess the effectiveness of Central European reserves in meeting their land cover related management goals. Based on digital biotope maps, we defined and assessed land cover change processes that were relevant to the reserve management's goals over a period of 13 years. We then compared these changes...... 85% across all zones-differences in land cover changes can be more prominent across zones inside the reserve than between the areas inside and outside of it. The reserve as a whole performed better than the surrounding reference area when using land cover related management goals as a benchmark...

  7. First production of larvae using cryopreserved sperm: Effects of preservation temperature and cryopreservation on European eel sperm fertilization capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asturiano, J.F.; Sørensen, Sune Riis; Perez, L.

    2016-01-01

    Sperm cryopreservation is a useful tool in captive fish reproduction management, that is to synchronize gamete production, especially in the case of species as the European eel, where the time of female spawning readiness is unpredictable. Several protocols to cryopreserve sperm of this species...... have been described, but until recently fertilization trials were not feasible. This study evaluated the effect of cold storage of diluted sperm prior to fertilizations and tested whether a previously defined protocol for European eel sperm cryopreservation can be successfully applied in fertilization...... trials to produce viable offspring. In our experiment, the sperm motility was evaluated after the extraction and the best samples were selected and pooled. Until stripping of eggs and fertilization, diluted sperm samples were maintained at either 4 or 20°C, or cryopreserved, following existing protocols...

  8. Mistletoe Berry Outline Mapping with a Path Curve Function and Recording the Circadian Rhythm of Their Phenotypic Shape Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbidge, Renatus; Baumgartner, Stephan; Heusser, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a discovery: the change of the outline shape of mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. album) berries in vivo and in situ during ripening. It was found that a plant organ that is usually considered to merely increase in size actually changes shape in a specific rhythmic fashion. We introduce a new approach to chronobiological research on a macro-phenotypic scale to trace changes over long periods of time (with a resolution from hours to months) by using a dynamic form-determining parameter called Lambda (λ). λ is known in projective geometry as a measure for pertinent features of the outline shapes of egg-like forms, so called path curves. Ascertained circadian changes of form were analyzed for their correlation with environmental factors such as light, temperature, and other weather influences. Certain weather conditions such as sky cover, i.e., sunshine minutes per hour, have an impact on the amplitude of the daily change in form. The present paper suggests a possible supplement to established methods in chronobiology, as in this case the dynamic of form-change becomes a measurable feature, displaying a convincing accordance between mathematical rule and plant shape.

  9. Mistletoe Berry Outline Mapping with a Path Curve Function and Recording the Circadian Rhythm of their Phenotypic Shape Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renatus Derbidge

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a discovery: the change of the outline shape of mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. album berries in vivo and in situ during ripening. It was found that a plant organ that is usually considered to merely increase in size actually changes shape in a specific rhythmic fashion. We introduce a new approach to chronobiological research on a macro-phenotypic scale to trace changes over long periods of time (with a resolution from hours to months by using a dynamic form-determining parameter called Lambda (λ. λ is known in projective geometry as a measure for pertinent features of the outline shapes of egg-like forms, so called path curves. Ascertained circadian changes of form were analyzed for their correlation with environmental factors such as light, temperature and other weather influences. Certain weather conditions such as sky cover i.e. sunshine minutes per hour, have an impact on the amplitude of the daily change in form. The present paper suggests a possible supplement to established methods in chronobiology, as in this case the dynamic of form-change becomes a measurable feature, displaying a convincing accordance between mathematical rule and plant shape.

  10. A Randomized Study on Postrelapse Disease-Free Survival with Adjuvant Mistletoe versus Oral Etoposide in Osteosarcoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Longhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteosarcoma is a highly malignant bone tumour. After the second relapse, the 12-month postrelapse disease-free survival (PRDFS rate decreases below 20%. Oral Etoposide is often used in clinical practice after surgery as an “adjuvant” outside any protocol and with only limited evidence of improved survival. Viscum album fermentatum Pini (Viscum is an extract of mistletoe plants grown on pine trees for subcutaneous (sc injection with immunomodulatory activity. Methods. Encouraged by preliminary findings, we conducted a study where osteosarcoma patients free from disease after second metastatic relapse were randomly assigned to Viscum sc or Oral Etoposide. Our goal was to compare 12-month PRDFS rates with an equivalent historical control group. Results. Twenty patients have been enrolled, with a median age of 34 years (range 11–65 and a median follow-up time of 38.5 months (3–73. The median PRDSF is currently 4 months (1–47 in the Etoposide and 39 months (2–73 in the Viscum group. Patients getting Viscum reported a higher quality of life due to lower toxicity. Conclusion. Viscum shows promise as adjuvant treatment in prolonging PRDFS after second relapse in osteosarcoma patients. A larger study is required to conclusively determine efficacy and immunomodulatory mechanisms of Viscum therapy in osteosarcoma patients.

  11. A Randomized Study on Postrelapse Disease-Free Survival with Adjuvant Mistletoe versus Oral Etoposide in Osteosarcoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Alessandra; Reif, Marcus; Mariani, Erminia; Ferrari, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background. Osteosarcoma is a highly malignant bone tumour. After the second relapse, the 12-month postrelapse disease-free survival (PRDFS) rate decreases below 20%. Oral Etoposide is often used in clinical practice after surgery as an "adjuvant" outside any protocol and with only limited evidence of improved survival. Viscum album fermentatum Pini (Viscum) is an extract of mistletoe plants grown on pine trees for subcutaneous (sc) injection with immunomodulatory activity. Methods. Encouraged by preliminary findings, we conducted a study where osteosarcoma patients free from disease after second metastatic relapse were randomly assigned to Viscum sc or Oral Etoposide. Our goal was to compare 12-month PRDFS rates with an equivalent historical control group. Results. Twenty patients have been enrolled, with a median age of 34 years (range 11-65) and a median follow-up time of 38.5 months (3-73). The median PRDSF is currently 4 months (1-47) in the Etoposide and 39 months (2-73) in the Viscum group. Patients getting Viscum reported a higher quality of life due to lower toxicity. Conclusion. Viscum shows promise as adjuvant treatment in prolonging PRDFS after second relapse in osteosarcoma patients. A larger study is required to conclusively determine efficacy and immunomodulatory mechanisms of Viscum therapy in osteosarcoma patients.

  12. A systems approach to finding cost-effective alternatives to European Ballistic Missile Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Irfan; Jacobus, Lucas; Navejas, Abel; Parker, Stephen; Harr, Cameron; Long, David; Wiehe, Blake; Chacon, Abbot; Mellroth, Chris; Adams, Eric; Gomes, John; Berthelotte, Brad

    2013-01-01

    SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CAPSTONE PROJECT REPORT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Increasing political tensions between nations, coupled with advancements in technology, have resulted in the need for a Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system, specifically in the European theater where ally nations are particularly vulnerable. This report focuses on defending Turkey with a solution that could be fielded by FY18. It includes the following mature technologies: Patriot Advan...

  13. Effects of the captive environment and enrichment on the daily activity of European Bison (Bison bonasus)

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy, Erika

    2009-01-01

    When breeding wild species in captivity, the animals may gradually become more adapted to captivity and therefore less suited for reintroduction which is the ultimate goal for some species. This study measured the activity budget of European bison (Bison bonasus) in six enclosures in Sweden with the aim to find out how the characteristics of the enclosures – with and without pasture - influenced the activity budget. The results show that there were significant differences in the activity budg...

  14. Economic effects of bilateral trade agreements: China, United States, European Union and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Tobías, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Economic integration and international trade among different regions are analysed in this study. It describes recent history and explains a theoretical framework of economic integration. It focuses in Mega-Regional Trade Agreements, more specifically in the biggest ones, TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership) and TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership), both of them still under negotiation. These agreements involve the most important economies in the world such as the European Union (f...

  15. The Tripler Army Medical Center's LE3AN program: a six-month retrospective analysis of program effectiveness for African-American and European-American females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Mark; Earles, Jay; Folen, Raymond; Trammel, Rick; James, Larry

    2004-10-01

    This is a retrospective study that examines the effectiveness of the Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC) LE3AN Program for weight management among African-American and European American women. African-American and European-American active-duty females who enrolled in the TAMC LE3AN Program between July 1998 and December 2001, and completed six months of follow-up were included in the analysis. The results indicate that the program is associated with significant weight loss for participants, and that it is equally effective for African-American and European-American women. Weekly follow-up visits were correlated with greater weight loss.

  16. The political economy of energy use and pollution: the environmental effects of East-European transition to market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midttun, A.; Chander, I. [Norwegian School of Management, Sandvicka (Norway)

    1998-11-01

    The transition of Eastern Europe to Western-type liberal capitalism has been interpreted as an important step towards a more ecologically sustainable Europe. The main argument has been that the energy efficiency of the West-European economy will be imported to Eastern Europe and lead to lower energy consumption and lower pollution. This line of argumentation seems sound as far as the industrial sector is concerned. However, it does not take into consideration the energy and pollution bill of the lavish lifestyle of modern consumer-oriented societies. A shift away from the moderate private consumption of East-European Communism, towards the Western consumerist lifestyle may diminish or even abolish the positive ecological effects of the East-European transition to a competitive market economy. The article explores energy consumption and pollution patterns of Eastern and Western Europe both as far as industrial and domestic end-user consumption is concerned. The article argues that these patterns are related to basic characteristics of the communist and capitalist systems and that pollution and energy use are fundamentally conditioned by the overall political economy. 18 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab., 1 app.

  17. Safety effects of road design standards : a study commissioned by the European Commission DG VII of the situation in the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruyters, H.G.J.C.M. Slop, M. & Wegman, F.C.M. (eds.)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study carried out for the European Union. The report uses the safety principle that: (i) proper road design is crucial to prevent human errors in traffic; and (ii) less human errors will result in less accidents. The study contains the following parts: (1)

  18. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  19. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  20. The effect of warming and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds from European aspen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maja, Mengistu M., E-mail: mengistu.maja@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Holopainen, Jarmo K. [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-03-15

    Different environmental stress factors often occur together but their combined effects on plant secondary metabolism are seldom considered. We studied the effect of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) (31% increase) radiation and temperature (ambient + 2 °C) singly and in combination on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 2-year-old clones of European aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plants grew in 36 experimental plots (6 replicates for Control, UV-A, UV-B, T, UV-A + T and UV-B + T treatments), in an experimental field. VOCs emitted from shoots were sampled from two (1 male and 1 female) randomly selected saplings (total of 72 saplings), per plot on two sampling occasions (June and July) in 2014. There was a significant UV-B × temperature interaction effect on emission rates of different VOCs. Isoprene emission rate was increased due to warming, but warming also modified VOC responses to both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-A increased isoprene emissions without warming, whereas UV-B increased emissions only in combination with warming. Warming-modified UV-A and UV-B responses were also seen in monoterpenes (MTs), sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs). MTs showed also a UV × gender interaction effect as females had higher emission rates under UV-A and UV-B than males. UV × gender and T × gender interactions caused significant differences in VOC blend as there was more variation (more GLVs and trans-β-caryophyllene) in VOCs from female saplings compared to male saplings. VOCs from the rhizosphere were also collected from each plot in two exposure seasons, but no significant treatment effects were observed. Our results suggest that simultaneous warming and elevated-UV-radiation increase the emission of VOCs from aspen. Thus the contribution of combined environmental factors on VOC emissions may have a greater impact to the photochemical reactions in the atmosphere compared to the impact of individual factors acting alone

  1. Income inequality, life expectancy and cause-specific mortality in 43 European countries, 1987-2008: a fixed effects study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-08-01

    Whether income inequality is related to population health is still open to debate. We aimed to critically assess the relationship between income inequality and mortality in 43 European countries using comparable data between 1987 and 2008, controlling for time-invariant and time-variant country-level confounding factors. Annual data on income inequality, expressed as Gini index based on net household income, were extracted from the Standardizing the World Income Inequality Database. Data on life expectancy at birth and age-standardized mortality by cause of death were obtained from the Human Lifetable Database and the World Health Organization European Health for All Database. Data on infant mortality were obtained from the United Nations World Population Prospects Database. The relationships between income inequality and mortality indicators were studied using country fixed effects models, adjusted for time trends and country characteristics. Significant associations between income inequality and many mortality indicators were found in pooled cross-sectional regressions, indicating higher mortality in countries with larger income inequalities. Once the country fixed effects were added, all associations between income inequality and mortality indicators became insignificant, except for mortality from external causes and homicide among men, and cancers among women. The significant results for homicide and cancers disappeared after further adjustment for indicators of democracy, education, transition to national independence, armed conflicts, and economic freedom. Cross-sectional associations between income inequality and mortality seem to reflect the confounding effects of other country characteristics. In a European context, national levels of income inequality do not have an independent effect on mortality.

  2. Effect of the European directive on medical exposure on patients doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, P.; Heaton, B. [Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In 2000 the European Directive on medical exposures was incorporated into United Kingdom law. Whilst the primary aim was to ensure that all uses of ionising radiation in medical practice were justified and a benefit to the patient or volunteer was identified, there was an understanding that patient doses would be controlled and collective doses reduced. The Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 made a lot of new demands on radiology and Nuclear Medicine departments. No department is too small or specialized to ignore these regulations and the impact can be major. The Aberdeen Radiation Protection Service advises a number of users of ionising radiation on the implementation of these regulations ranging from single person dental practices to large radiology departments in busy regional hospitals. The particular problems and issues affecting different departments will be discussed. The regulations identified new key roles with Employers, Referrers, Practitioners and Operators all having specific responsibilities. Each of these groups needs to be identified, informed of their responsibilities and trained as necessary. The problems this has raised for the various staff groups will be discussed. A large number of procedures had to be written from how a patient is uniquely identified to how incidents are reported and investigated. There is much emphasis on optimising the use of equipment and techniques used, paying particular attention to women of child bearing age and children. Again there are problems in implementing this in practice and these issues will be discussed. A formal procedure for reporting 'near misses' and actual incidents of overexposure, were introduced. Each reported event is reviewed to identify issues and lessons which can be learnt by others. There is often a lateral thinking exercise involved to reduce the probability of an incident happening again and some novel solutions have been

  3. A EUropean study on effectiveness and sustainability of current Cardiac Rehabilitation programmes in the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Meindersma, Esther P; van der Velde, Astrid E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an evidence-based intervention to increase survival and quality of life. Yet studies consistently show that elderly patients are less frequently referred to CR, show less uptake and more often drop out of CR programmes. DESIGN: The European study...... home-based programme while the control group will receive no advice or coaching throughout the study period. Outcomes will be assessed after the end of CR and at 12 months follow-up. The primary outcome is VO2peak and secondary outcomes include variables describing CR uptake, adherence, efficacy...

  4. How to set up an effective national primary angioplasty network: lessons learned from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knot, Jiri; Widimsky, Petr; Wijns, William

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) recenty launched the Stent For Life Initiative (SFLI). The initial phase of this pan-European project was focused on the positive experience of five countries to provide the best practice examples. The Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Sweden, Denmark and Austria were visited...... and the logistics of ACS treatment was studied. Public campaigns improved patient access to acute PCI. Regional networks involving emergency medical services (EMS), non-PCI hospitals and PCI centres are useful in providing access to acute PCI for most patients. Direct transfer from the first medical contact site...

  5. Interactive effects of dietary composition and hormonal treatment on reproductive development of cultured female European eel, Anguilla anguilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipa; Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Kjørsvik, Elin

    2016-01-01

    weight (BW) and ii) a variable hormone dosage that increased from 12.5mg SPE/kg initial BW to 25mg SPE/kg initial BW. Results showed a significant interaction between diets and hormonal treatments on gonadosomatic index (GSI), indicating that the effect of broodstock diets on ovarian development depends......) in the plasma did not differ between diets and hormonal treatments, but was significantly correlated with ovarian developmental stage. In conclusion, increasing dietary levels of n-3 PUFAs seemed to promote oocyte growth, leading to a more rapid progression of ovarian development in European eel subjected...

  6. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  7. Effects of Drought and Rewetting on Growth and Gas Exchange of Minor European Broadleaved Tree Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Kunz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Widespread and economically important European tree species such as Norway spruce, Scots pine, and European beech are projected to be negatively affected by the increasing intensity and frequency of dry and hot conditions in a future climate. Hence, there is an increasing need to investigate the suitability of presumably more drought tolerant species to ensure future ecological stability, biodiversity, and productivity of forests. Based on their distribution patterns and climatic envelopes, the rare, minor broadleaved tree species Sorbus torminalis ((L. CRANTZ, S. domestica (L., Acer campestre (L., and A. platanoides (L. are assumed to be drought tolerant, however, there is only limited experimental basis to support that notion. This study aimed at quantifying growth and gas exchange of seedlings of these species during drought conditions, and their capacity to recover following drought. For that purpose, they were compared to the common companion species Quercus petraea ((MATTUSCHKA LIEBL. and Fagus sylvatica (L.. Here, potted seedlings of these species were exposed to water limitation followed by rewetting cycles in a greenhouse experiment. Photosynthesis and transpiration rates, stomatal conductance as well as root and shoot growth rates indicated a high drought resistance of A. campestre and A. platanoides. Sorbus domestica showed a marked ability to recover after drought stress. Therefore, we conclude that these minor tree species have the potential to enrich forests on drought-prone sites. Results from this pot experiment need to be complemented by field studies, in which the drought response of the species is not influenced by restrictions to root development.

  8. Spatio-temporal trends of nitrogen deposition and climate effects on Sphagnum productivity in European peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granath, Gustaf; Limpens, Juul; Posch, Maximilian; Mücher, Sander; de Vries, Wim

    2014-04-01

    To quantify potential nitrogen (N) deposition impacts on peatland carbon (C) uptake, we explored temporal and spatial trends in N deposition and climate impacts on the production of the key peat forming functional group (Sphagnum mosses) across European peatlands for the period 1900-2050. Using a modelling approach we estimated that between 1900 and 1950 N deposition impacts remained limited irrespective of geographical position. Between 1950 and 2000 N deposition depressed production between 0 and 25% relative to 1900, particularly in temperate regions. Future scenarios indicate this trend will continue and become more pronounced with climate warming. At the European scale, the consequences for Sphagnum net C-uptake remained small relative to 1900 due to the low peatland cover in high-N areas. The predicted impacts of likely changes in N deposition on Sphagnum productivity appeared to be less than those of climate. Nevertheless, current critical loads for peatlands are likely to hold under a future climate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of the economic recession on pharmaceutical policy and medicine sales in eight European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Vogler, Sabine; Valkova, Silvia; de Joncheere, Kees; Leufkens, Hubert GM; Wagner, Anita K; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Laing, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify pharmaceutical policy changes during the economic recession in eight European countries and to determine whether policy measures resulted in lower sales of, and less expenditure on, pharmaceuticals. Methods Information on pharmaceutical policy changes between 2008 and 2011 in eight European countries was obtained from publications and pharmaceutical policy databases. Data on the volume and value of the quarterly sales of products between 2006 and 2011 in the 10 highest-selling therapeutic classes in each country were obtained from a pharmaceutical market research database. We compared these indicators in economically stable countries; Austria, Estonia and Finland, to those in economically less stable countries, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Slovakia and Spain. Findings Economically stable countries implemented two to seven policy changes each, whereas less stable countries implemented 10 to 22 each. Of the 88 policy changes identified, 33 occurred in 2010 and 40 in 2011. They involved changing out-of-pocket payments for patients in 16 cases, price mark-up schemes in 13 and price cuts in 11. Sales volumes increased moderately in all countries except Greece and Portugal, which experienced slight declines after 2009. Sales values decreased in both groups of countries, but fell more in less stable countries. Conclusion Less economically stable countries implemented more pharmaceutical policy changes during the recession than economically stable countries. Unexpectedly, pharmaceutical sales volumes increased in almost all countries, whereas sales values declined, especially in less stable countries. PMID:25378754

  10. Effect of the economic recession on pharmaceutical policy and medicine sales in eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Christine; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Vogler, Sabine; Valkova, Silvia; de Joncheere, Kees; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Wagner, Anita K; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Laing, Richard

    2014-09-01

    To identify pharmaceutical policy changes during the economic recession in eight European countries and to determine whether policy measures resulted in lower sales of, and less expenditure on, pharmaceuticals. Information on pharmaceutical policy changes between 2008 and 2011 in eight European countries was obtained from publications and pharmaceutical policy databases. Data on the volume and value of the quarterly sales of products between 2006 and 2011 in the 10 highest-selling therapeutic classes in each country were obtained from a pharmaceutical market research database. We compared these indicators in economically stable countries; Austria, Estonia and Finland, to those in economically less stable countries, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Slovakia and Spain. Economically stable countries implemented two to seven policy changes each, whereas less stable countries implemented 10 to 22 each. Of the 88 policy changes identified, 33 occurred in 2010 and 40 in 2011. They involved changing out-of-pocket payments for patients in 16 cases, price mark-up schemes in 13 and price cuts in 11. Sales volumes increased moderately in all countries except Greece and Portugal, which experienced slight declines after 2009. Sales values decreased in both groups of countries, but fell more in less stable countries. Less economically stable countries implemented more pharmaceutical policy changes during the recession than economically stable countries. Unexpectedly, pharmaceutical sales volumes increased in almost all countries, whereas sales values declined, especially in less stable countries.

  11. RE-Shaping. Shaping an effective and efficient European renewable energy market. D23 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmann, M.; Klessmann, C.; Nabe, C.; De Jager, D.; De Lovinfosse, I. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ragwitz, M.; Steinhilber, S.; Breitschopf, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Burgers, J.; Boots, M. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands); Weoeres, B. [EnergoBanking, Budapest (Hungary); Resch, G.; Panzer, C.; Ortner, A.; Busch, S. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Energy Systems and Electric Drives, Energy Economics Group EEG, Vienna (Austria); Neuhoff, K.; Boyd, R. [Climate Policy Initiative, German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Berlin (Germany); Junginger, M.; Hoefnagels, R. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Cusumano, N.; Lorenzoni, A. [Bocconi University, Milan (Italy); Konstantinaviciute, I. [Lithuanian Energy Institute LEI, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-02-15

    The core objective of the RE-Shaping project is to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC (on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) and to guide a European policy for RES (renewable energy sources) in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The core content of this collaborative research activity comprises: Developing a comprehensive policy background for RES support instruments; Providing the European Commission and Member States with scientifically based and statistically robust indicators to measure the success of currently implemented RES policies; Proposing innovative financing schemes for lower costs and better capital availability in RES financing; Initiation of National Policy Processes which attempt to stimulate debate and offer key stakeholders a meeting place to set and implement RES targets as well as options to improve the national policies fostering RES market penetration; Assessing options to coordinate or even gradually harmonize national RES policy approaches. This report marks the end of the research project RE-Shaping and summarizes its research activities, results, and recommendations.

  12. Government Effectiveness and Value Creation: The Case of Emerging European Listed Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca MUNTEANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study adds to the field of public administration by focusing on the nexus between government decision and bank performance scores highlighting the administrative regulatory dimensions of improvements. To this end, this research paper covers a unique database comprising all listed banks that operate on emerging European markets in the period 2005-2011. Country specific characteristics are presented in the light of public administration quality which includes the dimension of governance quality on the one side, andthe quality and administrative burden on business environment on the other.Bank performance is defined under two different approaches (accounting vs. market based taking into account different stakeholders interest (state and central bank authority vs. investors.We account for profit persistency by using a Prais-Winsten regression that allows for both autocorrelation and heteroskedasticity in data. The results call attention to the fact that in emerging European markets regulatory glitches have a positive impact upon bank performance. Market imperfections are a source of profitability as they generate a reliable supply of market share appropriation and thus monopoly power. Also, administrative commitment towards increasing the quality of public services and policies endorsed by diminishing the level of corruption will accelerate private development and thus banking profitability.

  13. Effectiveness of microsatellite and SNP markers for parentage and identity analysis in species with low genetic diversity: the case of European bison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torskarska, M; Marshall, T; Kowalczyk, R

    2009-01-01

    The European bison (Bison bonasus) has recovered successfully after a severe bottleneck about 90 years ago. Pedigree analysis indicates that over 80% of the genes in the contemporary population descend from just 2 founder individuals and the pedigree-based inbreeding coefficient averages almost 0.......5, while microsatellite heterozygosity is around 0.3. This paper presents a comparison of the effectiveness of 17 microsatellite and 960 SNP markers in paternity and identity analysis in the Lowland line of European bison ('pure' European bison). Identity analysis revealed that 16% of the microsatellite...

  14. An exposure study with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris): Toxicokinetics and reproductive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, Evi van den [Laboratory of Ethology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: evi.vandensteen@ua.ac.be; Eens, Marcel [Laboratory of Ethology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Dirtu, Alin C. [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, ' Al.I.Cuza' University of Iassy, Carol I Bvd. No 11, 700506 Iassy (Romania); Jaspers, Veerle L.B. [Laboratory of Ethology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Neels, Hugo [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Pinxten, Rianne [Laboratory of Ethology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    We exposed female European starlings to a pentabromodiphenyl ether (Penta-BDE) mixture through subcutaneous implants, and examined levels and profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) together with reproductive effects. Sum PBDE levels increased significantly in the serum of the exposed females from 218 {+-} 43 to 23,400 {+-} 2035 pg/ml. Sum PBDE concentrations in the eggs of the exposed group ranged from 130 {+-} 12 to 220 {+-} 37 ng/g wet weight (ww). The profile in serum after egg laying was very similar to that in eggs. There were no detectable levels of HO-PBDEs in both serum and eggs. Fewer females of the exposed group initiated egg laying compared to the control group, although the difference was not significant. In addition, egg weight and volume were significantly higher in the exposed group. These results suggest that, at the investigated exposure levels (150 {mu}g sum PBDEs/bird), PBDEs may have a negative effect on reproductive performance. - Exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of PBDEs may result in adverse reproductive effects in a terrestrial songbird species, the European starling.

  15. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  16. Quality of life, immunomodulation and safety of adjuvant mistletoe treatment in patients with gastric carcinoma – a randomized, controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kab-Choong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mistletoe (Viscum album L. extracts are widely used in complementary cancer therapy. Aim of this study was to evaluate safety and efficacy of a standardized mistletoe extract (abnobaVISCUM® Quercus, aVQ in patients with gastric cancer. Patients and Methods 32 operated gastric cancer patients (stage Ib or II who were waiting for oral chemotherapy with the 5-FU prodrug doxifluridine were randomized 1:1 to receive additional therapy with aVQ or no additional therapy. aVQ was injected subcutaneously three times per week from postoperative day 7 to week 24 in increasing doses. EORTC QLQ-C30 and -STO22 Quality of Life questionnaire, differential blood count, liver function tests, various cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-2, CD 16+/CD56+ and CD 19+ lymphocytes were analyzed at baseline and 8, 16 and 24 weeks later. Results Global health status (p +/CD56+ and CD 19+ lymphocytes and liver function tests measured by ANOVA. Conclusion Additional treatment with aVQ is safe and was associated with improved QoL of gastric cancer patients. ClinicalTrials.Gov Registration number NCT01401075.

  17. Dampness in buildings as a risk factor for health effects. European multidisciplinary review of the entire literature (EUROEXPO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2002-01-01

    reviewed articles 52 were excluded as they were judged as background papers or "non-informative" or "inconclusive" or the study did not present data on exposure, health effects or analysis of the association between exposure and health. The review group concluded that "dampness" in buildings is a risk......The scientific literature on health effects associated with "dampness" in buildings including literature between 1998 and 2000 has been reviewed by a European group (EUROEXPO). The group consisted of scientists with experience from medicine, epidemiology, toxicology and engineering. Of the 104...... factor for health effects such as cough, wheeze, asthma, general symptoms and airway infections among atopics and non-atopics, both in domestic and public environments. However, the literature is inconclusive in respect of causative agents in such buildings. Suggested causative agents are mites...

  18. Exchange rate effect on stock returns in the East European emerging markets: A quantile regression approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živkov Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates relationship between returns of stock prices and exchange rate changes in four East European emerging markets (Serbia, Poland, Hungary and Czech Republic using weekly data from January 2003 to June 2013. Two theories explain the connection in the economic literature - flow-oriented and portfolio-balance models, without a finite and conclusive answer on which one is predominant. Considering our relatively large sample period which also includes world crisis outbreak, the used empirical data have been compromised by structural breaks and heterogeneous unconditional distribution. To avoid parameter bias and wrong conclusions, authors used four auto-regressive distributed lag ADL(2,2 models assessed with quantile regression method, robust to non-normality problems. The results indicate that relationship between these variables is in accordance with portfolio-balance models in three out of four analyzed countries.

  19. The hydrological modeling in terms of determining the potential European beaver effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szostak Marta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was the hydrological analysis, in terms of categorizing main watercourses (based on coupled catchments and marking areas covered by potential impact of the occurrence and activities of the European beaver Castor fiber. At the analysed area – the Forest District Głogów Małopolski there is a population of about 200 beavers in that Forest District. Damage inflicted by beavers was detected on 33.0 ha of the Forest District, while in the area of 13.9 ha the damage was small (below 10%. The monitoring of the beavers’ behaviour and the analysis of their influence on hydrology of the area became an important element of using geoinformationtools in the management of forest areas.

  20. From European Union to World Union: Building Effective and Democratic Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McClintock

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sovereignty-sharing has placed European countries in a position to resolve their common problems through law, not war. As a result, the EU member states now live in peace together and take peace, justice and order for granted. The system of global governance is dysfunctional – some states are failing and the Security Council lacks legitimacy. Humanity does not have a mechanism to resolve its global problems through law, making it difficult – if not impossible – to resolve global problems such as famine, hunger, climate change, war and terrorism, nuclear proliferation, regulation of corporations – including banks, destruction of fish stocks, and population. Sharing of sovereignty at the global level can address these problems, starting in the area of food security, then proceeding to climate management and other fields. Shared sovereignty can eliminate famine and hunger globally.

  1. The effectiveness of the European agricultural quality policy: a price analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardaji, I.; Iraizoz, B.; Rapun, M.

    2009-07-01

    The European rural development policy, the second pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy, is currently playing an increasing role. One of its key instruments is the support for quality standards through Protected Geographical Indications (PGI). The analysis presented in this article investigates prices for two varieties of beef (PGI and non- PGI). The research setting is a specific area in northern Spain, where Ternera de Navarra (Navarra beef) is produced. The results show that quality production systems achieve higher and more stable prices in the long term. Another major point emerging from the analysis, given the nature of the beef production sector, is that the PGI product is better able to stand up to consumer confidence crises, such as that triggered by the bovine spongiform encephalopathy outbreak. Additional key words: prices, protected geographical indication, rural development. (Author) 40 refs.

  2. Improving the definition of fishing effort for important European fleets by accounting for the skipper effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, P.; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard; Bromley, D.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to quantify, for a wide selection of European fisheries, fishing tactics and strategies and to evaluate the benefits of adjusting the definition of. fishing effort using these elements. Fishing tactics and strategies were identified by metiers choices and a series...... of indices. These indices have been derived to reflect shifts in tactics (within a fishing trip) and in strategies (within a year). The Shannon-Wiener spatial diversity indices of fishing tactics (FT_SW) and strategies (YE_SW) had the greatest impact on catch rates. In particular, FT_SW was always negatively...... correlated to catch rates. One may anticipate that during a fishing trip, vessels with high FT_SW have been searching fish aggregations for a long time, while vessels with low FT_SW have been more efficient in finding these aggregations. The linkage between YE_SW and catch rates was of a more complex nature...

  3. Effects of Global Incidents on Dynamic Correlations of Emerging European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogus Emin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the international integration of stock markets of emerging European countries with the world market and to analyse the evolution of the integration levels in the case of four global/regional incidents; the 1998 Russian crisis, the 2001 Dotcom crisis and 9/11 shocks, the 2004 EU enlargement, and the 2007-2009 global financial crisis. The findings show that volatilities of the stock markets and correlation structures of those markets with the world market significantly change due to the impacts of global/regional incidents. Although, it is obvious that each incident has differential impact on each country depending on the internal dynamics of those countries at the times of incidents, the findings still clearly reveal the general common impacts of the investigated incidents on the return volatilities and the correlation structures of the sample countries with the world market.

  4. Metabolism of carbaryl, chloropyrifos, DDT, and parathion in the European corn borer: effects of microsporidiosis on toxicity and detoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetreault, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of microsporidiosis on an insect's response to insecticide intoxication. Healthy European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, larvae and those heavily infected with the microsporidian pathogen, Nosema pyrausta, were bioassayed with ten insecticides. The compounds used were carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, DDT, diazinon, fonofos, methomyl, parathion, permethrin, and terbufos. Third instar larvae were used for topical bioassays. The compounds carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, methomyl and terbufos were found to be significantly more toxic to diseased insects than healthy insects at the 0.05 probability level. To examine the effect of Nosema pyrausta infection on the European corn borer's ability to detoxify insecticides, /sup 14/C ring-labeled carbaryl, chlorophrifos, DDT, and parathion were topically applied to fourth instar larvae. Qualitative differences between healthy and diseased insects were found in the metabolic pathways of carbaryl, DDT, and parathion. The degradative fate of chlorophrifos was the same in both groups. Quantitatively, each insecticide penetrated diseased larvae faster. This resulted in larger amounts of the applied dose of parent compound and metabolites being found in the feces from diseased insects. Conversely, healthy insects had more of these materials present in the body and associated with the cuticle.

  5. Effect of body mass index on histopathologic parameters: results of large European contemporary consecutive open radical prostatectomy series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbarn, Hendrik; Jeldres, Claudio; Budäus, Lars; Salomon, Georg; Schlomm, Thorsten; Steuber, Thomas; Chun, Felix K H; Ahyai, Sascha; Capitanio, Umberto; Haese, Alexander; Heinzer, Hans; Huland, Hartwig; Graefen, Markus; Karakiewicz, Pierre

    2009-03-01

    To determine whether an increased body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of advanced pathologic findings in European men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). The relationship between obesity and prostate cancer is controversial. Studies, predominantly derived from the United States, have suggested that an increased BMI is a significant predictor of adverse pathologic findings in patients treated with open RP. From April 2005 to June 2008, 1538 consecutive patients were treated with open RP at a single tertiary referral center. We tested the effect of BMI on the rate of extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node invasion, and positive surgical margins in univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. The covariates consisted of clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen, biopsy Gleason score, age, prostate volume, and rate of nerve-sparing surgery. On multivariate analysis, both continuously coded and categorically coded BMI was unrelated to the rate of extracapsular extension (odds ratio [OR] 1.02, P = .5), seminal vesicle invasion (OR 1.03, P = .3), lymph node invasion (OR 0.98, P = .7), or positive surgical margins (OR 1.03, P = .3). Obese patients who are candidates for open RP should not expect to have worse pathologic findings after surgery than their nonobese counterparts. Differences in patients' weight and height between North America and Europe might explain the lack of adverse effects of an elevated BMI in this European cohort.

  6. Timetabling on European Corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Lischke, Andreas; Führer, B. (Bernhard); Garavagno, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Path Allocation Re-engineering of Timetable Networks for European Railways (PARTNER) project aims to demonstrate a new way of train path allocation and assembly along international corridors towards a faster and more coordinated railway infrastructure capacity management. PARTNER will assist two neighbour infrastructure managers to develop a common understanding of the effects of international train paths. The results of a survey of European infrastructure managers and railway underta...

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of PMMA, silicone, or acrylic intra-ocular lenses in cataract surgery in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew F; Lafuma, Antoine; Berdeaux, Gilles; Berto, Patrizia; Brueggenjuergen, Bernd; Magaz, Sol; Auffarth, Gerd K; Brezin, Antoine; Caporossi, Aldo; Mendicute, Javier

    2005-10-01

    To compare the cost-effectiveness of different intra-ocular lens (IOL) materials (Hydrophobic acrylic, Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), Hydrophilic acrylic and Silicone) implanted after cataract surgery with reference to Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy and Nd:YAG-related complications in four European countries (France, Italy, Germany and Spain). A retrospective review of 1,525 patients (eyes), aged 50 to 80 years, operated with phacoemulsification for cataract in 1996 or 1997 in 16 surgical centres (4 per country). The study was conducted using a cost-effectiveness approach. Medical charts were reviewed to collect retrospective information during the 3-year period following cataract surgery in order to identify patients who underwent Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy post-operatively. Clinical data were combined with unit costs assessed by experts for Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy and their complications. A cost-effectiveness ratio (cost per patient without Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy intervention) was estimated in relation to each IOL material used in each of the four European countries. Hydrophobic acrylic, specifically Acrysof, was the most cost-effective IOL material in all the countries except Germany where it was second. PMMA had the best ratio in Germany, was second in Spain and only third in Italy and France. Silicone was second in France and ranked third in the other countries, while hydrophilic acrylic had the worst ratio overall in all countries. Cost-effectiveness ratios of hydrophobic acrylic (Acrysof) were better than those of other types of IOL materials used in most of the countries. Sensitivity analyses were performed to vary the base case analysis to demonstrate the economic importance of the assumptions. In all cases, hydrophobic acrylic IOL material was shown to be a highly cost-effective option.

  8. Effects of climate change, invasive species, and disease on the distribution of native European crayfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capinha, César; Larson, Eric R; Tricarico, Elena; Olden, Julian D; Gherardi, Francesca

    2013-08-01

    Climate change will require species to adapt to new conditions or follow preferred climates to higher latitudes or elevations, but many dispersal-limited freshwater species may be unable to move due to barriers imposed by watershed boundaries. In addition, invasive nonnative species may expand into new regions under future climate conditions and contribute to the decline of native species. We evaluated future distributions for the threatened European crayfish fauna in response to climate change, watershed boundaries, and the spread of invasive crayfishes, which transmit the crayfish plague, a lethal disease for native European crayfishes. We used climate projections from general circulation models and statistical models based on Mahalanobis distance to predict climate-suitable regions for native and invasive crayfishes in the middle and at the end of the 21st century. We identified these suitable regions as accessible or inaccessible on the basis of major watershed boundaries and present occurrences and evaluated potential future overlap with 3 invasive North American crayfishes. Climate-suitable areas decreased for native crayfishes by 19% to 72%, and the majority of future suitable areas for most of these species were inaccessible relative to native and current distributions. Overlap with invasive crayfish plague-transmitting species was predicted to increase. Some native crayfish species (e.g., noble crayfish [Astacus astacus]) had no future refugia that were unsuitable for the modeled nonnative species. Our results emphasize the importance of preventing additional introductions and spread of invasive crayfishes in Europe to minimize interactions between the multiple stressors of climate change and invasive species, while suggesting candidate regions for the debatable management option of assisted colonization. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Innovation subject to sustainability: the European policy on biofuels and its effects on innovation in the Brazilian bioethanol industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pacini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are a suitable complement for fossil energy in the transport sector and bioethanol is the main biofuel traded worldwide. Based on the assumption that innovation can be influenced by regulation, the Brazilian bioethanol industry is facing new requirements from external actors while reaching for international markets. Until 2010, national environmental laws were the main sustainability instrument that the biofuel industry faced. With the introduction of sustainability criteria for biofuels in the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD and Renewable Energy Directive (RED of 2009, bioethanol producers have been pressured to innovate in respect of the requirements of future markets. Here, the aim is to analyse the case of Brazil, given the potential exports of sugarcane-based ethanol from this country to the EU. Brazil provides an interesting overview of how a bioethanol industry innovated while facing sustainability requirements in the past. A comparison between the European requirements and the industry´s status quo is then explored. The EU criteria are likely to have effects on the Brazilian bioethanol industry and incremental improvements in sustainability levels might take place based on the sustainability requirements. In addition, the industry could follow two other paths, namely risk diversification by engaging in multi-output models; and market leakage towards less-regulated markets. At the same time, an environmental overregulation of the biofuel market may make it more difficult for emerging biofuel industries in other countries, especially in Africa, by creating a barrier rather than contributing to its expansion. The results of this analysis show the main challenges to be addressed and the potential positive and negative impacts of the European Union biofuels policy on the Brazilian bioethanol industry.

  10. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2015-04-01

    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe

  11. The effect of prior walking on coronary heart disease risk markers in South Asian and European men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Saravana Pillai; Deighton, Kevin; Bishop, Nicolette C; King, James; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Rogan, Alice; Sedgwick, Matthew; Thackray, Alice E; Webb, David; Stensel, David J

    2015-12-01

    Heart disease risk is elevated in South Asians possibly due to impaired postprandial metabolism. Running has been shown to induce greater reductions in postprandial lipaemia in South Asian than European men, but the effect of walking in South Asians is unknown. Fifteen South Asian and 14 white European men aged 19-30 years completed two, 2-day trials in a randomised crossover design. On day 1, participants rested (control) or walked for 60 min at approximately 50 % maximum oxygen uptake (exercise). On day 2, participants rested and consumed two high-fat meals over a 9-h period during which 14 venous blood samples were collected. South Asians exhibited higher postprandial triacylglycerol [geometric mean (95 % confidence interval) 2.29 (1.82 to 2.89) vs. 1.54 (1.21 to 1.96) mmol L(-1) h(-1)], glucose [5.49 (5.21 to 5.79) vs. 5.05 (4.78 to 5.33) mmol L(-1) h(-1)], insulin [32.9 (25.7 to 42.1) vs. 18.3 (14.2 to 23.7) µU mL(-1) h(-1)] and interleukin-6 [2.44 (1.61 to 3.67) vs. 1.04 (0.68 to 1.59) pg mL(-1) h(-1)] than Europeans (all ES ≥ 0.72, P ≤ 0.03). Between-group differences in triacylglycerol, glucose and insulin were not significant after controlling for age and percentage body fat. Walking reduced postprandial triacylglycerol [1.79 (1.52 to 2.12) vs. 1.97 (1.67 to 2.33) mmol L(-1) h(-1)] and insulin [21.0 (17.0 to 26.0) vs. 28.7 (23.2 to 35.4) µU mL(-1) h(-1)] (all ES ≥ 0.23. P ≤ 0.01), but group differences were not significant. Healthy South Asians exhibited impaired postprandial metabolism compared with white Europeans, but these differences were diminished after controlling for potential confounders. The small-moderate reduction in postprandial triacylglycerol and insulin after brisk walking was not different between the ethnicities.

  12. A FRAMEWORK FOR THE TREATMENT OF FINANCIAL CONTAGION EFFECTS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ACTUAL EUROPEAN TURBULENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscoianu Mircea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There is still a debate regarding a possible restoring of the confidence in European financial markets because there are still underlying problems from the super-sized finance that actually worsened. Anti crisis strategy efficiency and future costs of real reform make analysts more prudent in forecasts. In addition, a possible reduction risk appetite and the loss of confidence will fuel a negative perspective regarding the recovery of emerging economies, extreme fragile to regional or global contagion effects. In modern financial crises, the events spiral out of control, panic and contagion come very fast. Greek debt crisis is the most serious extreme financial event in the Eurozone, with severe contagion features. An analysis of Eurocontagion effects in the context of Greece crisis by using a dynamic version of the Hawkes jump-diffusion model is suggested.

  13. Later-borns Don't Give Up: The Temporary Effects of Birth Order on European Earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Marco; Brunello, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    The existing empirical evidence on the effects of birth order on wages does not distinguish between temporary and permanent effects. Using data from 11 European countries for males born between 1935 and 1956, we show that firstborns enjoy on average a 13.7% premium in their entry wage compared with later-borns. This advantage, however, is short-lived and disappears 10 years after labor market entry. Although firstborns start with a better job, partially because of their higher education, later-borns quickly catch up by switching earlier and more frequently to better-paying jobs. We argue that a key factor driving our findings is that later-borns have lower risk aversion than firstborns.

  14. TradeWind Deliverable 5.1: Effects of increasing wind power penetration on the power flows in European grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemström, Bettina; Uski-Joutsenvuo, Sanna; Holttinen, Hannele

    2008-01-01

    flow simulations with a grid and market model developed in TradeWind Work Package 3, led by Sintef Energy Research. VTT, Sintef Energy Research and Risø have carried out the simulations of the different scenarios, analysed the results and written Chapter 4 about the impact of wind power on cross......This report presents the main activities and results of Work Package 5 – Effects of increasing wind power penetration on the power flows in European grids in the TradeWind project. VTT is the leader of Work Package 5 and carries the overall responsibility of this report. The work is based on power......-border transmission. Risø has written section 4.2 about the impact of prediction errors of wind power production. VTT has carried out the model evaluation described in Chapter 3. Furthermore VTT has analysed the wind speed data, studied the moving weather effects and the capacity factor method presented in section 2...

  15. The limitations of some European healthcare databases for monitoring the effectiveness of pregnancy prevention programmes as risk minimisation measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlton, R A; Bettoli, V; Bos, H J

    2018-01-01

    availability on contraception to estimate compliance with contraception requirements was variable and no data were available on pregnancy tests. CONCLUSION: Current electronic healthcare databases do not contain all the data necessary to fully monitor the effectiveness of PPP implementation, and thus, special......PURPOSE: Pregnancy prevention programmes (PPPs) exist for some medicines known to be highly teratogenic. It is increasingly recognised that the impact of these risk minimisation measures requires periodic evaluation. This study aimed to assess the extent to which some of the data needed to monitor...... the effectiveness of PPPs may be present in European healthcare databases. METHODS: An inventory was completed for databases contributing to EUROmediCAT capturing pregnancy and prescription data in Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Italy (Tuscany/Emilia Romagna), Wales and the rest of the UK, to determine...

  16. A cost-effectiveness analysis of fixed-combination therapies in patients with open-angle glaucoma: a European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommer, A.; Wickstrom, J.; Friis, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    inclusive of value-added tax, and visit costs were priced using official physician fees. Cost-effectiveness analyses were carried out in five European countries: Spain, Italy, United Kingdom, Norway and Sweden. The time horizon for the analyses was 3 months. RESULTS: The analysis showed that fixed......OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and cost implications of the use of the intraocular pressure-lowering prostaglandin analogues bimatoprost, travoprost, and latanoprost as fixed-combination therapies with timolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. METHODS: A decision analytic cost......, time horizon, patient population and type of end point presented. The measure of effectiveness was the percentage reduction of the intraocular pressure level from baseline. The cost evaluated was the cost of medication and clinical visits to the ophthalmologist. All drug costs were market prices...

  17. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  18. The influence of socioeconomic environment on the effectiveness of alcohol prevention among European students: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faggiano Fabrizio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although social environments may influence alcohol-related behaviours in youth, the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic context and effectiveness of school-based prevention against underage drinking has been insufficiently investigated. We study whether the social environment affects the impact of a new school-based prevention programme on alcohol use among European students. Methods During the school year 2004-2005, 7079 students 12-14 years of age from 143 schools in nine European centres participated in this cluster randomised controlled trial. Schools were randomly assigned to either control or a 12-session standardised curriculum based on the comprehensive social influence model. Randomisation was blocked within socioeconomic levels of the school environment. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problem behaviours were investigated through a self-completed anonymous questionnaire at baseline and 18 months thereafter. Data were analysed using multilevel models, separately by socioeconomic level. Results At baseline, adolescents in schools of low socioeconomic level were more likely to report problem drinking than other students. Participation in the programme was associated in this group with a decreased odds of reporting episodes of drunkenness (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.44-0.83, intention to get drunk (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.45-0.79, and marginally alcohol-related problem behaviours (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.46-1.06. No significant programme's effects emerged for students in schools of medium or high socioeconomic level. Effects on frequency of alcohol consumption were also stronger among students in disadvantaged schools, although the estimates did not attain statistical significance in any subgroup. Conclusions It is plausible that comprehensive social influence programmes have a more favourable effect on problematic drinking among students in underprivileged social environments. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN

  19. Effects of hybridization and evolutionary constraints on secondary metabolites: the genetic architecture of phenylpropanoids in European populus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Caseys

    Full Text Available The mechanisms responsible for the origin, maintenance and evolution of plant secondary metabolite diversity remain largely unknown. Decades of phenotypic studies suggest hybridization as a key player in generating chemical diversity in plants. Knowledge of the genetic architecture and selective constraints of phytochemical traits is key to understanding the effects of hybridization on plant chemical diversity and ecological interactions. Using the European Populus species P. alba (White poplar and P. tremula (European aspen and their hybrids as a model, we examined levels of inter- and intraspecific variation, heritabilities, phenotypic correlations, and the genetic architecture of 38 compounds of the phenylpropanoid pathway measured by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS. We detected 41 quantitative trait loci (QTL for chlorogenic acids, salicinoids and flavonoids by genetic mapping in natural hybrid crosses. We show that these three branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway exhibit different geographic patterns of variation, heritabilities, and genetic architectures, and that they are affected differently by hybridization and evolutionary constraints. Flavonoid abundances present high species specificity, clear geographic structure, and strong genetic determination, contrary to salicinoids and chlorogenic acids. Salicinoids, which represent important defence compounds in Salicaceae, exhibited pronounced genetic correlations on the QTL map. Our results suggest that interspecific phytochemical differentiation is concentrated in downstream sections of the phenylpropanoid pathway. In particular, our data point to glycosyltransferase enzymes as likely targets of rapid evolution and interspecific differentiation in the 'model forest tree' Populus.

  20. Effects of Hybridization and Evolutionary Constraints on Secondary Metabolites: The Genetic Architecture of Phenylpropanoids in European Populus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseys, Celine; Stritt, Christoph; Glauser, Gaetan; Blanchard, Thierry; Lexer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the origin, maintenance and evolution of plant secondary metabolite diversity remain largely unknown. Decades of phenotypic studies suggest hybridization as a key player in generating chemical diversity in plants. Knowledge of the genetic architecture and selective constraints of phytochemical traits is key to understanding the effects of hybridization on plant chemical diversity and ecological interactions. Using the European Populus species P. alba (White poplar) and P. tremula (European aspen) and their hybrids as a model, we examined levels of inter- and intraspecific variation, heritabilities, phenotypic correlations, and the genetic architecture of 38 compounds of the phenylpropanoid pathway measured by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). We detected 41 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for chlorogenic acids, salicinoids and flavonoids by genetic mapping in natural hybrid crosses. We show that these three branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway exhibit different geographic patterns of variation, heritabilities, and genetic architectures, and that they are affected differently by hybridization and evolutionary constraints. Flavonoid abundances present high species specificity, clear geographic structure, and strong genetic determination, contrary to salicinoids and chlorogenic acids. Salicinoids, which represent important defence compounds in Salicaceae, exhibited pronounced genetic correlations on the QTL map. Our results suggest that interspecific phytochemical differentiation is concentrated in downstream sections of the phenylpropanoid pathway. In particular, our data point to glycosyltransferase enzymes as likely targets of rapid evolution and interspecific differentiation in the ‘model forest tree’ Populus. PMID:26010156

  1. First Production of Larvae Using Cryopreserved Sperm: Effects of Preservation Temperature and Cryopreservation on European Eel Sperm Fertilization Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asturiano, J F; Sørensen, S R; Pérez, L; Lauesen, P; Tomkiewicz, J

    2016-08-01

    Sperm cryopreservation is a useful tool in captive fish reproduction management, that is to synchronize gamete production, especially in the case of species as the European eel, where the time of female spawning readiness is unpredictable. Several protocols to cryopreserve sperm of this species have been described, but until recently fertilization trials were not feasible. This study evaluated the effect of cold storage of diluted sperm prior to fertilizations and tested whether a previously defined protocol for European eel sperm cryopreservation can be successfully applied in fertilization trials to produce viable offspring. In our experiment, the sperm motility was evaluated after the extraction and the best samples were selected and pooled. Until stripping of eggs and fertilization, diluted sperm samples were maintained at either 4 or 20°C, or cryopreserved, following existing protocols. Fertilization of two egg batches was attempted. Diluted sperm caused a similar percentage of fertilized eggs and a similar number of embryos and larvae, independently of storage temperature (4 or 20°C). The cryopreserved sperm resulted in a lower percentage of fertilized eggs, but embryos developed and a few larvae ('cryolarvae') were obtained 55 h after fertilization in one of the two egg batches. This result evidences that the tested cryopreservation protocol is applicable for eel reproduction management, although improvements will be required to enhance fertilization success. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Effects of hybridization and evolutionary constraints on secondary metabolites: the genetic architecture of phenylpropanoids in European populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseys, Celine; Stritt, Christoph; Glauser, Gaetan; Blanchard, Thierry; Lexer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the origin, maintenance and evolution of plant secondary metabolite diversity remain largely unknown. Decades of phenotypic studies suggest hybridization as a key player in generating chemical diversity in plants. Knowledge of the genetic architecture and selective constraints of phytochemical traits is key to understanding the effects of hybridization on plant chemical diversity and ecological interactions. Using the European Populus species P. alba (White poplar) and P. tremula (European aspen) and their hybrids as a model, we examined levels of inter- and intraspecific variation, heritabilities, phenotypic correlations, and the genetic architecture of 38 compounds of the phenylpropanoid pathway measured by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). We detected 41 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for chlorogenic acids, salicinoids and flavonoids by genetic mapping in natural hybrid crosses. We show that these three branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway exhibit different geographic patterns of variation, heritabilities, and genetic architectures, and that they are affected differently by hybridization and evolutionary constraints. Flavonoid abundances present high species specificity, clear geographic structure, and strong genetic determination, contrary to salicinoids and chlorogenic acids. Salicinoids, which represent important defence compounds in Salicaceae, exhibited pronounced genetic correlations on the QTL map. Our results suggest that interspecific phytochemical differentiation is concentrated in downstream sections of the phenylpropanoid pathway. In particular, our data point to glycosyltransferase enzymes as likely targets of rapid evolution and interspecific differentiation in the 'model forest tree' Populus.

  3. The individual and societal effects of the European education systems. How does structure influence the tasks of education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morena Cuconato

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Across European countries, the expansion of education has increased during the 20th century the opportunities of young people’s access to and within schooling, but it has not reduced socioeconomic and cultural inequality both in term of labour market’s entry and participation to the democratic public life. This paper proposes an analysis of the ways in which education systems are institutionalised in Europe and the effects of this institutionalisation on educational inequality, young people’ labor market entry and the promotion of their active citizenship: three hot topics in the EU agenda framing the implementation of the European knowledge societies. Educational inequality becomes particularly evident at the transition point from lower to upper secondary education as this passage confronts young people with new (adult expectations, status and practices and contributes to their positioning in a segmented labor market and an unequal society. Therefore, our special focus is set on the kinds of transitions foreseen in the education systems of the eight countries participating to an EU-funded research project on the Governance of Educational Trajectories in Europe (GOETE. The aim is to highlight how different the tasks of education are interpreted through the systemic structure of the different national education systems.

  4. How campaigns enhance European issues voting during European Parliament elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Møller Hansen, Kasper; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2017-01-01

    allegiances less important and attitudes about the European project more important by informing voters of and getting them interested in European politics. In effect, we argue that the political campaign leading up to the election makes European Parliament elections less second-order. While previous studies...... have demonstrated that EU attitudes can matter for voting behavior in European Parliament elections, existing research has drawn on post-election surveys that do not enable us to capture campaign effects. Our contribution is to assess the impact of a campaign by utilizing a rolling cross sectional......Based on findings from the literature on campaign effects on the one hand, and the literature on European Parliament elections on the other, we propose a model of European Parliamentary elections in which the campaign shift the calculus of electoral support, making differences in national political...

  5. Effect of global warming on willingness to pay for uninterrupted electricity supply in European nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jed; Moeltner, Klaus; Reichl, Johannes; Schmidthaler, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Predicted changes in temperature and other weather events may damage the electricity grid and cause power outages. Understanding the costs of power outages and how these costs change over time with global warming can inform outage-mitigation-investment decisions. Here we show that across 19 EU nations the value of uninterrupted electricity supply is strongly related to local temperatures, and will increase as the climate warms. Bayesian hierarchical modelling of data from a choice experiment and respondent-specific temperature measures reveals estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid an hour of power outage between €0.32 and €1.86 per household. WTP varies on the basis of season and is heterogeneous between European nations. Winter outages currently cause larger per household welfare losses than summer outages per hour of outage. However, this dynamic will begin to shift under plausible future climates, with summer outages becoming substantially more costly and winter outages becoming slightly less costly on a per-household, per-hour basis.

  6. The hydrological modeling in terms of determining the potential European beaver effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Marta; Jagodzińska, Jadwiga

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the paper was the hydrological analysis, in terms of categorizing main watercourses (based on coupled catchments) and marking areas covered by potential impact of the occurrence and activities of the European beaver Castor fiber. At the analysed area - the Forest District Głogów Małopolski there is a population of about 200 beavers in that Forest District. Damage inflicted by beavers was detected on 33.0 ha of the Forest District, while in the area of 13.9 ha the damage was small (below 10%). The monitoring of the beavers' behaviour and the analysis of their influence on hydrology of the area became an important element of using geoinformationtools in the management of forest areas. ArcHydro ArcGIS Esri module was applied, as an integrated set of tools for hydrographical analysis and modelling. Further steps of the procedure are hydrologic analyses such as: marking river networks on the DTM, filling holes, making maps of the flow direction, making the map of the accumulation flow, defining and segmentation of streams, marking elementary basins, marking coupled basins, making dams in the places, where beavers occur and localization of the area with a visible impact of damming. The result of the study includes maps prepared for the Forest District: the map of main rivers and their basins, categories of watercourses and compartments particularly threatened by beaver's foraging.

  7. Effects of recent warm and cold spells on European plant phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Annette; Seifert, Holm; Estrella, Nicole

    2011-11-01

    Climate change is already altering the magnitude and/or frequency of extreme events which will in turn affect plant fitness more than any change in the average. Although the fingerprint of anthropogenic warming in recent phenological records is well understood, the impacts of extreme events have been largely neglected. Thus, the temperature response of European phenological records to warm and cold spells was studied using the COST725 database. We restricted our analysis to the period 1951-2004 due to better spatial coverage. Warm and cold spells were identified using monthly mean ENSEMBLES temperature data on a 0.5° grid for Europe. Their phenological impact was assessed as anomalies from maps displaying mean onsets for 1930-1939. Our results clearly exhibit continental cold spells predominating in the period 1951-1988, especially during the growing season, whereas the period from 1989 onwards was mainly characterised by warm spells in all seasons. The impacts of these warm/cold spells on the onset of phenological seasons differed strongly depending on species, phase and timing. "False" phases such as the sowing of winter cereals hardly reacted to summer warm/cold spells; only the sowing of summer cereals mirrored spring temperature warm/cold spells. The heading dates of winter cereals did not reveal any consistent results probably due to fewer warm/cold spells identified in the relevant late spring months. Apple flowering and the harvest of winter cereals were the best indicators of warm/cold spells in early spring and summer, also being spatially coherent with the patterns of warm/cold spells.

  8. Quantifying the erosion effect on current carbon budget of European agricultural soils at high spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugato, Emanuele; Paustian, Keith; Panagos, Panos; Jones, Arwyn; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    The idea of offsetting anthropogenic CO2 emissions by increasing global soil organic carbon (SOC), as recently proposed by French authorities ahead of COP21 in the 'four per mil' initiative, is notable. However, a high uncertainty still exits on land C balance components. In particular, the role of erosion in the global C cycle is not totally disentangled, leading to disagreement whether this process induces lands to be a source or sink of CO2. To investigate this issue, we coupled soil erosion into a biogeochemistry model, running at 1 km(2) resolution across the agricultural soils of the European Union (EU). Based on data-driven assumptions, the simulation took into account also soil deposition within grid cells and the potential C export to riverine systems, in a way to be conservative in a mass balance. We estimated that 143 of 187 Mha have C erosion rates 0.45 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1). In comparison with a baseline without erosion, the model suggested an erosion-induced sink of atmospheric C consistent with previous empirical-based studies. Integrating all C fluxes for the EU agricultural soils, we estimated a net C loss or gain of -2.28 and +0.79 Tg yr(-1) of CO2 eq, respectively, depending on the value for the short-term enhancement of soil C mineralization due to soil disruption and displacement/transport with erosion. We concluded that erosion fluxes were in the same order of current carbon gains from improved management. Even if erosion could potentially induce a sink for atmospheric CO2, strong agricultural policies are needed to prevent or reduce soil erosion, in order to maintain soil health and productivity. © 2015 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Educational expansion and inequalities in mortality-A fixed-effects analysis using longitudinal data from 18 European populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Östergren

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to empirically evaluate whether widening educational inequalities in mortality are related to the substantive shifts that have occurred in the educational distribution.Data on education and mortality from 18 European populations across several decades were collected and harmonized as part of the Demetriq project. Using a fixed-effects approach to account for time trends and national variation in mortality, we formally test whether the magnitude of relative inequalities in mortality by education is associated with the gender and age-group specific proportion of high and low educated respectively.The results suggest that in populations with larger proportions of high educated and smaller proportions of low educated, the excess mortality among intermediate and low educated is larger, all other things being equal.We conclude that the widening educational inequalities in mortality being observed in recent decades may in part be attributed to educational expansion.

  10. [Health protection of workers occupationally exposed to effects of electromagnetic fields in Poland and in the European Union member states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagrowska-Koski, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields, one of potentially harmful physical agents present in the work environment in Poland, are under a constant surveillance regulated by the law. Among others, the surveillance involves periodical measurements of electromagnetic field (EMF) intensities in the work environment and medical prophylactic examination of workers at the employers' expense. The introduction of new MAC values imposes extra responsibilities on occupational health services, resulting from the need to verify the number of workers exposed to EMF at frequency bands corresponding with protection zones, and the need to set an appropriate range of prophylactic examinations, taking account of the current body of knowledge of biological effects of EMF and their hazards to workers' health. The suggestions how to change the range and frequency of medical prophylactic examinations are presented. The differences in occupational health care between Poland and the European Union members states, as well as changes in legal regulations on occupational diseases are discussed.

  11. The Effects of Environmental and Social Dimensions of Sustainability in Response to the Economic Crisis of European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Nevado-Peña

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable development, which has emerged over the last few decades, has moved away from the global to the local level. The sustainability measurements at the global level use the triple bottom line, considering environmental, economic and social dimensions; however, the limited data available at the local level has driven what little research there is to use these optics when considering cities sustainability. In this paper, we use a sustainability city index based on the intellectual capital approach, which considers the three dimensions for European cities. Concretely, we use the environmental and social dimensions of this city index to analyze the effect of different levels of development in terms of sustainability over the main economic variables with available information. The results highlight the importance of the social and environmental dimensions of sustainability in cities economic recovery and show that cities with best positions in sustainability have better performance in economic terms.

  12. Effect of dietary fat level on carcass traits and flesh quality of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax from mariculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the effect of the reduction of dietary fat on juvenile European sea bass nutritional value and quality traits. Fish were reared in floating cages (Trieste Gulf, Italy from July (11 to October (10. Two isoproteic diets were compared: LF (low fat, EE = 19.4% vs. HF (high fat, EE = 24.6%. No significantly different growth performance was observed. LF diet-fed fish were characterized by the reduction of celomatic fat (not edible fraction and by the increase in dressing percentage. The tested dietary fat level also affected both fillet and epiaxial white muscle proximate composition, resulting in a significantly lower fillet lipid concentration in LF diet-fed fish. Dietary treatment influenced cooked fillet colour and texture probably as a consequence of the different intramuscular fat deposition. Fillet from HF-fed fish, in fact, presented higher lightness (L* value and lower instrumental strengthness.

  13. Effects of vaccination against viral haemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis on long-term mortality rates of European wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Lucientes, J; Osacar, J J; Villafuerte, R

    2004-09-25

    The effects of vaccination against myxomatosis and viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) on long-term mortality rates in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were studied from 1993 to 1996 by radiotracking a free-living population of wild rabbits. During the three months after immunisation, unvaccinated young rabbits weighing between 180 and 600 g were 13.6 times more likely to die than vaccinated young rabbits. In adult rabbits, vaccination did not significantly decrease mortality, mainly owing to the high proportion of rabbits which had previously been exposed to the antigens of both diseases. Compared with adult rabbits with natural antibodies to VHD, rabbits without these antibodies were 5.2 times more likely to die of VHD during annual outbreaks.

  14. The effects of habitat degradation on metacommunity structure of wood-inhabiting fungi in European beech forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Ódor, Péter; Christensen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    with different management histories. For this purpose, we used a large data set of wood-inhabiting fungi collected from dead beech trees in European beech-dominated forest reserves. The structure of fungal assemblages showed high beta diversity, while nestedness and similarity was low. During the decomposition...... extirpated specialized species from the local species pools in managed sites, and resulted in more homogeneous communities in managed sites. It is alarming that community structure is affected the most in the latest decay stages where the decay process turns the dead wood into litter, and which is thus......Intensive forest management creates habitat degradation by reducing the variation of forest stands in general, and by removing old trees and dead wood in particular. Non-intervention forest reserves are commonly believed to be the most efficient tool to counteract the negative effects...

  15. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  16. Effectiveness of Peer Education Interventions for HIV Prevention, Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention and Sexual Health Promotion for Young People: A Systematic Review of European Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolli, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    Peer education remains a popular strategy for health promotion and prevention, but evidence of its effectiveness is still limited. This article presents a systematic review of peer education interventions in the European Union that were published between January 1999 and May 2010. The objective of the review is to determine the effectiveness of…

  17. Effect of transmitted drug resistance on virological and immunological response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV (EuroCoord-CHAIN joint project): a European multicohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittkop, Linda; Günthard, Huldrych F; de Wolf, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The effect of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) on first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV-1 needs further study to inform choice of optimum drug regimens. We investigated the effect of TDR on outcome in the first year of cART within a large European collaboration....

  18. Untangling the effects of multiple human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages in European running waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinegger, Rafaela; Palt, Martin; Segurado, Pedro; Schmutz, Stefan

    2016-12-15

    This work addresses human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages at pan-European scale by analysing single and multiple stressors and their interactions. Based on an extensive dataset with 3105 fish sampling sites, patterns of stressors, their combination and nature of interactions, i.e. synergistic, antagonistic and additive were investigated. Geographical distribution and patterns of seven human stressor variables, belonging to four stressor groups (hydrological-, morphological-, water quality- and connectivity stressors), were examined, considering both single and multiple stressor combinations. To quantify the stressors' ecological impact, a set of 22 fish metrics for various fish assemblage types (headwaters, medium gradient rivers, lowland rivers and Mediterranean streams) was analysed by comparing their observed and expected response to different stressors, both acting individually and in combination. Overall, investigated fish sampling sites are affected by 15 different stressor combinations, including 4 stressors acting individually and 11 combinations of two or more stressors; up to 4 stressor groups per fish sampling site occur. Stressor-response analysis shows divergent results among different stressor categories, even though a general trend of decreasing ecological integrity with increasing stressor quantity can be observed. Fish metrics based on density of species 'intolerant to water quality degradation' and 'intolerant to oxygen depletion" responded best to single and multiple stressors and their interactions. Interactions of stressors were additive (40%), synergistic (30%) or antagonistic (30%), emphasizing the importance to consider interactions in multi-stressor analyses. While antagonistic effects are only observed in headwaters and medium-gradient rivers, synergistic effects increase from headwaters over medium gradient rivers and Mediterranean streams to large lowland rivers. The knowledge gained in this work provides a basis for

  19. Prospective Effects of Parenting on Substance Use and Problems Across Asian/Pacific Islander and European American Youth: Tests of Moderated Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; McCauley, Elizabeth; Vander Stoep, Ann

    2017-07-01

    Parental warmth and knowledge are protective factors against substance use, whereas parental psychological control is a risk factor. However, the interpretation of parenting and its effects on developmental outcomes may vary cross-culturally. This study examined direct and indirect effects of three parenting dimensions on substance use across Asian/Pacific Islander (API) and European Americans. A community sample of 97 API and 255 European Americans were followed from Grades 6 to 12. Participants reported on parenting in Grade 7, academic achievement and externalizing behaviors in Grades 7 and 8, and substance use behaviors in Grades 7, 9, and 12. Direct effects of parenting were not moderated by race. Overall, mother psychological control was a risk factor for substance use problems in Grade 9, whereas father knowledge was protective against alcohol use in Grade 9, substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12, and alcohol dependence in Grade 12. Moderated mediation analyses indicated significant mediational links among European Americans only: Mother knowledge predicted fewer externalizing problems in Grade 8, which in turn predicted fewer substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12. Father warmth predicted better academic achievement in Grade 8, which in turn predicted fewer substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12, as well as alcohol and marijuana dependence in Grade 12. Better academic achievement and fewer externalizing behaviors explain how positive parenting reduces substance use risk among European Americans. Promoting father knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts can reduce substance use risk among both European and API Americans.

  20. Genetic architecture of main effect QTL for heading date in European winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanke, Christine; Ling, Jie; Plieske, Jörg; Kollers, Sonja; Ebmeyer, Erhard; Korzun, Viktor; Argillier, Odile; Stiewe, Gunther; Hinze, Maike; Beier, Sebastian; Ganal, Martin W; Röder, Marion S

    2014-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for heading date (HD) was performed with a panel of 358 European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties and 14 spring wheat varieties through the phenotypic evaluation of HD in field tests in eight environments. Genotyping data consisted of 770 mapped microsatellite loci and 7934 mapped SNP markers derived from the 90K iSelect wheat chip. Best linear unbiased estimations (BLUEs) were calculated across all trials and ranged from 142.5 to 159.6 days after the 1st of January with an average value of 151.4 days. Considering only associations with a -log10 (P-value) ≥ 3.0, a total of 340 SSR and 2983 SNP marker-trait associations (MTAs) were detected. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, a total of 72 SSR and 438 SNP marker-trait associations remained significant. Highly significant MTAs were detected for the photoperiodism gene Ppd-D1, which was genotyped in all varieties. Consistent associations were found on all chromosomes with the highest number of MTAs on chromosome 5B. Linear regression showed a clear dependence of the HD score BLUEs on the number of favorable alleles (decreasing HD) and unfavorable alleles (increasing HD) per variety meaning that genotypes with a higher number of favorable or a low number of unfavorable alleles showed lower HD and therefore flowered earlier. For the vernalization gene Vrn-A2 co-locating MTAs on chromosome 5A, as well as for the photoperiodism genes Ppd-A1 and Ppd-B1 on chromosomes 2A and 2B were detected. After the construction of an integrated map of the SSR and SNP markers and by exploiting the synteny to sequenced species, such as rice and Brachypodium distachyon, we were able to demonstrate that a marker locus on wheat chromosome 5BL with homology to the rice photoperiodism gene Hd6 played a significant role in the determination of the heading date in wheat.

  1. Leaders And Followers In The Effectiveness Of Public Safety Services In European States – A Spatial Frontier Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żółtaszek Agata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public safety is an important factor in both public and private life. Simultaneously it is one of the most regionally diverse sectors, due to historical, cultural, social, legal, and financial differences.Therefore, it is very difficult to compare public safety policies and facilities directly. However, assessment and comparison are crucial factors for defining the best practices and implementing the “learning-from-the-best” policy, which is important in the process of regional development and globalization. Fortunately some quantitative methods, such as DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis enable this kind of research. DEA allows for analyzing relative effectiveness based on inputs and outputs, without incorporating procedural specifics of public safety. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to perform a regional analysis of the technical effectiveness of public safety systems in European states in 2003 and 2012 by utilizing an optimization method of DEA. Based on the results of this research countries are divided into two groups - effective and ineffective. Countries with effective systems are considered leaders. They present best practices which should be treated as benchmarks for the countries with ineffective systems, i.e. followers.

  2. Dimensions of individual religiosity and charity : Cross national effect differences in European countries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Peer; Grotenhuis, Manfred te; Reitsma, J.

    2006-01-01

    The relation between religiosity and donations to charity has frequently been subject of research. We analyzed effects of dimensions of individual religiosity (Glock and Stark 1966) on people's intention to donate to the poorest countries. We tested for cross-national effect differences in

  3. When news matters: media effects on public support for European Union enlargement in 21 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azrout, R.; van Spanje, J.; de Vreese, C.

    2012-01-01

    First, this study tests for media effects on support for EU enlargement in a natural setting, while including actual media content in the analysis. Second, the moderation by anti-immigrant attitudes of media effects is tested, as it is argued that perceptions of ‘others’ influences how new

  4. Swimming physiology of European silver eels (Anguilla anguilla L.): energetic costs and effects on sexual maturation and reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Thillart, Guido E. E. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The European eel migrates 5,000–6,000 km to the Sargasso Sea to reproduce. Because they venture into the ocean in a pre-pubertal state and reproduce after swimming for months, a strong interaction between swimming and sexual maturation is expected. Many swimming trials have been performed in 22 swim tunnels to elucidate their performance and the impact on maturation. European eels are able to swim long distances at a cost of 10–12 mg fat/km which is 4–6 times more efficient than salmonids. The total energy costs of reproduction correspond to 67% of the fat stores. During long distance swimming, the body composition stays the same showing that energy consumption calculations cannot be based on fat alone but need to be compensated for protein oxidation. The optimal swimming speed is 0.61–0.67 m s−1, which is ~60% higher than the generally assumed cruise speed of 0.4 m s−1 and implies that female eels may reach the Sargasso Sea within 3.5 months instead of the assumed 6 months. Swimming trials showed lipid deposition and oocyte growth, which are the first steps of sexual maturation. To investigate effects of oceanic migration on maturation, we simulated group-wise migration in a large swim-gutter with seawater. These trials showed suppressed gonadotropin expression and vitellogenesis in females, while in contrast continued sexual maturation was observed in silver males. The induction of lipid deposition in the oocytes and the inhibition of vitellogenesis by swimming in females suggest a natural sequence of events quite different from artificial maturation protocols. PMID:20390348

  5. European energy markets integration and its effects on prices and efficiency of electricity producing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Armada Ramírez, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    [eng] In this work we investigate the effect of energy (electricity) market integration in Europe and its effects on electricity prices and efficiency improvements in electricity producing firms. We first describe at detail the electricity sector, the role of electricity markets, the main characteristics of electricity as a commodity as well as the main features of this particular and strategic sector, we speak about the evolution of consumption of electricity in developed countries and parti...

  6. Biochar mineralization and priming effect on SOM decomposition in two European short rotation coppices

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Maurizio; Alberti, Giorgio; Viger, Maud; Jenkins, Joseph R.; Girardin, Cyril; Baronti, Silvia; Zaldei, Alessandro; Taylor, Gail; Rumpel, Cornelia; Miglietta, Franco; Tonon, Giustino

    2015-01-01

    As studies on biochar stability in field conditions are very scarce, the carbon sequestration potential of biochar application to agricultural soils remains uncertain. This study assessed the stability of biochar in field conditions, the effect of plant roots on biochar stability and the effect of biochar on original soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition in two (Italy and United Kingdom) short rotation coppice systems (SRCs), using continuous soil respiration monitoring and periodic isotopi...

  7. Within-Family Discussion on Harmful Effects of Smoking and Intention to Initiate Smoking Among European Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Mohd; Masood, Yaghma; Md Sabri, Budi Aslinie; Younis, Luay Thanoon; Yusof, Norashikin; Reidpath, Daniel; Petti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of discussion within family about the harmful effects of smoking on intention to initiate smoking in the long term among nonsmoking adolescents. Data from Global Youth Tobacco Survey for 25 European countries were used. The outcomes of interest were, therefore, the intention to initiate smoking 1 and 5 years after the survey. Discussion within family about harmful effect of smoking was the main predictor with age, sex, and smoking status of parents, friends, and classmates as covariates. The association between predictors and outcomes was assessed through multiple regression analysis. A total of 118,703 nonsmoking adolescents were included. Within-family discussion significantly reduced the odds of intention to initiate smoking 1 and 5 years later. Intention to initiate smoking also was significantly associated with the smoking status of friends, classmates, and parents, except for father's smoking status, which was not associated with intention to initiate 1 year later. This study demonstrated that within-family discussion about the harmful effects of smoking may contribute to reduce the intention to start smoking among adolescents in the long term. Such a discussion was associated with reduced intention to smoke even when adjusting for parent/friend and classmate smoking.

  8. The effects of health care reforms on health inequalities: a review and analysis of the European evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelormino, Elena; Bambra, Clare; Spadea, Teresa; Bellini, Silvia; Costa, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Health care is widely considered to be an important determinant of health. The health care systems of Western Europe have recently experienced significant reforms, under pressure from economic globalization. Similarly, in Eastern Europe, health care reforms have been undertaken in response to the demands of the new market economy. Both of these changes may influence equality in health outcomes. This article aims to identify the mechanisms through which health care may affect inequalities. The authors conducted a literature review of the effects on health inequalities of European health care reforms. Particular reference was paid to interventions in the fields of financing and pooling, allocation, purchasing, and provision of services. The majority of studies were from Western Europe, and the outcomes most often examined were access to services or income distribution. Overall, the quality of research was poor, confirming the need to develop an appropriate impact assessment methodology. Few studies were related to pooling, allocation, or purchasing. For financing and purchasing, the studies showed that publicly funded universal health care reduces the impact of ill health on income distribution, while insurance systems can increase inequalities in access to care. Out-of-pocket payments increase inequalities in access to care and contribute to impoverishment. Decentralizing health services can lead to geographic inequalities in health care access. Nationalized, publicly funded health care systems are most effective at reducing inequalities in access and reducing the effects on health of income distribution.

  9. Effect of CO2-related acidification on aspects of the larval development of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, K. E.; Findlay, H. S.; Spicer, J. I.; Daniels, C. L.; Boothroyd, D.

    2009-08-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 results in a reduction in pH termed "Ocean Acidification" (OA). Comparatively little attention has been given to the effect of OA on the early life history stages of marine animals. Consequently, we investigated the effect of culture in CO2-acidified sea water (approx. 1200 ppm, i.e. average values predicted using IPCC 2007 A1F1 emissions scenarios for year 2100) on early larval stages of an economically important crustacean, the European lobster Homarus gammarus. Culture in CO2-acidified sea water did not significantly affect carapace length of H. gammarus. However, there was a reduction in carapace mass during the final stage of larval development in CO2-acidified sea water. This co-occurred with a reduction in exoskeletal mineral (calcium and magnesium) content of the carapace. As the control and high CO2 treatments were not undersaturated with respect to any of the calcium carbonate polymorphs measured, the physiological alterations we record are most likely the result of acidosis or hypercapnia interfering with normal homeostatic function, and not a direct impact on the carbonate supply-side of calcification per se. Thus despite there being no observed effect on survival, carapace length, or zoeal progression, OA related (indirect) disruption of calcification and carapace mass might still adversely affect the competitive fitness and recruitment success of larval lobsters with serious consequences for population dynamics and marine ecosystem function.

  10. Effect of CO2-related acidification on aspects of the larval development of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Boothroyd

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 results in a reduction in pH termed "Ocean Acidification" (OA. Comparatively little attention has been given to the effect of OA on the early life history stages of marine animals. Consequently, we investigated the effect of culture in CO2-acidified sea water (approx. 1200 ppm, i.e. average values predicted using IPCC 2007 A1F1 emissions scenarios for year 2100 on early larval stages of an economically important crustacean, the European lobster Homarus gammarus. Culture in CO2-acidified sea water did not significantly affect carapace length of H. gammarus. However, there was a reduction in carapace mass during the final stage of larval development in CO2-acidified sea water. This co-occurred with a reduction in exoskeletal mineral (calcium and magnesium content of the carapace. As the control and high CO2 treatments were not undersaturated with respect to any of the calcium carbonate polymorphs measured, the physiological alterations we record are most likely the result of acidosis or hypercapnia interfering with normal homeostatic function, and not a direct impact on the carbonate supply-side of calcification per se. Thus despite there being no observed effect on survival, carapace length, or zoeal progression, OA related (indirect disruption of calcification and carapace mass might still adversely affect the competitive fitness and recruitment success of larval lobsters with serious consequences for population dynamics and marine ecosystem function.

  11. Hard times and European youth. The effect of economic insecurity on human values, social attitudes and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeskens, Tim; Vandecasteele, Leen

    2017-02-01

    While economic downturns have adverse effects on young people's life chances, empirical studies examining whether and to what extent human values, social attitudes and well-being indicators respond to sudden economic shocks are scarce. To assess the claim that human values are less affected by economic shocks than social attitudes and well-being, two distinct yet related studies based on the European Social Survey (ESS) are conducted. The first employs a fixed effects pseudo-panel analysis of the 2008-2014 ESS-waves to detect whether changes over time in the socio-demographic group's unemployment risk and national youth unemployment affect individual dispositions to varying degrees. The second study captures micro- and cross-national effects in the 2010 ESS cross-section. Unique for this set-up is that we can test whether the findings hold for over-time changes in youth unemployment within countries (pseudo-panel), as well as for cross-country differences in youth unemployment (multilevel). Both studies indicate that political trust, satisfaction with the economy and subjective well-being are lowered by economic risk and hardship, while social trust and self-rated health are less affected by changes in youth unemployment. Secondly, human values are immune to economic risk, underscoring that values transcend specific situations and are therefore resistant against sudden economic shocks. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. Mortality selection during the 2003 European heat wave in three-spined sticklebacks: effects of parasites and MHC genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinski Manfred

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological interaction strength may increase under environmental stress including temperature. How such stress enhances and interacts with parasite selection is almost unknown. We studied the importance of resistance genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II in 14 families of three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus exposed to their natural macroparasites in field enclosures in the extreme summer of 2003. Results After a mass die-off during the 2003-European heat wave killing 78% of 277 experimental fish, we found strong differences in survival among and within families. In families with higher average parasite load fewer individuals survived. Multivariate analysis revealed that the composition of the infecting parasite fauna was family specific. Within families, individuals with an intermediate number of MHC class IIB sequence variants survived best and had the lowest parasite load among survivors, suggesting a direct functional link between MHC diversity and fitness. The within family MHC effects were, however, small compared to between family effects, suggesting that other genetic components or non-genetic effects were also important. Conclusion The correlation between parasite load and mortality that we found at both individual and family level might have appeared only in the extraordinary heatwave of 2003. Due to global warming the frequency of extreme climatic events is predicted to increase, which might intensify costs of parasitism and enhance selection on immune genes.

  13. ANALYSIS OF DWARF MISTLETOE ARCEUTHOBIUM OXYCEDRI (DC. M. BIEB. AND ITS PRINCIPAL HOST EASTERN PRICKLY JUNIPER JUNIPERUS DELTOIDES R. P. ADAMS DISTRIBUTION IN CRIMEA USING GIS TECHOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kukushkin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study highlights the distribution pattern of juniper dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium oxycedri, a semi-parasite of the Eastern prickly juniper (Juniperus deltoides, in Crimea. A. oxycedri has considerably narrower range in Crimea as compared to its principal host and its ubiquitous distribution is rather sporadic. Nature observations characterize A. oxycedri as a thermophilic and mezo-хerophytic species confined to the low-mountain terrains with mild sub-Mediterranean climate. Significant sites of permanent infection have been discovered at the Crimean coast and in the warmest southwestern part of the Crimean Mountains to the south from the Belbek River valley. Greek juniper (J. excelsa is a codominant species growing side by side with J. deltoids in the majority of localities examined that have the high infection rate. Generally, J. excelsa is an insusceptible species in relation to the parasite; nevertheless, it is affected by A. oxycedri at several sites. Birds feeding habit to consume J. excelsa and J. deltoides fleshy berry-like cones helps to maintain the high infection rate and to disseminate mistletoe seeds at the distance of approximately 4 km. Modeling ecological niche and creating maps of potential range of the parasite and its principal host using MaxEnt 3.3.3k software have demonstrated that A. oxycedri distribution in Crimea at present may be wider than it has been currently observed. It is noteworthy that while modeling such bioclimatic indicators as the minimum winter temperatures and the elevation above sea level were irrelevant for establishing the distribution range of the parasite. Presumably the limited distribution of A. oxycedri can be attributed to the history of forming J. deltoides range in the late Pleistocene – Holocene, alongside with a low speed of the parasite dissemination from Quaternary refugia in the southernmost part of the Crimean Peninsula.

  14. Biochar stability and priming effect on SOM decomposition in two European short rotation coppices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Maurizio; Alberti, Giorgio; Viger, Maud; Jenkins, Joe; Girardin, Cyril; Baronti, Silvia; Zaldei, Alessandro; Taylor, Gail; Miglietta, Franco; Tonon, Giustino

    2014-05-01

    Biochar application to agricultural soils has been proposed as a promising strategy for carbon (C) sequestration and climate change mitigation. However, most of the knowledge on biochar stability is based on short-term lab incubation experiments, as field studies are scarce. Therefore, little is known about the interactions between biochar and roots and the related effects on biochar stability in field conditions. In two (Italy and UK) short rotation coppice systems (SRCs) the present study aimed to asses, through continuous soil respiration monitoring and δ13C periodic measurements, the stability of biochar in field conditions, the effect of plant roots on biochar stability, the effect of biochar on original soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition. The percentage of biochar-derived soil respiration (fB) varied according to the site and sampling date: at the Italian site, it was between 7% and 37%; at the UK site, it varied between 12% and 32%. At both sites, fB was generally higher in the presence of roots (Rtot) than in trenched plots (Rh) where the root growth was excluded. This suggests a positive priming effect of roots on biochar decomposition. On the other hand, a decreased decomposition rate of original SOM after soil biochar addition (-10% and -14% at Italian and UK site, respectively) was observed, suggesting a protective effect of biochar on SOM. In summary, regardless of the experimental site, biochar showed a slow decomposition and a protective effect on original SOM, confirming the carbon mitigation potential of this technology. However, the mechanisms that are behind the observed results deserve to be investigated more deeply in a long-term perspective, in order to understand the real potential of biochar as a strategy for soil C sequestration.

  15. Cross-Border Electronic Commerce : Distance Effects and Express Delivery in European Union Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.Y. Kim (Thai Young); R. Dekker (Rommert); C. Heij (Christiaan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis empirical study examines distance effects on cross-border electronic commerce and in particular the importance of express delivery in reducing the time dimension of distance. E-commerce provides suppliers with a range of opportunities to reduce distance as perceived by online

  16. Cost-effectiveness of Campylobacter interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wagenberg, C.P.A.; van Horne, P.L.M.; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard

    2016-01-01

    and Spain, and highest for Norway and Denmark. Across countries, applying designated tools for each farm house and building an anteroom with hygiene barrier in each farm house had the lowest cost-effectiveness ratios, whereas a ban on thinning (partial depopulation), slaughter at 35 days, replacing old...

  17. Modelling of pleistocene European ice sheets: the effect of upslope precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanberg, J.A.M.; Oerlemans, J.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented from a numerical model of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet, in which the effect of upslope precipitation is included explicitly. The model is forced by changing the environmental conditions, formulated in terms of the annual mean temperature and the annual temperature range. These

  18. The effect of generation and age on turnout to the European Parliament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Hansen, Kasper Møller; Wass, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    can be attributed to the difference in turnout between pre- and post-baby-boomer generations though there are substantial differences across countries. Age has a curvilinear effect on turnout even when generation is taken into account, but the age composition has remained relatively stable over time...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of Campylobacter interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Horne, van P.L.M.; Sommer, H.M.; Nauta, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter infections, one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Therefore, it is relevant to control Campylobacter on broiler farms. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of eight Campylobacter

  20. Effects of nutrients and fish on periphyton and plant biomass across a European latitudinal gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bécares, E.; Gomá, J.; Fernández-Aláez, M.; Fernández-Aláez, C.; Romo, S.; Rosa Miracle, M.; Ståhl-Delbanco, A.; Hansson, L-A.; Gyllström, M.; van de Bund, W.; Van Donk, E.; Kairesalo, T.; Hietala, J.; Stephen, D.; Balayla, D.; Moss, B.

    2008-01-01

    Replicated, factorial mesocosm experiments were conducted across Europe to study the effects of nutrient enrichment and fish density on macrophytes and on periphyton chlorophyll a (chl-a) with regard to latitude. Periphyton chl-a densities and plant decline were significantly related to nutrient

  1. Erratum: Erratum to: Effects of self-attraction and loading at a regional scale: a test case for the Northwest European Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irazoqui Apecechea, Maialen; Verlaan, Martin; Zijl, Firmijn; Le Coz, Camille; Kernkamp, Herman

    2017-12-01

    The article Effects of self-attraction and loading at a regional scale: a test case for the Northwest European Shelf, written by Maialen Irazoqui Apecechea, Martin Verlaan, Firmijn Zijl, Camille Le Coz and Herman Kernkamp, was originally published Online First without open access.

  2. Subjective Evaluation of Media Content as a Moderator of Media Effects on European Identity: Mere Exposure and the Hostile Media Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Ejaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper posits that the concept of European identity is an important indicator of the legitimacy of the European Union (EU. It further assumes that the exposure to EU related media content can influence the feeling of European identity. In order to verify this assumption, we combined the mere-exposure-theory and the hostile media phenomenon. We assume that these theoretical concepts could help to understand the influence of media on people’s levels of attachment to the EU. Regression analyses are performed on secondary data that were collected in a Eurobarometer survey in 2013. Our findings revealed that media exposure affected the respondents’ identification with Europe, as well as the modifications of this effect based on their assessments of EU media coverage. The results of the current study not only validate assumptions about the mere-exposure effects on identity but also confirm the theoretical assumption that perceived hostility reduces such effects, whereas exposure to information that is perceived as neutral promotes the effects of media exposure on the feeling of European identity.

  3. Common market but divergent regulatory practices: exploring European regulation and the effect on regulatory uncertainty in the marketing authorization of medical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhury, Nupur

    2013-01-01

    The medical product sector is characterised by a regulatory patchwork of European and national laws and guidelines operating concurrently with each other. Each of these sectors are characterised by different levels of regulatory uncertainty that may undermine the effectiveness of the regulatory

  4. Effects of feed composition on life history developments in feed intake, metabolism, growth and body composition of European eel, Anguilla anguilla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Hooff, P.L.A.; Swinkels, W.; Tanck, M.W.T.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effect of feed composition on changes in feed intake and subsequent feed utilization with age, five populations of European eel, with an average initial body weight of 5 g each fed a different diet, were monitored for 302 d. The five feeds differed in their content of crude protein

  5. Quantitative cytochemical analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in living isolated hepatocytes of European flounder for rapid analysis of xenobiotic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winzer, K.; van Noorden, C. J.; Köhler, A.

    2001-01-01

    There is a great need for rapid but reliable assays to determine quantitatively effects of xenobiotics on biological systems in environmental research. Hepatocytes of European flounder are sensitive to low-dose toxic stress. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) is the major source of NADPH in

  6. Effects of Mefenoxam, Phosphonate, and Paclobutrazol on In Vitro Characteristics of Phytophthora cactorum and P. citricola and on Canker Size of European Beech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora citricola and P. cactorum cause bleeding cankers that lead to the death of mature European beech in the northeastern United States. Because of the economic value placed on these trees, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of two fungicides and a plant growth regulator ...

  7. Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality : an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre ESCAPE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Stafoggia, Massimo; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Barbara; Wolf, Kathrin; Samoli, Evangelia; Fischer, Paul; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Vineis, Paolo; Xun, Wei W.; Katsouyanni, Klea; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Modig, Lars; Havulinna, Aki S.; Lanki, Timo; Turunen, Anu; Oftedal, Bente; Nystad, Wenche; Nafstad, Per; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Ostenson, Claes-Goeran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Penell, Johanna; Korek, Michal; Pershagen, Goeran; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Overvad, Kim; Ellermann, Thomas; Eeftens, Marloes|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315028300; Peeters, Petra H.; Meliefste, Kees; Wang, Meng; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Sugiri, Dorothea; Kraemer, Ursula; Heinrich, Joachim; de Hoogh, Kees; Key, Timothy; Peters, Annette; Hampel, Regina; Concin, Hans; Nagel, Gabriele; Ineichen, Alex; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Kuenzli, Nino; Schindler, Christian; Schikowski, Tamara; Adam, Martin; Phuleria, Harish; Vilier, Alice; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Declercq, Christophe; Grioni, Sara; Krogh, Vittorio; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Galassi, Claudia; Migliore, Enrica; Ranzi, Andrea; Cesaroni, Giulia; Badaloni, Chiara; Forastiere, Francesco; Tamayo, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Katsoulis, Michail; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies on long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been reported from Europe. Within the multicentre European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we aimed to investigate the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to several

  8. Are Physical Activity Interventions Equally Effective in Adolescents of Low and High Socio-Economic Status (SES): Results from the European Teenage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Simon, C.; De Meester, F.; Van Lenthe, F.; Spittaels, H.; Lien, N.; Faggiano, F.; Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Haerens, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to study whether physical activity (PA) interventions in European teenagers are equally effective in adolescents of low versus high socio-economic status (SES). Based on a systematic review (Project TEENAGE), three school-based studies for secondary analyses were selected. SES stratified analyses were run in: (i) a Belgian…

  9. Effects of the European hornet (Vespa crabro Linnaeus 1761) crude venom on its own species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lethal dose 50% is a classical index of toxicity that usually employs small rodents as experimental animals. Therefore, scarce data are available on the effects of venom on invertebrates, particularly the impact of wasp venom on its own species. Findings In the present study, the lethality of Vespa crabro venom on its own species was studied. Lethal dose 50% values of crude venom on workers of hornet Vespa crabro were estimated to be 4.0 mg/kg of body weight. Conclusions Wasps can use their venom apparatus effectively when attacking foreign workers that appear in the immediate vicinity of their nest. The toxins released during stinging are potent enough to kill. The result of this study eliminates the popular myth that venomous animals can be resistant to their own venom. PMID:24499044

  10. Marginal Effects of a Gross Income Increase for a Single Parent Family in Six European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Marie

    High marginal tax rates constitute an issue in several countries because they are supposed to create barriers for increased labour supply. It is, however, often the case that relatively low income families with children face substantially higher combined marginal rates than even the highest...... marginal tax rates. High combined marginal rates are generated by increasing payment for care for children in childcare institutions and tapering of housing benefits in addition to taxation, when income rises. These effects are often simultaneous and add to the marginal tax rate. This paper explores...... the contributions to the combined marginal rate, the marginal effective tax rate, METR, using the OECD term, from taxation, payment for childcare, tapering of housing benefits and sometimes child benefits, when the income varies from a low level to a high level for a single parent family. Six countries are included...

  11. Effects of the European hornet (Vespa crabro Linnaeus 1761) crude venom on its own species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolski, Jerzy

    2013-03-18

    Lethal dose 50% is a classical index of toxicity that usually employs small rodents as experimental animals. Therefore, scarce data are available on the effects of venom on invertebrates, particularly the impact of wasp venom on its own species. In the present study, the lethality of Vespa crabro venom on its own species was studied. Lethal dose 50% values of crude venom on workers of hornet Vespa crabro were estimated to be 4.0 mg/kg of body weight. Wasps can use their venom apparatus effectively when attacking foreign workers that appear in the immediate vicinity of their nest. The toxins released during stinging are potent enough to kill. The result of this study eliminates the popular myth that venomous animals can be resistant to their own venom.

  12. The electoral feedback effects of welfare reform in mature European welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The electoral hazard of welfare state reforms in mature welfare states has been a widely acknowledged feedback effect in the literature. However, the literature does typically no distinct between party families when it comes to the electoral consequences of welfare state reforms and treats...... electorates as unity. This paper analysis the feedback effects of social policy retrenchment under Third Way social democracy since 1994. The paper argues that Third Way reforms resulted in lasting electoral setback for social democracy since these reforms went against the social policy preferences of social...... democracy’s core constituency. Using survey data and election studies, the empirical analysis shows that the reforms have been particularly unpopular among social democracy’s core constituency and that these voters now align with competitors that defend core welfare schemes in a credible manner...

  13. Effects of European land use on contemporary tree-climate relationships in the northeastern United States: Implications for predictive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, S. J.; Cogbill, C. V.; Dawson, A.; Hooten, M.; McLachlan, J. S.; Mladenoff, D. J.; Paciorek, C. J.; Ruid, M.; Tipton, J.; Williams, J. W.; Record, S.; Matthes, J. H.; Dietze, M.

    2014-12-01

    Much of our understanding of the climatic controls on tree species distributions is based on contemporary observational datasets. For example, forest inventory analysis (FIA) and other spatial datasets are used to build correlative models of climate suitability for plant taxa for use in environmental niche models. More complex dynamic models rely on species interactions, physiological processes, and competition, among other processes, that are also parameterized against contemporary data. However, as much as a quarter of the forested region in the upper Midwestern United States may be considered novel relative to pre-settlement baselines (Goring et al. submitted). Hence, modern surveys or even long-term datasets may represent only a portion of the ecological or climate space taxa might occupy. Using gridded datasets of pre-settlement vegetation for the northeastern United States from Town Propritor Suveys and the Public Land Survey, we examine the effects of European land-use conversion - logging, agricultural conversion and re-establishment - on climate-vegetation relationships. We show that in regions where land-use change is climatically biased, such as conversion to agriculture along the prairie-forest boundary, impacts on the realized climatic niches for various tree taxa can be significant. Improving predicted distributions of taxa is critical for planning and mitigating the effects of widespread shifts in forest composition resulting from climate change. Using pre-settlement data can improve our understanding of the potential niches occupied by major forest taxa, improving the predictive abilities of environmental niche and mechanistic models.

  14. The Effects of Real Exchange Rates and Income on International Tourism Demand for the USA from Some European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Ongan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of real exchange rates and income on inbound tourism demand (tourist arrivals from Germany, France, the UK, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, and Sweden to the USA over the period 1996Q3–2015Q1. To achieve this aim, the Harmonized Index of Consumer Prices (HICP for Restaurants and Hotels was used for the first time—instead of using the general Consumer Price Index (CPI—to transform the nominal exchange rate into the real exchange rate as an independent variable in tourism demand analysis models. Panel co-integration analysis under the cross-sectional dependence (CD test and common correlated effects (CCE approach was applied. Empirical results show that tourists visiting the USA are more sensitive to changes in the real exchange rate than changes in GDP. While French tourists respond highly to the GDP, British tourists respond highly to the real exchange rate. It should also be noted that the UK, having the highest responsiveness to the real exchange rate, is a country outside the Eurozone and also intends to leave the European Union.

  15. Relative age effect and performance in the U16, U18 and U20 European Basketball Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Haritz; Torres-Unda, Jon; Gil, Susana María; Irazusta, Jon

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to determine the association of relative age and performance of young elite basketball players. The distribution of the birth dates, heights, positions, classification and performance of the male and female participants (n = 2395) of the U16, U18 and U20 European Basketball Championships were analysed. We found an over-representation of players born during the initial months of the year in all groups, with the relative age effect being more evident in players of the U16 and U18 groups, than of the U20 teams, particularly in male squads. Nevertheless, in the U20 championships, those teams that had the oldest players performed the best. In all championships, the oldest participants played more minutes. In addition, relatively older male players scored better in total points and in performance index rating when results were normalised to played time. This effect was not found for female players. Regarding playing position, different distributions of birth dates were observed due to each position's physical requirements. Thus, basketball coaches and managers should keep these results in mind when they select players because if not, they might subject players who are born towards the end of the year to a negative selection bias.

  16. Invasive European bird cherry disrupts stream-riparian linkages: effects on terrestrial invertebrate prey subsidies for juvenile coho salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.; Blanchard, Arny L.

    2016-01-01

    The spread of invasive species in riparian forests has the potential to affect both terrestrial and aquatic organisms linked through cross-ecosystem resource subsidies. However, this potential had not been explored in regards to terrestrial prey subsidies for stream fishes. To address this, we examined the effects of an invasive riparian tree, European bird cherry (EBC, Prunus padus), spreading along urban Alaskan salmon streams, by collecting terrestrial invertebrates present on the foliage of riparian trees, their subsidies to streams, and their consumption by juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Riparian EBC supported four to six times less terrestrial invertebrate biomass on its foliage and contributed two to three times lower subsidies relative to native deciduous trees. This reduction in terrestrial invertebrate biomass was consistent between two watersheds over 2 years. In spite of this reduction in terrestrial prey resource input, juvenile coho salmon consumed similar levels of terrestrial invertebrates in stream reaches bordered by EBC. Although we did not see ecological effects extending to stream salmonids, reduced terrestrial prey subsidies to streams are likely to have negative consequences as EBC continues to spread.

  17. Effects of Imidacloprid and Varroa destructor on survival and health of European honey bees, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbo, Pendo M; Kawasaki, Joshua K; Hamilton, Michele; Cook, Steven C; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Li, Wen Feng; Liu, Jie; Chen, Yan Ping

    2017-06-01

    There has been growing concern over declines in populations of honey bees and other pollinators which are a vital part to our food security. It is imperative to identify factors responsible for accelerated declines in bee populations and develop solutions for reversing bee losses. While exact causes of colony losses remain elusive, risk factors thought to play key roles are ectoparasitic mites Varroa destructor and neonicotinoid pesticides. The present study aims to investigate effects of a neonicotinoid pesticide Imidacloprid and Varroa mites individually on survivorship, growth, physiology, virus dynamics and immunity of honey bee workers. Our study provides clear evidence that the exposure to sublethal doses of Imidacloprid could exert a significantly negative effect on health and survival of honey bees. We observed a significant reduction in the titer of vitellogenin (Vg), an egg yolk precursor that regulates the honey bees development and behavior and often are linked to energy homeostasis, in bees exposed to Imidacloprid. This result indicates that sublethal exposure to neonicotinoid could lead to increased energy usage in honey bees as detoxification is a energy-consuming metabolic process and suggests that Vg could be a useful biomarker for measuring levels of energy stress and sublethal effects of pesticides on honey bees. Measurement of the quantitative effects of different levels of Varroa mite infestation on the replication dynamic of Deformed wing virus (DWV), an RNA virus associated with Varroa infestation, and expression level of immune genes yields unique insights into how honey bees respond to stressors under laboratory conditions. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. The Effect of Family Factors on Intense Alcohol Use among European Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kristjan Kask; Anna Markina; Zuzana Podana

    2013-01-01

    In Europe use of alcohol by adolescents is a large and increasing problem. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of family factors such as structure, social control, affluence, and negative life events on adolescents' risky alcohol use. Data on alcohol use and family factors were obtained from the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD-2). Using multilevel analysis, it was found that overall, complete family and high social control by parents were lowering the intense ...

  19. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality...

  20. Effects of radiation on inherited sterility in the European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinitz, Hadass; Sadeh, Adi; Kliot, Adi; Harari, Ally

    2015-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an alternative, environmentally friendly method for controlling insect pests. In the Lepidoptera, a low dose of gamma irradiation causes inherited sterility (SIT-IS), leading to full sterility in females but only partial sterility in males, which successfully compete with wild males for mates. This study examined the effect of a low radiation dose (150 Gy) on the fitness parameters of male and female Lobesia botrana, a polyphagous and major pest of vineyards found in the Middle East, Europe and the Americas. Irradiation of the pupae did not affect their emergence rate, flight ability out of a cylinder, male response to sex pheromone in a field cage or male or female mating success. A major effect of irradiation was observed in the significantly reduced number of irradiated females' offspring reaching pupation, and as a consequence a limited number of F2 offspring. The effect of irradiation on male partial sterility (also called inherited sterility) was reflected in the male-biased sex ratio of F1 offspring of irradiated males, the reduced number of F1 offspring and the very low number of F2 descendants. This study demonstrates the feasibility of controlling L. botrana using SIT-IS. Adding this method to the arsenal of environmentally friendly tools to control this pest may assist in further reducing the use of insecticides on edible crops. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. The effectiveness of shiatsu: findings from a cross-European, prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew F

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore client perceptions of the short-term and longer-term effects of shiatsu. The study design was a prospective, 6-month observational, pragmatic study. There were 85 shiatsu practitioners in three countries involved in the study: Austria, Spain, and the United Kingdom. There were 948 clients receiving shiatsu from 1 of these practitioners. Shiatsu as delivered by the practitioner in routine practice. The outcomes measures were symptom severity, changes in health care use (baseline, 3 and 6 months), shiatsu-specific effects, uptake of advice (3 and 6 months), achieved expectations and occurrence of adverse events (4-6 days after first session, 3 and 6 months). Six hundred and thirty-three (633) clients provided full follow-up data (a response rate of 67%). A typical shiatsu user was female, in her 40s, in paid employment, and had used shiatsu before. At "first-ever" use, the most typical reason for trying shiatsu was "out of curiosity." At "today's" session, the dominant reason was health maintenance. The most mentioned symptom groups were problems with "muscles, joints, or body structure," "tension/stress," and "low energy/fatigue." Symptom scores improved significantly over the 6 months (all symptom groups, Austria and the United Kingdom; two symptom groups, Spain), with moderate effect sizes (0.66-0.77) for "tension or stress" and "body structure problems" (Austria, the United Kingdom), and small effect sizes (0.32-0.47) for the other symptom groups (Spain, 0.28-0.43 for four groups). Previous users reported significant symptom improvement from "first ever" to baseline with moderate effect sizes. Across countries, substantial proportions (> or = 60%) agreed or agreed strongly with shiatsu-specific benefits. At 6 months, 77%-80% indicated that they had made changes to their lifestyle as a result of having shiatsu, and reductions in the use of conventional medicine (16%-22%) and medication (15%-34%). Ten (10) adverse events

  2. A toolbox for European judges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    The forthcoming instrument on European contract law, be it in the shape of an optional code for cross-border contracts or as an official toolbox for the European legislator, is likely to have a spill-over effect on private law adjudication in Europe. Judges will have no great difficulty in finding

  3. Europeanness: A Path To Unity Within The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki Ryszard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The postwar experience has shown that the implanting of European consciousness, or Europeanness, calls for coordinated efforts among the European institutions, national states, and NGOs. Such consciousness, a key pillar of the European integration, is necessary for the EU to effectively function and motivate member states’ − also the EU’s − citizens. And yet European institutions and EU governments show little interest in promoting the formation of this European consciousness. Pro-European social movements are weak, while anti- European ones gain strength. This désintéressement of the EU countries probably results from the conviction that the goal has been reached and that there is no more need for a widespread pro-European education of their societies. However analysis of the problem, and in particular of the interaction between European and national identities, shows that this is not the case. We fear that this lack of proactive measures mobilizing EU citizens to keep on struggling for a common Europe will lead to the erosion of existing achievements of integration within the EU, and undermine European values. It may threaten the future of the EU, which is not an ordinary integration grouping but a great peaceful, civilizational, social and economic project. Our hypothesis − positively verified in this article − is that the promotion of Europeanness in the EU societies is urgently needed to maintain the unity (and even membership of the Union, and to avert trends unfavorable for all of Europe and therefore for the West as a whole.

  4. Effect of crop residue incorporation on soil organic carbon (SOC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in European agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Schlatter, Norman; Baumgarten, Andreas; Bechini, Luca; Krüger, Janine; Grignani, Carlo; Zavattaro, Laura; Costamagna, Chiara; Spiegel, Heide

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) improves soil physical (e.g. increased aggregate stability), chemical (e.g. cation exchange capacity) and biological (e.g. biodiversity, earthworms) properties. The sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) may mitigate climate change. However, as much as 25-75% of the initial SOC in world agricultural soils may have been lost due to intensive agriculture (Lal, 2013). The European Commission has described the decline of organic matter (OM) as one of the major threats to soils (COM(2006) 231). Incorporation of crop residues may be a sustainable and cost-efficient management practice to maintain the SOC levels and to increase soil fertility in European agricultural soils. Especially Mediterranean soils that have low initial SOC concentrations, and areas where stockless croplands predominate may be suitable for crop residue incorporation. In this study, we aim to quantify the effects of crop residue incorporation on SOC and GHG emissions (CO2 and N2O) in different environmental zones (ENZs, Metzger et al., 2005) in Europe. Response ratios for SOC and GHG emissions were calculated from pairwise comparisons between crop residue incorporation and removal. Specifically, we investigated whether ENZs, clay content and experiment duration influence the response ratios. In addition, we studied how response ratios of SOM and crop yields were correlated. A total of 718 response ratios (RR) were derived from a total of 39 publications, representing 50 experiments (46 field and 4 laboratory) and 15 countries. The SOC concentrations and stocks increased by approximately 10% following crop residue incorporation. In contrast, CO2 emissions were approximately six times and N2O emissions 12 times higher following crop residue incorporation. The effect of ENZ on the response ratios was not significant. For SOC concentration, the >35% clay content had significantly approximately 8% higher response ratios compared to 18-35% clay content. As the duration of the

  5. 10th European Conference on Radiation and Its Effects on Components and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, P; Brown, D; Poivey, C; Pease, R; Girard, S; Reed, R; RADECS 2009; RADECS 09

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive radio is the exciting new paradigm for wireless communication. Devices and networks constantly interact in real-time, and adapt to environments, missions, and user actions in order to communicate more effectively, avoid or manage interference, mitigate stressing conditions, and save energy. This area is one of the most exciting emerging fields in communications technology, as well as a compelling application of information theory, decision theory, network science, and formal methods. Taking an integrated development approach, this cutting-edge book provides clear methods for performi

  6. Effects of the European hornet ( Vespa crabro Linnaeus 1761) crude venom on its own species

    OpenAIRE

    Nadolski, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Background Lethal dose 50% is a classical index of toxicity that usually employs small rodents as experimental animals. Therefore, scarce data are available on the effects of venom on invertebrates, particularly the impact of wasp venom on its own species. Findings In the present study, the lethality of Vespa crabro venom on its own species was studied. Lethal dose 50% values of crude venom on workers of hornet Vespa crabro were estimated to be 4.0 mg/kg of body weight. Conclusions Wasps can ...

  7. Freshwater scarcity effects on the aquatic macrofauna of a European Mediterranean-climate estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortegón, Enrique; Baldó, Francisco; Arias, Alberto; Cuesta, Jose A; Fernández-Delgado, Carlos; Vilas, César; Drake, Pilar

    2015-01-15

    In the Mediterranean-climate zone, recurrent drought events and increasing water demand generally lead to a decrease in freshwater input to estuaries. This water scarcity may alter the proper function of estuaries as nursery areas for marine species and as permanent habitat for estuarine species. A 12-year data set of the aquatic macrofauna (fish, decapod and mysid crustaceans) in a Mediterranean estuary (Guadalquivir estuary, South Spain) was analysed to test if water scarcity favours the nursery function of regional estuaries to the detriment of permanent estuarine inhabitants. Target species typically displayed a salinity-related distribution and estuarine salinisation in dry years resulted in a general upstream community displacement. However, annual densities of marine species were neither consistently higher in dry years nor estuarine species during wet years. Exceptions included the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer and the marine shrimp Crangon crangon, which were more abundant in wet and dry years, respectively. High and persistent turbidity, a collateral effect of water scarcity, altered both the structural (salinity-related pattern) and functional (key prey species and predator density) community characteristics, chiefly after the second drought period of the analysis. The observed high inter-year environmental variability, as well as species-specific effects of water scarcity, suggests that exhaustive and long-term sampling programmes will be required for rigorously monitoring the estuarine communities of the Mediterranean-climate region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of Azadirachtin (NeemAzal-T/S in Controlling Pear Psylla (Cacopsylla pyri and European Red Mite (Panonychus ulmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Marčić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the results of field trials conducted in Serbia to evaluate the effectiveness of a neem-based product, NeemAzal-T/S (containing azadirachtin-A as its active ingredient in the form of an emulsifiable concentrate against pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyri and European red mite (Panonychus ulmi. Efficacy evaluation against C. pyri was carried out in a commercial pear orchard of the Williams pear cultivar, located at Borkovac (Ruma. The insecticides were applied at BBCH 09 pear growth stage, several days before the beginning of hatching of the first generation larvae. The efficacy of azadirachtin was compared to that of mineral oil, abamectin and diflubenzuron. Efficacy evaluation 18 DAT showed total termination of egg laying by C. pyri after treatments with azadirachtin and abamectin, while some new (white eggs were found after treatment with mineral oil. Diflubenzuron treatment failed to fully stop egg laying, but the number of white eggs was significantly lower than it was in the control. Azadirachtin and abamectin achieved 100% efficacy, while the effectiveness of mineral oil was 97.4%, and that of diflubenzuron a mere 59%. All four insecticides significantly reduced the number of older (yellow eggs and larvae, the efficacy being 80.5-92.6% (yellow eggs, 69.8-79.3% (larvae I-III instar and 94.3-100% (larvae IV-V instar. In evaluation 38 DAT, azadirachtin,abamectin and mineral oil achieved 100% efficacy against white and yellow eggs, while diflubenzuron achieved 93% and 86.9% efficacy. All four insecticides were found to demonstrate high efficacy against I-III instar larvae (99.2-100%, but mineral oil treatmentalone achieved high efficacy against IV-V instar larvae (92.4% as well. Efficacy evaluation against P. ulmi was carried out in a commercial orchard of the Red Chief apple cultivar located at Morović (Šid. Azadirachtin efficacy in controlling a summerpopulation of European red mite was compared to a mineral oil, clofentezine and

  9. Treatment of clinically diagnosed equine sarcoid with a mistletoe extract (Viscum album austriacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen-Clottu, O; Klocke, P; Burger, D; Straub, R; Gerber, V

    2010-01-01

    Equine sarcoids (ES) are common, difficult to treat, and have high recurrence rates. Viscum album extracts (VAE) are used in human cancer treatment. That therapy with VAE (Iscador P) is effective in the treatment of ES. Fifty-three horses (444 ES); 42 were treated with VAE or placebo as monotherapy; 11 were treated with VAE or placebo after selective excision of ES. Prospective, randomised, blinded, clinical trial. Horses were randomly assigned to treatment (VAE; n=32) or control group (Placebo; n=21). One milliliter of VAE (Iscador P) in increasing concentrations from 0.1 to 20 mg/mL or physiological NaCl solution was given SC 3 times a week over 105 days. Number, localization, and type of the ES were documented over 12 months. A subset of 163 clinically diagnosed equine sarcoid (CDES) lesions (95 VAE, 68 Placebo) was evaluated in detail, considering clinical findings and tumor volume. No undesired adverse effects were observed except for mild edema at the injection site in 5 of 32 horses (16%). Complete or partial regression was observed in 13 horses of the VAE group (41%) and in 3 of the control horses (14%; P<.05). After VAE treatment, 48 of 95 CDES (67%) showed an improvement compared with 17 of 68 CDES in the control group (40%; P<.01). Twenty-seven CDES had disappeared completely in the VAE group (38%) compared with 9 CDES in the control group (13% NS). VAE (Iscador P) represents a safe and effective treatment for CDES. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Effect of finishing diet on consumer acceptability of Uruguayan beef in the European market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, C E; Font I Furnols, M; Guerrero, L; Montossi, F; Campo, M M; Sañudo, C; Nute, G R; Alvarez, I; Cañeque, V; Brito, G; Oliver, M A

    2009-03-01

    Eighty Hereford steers were used to evaluate the effect of finishing diet [A: pasture, B: pasture plus concentrate (0.6% live weight), C: pasture plus concentrate (1.2% live weight), D: concentrate] on consumer acceptability of Uruguayan beef in France (FR), United Kingdom (UK), Spain (ES) and Germany (DE). Consumers (200 per country) evaluated overall, tenderness and flavour acceptability of beef (8 point scale: 1 'dislike extremely', 8 'like extremely'). FR and UK rated lower acceptability scores for beef from D compared with A, B, and C. ES showed similar results for tenderness, but flavour scores did not differ between A and D. German consumers preferred beef from B and C. Overall, low levels of supplementation on pasture produced beef with the highest consumer acceptability followed by beef from pasture-fed animals. Feeding cattle with concentrate only may not be necessary to satisfy the EU market resulting in more profitable production systems for Uruguayan producers.

  11. Institutional context effects on managerial practices in a European multinational company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Liberman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of institutional contexts on managerial practices within a multinational company. Questionnaires measuring actual and ideal managerial practices were completed in four different subsidiaries of the same MNC. Results show that the practices of subsidiaries operating in countries with a higher degree of institutional labor-market regulation were less formalized and directive than in those subsidiaries located in countries with a lower degree of labor-market regulation. It was also found that the degrees of acceptance of these practices differed significantly across institutional contexts: in less restrictive institutional contexts formal and directive practices were more desirable than in more restrictive institutional contexts. It is argued that there is an inverse relationship between the flexibility of subsidiaries’ institutional contexts and the flexibility of their practices (formality and directiveness. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed.

  12. Pea-barley intercropping and short-term subsequent crop effects across European organic cropping conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gooding, M.; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    ) to asses the effect of intercropping pea and barley on the N supply to subsequent wheat in organic cropping systems. Pea and barley were grown either as sole crops at the recommended plant density (P100 and B100, respectively) or in replacement (P50B50) or additive (P100B50) intercropping designs....... In the replacement design the total relative plant density is kept constant, while the additive design uses the optimal sole crop density for pea supplementing with ‘extra’ barley plants. The pea and barley crops were followed by winter wheat with and without N application. Additional experiments in Denmark......) to grain N yield with 25–30% using the Land Equivalent ratio. In terms of absolute quantities, sole cropped pea accumulated more N in the grains as compared to the additive design followed by the replacement design and then sole cropped barley. The post harvest soil mineral N content was unaffected...

  13. The effect of vegetation height and biomass on the sediment budget of a European saltmarsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reef, Ruth; Schuerch, Mark; Christie, Elizabeth K.; Möller, Iris; Spencer, Tom

    2018-03-01

    Sediment retention in saltmarshes is often attributed to the presence of vegetation, which enhances accretion by slowing water flow, reduces erosion by attenuating wave energy and increases surface stability through the presence of organic matter. Saltmarsh vegetation morphology varies considerably on a range of spatial and temporal scales, but the effect of different above ground morphologies on sediment retention is not well characterised. Understanding the biophysical interaction between the canopy and sediment trapping in situ is important for improving numerical shoreline models. In a novel field flume study, we measured the effect of vegetation height and biomass on sediment trapping using a mass balance approach. Suspended sediment profilers were placed at both openings of a field flume built across-shore on the seaward boundary of an intertidal saltmarsh in the Dengie Peninsula, UK. Sequential removal of plant material from within the flume resulted in incremental loss of vegetation height and biomass. The difference between the concentration of suspended sediment measured at each profiler was used to determine the sediment budget within the flume. Deposition of material on the plant/soil surfaces within the flume occurred during flood tides, while ebb flow resulted in erosion (to a lesser degree) from the flume area, with a positive sediment budget of on average 6.5 g m-2 tide-1 with no significant relationship between sediment trapping efficiency and canopy morphology. Deposition (and erosion) rates were positively correlated to maximum inundation depth. Our results suggest that during periods of calm conditions, changes to canopy morphology do not result in significant changes in sediment budgets in marshes.

  14. The mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and body mass index in the two European countries Denmark and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strien, Tatjana; Winkens, Laura; Toft, Madeleine Broman; Pedersen, Susanne; Brouwer, Ingeborg; Visser, Marjolein; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-10-01

    In two European countries with a different prevalence of depression, namely Denmark (high) and Spain (low), we assessed whether the mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and Body Mass Index (BMI) as found in earlier studies can be replicated and whether this mediation effect is contingent on 1) change in appetite and 2) gender. Mediation and moderated mediation was assessed with Hayes' PROCESS macro in SPSS. Emotional eating (DEBQ: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (CES-D: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), change in appetite, weight and height were self-reported. In both countries, emotional eating acted as a mediator between depression and BMI (Denmark: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), 95% CI, [0.03, 0.05]; Spain: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), 95% CI, [0.02, 0.04]). In Denmark this mediation effect was stronger for participants with increased appetite and for females than for participants with decreases/no change in appetite and for males (more appetite: B = 0.08, (SE = 0.03), [0.03, 0.15]; decreased appetite/no change in appetite: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), [0.02, 0.04]); females: B = 0.05 (SE = 0.01), [0.03, 0.07]; males: B = 0.01 (SE = 0.01), [0.004, 0.04]. This supports depression with atypical features as an underlying mechanism in the mediation effect of emotional eating. In Spain there was no support for depression with atypical features as underlying mechanism because the mediation effect was neither moderated by change in appetite nor by gender. Instead, post-hoc analyses suggested 'stress of unemployment' as possible explanatory factor of the mediation effect, with stronger mediation effects for unemployed than for employed people (unemployed: B = 0.05 (SE = 0.01), [0.03, 0.07]; employed B = 0.02 (SE = 0.01), [0.01, 0.04]). The mediating effect of emotional eating between depressive symptoms and body mass index in both countries suggests that obesity interventions should take emotional

  15. Land-cover effects on soil organic carbon stocks in a European city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Davies, Zoe G; McCormack, Sarah A; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2014-02-15

    Soil is the vital foundation of terrestrial ecosystems storing water, nutrients, and almost three-quarters of the organic carbon stocks of the Earth's biomes. Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks vary with land-cover and land-use change, with significant losses occurring through disturbance and cultivation. Although urbanisation is a growing contributor to land-use change globally, the effects of urban land-cover types on SOC stocks have not been studied for densely built cities. Additionally, there is a need to resolve the direction and extent to which greenspace management such as tree planting impacts on SOC concentrations. Here, we analyse the effect of land-cover (herbaceous, shrub or tree cover), on SOC stocks in domestic gardens and non-domestic greenspaces across a typical mid-sized U.K. city (Leicester, 73 km(2), 56% greenspace), and map citywide distribution of this ecosystem service. SOC was measured in topsoil and compared to surrounding extra-urban agricultural land. Average SOC storage in the city's greenspace was 9.9 kg m(-2), to 21 cm depth. SOC concentrations under trees and shrubs in domestic gardens were greater than all other land-covers, with total median storage of 13.5 kg m(-2) to 21 cm depth, more than 3 kg m(-2) greater than any other land-cover class in domestic and non-domestic greenspace and 5 kg m(-2) greater than in arable land. Land-cover did not significantly affect SOC concentrations in non-domestic greenspace, but values beneath trees were higher than under both pasture and arable land, whereas concentrations under shrub and herbaceous land-covers were only higher than arable fields. We conclude that although differences in greenspace management affect SOC stocks, trees only marginally increase these stocks in non-domestic greenspaces, but may enhance them in domestic gardens, and greenspace topsoils hold substantial SOC stores that require protection from further expansion of artificial surfaces e.g. patios and driveways. Copyright

  16. Effects of dietary carbohydrate on hepatic de novo lipogenesis in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Ivan; Jarak, Ivana; Rito, João; Carvalho, Rui A; Metón, Isidoro; Pardal, Miguel A; Baanante, Isabel V; Jones, John G

    2016-07-01

    Farmed seabass have higher adiposity than their wild counterparts and this is often attributed to carbohydrate (CHO) feeding. Whether this reflects a reduction in fat oxidation, increased de novo lipogenesis (DNL), or both, is not known. To study the effects of high CHO diets on hepatic TG biosynthesis, hepatic TG deuterium ((2)H) enrichment was determined following 6 days in (2)H-enriched tank water for fish fed with a no-CHO control diet (CTRL), and diets with digestible starch (DS) and raw starch (RS). Hepatic fractional synthetic rates (FSRs, percent per day(-1)) were calculated for hepatic TG-glyceryl and FA moieties through (2)H NMR analysis. Glyceryl FSRs exceeded FA FSRs in all cases, indicating active cycling. DS fish did not show increased lipogenic potential compared to CTRL. RS fish had lower glyceryl FSRs compared with the other diets and negligible levels of FA FSRs despite similar hepatic TG levels to CTRL. DS-fed fish showed higher activity for enzymes that can provide NADPH for lipogenesis, relative to CTRL in the case of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and relative to RS for both G6PDH and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. This approach indicated that elevated hepatic adiposity from DS feeding was not attributable to increased DNL. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Selected effects of financing of agricultural holdings in new member states of the european union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of financing of agricultural holdings in new member states of the EU and the development of these holdings are assessed. The income of a family-owned agricultural holding was accepted as the basic measure of a holding’s capability for extended reproduction and development. Selected elements of financial analysis were also applied. The level of family farm income and reinvestment of fixed assets was varied in EU-10 agricultural holdings over the years 2004-2009. The level of family farm income was mainly dependent on subsidies and subventions. A low dependence between the value of family farm income and net investment value was observed (R2=0.243, and a high dependence between labour productivity and labour profitability was observed (R2=0.734.Positive changes took place in the equipping of agricultural holdings with fixed assets. Growth of capital saturation of land was observed in all countries. Holdings taking advantage of external sources of financing had greater developmental capabilities. The net investment value was positively correlated with the debt ratio, although this dependence was low.

  18. Effectiveness of a parent-training program in Spain: reducing the Southern European evaluation gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Noelia; Molina, M Cruz; Ramos, Pilar; Artazcoz, Lucía

    2017-08-09

    We implemented and evaluated the Parenting Skills Program for families in Spain 1) to examine differences in parenting skills, social support, children's behaviours and parental stress pre, immediately post and six months post intervention and 2) to identify mechanisms by which the intervention is related to changes in the four outcomes examined. Quasi-experimental study design with pre (T0), post (T1), a follow-up (T2) and no control group, complemented by a qualitative study was used. The outcome variables were social support, parenting skills, parental stress and children's behaviours. 216 parents completed pre and post questionnaire and 130 parents the follow-up questionnaire. 39 professionals and 34 parents participated in 17 interviews and 5 discussion groups. Compared with T0, all four outcomes improved significantly at T1. 76% of the participants improved parenting skills and 61% social support. 56% reduced children's negative behaviours and 66% parental stress. All outcomes maintained this significant improvement at T2. Parents and professionals describe different changes in parents' parenting skills, stress and social support after participation in the PSP, and in their children's behaviours. Some subcategories emerged after analysing parents' and professionals' discourses. This study describes positive parenting effects on participants of a parent-training program in Spain, which is a country where implementation and evaluation of these kind of interventions is an incipient issue. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of domestic chemical stressors on expression of allergen genes in the European house dust mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Quist, J C; Ortego, F; Lambrecht, B N; Castañera, P; Hernández-Crespo, P

    2017-03-01

    The expression of allergen genes in house dust mites is influenced by temperature and relative humidity, but little is known of the impacts of other environmental factors that may alter the repertoire of allergens released by mites in home microhabitats. Bioassays were conducted in concave microscope slides in combination with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to analyse gene expression of 17 allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acariformes: Pyroglyphidae) exposed to three chemical stressors that can be present in domestic environments. Short-term exposure (5-12 days) to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) (1 µg/cm2 ), bacterial lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (0.1 µg/cm2 ) and benzyl benzoate (3.2 µg/cm2 ), at concentrations exceeding those expected in homes, had no significant effect on allergen transcription. A significant increase in the transcription of allergens Der p 3, Der p 8 and Der p 21 was observed only after exposing mites to a higher concentration of DEPs (10 µg/cm2 ) over a whole generation. In combination, the present results suggest that the analysed factors have low impact on allergen production. The methodology described here offers a sound and rapid approach to the broad-spectrum study of factors affecting allergen-related mite physiology, and allows the simultaneous screening of different factors in a relatively short period with consideration of the full spectrum of allergen genes. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  20. Total costs and budgetary effects of adaptation to climate change. An assessment for the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osberghaus, Daniel; Reif, Christiane [ZEW Mannheim (Germany). Centre for European Economic Research

    2010-08-15

    Adaptation to climate change is gaining increasing relevance in the public debate of climate policy. However, detailed and regionalised cost estimates as a basis for cost-benefit-analyses are rare. We compose available cost estimates for adaptation in Europe, and in particular Germany, Finland and Italy. Furthermore, a systematic overview on fiscal aspects of adaptation is provided, with focus on budgetary effects of adaptation in the different impact sectors. Combining cost estimates, considerations on fiscal aspects and governmental interventions in adaptation processes, we present data-based guesses of public adaptation costs in the EU, divided by impact sectors. The findings show an expectedly large public burden in the adaptation of transport infrastructure and coastal protection, while high adaptation costs in the agriculture sector are predominantly private. The change in energy demand may well lead to a significant decrease in public expenditure. Considering the regional heterogeneity of adaptation measures and the high uncertainty of quantitative adaptation analyses, further research in the form of bottom-up-studies is needed. (orig.)

  1. EFFECTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION ON GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS: REVIEWS IN RELATION WITH EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AND THE MIDDLE EAST COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HILAL YILDIRIR KESER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigate the effects of higher education on global competitiveness One of the most widely accepted definition of global competitiveness is in the form of " efficiency level encompassing all of the institutions that will ensure sustainable growth in a country, policies and factors of production". Therefore the competitiveness of a country depends on the factors such as; The level of development of R & D activities and productivity, performance of various sectors, the country's trade surplus, producing goods hosting high-tech in their nature, availability of expert and skilled labor force. But one of the main points in the realization of these factors is the quality of the higher education. Higher education has an important role in the formation of qualified labour. And the qualified labour carries the competitiveness firstly of the sector and then of the country up to higher ranks by increasing the performance and productivity of the companies. The study will be discussed in the following way: firstly the context of the global competitiveness will be mentioned, secondly, the role and importance of higher education will be put forth by explaining the basic determinants of competitivenes particularly within the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Index. Finally, assessments will be made in relation with the situation of higher education in global competitiveness in European countries and Middle Eastern countries.

  2. The Effects of Detritus Input on Soil Organic Matter Content and Carbon Dioxide Emission in a Central European Deciduous Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEKETE, István

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major objective of our research was to survey soil biological activity and organic mattercontent reduction in a Central European oak forest during treatments of various detritus inputs within theSíkfkút DIRT (Detritus Input and Removal Treatments Project. Beside the control, three detritusremoval and two detritus duplication treatments were applied. Our examinations have proven that soilorganic matter content declined relatively fast in detritus removal treatments. The reduction wasespecially remarkable in root detritus removal treatments, where – due to the lack of transpiration – soilswere moister during the whole year than in the other treatments. The higher moisture content, despite ofthe reduction of detritus input, produced an intense soil respiration. This can be explained by the fact thatdecomposing organisms have increased the use of soil organic matter. Detritus input reduction had asignificantly greater effect on soil respiration and organic matter content than detritus input duplicationof the same extent. The latter did not cause any significant change compared to the control.

  3. Alcohol Gel Ingestion Among Homeless Eastern and Central Europeans in London: Assessing the Effects on Cognitive Functioning and Psychological Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soar, Kirstie; Papaioannou, Grammati; Dawkins, Lynne

    2016-08-23

    Intentional consumption of alcohol-based hand gels has been reported especially amongst non-UK national, alcohol dependent, homeless individuals in London. Whilst alcohol misuse is known to be associated with impaired cognitive functioning and mental health problems, the effects of additional ingestion of alcohol gel are unknown. To explore cognitive and psychological functioning in users who intentionally ingest alcohol gel compared with ethyl-alcohol only misusers and controls. Male, Central and Eastern European alcohol only misusers, (n = 14; mean age 39 years), alcohol gel users (n = 14; mean age 43 years) and controls (n = 12; mean age 31 years) were recruited from a London Homeless Service during 2013/14. Alcohol misusers, alcohol gel users and controls were compared on the Forwards and Backwards Digit Span Test; Block Design test; Retrospective and Prospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) and the Hospital and Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Alcohol gel users performed significantly worse on the Block Design task (p alcohol only and control groups, and significantly worse on the digit span relative to controls (p = .01). Both alcohol misusing groups scored comparatively on digit span backwards (p alcohol gel group reported significantly higher levels of anxiety relative to controls (p = .02). Whilst there could be constitutional differences between alcohol misusers who additionally abuse alcohol gel, the findings suggest that alcohol gel ingestion may have a greater impact on psychological functioning than traditional alcohol misuse.

  4. The effect of social relationships on survival in elderly residents of a Southern European community: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero Angel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative evidence regarding the effects of social relationships on mortality in Mediterranean communities will increase our knowledge of their strengths and the ways in which they influence longevity across cultures. Men and women may benefit differently from social relationships because of cultural differences in gender roles. Psychosocial mechanisms such as social support, which may explain the effects of social networks, may also vary by culture. Methods Detailed information on the social relationships of a representative sample of 1,174 community-dwelling older adults was collected in Leganés, a city in central Spain. Mortality over a 6-year follow-up period was ascertained. Information on socio-demographic, health and disability variables was also collected. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted separately for men and women and for the combined sample. Results Having a confidant was associated with a 25% (95% CI 5–40% reduction in the mortality risk. The hazard ratio for lack of social participation was 1.5 (95% CI 1.3–1.7. Being engaged in meaningful roles protected against mortality, while receipt of emotional support did not affect survival. These results were comparable for men and women. Having contact with all family ties was associated with reduced mortality only in men. Structural aspects of social networks make a unique contribution to survival, independently of emotional support and the role played in the lives of significant others. Conclusion In this elderly Southern European population, the beneficial effects of social networks, social participation, engagement in the life of significant others and having a confidant call for public policies that foster intergenerational and community exchanges.

  5. Global climate change in large European rivers: long-term effects on macroinvertebrate communities and potential local confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floury, Mathieu; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Ferreol, Martial; Delattre, Cecile; Souchon, Yves

    2013-04-01

    Aquatic species living in running waters are widely acknowledged to be vulnerable to climate-induced, thermal and hydrological fluctuations. Climate changes can interact with other environmental changes to determine structural and functional attributes of communities. Although such complex interactions are most likely to occur in a multiple-stressor context as frequently encountered in large rivers, they have received little attention in such ecosystems. In this study, we aimed at specifically addressing the issue of relative long-term effects of global and local changes on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in multistressed large rivers. We assessed effects of hydroclimatic vs. water quality factors on invertebrate community structure and composition over 30 years (1979-2008) in the Middle Loire River, France. As observed in other large European rivers, water warming over the three decades (+0.9 °C between 1979-1988 and 1999-2008) and to a lesser extent discharge reduction (-80 m(3) s(-1) ) were significantly involved in the disappearance or decrease in taxa typical from fast running, cold waters (e.g. Chloroperlidae and Potamanthidae). They explained also a major part of the appearance and increase of taxa typical from slow flowing or standing waters and warmer temperatures, including invasive species (e.g. Corbicula sp. and Atyaephyra desmarestii). However, this shift towards a generalist and pollution tolerant assemblage was partially confounded by local improvement in water quality (i.e. phosphate input reduction by about two thirds and eutrophication limitation by almost one half), explaining a significant part of the settlement of new pollution-sensitive taxa (e.g. the caddisfly Brachycentridae and Philopotamidae families) during the last years of the study period. The regain in such taxa allowed maintaining a certain level of specialization in the invertebrate community despite climate change effects. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Green infrastructure development at European Union's eastern border: Effects of road infrastructure and forest habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Khaulyak, Olha; Yamelynets, Taras; Mozgeris, Gintautas; Naumov, Vladimir; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J; Elbakidze, Marine; Manton, Michael; Prots, Bohdan; Valasiuk, Sviataslau

    2017-05-15

    The functionality of forest patches and networks as green infrastructure may be affected negatively both by expanding road networks and forestry intensification. We assessed the effects of (1) the current and planned road infrastructure, and (2) forest loss and gain, on the remaining large forest landscape massifs as green infrastructure at the EU's eastern border region in post-socialistic transition. First, habitat patch and network functionality in 1996-98 was assessed using habitat suitability index modelling. Second, we made expert interviews about road development with planners in 10 administrative regions in Poland, Belarus and Ukraine. Third, forest loss and gain inside the forest massifs, and gain outside them during the period 2001-14 were measured. This EU cross-border region hosts four remaining forest massifs as regional green infrastructure hotspots. While Poland's road network is developing fast in terms of new freeways, city bypasses and upgrades of road quality, in Belarus and Ukraine the focus is on maintenance of existing roads, and no new corridors. We conclude that economic support from the EU, and thus rapid development of roads in Poland, is likely to reduce the permeability for wildlife of the urban and agricultural matrix around existing forest massifs. However, the four identified forest massifs themselves, forming the forest landscape green infrastructure at the EU's east border, were little affected by road development plans. In contrast, forest loss inside massifs was high, especially in Ukraine. Only in Poland forest loss was balanced by gain. Forest gain outside forest massifs was low. To conclude, pro-active and collaborative spatial planning across different sectors and countries is needed to secure functional forest green infrastructure as base for biodiversity conservation and human well-being. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effects of inter row management intensity on soil physical properties in European vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Thomas; Strauss, Peter; Kumpan, Monika; Guzmán, Gema; Gómez, Jose A.; Stiper, Katrin; Popescou, Daniela; Guernion, Muriel; Nicolai, Annegret; Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann G.

    2017-04-01

    Successful viticulture is mainly depending on soil, climate and management capabilities of vine growers. These factors influence on the availability of water during the growing season which in turn impacts on wine quality and quantity. To protect soil from being eroded many winegrowers try to keep the inter row zones of the vineyards green for as much time as possible. Greening also helps to provide water-stress to the grapes for harvesting high quality wines. However, the management strategies concerning the intensity of inter row management are widely different across Europe. They differ within regions, between regions and between countries and are mainly based on personal experience of the winegrowers. To measure possible effects of inter row management in vineyards on soil physical parameters we selected vineyards with different inter row management intensities in Austria, Romania, France and Spain. In total more than 700 undisturbed core samples (from 3 to 8 cm depth) out of 50 individual vineyards were analysed for saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, soil water retention, aggregate stability, total organic carbon, soil texture and bulk density. The comparison between high intensity management with at least one soil disturbance per year, medium intensity with less frequent soil disturbance and low intensity management with no soil disturbance since at least 5 years indicates that investigated soil physical properties did not necessarily improve for the upper soil layer in every region. The results indicate that the influence of long term and high frequency mechanical stress imposed on soil by use of agricultural machinery in inter rows as well as different fertilization strategies may in some cases exhibit higher impacts on soil physical properties than the different tillage strategies.

  8. Short-term effects of forest disturbances on soil nematode communities in European mountain spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čerevková, A; Renčo, M; Cagáň, L

    2013-09-01

    The nematode communities in spruce forests were compared with the short-term effects of forest damage, caused by windstorm, wildfire and management practices of forest soils. Soil samples were collected in June and October from 2006 to 2008 in four different sites: (1) forest unaffected by the wind (REF); (2) storm-felled forest with salvaged timber (EXT); (3) modified forest affected by timber salvage (wood removal) and forest fire (FIR); and (4) storm-felled forest where timber had been left unsalvaged (NEX). Nematode analysis showed that the dominant species in all four investigated sites were Acrobeloides nanus and Eudorylaimus silvaticus. An increase of A. nanus (35% of the total nematode abundance) in the first year in the FIR site led to the highest total abundance of nematodes compared with other sites, where nematode abundance reached the same level in the third year. In the FIR site bacterial feeders appeared to be the most representative trophic group, although in the second and third year, after disturbance, the abundance of this trophic group gradually decreased. In the NEX site, the number of nematode species, population densities and Maturity Index were similar to that recorded for the FIR site. In EXT and NEX sites, the other dominant species was the plant parasitic nematode Paratylenchus microdorus. Analyses of nematodes extracted from different forest soil samples showed that the highest number of species and diversity index for species (H'spp) were in the REF site. Differences between the nematode fauna in REF and other localities were clearly depicted by cluster analysis. The greatest Structure Index and Enrichment Index values were also in REF. In the EXT site, the number of nematode species, their abundance, H'spp and Maturity Index were not significantly different from those recorded in the reference site.

  9. Tree- and Stand-Level Thinning Effects on Growth of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. on a Northeast- and a Southwest-Facing Slope in Southwest Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Diaconu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anticipated changes in climate and research findings on the drought sensitivity of beech have triggered controversial discussions about the future of European beech. We investigated the growth response of beech on the tree- and stand-level in mature stands to three different thinning intensities (no thinning, strong thinning, very strong thinning on a northeast- and southwest-facing slope in Southwest Germany. Linear mixed-effects models were formulated to describe effects on growth parameters on the tree- and stand-level (diameter, height, basal area, volume. At the stand-level, the stand basal area increment and stand volume increment were lower on the thinned plots. At the tree-level, the basal area increment significantly increased with increasing thinning intensity. The growth of individual trees was also influenced by initial tree size, the size-related rank of the tree within a stand, and by the aspect of the site. Our data indicate that growth of European beech is impaired on the southwest-facing slope with a warmer and drier climate and that a very strong thinning regime applied at advanced age can accelerate growth of European beech trees even on the warmer and drier site. Our findings, therefore, imply that in a warmer climate intensive thinning may also represent an important adaptive forest management measure in European beech stands.

  10. The effects of elevated CO2 and eutrophication on surface elevation gain in a European salt marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reef, Ruth; Spencer, Tom; Mӧller, Iris; Lovelock, Catherine E; Christie, Elizabeth K; McIvor, Anna L; Evans, Ben R; Tempest, James A

    2017-02-01

    Salt marshes can play a vital role in mitigating the effects of global environmental change by dissipating incident storm wave energy and, through accretion, tracking increasing water depths consequent upon sea level rise. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations and nutrient availability are two key variables that can affect the biological processes that contribute to marsh surface elevation gain. We measured the effects of CO2 concentrations and nutrient availability on surface elevation change in intact mixed-species blocks of UK salt marsh using six open-top chambers receiving CO2 -enriched (800 ppm) or ambient (400 ppm) air. We found more rapid surface elevation gain in elevated CO2 conditions: an average increase of 3.4 mm over the growing season relative to ambient CO2 . Boosted regression analysis to determine the relative influence of different parameters on elevation change identified that a 10% reduction in microbial activity in elevated CO2 -grown blocks had a positive influence on elevation. The biomass of Puccinellia maritima also had a positive influence on elevation, while other salt marsh species (e.g. Suaeda maritima) had no influence or a negative impact on elevation. Reduced rates of water use by the vegetation in the high CO2 treatment could be contributing to elevation gain, either directly through reduced soil shrinkage or indirectly by decreasing microbial respiration rates due to lower redox levels in the soil. Eutrophication did not influence elevation change in either CO2 treatment despite doubling aboveground biomass. The role of belowground processes (transpiration, root growth and decomposition) in the vertical adjustment of European salt marshes, which are primarily minerogenic in composition, could increase as atmospheric CO2 concentrations rise and should be considered in future wetland models for the region. Elevated CO2 conditions could enhance resilience in vulnerable systems such as those with low mineral sediment supply or where

  11. Effects of dietary tannin on growth, feed utilization and digestibility, and carcass composition in juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Omnes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based products in fish diets are valuable protein alternatives to fishmeal for the aquafeed industry. Many plant feed ingredients contain polyphenolic compounds, including tannins, which can have beneficial or adverse effects. The tolerable threshold of ingested tannins is unknown for marine carnivorous fishes. We studied the effects of tannic acid (TA supplementation to the diet of juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax by measuring growth, feed utilization and digestibility, and carcass composition. We randomly allocated groups of fish (initial mean body weight of 10.2 ± 0.7 g; n = 40 fish per tank to 12 replicate cylindrical-conical tanks (three per treatment. The fish were assigned to one of four dietary treatments for five weeks: control diet (C with tannin-free protein sources (mostly fishmeal as the base diet, containing 55.7% dry matter (DM crude protein, gross energy 22.3 kJ g−1 DM and three experimental diets supplemented with 10, 20, or 30 g TA kg−1 (called TA1, TA2, and TA3, respectively. Tannin ingestion resulted in significantly decreased cumulative feed intake, growth, feed and protein efficiencies, apparent digestibility coefficients, hepatosomatic index, and carcass lipids. The protein digestibility in fish fed the 10 g kg−1 tannin-containing diet was significantly lower than that in fish fed the control diet. This threshold should be taken into account when using novel terrestrial and aquatic plant ingredients for temperate marine fishes.

  12. Views of parents in four European countries about the effect of food on the mental performance of primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, H; Egan, B; Williams, P; Györei, E; Brands, B; López-Robles, J-C; Campoy, C; Koletzko, B; Decsi, T; Raats, M

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affect the mental performance of children. The importance that parents attribute to food-related determinants, compared with genetic, socio-economic and school environment, was investigated. Parents of school children (aged 4-11) were recruited through state primary schools in four European countries. Interviews were conducted in which participants were asked to sort 18 cards representing possible determinants of four elements of mental performance (attention, learning, mood and behaviour) according to perceived strength of effect. Determinants were identified from the literature and grouped in six categories: food-related, school environment, physical, social, psychological and biological. Effects were scored: 0=none; 1=moderate; and 2=strong. Views were compared between and within countries. Two hundred parents took part (England: 53; Germany: 45; Hungary: 52; Spain: 50). Differences existed between countries in the proportions reporting university education and being in employment. Taking all countries together, parents consider the food category (mean 1.33) to have a lower impact on a child's mental performance than physical (activity and sleep, 1.77), psychological (mood and behaviour, 1.69) and school environment (1.57). Social (1.12) and biological (0.91) determinants were ranked lower than food. Of determinants in the food category, parents thought regularity of meals had more influence on mental performance (1.58) than what a child eats now (1.36), food at school (1.35), nutrition as a baby/infant (1.02). Scope exists to improve parental awareness of the repercussions of their dietary choices for the mental performance of their children.

  13. A European multi-center trial investigating the anti-restenotic effect of intravascular sonotherapy after stenting of de novo lesions (EUROSPAH: EUROpean Sonotherapy Prevention of Arterial Hyperplasia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serruys, P W; Hoye, A; Grollier, G; Colombo, A; Symons, J; Mudra, H

    2004-01-01

    Intravascular sonotherapy (IST) reduces neointimal hyperplasia post-stenting in animal studies. Euro-SPAH is a multi-center, double blind, randomized trial investigating the efficacy of IST to reduce in-stent late loss. Patients with angina or silent ischaemia with stented de novo lesions were randomised to sham or IST. The sample size had a 90% power to detect a late loss difference of 0.21 mm at 6 months. The secondary endpoints were MACE at 1, 6, 12 months and neo-intimal hyperplasia on IVUS at 6 months. At 23 sites in Europe, 403 patients were randomized, with successful treatment with sham or IST in 95.6%. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of baseline demographics or lesion characteristics. Angiographic follow-up was obtained in 89%. In-stent late loss was not significantly different. The restenosis rate at 6 months was 23% in the IST group versus 25% in the sham group. The IVUS measurements confirm the absence of effect of IST on neointimal hyperplasia. At one year, the event-free survival did not significantly differ between the two groups. The use of sonotherapy following stent implantation in de novo lesions does not reduce intra-stent neointimal hyperplasia, or effect the angiographic restenosis rate compared to sham treatment.

  14. Effects of sponsorship disclosure timing on the processing of sponsored content: a study on the effectiveness of European disclosure regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Neijens, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether the timing of sponsorship disclosure affects viewers’ processing of sponsored content, and whether a disclosure influences the persuasive effect of the sponsored content. A model is proposed in which sponsorship disclosure enhances the recognition of sponsored

  15. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF THE CURRENCY REGIME CHANGE SHOCK ON THE EXTERNAL EQUILIBRIUM OF SOME NEW EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA MILEA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization and regionalization, we consider to be important an analysis of the asymmetries from the balances of payments of the member states of the European Union (EU. The propagation of a shock determines different effects in the member states of the European Union, due to the existence of some heterogeneous elements in the structure of these economies. Such a situation implies the risk of occurrence of divergences between the member states regarding the joint decisions with impact on the economic development and the external equilibrium. The article aims at providing a theoretical analysis of the way a shock considered by the authors as being representative affects the current account balance of some countries with different economic characteristics, at least in terms of the foreign exchange regime. The theoretical analysis is followed by an empirical analysis of two European Union countries that have undergone the shock of the exchange rate regime shift generated by the entry into ERM II (Exchange Rate Mechanism II. Our research aims at showing the way in which this shock has been reflected upon the balance of the current account, and if the change of the exchange rate regime has been beneficial or not for the economies analysed. The article is based on wider research studies concerning the matters of external equilibrium, asymmetric shocks and European integration, and which have been developed by the authors during the last three years.

  16. Effects of self-attraction and loading at a regional scale: a test case for the Northwest European Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irazoqui Apecechea, Maialen; Verlaan, Martin; Zijl, Firmijn; Le Coz, Camille; Kernkamp, Herman

    2017-06-01

    The impact of the self-attraction and loading effect (SAL) in a regional 2D barotropic tidal model has been assessed, a term with acknowledged and well-understood importance for global models but omitted for boundary-forced, regional models, for which the implementation of SAL is non-trivial due to its non-local nature. In order to understand the impact of the lack of SAL effects in a regional scale, we have forced a regional model of the Northwest European Continental Shelf and the North Sea (continental shelf model (CSM)) with the SAL potential field derived from a global model (GTSM), in the form of a pressure field. Impacts have been studied in an uncalibrated setup and with only tidal forcing activated, in order to isolate effects. Additionally, the usually adopted simple SAL parameterization, in which the SAL contribution to the total tide is parameterized as a percentage of the barotropic pressure gradient (typically chosen 10%), is also implemented and compared to the results obtained with a full SAL computation. A significant impact on M2 representation is observed in the English Channel, Irish Sea and the west (UK East coast) and south (Belgian and Dutch Coast) of the North Sea, with an impact of up to 20 cm in vector difference terms. The impact of SAL translates into a consistent M2 amplitude and propagation speeds reduction throughout the domain. Results using the beta approximation, with an optimal domain-wide constant value of 1.5%, show a somewhat comparable impact in phase but opposite direction of the impact in amplitude, increasing amplitudes everywhere. In relative terms, both implementations lead to a reduction of the tidal representation error in comparison with the reference run without SAL, with the full SAL approach showing further impacted, improved results. Although the overprediction of tidal amplitudes and propagation speeds in the reference run might have additional sources like the lack of additional dissipative processes and non

  17. Mistletoe Extracts (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy- ... citations. As a subset of the NLM's PubMed bibliographic database, CAM on PubMed features more than 230, ...

  18. Volumizing effects of a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid volumizing filler: prospective European study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial volume loss contributes significantly to facial aging. The 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid (HA formulation used in this study is a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, fully reversible, volumizing filler indicated to restore facial volume. This first prospective study evaluated use in current aesthetic clinical practice. Methods A pan-European evaluation conducted under guidelines of the World Association of Opinion and Marketing Research, the trial comprised a baseline visit (visit 1 and a follow-up (visit 2 at 14 ± 7 days posttreatment. Physicians photographed patients at each visit. Each patient was treated with the 20-mg/mL HA volumizing filler as supplied in standard packaging. Procedural details, aesthetic outcomes, safety, and physician and patient ratings of their experience were recorded. Results Fifteen physicians and 70 patients (91% female; mean age: 50 years participated. Mean volume loss at baseline was 3.7 (moderate on the Facial Volume Loss Scale. Local anesthesia was used in 64.3% of cases. Most injections (85% were administered with needles rather than cannulas. Of the 208 injections, 59% were in the malar region, primarily above the periosteum. Subcutaneous injections were most common for other sites. The mean total injection volume per patient was 4.6 mL. The mean volume loss score declined significantly (P Conclusion The 20-mg/mL smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, volumizing HA filler was effective, well tolerated, and easy to use in current clinical practice. Participants were very likely to recommend this product to colleagues and friends, and patients would be very or quite likely to request this product for future treatments.

  19. Projected effects of climate change on the carbon stocks of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. forests in Zala County, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somogyi Zoltán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that climate change will lead to the local extinction of many tree species from large areas during this century, affecting the functioning and ecosystem services of many forests. This study reports on projected carbon losses due to the assumed local climate change-driven extinction of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Zala County, South-Western Hungary, where the species grows at the xeric limit of its distribution. The losses were calculated as a difference between carbon stocks in climate change scenarios assuming an exponentially increasing forest decline over time, and those in a baseline scenario assuming no climate change. In the climate change scenarios, three different sets of forest management adaptation measures were studied: (1 only harvesting damaged stands, (2 additionally salvaging dead trees that died due to climate change, and (3 replacing, at an increasing rate over time, beech with sessile oak (Quercus petraea Matt. Lieb. after final harvest. Projections were made using the open access carbon accounting model CASMOFOR based on modeling or assuming effects of climate change on mortality, tree growth, root-to-shoot ratio and decomposition rates. Results demonstrate that, if beech disappears from the region as projected by the end of the century, over 80% of above-ground biomass carbon, and over 60% of the carbon stocks of all pools (excluding soils of the forests will be lost by 2100. Such emission rates on large areas may have a discernible positive feedback on climate change, and can only partially be offset by the forest management adaptation measures.

  20. Climate variability and planktonic communities: The effect of an extreme event (severe drought) in a southern European estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Sónia Cotrim; Azeiteiro, Ulisses Miranda; Martinho, Filipe; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo

    2007-07-01

    As a consequence of climate change, flood and drought events are increasing in frequency throughout the world. Nevertheless, knowledge of the effects on zooplankton estuarine communities is still scarce. The present study aimed to examine zooplankton ecology over two contrasting environmental conditions: regular years and extreme dry years, in a shallow temperate southern European estuary, the Mondego Estuary (Portugal). Monthly samples were carried out during three consecutive years: 2003 characterized as a regular temperate year concerning precipitation and river flow, and an extremely dry period during 2004-2005. The spatial and temporal structure of the biological data was evaluated by a three-mode principal component analysis (PCA), which allowed us to distinguish three distinct ecological areas based on their biological composition and their relationship with hydrologic parameters. The severe drought in 2004-2005 was responsible for spatial shifts in the estuary regarding zooplankton community and interannual variability, with an increase in abundance and diversity during the period of low freshwater flow. This freshwater flow regime influenced the composition of the zooplankton community at the most upstream section of Mondego estuary (zone 3), with a replacement of the freshwater community by one predominantly dominated by estuarine organisms. The occurrence of such estuarine community contributed to the increase in zooplankton abundance which is ascribed to the estuarine species Acartia tonsa. The comparison with previous data obtained for this estuarine ecosystem, demonstrated the occurrence of a different scenario at times of high freshwater flow, being defined the existence of two sub-estuarine systems, the north and south arm, presenting the south one the highest values of abundance.

  1. Masking effect of anti-androgens on androgenic activity in European river sediment unveiled by effect-directed analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, J.M.; Hamers, T.; Thomas, K.; van der Linden, S.C.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    This study shows that the androgen receptor agonistic potency is clearly concealed by the effects of androgen receptor antagonists in a total sediment extract, demonstrating that toxicity screening of total extracts is not enough to evaluate the full in vitro endocrine disrupting potential of a

  2. Design and preparation of market baskets of European Union commercial baby foods for the assessment of infant exposure to food chemicals and to their effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, R; Pandelova, M; Le Donne, C; Ferrari, M; Schramm, K-W; Leclercq, C

    2010-10-01

    The assessment of acute and chronic dietary exposure to contaminants in baby foods is needed to ensure healthy infant growth. Monthly European Union market baskets of commercial baby foods were designed for the first 9 months of life by the 'babyfood' study group of the CASCADE Network of Excellence for the specific purpose of assessing exposure to potentially toxic substances in infants fed with such foods. The present paper reports the different steps that led to the preparation of monthly pooled samples of commercial baby foods ('Infant formulae and follow-on formulae' and 'Other baby foods') that may constitute the extreme case of the diet for an infant who would not be breast fed at all. Several market baskets were generated for an 'average European Union infant' and for infants of four selected countries (Italy, Sweden, Spain, and the Slovakia), fed with either milk infant formulae, soy infant formulae or hypoallergenic infant formulae and weaned (at the fifth month) with commercial baby foods and beverages available on the European Union market. Market share data for 2007 for baby foods were used to design the baskets. Holding companies and the name of all their products were identified. Monthly diets for European Union infants were elaborated in terms of food categories (e.g. infant cereals) of typologies of products (e.g. infant cereals without gluten) and of a specific product. The number of baskets generated was 30 for 'Infant formulae and follow-on formulae' (including 62 products) and 13 for 'Other baby foods' (including 35 products). These market baskets were designed to be used for the determination of certain contaminants and nutrients in the diet of European Union infants and for the assessment of their effects on infant health.

  3. Molecular characterization of the recombinant A-chain of a type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) from Viscum album coloratum and structural basis on its ribosome-inactivating activity and the sugar-binding properties of the B-chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wenhui; Nanga, Ravi Prakash Reddy; Kang, Cong Bao; Song, Joo-Hye; Song, Seong Kyu; Yoon, Ho Sup

    2006-09-30

    Mistletoe (Viscum album) lectins, which are classified as a type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) due to their unique biological function and the potential medical and therapeutic application in cancer cells, receive a rising attention. The heterodimeric glycoproteins contain the Achain with catalytic activity and the B-chain with sugar binding properties. In recent years, studies involving the lectins from the white berry European mistletoe (Viscum album) and the yellow berry Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) have been described. However, the detailed mechanism in exerting unique cytotoxic effect on cancer cells still remains unclear. Here, we aim to understand and define the molecular basis and biological effects of the type II RIPs, through the studies of the recombinant Korean mistletoe lectin. To this end, we expressed, purified the recombinant Korean mistletoe lectin (rKML), and investigated its molecular characteristics in vitro, its cytotoxicity and ability to induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells. To gain structural basis for its catalytic activity and sugar binding properties, we performed homology modeling studies based on the high degree of sequence identity and conserved secondary structure prediction between Korean and European, Himalayan mistletoe lectins, and Ricin.

  4. Effect of species composition on carbon and nitrogen stocks in forest floor and mineral soil in Norway spruce and European beech mixed forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andivia, Enrique; Rolo, Víctor; Jonard, Mathieu; Formánek, Pavel; Ponette, Quentin

    2015-04-01

    Management of existing forests has been identified as the main strategy to enhance carbon sequestration and to mitigate the impact of climate change on forest ecosystems. In this direction, the conversion of Norway spruce monospecific stands into mixed stands by intermingling individuals of European beech is an ongoing trend in adaptive forest management strategies, especially in Central Europe. However, studies assessing the effect of changes in tree species composition on soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen stocks are still scarce and there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting tree species selection as a feasible management option to mitigate the effects of predicted future climatic scenarios. We compared C and N stocks in the forest floor (litter and humus) and the top 10 cm of mineral soil in two monospecific stands of Norway spruce and European beech and in a mixed stand of both species. The effect of tree species composition on the C and N stocks and its spatial distribution was evaluated based on litterfall, root production, elevation and canopy opening, and by using a combination of modelling and geostatistical techniques. C stock was highest in the Norway spruce and the mixed stands, while N stock was highest in the mixed stand and lowest under European beech, with intermediate values in the Norway spruce stand. Each forest type showed differences in forest floor properties, suggesting that species composition is an important factor governing forest floor characteristics, including C and N stocks. The distribution of C and N stocks between forest soil layers was different for each forest type. C and N stocks were highest in the hummus layer under Norway spruce, whereas both stocks were lowest in the European beech stand. On the other hand, the mixed stand showed the highest C and N accumulation in the uppermost mineral soil layer, while the monospecific stands showed similar values. Litterfall was the main contribution to C and N stocks of the

  5. Comparative contraceptive effectiveness of levonorgestrel-releasing and copper intrauterine devices: the European Active Surveillance Study for Intrauterine Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Klaas; Reed, Suzanne; Moehner, Sabine; Minh, Thai Do

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to measure the rate of unintended pregnancies in women using levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems (LNG IUSs, releasing 20 mcg LNG daily) and copper intrauterine devices (IUDs) in a typical population of IUD users and to describe associated complications. A multinational, prospective, non-interventional cohort study of new users of LNG IUS and copper IUDs was performed. Following a baseline survey, study participants and their physicians completed one follow-up questionnaire after 12 months. A multifaceted four-level follow-up procedure minimized loss to follow-up. Patient-reported outcomes were validated by the treating physicians. A total of 61,448 women with a newly inserted IUD were enrolled in six European countries between 2006 and 2012. The copper IUD cohort contained more than 30 different types. Validated 1-year follow-up information for 58,324 users between 18 and 50 years of age (70% using LNG IUS, 30% using copper IUDs) was collected. A total of 118 contraceptive failures occurred (26 LNG, 92 copper). Both types of IUD were highly effective, with overall Pearl indices of 0.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.09] and 0.52 (95% CI: 0.42-0.64) for LNG IUS and copper IUDs, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio for LNG IUS vs. copper IUDs was 0.16 (95% CI: 0.10-0.25). Tenty-one pregnancies (7 LNG IUS, 14 copper IUD) were ectopic, yielding an adjusted hazard ratio for ectopic pregnancy of 0.26 (95% CI: 0.10-0.66). The contraceptive failure rate was low with both IUDs. However, the LNG IUS was associated with a significantly lower risk of pregnancy, including ectopic pregnancy, than the copper IUDs. To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale, multinational, prospective epidemiological study to measure and compare the contraceptive effectiveness of LNG IUSs and copper IUDs during routine clinical practice. Clinicians and patients should be aware of differences in rates of unintended pregnancies and associated complications

  6. Health effects of some aquatic pollutants in European flounder : Laboratory experiments with emphasis on histopathological and immunological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinwis, G.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Triggered by the concern over relative high prevalences of liver tumors, skin ulcers and the viral lymphocystis disease in European flounder (Platichthys flesus) living in Dutch coastal and estuarine waters, an integrated study was initiated to investigate a possible causal relationship between

  7. European feelings of deprivation amidst the financial crisis : Effects of welfare state effort and informal social relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeskens, T.; van Oorschot, W.J.H.

    As European governments have embraced the credo of austerity, the perennial discussion whether welfare states erode the quality of social networks has taken on a more prominent position on political and social science research agendas. While non-believers of this so-called ‘crowding out’ thesis

  8. Effects of water temperature on summer periphyton biomass in shallow lakes: a pan-European mesocosm experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahdy, A.; Hilt, S.; Filiz, N.; Beklioglu, M.; Hejzlar, Josef; Özkundakci, D.; Papastergiadou, E.; Scharfenberger, U.; Šorf, Michal; Stefanidis, K.; Tuvikene, L.; Zingel, P.; Sondergaard, M.; Jeppesen, E.; Adrian, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 3 (2015), s. 499-510 ISSN 1015-1621 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11059 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 244121 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : climate change * eutrophication * epiphyton * grazing * top-down control Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.398, year: 2015

  9. Species-specific effects of Asian and European earthworms on microbial communities in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworm species with different feeding, burrowing, and/or casting behaviors can lead to distinct microbial communities through complex direct and indirect processes. European earthworm invasion into temperate deciduous forests in North America has been shown to alter microbial biomass in the soil ...

  10. The effect of certification and accreditation on quality management in 4 clinical services in 73 European hospitals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaw, C.D.; Groene, O.; Botje, D.; Suñol, R.; Kutryba, B.; Klazinga, N.; Bruneau, C.; Hammer, A.; Wang, A.; Arah, O.A.; Wagner, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between ISO 9001 certification, healthcare accreditation and quality management in European hospitals. Design: A mixed method multi-level cross-sectional design in seven countries. External teams assessed clinical services on the use of quality management

  11. The Mandatory Introduction of IFRS as a Single Accounting Standard in the European Union and the Effect on Earnings Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.W. Lippens (Mark)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary In this study, it was investigated whether the mandatory adoption of IFRS from 1 January 2005 by all listed companies in the European Union led to significantly lower levels of earnings management. I found that, despite the stricter character of IFRS compared to

  12. The effect of dietary estimates calculated using food frequency questionnaires on micronuclei formation in European pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vande Loock, Kim; Botsivali, Maria; Zangogianni, Marina

    2014-01-01

    was performed by applying the same experimental protocol for the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay in 625 young healthy women after delivery from five European study populations (Greece, Denmark, UK, Spain and Norway). We assessed MN frequencies in mono- and binucleated T-lymphocytes (MNMONO and MNBN...

  13. Effect of medication-related factors on adherence in people with schizophrenia: a European multi-centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, Johanna; Becker, Thomas; Patel, Anita; Robson, Debbie; Schene, Aart; Kikkert, Martijn; Barbui, Corrado; Burti, Lorenzo; Puschner, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relation between medication-related factors and adherence in people with schizophrenia in outpatient treatment. The sample comprised 409 outpatients (ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia) with clinician-rated instability in four European cities (Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Verona,

  14. Gastrointestinal and metabolic effects of feeding schedule on voluntary feed intake and growth of European eel, Anguilla anguilla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Goedegebuur, B.J.; Bloemhof, G.; Flach, R.B.; Jong, de G.D.C.

    2008-01-01

    Gastrointestinal and metabolic influences on short- and medium-term control of voluntary feed intake of European eel were investigated for groups of fish fed at different feeding schedules: 1 meal 2 days(-1), 1 meal day(-1), 2 meals day(-1) and continuous feeding for 12 h and 24 h daily. For fish

  15. Priming religion: The effects of religious issues in the news coverage on public attitudes towards European integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinrichsen, M.; Boomgaarden, H.; de Vreese, C.; van der Brug, W.; Hobolt, S.B.

    2012-01-01

    Religion can affect public support for the European Union (EU). However, specifying the circumstances under which religion may become a stronger predictor of EU-support has so far been neglected. This article shows that the media play a role in this process and it is investigated to what extent the

  16. Modelling the effect of support practices (P-factor) on the reduction of soil erosion by water at European Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagos, P.; Borrelli, P.; Meusburger, K.; van der Zanden, E.H.; Poesen, J.; Alewell, C.

    2015-01-01

    The USLE/RUSLE support practice factor (P-factor) is rarely taken into account in soil erosion risk modelling at sub-continental scale, as it is difficult to estimate for large areas. This study attempts to model the P-factor in the European Union. For this, it considers the latest policy

  17. Effects of organic management on water-extractable organic matter and C mineralization in European arable soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinari, S.; Liburdi, K.; Fliessbach, A.; Kalbitz, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) content and its properties can be used to distinguish conventionally (CONV) from organically (ORG) managed arable soils as responsible for C mineralization. We sampled soils at three different European sites located

  18. Effect of nationwide tobacco control policies on smoking cessation in high and low educated groups in 18 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, M. M.; Kunst, A. E.; Leinsalu, M.; Regidor, E.; Ekholm, O.; Dzurova, D.; Helmert, U.; Klumbiene, J.; Santana, P.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently a scale was introduced to quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies at country level. Our study used this scale to examine the potential impact of these policies on quit ratios in European countries. Special attention was given to smoking cessation among lower

  19. The “New” Environmental Policy of the European Union: A Path to Development of a Circular Economy and Mitigation of the Negative Effects of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysokińska Zofia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the evolution of the new environmental policy of the European Union in the context of the efforts undertaken to moderate the negative effects of climate change. It describes all the activities in the European Union designed to implement new tools of the EU environmental policy, such as low carbon economy technologies, tools that improve the efficiency of managing the limited natural resources, the environmentally friendly transport package, etc. All of them are aimed at laying the foundations of the circular economy, which may also be referred to as a closed-loop economy, i.e., an economy that does not generate excessive waste and whereby any waste becomes a resource.

  20. Effects of an experimental increase of temperature and drought on the photosynthetic performance of two ericaceous shrub species along a north-south European gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llorens, L.; Penuelas, J.; Beier, C.

    2004-01-01

    Plant ecophysiological changes in response to climatic change may be different in northern and southern European countries because different abiotic factors constrain plant physiological activity. We studied the effects of experimental warming and drought on the photosynthetic performance of two...... ericaceous shrubs (Erica multiflora and Calluna vulgaris) along a European gradient of temperature and precipitation (UK, Denmark, The Netherlands, and Spain). At each site, a passive warming treatment was applied during the night throughout the whole year, whereas the drought treatment excluded rain events...... with the geographical gradient in water availability. Accordingly, there was a strong correlation between net photosynthetic rates and the accumulated rainfall over the growing season. Droughted plants showed lower leaf gas exchange rates than control plants in the four sites. Interestingly, although leaf...

  1. Feeling close and doing well: the prevalence and motivational effects of interpersonally engaging emotions in Mexican and European American cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Krishna; Alvarez, Ayme; Mesquita, Batja; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigate whether interpersonally engaging emotions--those that bring the self closer to others (e.g., affection, shame)--are central to the model of self and relationships prevalent in Mexican cultural contexts. Study 1 demonstrated that compared to people in European American contexts, people in Mexican contexts were more likely to report experiencing interpersonally engaging emotions and less likely to report experiencing interpersonally disengaging emotions. Study 2 found that interpersonally engaging emotions had a substantial influence on performance motivation in Mexican contexts--Mexican participants solved more word search puzzles after recalling instances in which they experienced positive interpersonally engaging emotions, and fewer after recalling negative interpersonally disengaging emotions; in contrast, there were no differences by condition for European Americans. These findings significantly extend previous research by documenting the implications of relational concerns (e.g., simpatia, personalismo) for emotion and motivation in Mexican contexts, and are the first to demonstrate the motivational effects of interpersonally engaging emotions.

  2. Opposite Effects of Early-Life Competition and Developmental Telomere Attrition on Cognitive Biases in Juvenile European Starlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bateson

    Full Text Available Moods are enduring affective states that we hypothesise should be affected by an individual's developmental experience and its current somatic state. We tested whether early-life adversity, induced by manipulating brood size, subsequently altered juvenile European starlings' (Sturnus vulgaris decisions in a judgment bias task designed to provide a cognitive measure of mood. We predicted that starlings from larger broods, specifically those that had experienced more nest competitors larger than themselves would exhibit reduced expectation of reward, indicative of a 'pessimistic', depression-like mood. We used a go/no-go task, in which 30 starlings were trained to probe a grey card disc associated with a palatable mealworm hidden underneath and avoid a different shade of grey card disc associated with a noxious quinine-injected mealworm hidden underneath. Birds' response latencies to the trained stimuli and also to novel, ambiguous stimuli intermediate between these were subsequently tested. Birds that had experienced greater competition in the nest were faster to probe trained stimuli, and it was therefore necessary to control statistically for this difference in subsequent analyses of the birds' responses to the ambiguous stimuli. As predicted, birds with more, larger nest competitors showed relatively longer latencies to probe ambiguous stimuli, suggesting reduced expectation of reward and a 'pessimistic', depression-like mood. However, birds with greater developmental telomere attrition--a measure of cellular aging associated with increased morbidity and reduced life-expectancy that we argue could be used as a measure of somatic state--showed shorter latencies to probe ambiguous stimuli. This would usually be interpreted as evidence for a more positive or 'optimistic' affective state. Thus, increased competition in the nest and poor current somatic state appear to have opposite effects on cognitive biases. Our results lead us to question

  3. Opposite Effects of Early-Life Competition and Developmental Telomere Attrition on Cognitive Biases in Juvenile European Starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Melissa; Emmerson, Michael; Ergün, Gökçe; Monaghan, Pat; Nettle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Moods are enduring affective states that we hypothesise should be affected by an individual's developmental experience and its current somatic state. We tested whether early-life adversity, induced by manipulating brood size, subsequently altered juvenile European starlings' (Sturnus vulgaris) decisions in a judgment bias task designed to provide a cognitive measure of mood. We predicted that starlings from larger broods, specifically those that had experienced more nest competitors larger than themselves would exhibit reduced expectation of reward, indicative of a 'pessimistic', depression-like mood. We used a go/no-go task, in which 30 starlings were trained to probe a grey card disc associated with a palatable mealworm hidden underneath and avoid a different shade of grey card disc associated with a noxious quinine-injected mealworm hidden underneath. Birds' response latencies to the trained stimuli and also to novel, ambiguous stimuli intermediate between these were subsequently tested. Birds that had experienced greater competition in the nest were faster to probe trained stimuli, and it was therefore necessary to control statistically for this difference in subsequent analyses of the birds' responses to the ambiguous stimuli. As predicted, birds with more, larger nest competitors showed relatively longer latencies to probe ambiguous stimuli, suggesting reduced expectation of reward and a 'pessimistic', depression-like mood. However, birds with greater developmental telomere attrition--a measure of cellular aging associated with increased morbidity and reduced life-expectancy that we argue could be used as a measure of somatic state--showed shorter latencies to probe ambiguous stimuli. This would usually be interpreted as evidence for a more positive or 'optimistic' affective state. Thus, increased competition in the nest and poor current somatic state appear to have opposite effects on cognitive biases. Our results lead us to question whether increased

  4. The effect of urban geometry on mean radiant temperature under future climate change: a study of three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Lindberg, Fredrik; Rayner, David; Thorsson, Sofia

    2015-07-01

    Future anthropogenic climate change is likely to increase the air temperature (T(a)) across Europe and increase the frequency, duration and magnitude of severe heat stress events. Heat stress events are generally associated with clear-sky conditions and high T(a), which give rise to high radiant heat load, i.e. mean radiant temperature (T(mrt)). In urban environments, T mrt is strongly influenced by urban geometry. The present study examines the effect of urban geometry on daytime heat stress in three European cities (Gothenburg in Sweden, Frankfurt in Germany and Porto in Portugal) under present and future climates, using T(mrt) as an indicator of heat stress. It is found that severe heat stress occurs in all three cities. Similar maximum daytime T(mrt) is found in open areas in all three cities despite of the latitudinal differences in average daytime T(mrt). In contrast, dense urban structures like narrow street canyons are able to mitigate heat stress in the summer, without causing substantial changes in T(mrt) in the winter. Although the T(mrt) averages are similar for the north-south and east-west street canyons in each city, the number of hours when T(mrt) exceeds the threshold values of 55.5 and 59.4 °C-used as indicators of moderate and severe heat stress-in the north-south canyons is much higher than that in the east-west canyons. Using statistically downscaled data from a regional climate model, it is found that the study sites were generally warmer in the future scenario, especially Porto, which would further exacerbate heat stress in urban areas. However, a decrease in solar radiation in Gothenburg and Frankfurt reduces T(mrt) in the spring, while the reduction in T(mrt) is somewhat offset by increasing T(a) in other seasons. It suggests that changes in the T(mrt) under the future scenario are dominated by variations in T(a). Nonetheless, the intra-urban differences remain relatively stable in the future. These findings suggest that dense urban

  5. Lack of application of the European Work Time Directive: effects on workload, work satisfaction and burnout among Italian physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gnerre

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Italian Parliament has excluded hospital physicians from the application of the European Work Time Directive (EWTD, which imposes a maximum workweek of 48 h and compulsory resting periods. This resulted in extended and excessive work time for the category. This paper is aimed at evaluating the impact of this legislation gap, by assessing the presence of excessive work-related stress and risk for burnout syndrome among Italian physicians working in public hospitals. This observational study is based on an on-line survey conducted on a sample of 1925 Italian doctors (covering a wide range of age, work experience and contractual positions from October 2014 to February 2015. The questionnaire included 30 questions concerning their personal and professional life (e.g., assessment of workloads, number of uncomfortable or extra shifts, unused days-off, etc.. On the basis of the results, it can be inferred that the average Italian doctor working in public hospitals is under considerable stress at work with negative consequences on his health. He is exposed to high risk of suffering from sleep disorders and cardiovascular diseases (due to the lack of time for private practice and eating regular meals. Overall, his perception is that his job worsens his quality of life. This study shows the relevance of the risk of burnout among Italian physicians employed in public hospitals due to severe workload and work conditions. The resulting impact on the quality of care and the significant cost involved - both in human and economic terms - calls for significant emergency measures by the Italian health work organization. An important increase and prolonged working time is associated with a worsening of the objective cognitive performance and an increase of clinical risk, but also to an increased risk of diseases for operators and of the burnout syndrome. Our survey shows that lack of application of the EWTD has adverse effects on the quality of life and

  6. Total Phenol Content and In Vitro Antioxidant Potential of Helicanthus elastica (Desr. Danser-A Less-explored Indian Mango Mistletoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppala Narayana Sunil Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are an important source of antioxidant molecules like tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, etc., Helicanthus elastica (Desr. Danser (Loranthaceae is one such plant belonging to the category of mistletoe, and grows commonly on the mango trees in India. In the present study, an attempt has been made to assess the antioxidant properties of the plant. Ethanol extract of H. elastica growing on mango tree was studied using different in vitro models. Shade-dried whole plant material was extracted with ethanol by cold percolation. Fifty milligrams of the alcohol extract of H. elastica was weighed and dissolved in 10 ml of methanol. The resultant 5 mg/ml solution was suitably diluted to obtain different concentrations. Total phenol content, reducing power assay, and scavenging of free radicals like nitric oxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl were studied by standardized in vitro chemical methods using ascorbic acid as the standard. The total phenol content of the plant was found to be 1.89% w/w. The extract showed good reducing power as well as scavenging of free radicals (nitric oxide, hydroxyl, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide at concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 μg/ml. The study revealed the antioxidant potential of H. elastica.

  7. [Mechanics and effects of European reference pricing for vaccines in Germany according to §130a Abs. 2 SGB V: an analysis using the example of influenza vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, J; Hammerschmidt, T; Vollmar, J; Bierbaum, M; Schöffski, O

    2014-04-01

    On 01 January 2011 the bill for the reorganisation of the pharmaceutical market became effective. Since that time there is a European reference pricing (ERP) system for vaccines in order to bring down the German vaccine prices to an assumed lower European level. This study describes the implementation, functioning and effect of this new system. For influenza vaccines the impact of ERP on the price level and spread of prices is analysed. The description of the mechanism is based on the law and corresponding regulations of the head association of sickness funds (GKV-SV). The analysis of vaccine prices is based on the data of the i:data report (status of 01 September 2011) of ifap Service Institute. The European reference price is calculated as the average price of the manufacturer-selling-prices of the corresponding vaccine in the 4 countries of the European Union whose gross national income comes closest to the German one and in which the vaccine is distributed. The relied prices are weighted by sales and purchasing power parities of the respective countries. This analysis suggests that in particular the practical implementation of the reference price system should be further improved and specified. The calculation of the reference prices should ensure price comparability. In addition, significant problems remain in the deduction of discounts, because no distinction is made in the documentation of vaccinating doctors, whether vaccination was performed as a compulsory or statutory benefit. The comparison of the manufacturer-selling-prices of individual influenza vaccines with the corresponding reference prices shows an enlargement of the existing price differences, which have evolved in a competitive environment, after the implementation of the reference pricing -system. There is still a need for improvement in implementing the reference pricing system. In the most competitive vaccine market of influenza vaccines, the ERP-system lowers the prices, but seems to

  8. Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality: an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre ESCAPE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, Rob; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Stafoggia, Massimo; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Barbara; Wolf, Kathrin; Samoli, Evangelia; Fischer, Paul; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Vineis, Paolo; Xun, Wei W; Katsouyanni, Klea; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Modig, Lars; Havulinna, Aki S; Lanki, Timo; Turunen, Anu; Oftedal, Bente; Nystad, Wenche; Nafstad, Per; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Penell, Johanna; Korek, Michal; Pershagen, Göran; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Overvad, Kim; Ellermann, Thomas; Eeftens, Marloes; Peeters, Petra H; Meliefste, Kees; Wang, Meng; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Sugiri, Dorothea; Krämer, Ursula; Heinrich, Joachim; de Hoogh, Kees; Key, Timothy; Peters, Annette; Hampel, Regina; Concin, Hans; Nagel, Gabriele; Ineichen, Alex; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Künzli, Nino; Schindler, Christian; Schikowski, Tamara; Adam, Martin; Phuleria, Harish; Vilier, Alice; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Declercq, Christophe; Grioni, Sara; Krogh, Vittorio; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Galassi, Claudia; Migliore, Enrica; Ranzi, Andrea; Cesaroni, Giulia; Badaloni, Chiara; Forastiere, Francesco; Tamayo, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Katsoulis, Michail; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    Few studies on long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been reported from Europe. Within the multicentre European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we aimed to investigate the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to several air pollutants. We used data from 22 European cohort studies, which created a total study population of 367,251 participants. All cohorts were general population samples, although some were restricted to one sex only. With a strictly standardised protocol, we assessed residential exposure to air pollutants as annual average concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with diameters of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), less than 10 μm (PM10), and between 10 μm and 2.5 μm (PMcoarse), PM2.5 absorbance, and annual average concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx), with land use regression models. We also investigated two traffic intensity variables-traffic intensity on the nearest road (vehicles per day) and total traffic load on all major roads within a 100 m buffer. We did cohort-specific statistical analyses using confounder models with increasing adjustment for confounder variables, and Cox proportional hazards models with a common protocol. We obtained pooled effect estimates through a random-effects meta-analysis. The total study population consisted of 367,251 participants who contributed 5,118,039 person-years at risk (average follow-up 13.9 years), of whom 29,076 died from a natural cause during follow-up. A significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) for PM2.5 of 1.07 (95% CI 1.02-1.13) per 5 μg/m(3) was recorded. No heterogeneity was noted between individual cohort effect estimates (I(2) p value=0.95). HRs for PM2.5 remained significantly raised even when we included only participants exposed to pollutant concentrations lower than the European annual mean limit value of 25 μg/m(3) (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00-1.12) or below 20 μg/m(3) (1.07, 1.01-1.13). Long-term exposure to fine

  9. Antitumor Effect of KML-B-Treated Dendritic Cells via Induction of Lymphocyte Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Jin Kim; Yun-Ho Hwang; Kyung-Yun Kang; Sung-Ju Lee; Jong-Bae Kim; Jina Choi; Sung-Tae Yee

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins with various biological activities, such as antitumor and immunomodulatory effects. Although lectins have various biological activities, they are still limited by cytotoxicity in normal cells. To overcome this problem, we used the noncytotoxic part of Korean mistletoe lectin B-chain (KML-B) to induce maturation of dendritic cells (DCs). A previous study reported that KML-B induces DC maturation by triggering TLR-4, including expression of costimulator...

  10. Gendering European welfare states and citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Borchorst, Anette

    2017-01-01

    on gender, class, ethnicity or race, and nationality. One issue is what has been the effect of the European emphasis on women’s wage work and gender equality policies for women in different European countries? Another issue concerns how multiple discrimination is tackled and institutionalized in European......The chapter revisits the feminist scholarship on gendering of European welfare states and European citizenship, and reflects on the effects of globalization, Europeanization and migration. It first presents feminist perspectives on the liberal, the conservative and the social democratic welfare...... welfare states. A third issue is to what extent the Nordic welfare states still represent an attractive alternative model of social and gender equality to neo-liberalism. The final part discusses feminist approaches to reframe gender equality and gender justice from the transnational European contexts....

  11. Having a Say and Acting: Assessing the effectiveness of the European Employment Strategy as an intra-governmental coordinative instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariely López-Santana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available As the European Union (EU has strengthened, scholars have emphasized the development of multilevel governance structures and the salience of subnational actors. With the launch of the Open Method of Coordination and the increasing development of non-binding regulations, we must re-consider the potential of this type of governance instrument to serve as an intergovernmental and intra-governmental coordinative mechanism; thus contributing to the development of multilevel governance structures. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on the implementation of the European Employment Strategy and its potential to serve as an intra-governmental coordinative instrument. I argue that this non-binding instrument does informally (de facto influence intra-governmental relations in member states. In addition, subnational actors have transferred many of these soft principles to lower levels of government. These propositions are explored using data gathered in the EU, Spain, Belgium, and Sweden at both the national and the sub national levels.

  12. Modelling effects of temperature and oxygen on the population dynamics of the European sturgeon using dynamic energy budget theory

    OpenAIRE

    Vaugeois, M.; Lambert, P.; Baudrimont, M.; J. Cachot

    2016-01-01

    European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio) is an anadromous fish that breeds in rivers and which was previously found on most coasts of Europe. The last population of this species, nowadays listed as critically endangered, is reproducing in the Garonne basin near Bordeaux, south-west of France. In order to avoid extinction, the applied strategy since 1985 has been to release young fish into natural environment. These young individuals resulted from the assisted reproduction of wild and/or captive m...

  13. Genome-wide analysis of parent-of-origin interaction effects with environmental exposure (PoOxE): An application to European and Asian cleft palate trios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Øystein A; Jugessur, Astanand; Gjerdevik, Miriam; Romanowska, Julia; Shi, Min; Beaty, Terri H; Marazita, Mary L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Wilcox, Allen J; Lie, Rolv T; Gjessing, Håkon K

    2017-01-01

    Cleft palate only is a common birth defect with high heritability. Only a small fraction of this heritability is explained by the genetic variants identified so far, underscoring the need to investigate other disease mechanisms, such as gene-environment (GxE) interactions and parent-of-origin (PoO) effects. Furthermore, PoO effects may vary across exposure levels (PoOxE effects). Such variation is the focus of this study. We upgraded the R-package Haplin to enable direct tests of PoOxE effects at the genome-wide level. From a previous GWAS, we had genotypes for 550 case-parent trios, of mainly European and Asian ancestry, and data on three maternal exposures (smoking, alcohol, and vitamins). Data were analyzed for Europeans and Asians separately, and also for all ethnicities combined. To account for multiple testing, a false discovery rate method was used, where q-values were generated from the p-values. In the Europeans-only analyses, interactions with maternal smoking yielded the lowest q-values. Two SNPs in the 'Interactor of little elongation complex ELL subunit 1' (ICE1) gene had a q-value of 0.14, and five of the 20 most significant SNPs were in the 'N-acetylated alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase-like 2' (NAALADL2) gene. No evidence of PoOxE effects was found in the other analyses. The connections to ICE1 and NAALADL2 are novel and warrant further investigation. More generally, the new methodology presented here is easily applicable to other traits and exposures in which a family-based study design has been implemented.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of parent-of-origin interaction effects with environmental exposure (PoOxE: An application to European and Asian cleft palate trios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein A Haaland

    Full Text Available Cleft palate only is a common birth defect with high heritability. Only a small fraction of this heritability is explained by the genetic variants identified so far, underscoring the need to investigate other disease mechanisms, such as gene-environment (GxE interactions and parent-of-origin (PoO effects. Furthermore, PoO effects may vary across exposure levels (PoOxE effects. Such variation is the focus of this study. We upgraded the R-package Haplin to enable direct tests of PoOxE effects at the genome-wide level. From a previous GWAS, we had genotypes for 550 case-parent trios, of mainly European and Asian ancestry, and data on three maternal exposures (smoking, alcohol, and vitamins. Data were analyzed for Europeans and Asians separately, and also for all ethnicities combined. To account for multiple testing, a false discovery rate method was used, where q-values were generated from the p-values. In the Europeans-only analyses, interactions with maternal smoking yielded the lowest q-values. Two SNPs in the 'Interactor of little elongation complex ELL subunit 1' (ICE1 gene had a q-value of 0.14, and five of the 20 most significant SNPs were in the 'N-acetylated alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase-like 2' (NAALADL2 gene. No evidence of PoOxE effects was found in the other analyses. The connections to ICE1 and NAALADL2 are novel and warrant further investigation. More generally, the new methodology presented here is easily applicable to other traits and exposures in which a family-based study design has been implemented.

  15. Effects of deltamethrin, dimethoate, and chlorpyrifos on survival and reproduction of the collembolan Folsomia candida and the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer in two African and two European soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaabiri Kamoun, Ikram; Jegede, Olukayode O; Owojori, Olugbenga J; Bouzid, Jalel; Gargouri, Radhia; Römbke, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides is rampant in most parts of Africa, but only scanty ecotoxicological data exist for the protection of soil organisms-and these data were usually obtained under temperate conditions, including the use of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) standard test protocols. In order to assess the effects of 3 commonly used pesticides (deltamethrin, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos) on soil fauna in Africa, noncontaminated natural soils were collected from Nigeria and Tunisia. In addition, 2 common test soils, OECD artificial soil and European (Landwirtschaftliche Untersichungs- und Forschungsanstalt [LUFA]) 2.3 soil, were used in OECD standard reproduction tests. Two microarthropod species, the springtail Folsomia candida and the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer, were exposed in these 4 soils spiked individually with the 3 insecticides. Results show that the collembolan F. candida was more sensitive than the mite H. aculeifer for all 3 insecticides. The toxicity of each insecticide in the 4 soils differed, with few exceptions, by less than an order of magnitude. However, the pattern of toxicity was not consistent, that is, the lowest toxicity was often but not always found in OECD artificial soil. Soil- and pesticide-specific patterns of toxicity to F. candida and H. aculeifer might be related to the physicochemical properties of the soils and thus the availability of the 3 pesticides. Following the rules laid down in the European Union for the registration of pesticides and using standard European exposure scenarios, neither an acute nor a chronic risk of dimethoate and chlorpyrifos can be excluded (with few exceptions) in all 4 soils. Lower risks were identified for deltamethrin. For pesticide used in Africa, an environmental risk assessment based on data gained in tests with at least 1 additional natural field soil, preferably of African origin, should be performed using the same risk assessment principles as in the

  16. Assessment of spatial discordance of primary and effective seed dispersal of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) by ecological and genetic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millerón, M; López de Heredia, U; Lorenzo, Z; Alonso, J; Dounavi, A; Gil, L; Nanos, N

    2013-03-01

    Spatial discordance between primary and effective dispersal in plant populations indicates that postdispersal processes erase the seed rain signal in recruitment patterns. Five different models were used to test the spatial concordance of the primary and effective dispersal patterns in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica) population from central Spain. An ecological method was based on classical inverse modelling (SSS), using the number of seed/seedlings as input data. Genetic models were based on direct kernel fitting of mother-to-offspring distances estimated by a parentage analysis or were spatially explicit models based on the genotype frequencies of offspring (competing sources model and Moran-Clark's Model). A fully integrated mixed model was based on inverse modelling, but used the number of genotypes as input data (gene shadow model). The potential sources of error and limitations of each seed dispersal estimation method are discussed. The mean dispersal distances for seeds and saplings estimated with these five methods were higher than those obtained by previous estimations for European beech forests. All the methods show strong discordance between primary and effective dispersal kernel parameters, and for dispersal directionality. While seed rain was released mostly under the canopy, saplings were established far from mother trees. This discordant pattern may be the result of the action of secondary dispersal by animals or density-dependent effects; that is, the Janzen-Connell effect. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. EUROPEAN AUSTERITY WITHOUT GROWTH? EUROPEAN GROWTH WITHOUT EUROPEAN DEMOCRACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montani Guido

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European project is facing a crisis. Citizens no longer understand what the EU is about. Young people and the new ruling class have forgotten the clear message of the European project launched just after the Second World War "No wars ever again among Europeans." The founding fathers of the European Union are mentioned in history textbooks, but today Europe is felt as an irritating bureaucracy. In Europe, peace and economic stability are considered as a natural state, a gift from above. Why keep a useless EU alive? The state of the European Union is swiftly degenerating. In almost all the member states, the anti-European forces are gaining ground. Populism is not a new ideology and is not necessarily European: let's recall Peronism. In today's Europe populism is the new manifestation of nationalism. In Italy the Lega Nord is in Berlusconi's eurosceptic government. In France, the National Front is endangering UMP's hegemony. In Belgium the rows between the Flemish and the Walloons threatens the state's unity. In the Netherlands, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Austria and Finland, populist forces are either in the government or strongly influencing the government. National-populism is different from the nationalism of the past. De Gaulle's nationalism was an ideology founded on the "grandeur" of France's history and on a certain idea of Europe, which was "l'Europe de patrie", a kind of European unity accepting French leadership in world politics. Today national-populism is a form of micro-nationalism: it opposes the European project but without having a serious alternative. This is why populism is dangerous. Its real goal is not only the breaking down of the European Union but also the disintegration of the old nation states into micro-ethnic states, as what happened in former Yugoslavia.

  18. Non-gonadal mediated effect of photoperiod on hibernation and body weight cycles of the European hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canguilhem, B; Masson-Pévet, M; Koehl, C; Pévet, P; Bentz, I

    1988-01-01

    1. Sexually active male European hamsters raised under short photoperiod display high levels of plasma testosterone, high body weight and do not hibernate. 2. Castrated males in May, raised under the same conditions, do not hibernate and do not present the physiological body weight rhythm. 3. Normal and castrated animals under natural conditions enter hibernation and display a normal body weight rhythm. 4. Normal and castrated animals not submitted to the natural succession of long and short days do not enter hibernation. 5. Photoperiod directly controls body weight and hibernation gonadal interactions.

  19. Modelling the effect of support practices (P-factor) on the reduction of soil erosion by water at European scale

    OpenAIRE

    Panagos, Panos; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; van der Zanden, Emma H; Poesen, Jean; Alewell, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The USLE/RUSLE support practice factor (P-factor) is rarely taken into account in soil erosion risk modelling at sub-continental scale, as it is difficult to estimate for large areas. This study attempts to model the P-factor in the European Union. For this, it considers the latest policy developments in the Common Agricultural Policy, and applies the rules set by Member States for contour farming over a certain slope. The impact of stone walls and grass margins is also modelled using the mor...

  20. Effect of spatial sampling from European flux towers for estimating carbon and water fluxes with artificial neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papale, D.; Black, T Andrew; Carvalhais, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Empirical modeling approaches are frequently used to upscale local eddy covariance observations of carbon, water, and energy fluxes to regional and global scales. The predictive capacity of such models largely depends on the data used for parameterization and identification of input......-output relationships, while prediction for conditions outside the training domain is generally uncertain. In this work, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used for the prediction of gross primary production (GPP) and latent heat flux (LE) on local and European scales with the aim to assess the portion...

  1. Effects of dietary fatty acid composition on metabolic rate and responses to hypoxia in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Piraccini, G.; Piccolella, M.

    2000-01-01

    European eels (Anguilla anguilla, L.) were fed on a commercial diet supplemented either with 15% by dry feed weight of menhaden oil (MO), an oil rich in highly unsaturated fatty acids of the n-3 series (n-3 HUFA), or with 15% by dry feed weight of coconut oil (CO), an oil composed primarily...... of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Following 90 days of feeding, the mean final masses of eels fed the two different oil supplements were similar, and higher than the mean final mass of a group fed the commercial diet alone. The diets created two distinct phenotypes of eels, distinguished by the fatty acid (FA...

  2. Cost-effectiveness evaluation of clobetasol propionate shampoo (CPS) maintenance in patients with moderate scalp psoriasis: a Pan-European analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, K; Poulin, Y; Barber, K; Lynde, C; Prinz, J C; Berg, M; Kerrouche, N; Rives, V P

    2012-11-01

    Scalp psoriasis is a difficult to treat and usually chronic manifestation of psoriasis. The CalePso study showed that CPS (Clobex(®) Shampoo) in maintenance therapy of scalp psoriasis (twice weekly) significantly increases the probability of keeping patient under remission during 6 months, compared with vehicle (40.3% relapses vs. 11.6% relapses, ITT). The objective of the study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a maintenance therapy with CPS vs. its vehicle in nine European countries. A 24-week decision tree model was developed with 4-weekly time steps. The considered population has moderate scalp psoriasis successfully treated with a daily application of CPS up to 4 weeks. Data were taken from the CalePso study and from national experts' recommendations for alternative treatment choices, with their probabilities of success taken from literature to develop country-specific models. Health benefits are measured in disease-free days (DFD). The economic analysis includes drug and physician costs. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PrSA) assesses the uncertainty of the model. Depending on the country, the mean total number of DFDs per patient is 21-42% higher with CPS compared with vehicle, and the mean total cost is 11-31% lower. The mean costs per DFD are 30-46% lower with CPS compared with the vehicle. The PrSA showed in 1000 simulations that CPS is more effective vs. vehicle in 100% of the cases and less expensive than its vehicle in 80-99% of the cases. This model suggests that CPS is cost-effective in maintaining the success achieved in moderate scalp psoriasis patients. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Single and combined effects of microplastics and mercury on juveniles of the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Changes in behavioural responses and reduction of swimming velocity and resistance time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Luís Gabriel Antão; Vieira, Luís Russo; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2018-02-12

    Microplastics and mercury are environmental pollutants of great concern. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of these pollutants, both individually and in binary mixtures, on the swimming performance of juvenile European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Microplastics alone, mercury alone and all the mixtures caused significant reduction of the swimming velocity and resistance time of fish. Moreover, changes in behavioural responses including lethargic and erratic swimming behaviour were observed. These results highlight that fish behavioural responses can be used as sensitive endpoint to establish the effects of contamination by microplastics and also emphasizes the need to assess the combined effects of microplastics and other environmental contaminants, with special attention to the effects on behavioural responses in fish and other aquatic species. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of current and forthcoming European legislation and standardization on the setting of quality specifications by laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeckel, R; Kindler, M

    1999-11-01

    A network of national and international guidelines and directives developed in the last few decades by various bodies will lead to a new concept of total quality for medical laboratory services comprising legislative regulations on national and international levels, standardizations backed up by legislation and recommendations of professional societies. One example is the IVD Directive of the European Community. It will not only stimulate accreditation in the field of laboratory medicine, but also necessitate numerous standardization activities which are presently co-ordinated by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Another standardization example is the development of quality management systems, mainly by ISO. The ISO 9000 series has become the most successful family of standards world-wide. Meanwhile, specific standards for the needs of laboratories (ISO 17025), and in particular of medical laboratories (ISO 15189), are being worked out. A new trend to develop quality management systems towards total quality management systems can be observed including additional aspects such as economic and quality interests of society, customers and owners of laboratories. The goal of all activities is to create a network of confidence which provides some guarantee to the clients, i.e. the physicians and their patients, that they will receive a high-quality medical laboratory service.

  5. Cultural effects on neurodevelopmental testing in children from six European countries: an analysis of NUTRIMENTHE Global Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Miguel; Luna, Juan de Dios; Torres-Espínola, Francisco J; Martínez-Zaldívar, Cristina; Anjos, Tania; Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; Weber, Martina; Grote, Veit; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Verduci, Elvira; Poncelet, Pascale; Escribano, Joaquín; Tiemeier, Henning; Koletzko, Berthold; Campoy, Cristina

    2017-06-07

    Cultural background is an important variable influencing neuropsychological performance. Multinational projects usually involve gathering data from participants from different countries and/or different cultures. Little is known about the influence of culture on neuropsychological testing results in children and especially in European children. The objectives of this study were to compare neuropsychological performance of children from six European countries (Belgium, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland and Spain) using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and to apply a statistical procedure to reduce the influence of country/cultural differences in neuropsychological performance. As expected, the results demonstrated differences in neuropsychological performance among children of the six countries involved. Cultural differences remained after adjusting for other confounders related to neuropsychological execution, such as sex, type of delivery, maternal age, gestational age and maternal educational level. Differences between countries disappeared and influence of culture was considerably reduced when standardised scores by country and sex were used. These results highlight the need for developing specific procedures to compare neuropsychological performance among children from different cultures to be used in multicentre studies.

  6. Effect of provenance, plant part and processing on extract profiles from cultivated European Rhodiola rosea L. for medicinal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Wieland; Prieto, José M; Karkour, Caroline; Williamson, Elizabeth M

    2013-02-01

    The demand for plant material of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) for medicinal use has increased recently, amid concerns about its quality and sustainability. We have analysed the content of phenylpropanoids (total rosavins) and salidroside in liquid extracts from 3-year old cultivated plants of European origin, and mapped the influence of plant part (rhizome versus root), genotype, drying, cutting, and extraction solvent to chemical composition. Rhizomes contained 1.5-4 times more salidroside (0.3-0.4% dry wt) and total rosavins (1.2-3.0%) than roots. The qualitative decisive phenylpropanoid content in the extracts was most influenced by plant part, solvent, and genotype, while drying temperature and cutting conditions were of less importance. We have shown that R. rosea from different boreal European provenances can be grown under temperate conditions and identified factors to obtain consistent high quality extracts provided that authentic germplasm is used and distinguished between rhizome, roots and their mixtures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of climate change, CO2 trends, nitrogen addition, and land-cover and management intensity changes on the carbon balance of European grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Herrero, Mario; Havlík, Petr; Wang, Xuhui; Sultan, Benjamin; Soussana, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence point to European managed grassland ecosystems being a sink of carbon. In this study, we apply ORCHIDEE-GM a process-based carbon cycle model that describes specific management practices of pastures and the dynamics of carbon cycling in response to changes in climatic and biogeochemical drivers. The model is used to simulate changes in the carbon balance [i.e., net biome production (NBP)] of European grasslands over 1991-2010 on a 25 km × 25 km grid. The modeled average trend in NBP is 1.8-2.0 g C m(-2)  yr(-2) during the past two decades. Attribution of this trend suggests management intensity as the dominant driver explaining NBP trends in the model (36-43% of the trend due to all drivers). A major change in grassland management intensity has occurred across Europe resulting from reduced livestock numbers. This change has 'inadvertently' enhanced soil C sequestration and reduced N2 O and CH4 emissions by 1.2-1.5 Gt CO2 -equivalent, offsetting more than 7% of greenhouse gas emissions in the whole European agricultural sector during the period 1991-2010. Land-cover change, climate change and rising CO2 also make positive and moderate contributions to the NBP trend (between 24% and 31% of the trend due to all drivers). Changes in nitrogen addition (including fertilization and atmospheric deposition) are found to have only marginal net effect on NBP trends. However, this may not reflect reality because our model has only a very simple parameterization of nitrogen effects on photosynthesis. The sum of NBP trends from each driver is larger than the trend obtained when all drivers are varied together, leaving a residual - nonattributed - term (22-26% of the trend due to all drivers) indicating negative interactions between drivers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Enhanced dendritic cell maturation by the B-chain of Korean mistletoe lectin (KML-B), a novel TLR4 agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Hwang, Yun-Ho; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Kim, Inbo; Kim, Jong-Bae; Park, Jong-Hwan; Yoo, Yung-Choon; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2014-08-01

    Korean mistletoe lectin (KML) is composed of A and B sub-chains. The B-chain binds to cell surfaces, whereas the A-chain hinders translation because it is a RIP (ribosome inactivating protein) inducing apoptosis. Although KML has various biological and immunological activities, its potential use in cancer therapy or as an adjuvant therapy is limited by its toxicity to normal cells. This study was conducted to determine whether the B-chain of KML (KML-B) has immunoadjuvant activity and cytotoxicity activity. To evaluate the immunomodulatory activities of B chain KML, in vitro experiments employing bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were performed. Dendritic cells (DCs) are a unique group of white blood cells that are able to capture and process antigens for presentation to T cells, which constitute primary immune response. In the present study, KML-B was found to be non-cytotoxic to BMDCs. Furthermore, the expressions of co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC II) and the secretions of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p70, and TNF-α) were increased in BMDCs by KML-B. In addition, other indicators (antigen-uptake and CCR7 expression) of BMDC maturation were changed by KML-B, and the ability of KML-B to enhance various functions by BMDCs was found to be dependent on TLR4 expression. Moreover, BMDCs matured by KML-B induced naïve CD4(+) T cell differentiation toward Th1 cells directly and indirectly. These experiments confirm that KML-B exhibits potent immunomodulatory properties and suggest that KML-B be considered a potential dendritic cell-based cancer therapy and immunoadjuvant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. European COMPARative Effectiveness research on blended Depression treatment versus treatment-as-usual (E-COMPARED): study protocol for a randomized controlled, non-inferiority trial in eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiboer, Annet; Smit, Jan; Bosmans, Judith; Ruwaard, Jeroen; Andersson, Gerhard; Topooco, Naira; Berger, Thomas; Krieger, Tobias; Botella, Cristina; Baños, Rosa; Chevreul, Karine; Araya, Ricardo; Cerga-Pashoja, Arlinda; Cieślak, Roman; Rogala, Anna; Vis, Christiaan; Draisma, Stasja; van Schaik, Anneke; Kemmeren, Lise; Ebert, David; Berking, Matthias; Funk, Burkhardt; Cuijpers, Pim; Riper, Heleen

    2016-08-03

    Effective, accessible, and affordable depression treatment is of high importance considering the large personal and economic burden of depression. Internet-based treatment is considered a promising clinical and cost-effective alternative to current routine depression treatment strategies such as face-to-face psychotherapy. However, it is not clear whether research findings translate to routine clinical practice such as primary or specialized mental health care. The E-COMPARED project aims to gain knowledge on the clinical and cost-effectiveness of blended depression treatment compared to treatment-as-usual in routine care. E-COMPARED will employ a pragmatic, multinational, randomized controlled, non-inferiority trial in eight European countries. Adults diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) will be recruited in primary care (Germany, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) or specialized mental health care (France, The Netherlands, and Switzerland). Regular care for depression is compared to "blended" service delivery combining mobile and Internet technologies with face-to-face treatment in one treatment protocol. Participants will be followed up at 3, 6, and 12 months after baseline to determine clinical improvements in symptoms of depression (primary outcome: Patient Health Questionnaire-9), remission of depression, and cost-effectiveness. Main analyses will be conducted on the pooled data from the eight countries (n = 1200 in total, 150 participants in each country). The E-COMPARED project will provide mental health care stakeholders with evidence-based information and recommendations on the clinical and cost-effectiveness of blended depression treatment. France: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02542891 . Registered on 4 September 2015; Germany: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00006866 . Registered on 2 December 2014; The Netherlands: Netherlands Trials Register NTR4962 . Registered on 5 January 2015; Poland: ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT02389660

  10. "EUROPART". Airborne particles in the indoor environment. A European interdisciplinary review of scientific evidence on associations between exposure to particles in buildings and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, T.; Sundell, Jan; Bischof, W.

    2003-01-01

    The relevance of particle mass, surface area or number concentration as risk indicators for health effects in non-industrial buildings has been assessed by a European interdisciplinary group of researchers (called EUROPART) by reviewing papers identified in Medline, Toxline, and OSH. Studies...... dealing with dermal effects or cancer or specifically addressing environmental tobacco smoke, house dust-mite, cockroach or animal allergens, microorganisms and pesticides were excluded. A total of 70 papers were reviewed, and eight were identified for the final review: Five experimental studies involving...... mainly healthy subjects, two cross-sectional office studies and one longitudinal study among elderly on cardiovascular effects. From most studies, no definite conclusions could be drawn. Overall, the group concluded that there is inadequate scientific evidence that airborne, indoor particulate mass...

  11. Educating in European Identity?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enrique Banús

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades, the claim for a "European identity" has been manifested sometimes as a solution for the citizens' distance to the European project, sometimes also as a precondition for a further...

  12. Effects of changes in water salinity upon exercise and cardiac performance in the European seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatelier, A.; McKenzie, David; Claireaux, G.

    2005-01-01

    The European seabass is an active euryhaline teleost that migrates and forages in waters of widely differing salinities. Oxygen uptake (M-O2) was measured in seabass (average mass and forklength 510 g and 34 cm, respectively) during exercise at incremental swimming speeds in a tunnel respirometer...... in seawater (SW) at a salinity of 30 parts per thousand and temperature of 14 degrees C, and their maximal sustainable (critical) swimming speed (U-crit) determined. Cardiac output (Q) was measured via an ultrasound flow probe on their ventral aorta. The fish were then exposed to acute reductions in water...... performance. This was linked to an exceptional capacity to maintain plasma osmolality and tissue water content unchanged following all salinity challenges. This extraordinary adaptation would allow the seabass to maintain skeletal and cardiac muscle function while migrating through waters of widely differing...

  13. Commodity futures markets: are they an effective price risk management tool for the European wheat supply chain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Revoredo-Giha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The instability of commodity prices and the hypothesis that speculative behaviour was one of its causes has brought renewed interest in futures markets. The paper analyses the European wheat futures markets (feed and milling and the Chicago Board of Trade’s wheat contract as a comparison. Although the main purpose of the paper is to analyse whether futures markets are still useful for hedging (considering the demands from different market participants, implicitly this can be seen as testing whether the increasing presence of speculation has made futures markets divorced from physical markets. The results indicate that hedging with futures markets is still a viable alternative for dealing with price risk. This is particularly true in short period hedges (e.g. merchants and processors, where the basis seems to have been affected by the observed price instability.

  14. The Social and Economic Effects of Deterioration in Health: ‘Naked-eye’ Evidence from a European Panel Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigone Lyberaki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the mobilization of social reserves in action in a large European sample survey. The longitudinal dataset of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE is used to identify individuals whose health underwent a major deterioration. The objective is to give a characterization of the problems faced by individuals in different parts of Europe when confronted by similar problems. Though the prevalence of health deterioration was roughly uniform across countries, men’s health impact rises sharply with age, while women appear to accept deterioration as a natural part of ageing. Health deterioration is instrumental in driving individuals out of employment, especially in the South. Treatment styles are very different, with emphasis on hospitals in central Europe, and Doctor visits more common in the South.

  15. Future pain at the diesel pump? Potential effects of the European Comission's energy taxation proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frondel, Manuel; Vance, Colin

    2011-07-01

    The Energy Tax Directive recently proposed by the European Commission envisages to tax fuels based on their energy content. By raising prices for diesel to a level higher than that of petrol, this proposal would eliminate the price advantage currently enjoyed by diesel in most EU Member States. To explore the implications of such a tax regime for automobile travel, the present analysis undertakes a comparative analysis of price elasticities for both fuel types. Drawing on household panel data from Germany, we fail to reject the hypothesis that the fuel price elasticities for petrol and diesel are equal. With our uniform fuel price elasticity estimates being on the order of -0.5 to -0.42, the typical finding from the empirical literature that the elasticities gleaned from household-level data are generally larger than those from aggregate time-series data is reconfirmed. (orig.)

  16. Effect of human disturbance on long-term habitat use and breeding success of the European Nightjar, Caprimulgus europaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lowe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land managers often respond to declining numbers of target species by creating additional areas of habitat. If these habitats are also subject to human disturbance, then their efforts may be wasted. The European Nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus is a ground-nesting bird that is listed as a species of European Conservation Concern. It appears to be susceptible to human disturbance during the breeding season. We examined habitat use and reproductive success over 10 years in a breeding population on 1335 ha of managed land in Nottinghamshire, England. The study site was divided into a heavily disturbed section and a less disturbed section of equal habitat availability, forming a natural long-term experiment. The site is open to the public, and visitor numbers approximately doubled during the study. We found that overall Nightjar density was significantly lower and there were significantly fewer breeding pairs in the heavily disturbed habitat compared with the less disturbed habitat. However, average breeding success per pair, in terms of eggs and fledglings produced, was not significantly different between the two sections across years. Our findings suggest that human recreational disturbance may drastically alter settlement patterns and nest site selection of arriving females in some migratory ground-nesting species and may reduce the utility of apparently suitable patches of remnant and created habitat. Land managers should bear this in mind when creating new areas of habitat that will also be accessible to the public. Our study also highlights the value of long-term population monitoring, which can detect trends that short-term studies may miss.

  17. Intensive induction is effective in selected octogenarian acute myeloid leukemia patients: prognostic significance of karyotype and selected molecular markers used in the European LeukemiaNet classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzler, Meir; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Dombret, Hervé; Döhner, Hartmut; Pilorge, Sylvain; Krug, Utz; Carroll, Andrew J; Larson, Richard A; Marcucci, Guido; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Büchner, Thomas; Bloomfield, Clara D

    2014-02-01

    We investigated whether octogenarian patients with acute myeloid leukemia enrolled onto Cooperative Group clinical trials and treated with intensive induction therapy could be cured, and whether karyotype and selected molecular markers had any prognostic significance in these patients. Among 138 patients with cytogenetic information, normal karyotype was the most common (47.1%) followed by complex karyotype (14.5%) and sole +8 (9.4%). Among these patients, the relapse-free survival rate at 1 year was 37% and 13% at 3 years, and the respective overall survival rates were 24% and 8%. Whereas the 90 patients who survived beyond 30 days had the same relapse-free survival rates, their 1-year and 3-year overall survival rates were 36% and 11%, respectively. Of the 66 patients surviving beyond 30 days who could be classified into European LeukemiaNet genetic groups, those in the intermediate-I group had better overall survival than patients in the adverse group (P=0.01). Among patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia who were tested for the European LeukemiaNet-associated molecular alterations, FLT3-internal tandem duplication and NPM1 mutations, it was found that FLT3-internal tandem duplication (detected in 29% of patients) did not associate with overall survival (P=0.31), whereas NPM1 mutations (30%) were associated with a significantly longer overall survival (P=0.002). We conclude that intensive induction is effective and indicated in selected octogenarians with acute myeloid leukemia, that their overall survival varies among the European LeukemiaNet genetic groups and that NPM1 mutations may be of prognostic significance among octogenarian patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia.

  18. Prasugrel vs. clopidogrel in contemporary Western European patients with acute coronary syndromes receiving drug-eluting stents: Comparative cost-effectiveness analysis from the BASKET-PROVE cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Bastian; Coslovsky, Michael; Jabbari, Reza; Galatius, Søren; Pfisterer, Matthias; Kaiser, Christoph

    2017-12-01

    Clinical and cost-effectiveness of prasugrel vs. clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was only evaluated using TRITON-TIMI 38 event rates. A comparative analysis of both drugs in contemporary European ACS patients is lacking. To address this issue, cardiac and bleeding events of 2 "sister" multicenter stent trials, BASKET-PROVE (BP) I with clopidogrel and BPII with prasugrel (for 12months each) were used in a hybrid analysis. Medication costs were 2015 sales prices, event costs modelled for Denmark (DNK), Germany (GER) and Switzerland (SUI) and quality adjusted life years (QALY) by EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. In BPI and II, 1012 and 985 ACS-patients received drug eluting stents, respectively, followed-up for 2years. Compared to clopidogrel, prasugrel-treated patients had no more major cardiac events (5.2% vs. 6.4%, p=0.422) nor cardiac deaths (1.6% vs. 1.0%, p=0.255), but more major bleedings (4.0% vs. 1.7%, pclopidogrel with ratios of -45,907 (DNK), -39,909 (GER) and -33,435 (SUI) EURO/QALY gained, making clopidogrel an economically dominant strategy, even after accounting for the non-randomized comparison. Findings of this contemporary European ACS-cohort showed markedly lower cardiac event rates than TRITON-TIMI 38 and no significant difference in 2-year QALYs between prasugrel and clopidogrel-treated patients. At current drug prices, clopidogrel use resulted in an economically dominant treatment strategy in Western European patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LAW PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriţa FLOREA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We live nowadays a posteriori establishment through institutional treaties and a well-built jurisprudence that set up some of the general treaties. The structure of the European Union as well as the particular nature of the community legal order led to the establishment of some general principles, such as the principle of the institutional balance, the principle of solidarity between member states, the principle of primacy, the principle of the immediate and direct effect of the European law. It is certain that the legal order of the community law has its basis in the legal order of the International public law from which it has continuously delineated. The European communities, as subjects of the International public law are obliged to comply with the general International law, its fundamental principles and its bases, leading to some obligations capable to produce effects in the community legal order. The Court Of Justice of the European Union established as principles applicable in the European law the principles of the International public law, especially when it was called to assert regarding the International relationships of the Community as well as those of the 28 member states, confirming in the matter of the applicability of the treaties, the pacta sunt servanda rule, the principle of the good faith, the legitimate faith or the rebus sic standibus exception, all of them belonging to the custom International law.

  20. Adverse Effects of Plant Food Supplements Self-Reported by Consumers in the PlantLIBRA Survey Involving Six European Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Restani

    Full Text Available The use of food supplements containing botanicals is increasing in European markets. Although intended to maintain the health status, several cases of adverse effects to Plant Food Supplements (PFS have been described.To describe the self-reported adverse effects collected during the European PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey 2011-2012, with a critical evaluation of the plausibility of the symptomatology reported using data from the literature and from the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey.From the total sample of 2359 consumers involved in the consumers' survey, 82 subjects reported adverse effects due to a total of 87 PFS.Cases were self-reported, therefore causality was not classified on the basis of clinical evidence, but by using the frequency/strength of adverse effects described in scientific papers: 52 out of 87 cases were defined as possible (59.8% and 4 as probable (4.6%. Considering the most frequently cited botanicals, eight cases were due to Valeriana officinalis (garden valerian; seven to Camellia sinensis (tea; six to Ginkgo biloba (Maidenhair tree and Paullinia cupana (guarana. Most adverse events related to the gastrointestinal tract, nervous and cardiovascular systems.Comparing the data from this study with those published in scientific papers and obtained by the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey, some important conclusions can be drawn: severe adverse effects to PFS are quite rare, although mild or moderate adverse symptoms can be present. Data reported in this paper can help health professionals (and in particular family doctors to become aware of possible new problems associated with the increasing use of food supplements containing botanicals.