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Sample records for european mistletoe effects

  1. mistletoe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administration of mistletoe extract from cocoa and coffee led to reduction in hemoglobin ... agents that could stimulate the production of leucocytes and could serve as immune booster. ... types of V. album, European and American, contain.

  2. Preclinical and Clinical Effects of Mistletoe against Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Marvibaigi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is among the most frequent types of cancer in women worldwide. Current conventional treatment options are accompanied by side effects. Mistletoe is amongst the important herbal medicines traditionally used as complementary remedies. An increasing number of studies have reported anticancer activity of mistletoe extracts on breast cancer cells and animal models. Some recent evidence suggests that cytotoxic activity of mistletoe may be mediated through different mechanisms. These findings provide a good base for clinical trials. Various studies on mistletoe therapy for breast cancer patients revealed similar findings concerning possible benefits on survival time, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, remission rate, and alleviating adverse reactions to conventional therapy. This review provides an overview of the recent findings on preclinical experiments and clinical trials of mistletoe for its cytotoxic and antitumor activity and its effect on HRQoL in breast cancer patients. Moreover, studies investigating molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying antitumor activity of mistletoe are discussed in this paper. The analyzed trials provided evidence that there might be a combination of pharmacological and motivational aspects mediated by the mistletoe extract application which may contribute to the clinical benefit and positive outcome such as improved HRQoL and self-regulation in breast cancer patients.

  3. Use and safety of intratumoral application of European mistletoe (Viscum album L) preparations in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Megan L; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

    2015-03-01

    Intratumoral (IT) injection of European mistletoe (Viscum album L) preparations might induce local tumor response through combined cytotoxic and immunomodulatory actions of the preparations. Although promising in vitro and in vivo data, along with clinical case studies suggest the need for validation of this hypothesis in prospective trials, the safety of IT mistletoe injections has yet to be thoroughly assessed. The present study summarizes the practice and safety of off-label IT mistletoe therapy within the Network Oncology, a conjoint clinical registry of German hospitals and outpatients specialized in anthroposophic and integrative medicine. Demographic, diagnosis and treatment data of cancer patients who received IT mistletoe applications between 2007 and 2013 were assessed. Suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were analyzed in terms of type, frequency, severity, seriousness and potential risk factors. A total of 123 cancer patients received 862 IT mistletoe injections (preparations from Abnoba, Helixor and Iscucin). The most commonly applied preparations were Abnoba viscum Fraxini (71 patients) and Helixor Mali (54 patients). Of the total patients, 26 patients (21.1%) experienced 74 ADRs. All ADRs were in response to either Abnoba viscum Fraxini (25.4% of exposed patients) or Helixor Mali (18.5% of exposed patients). ADRs were mostly body temperature or immune related and of mild (83.8%) or moderate (14.9%) intensity. Only one possible ADR was described as severe (hypertension) and no serious ADRs occurred. The frequency of ADRs to IT mistletoe injections was 3 times and 5 times higher than has previously been found for subcutaneous and intravenous applications of mistletoe, respectively. IT injection of mistletoe preparations resulted in a relatively high frequency of ADRs. Nearly all ADRs were mild to moderate however, and no serious ADRs occurred. Furthermore, it is possible that immune-related ADRs such as pyrexia and local inflammatory reactions might

  4. Chapter 5. Damage, effects, and importance of dwarf mistletoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. W. Geils; F. G. Hawksworth

    2002-01-01

    All dwarf mistletoes are parasites that extract water, nutrients, and carbohydrates from the infected host; they are also pathogens that alter host physiology and morphology (Gill and Hawksworth 1961, Hawksworth and Wiens 1996). Disease or direct effects are reductions in diameter and height increment, survival, reproduction, and quality; witches’ brooms are formed in...

  5. The importance of clinical mistletoe cancer therapy and korean mistletoe pharmacopuncture preparation development and application possibility for oriental medicine

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    Ok-Byung Choi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Mistletoe extracts have been in use for around 85 years, predominantly in the area of cancer therapy. Today mistletoe preparations are among the most prescribed drugs in cancer medicine, thus constituting a standard biological therapy in the area of oncology. The purpose of this study is to analyze the practical implications of mistletoe cancer therapy, their clinical status, their preparation techniques and companies. Contents : Mistletoe therapy for cancer has been developed within the context of anthroposophical medicine. One major effect of mistletoe extract is that it stimulates the immune system and cancer defences. In Germany, a total of eight different mistletoe preparations are available, five developed by Anthroposophic Medicine and three evolved from research in phytotherapy. Therapy always consists of an introductory phase in order to test the patient′s tolerance, find the right dosage and choose the most suitable preparation. This paper covers the background of mistletoe medical plant materials, mistletoe therapy for cancer, the anthroposophical medicine and clinical research, the practical regulation of treatment, preparation of mistletoe drugs. Result & suggestion : Mistletoe extracts are a complementary teratment of cancer, widely used in intergrative cancer care. The study of the integration of korean mistletoe extracts to oriental cancer medicine, its development and feasibility in Korea are urgently needed. The products, substances, compositions of european mistletoe drugs are very similar to those of oriental medicine theory. Applying the mistletoe cancer therapy and its preparation techniques to oriental medicine, the herbal acupuncture preparation should be modernized and korean mistletoe products are to be developed. To this end, government and herbal acupuncture society need to interact each other for the development of oriental mistletoe cancer medicine.

  6. Dwarf mistletoe effects on fuel loadings in ponderosa pine forests in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad Hoffman; Robert Mathiasen; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2007-01-01

    Southwestern dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium vaginatum (Willd.) J. Presl ssp. cryptopodum) infests about 0.9 million ha in the southwestern United States. Several studies suggest that dwarf mistletoes affect forest fuels and fire behavior; however, few studies have quantified these effects. We compared surface fuel loadings and...

  7. Effects of mistletoe removal on growth, N and C reserves, and carbon and oxygen isotope composition in Scots pine hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Cai-Feng; Gessler, Arthur; Rigling, Andreas; Dobbertin, Matthias; Han, Xing-Guo; Li, Mai-He

    2016-05-01

    Most mistletoes are xylem-tapping hemiparasites, which derive their resources from the host's xylem solution. Thus, they affect the host's water relations and resource balance. To understand the physiological mechanisms underlying the mistletoe-host relationship, we experimentally removed Viscum album ssp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Vollmann from adult Pinus sylvestris L. host trees growing in a Swiss dry valley. We analyzed the effects of mistletoe removal over time on host tree growth and on concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and nitrogen (N) in needles, fine roots and sapwood. In addition, we assessed the δ(13)C and δ(18)O in host tree rings. After mistletoe removal, δ(13)C did not change in newly produced tree rings compared with tree rings in control trees (still infected with mistletoe), but δ(18)O values increased. This pattern might be interpreted as a decrease in assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance (gs), but in our study, it most likely points to an inadequacy of the dual isotope approach. Instead, we interpret the unchanged δ(13)C in tree rings upon mistletoe removal as a balanced increase in A and gs that resulted in a constant intrinsic water use efficiency (defined as A/gs). Needle area-based concentrations of N, soluble sugars and NSC, as well as needle length, single needle area, tree ring width and shoot growth, were significantly higher in trees from which mistletoe was removed than in control trees. This finding suggests that mistletoe removal results in increased N availability and carbon gain, which in turn leads to increased growth rates of the hosts. Hence, in areas where mistletoe is common and the population is large, mistletoe management (e.g., removal) may be needed to improve the host vigor, growth rate and productivity, especially for relatively small trees and crop trees in xeric growth conditions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Mistletoe effects on Scots pine decline following drought events: insights from within-tree spatial patterns, growth and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, J Julio

    2012-05-01

    Forest decline has been attributed to the interaction of several stressors including biotic factors such as mistletoes and climate-induced drought stress. However, few data exist on how mistletoes are spatially arranged within trees and how this spatial pattern is related to changes in radial growth, responses to drought stress and carbon use. We used dendrochronology to quantify how mistletoe (Viscum album L.) infestation and drought stress affected long-term growth patterns in Pinus sylvestris L. at different heights. Basal area increment (BAI) trends and comparisons between trees of three different infestation degrees (without mistletoe, ID1; moderately infested trees, ID2; and severely infested trees, ID3) were performed using linear mixed-effects models. To identify the main climatic drivers of tree growth tree-ring widths were converted into indexed chronologies and related to climate data using correlation functions. We performed spatial analyses of the 3D distribution of mistletoe individuals and their ages within the crowns of three severely infested pines to describe their patterns. Lastly, we quantified carbohydrate and nitrogen concentrations in needles and sapwood of branches from severely infested trees and from trees without mistletoe. Mistletoe individuals formed strongly clustered groups of similar age within tree crowns and their age increased towards the crown apex. Mistletoe infestation negatively impacted growth but this effect was stronger near the tree apex than in the rest of sampled heights, causing an average loss of 64% in BAI (loss of BAI was ∼51% at 1.3 m or near the tree base). We found that BAI of severely infested trees and moderately or non-infested trees diverged since 2001 and such divergence was magnified by drought. Infested trees had lower concentrations of soluble sugars in their needles than non-infested ones. We conclude that mistletoe infestation causes growth decline and increases the sensitivity of trees to drought

  9. Effects of forests, roads and mistletoe on bird diversity in monoculture rubber plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Huang, Guohualing; Yasuda, Mika; Quan, Rui-Chang; Goodale, Eben; Corlett, Richard T; Tomlinson, Kyle W

    2016-02-23

    Rising global demand for natural rubber is expanding monoculture rubber (Hevea brasilensis) at the expense of natural forests in the Old World tropics. Conversion of forests into rubber plantations has a devastating impact on biodiversity and we have yet to identify management strategies that can mitigate this. We determined the life-history traits that best predict bird species occurrence in rubber plantations in SW China and investigated the effects of surrounding forest cover and distance to roads on bird diversity. Mistletoes provide nectar and fruit resources in rubber so we examined mistletoe densities and the relationship with forest cover and rubber tree diameter. In rubber plantations, we recorded less than half of all bird species extant in the surrounding area. Birds with wider habitat breadths and low conservation value had a higher probability of occurrence. Species richness and diversity increased logarithmically with surrounding forest cover, but roads had little effect. Mistletoe density increased exponentially with rubber tree diameters, but was unrelated to forest cover. To maximize bird diversity in rubber-dominated landscapes it is therefore necessary to preserve as much forest as possible, construct roads through plantations and not forest, and retain some large rubber trees with mistletoes during crop rotations.

  10. Mistletoe, friend and foe: synthesizing ecosystem implications of mistletoe infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Anne; Watson, David; Pendall, Elise

    2017-11-01

    Biotic disturbances are affecting a wide range of tree species in all climates, and their occurrence is contributing to increasing rates of tree mortality globally. Mistletoe is a widespread group of parasitic plants that establishes long-lasting relationships with a diverse range of host tree species. With climate change, ecophysiological stress is increasing, potentially making trees more susceptible to mistletoe infection, which in turn leads to higher forest mortality rates. The perception of mistletoe presence in individual trees and forest stands is divided within the scientific community, leading to an ongoing debate regarding its impacts. Forest managers concerned about stand health and carbon sequestration may view mistletoe as a foe that leads to reduced productivity. In contrast, ecologists may see mistletoe as a friend, in light of the wildlife habitat, biodiversity and nutrient cycling it promotes. However, individual studies typically focus on isolated effects of mistletoe presence within their respective research area and lack a balanced, interdisciplinary perspective of mistletoe disturbance. With this conceptual paper we aim to bring together the positive and negative impacts of mistletoe presence on tree physiology, soil nutrient cycling as well as stand health and stand dynamics. We focus on the role of mistletoe-induced tree mortality in ecosystem succession and biodiversity. In addition, we present potential modifications of mistletoe presence on the energy budget and on forest vulnerability to climate change, which could feed back into stand dynamics and disturbance patterns. Lastly, we will identify the most pressing remaining knowledge gaps and highlight priorities for future research on this widespread agent of biotic disturbance.

  11. Mistletoe in conventional oncological practice: exemplary cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legnani, Walter

    2008-09-01

    Mistletoe therapy, a cancer treatment suggested by Rudolf Steiner in 1920, is a typical and specific anthroposophic therapy, but could become more important today in the field of mainstream medicine. This article analyzes some of the most typical effects of mistletoe therapy based on the experience of more than 100 cases. A few patients were chosen who appear exemplary of the opportunities offered by mistletoe therapy. Their clinical history demonstrates an improvement in clinical condition and performance status, better quality of life, improved psychological status, reduction of infective events, better tolerance of concomitant chemoradiotherapy, and even a direct reduction of tumor size. The conclusion is that the patients may be indicative for future prospective clinical studies designed to confirm a real efficacy of mistletoe in cancer therapy.

  12. Hemlock Dwarf Mistletoe (FIDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Hennon; Jerome S. Beatty; Diane Hildebrand

    2001-01-01

    Hemlock dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium tsugense (Rosendahl) G.N. Jones, causes a serious disease of western hemlock and several other tree species along the Pacific Coast of North America. This small, seed-bearing plant lives exclusively as a parasite on living trees. Throughout its range, hemlock dwarf mistletoe occurs in patch-like patterns in the forests. Some...

  13. Larch Dwarf Mistletoe (FIDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome S. Beatty; Gregory M. Filip; Robert L. Mathiason

    1997-01-01

    Larch dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium laricis (Piper) St. John) is a common and damaging parasite of western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) in the Pacific Northwest and southern British Columbia. Larch dwarf mistletoe occurs commonly throughout the range of western larch in British Columbia, northern and central Idaho, western Montana and east of the Cascades in...

  14. Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth; Oscar J. Dooling

    1984-01-01

    Lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. ex Engelm.) is a native, parasitic, seed plant that occurs essentially throughout the range of lodgepole pine in North America. It is the most damaging disease agent in lodgepole pine, causing severe growth loss and increased tree mortality. Surveys in the Rocky Mountains show that the parasite is found in...

  15. Fir dwarf mistletoe (FIDL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory M. Filip; Jerome S. Beatty; Robert L. Mathiasen

    2000-01-01

    Fir dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium abietinum Engelmann ex Munz) is a common and damaging parasite of white fir (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.), and California red fir (A. magnifica A. Murr.) in the western...

  16. Chapter 6. Dwarf mistletoe surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Muir; B. Moody

    2002-01-01

    Dwarf mistletoe surveys are conducted for a variety of vegetation management objectives. Various survey and sampling techniques are used either at a broad, landscape scale in forest planning or program review, or at an individual, stand, site level for specific project implementation. Standard and special surveys provide data to map mistletoe distributions and quantify...

  17. Retrospective study of mistletoe ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, H A; Willias, D B; Gorman, S E; Sanftleban, J

    1996-01-01

    There are limited data concerning accidental exposure to Phoradendron flavescens (Phoradendron serotinum, American Mistletoe). The only published reports include a review of 14 cases which revealed no symptoms and a single fatality from an intentional ingestion of an unknown amount of an elixir brewed from the berries. The risk of serious toxicity from accidental exposure to this plant appears to be minimal, yet it continues to be regarded as a dangerous plant. We reviewed charts for four years (1990-1993) from three poison centers where Phoradendron flavescens is indigenous. Ninety-two human cases were located. Age ranged from four months to 42 years, with a mean of six years (SD 8.8) and median of two years. There were 14 symptomatic cases of which 11 were determined to be related to mistletoe exposure. There were six gastrointestinal upset, two mild drowsiness, one eye irritation, one ataxia (21 months), one seizure (13 months). Treatments included gastrointestinal decontamination in 54 patients (59%), ocular irrigation in one and IV benzodiazepine in one. Decontamination did not appear to affect outcome. Amount ingested ranged from one berry or leaf to more than 20 berries or five leaves. In cases with a known amount ingested, eight of ten cases with > or = 5 berries remained symptom free. In the 11 cases with leaf-only ingestion (range 1-5 leaves), three patients had gastrointestinal upset. The one case with five leaves ingested remained asymptomatic. The infant with seizures was an unwitnessed exposure, found with both berries and leaves in the crib. No arrhythmias or cardiovascular changes were reported in any case. All symptomatic cases had onset of symptoms in Cardiovascular effects were not seen.

  18. NCCAM/NCI Phase 1 Study of Mistletoe Extract and Gemcitabine in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors

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    Patrick J. Mansky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. European Mistletoe (Viscum album L. extracts (mistletoe are commonly used for cancer treatment in Europe. This phase I study of gemcitabine (GEM and mistletoe in advanced solid cancers (ASC evaluated: (1 safety, toxicity, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD, (2 absolute neutrophil count (ANC recovery, (3 formation of mistletoe lectin antibodies (ML ab, (4 cytokine plasma concentrations, (5 clinical response, and (6 pharmacokinetics of GEM. Methods. Design: increasing mistletoe and fixed GEM dose in stage I and increasing doses of GEM with a fixed dose of mistletoe in stage II. Dose limiting toxicities (DLT were grade (G 3 nonhematologic and G4 hematologic events; MTD was reached with 2 DLTs in one dosage level. Response in stage IV ASC was assessed with descriptive statistics. Statistical analyses examined clinical response/survival and ANC recovery. Results. DLTs were G4 neutropenia, G4 thrombocytopenia, G4 acute renal failure, and G3 cellulitis, attributed to mistletoe. GEM 1380 mg/m2 and mistletoe 250 mg combined were the MTD. Of 44 patients, 24 developed nonneutropenic fever and flu-like syndrome. GEM pharmacokinetics were unaffected by mistletoe. All patients developed ML3 IgG antibodies. ANC showed a trend to increase between baseline and cycle 2 in stage I dose escalation. 6% of patients showed partial response, 42% stable disease. Median survival was 200 days. Compliance with mistletoe injections was high. Conclusion. GEM plus mistletoe is well tolerated. No botanical/drug interactions were observed. Clinical response is similar to GEM alone.

  19. Mistletoes, their host plants and the effects of browsing by large mammals in Addo Elephant National Park

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    J.J. Midgley

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available There are at least four plant hemiparasites [=mistletoes, viz. Viscaceae (3 species, Loranthaceae (1 species] within the Addo Elephant National Park. Highly selective utilisation of these plant parasites by large browsing animals has resulted in severe decline of these plants within the elephant enclosure. The parasites are often associated with spinescent host plants. We suggest this has less to do with escaping herbivory by large mammals and more to do with spinescent plants being optimum hosts because they are a richer nutritient source for plant parasites than most non-spinescent plants.

  20. Evaluation of Preclinical Assays to Investigate an Anthroposophic Pharmaceutical Process Applied to Mistletoe (Viscum album L. Extracts

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    Stephan Baumgartner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from European mistletoe (Viscum album L. developed in anthroposophic medicine are based on specific pharmaceutical procedures to enhance remedy efficacy. One such anthroposophic pharmaceutical process was evaluated regarding effects on cancer cell toxicity in vitro and on colchicine tumor formation in Lepidium sativum. Anthroposophically processed Viscum album extract (APVAE was produced by mixing winter and summer mistletoe extracts in the edge of a high-speed rotating disk and was compared with manually mixed Viscum album extract (VAE. The antiproliferative effect of VAE/APVAE was determined in five cell lines (NCI-H460, DU-145, HCC1143, MV3, and PA-TU-8902 by WST-1 assay in vitro; no difference was found between VAE and APVAE in any cell line tested (P>0.14. Incidence of colchicine tumor formation was assessed by measurement of the root/shoot-ratio of seedlings of Lepidium sativum treated with colchicine as well as VAE, APVAE, or water. Colchicine tumor formation decreased after application of VAE (−5.4% compared to water, P<0.001 and was even stronger by APVAE (−8.8% compared to water, P<0.001. The high-speed mistletoe extract mixing process investigated thus did not influence toxicity against cancer cells but seemed to sustain morphostasis and to enhance resistance against external noxious influences leading to phenomenological malformations.

  1. African mistletoes (Loranthaceae); ethnopharmacology, chemistry and medicinal values: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, Simeon K; Illoh, H C; Johnny, Imoh I; Jacobs, Imoh E

    2013-01-01

    Mistletoes of the Loranthaceae and Viscaceae are hemiparasitic plants and their preparations in the form of injectable extracts, infusions, tinctures, fluid extracts or tea bags are widely used in various cultures in almost every continent to treat or manage various health problems including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, inflammatory conditions, irregular menstruations, menopause, epilepsy, arthritis, cancer, etc. The medicinal values of some species of Mistletoes (Loranthaceae) growing in the West African sub-region have been reviewed along with some considerations of their chemistries and local uses. These have been compared with Mistletoes (Loranthaceae and Viscaceae) growing elsewhere in Europe and Asia. This review has attempted to update our knowledge on the values of these hemi-parasites which belong to the genera - Globimetula, Phragmanthera, Agelanthus and Tapinanthus, and which have, for years, been seen as only devastating and notorious plants. They are also seen as epiphyting economic, ornamental and medicinal plants. The hemi-parasitic plants (Mistletoes) are not well understood as very little is known about their biology (taxonomy, host/plant relationship, ecology, toxicology, physiological characteristics, etc.) and chemistry (chemical constituents' profile). Some pharmacological studies carried out on the various crude alcoholic extracts and purified fractions have, however, revealed that mistletoes showed hypotensive, hypoglycaemic, antilipidaemic, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, etc. effects and were non-toxic in experimental animals at the doses used. The findings showed that mistletoes can be very useful as medicinal agents in ameliorating health problems such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, arthritis, pain, cancer and a host of other ailments if properly studied and developed.

  2. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon.

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    Michelle C Agne

    Full Text Available Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its

  3. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne, Michelle C; Shaw, David C; Woolley, Travis J; Queijeiro-Bolaños, Mónica E

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its potential to

  4. Dwarf mistletoe does not increase trunk taper in released red firs in California

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    Robert F. Scharpf

    1977-01-01

    Dwarf mistletoe had no noticeable effect on trunk taper of young, dominant and codominant red firs 4 to 22 inches (10.2 to 55.9 cm) d.b.h. Also, taper was not influenced by live crown ratio of infected and uninfected trees. Trees less than 7 inches d.b.h. had significantly more taper than larger trees, irrespective of dwarf mistletoe.

  5. Mistletoe in the treatment of malignant melanoma

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    Esin Sakallı Çetin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a malignant neoplasia drives from melanocytes. Malignant melanoma, the most causing death, is seen in the third place at skin cancer. Malignant melanoma shows intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and variability in the course of the disease which are distinct features separating from other solid tumors. These features prevent the development and standardization of non-surgical treatment models of malignant melanoma. Although there is a large number of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma, it hasn’t been demonstrated the survival advantage of adjuvant treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Because of the different clinical course of malignant melanoma, the disease is thought to be closely associated with immune system. Therefore, immunomodulatory therapy models were developed. Mistletoe stimulates the immune system by increasing the number and activity of dendritic cells, thus it has been shown to effect on tumor growth and metastasis of malignant melanoma patient. Outlined in this review are the recent developments in the understanding the role of mistletoe as a complementary therapy for malignant melanoma. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 145-152

  6. Disproportionate Declines in Ground-Foraging Insectivorous Birds after Mistletoe Removal.

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    David M Watson

    Full Text Available Insectivorous birds have been recognized as disproportionately sensitive to land-use intensification and habitat loss, with those species feeding primarily on the ground exhibiting some of the most dramatic declines. Altered litter inputs and availability of epigeic arthropods have been suggested to underlie reduced abundances and shrinking distributions but direct evidence is lacking. I used a patch-scale removal experiment in southern Australia to evaluate whether ground-feeding insectivores are especially vulnerable to altered litter-fall. Building on work demonstrating the importance of mistletoe litter to nutrient dynamics, litter was reduced by removing mistletoe (Loranthaceae from one set of eucalypt woodlands, responses of birds three years after mistletoe removal compared with otherwise similar control woodlands containing mistletoe. Despite not feeding on mistletoes directly, insectivores exhibited the greatest response to mistletoe removal. Among woodland residents, ground-foraging insectivores showed the most dramatic response; treatment woodlands losing an average of 37.4% of their pre-treatment species richness. Once these 19 species of ground-foraging insectivores were excluded, remaining woodland species showed no significant effect of mistletoe removal. This response reflects greater initial losses in treatment woodlands during the study (which coincided with a severe drought and double the number of species returning to control woodlands (where mistletoe numbers and litter were not manipulated post-drought. These findings support the productivity-based explanation of declining insectivores, suggesting diminished litter-fall reduced habitat quality for these birds via decreased availability of their preferred prey. In addition to altered prey availability, interactions between litter-fall and epigeic arthropods exemplify the importance of below-ground / above-ground linkages driving ecosystem function.

  7. Dwarf mistletoes: Biology, pathology, and systematics

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    Frank G. Hawksworth; Delbert Wiens

    1996-01-01

    Arceuthobium (dwarf mistletoes), a well defined but morphologically reduced genus of the family Viscaceae, is parasitic on Pinaceae in the Old and New Worlds and on Cupressaceae in the Old World. Although conifer forests in many parts of the Northern Hemisphere are infested with dwarf mistletoes, those most commonly infested are in western North...

  8. Quality of Life and Neutropenia in Patients with Early Stage Breast Cancer: A Randomized Pilot Study Comparing Additional Treatment with Mistletoe Extract to Chemotherapy Alone

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    Wilfried Tröger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemotherapy for breast cancer often deteriorates quality of life, augments fatigue, and induces neutropenia. Mistletoe preparations are frequently used by cancer patients in Central Europe. Physicians have reported better quality of life in breast cancer patients additionally treated with mistletoe preparations during chemotherapy. Mistletoe preparations also have immunostimulant properties and might therefore have protective effects against chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective randomized open label pilot study with 95 patients randomized into three groups. Two groups received Iscador® M special (IMS or a different mistletoe preparation, respectively, additionally to chemotherapy with six cycles of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, and 5-fluoro-uracil (CAF. A control group received CAF with no additional therapy. Here we report the comparison IMS (n = 30 vs. control (n = 31. Quality of life including fatigue was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30. Neutropenia was defined as neutrophil counts <1,000/µl and assessed at baseline and one day before each CAF cycle.Results: In the descriptive analysis all 15 scores of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 showed better quality of life in the IMS group compared to the control group. In 12 scores the differences were significant (p < 0.02 and nine scores showed a clinically relevant and significant difference of at least 5 points. Neutropenia occurred in 3/30 IMS patients and in 8/31 control patients (p = 0.182.Conclusions: This pilot study showed an improvement of quality of life by treating breast cancer patients with IMS additionally to CAF. CAF-induced neutropenia showed a trend to lower frequency in the IMS group.

  9. Technical Report on the Development of Novel Technology for Reducing the Toxicity of Mistletoe Lectin by using Radiation Fusion Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il; Song, Beom Seok; Yoon, Yo Han; Jung, Pil Mun; Sung, Nak Yun

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was conducted to investigate the effect of irradiation on detoxification, structural change, and physiological change of Mistletoe lectin. Optimal irradiation dose was determined from the result of having maximum detoxification and remaining the immunological activity Irradiation technology could be effective method for detoxification of Mistletoe lectin containing the immunological activity. The results indicate the feasibility of novel technology for reduction of the toxicity of Mistletoe lectin by using radiation technology. Practical state though clinical test is needed to extend biomedicine field using radiation technology and improve of public health by the control of the disease that gradually increase every year

  10. Impacts of dwarf mistletoe on the physiology of host Tsuga heterophylla trees as recorded in tree-ring C and O stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Marias; F. C. Meinzer; D. R. Woodruff; D. C. Shaw; S. L. Voelker; Steven W. Oak; William J. Otrosina; William D. Smith; Kamal J.K. Gandhi

    2014-01-01

    Dwarf mistletoes, obligate, parasitic plants with diminutive aerial shoots, have long-term effects on host tree water relations, hydraulic architecture and photosynthetic gas exchange and can eventually induce tree death. To investigate the long-term (1886–2010) impacts of dwarf mistletoe on the growth and gas exchange characteristics of host western hemlock, we...

  11. Impacts of dwarf mistletoe on the physiology of host Tsuga heterophylla trees as recorded in tree ring C and O stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    • Dwarf mistletoes, obligate, parasitic plants with diminutive aerial shoots, have long-term effects on host tree water relations, hydraulic architecture, and photosynthetic gas exchange and can eventually induce tree death. • To investigate long-term impacts of dwarf mistletoe...

  12. Response of dwarf mistletoe-infested ponderosa pine to thinning: 2. Dwarf mistletoe propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis F. Roth; James W. Barrett

    1985-01-01

    Propagation of dwarf mistletoe in ponderosa pine saplings is little influenced by thinning overly dense stands to 250 trees per acre. Numerous plants that appear soon after thinning develop from formerly latent plants in the suppressed under-story. Subsequently, dwarf mistletoe propagates nearly as fast as tree crowns enlarge but the rate differs widely among trees....

  13. Fermented Mistletoe Extract as a Multimodal Antitumoral Agent in Gliomas

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    Oliver Podlech

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, commercially available extracts from the white-berry mistletoe (Viscum album L. are widely used as a complementary cancer therapy. Mistletoe lectins have been identified as main active components and exhibit cytotoxic effects as well as immunomodulatory activity. Since it is still not elucidated in detail how mistle toe extracts such as ISCADOR communicate their effects, we analyzed the mechanisms that might be responsible for their antitumoral function on a molecular and functional level. ISCADOR-treated glioblastoma (GBM cells down-regulate central genes involved in glioblastoma progression and malignancy such as the cytokine TGF-β and matrix-metalloproteinases. Using in vitro glioblastoma/immune cell co-cultivation assays as well as measurement of cell migration and invasion, we could demonstrate that in glioblastoma cells, lectin-rich ISCADOR M and ISCADOR Q significantly enforce NK-cell-mediated GBM cell lysis. Beside its immune stimulatory effect, ISCADOR reduces the migratory and invasive potential of glioblastoma cells. In a syngeneic as well as in a xenograft glioblastoma mouse model, both pretreatment of tumor cells and intratumoral therapy of subcutaneously growing glioblastoma cells with ISCADOR Q showed delayed tumor growth. In conclusion, ISCADOR Q, showing multiple positive effects in the treatment of glioblastoma, may be a candidate for concomitant treatment of this cancer.

  14. Metapopulation dynamics of the mistletoe and its host in savanna areas with different fire occurrence.

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    Grazielle Sales Teodoro

    Full Text Available Mistletoes are aerial hemiparasitic plants which occupy patches of favorable habitat (host trees surrounded by unfavorable habitat and may be possibly modeled as a metapopulation. A metapopulation is defined as a subdivided population that persists due to the balance between colonization and extinction in discrete habitat patches. Our aim was to evaluate the dynamics of the mistletoe Psittacanthus robustus and its host Vochysia thyrsoidea in three Brazilian savanna areas using a metapopulation approach. We also evaluated how the differences in terms of fire occurrence affected the dynamic of those populations (two areas burned during the study and one was fire protected. We monitored the populations at six-month intervals. P. robustus population structure and dynamics met the expected criteria for a metapopulation: i the suitable habitats for the mistletoe occur in discrete patches; (ii local populations went extinct during the study and (iii colonization of previously non-occupied patches occurred. The ratio of occupied patches decreased in all areas with time. Local mistletoe populations went extinct due to two different causes: patch extinction in area with no fire and fire killing in the burned areas. In a burned area, the largest decrease of occupied patch ratios occurred due to a fire event that killed the parasites without, however, killing the host trees. The greatest mortality of V. thyrsoidea occurred in the area without fire. In this area, all the dead trees supported mistletoe individuals and no mortality was observed for parasite-free trees. Because P. robustus is a fire sensitive species and V. thyrsoidea is fire tolerant, P. robustus seems to increase host mortality, but its effect is lessened by periodic burning that reduces the parasite loads.

  15. Translocation of {sup 14}C-Labelled Substances and {sup 32}PO{sub 4} in Mistletoe-Infected and Uninfected Conifers and Dicotyledonous Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, O. A.; Hull, R. J. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1966-05-15

    effective method of introducing all substances (other than assimilates) into dwarf and green mistletoes. High relative humidity greatly favoured the uptake and transport of amitrole in Abies concolor but not of 2,4-D. {sup 32}PO{sub 4} was poorly absorbed by Pinus sabiniana unless the leaves were scraped before application. Phloem transport occurred at all seasons in evergreen conifers and in evergreen dicotyledonous trees. (author)

  16. Vectors, viscin, and Viscaceae: mistletoes as parasites, mutualists, and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliann E. Aukema

    2003-01-01

    Mistletoes are aerial, hemiparasitic plants found on trees throughout the world. They have unique ecological arrangements with the host plants they parasitize and the birds that disperse their seeds. Similar in many respects to vector-borne macroparasites, mistletoes are often detrimental to their hosts, and can even kill them. Coevolution has led to resistance...

  17. Study of Mistletoe in Joben Resort Forest Mount Rinjani Lombok

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    Wahyuni Dwi Fikriani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mistletoes are one group of hemiparasite plants, including the Lorantaceae family that have potential as medicinal. These hemiparasite plants can attack flowering plant (Magnoliophyta and non-floweing plant (Pinophyta, especially on the main stems, branches and twigs. The objective of this research is to identify the species of mistletoe and its hosts, make identification key, descriptions, and to make a distribution map of mistletoe in Joben Resort forest south of Mount Rinjani Lombok. This study is descriptive explorative research with three kinds of collecting sample methods i.e exploration, continous strip sampling, and delenation method. The research found five species of mistletoes are included in three genera i.e Amyema cuernosensis, Amyema enneantha, Amyema tristis, Macrosolen retusus and Scurrula artropurpurea. These five kinds of mistletoe are associated with 23 hosts species of plants, 18 genera from 13 families. The most favorite host of these mistletoes is Ficus septica, and the most agresive mistletoe is Scurrula artropurpurea. The important finding of the research is finding new species or new record of mistletoes. The benefit of these new record or new species is providing new material of new medicinal for treating some diseases such as various cancers.

  18. Larch dwarf mistletoe not found on alpine larch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Mathiasen; Brian W. Geils; Clinton E. Carlson; Frank G. Hawksworth

    1995-01-01

    Reports of larch dwarf mistletoe parasitizing alpine larch are based on two collections of this host/parasite combination made by J.R. Weir in Montana during the early 1900s. Examination of host material from these collections indicates that the host is western larch, not alpine larch as previously reported. Attempts to locate larch dwarf mistletoe on alpine larch were...

  19. First report of Phytophthora ramorum infecting mistletoe in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.L. Riley; G.A. Chastagner

    2011-01-01

    In 2005 and 2006, white fir and Douglas-fir growing in a Christmas tree plantation near Los Gatos, CA, under a black walnut tree infected with mistletoe tested positive for Phytophthora ramorum, the cause of Sudden Oak Death. Isolation from a symptomatic mistletoe inflorescence stalk was positive for P. ramorum. In 2007,...

  20. Pruning high-value Douglas-fir can reduce dwarf mistletoe severity and increase longevity in central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Helen M; Filip, Gregory M; Gruelke, Nancy E; Oblinger, Brent W; Margolis, Ellis; Chadwick, Kristen L

    2016-01-01

    Mid- to very large-sized Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menzieseii var. menziesii) that were lightly- to moderately-infected by dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium douglasii) were analyzed over a 14-year period to evaluate whether mechanical pruning could eradicate mistletoe (or at least delay the onset of severe infection) without significantly affecting tree vitality and by inference, longevity. Immediate and longterm pruning effects on mistletoe infection severity were assessed by comparing pruned trees (n = 173) to unpruned trees (n = 55) with respect to: (1) percentage of trees with no visible infections 14 years post-pruning, (2) Broom Volume Rating (BVR), and (3) rate of BVR increase 14 years postpruning. Vitality/longevity (compared with unpruned trees) was assessed using six indicators: (1) tree survival, (2) the development of severe infections, (3) the development of dead tops, (4) tree-ring width indices, (5) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from high-resolution multi-spectral imagery, and (6) live-crown ratio (LCR) and increment. Twenty-four percent of the pruned trees remained free of mistletoe 14 years post-pruning. Pruning is most likely to successfully eradicate mistletoe in lightly infected trees (BVR 1 or 2) without infected neighbors. Pruning significantly decreased mean BVR in the pruned versus the unpruned trees. However, the subsequent average rate of intensification (1.3–1.5 BVR per decade) was not affected, implying that a single pruning provides ~14 years respite in the progression of infection levels. Post-pruning infection intensification was slower on dominant and co-dominants than on intermediate or suppressed trees. The success of mistletoe eradication via pruning and need for follow-up pruning should be evaluated no sooner than 14 years after pruning to allow for the development of detectable brooms. Based on six indicators, foliage from witches brooms contribute little to long-term tree vitality since removal appears to have

  1. Mistletoe lectin is not the only cytotoxic component in fermented preparations of Viscum album from white fir (Abies pectinata

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    Ramos Mac

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preparations of mistletoe (Viscum album are the form of cancer treatment that is most frequently used in the complementary medicine. Previous work has shown that these preparations are able to exert cytotoxic effects on carcinoma cells, the extent of which might be influenced by the host tree species and by the content of mistletoe lectin. Methods Using colorimetric assays, we have now compared the cytotoxic effects of Viscum album preparations (VAPs obtained from mistletoe growing on oak (Quercus robur and Q. petraea, VAP-Qu, apple tree (Malus domestica,, VAP-M, pine (Pinus sylvestris, VAP-P or white fir (Abies pectinata, VAP-A, on the in vitro growth of breast and bladder carcinoma cell lines. While MFM-223, KPL-1, MCF-7 and HCC-1937 were the breast carcinoma cell lines chosen, the panel of tested bladder carcinoma cells comprised the T-24, TCC-SUP, UM-UC-3 and J-82 cell lines. Results Each of the VAPs inhibited cell growth, but the extent of this inhibition differed with the preparation and with the cell line. The concentrations of VAP-Qu, VAP-M and VAP-A which led to a 50 % reduction of cell growth (IC50 varied between 0.6 and 0.03 mg/ml. Higher concentrations of VAP-P were required to obtain a comparable effect. Purified mistletoe lectin I (MLI led to an inhibition of breast carcinoma cell growth at concentrations lower than those of VAPs, but the sensitivity towards purified MLI did not parallel that towards VAPs. Bladder carcinoma cells were in most cases more sensitive to VAPs treatment than breast carcinoma cells. The total mistletoe lectin content was very high in VAP-Qu (54 ng/mg extract, intermediate in VAP-M (25 ng/mg extract, and very low in VAP-P (1.3 ng/mg extract and in VAP-A (1 ng/mg extract. As to be expected from the low content of mistletoe lectin, VAP-P led to relatively weak cytotoxic effects. Most remarkably, however, the lectin-poor VAP-A revealed a cytotoxic effect comparable to, or even stronger

  2. Animal vectors of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Ostry; Thomas H. Nicholls; D.W. French

    1983-01-01

    Describes a study to determine the importance of animals in the spread of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce. Radio telemetry, banding, and color-marking techniques were used to study vectors of this forest pathogen.

  3. Pleurodesis Using Mistletoe Extract Delivered via a Spray Catheter during Semirigid Pleuroscopy for Managing Symptomatic Malignant Pleural Effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jung Seop; Ahn, Hyo Yeong; Mok, Jeong Ha; Lee, Geewon; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Kwangha; Kim, Ki Uk; Park, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Min Ki

    Talc poudrage during thoracoscopy is considered the standard procedure for patients with symptomatic malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Until now, no alternative technique other than talc poudrage for pleurodesis during medical thoracoscopy has been proposed. Liquid sclerosants, such as mistletoe extract, have been sprayed evenly into the pleural cavity during semirigid pleuroscopy for chemical pleurodesis. We conducted a retrospective study using the database of semirigid pleuroscopy to identify the usefulness of pleurodesis using a mistletoe extract delivered via a spray catheter during semirigid pleuroscopy for symptomatic MPE. All consecutive patients with symptomatic MPE who underwent semirigid pleuroscopy from October 2015 to September 2016 were registered. The responses were evaluated using chest X- ray or computed tomography 4 weeks after pleurodesis. The study included 43 patients who underwent pleurodesis with mistletoe extract via a spray catheter during semirigid pleuroscopy. Complete and partial responses were seen in 21 (49%) and 19 (44%) patients, respectively. The median duration of chest tube placement after pleurod-esis was 7 days (range 6-8 days) in the 40 patients with complete or partial responses. No cases of severe hemorrhage, empyema formation, respiratory failure, or procedure-related mortality were observed in the subjects at 4 weeks after semirigid pleuroscopy. Pleurodesis with mistletoe extract delivered via a spray catheter during semirigid pleuroscopy is a safe and effective procedure for managing symptomatic MPE. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Mistletoe (Viscum album) infestation in the Scots pine stimulates drought-dependent oxidative damage in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Salih; Ilhan, Veli; Turkoglu, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to contribute to the understanding of the detrimental effect of the mistletoe (Viscum albumL.), a hemiparasitic plant, on the mortality of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestrisL.). Fieldwork was conducted in the town of Kelkit (Gumushane province, Turkey) from April to October in 2013. Pine needles of similar ages were removed from the branches of mistletoe-infested and noninfested Scots pine plants, then transported to the laboratory and used as research materials. The effects of the mistletoe on the Scots pine during infestation were evaluated by determining the levels of water, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA, being a product of lipid peroxidation) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion (O2 (-•)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical ((•)OH). In addition, the activities of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) were measured in the same samples. The highest level of drought stress was found in summer (especially in August) as a result of the lowest water content in the soil and the highest average temperature occurring in these months. The drought stress induced by mistletoe infestation caused a regular decrease in water content, while it increased the levels of EL, MDA and ROS (H2O2, O2 (-•)and(•)OH). The infestation also stimulated the activities of CAT and POX, with the exception of SOD. On the other hand, in August, when the drought conditions were the harshest, the levels of EL and MDA, which are two of the most important indicator parameters for oxidative stress, as well as the levels of H2O2and(•)OH, which are two of the ROS leading to oxidative stress, reached the highest values in both infested and noninfested needles, whereas the O2 (-•)level decreased. For the same period and needles, CAT activity increased, while SOD activity decreased. Peroxidase activity, however, did not exhibit a significant change. Our findings indicate

  5. Homeopathic mistletoe adverse reaction mimics nodal involvement in 18F-FDG PET/CT performed for evaluation of response to chemotherapy in lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, P; Sánchez, R; Mut, T; Balaguer, D; Latorre, I; Rodríguez, H

    Some patients use complementary medicine. We present a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma, scanned with 18 F-FDG PET/CT for evaluation of response after chemotherapy, who was self-administering mistletoe as a homeopathic medicine product. The careful review of the images of the entire scan and patient collaboration in anamnesis were crucial to avoid a false positive result. A review of the published scientific data on the effects of mistletoe is also presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  6. Local and landscape-scale biotic correlates of mistletoe distribution in Mediterranean pine forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roura-Pascual, N.; Brotons, L.; Garcia, D.; Zamora, R.; Caceres, M. de

    2012-11-01

    The study of the spatial patterns of species allows the examination of hypotheses on the most plausible ecological processes and factors determining their distribution. To investigate the determinants of parasite species on Mediterranean forests at regional scales, occurrence data of the European Misletoe (Viscum album) in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) were extracted from forest inventory data and combined with different types of explanatory variables by means of generalized linear mixed models. The presence of mistletoes in stands of Pinus halepensis seems to be determined by multiple factors (climatic conditions, and characteristics of the host tree and landscape structure) operating at different spatial scales, with the availability of orchards of Olea europaea in the surroundings playing a relevant role. These results suggest that host quality and landscape structure are important mediators of plant-plant and plant-animal interactions and, therefore, management of mistletoe populations should be conducted at both local (i.e. clearing of infected host trees) and landscape scales (e.g. controlling the availability of nutrient-rich food sources that attract bird dispersers). Research and management at landscape-scales are necessary to anticipate the negative consequence of land-use changes in Mediterranean forests. (Author) 38 refs.

  7. Loranthus ferrugineus: a Mistletoe from Traditional Uses to Laboratory Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Z. Ameer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Loranthus ferrugineus (L. ferrugineus from Loranthaceae, a mistletoe, is a medicinal herb used for a variety of human ailments. Traditionally, decoctions of this parasitic shrub have been mainly used to treat high blood pressure (BP and gastrointestinal complaints; usage which is supported by experimental based pharmacological investigations. Nonetheless, there is still limited data available evaluating this plant’s traditions, and few studies have been scientifically translated toward evidence based phytomedicine. We therefore provide a concise review of the currently available L. ferrugineus literature and discuss potential directions for future areas of investigation. Methods: We surveyed available literature covering ethnopharmacological usage of L. ferrugineus and discussed relevant findings, including important future directions and shortcomings for the medicinal values of this parasitic shrub. Results: Evidence based pharmacological approaches significantly covered the medicinal application of L. ferrugineus for hypertension and gastrointestinal complaint management, with a particular focus on the active hydrophilic extract of this herb. Conclusion: Understanding the sites of action of this plant and its beneficial effects will provide justification for its use in old traditional treatments, and potentially lead to the development of therapies. Other medicinal applicative areas of this parasitic shrub, such as wound healing, gerontological effects, and antiviral and anticancer activities, are yet to be researched.

  8. Studies on murine plasmocytoma treatment with mistletoe lectin I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, F.; Storch, H.

    1987-01-01

    Mistletoe lectin I was tested in vivo and in vitro for its cytotoxic activity against murine plasmacytoma cells P3/X63-Ag8. As a result of this treatment, 30 to 60% of the BALB/c mice developed complete tumor regressions. 83% of the mice treated with mistletoe lectin I were resistant to viable tumor cell challenge after 100 days. The cytotoxic activity in vitro tested by 3 H-thymidine incorporation into P3/X63-Ag8 cells was very high. The rate was markedly reduced at concentrations up to 0.07 ng/ml. (author)

  9. The influence of mistletoes on birds in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuria, Iriana; Castellanos, Ignacio; Gates, J. Edward

    2014-11-01

    Mistletoes are hemiparasitic flowering plants that function as keystone resources in forests and woodlands of temperate regions, where a positive relationship between mistletoe density and avian species richness has been observed. Mistletoes have been less studied in tropical regions and the relationship between birds and mistletoes has seldom been explored in tropical agricultural systems. Therefore, we studied the presence of infected trees and infection prevalence (i.e., number of parasitized trees/total number of trees) by Psittacanthus (Loranthaceae) mistletoes in 23 hedgerows located in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico during the dry and rainy seasons, and investigated the relationship between bird species richness and abundance and the abundance of mistletoes. We found a mean of 74 mistletoe plants per 100-m transect of only one species, Psittacanthus calyculatus. Thirty-one percent of the trees surveyed were infected and tree species differed in infection prevalence, mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) being the most infected species with 86% of the surveyed trees infected. For both seasons, we found a positive and significant association between bird species richness and number of mistletoe plants. The same pattern was observed for total bird abundance. Many resident and Neotropical migratory birds were observed foraging on mistletoes. Our results show that mistletoes are important in promoting a higher bird species richness and abundance in tropical agricultural landscapes.

  10. Mortality and growth of dwarf mistletoe-infected red and white fir and the efficacy of thinning for reducing associated losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. K. Mehl; S. R. Mori; S. J. Frankel; D. M. Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    In managed forests dominated by true fir (Abies) species, stands are often restocked using understory trees retained during timber harvest, making the effects of dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp.) infestation on small true fir a concern. This study examined the response of small red (A. magnifica) and...

  11. Stem infection by dwarf mistletoe in California firs

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Parmeter; Robert F. Scharpf

    1982-01-01

    In fir stands infested with dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium abietinum Engelm. ex Munz.), the majority of susceptible understory trees had one or more stem infections. Most stem infections entered through infected branches and grew slowly around the stem, resulting in small amounts of decay or stem killing. Decay was not found in trees less than 50...

  12. Dwarf Mistletoe of Ponderosa Pine in the Southwest (FIDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Lightle; Melvyn J. Weiss

    1974-01-01

    Southwestern dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobuim vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum) occurs essentially throughout the range of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum) from northern Mexico through western Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico into Colorado and central Utah. In Arizona and New Mexico it is present on more than one-third of the commercial forest acreage and is...

  13. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Negron

    2012-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  14. Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) extract regulates gene expression related to muscle atrophy and muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Juseong; Park, Choon-Ho; Kim, Inbo; Kim, Young-Ho; Yoon, Jae-Min; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Jong-Bae

    2017-01-21

    Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) is a semi-parasitic plant that grows on various trees and has a diverse range of effects on biological functions, being implicated in having anti-tumor, immunostimulatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity properties. Recently, we also reported that Korean mistletoe extract (KME) improves endurance exercise in mice, suggesting its beneficial roles in enhancing the capacity of skeletal muscle. We examined the expression pattern of several genes concerned with muscle physiology in C2C12 myotubes cells to identify whether KME inhibits muscle atrophy or promotes muscle hypertrophy. We also investigated these effects of KME in denervated mice model. Interestingly, KME induced the mRNA expression of SREBP-1c, PGC-1α, and GLUT4, known positive regulators of muscle hypertrophy, in C2C12 cells. On the contrary, KME reduced the expression of Atrogin-1, which is directly involved in the induction of muscle atrophy. In animal models, KME mitigated the decrease of muscle weight in denervated mice. The expression of Atrogin-1 was also diminished in those mice. Moreover, KME enhanced the grip strength and muscle weight in long-term feeding mice. Our results suggest that KME has beneficial effects on muscle atrophy and muscle hypertrophy.

  15. A mistletoe tale: postglacial invasion of Psittacanthus schiedeanus (Loranthaceae) to Mesoamerican cloud forests revealed by molecular data and species distribution modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Gándara, Etelvina; Vásquez-Aguilar, Antonio Acini; Ramírez-Barahona, Santiago; Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andrés Ernesto; González, Clementina; Mejía Saules, María Teresa; Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo

    2016-04-12

    Ecological adaptation to host taxa is thought to result in mistletoe speciation via race formation. However, historical and ecological factors could also contribute to explain genetic structuring particularly when mistletoe host races are distributed allopatrically. Using sequence data from nuclear (ITS) and chloroplast (trnL-F) DNA, we investigate the genetic differentiation of 31 Psittacanthus schiedeanus (Loranthaceae) populations across the Mesoamerican species range. We conducted phylogenetic, population and spatial genetic analyses on 274 individuals of P. schiedeanus to gain insight of the evolutionary history of these populations. Species distribution modeling, isolation with migration and Bayesian inference methods were used to infer the evolutionary transition of mistletoe invasion, in which evolutionary scenarios were compared through posterior probabilities. Our analyses revealed shallow levels of population structure with three genetic groups present across the sample area. Nine haplotypes were identified after sequencing the trnL-F intergenic spacer. These haplotypes showed phylogeographic structure, with three groups with restricted gene flow corresponding to the distribution of individuals/populations separated by habitat (cloud forest localities from San Luis Potosí to northwestern Oaxaca and Chiapas, localities with xeric vegetation in central Oaxaca, and localities with tropical deciduous forests in Chiapas), with post-glacial population expansions and potentially corresponding to post-glacial invasion types. Similarly, 44 ITS ribotypes suggest phylogeographic structure, despite the fact that most frequent ribotypes are widespread indicating effective nuclear gene flow via pollen. Gene flow estimates, a significant genetic signal of demographic expansion, and range shifts under past climatic conditions predicted by species distribution modeling suggest post-glacial invasion of P. schiedeanus mistletoes to cloud forests. However, Approximate

  16. Immunostimulatory properties of mistletoe extracts and their application in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Wrotek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For a long time cancer immunotherapy was overshadowed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, “Science”, one of the world’s top scientific journals, named the stimulation of the body’s own immune system to fight cancer cells as the “breakthrough of the year”. In Germany, Switzerland and Austria, extracts derived from mistletoe (Viscum album L. such as Iscador, Abnobaviscum, Helixor, Iscar, Iscucin and Isorel have been used in oncology for many years. These extracts have immunomodulating and immunostimulating properties, as demonstrated by experimental studies as well as in clinical trials. The aim of our paper is to present immunological disorders associated with cancer, which can be counteracted by treatment with extracts derived from mistletoe. Although these drugs cannot replace conventionalcancer treatment, they may improve the patient’s quality and length of life.

  17. Modelling dwarf mistletoe at three scales: life history, ballistics and contagion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald C. E. Robinson; Brian W. Geils

    2006-01-01

    The epidemiology of dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium) is simulated for the reproduction, dispersal, and spatial patterns of these plant pathogens on conifer trees. A conceptual model for mistletoe spread and intensification is coded as sets of related subprograms that link to either of two individual-tree growth models (FVS and TASS) used by managers to develop...

  18. A Review of the Bio-Activity Relationship of Mistletoes and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following six host trees and their mistletoes were investigated: Azadirachta indica (neem), Psidium guajava (guava), Pentaclethra macrophylla (oil-bean), Kola acuminata (cola nut), Persea americana (avocado), and Baphia nitida (cam wood). The work showed that of the six host trees and their mistletoes studied, four ...

  19. Chapter 7. Management strategies for dwarf mistletoes: Biological, chemical, and genetic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. F. Shamoun; L. E. DeWald

    2002-01-01

    The opportunity and need for management of mistletoe populations with biological, chemical, and genetic approaches are greatest for application to the dwarf mistletoes. Although much information is available on these management strategies (see reviews by Hawksworth 1972, Knutson 1978), significant research and development are still required for these to become...

  20. The incidence of dwarf mistletoe in Minnesota black spruce stands detected by operational inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred Baker; Mark Hansen; John D. Shaw; Manfred Mielke; Dixon Shelstad

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed black spruce stands within 0.5 miles of US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots and compared dwarf mistletoe status with that of the FIA and Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) forest inventories. Our results differed from FIA results in 3 of 16 stands with FIA plots, with FIA most often not recording dwarf mistletoe in...

  1. Dwarf mistletoe in red and white firs in California–23 to 28 years after inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Parmeter Jr.; Robert F. Scharpf

    1989-01-01

    Spread and buildup of dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium abietinum, was studied on inoculated white fir, Abies concolor, and red fir, A. magnifica, in northern California for 23 to 28 years. At the end of these studies (1986), and in the absence of overstory infection, 13 of 23 trees had dwarf mistletoe populations...

  2. Dwarf mistletoe and host tree interactions in managed forests of the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald M. Knutson; Robert. Tinnin

    1980-01-01

    Dwarf mistletoes in the Pacific Northwest infect true firs, larch, pine, Douglas-fir, and hemlock. Forty-one percent of all stands east of the crest of the Cascade Range and 10 percent of west-side stands are infected. General characteristics of dwarf mistletoe are discussed including mortality and growth losses rate of spread within a tree and within stands. Relation...

  3. Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L. Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. Steele

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this “off-label” application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6% reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4% or moderate severity (40.6%. No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%, versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%. ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended.

  4. Wildland fires and dwarf mistletoes: A literature review of ecology and prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin E. Alexander; Frank G. Hawksworth

    1975-01-01

    Wildfires play a multiple role in the distribution of dwarf mistletoes - they may either inhibit or encourage these parasites depending primarily on the size and intensity of the burn. Many reports suggest that fire exclusion policies of the past half century have resulted in increased dwarf mistletoe levels as, well as increased fire behavior potential. Prescribed...

  5. Pruning dwarf mistletoe brooms reduces stress on Jeffrey pines, Cleveland National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Scharpf; Richard S. Smith; Detlev Vogler

    1987-01-01

    Western dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium campylopodum) is a damaging parasite of Jeffrey pines (Pinus jeffreyi) in southern California. Infected branches that develop into brooms are believed to reduce tlee vigor and increase mortality. Brooms were pruned from Jeffrey pines with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection and live...

  6. Quantitative analysis of receptor-mediated uptake and pro-apoptotic activity of mistletoe lectin-1 by high content imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beztsinna, N; de Matos, M B C; Walther, J; Heyder, C; Hildebrandt, E; Leneweit, G; Mastrobattista, E; Kok, R J

    2018-02-09

    Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) are highly potent cytotoxins that have potential as anticancer therapeutics. Mistletoe lectin 1 (ML1) is a heterodimeric cytotoxic protein isolated from European Mistletoe and belongs to RIP class II. The aim of this project was to systematically study ML1 cell binding, endocytosis pathway(s), subcellular processing and apoptosis activation. For this purpose, state of the art cell imaging equipment and automated image analysis algorithms were used. ML1 displayed very fast binding to sugar residues on the membrane and energy-dependent uptake in CT26 cells. The co-staining with specific antibodies and uptake blocking experiments revealed involvement of both clathrin-dependent and -independent pathways in ML1 endocytosis. Co-localization studies demonstrated the toxin transport from early endocytic vesicles to Golgi network; a retrograde road to the endoplasmic reticulum. The pro-apoptotic and antiproliferative activity of ML1 were shown in time lapse movies and subsequently quantified. ML1 cytotoxicity was less affected in multidrug resistant tumor cell line 4T1 in contrast to commonly used chemotherapeutic drug (ML1 resistance index 6.9 vs 13.4 for doxorubicin; IC 50 : ML1 1.4 ng/ml vs doxorubicin 24000 ng/ml). This opens new opportunities for the use of ML1 as an alternative treatment in multidrug resistant cancers.

  7. Drying Methods Alter Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity, Antioxidant Properties, and Phenolic Constituents of African Mistletoe (Loranthus bengwensis L) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi Seun; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the most appropriate drying method (sun drying, oven drying, or air drying) for mistletoe leaves obtained from almond tree. The phenolic constituents were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector, while the inhibitory effect of the aqueous extracts of the leaves on angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) was determined in vitro as also the antioxidant properties. Oven-dried extract (kidney [276.09 μg/mL] and lungs [303.41 μg/mL]) had the highest inhibitory effect on ACE, while air-dried mistletoe extract (kidney [304.47 μg/mL] and lungs [438.72 μg/mL]) had the least. Furthermore, the extracts dose-dependently inhibited Fe(2+) and sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation in rat's heart and kidney. Also, all extracts exhibited antioxidative properties as typified by their radical scavenging and Fe-chelating ability. Findings from this study revealed that oven drying is the best of the 3 drying methods used for mistletoe obtained from almond host tree, thus confirming that diversity in drying methods leads to variation in phenolic constituents and biological activity of plants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Effects of a Liberalized European Gas Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    improves efficiency. In fact, an increase in the number of actors in such markets, per se, may increase cost, and, thus, represent a waste of resources. Usually, but not necessarily, state owned firms are privatised (even though the government may hold a significant share, or control over, the ownership), the operation of vertically integrated services are separated (''unbundled''), competition is established when possible and regulation introduced when necessary (when competition does not work). In the case of natural gas, the U.S. and Canada liberalized their markets in the mid 1980s. Later, gas markets in the U.K., and then Australia and New Zealand, followed. Now, in the European natural gas industry, both market growth and infrastructural developments, as well as political decision making, forcing competition on to firms, is now creating a more competitive environment. In order to analyze these issues in relation to Norway as a major natural gas exporter we have studied the development of EU energy policies, price effects of liberalism, energy taxation, the economics of non-renewable (exhaustible) resources and regulatory economics as well as foreign policy issues concerning security-of-supply issues. The complexity and interdisciplinary insights needed to analyze the European gas market makes it even more complex than analyses of the global oil market. In the European gas market, the problem of choosing the right in-depth level and correct parameters and discipline to apply, becomes particularly apparent and challenging. For most analysts and policy makers, it seems to be an overwhelming task to describe exactly how a liberalized European gas market works, how it should be organized and will develop. In this analysis of the political economy of European gas, we will nevertheless try to shed some light on the causes and effects of what may happen

  9. Volatility Spillover Effects in European Equity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper quantifies the magnitude and time-varying nature of volatility spillovers from the aggregate European (EU) and US market to 13 local European equity markets.I develop a shock spillover model that decomposes local unexpected returns into a country speciffic shock, a regional European

  10. Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity Assay of Clove Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. Leaves Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Elsyana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT. Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity.

  11. Twenty-Five year (1982-2007) history of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe animal vectors and ethephon control on the Fraser Experimental Forest in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas. Nicholls

    2009-01-01

    This is a summary of the 25-year history of studies of mammal and bird vectors of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), ethephon control of dwarf mistletoe, and the ecology of the most important dwarf mistletoe vector, the gray jay (Persisoreus canadensis), on the USDA Forest Service, Fraser Experimental Forest...

  12. Leaf morphophysiology of a Neotropical mistletoe is shaped by seasonal patterns of host leaf phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalon, Marina Corrêa; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo; Domingos, Fabricius Maia Chaves Bicalho; Franco, Augusto Cesar

    2016-04-01

    Several mistletoe species are able to grow and reproduce on both deciduous and evergreen hosts, suggesting a degree of plasticity in their ability to cope with differences in intrinsic host functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of host phenology on mistletoe water relations and leaf gas exchange. Mistletoe Passovia ovata parasitizing evergreen (Miconia albicans) hosts and P. ovata parasitizing deciduous (Byrsonima verbascifolia) hosts were sampled in a Neotropical savanna. Photosynthetic parameters, diurnal cycles of stomatal conductance, pre-dawn and midday leaf water potential, and stomatal anatomical traits were measured during the peak of the dry and wet seasons, respectively. P. ovata showed distinct water-use strategies that were dependent on host phenology. For P. ovata parasitizing the deciduous host, water use efficiency (WUE; ratio of photosynthetic rate to transpirational water loss) was 2-fold lower in the dry season than in the wet season; in contrast, WUE was maintained at the same level during the wet and dry seasons in P. ovata parasitizing the evergreen host. Generally, mistletoe and host diurnal cycles of stomatal conductance were linked, although there were clear differences in leaf water potential, with mistletoe showing anisohydric behaviour and the host showing isohydric behaviour. Compared to mistletoes attached to evergreen hosts, those parasitizing deciduous hosts had a 1.4-fold lower stomatal density and 1.2-fold wider stomata on both leaf surfaces, suggesting that the latter suffered less intense drought stress. This is the first study to show morphophysiological differences in the same mistletoe species parasitizing hosts of different phenological groups. Our results provide evidence that phenotypical plasticity (anatomical and physiological) might be essential to favour the use of a greater range of hosts.

  13. Pruning high-value Douglas-fir can reduce dwarf mistletoe severity and increase longevity in Central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen M. Maffei; Gregory M. Filip; Nancy E. Grulke; Brent W. Oblinger; Ellis Q. Margolis; Kristen L. Chadwick

    2016-01-01

    Mid- to very large-sized Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menzieseii var. menziesii) that were lightly- to moderately-infected by dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium douglasii) were analyzed over a 14-year period to evaluate whether mechanical pruning could eradicate mistletoe (or at least delay the onset of severe infection) without...

  14. Evaluation of the Possible Mechanisms of Antihypertensive Activity of Loranthus micranthus: An African Mistletoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele A. Iwalokun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Loranthus micranthus (LM, also called African mistletoe is a major Nigerian Loranthaceae plant used traditionally to treat hypertension. The methanolic leaf extract of the plant (LMME has been shown to elicit anti-hypertensive activity in rats but mechanism remains unclear. This study was undertaken to study the effect of LM on pressor-induced contraction of rat aorta smooth muscles and serum lipid profiles in mice. The LMME was partitioned to produce n-butanol (NBF-LMME, chloroform (CF-LMME, ethyl acetate (EAF-LMME and water (WF-LMME fractions. The median effective concentrations and maximum relaxation of the fractions were determined against epinephrine and KCl pre-contracted rat aorta ring model. Serum lipid profiles and nitric oxide (NO were determined spectrophotometrically in mice administered per orally 250 mg/kg b.w. of each fraction for 21 days. Data were analyzed statistically. NBF-LMME elicited the highest dose-dependent inhibitory effect on rat aorta pre-contracted with norepinephrine and KCl, followed in decreasing order by WF-LMME > CF-LMME > EAF-LMME. Similar order of activity was observed in the ability of these fractions to inhibit elevation in artherogenic lipids, raise serum nitric oxide and reduce cardiac arginase in mice. We conclude the anti-hypertensive activity of L. micranthus involve anti-artherogenic events, vasorelaxation, cardiac arginase reduction and NO elevation.

  15. Mistletoe infection alters the transpiration flow path and suppresses water regulation of host trees during extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, A.; Maier, C.; Barton, C. V.; Metzen, D.; Renchon, A.; Boer, M. M.; Pendall, E.

    2017-12-01

    Mistletoe is a globally distributed group of parasitic plants that infiltrates the vascular tissue of its host trees to acquire water, carbon and nutrients, making it a leading agent of biotic disturbance. Many mistletoes occur in water-limited ecosystems, thus mistletoe infection in combination with increased climatic stress may exacerbate water stress and potentially accelerate mortality rates of infected trees during extreme events. This is an emerging problem in Australia, as mistletoe distribution is increasing and clear links between mistletoe infection and mortality have been established. However, direct observations about how mistletoes alter host physiological processes during extreme events are rare, which impedes our understanding of mechanisms underlying increased tree mortality rates. We addressed this gap by continuously monitoring stem and branch sap flow and a range of leaf traits of infected and uninfected trees of two co-occurring eucalypt species during a severe heatwave in south-eastern Australia. We demonstrate that mistletoes' leaf water potentials were maintained 30% lower than hosts' to redirect the trees' transpiration flow path towards mistletoe leaves. Eucalypt leaves reduced water loss through stomatal regulation when atmospheric dryness exceeded 2 kPa, but the magnitude of stomatal regulation in non-infected eucalypts differed by species (between 40-80%). Remarkably, when infected, sap flow rates of stems and branches of both eucalypt species remained unregulated even under extreme atmospheric dryness (>8 kPa). Our observations indicate that excessive water use of mistletoes likely increases xylem cavitation rates in hosts during prolonged droughts and supports that hydraulic failure contributes to increased mortality of infected trees. Hence, in order to accurately model the contribution of biotic disturbances to tree mortality under a changing climate, it will be crucial to increase our process-based understanding of the interaction

  16. Labour Force Migration Effects within European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mihaela Tudorache

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the EU, there is no common policy on migration; there are common policies on certain aspects of migration. The Member States fear of migration, but their economies and societies will further need migrant workers. Labour force migration have positive, but also negative consequences for all parties involved: receiving countries, origin countries and migrant workers. Within this framework, a common approach of the migration management and the harmonization of the economic migration policies of the Member States represent already one of the most important challenges for the European Union and will be further emphasized.

  17. Proceedings of the symposium on dwarf mistletoe control through forest management, April 11-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Scharpf; John R. Parmeter

    1978-01-01

    These Symposium papers cover bases of control, control planning and decisionmaking, control operations and accomplishments, refining and improving control techniques, and pest damage and integrated control. A program summary and a list of literature references on the dwarf mistletoes are included.

  18. Population dynamics of dwarf mistletoe on young true firs in the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E Scharpf; J. R. Jr. Parmeter

    1982-01-01

    Young red firs (Abies magnifica A. Murr.) and white firs (A. concolor [Gord. & Glend.] Lindl. ex Hildebr.) on the Stanislaus National Forest, California, were inoculated with seeds of dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium abietinum) for 5 successive years. Only 3 to 4 percent of about 7000 seeds placed on branches...

  19. Dwarf Mistletoe on Red Fir . . . infection and control in understory stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Scharpf

    1969-01-01

    Height and age of understory red fir (Abies magnifica A. Murr.) were related to dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobiilm campylopodum f. abietinum) infection from the surrounding overstory red fir on four National Forests in California. Percentage of trees infected and intensity of infection increased significantly as height of understory...

  20. Spread of dwarf mistletoe from discrete seed sources into young stands of ponderosa and Jeffrey pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. R. Parmeter Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The maximum distance of spread of dwarf mistletoes from isolated overstory pines into surrounding reproduction averages 120 feet. The rate of infection in young trees declined as distance from the seed source increased and was generally greatest in the direction of prevailing winds. This pattern of infection was similar to the previously reported pattern of seed...

  1. Western dwarf mistletoe infects understory Jeffrey pine seedlings on Cleveland National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Scharpf; Detlev Vogler

    1986-01-01

    Many young, understory Jeffrey pines (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.) were found to be infected by western dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium campylopodum Engelm.) on Laguna Mountain, Cleveland National Forest, in southern California. Under heavily infected overstory, about three-fourths of the young pines (about 15 years old on the...

  2. The ethnobotanical, phytochemical and mineral analyses of phragmanthera incana (klotzsch), a species of mistletoe growing on three plant hosts in South-Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunmefun, O T; Fasola, T R; Saba, A B; Oridupa, O A

    2013-03-01

    Mistletoe is collected wildly on various plants and Phragmanthera incana is noted to grow on different plant hosts. This study was designed to carry out the ethnobotanical survey, phytochemical and mineral analyses of Phragmanthera incana, a species of mistletoe growing on three plant hosts namely Cocoa (Theobroma cacao), Kolanut (Cola nitida) and Bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis). Mistletoe samples were identified at the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria Herbarium. Phragmanthera incana was screened for its phytochemical constituents and mineral cations along its hosts following standard methods and to confirm if the mistletoe species is host specific. The powdered samples of the mistletoe species (Phragmanthera incana) was used for both the phytochemical screening and the cation mineral analysis. The uses and the harvesting methods of mistletoe were also reviewed extensively in this paper.

  3. Mistletoes and epiphytic lichens contribute to litter input in Nothofagus antarctica forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Rosina; Pastur, Guillermo Martínez; Lencinas, María Vanessa; Peri, Pablo Luis

    2015-10-01

    Litter input is one of the key components that define nutrient cycling in forests and the majority of studies only consider the tree components of litterfall. However, epiphytic species can play a crucial role in litter input throughout the growing season. This work evaluates changes in litter production by mistletoe (Misodendrum sp.) and epiphytic lichen (Usnea sp.), related to crown cover in mature unmanaged, second-growth and managed (thinned for silvopastoral use) forests in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). We used plastic traps to collect litterfall biomass from trees, lichens and mistletoes on a monthly basis over three consecutive years. Tree litter was considerable during autumn (March to May), which is typical of Nothofagus deciduous species in the Southern hemisphere. In contrast, peak litterfall from mistletoes and lichens occurred during spring and summer seasons. Tree litter (1954-3398 kg dry matter ha-1 year-1) was correlated with crown cover gradient being highest in second-growth forests and lowest in thinned sites. While litter input from mistletoes did not vary among forest types (307-333 kg dry matter ha-1 year-1), lichen litter (11-40 kg dry matter ha-1 year-1) was higher in unmanaged and thinned mature forests despite differences in tree crown cover. Contrary to what we expected, the management practices investigated here did not affect the biomass of canopy communities compared to unmanaged mature forests. Mistletoes and lichens significantly increased the spatial (forest type) and temporal complexity (extended period of falling) of litterfall in Nothofagus antarctica forests. This study provides a starting point to understand the ecological relevance of canopy communities in the Patagonian forests of southern Argentina.

  4. Chemical pleurodesis using mistletoe extracts via spray catheter during medical thoracoscopy for management of malignant pleural effusion

    OpenAIRE

    Eom, Jung Seop; Kim, Tae Hwa; Lee, Geewon; Ahn, Hyo Yeong; Mok, Jeong Ha; Lee, Min Ki

    2017-01-01

    We present three cases of successful chemical pleurodesis with a liquid solution of mistletoe extract using a spray catheter during medical thoracoscopy. The medical thoracoscopy was performed in all presented cases to remove pleural effusion and conduct chemical pleurodesis to manage symptomatic malignant pleural effusion. A spray catheter was used to instil the mistletoe extract evenly into the pleural cavity, and there were no pleurodesis?related complications. Respiratory symptoms caused ...

  5. Antitumor activity of the Korean mistletoe lectin is attributed to activation of macrophages and NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Taek Joon; Yoo, Yung Choon; Kang, Tae Bong; Song, Seong Kyu; Lee, Kyung Bok; Her, Erk; Song, Kyung Sik; Kim, Jong Bae

    2003-10-01

    Inhibitory effect of the lectins (KML-C) isolated from Korean mistletoe (KM; Viscum album coloratum) on tumor metastases produced by murine tumor cells (B16-BL6 melanoma, colon 26-M3.1 carcinoma and L5178Y-ML25 lymphoma cells) was investigated in syngeneic mice. An intravenous (i.v.) administration of KML-C (20-50 ng/mouse) 2 days before tumor inoculation significantly inhibited lung metastases of both B16-BL6 and colon 26-M3.1 cells. The prophylactic effect of 50 ng/mouse of KML-C on lung metastasis was almost the same with that of 100 microg/mouse of KM. Treatment with KML-C 1 day after tumor inoculation induced a significant inhibition of not only the experimental lung metastasis induced by B16-BL6 and colon 26-M3.1 cells but also the liver and spleen metastasis of L5178Y-ML25 cells. Furthermore, multiple administration of KML-C given at 3 day-intervals after tumor inoculation led to a significant reduction of lung metastasis and suppression of the growth of B16-BL6 melanoma cells in a spontaneous metastasis model. In an assay for natural killer (NK) cell activity, i.v. administration of KML-C (50 ng/mouse) significantly augmented NK cytotoxicity against Yac-1 tumor cells 2 days after KML-C treatment. In addition, treatment with KML-C (50 ng/mouse) induced tumoricidal activity of peritoneal macrophages against B16-BL6 and 3LL cells. These results suggest that KML-C has an immunomodulating activity to enhance the host defense system against tumors, and that its prophylactic and therapeutic effect on tumor metastasis is associated with the activation of NK cells and macrophages.

  6. Comparing effects of Winter Universiade (2011) and European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing effects of Winter Universiade (2011) and European Youth Olympic Festival (2011) ... The participating group was composed of 878 local spectators who watched the games. ... Sample group views on both positive and negative effects of these two events have high averages. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. The effect of the European union (MPP6) infrastructural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effect of the European Union infrastructural development on the productivity of food crop farmers and development of rural areas in Imo State. The specific objectives were to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of respondents, determine the extent of infrastructural development in the area ...

  8. Labour Market Effects of Parental Leave: A European Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Y.E.; Plantenga, J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the aggregate-level effects of parental leave legislation on various labour market outcomes of women in 16 European countries for the period since 1970. The paper updates and extends previous findings in the literature. Results show increases in participation rates that diminish with

  9. Management effects on European cropland respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugster, Werner; Moffat, Antje M.; Ceschia, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Increases in respiration rates following management activities in croplands are considered a relevant anthropogenic source of CO2. In this paper, we quantify the impact of management events on cropland respiration fluxes of CO2 as they occur under current climate and management conditions. Our....... This allowed us to address the question of how management activities influence ecosystem respiration. This was done by comparing respiration fluxes during 7, 14, and 28 days after the management with those observed during the matching time period before management. Median increases in respiration ranged from...... than management alone are also important at a given site. Temperature is the climatic factor that showed best correlation with site-specific respiration fluxes. Therefore, the effect of temperature changes between the time periods before and after management were taken into account for a subset of 13...

  10. Development of quality standards of medicinal mistletoe – Helicanthes elastica (Desr. Danser employing Pharmacopoeial procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Sunil Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Helicanthes elastica (Desr. Danser (Loranthaceae, commonly known as Indian mango mistletoe, is a parasitic shrub found widely growing on mango trees in southern India. Development of monographic quality standards is need of the hour for Pharmacopoeial/extra-Pharmacopoeial and folk medicinal plants. Systematic pharmacognostical evaluation of leaves of H. elastica has been carried out employing Pharmacopoeial procedures of testing herbal drugs. Macro–microscopic features of H. elastica leaf were recorded. Ethanolic extract was tested positive for alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, tannins, saponins and phenols. HPTLC fingerprint profile was developed for the identification of extracts using reference standard β-sitosterol glucoside. Results of the present investigation would serve as a source of pharmacognostical information and a document to control the quality of H. elastica (Desr. Danser. Keywords: HPTLC, Mango mistletoe, Medicinal plant monograph, Quality control

  11. Peer Effects on Obesity in a Sample of European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes peer effects on childhood obesity using data from the first two waves of the IDEFICS study, which applies several anthropometric and other measures of fatness to approximately 14,000 children aged two to nine participating in both waves in 16 regions of eight European countries....... Peers are defined as same-sex children in the same school and age group. The results show that peer effects do exist in this European sample but that they differ among both regions and different fatness measures. Peer effects are larger in Spain, Italy, and Cyprus – the more collectivist regions in our...... sample – while waist circumference generally gives rise to larger peer effects than BMI. We also provide evidence that parental misperceptions of their own children's weight goes hand in hand with fatter peer groups, supporting the notion that in making such assessments, parents compare their children...

  12. Determination of Heavy Metals in Almonds and Mistletoe as a Parasite Growing on the Almond Tree Using ICP-OES or ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamar, Veysi; Dağalp, Rukiye; Taştekin, Mustafa

    2017-12-28

    In this study, the elements of Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sr, Pb, Ti, and Zn were determined in the leaves, fruits, and branches of mistletoe, (Viscum albüm L.), used as a medicinal plant, and in the leaves, branches and barks of almond tree which mistletoe grows on. The aim of the study is to investigate whether the mistletoe are more absorbent than the almond tree in terms of the heavy metal contents and the determination of the amount of the elements penetrated into the mistletoe from the almond tree. ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) was used for the analysis of As, Cd, Mo, and Pb, whereas ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) was used for the other elements. The results obtained were statistically evaluated at 95% confidence level. Within the results obtained in this study, it was determined whether there is a significant difference between metal elements in almond tree and mistletoe, or not. As a result, it was observed that there were higher contents of B, Ba, K, Mg, and Zn in the mistletoe than in the almond tree. K was found much higher than other elements in the mistletoe. On the other hand, Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Sr, Pb, and Ti contents were determined to be more in almond tree than mistletoe.

  13. PRODUCTION POTENTIAL AND AGRICULTURAL EFFECTIVENESS IN EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Baer-Nawrocka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to assess the relation between agricultural production factors and effectiveness in European Union’s agriculture. For each country two synthetic coefficients were calculated using TOPSIS method. The first one characterises production factors relations, the latter one displays effectiveness of production factors. The objective of the research was to verify the correlation between these indices. The analysis proved that in many analysed countries the agricultural potential is correlated positively with the agricultural effectiveness

  14. Chemical pleurodesis using mistletoe extracts via spray catheter during medical thoracoscopy for management of malignant pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jung Seop; Kim, Tae Hwa; Lee, Geewon; Ahn, Hyo Yeong; Mok, Jeong Ha; Lee, Min Ki

    2017-05-01

    We present three cases of successful chemical pleurodesis with a liquid solution of mistletoe extract using a spray catheter during medical thoracoscopy. The medical thoracoscopy was performed in all presented cases to remove pleural effusion and conduct chemical pleurodesis to manage symptomatic malignant pleural effusion. A spray catheter was used to instil the mistletoe extract evenly into the pleural cavity, and there were no pleurodesis-related complications. Respiratory symptoms caused by pleural effusion improved after pleurodesis, and successful pleurodesis was maintained for more than 3 months after medical thoracoscopy in all three patients.

  15. Reproductive ecology and isolation of Psittacanthus calyculatus and P. auriculatus mistletoes (Loranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Díaz Infante

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Relationships between floral biology and pollinator behavior are important to understanding species diversity of hemiparasitic Psittacanthus mistletoes (c. 120 species. We aimed to investigate trait divergence linked to pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation (RI in two hummingbird-pollinated and bird-dispersed Psittacanthus species with range overlap. Methods We investigated the phylogenetic relationships, floral biology, pollinator assemblages, seed dispersers and host usage, and the breeding system and female reproductive success of two sympatric populations of P. calyculatus and P. auriculatus, and one allopatric population of P. calyculatus. Flowers in sympatry were also reciprocally pollinated to assess a post-mating component of RI. Results Hummingbird assemblages differed between calyculatus populations, while allopatric plants of calyculatus opened more but smaller flowers with longer lifespans and produced less nectar than those in sympatry. Bayesian-based phylogenetic analysis indicated monophyly for calyculatus populations (i.e. both populations belong to the same species. In sympatry, calyculatus plants opened more and larger flowers with longer lifespans and produced same nectar volume than those of auriculatus; populations shared pollinators but seed dispersers and host usage differed between species. Nectar standing crops differed between sympatric populations, with lower visitation in calyculatus. Hand pollination experiments indicated a predominant outcrossing breeding system, with fruit set after interspecific pollination two times higher from calyculatus to auriculatus than in the opposite direction. Conclusions Given the low genetic differentiation between calyculatus populations, observed trait divergence could have resulted from changes regarding the local communities of pollinators and, therefore, expected divergence for peripheral, allopatric populations. Using RI estimates, there were fewer

  16. European accelerator facilities for single event effects testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, L; Nickson, R; Harboe-Sorensen, R [ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Hajdas, W; Berger, G

    1997-03-01

    Single event effects are an important hazard to spacecraft and payloads. The advances in component technology, with shrinking dimensions and increasing complexity will give even more importance to single event effects in the future. The ground test facilities are complex and expensive and the complexities of installing a facility are compounded by the requirement that maximum control is to be exercised by users largely unfamiliar with accelerator technology. The PIF and the HIF are the result of experience gained in the field of single event effects testing and represent a unique collaboration between space technology and accelerator experts. Both facilities form an essential part of the European infrastructure supporting space projects. (J.P.N.)

  17. European Union gas market liberalization: a windfall effect for Russia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riviere, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Natural gas has a growing importance in the European Union energy. However, because of the lack of resources in its territory, the EU is highly dependent on imports to meet its gas needs. In parallel, since 1998 the EU seeks the creation of a single and liberalized natural gas market. The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether the gas market liberalization can create a risk for importers' bargaining power and more widely to the gas security of supply of the EU. The first chapter provides an overview of the European gas market. It deals with the implementation of the process of gas market liberalization, the external dependency of the EU and the weakness of gas supply diversity. Using findings from the previous chapter, the second one proposes a model from the cooperative game theory to analyze the effects of the EU natural gas market liberalization on importers' bargaining power. It shows that the liberalization weakens importers' bargaining power vis-a-vis external suppliers, where Russia is the leader. It also shows that the implementation of a European gas purchasing agency offers a counter-power to the EU that balances bargaining power. The third chapter focuses on the development of LNG in the world and more specifically in the EU market. The development of LNG in Europe allows the entry of new operators on the upstream and, thus, increases competition among the EU's suppliers for the benefit of importers' bargaining power. The last chapter analyzes the impact of US shale gas development on the EU gas market. Thus, it shows that development is accompanied by an uncertainty about the future gas demand in the EU and by a reconsideration of the EU's long-term contracts. (author)

  18. European demonstration program on the effect-based and chemical identification and monitoring of organic pollutants in European surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tousova, Zuzana; Oswald, Peter; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Blaha, Ludek; Muz, Melis; Hu, Meng; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin; Di Paolo, Carolina; Tarcai, Zsolt; Seiler, Thomas Benjamin; Hollert, Henner; Koprivica, Sanja; Ahel, Marijan; Schollée, Jennifer E.; Hollender, Juliane; Suter, Marc J.F.; Hidasi, Anita O.; Schirmer, Kristin; Sonavane, Manoj; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Creusot, Nicolas; Brion, Francois; Froment, Jean; Almeida, Ana Catarina; Thomas, Kevin; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Tufi, Sara; Ouyang, Xiyu; Leonards, Pim; Lamoree, Marja; Torrens, Victoria Osorio; Kolkman, Annemieke; Schriks, Merijn; Spirhanzlova, Petra; Tindall, Andrew; Schulze, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Growing concern about the adverse environmental and human health effects of a wide range of micropollutants requires the development of novel tools and approaches to enable holistic monitoring of their occurrence, fate and effects in the aquatic environment. A European-wide demonstration program

  19. Spatial and population characteristics of dwarf mistletoe infected trees in an old-growth Douglas-fir - western hemlock forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Shaw; Jiquan Chen; Elizabeth A. Freeman; David M. Braun

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the distribution and severity of trees infected with western hemlock dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense (Rosendahl) G.N. Jones subsp. tsugense) in an old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) - western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.)...

  20. The adverse effect of real effective exchange rate change on trade balance in European transition countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Begović

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most European transition countries have fixed or highly managed flexible exchange rate regimes. This exchange rate rigidity is sometimes argued to worsen the trade balance by keeping the currency overvalued. However, there is no unambiguous evidence that currency depreciation/devaluation positively affects trade balance and leads towards the adjustment, even in the short-run. Therefore, we examine the effect of real effective exchange rate (hereafter REER on trade balance in European transition economies over the period 2000-2015. By using fixed effect model for static and generalised method of moments for dynamic estimation, we find that there is an adverse effect of the REER on trade balance in European transition countries over the period 2000-2015. Namely, depreciation of REER deteriorates trade balance in European transition countries, which could be explained by high import dependence and low export capacity. This implies that policymakers in European transition countries should not use exchange rate policy to improve trade balance. This is important in the light of their accession towards European economic and monetary integration, implying that these countries should focus more on using fiscal, rather than monetary (and exchange rate, policy to adjust trade balance, which is one of the required real convergence towards the EU standards.

  1. Effects of bioenergy production on European nature conservation options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleupner, C.; Schneider, U. A.

    2009-04-01

    agriculture and forestry including bioenergy options. Results reveal that bioenergy targets have significant effects on conservation planning and nature conservation. The additional land utilization demands driven by bioenergy targets influence not only the restoration costs of wetland areas. Also wetland conservation targets in one place stimulate land use intensification elsewhere due to market linkages. It also implies that environmental stresses (to wetlands) may be transferred to other countries. In all the results show that an integrated modelling of environmental and land use changes in European scale is able to estimate the impacts of policy decisions in nature conservation and agriculture. As shown by the case study, the implementation of any targets concerning resource utilization need to be followed by adequate land use planning. References Schleupner C. (2007). Estimation of wetland distribution potentials in Europe. FNU-135, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg. Schneider U.A., J Balkovic, S. De Cara, O. Franklin, S. Fritz, P. Havlik, I. Huck, K. Jantke , A.M.I. Kallio, F. Kraxner, A. Moiseyev, M. Obersteiner, C.I. Ramos, C. Schleupner, E. Schmid, D. Schwab & R. Skalsky (2008). The European Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model - EUFASOM. FNU-156, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg.

  2. Efficiency vs Effectiveness: a Benchmarking Study on European Healthcare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado lo Storto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. This paper illustrates a benchmarking study concerning the healthcare systems in 32 European countries as of 2011 and 2014. Particularly, this study proposes a two-dimensional approach (efficiency/effectiveness models to evaluate the performance of national healthcare systems. Data Envelopment Analysis has been adopted to compute two performance indices, measuring efficiency and effectiveness of these healthcare systems. The results of the study emphasize that the national healthcare systems achieve different efficiency and effectiveness levels. Their performance indices are uncorrelated and behave differently over time, suggesting that there might be no real trade-off between them. The healthcare systems’ efficiencies remain generally stable, while the effectiveness values significantly improved from 2011 to 2014. However, comparing the efficiency and effectiveness scores, the authors identified a group of countries with the lowest performing healthcare systems that includes Ukraine, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Lithuania, and Romania. These countries need to implement healthcare reforms aimed at reducing resource intensity and increasing the quality of medical services. The results also showed the benefits of the proposed approach, which can help policy makers to identify shortcomings in national healthcare systems and justify the need for their reform.

  3. 14. Annual meeting of the European Society of Radiobiology and the symposium of the European Late Effects Project Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.

    1979-03-01

    In October 1978 the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the European Society of Radiation Biology (ESRB) and a symposium of the European Late Effects Project Group (EULEP) were held consecutively at the Kernforchungsanlage (KFA), Julich, FDR. The EULEP meeting was convened to specifically discuss the biological basis of the recommendations of publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The programme of the ESRB Meeting also reflected the present interest in radiological protection. A short summary of these meetings is presented. Details of the two meetings are given in appendices which should form an introduction to, and resume of, recent developments in this field. (author)

  4. European Energy Policy and Its Effects on Gas Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Victorita Stefana Anda

    The goal of this study is to examine the effects of the energy policies of the European Union (EU) on its gas security in the period 2006 to 2016. While energy security is often given a broad meaning, this paper focuses on its external dimension: the EU?s relations with external gas suppliers. It is grounded on four pillars drawing from the compounded institutionalist and liberal theoretical frameworks: regulatory state, rational-choice, external governance, and regime effectiveness. The research question was investigated through a qualitative methodology with two main components: a legislative analysis and four case studies representing the main gas supply options--Russia, North African exporting countries, Norway, and liquefied natural gas (LNG). They highlighted that the EU framed the need for gas security mainly in the context of political risks associated with Russian gas supply, but it almost never took into account other equally important risks. Moreover, the research revealed two main issues. First, that the deeper and the more numerous EU?s energy policies were, the bigger was the magnitude of the effect. Specifically, competitiveness and infrastructure policies had the largest magnitude, while the sustainability and security of supply policies had the smallest effect. Second, EU energy policies only partially diminished the economic and political risks in relation to foreign gas suppliers. To conclude, to a certain extent the EU?s efforts made a positive contribution to the external dimension of the EU?s gas security, but the distinguishing trait remains that there is no consistency in terms of the magnitude of the effect and its nature.

  5. Influence of Pleistocene glacial/interglacial cycles on the genetic structure of the mistletoe cactus Rhipsalis baccifera (Cactaceae) in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Rodríguez-Gómez, Flor

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographical work on cloud forest-adapted species provides inconsistent evidence on cloud forest dynamics during glacial cycles. A study of Rhipsalis baccifera (Cactaceae), a bird-dispersed epiphytic mistletoe cactus, was conducted to investigate genetic variation at sequence data from nuclear [internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 677 bp] and chloroplast (rpl32-trnL, 1092bp) DNA for 154 individuals across the species range in Mesoamerica to determine if such patterns are consistent with the expansion/contraction model of cloud forest during glacial cycles. We conducted population and spatial genetic analyses as well as gene flow and divergence time estimates between 24 populations comprising the distribution of R. baccifera in Mexico and Guatemala to gain insight of the evolutionary history of these populations, and a complementary species distribution modeling approach to frame information derived from the genetic analyses into an explicit paleoecological context. The results revealed a phylogeographical break at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and high levels of genetic diversity among populations and cloud forest areas. Despite the genetic differentiation of some R. baccifera populations, the widespread ITS ribotypes suggest effective nuclear gene flow via pollen and population differentiation shown by the rpl32-trnL suggests more restricted seed flow. Predictions of species distribution models under past last glacial maximum (LGM) climatic conditions and a significant signal of demographic expansion suggest that R. baccifera populations experienced a range expansion tracking the conditions of the cloud forest distribution and shifted to the lowlands with population connectivity during the LGM. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Probing the cons and pros of lectin-induced immunomodulation: case studies for the mistletoe lectin and galectin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabius, H J

    2001-07-01

    When imagining to monitor animal cells through a microscope with resolution at the molecular level, a salient attribute of their surfaces will be the abundance of glycan chains. They present galactosides at their termini widely extending like tentacles into the extracellular space. Their spatial accessibility and their potential for structural variability endow especially these glycan parts with capacity to act as docking points for molecular sensors (sugar receptors such as lectins). Binding and ligand clustering account for transmission of post-binding signals into the cell interior. The range of triggered activities has turned plant lectins into popular tools in cell biology and immunology. Potential for clinical application has been investigated rigorously only in recent years. As documented in vitro and in vivo for the galactoside-specific mistletoe lectin, its apparent immunomodulatory capacity reflected in upregulation of production of proinflammatory cytokines will not necessarily be clinically favorable but a double-edged sword. In fact, lectin application has been shown to stimulate tumor growth in cell lines, histocultures of human tumors and in two animal models using chemical carcinogenesis or tumor transplantation. When testing immunological effects of the endogenous lectin galectin-1, protection against disorders mediated by activated T cells came up for consideration. Elimination of these cells via CD7-dependent induction of apoptosis, and a shift to the Th2 response by the galectin, are factors to ameliorate disease states. This result encourages further efforts with other galectins. Functional redundancy, synergism, diversity or antagonism among galectins are being explored to understand the actual role of this class of endogenous lectins in inflammation. Regardless of the results of further preclinical testing for galectin-1, these two case studies break new ground in our understanding how glycans as ligands for lectins convey reactivity to

  7. The Effects of Great Britain's Exit from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarița Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union directly influences the economicdevelopment of Romania, which will force our country to take all the necessary measures in thecurrent economic conjuncture in order to anchor in the international trade relations.

  8. Increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of renewable energy support policies in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klessmann, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis discusses the effective and cost-efficient design of renewable energy sources (RES) support policies in the European Union along some major discussion lines of the European RES policy debate: the effectiveness of the different national support policies in the member states the cost

  9. European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) Futures Liquidity Effects: Evidence from the European Energy Exchange (EEX)

    OpenAIRE

    Ibikunle, Gbenga; Gregoriou, Andros

    2011-01-01

    We examine liquidity effects after the onset of trading in phase II of the EU-ETS for European Union Allowance (EUA) futures contracts. We obtain evidence of long-term improvement in liquidity of the EEX EUA December 2008 futures contract after the commencement of trading in phase II. Our results suggest the application of a new regime of trading rules in Phase II led to the improvements in liquidity.

  10. Contents and effects of contracts - Lessons to learn from the Common European Sales Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombi Ciacchi, Aurelia

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a critical analysis of the rules on the contents and effects of contracts included in the proposal for a Common European Sales Law (CESL). The European Commission published this proposal in October 2011 and then withdrew it in December 2014, notwithstanding the support the

  11. The effects of ill health on entering and maintaining paid employment: Evidence in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schuring (Merel); A. Burdorf (Alex); A.E. Kunst (Anton); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To examine the effects of ill health on selection into paid employment in European countries. Methods: Five annual waves (1994-8) of the European Community Household Panel were used to select two populations: (1) 4446 subjects unemployed for at least 2 years, of which 1590

  12. The effects of ill health on entering and maintaining paid employment: evidence in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, Merel; Burdorf, Lex; Kunst, Anton; Mackenbach, Johan

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of ill health on selection into paid employment in European countries. METHODS: Five annual waves (1994-8) of the European Community Household Panel were used to select two populations: (1) 4446 subjects unemployed for at least 2 years, of which 1590 (36%) subjects

  13. European oil demand and 1993 Common Market potential effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Unification of the energy european market will heavily enhance external energy dependence and inter-energy competition. In order to respond to these new challenges, petroleum industry will have to change, probably in the direction of an increased integration concentration. Petroleum market share, moreover, will depend largely from environmental trends in EEC politics and regulations

  14. The effects of institutional change in European soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Koning, R.H.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    2012-01-01

    The last decades have seen two profound changes in European soccer. First, international trade in talent has increased markedly. Second, international competitions such as the Champions League have become much more important. Using a theoretical model, we study how these changes affect competitive

  15. The Effects of Institutional Change in European Soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Marco A.; Koning, Ruud H.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    The last decades have seen two profound changes in European soccer. First, international trade in talent has increased markedly. Second, international competitions such as the Champions League have become much more important. Using a theoretical model, we study how these changes affect competitive

  16. EUROPEAN ENERGY INTERCONNECTION EFFECTS ON THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author wants to exemplify the extent to which economic growth in Romania is influenced by the current power system infrastructure investments in Europe. Electricity transmission infrastructure in Romania is at a turning point. The high level of security of supply, delivery efficiency in a competitive internal market are dependent on significant investment, both within the country and across borders. Since the economic crisis makes investment financing is increasingly difficult, it is necessary that they be targeted as well. The European Union has initiated the “Connecting Europe” through which investments are allocated to European energy network interconnection of energy. The action plan for this strategy will put a greater emphasis on investments that require hundreds of billions of euro in new technologies, infrastructure, improve energy intensity, low carbon energy technologies. Romania's energy challenge will depend on the new interconnection modern and smart, both within the country and other European countries, energy saving practices and technologies. This challenge is particularly important as Romania has recovered severe gaps in the level of economic performance compared to developed countries. Such investment will have a significant impact on transmission costs, especially electricity, while network tariffs will rise slightly. Some costs will be higher due to support programs in renewable energy nationwide.Measures are more economically sustainable to maintain or even reinforce the electricity market, which system can be flexible in order to address any issues of adequacy. These measures include investments in border infrastructure (the higher the network, so it is easier to evenly distribute energy from renewable sources, to measure demand response and energy storage solutions.An integrated European infrastructure will ensure economic growth in countries interconnected and thus Romania. Huge energy potential of

  17. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Landscape composition influences farm management effects on farmland birds in winter: A pan-European approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiger, F.; Snoo, de G.R.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of agricultural intensity, various farming practices, landscape composition and vegetation cover on the abundance and species richness of wintering farmland birds, assessed simultaneously across seven European regions. The abundance and species richness of wintering

  19. Evaluation of the Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Phragmanthera capitata (Sprengel Balle (Loranthaceae, a Mistletoe Growing on Rubber Tree, Using the Dilution Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Uangbaoje Ohikhena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The alarming increase in multidrug resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to conventional drugs in recent years has prompted the search for new leads in alternative remedies in natural products. Hence, this study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial properties of Phragmanthera capitata, a parasitic mistletoe growing on rubber trees. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the acetone, methanol, ethanol, and aqueous extracts were investigated using five gram-negative and five gram-positive bacteria and four fungi. A 96-well resazurin broth and agar dilution techniques were used for the determination of the Minimum Inhibitory and Bactericidal Concentrations. The antibacterial activity of the organic extracts had comparative effects on all the bacteria with a MIC of 1.25 to 5 mg/mL and MBC of 2.5 to 10 mg/mL. However, the acetone extract showed higher bactericidal effect while the aqueous extract was not active. The organic solvent extracts also showed antifungal activities on two of the fungi with a MIC of 1.25 mg/mL to 10 mg/mL. However, the aqueous extract had the highest activity inhibiting all the fungi with a MIC of ≤0.3125 to 1.25 mg/mL. The study supports the ethnomedicinal claims of P. capitata as a remedy for the diseases/infections caused by these organisms.

  20. Mistletoe lectin I in complex with galactose and lactose reveals distinct sugar-binding properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikeska, Ruth; Wacker, Roland; Arni, Raghuvir; Singh, Tej P.; Mikhailov, Albert; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat; Voelter, Wolfgang; Betzel, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The structures of mistletoe lectin I in complex with lactose and galactose reveal differences in binding by the two known sites in subdomains α1 and γ2 and suggest the presence of a third low-affinity site in subdomain β1. The structures of mistletoe lectin I (ML-I) from Viscum album complexed with lactose and galactose have been determined at 2.3 Å resolution and refined to R factors of 20.9% (R free = 23.6%) and 20.9 (R free = 24.6%), respectively. ML-I is a heterodimer and belongs to the class of ribosome-inactivating proteins of type II, which consist of two chains. The A-chain has rRNA N-glycosidase activity and irreversibly inhibits eukaryotic ribosomes. The B-chain is a lectin and preferentially binds to galactose-terminated glycolipids and glycoproteins on cell membranes. Saccharide binding is performed by two binding sites in subdomains α1 and γ2 of the ML-I B-chain separated by ∼62 Å from each other. The favoured binding of galactose in subdomain α1 is achieved via hydrogen bonds connecting the 4-hydroxyl and 3-hydroxyl groups of the sugar moiety with the side chains of Asp23B, Gln36B and Lys41B and the main chain of 26B. The aromatic ring of Trp38B on top of the preferred binding pocket supports van der Waals packing of the apolar face of galactose and stabilizes the sugar–lectin complex. In the galactose-binding site II of subdomain γ2, Tyr249B provides the hydrophobic stacking and the side chains of Asp235B, Gln238B and Asn256B are hydrogen-bonding partners for galactose. In the case of the galactose-binding site I, the 2-hydroxyl group also stabilizes the sugar–protein complex, an interaction thus far rarely detected in galactose-specific lectins. Finally, a potential third low-affinity galactose-binding site in subunit β1 was identified in the present ML-I structures, in which a glycerol molecule from the cryoprotectant buffer has bound, mimicking the sugar compound

  1. The construction of legitimacy in European nature policy: expertise and participation in the service of cost-effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, E.; Behagel, J.H.; Ferranti, F.; Beunen, R.

    2015-01-01

    In environmental governance, the European Union draws on norms of effectiveness, decentralisation, and participation to ensure that its policies and regulations are considered legitimate. This article analyses how the construction of legitimacy in European nature policy has changed over time.

  2. Isolation of 18 Microsatellite Loci in the Desert Mistletoe Phoradendron californicum (Santalaceae Via 454 Pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Arroyo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the parasitic mistletoe Phoradendron californicum to investigate to what extent population genetic structure depends on host tree distribution within a highly fragmented landscape. Methods and Results: Fourteen unlinked polymorphic and four monomorphic nuclear microsatellite markers were developed using a genomic shotgun pyrosequencing method. A total of 187 alleles plus four monomorphic loci alleles were found in 98 individuals sampled in three populations from the Sonoran Desert in the Baja California peninsula (Mexico. Loci averaged 13.3 alleles per locus (range 4–28, and observed and expected heterozygosities within populations varied from 0.167–0.879 and 0.364–0.932, respectively. Conclusions: Levels of polymorphism of the reported markers are adequate for studies of diversity and fragmentation in natural populations of this parasitic plant. Cross-species amplifications in P. juniperinum and P. diguetianum only showed four markers that could be useful in P. diguetianum.

  3. Antimicrobial Potential of Helicanthus elastica (Desr. Danser - A less explored Indian mistletoe Growing on Mango Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppala Narayana Sunil Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Helicanthus elastica (Desr. Danser (Loranthaceae is a less-known medicinally important mistletoe species occurring in India. It is used to check abortion, and also in vesical calculi and kidney affections. There are no detailed studies reporting the antimicrobial potential of this plant. Based on the traditional use and the rich phenolic composition of the whole plant, the antimicrobial property of the alcohol extract was analyzed and the results are outlined in the present paper. For the analysis, zone of inhibition, and minimum inhibitory concentration were used, and the total activity was assayed by standard methodologies. The antimicrobial activity was studied against bacteria like Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Vibrio fischeri, and a fungus Candida albicans. Of the eight tested bacteria, the alcoholic extract of H. elastica was found to be active against K. pneumoniae, A. hydrophila, E. coli, and V. fischeri at concentration ranging from 250 to 500 μg/ml. C. albicans showed inhibition only at a concentration of 2000 μg/ml.

  4. Do Large Companies Have Lower Effective Corporate Tax Rates? A European Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gaëtan Nicodème

    2007-01-01

    The current debate in corporate taxation is focusing on leveling the tax playing field within the European Union for companies operating across-countries. However, tax burdens could also vary with the size of companies within the same country, raising the question whether large companies pay their share of the burden. This paper uses firm-level data for 21 European countries between 1992 and 2004. The paper finds a robust negative correlation between the number of employees and the effective ...

  5. Renewable generation across Italian regions: Spillover effects and effectiveness of European Regional Fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carfora, Alfonso; Romano, Antonio A.; Ronghi, Monica; Scandurra, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates on the determinant factors that drive the Italian regions toward a sustainable development path and evaluates the effectiveness of European Regional Development incentives in promoting investments in renewable energy sources (RES). Starting from the consideration that there are spillover effects between similar regions, first we identify the factors that capture these similarities, then we use them to evaluate their relevance in determining the success of the investments in RES. An econometric analysis, based on the use of spatial panel specification model, is implemented to support the hypotheses. Two important results emerge from the study. The first is the identification of regional determinants of RES production, that are driven by the similarities between regions, and that can be interpreted as guidelines in the policy choices in support of investments. The second is the lack of effectiveness of the incentives in support of RES. Results indicate that the capacity of some regional governments to direct the funds allocated by the central government or European Commission towards efficient production of renewable energy is likely limited, and these incentives have been undone. - Highlights: • Investments in renewable energies makes a remarkable contribution to reduce unemployment. • In Italy there is a lack of effectiveness of the incentives in support of renewable energies. • To attract energy investments regions must reduce the burden of taxation. • Highly deprived areas incentivize more than the developed ones renewable energies. • Production of renewable energies is directly influenced by the production in similar regions.

  6. European Communities environmental and fiscal policies: Effects on Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golinelli, R.; Mantovani, D.

    1992-01-01

    The macro-economic effects of the introduction in Italy of a new tax on energy uses are: higher price inflation, lower income growth and higher Government revenue. The same effects are expected for a VAT harmonization. In order to curb these negative effects, this paper proposes the introduction of an alternative policy mix

  7. Acute effects of ozone on mortality from the "Air pollution and health : A European approach" project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryparis, A; Forsberg, B; Katsouyanni, K; Analitis, A; Touloumi, G; Schwartz, J; Samoli, E; Medina, S; Anderson, HR; Niciu, EM; Wichmann, HE; Kriz, B; Kosnik, M; Skorkovsky, J; Vonk, JM; Dortbudak, Z

    2004-01-01

    In the Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach (APHEA2) project, the effects of ambient ozone concentrations on mortality were investigated. Data were collected on daily ozone concentrations, the daily number of deaths, confounders, and potential effect modifiers from 23 cities/areas for at

  8. Shareholder Wealth Effects of European Domestic and Cross-Border Takeover Bids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the short-term wealth effects of large (intra)European takeover bids.We find large announcement effects of 9% for target firms and a cumulative abnormal return that includes the price run-up over the two-month period prior to the announcement date of 23%.However, the share

  9. Intravenous Mistletoe Treatment in Integrative Cancer Care: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Procedures, Concepts, and Observations of Expert Doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Gunver S; Mussler, Milena; Fuchs, Dieter; Kiene, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mistletoe therapy (MT) is widely used in patient-centered integrative cancer care. The objective of this study was to explore the concepts, procedures, and observations of expert doctors, with a focus on intravenous MT. Method. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 35 highly experienced doctors specialized in integrative and anthroposophic medicine. Structured qualitative content analysis was applied. For triangulation, the results were compared with external evidence that was systematically collected, reviewed, and presented. Results. Doctors perform individualized patient assessments that lead to multimodal treatment approaches. The underlying goal is to help patients to live with and overcome disease. Mistletoe infusions are a means of accomplishing this goal. They are applied to stabilize disease, achieve responsiveness, induce fever, improve quality of life, and improve the tolerability of conventional cancer treatments. The doctors reported long-term disease stability and improvements in patients' general condition, vitality, strength, thermal comfort, appetite, sleep, pain from bone metastases, dyspnea in pulmonary lymphangitis carcinomatosa, fatigue, and cachexia; chemotherapy was better tolerated. Also patients' emotional and mental condition was reported to have improved. Conclusion. Individualized integrative cancer treatment including MT aims to help cancer patients to live well with their disease. Further research should investigate the reported observations.

  10. Intravenous Mistletoe Treatment in Integrative Cancer Care: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Procedures, Concepts, and Observations of Expert Doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunver S. Kienle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mistletoe therapy (MT is widely used in patient-centered integrative cancer care. The objective of this study was to explore the concepts, procedures, and observations of expert doctors, with a focus on intravenous MT. Method. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 35 highly experienced doctors specialized in integrative and anthroposophic medicine. Structured qualitative content analysis was applied. For triangulation, the results were compared with external evidence that was systematically collected, reviewed, and presented. Results. Doctors perform individualized patient assessments that lead to multimodal treatment approaches. The underlying goal is to help patients to live with and overcome disease. Mistletoe infusions are a means of accomplishing this goal. They are applied to stabilize disease, achieve responsiveness, induce fever, improve quality of life, and improve the tolerability of conventional cancer treatments. The doctors reported long-term disease stability and improvements in patients’ general condition, vitality, strength, thermal comfort, appetite, sleep, pain from bone metastases, dyspnea in pulmonary lymphangitis carcinomatosa, fatigue, and cachexia; chemotherapy was better tolerated. Also patients’ emotional and mental condition was reported to have improved. Conclusion. Individualized integrative cancer treatment including MT aims to help cancer patients to live well with their disease. Further research should investigate the reported observations.

  11. Prediction uncertainty of environmental change effects on temperate European biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormann, C.; Schweiger, O.; Arens, P.F.P.; Augenstein, I.; Aviron, S.; Bailey, D.; Baudry, J.; Billeter, R.; Bugter, R.J.F.; Bukacek, R.; Burel, F.; Cerny, M.; Cock, de R.; Blust, de G.; DeFilippi, R.; Diekotter, T.; Dirksen, J.; Durka, W.; Edwards, P.J.; Frenzel, M.; Hamersky, R.; Hendrickx, F.; Herzog, F.; Klotz, S.; Koolstra, B.J.H.; Lausch, A.; Coeur, Le D.; Liira, J.; Maelfait, J.P.; Opdam, P.; Roubalova, M.; Schermann, A.; Schermann, N.; Schmidt, T.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Speelmans, M.; Simova, P.; Verboom, J.; Wingerden, van W.K.R.E.; Zobel, M.

    2008-01-01

    Observed patterns of species richness at landscape scale (gamma diversity) cannot always be attributed to a specific set of explanatory variables, but rather different alternative explanatory statistical models of similar quality may exist. Therefore predictions of the effects of environmental

  12. Contagion effects of the global financial crisis in us and European real economy sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenourgios Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the contagion effects of the Global Financial Crisis (2007-2009 from the financial sector to the real economy by examining nine sectors of US and developed European region. We provide a regional analysis by testing stock market contagion on the aggregate level and the sector level, on the global level and the domestic/regional level. Results show evidence of global contagion in US and developed European aggregate stock market indices and all US sector indices, implying the limited benefits of portfolio diversification. On the other hand, most of the European regional sectors seem to be immune to the adverse effects of the crisis. Finally, all non-financial sectors of both geographical areas seem to be unaffected by their domestic financial systems. These findings have important implications for policy makers, investors and international organizations.

  13. Effectiveness of macroprudential policies in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Dumicic

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the available datasets on the use of macroprudential policies in CEE countries, and provides an econometric assessment of the effectiveness of these policies in mitigating financial stability risks associated with excessive credit growth before the global financial crisis. The model results imply that macroprudential policies were more effective in slowing credit to households than credit to the non-financial corporate sector, mainly because the latter had access to nonbank and cross-border credit in addition to domestic bank credit.

  14. Transparency and Coordinated Effects in European Merger Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Møllgaard, H. Peter; Overgaard, Per Baltzer

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we first outline the foundations in economic theory of so-called coordinated effects with a particular view to mergers and with a special focus on transparency. Then, we review a number of seminal merger cases in EU competition policy (Airtours, Sony/BMG, ABF/GBI Business) in light...

  15. Effects of dissolved carbon dioxide on energy metabolism and stress responses in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, G.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Capelle, J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated carbon dioxide concentrations reduce feed intake and growth in several fish species and induce stress responses. In this study, the effects of moderately elevated CO2 levels on performance, energy partitioning, swimming activity and stress response in European seabass were assessed.

  16. The effect of European integration on exchange rate dependence: the Polish accession to the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, J.H.; van Giersbergen, N.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the Polish accession to the European Union (EU) on the dependence between the euro-US dollar and Polish zloty-US dollar exchange rate. The dependence is estimated by means of copulas as suggested by Patton (2006). This approach allows to first specify and

  17. The effect of generation and age on turnout to the European Parliament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Hansen, Kasper Møller; Wass, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Electoral turnout has been declining at national elections in almost all Western democracies. European Parliament (EP) elections have followed the same trend. We utilize a previously suggested method for separating the effect of generation, age and period and show that a major part of the decline...

  18. Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maas, Andrew I R; Menon, David K; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2015-01-01

    in process and clinical care. Results will be integrated with living systematic reviews in a process of knowledge transfer. The study initiation was from October to December 2014, and the recruitment period was for 18 to 24 months. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research...

  19. European symposium on the effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wentzel, K F

    1968-08-01

    At the end of April 1968 a symposium on the effects of air pollution on the flora and fauna was held at the Agricultural College at Wageningen, Holland. The conference was initiated by, and held under the patronage of, the Council of Europe, i.e., its associated Committee for the Preservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Of the approximately 150 participants half were experts, particularly from Central, Western and Northern Europe, as well as from Canada, the USA, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, actively participating in the lectures and discussions. The highly complex material was subdivided into seven sections. Each of these was covered by a comprehensive discussion. Altogether 34 lectures were held: 17 in German, 13 in English and 4 in French. This already illustrates the topicality of air pollution problems, particularly in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Czechoslovakia, the experts from which country spoke German.

  20. Exploring subgroup effects by socioeconomic position of three effective school-based dietary interventions: the European TEENAGE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lien, N.; Haerens, L.; te Velde, S.J.; Mercken, L.; Klepp, K.I.; Moore, L.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Faggiano, F.; Lenthe, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore subgroup effects by high and low socioeconomic position (SEP) of three previously conducted, effective European interventions. Methods: Reanalyses stratified by SEP were conducted by the research groups of each study. All studies were school-based:

  1. Tax Havens and Effective Tax Rates: An Analysis of Private versus Public European Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Jaafar; John Thorton

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of tax-haven operations on the effective corporate tax burdens of publicly listed and privately held firms domiciled in Europe. In particular, we consider how European firmsÕ tax haven operations interacts with factors such listing status and home-country tax reporting systems to determine the relative tax burdens of publicly listed and private firms. Our main empirical results show that tax haven operations is associated with lower effective tax rates for both private a...

  2. Growth Effects of Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions in European Transition Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvezdanović Lobanova Jelena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the economic effect of cross-border mergers and acquisitions on GDP per capita in European transition countries for the 2000- 2014 period. Our analysis shows that cross-border mergers and acquisitions have a negative effect on GDP per capita in the current period, whereas their lagged level positively impacts output performance. We found that transition countries characterized by a higher quality of institutional setting have achieved a positive impact on GDP per capita.

  3. Effects of atmospheric and climate change at the timberline of the Central European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Matyssek, Rainer; Luzian, Roland; Zwerger, Peter; Pindur, Peter; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This review considers potential effects of atmospheric change and climate warming within the timberline ecotone of the Central European Alps. After focusing on the impacts of ozone (O3) and rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, effects of climate warming on the carbon and water balance of timberline trees and forests will be outlined towards conclusions about changes in tree growth and treeline dynamics. Presently, ambient ground-level O3 concentrations do not exert crucial stress on adult conifers at the timberline of the Central European Alps. In response to elevated atmospheric CO2 Larix decidua showed growth increase, whereas no such response was found in Pinus uncinata. Overall climate warming appears as the factor responsible for the observed growth stimulation of timberline trees. Increased seedling re-establishment in the Central European Alps however, resulted from invasion into potential habitats rather than upward migration due to climate change, although seedlings will only reach tree size upon successful coupling with the atmosphere and thus loosing the beneficial microclimate of low stature vegetation. In conclusion, future climate extremes are more likely than the gradual temperature increase to control treeline dynamics in the Central European Alps. PMID:21379395

  4. Effects of national energy policies on carbon dioxide emissions in a European internal electricity market: Results from a simulation model of the European power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hoster, Frank

    1997-01-01

    This article considers the economic and environmental (in terms of CO2) effects of national energy policies in a European Single Market for electricity. It was found that the combined CO2/Energy-tax proposed by the European Commission would be able to stabilise the current volume of CO2-emissions in the electricity sector. A national single handed effort in introducing a CO2-tax to reduce the emissions was found to be ineffective in the long term and would be in addition allocative inefficien...

  5. Cost-effectiveness of Campylobacter interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wagenberg, C.P.A.; van Horne, P.L.M.; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard

    2016-01-01

    interventions on broiler farms in six European countries: Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, and United Kingdom. The cost-effectiveness ratio of an intervention was the estimated costs of the intervention divided by the estimated public health benefits due to the intervention, and was expressed......Broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter infections, one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Therefore, it is relevant to control Campylobacter on broiler farms. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of eight Campylobacter...... in euro per avoided disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Interventions were selected on the basis of a European risk factor study and other risk factor research. A deterministic simulation model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness ratio of each intervention, if it would be implemented on all...

  6. The Health Effects of Climate Change in the WHO European Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Wolf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The evidence of observed health effects as well as projections of future health risks from climate variability and climate change is growing. This article summarizes new knowledge on these health risks generated since the IPCC fourth assessment report (AR4 was published in 2007, with a specific focus on the 53 countries comprising the WHO European Region. Many studies on the effects of weather, climate variability, and climate change on health in the European Region have been published since 2007, increasing the level of certainty with regard to already known health threats. Exposures to temperature extremes, floods, storms, and wildfires have effects on cardiovascular and respiratory health. Climate- and weather-related health risks from worsening food and water safety and security, poor air quality, and ultraviolet radiation exposure as well as increasing allergic diseases, vector- and rodent-borne diseases, and other climate-sensitive health outcomes also warrant attention and policy action to protect human health.

  7. The internationalisation of the Spanish food industry: the home market effect and European market integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, R.; García-Casarejos, N.; Gil-Pareja, S.; Llorca-Vivero, R.; Pinilla, V.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse, from a long-term perspective, the factors determining the process of the internationalisation of the Spanish agrifood industry. The paper concentrates on the empirical verification of the existence of a home market effect in the food and drink industries in Spain and on the effects on trade flows of integration into the European Union. With this aim in mind, we took into account the latest contributions to the estimation of the gravity equation for a sample of export flows from 13 agrifood subsectors between 1970 and 2012, with a destination of 175 markets. From the results of the study the existence of the “home market effect” stands out as the determining factor of the increasing process of internationalisation in the majority of the subsectors of the food industry. On this point, the presence of this effect is remarkable in the most dynamic industries, where the process of restructuring caused by the development of the internal market was more intense. Furthermore, the influence of the process of European integration has been shown by the literature to be a very important factor. Our results qualify in part the results of previous studies, since the positive effect appeared later than expected. The positive effects did not appear until the completion of the process of transition by the dismantling of the barriers established in the treaty of accession to the European Union. (Author)

  8. Marine environmental contamination: public awareness, concern and perceived effectiveness in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Rosseel, Yves; Calis, Tanja; Tediosi, Alice; Nadal, Martí; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    Given the potential of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness (PCE) in shaping pro-environmental behavior, the relationships between PCE, awareness of causes of contaminants in the marine environment, and concern about marine environmental contamination were investigated using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). PCE is the belief that an individual has in being able to make a difference when acting alone. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample size of 2824 participants. The analyses confirm that European citizens are concerned about marine environmental problems. Participants from the southern countries reported the highest concern. In addition, the study participants did not have a strong belief in themselves in being capable of making a difference in tackling marine environmental problems. However, a higher awareness, which was associated with a higher degree of concern, enhanced the belief that an individual can make a difference in tackling marine environmental problems, though only when a concrete action was proposed. Consequently, information campaigns focusing on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise public awareness about marine environmental problems and at the same time explicitly refer to concrete possible actions. The findings indicate that when only awareness and concern are raised without mentioning a concrete action, PCE might even decrease and render the communication effort ineffective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nectar secretion dynamic links pollinator behavior to consequences for plant reproductive success in the ornithophilous mistletoe Psittacanthus robustus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, T J; Galetto, L; Silva, W R

    2014-09-01

    The mistletoe Psittacanthus robustus was studied as a model to link flower phenology and nectar secretion strategy to pollinator behaviour and the reproductive consequences for the plant. The bright-coloured flowers presented diurnal anthesis, opened asynchronously throughout the rainy season and produced copious dilute nectar as the main reward for pollinators. Most nectar was secreted just after flower opening, with little sugar replenishment after experimental removals. During the second day of anthesis in bagged flowers, the flowers quickly reabsorbed the offered nectar. Low values of nectar standing crop recorded in open flowers can be linked with high visitation rates by bird pollinators. Eight hummingbirds and two passerines were observed as potential pollinators. The most frequent flower visitors were the hummingbirds Eupetomena macroura and Colibri serrirostris, which actively defended flowering mistletoes. The spatial separation between anthers, stigma and nectar chamber promotes pollen deposition on flapping wings of hovering hummingbirds that usually probe many flowers per visit. Seed set did not differ between hand-, self- and cross-pollinated flowers, but these treatments set significantly more seeds than flowers naturally exposed to flower visitors. We suggest that the limitation observed in the reproductive success of this plant is not related to pollinator scarcity, but probably to the extreme frequency of visitation by territorial hummingbirds. We conclude that the costs and benefits of plant reproduction depend on the interaction strength between flowers and pollinators, and the assessment of nectar secretion dynamics, pollinator behaviour and plant breeding system allows clarification of the complexity of such associations. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Fertile Soil for Structural Funds? A panel data analysis of the conditional effectiveness of European cohesion policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederveen, S.; de Groot, H.L.F.; Nahuis, R.

    2003-01-01

    Structural funds are the most intensively used policy instrument by the European Union to promote economic growth in its member states and to speed up the process of convergence. This paper empirically explores the effectiveness of European Structural Funds by means of a panel data analysis for 13

  11. THE FLAT TAX EFFECTS a€“ THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE IN WESTERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moga Aura Carmen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a close look at the advantages and disadvantages of the flat tax and looks at its proven benefits and failings in some European countries which adopted it and its theoretical or possible effects on the economies of other European countrie

  12. Macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy in the European Union, with particular reference to transition countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rilind Kabashi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the short- to medium-term effects of fiscal policy on output and other macroeconomic variables in European Union countries between 1995 and 2012, with particular reference to transition countries. It applies Panel Vector Auto Regression with recursive identification of government spending shocks as the most appropriate method for the aim of the study and the sample used. The main results indicate that expansionary spending shocks have a positive, but a relatively low effect on output, with the fiscal multiplier around one in the year of the shock and the following year, and lower thereinafter. There are indications that this result is driven by the recent crisis, as multipliers are considerably lower in the pre-crisis period. Effects of fiscal policy are strongly dependent on country structural characteristics. Fiscal multipliers are higher in new European Union member states, in countries with low public debt and low trade openness. Further, spending shocks are followed by rising debt levels in old member states, which could be related well to the recent European debt crisis. Finally, the analysis of the transmission mechanism of fiscal policy yields results that are consistent with both extended Real Business Cycle models and extended New Keynesian models.

  13. Modelling the rebound effect with network theory: An insight into the European freight transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Basosi, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a two pronged approach to the study of the rebound effect, with the aim of assessing the magnitude of the effect in the European freight transport sector and proposing a new modelling framework based on network theory. The (direct) rebound effect is assessed with: 1) an econometric regression; 2) a model based on network theory and statistical mechanics. According to the econometric model the European road freight transport sector undergone a negative rebound between of −74% between 1998 and 2007 and −146% between 1998 and 2011. The network analysis delivers an estimation of network rebound ranging between −29.37% and −7.25. Overall, these results indicate that energy efficiency in Europe, between 1998 and 2011, succeed in reducing the energy consumptions amid an increasing demand for transports. Results on rebound estimation depend on the decision of using GDP as an exogenous variable, an assumption that leaves questions open about the causality chain between growth and transports. Furthermore, the network analysis highlights a structural change –a migration of production factors offshore, that might partially explain this negative effect. In this view, rebound effect analysis on a local or regional scale is becoming more and more uncertain in a globally interconnected economic context. - Highlights: • An evaluation of direct rebound effect in the freight transports with an econometric model is performed. • A new concept of rebound effect based on network theory is presented and implemented. • A comparative analysis of the two different approaches is developed. • Both models indicate that the there was a negative rebound effect in European freight transports. • Network theory proved to be a promising approach to energy systems and rebound effect modelling.

  14. Revenue, welfare and trade effects of European Union Free Trade Agreement on South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kore M.A. Guei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using the partial equilibrium WITS-SMART Simulation model to assess the impact of liberalisation under the Trade Development and Cooperation Agreement (TDCA of a free trade area between the European Union and South Africa. The identification of the impact of such agreement allows for trade policy negotiation adjustment that can be beneficial for South Africa. Aim: The aim of the study is to estimate and discuss the impact of a Free Trade Agreement (FTA with the European Union and South Africa. More specifically, the study intends to estimate the impact of revenue, welfare, imports, exports, trade creation and to come up with policies options for South Africa that can be used in negotiations and policy formulations. Setting: The study used international trade data (2012 available in the WITS-SMART model to assess bilateral trade agreement between the European Union and South Africa. Methods: To identify the impact on revenue, welfare, imports, exports and trade creation, the study simulated an FTA (0% tariff rate for all goods exchanged between the European Union and South Africa. Also, the elasticity of substitution used for the simulation model was 99%. Results: The findings of the study reveal that total trade effects in South Africa are likely to surge by US$ 1.036 billion with a total welfare valued at US$ 134 million. Dismantling tariffs on all European Union (EU goods would be beneficial to consumers through net trade creation. Total trade creation would be US$ 782 million. However, South African producers are likely to contribute a trade diversion of US$ 254 million which has a negative impact on consumer welfare. The country might also experience a revenue loss amounting to US$ 562 million because of the removal of tariffs. In trade, the country’s exports and imports to the EU are expected to increase by US$ 12.419 million and US$ 1.266 million, respectively. Conclusion: The European Union–South Africa FTA would

  15. The effects of the European Working Time Directive on surgical training: the basic surgical trainee's perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, B D

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: On the 1 August 2009, the implementation of European Working Time Directive became European law and was implemented in Galway University Hospital (GUH). AIMS: The aim of the study is to ascertain the opinion of the 25 surgical SHOs in GUH on the effect of the implementation of an EWTD compliant roster had on the quality of their training. METHODS: A questionnaire was circulated to all 25 surgical SHOs. RESULTS: Twenty-two (88%) SHOs report a reduction in the quality of their training. 18 (72%) report a reduction in the development of their operative skills. The SHOs believed the EWTD Rotas would encourage Irish graduates to train abroad. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical training faces a challenge with the implementation of EWTD Rotas. Major changes need to be made to the surgical training structure to train surgeons to the highest standard and to retain Irish-trained surgeons in the Irish healthcare system.

  16. The Blurred Boundaries and Multiple Effects of European Integration and Globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2015-01-01

    of how European integration contribute to, and are effected by, globalisation. By means of concrete research examples the chapter discusses the advantages of the research strategies and tools typically applied on the area and the challenges we face in this regard. This includes discussions of top......This chapter presents analytical strategies for the study of European integration and Globalisation in concert. This is an increasingly important as well as a highly diverse field of inquiry. The chapter presents a series of research clusters in various ways concerned with the fundamental questions......-down and bottom-up research designs, process tracing, counterfactual analysis, comparative designs and comparative temporal analysis. The chapter gives special attention to the promotion of cross-fertilisation in this otherwise dispersed area of research and concludes by giving pointers to potential areas...

  17. Tobacco Control and Health Advocacy in the European Union: Understanding Effective Coalition-Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaar, Heide; Collin, Jeff; Amos, Amanda

    2016-02-01

    Coalitions of supporters of comprehensive tobacco control policy have been crucial in achieving policy success nationally and internationally, but the dynamics of such alliances are not well understood. Qualitative semi-structured, narrative interviews with 35 stakeholders involved in developing the European Council Recommendation on smoke-free environments. These were thematically analyzed to examine the dynamics of coalition-building, collaboration and leadership in the alliance of organizations which successfully called for the development of comprehensive European Union (EU) smoke-free policy. An alliance of tobacco control and public health advocacy organizations, scientific institutions, professional bodies, pharmaceutical companies, and other actors shared the goal of fighting the harms caused by second-hand smoke. Alliance members jointly called for comprehensive EU smoke-free policy and the protection of the political debates from tobacco industry interference. The alliance's success was enabled by a core group of national and European actors with long-standing experience in tobacco control, who facilitated consensus-building, mobilized allies and synchronized the actions of policy supporters. Representatives of Brussels-based organizations emerged as crucial strategic leaders. The insights gained and identification of key enablers of successful tobacco control advocacy highlight the strategic importance of investing into tobacco control at European level. Those interested in effective health policy can apply lessons learned from EU smoke-free policy to build effective alliances in tobacco control and other areas of public health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

  18. The effects of ill health on entering and maintaining paid employment: evidence in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuring, Merel; Burdorf, Lex; Kunst, Anton; Mackenbach, Johan

    2007-07-01

    To examine the effects of ill health on selection into paid employment in European countries. Five annual waves (1994-8) of the European Community Household Panel were used to select two populations: (1) 4446 subjects unemployed for at least 2 years, of which 1590 (36%) subjects found employment in the next year, and (2) 57 436 subjects employed for at least 2 years, of which 6191 (11%) subjects left the workforce in the next year because of unemployment, (early) retirement or having to take care of household. The influence of a perceived poor health and a chronic health problem on employment transitions was studied using logistic regression analysis. An interaction between health and sex was observed, with women in poor health (odds ratio (OR) 0.4), men in poor health (OR 0.6) and women (OR 0.6) having less chance to enter paid employment than men in good health. Subjects with a poor health and low/intermediate education had the highest risks of unemployment or (early) retirement. Taking care of the household was only influenced by health among unmarried women. In most European countries, a poor health or a chronic health problem predicted staying or becoming unemployed and the effects of health were stronger with a lower national unemployment level. In most European countries, socioeconomic inequalities in ill health were an important determinant for entering and maintaining paid employment. In public health measures for health equity, it is of paramount importance to include people with poor health in the labour market.

  19. Evaluation of surgical implantation of electronic tags in European eel and effects of different suture materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, Eva B.; Økland, Finn; Westerberg, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    Effects of implanting data-storage tags in European eel, Anguilla anguilla, and the suitability of different suture materials (braided permanent silk, permanent monofilament, absorbable and absorbable antibacterial) were examined. The tags consisted of an electronic unit and three floats on a wire....... Antibacterial treatment had no effect on inflammation or healing rates. After 6 months, the tag started to become expelled through the incision in five fish (12%). The internal reaction appeared stronger around the floats, suggesting that the coating material of the floats created a tissue reaction, which...

  20. [The European Working Time Directive and surgical residents' expertise: no effect on the number of operations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guicherit, Onno R

    2015-01-01

    Residents' working hours in the Netherlands were first capped in the early 1990 s. In 2003, European legislation consolidated restrictions to a 48-hour week. No adverse effects were seen on the number of surgical operations performed either in the first or the second decade following these measures. Either the effect on surgical training is minimal, or the number of operations carried out during a residency is not a meaningful indicator of its quality. Personalized modular rotations in both university and teaching hospitals are needed for residents with sub-specializations. Training activities, in combination with more supervision, have to focus on a broader set of competencies beyond simply mastering surgical procedures.

  1. Increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of renewable energy support policies in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klessmann, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis discusses the effective and cost-efficient design of renewable energy sources (RES) support policies in the European Union along some major discussion lines of the European RES policy debate: the effectiveness of the different national support policies in the member states; the cost savings potential of different cost reduction policies for reaching the 2020 RES target; the role of market risk exposure and market integration for RES deployment and the cost-efficiency of RES support; and the role and design of cross-country cooperation mechanisms for efficient RES target achievement. The analysis showed that the effectiveness and efficiency of RES support policies is still low in many European member states but that top runner countries have gained significant experience in tailored RES policy design. The key recommendations for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of RES support policies across Europe are: Reducing policy and market risks, particularly those that have no or little potential to trigger cost-optimised behaviour of RES generators Ensuring long-term commitment and increasing the stability of the regulatory framework for RES Against the background of the risk-averse financial environment and the new budgetary constraints of the recent financial crisis, it has become even more important for governments to take measures to reduce RES financing risks. Without such risk reduction, it seems unlikely that sufficient investments will be attracted to reach the EU 2020 targets. Furthermore, stable and risk sensitive policies could reduce the policy costs for achieving the target by up to 4 billion Euro per year. In addition to improving the effectiveness and efficiency of their national support instruments, policymakers should consider the increased use of cooperation mechanisms that could potentially further decrease the cost of European RES target achievement by 2-3 billion Euro per year, at least if the respective cooperation mechanisms do

  2. Spatio-temporal trends of nitrogen deposition and climate effects on Sphagnum productivity in European peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granath, Gustaf; Limpens, Juul; Posch, Maximilian; Mücher, Sander; Vries, Wim de

    2014-01-01

    To quantify potential nitrogen (N) deposition impacts on peatland carbon (C) uptake, we explored temporal and spatial trends in N deposition and climate impacts on the production of the key peat forming functional group (Sphagnum mosses) across European peatlands for the period 1900–2050. Using a modelling approach we estimated that between 1900 and 1950 N deposition impacts remained limited irrespective of geographical position. Between 1950 and 2000 N deposition depressed production between 0 and 25% relative to 1900, particularly in temperate regions. Future scenarios indicate this trend will continue and become more pronounced with climate warming. At the European scale, the consequences for Sphagnum net C-uptake remained small relative to 1900 due to the low peatland cover in high-N areas. The predicted impacts of likely changes in N deposition on Sphagnum productivity appeared to be less than those of climate. Nevertheless, current critical loads for peatlands are likely to hold under a future climate. - Highlights: • We model the effect of N deposition combined with climate on production of Sphagnum between 1900 and 2050. • Spatially explicit projections are indicated on an updated European peatland distribution map. • Results stress the vulnerability of temperate Sphagnum peatlands to current and future N deposition. • Future impacts of N deposition on Sphagnum productivity likely depend more on climate change than on N deposition rate. - Temperate Sphagnum peatlands are vulnerable to current and future N deposition and current critical loads for peatlands are likely to hold under a future climate

  3. Adding effect sizes to a systematic review on interventions for promoting physical activity among European teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crutzen Rik

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This commentary adds effect sizes to the recently published systematic review by De Meester and colleagues and provides a more detailed insight into the effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity among European teenagers. The main findings based on this evidence were: (1 school-based interventions generally lead to short term improvement in physical activity levels, but there were large differences between interventions with regard to effect sizes; (2 a multi-component approach (including environmental components generally resulted in larger effect sizes, thereby providing evidence for the assumption that a multi-component approach should produce synergistic results; and (3 if an intervention aimed to affect more health behaviours besides physical activity, then the intervention appeared to be less effective in favour of physical activity.

  4. Peer Effects and Youth Smoking in the European Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikaj Silda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of peer smoking on individual smoking among youths in 10 countries that participated in the European Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS. I control for endogeneity in school selection and unobserved school-level characteristics through the use of school fixed-effects. I use instrumental variables to address the simultaneity in peer and individual behaviours. Identification arises by comparing students in different classes within the same school. On average, an increase in the share of classmates who smoke by 10 percentage points increases the probability that an individual in that class will smoke by 3 to 6.9 percentage points. The results imply that any policy intervention such as anti-smoking messages, smoking bans, or higher cigarette prices will be even more cost-effective because of the social multiplier effect of peers – policies affecting some individuals in a group will generate spillovers to others through the peer effect.

  5. Results of the European research project 'Improving the effectiveness of cancer treatment with 3D Brachytherapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solc, J.; Sochor, V.; Selbach, H.-J.; Aubineau-Laniec, I.; Lourenco, V.; Gabris, F.; Grindborg, J.-E.; Kosunen, A.; Jarvinen, H.; Sipila, P.; Gouldstone, C.; Sander, T.; Sharpe, P.; Zeman, J.; Portugal, L.; Rodrigues, M.; Carlsson Tedgren, A.; Pooter de, M

    2011-01-01

    The project iMERA + T2.J06 'Improving the effectiveness of cancer treatment using 3D brachytherapy' was solved in the period 2008-2011 in collaboration of metrology institutes from 10 European Union countries, including participation of the Czech Republic. Its main objective was to create a means to ensure metrological quantity absorbed dose in water from brachyterapeutical (BT) sources enabling more accurate assessment of therapeutic benefit than using existing dosimetry protocols that are based on the quantity kerma in the air. This project is discussed on the poster.

  6. The Effectiveness of International Financial Reporting Standard on the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarhad Hamza Khdir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of mandatory adoption of IFRS is to enhance the quality of accounting information in worldwide. However, this effort made challenged for European Union as a supranational body to achieve similar advantages of converged the IFRS standards. This study examines the effectiveness of IFRS on the European Union as a supranational body and whether the EU has successfully converged to the IFRS standards. The paper will also analyze if there are any difficulties with switching to the IFRS standards versus the traditional local accounting practices in EU. The results obtained show that the first application of IFRS has adopted among EU countries and the results indicate that the adoption of IFRS leads to improvement in value relevance. The results also imply that the IFRS adoption for EU does not ensure better quality of accounting information and standardized IFRS is not effective to implement for all EU because there is a lot of misperception in terms of these guidelines for preparing financial statement. The culture difference among EU shows that IFRS is not fits size standard for all EU that can lead EU to conform at the same time. The conclusion of this report will provide the answer whether it is or not effective for the EU to fully converge to the IFRS standards as a whole.

  7. Effective Exchange Rates in Central and Eastern European Countries: Cyclicality and Relationship with Macroeconomic Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavárek Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the evolution of effective exchange rates in nine Central and Eastern European countries in terms of development trends, volatility and cyclicality. Consequently, it provides direct empirical evidence on the nature of the relationship between effective exchange rates and selected macroeconomic fundamentals, addressing a key precondition of numerous exchange rate determination models and theories that attempt to explain the role of exchange rates in the economy. The results suggest that flexible exchange rate arrangements are reflected in both nominal and real effective exchange rates having higher volatility and variability. Furthermore, the results provide mixed evidence in terms of intensity, direction and cyclicality, but show a weak correlation between exchange rates and fundamentals. Sufficiently high coefficients are found only for money supply. Consequently, using fundamentals for the determination of exchange rates and using the exchange rate to explain economic development may be of limited use for the countries analyzed.

  8. Factors Promoting Environmental Responsibility in European SMEs: The Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Sáez-Martínez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing social and political awareness of the importance of developing environmental responsibility at a corporate level. When focusing on issues of responsibility, large companies are frequently perceived to be more responsible for driving climate change and resource depletion. However, small and medium enterprises (SMEs contribute significantly to the use of resources such as material and energy and produce approximately 64% of the pollution in Europe. Drawing on evidence from “The Eurobarometer 381 Survey on SMEs, Resource Efficiency and Green Markets”, we analyze the environmental responsibility of European SMEs, studying their compliance with environmental legislation and how several factors drive environmental orientation among SMEs. Our sample consists of 3647 SMEs operating in 38 countries. Only around a fifth of the firms go beyond environmental regulations, showing the highest levels of environmental responsibility. We conduct OLS regressions to analyze the factors that affect a positive environmental attitude among European SMEs (internal drivers being more significant than external ones and then, to observe the positive effect of environmental responsibility and firm’s experience in offering green services/products on performance, although a conjoint effect was not found. Implications for practitioners, academics, and policy-makers are outlined.

  9. a European Global Navigation Satellite System — the German Market and Value Adding Chain Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollerthun, A.; Wieser, M.

    2002-03-01

    Since Europe is considering to establish a "market-driven" European Global Navigation Satellite System, the German Center of Aerospace initiated a market research to justify a German investment in such a European project. The market research performed included the following market segments: aviation, railway, road traffic, shipping, surveying, farming, military, space applications, leisure, and sport. In these market segments, the forementioned inputs were determined for satellite navigation hardware (receivers) as well as satellite navigation services. The forecast period was from year 2007 to 2017. For the considered period, the market amounts to a total of DM 83.0 billion (approx. US $50 billion), whereas the satellite navigation equipment market makes up DM 39.8 billion, and charges for value-added-services amount to DM 43.2 billion. On closer examination road traffic can be identified as the dominant market share, both in the receiver-market and service-market. With a share of 96% for receivers and 73% for services the significance of the road traffic segment becomes obvious. The second part of this paper investigates the effects the market potential has on the Value-Adding-Chain. Therefore, all participants in the Value-Adding-Chain are identified, using industrial cost structure models the employment effect is analyzed, and possible tax revenues for the state are examined.

  10. Internet Effects in Times of Political Crisis: Online Newsgathering and Attitudes toward the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccini, Leonardo; Sudulich, Laura; Wall, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of online news consumption on attitudes toward the European Union in a context of protracted economic crisis. Using data from the 2011 Irish National Election Study, we combine location-specific information on broadband availability with respondent geo-location data, which facilitates causal inference about the effects of online news consumption via instrumental variable models. Results show that Irish citizens who source political information online are more prone to blame the EU for the poor state of the economy than those who do not. There is evidence of preference reinforcement among those with negative predispositions toward the EU, but not among pro-EU citizens. We complement this analysis with a study of voting behavior in the European Fiscal Compact Referendum, employing a similar methodological approach. The results from this second survey confirm the anti-EU influence of online news consumption among Irish citizens, although evidence suggests a pro-EU effect among voters who browsed the website of the politically neutral Irish Referendum Commission. Our paper contributes to the literature on public opinion, the EU, and political attitudes in times of crisis.

  11. Macro-economic effects of additional energy conservation in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sips, H.W.; Bakker, L.; Muizelaar, J.; Velthuijsen, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the title study is to evaluate the environmental and economic consequences of additional energy conservation in five Western European countries: the Netherlands, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, France and Italy. In the first part of the study the economic effects of a policy, in which additional energy conservation is realized only for the Netherlands, is calculated. In this report the results are presented. The calculated results of the economic effects of a coordinated energy conservation policy in the abovementioned countries will be published in a separate report. The effects of three policy variants will be evaluated: the non-financial policy variant, the shift of the financial burden variant, and the variant in which the levies are not compensated.The starting point for the first variant is an autonomous realization of the energy conservation. The basis of the second variant is that an equal amount of energy can be saved by means of a substantial energy levy. The profits of this levy can be used to reduce the financial burden of labour. For the economic calculations use has been made of the HERMES-model. Every member of the European Community has developed such a macro-economic model. In chapter two the different starting points for the calculations are outlined, with special attention to descriptions of the policy variants, the model-input and the basic projection. In chapter three the economic effects of the policy variants are presented and discussed. In chapter four the energy conservation and the environmental effects of the variants are dealt with. The most important conclusion of this study is that a considerable amount of energy can be saved, which will have positive effects on the economy and the environment. 8 figs., 20 tabs., 6 apps., 32 refs

  12. The 2 °C global warming effect on summer European tourism through different indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillakis, Manolis G; Koutroulis, Aristeidis G; Tsanis, Ioannis K

    2016-08-01

    Climate and weather patterns are an essential resource for outdoor tourism activities. The projected changes in climate and weather patterns are expected to affect the future state of tourism. The present study aims to quantify the positive or negative effect of a 2 °C global warming on summertime climate comfort in the sense of exercising activities that involve light body activity. The well-established Climate Index for Tourism (CIT) and three variants of the widely used Tourism Climatic Index (TCI) were analyzed. Additionally, a new index based on TCI and CIT was tested and compared against the precious indices. Past and future climate data of five high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs) from different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) of the European Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (Euro-CORDEX) for a +2 °C period were used. The results indicate improvement in the climate comfort for the majority of European areas for the May to October period. For the June to August period, central and northern European areas are projected to improve, while marginal improvement is found for Mediterranean countries. Furthermore, in specific cases of adjacent Mediterranean areas such as the southern Iberian Peninsula, the June to August climate favorability is projected to reduce as a result of the increase to daytime temperature. The use of a set of different indices and different RCMs and RCPs samples a large fraction of the uncertainty that is crucial for providing robust regional impact information due to climate change. The analysis revealed the similarities and the differences in the magnitude of change across the different indices. Moreover, discrepancies were found in the results of different concentration pathways to the +2 °C global warming, with the RCP8.5 projecting more significant changes for some of the analyzed indices. The estimation of the TCI using different timescale climate data did not change the

  13. A EUropean study on effectiveness and sustainability of current Cardiac Rehabilitation programmes in the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Meindersma, Esther P; van der Velde, Astrid E

    2016-01-01

    of EU-CaRE is to map the efficiency of current CR of the elderly in Europe, and to investigate whether mCR is an effective alternative in terms of efficacy, adherence and sustainability. METHODS AND RESULTS: The EU-CaRE study includes patients aged 65 years or older with ischaemic heart disease or who...... on effectiveness and sustainability of current cardiac rehabilitation programmes in the elderly (EU-CaRE) project consists of an observational study and an open prospective, investigator-initiated multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) involving mobile telemonitoring guided CR (mCR). OBJECTIVE: The aim...... and sustainability. CONCLUSION: The study will provide important information to improve CR in the elderly. The EU-CaRE RCT is the first European multicentre study of mCR as an alternative for elderly patients not attending usual CR....

  14. Determinants of FDI into Central and Eastern European Countries: Pull or Push Effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Polat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in foreign direct investments (FDI, substantial uncertainty still exists regarding what stimulates foreign investors to operate in a foreign market and uneven distribution of FDI across countries. Using panel data for 2001 -2012 period, the major determinants of the FDI inflows into the Central and Eastern European Countries are analysed in this study. Strong evidence are found that while EU CR indices, EU and USA real GDP growth rates and global financial crisis have power to explain FDI inflows among all other push factors, labour cost, electricity price, real exchange rate and host CR indices have strong influential on FDI as the most effective pull factors. However, study fails to find any effect of openness, tax rates on commercial profits, USA CR indices, interest rate differentials and host real GDP growth on FDI.

  15. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%-44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%-109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (impacts would be 2%-21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%-20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should be broadened to reduce the impacts from raw materials, production and end

  16. Temperature effects on aerobic scope and cardiac performance of European perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Denise Lyager; Overgaard, Johannes; Wang, Tobias; Gesser, Hans; Malte, Hans

    2017-08-01

    Several recent studies have highlighted how impaired cardiac performance at high temperatures and in hypoxia may compromise the capacity for oxygen transport. Thus, at high temperatures impaired cardiac capacity is proposed to reduce oxygen transport to a degree that lowers aerobic scope and compromises thermal tolerance (the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis). To investigate this hypothesis, we measured aerobic and cardiac performance of a eurythermal freshwater teleost, the European perch (Perca fluviatilis). Rates of oxygen consumption were measured during rest and activity at temperatures between 5°C and 27°C, and we evaluated cardiac function by in vivo measurements of heart rate and in vitro studies to determine contractility of myocardial strips. Aerobic scope increased progressively from 5°C to 21°C, after which it levelled off. Heart rate showed a similar response. We found little difference between resting and active heart rate at high temperature suggesting that increased cardiac scope during activity is primarily related to changes in stroke volume. To examine the effects of temperature on cardiac capacity, we measured isometric force development in electrically paced myocardial preparations during different combinations of temperature, pacing frequency, oxygenation and adrenergic stimulation. The force-frequency product increased markedly upon adrenergic stimulation at 21 and 27°C (with higher effects at 21°C) and the cardiac preparations were highly sensitive to hypoxia. These findings suggest that at (critically) high temperatures, cardiac output may diminish due to a decreased effect of adrenergic stimulation and that this effect may be further exacerbated if the heart becomes hypoxic. Hence cardiac limitations may contribute to the inability to increase aerobic scope at high temperatures in the European perch (Perca fluviatilis). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simulating security of supply effects of the Nabucco and South Stream projects for the European natural gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2010-12-15

    Due to the increasing European import dependency, significant additional natural gas volumes will be required. In addition to the Nord Stream pipeline, the Nabucco and South Stream pipeline are projects planned for the next decade to provide further gas supplies to the European market. As one of the European Union's energy policies' foci is security of supply, the question can be raised if and how these projects contribute to this objective not only in terms of diversification but also in case of supply disruptions such as occurred in 2009 during the Russia-Ukraine gas crisis. This paper discusses the impact of these two major gas import pipeline projects on the South-Eastern Europe gas supply and analyzes their effects on gas flows and marginal cost prices in general and in case of gas supply disruptions via Ukraine in a model-based analysis with the European natural gas infrastructure and dispatch model TIGER. (orig.)

  18. The enlargement of the European Union. Effects on trade and emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xueqin; Van Ierland, Ekko

    2006-01-01

    With the gradual accession of various Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to the European Union (EU), international trade between the EU and the CEECs will change as a result of trade liberalisation and the mobility of production factors within the EU. The EU and most of the CEECs have already committed themselves to reduce by 2008-2012 their emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by 8% compared to the 1990 level. This paper reports on an investigation of the potential consequences of the enlargement of the EU and of the emission reduction target set by the Kyoto Protocol on the sectoral production patterns and international trade. A comparative-static general equilibrium model was developed to examine the impacts under different scenarios. For illustrative purposes, two regions (the EU and the CEECs) and three categories of goods and services (agricultural goods, industrial goods, and services) were included. The model was calibrated by the 1998 data. The model was subsequently applied to study the effects of free trade, the mobility of factors and the environmental constraints on production and international trade in light of the enlargement of the EU. We show that in this specific context, free trade is beneficial to economic welfare and does not necessarily increase emissions of greenhouse gases. The mobility of factors also increases economic welfare, but in the case of fixed production technology it may harm the environment through more emissions of GHGs. (author)

  19. Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community. Regulations, practices, effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochard, J. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    Proceedings of the seminar ''Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community'' organized by the Commission of the European Community in collaboration with the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and the Centre d'etude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, France, from 3 to 4 December 1985. Part I presents rapporteurs' papers which summarize the salient points concerning: the status of regulations and practices in the different countries, mass chest screening, mammography screening and infants' hip dysplasia screening. Part II presents all the technical papers contributed by the participants. The overall conclusions of the seminar pointed up the importance of assessing the effectiveness of screening or prevention practices more systematically. Although some aspects of the problems associated with radiological mass screening were only qualitatively addressed, the papers presented did explain why the use of certain medical practices must be justified. It is hoped that these proceedings will be useful to national experts and bodies in the planning of future public health programmes which, in the light of current practices, will have to take account of the medical, economic and social dimension of mass screening.

  20. Effects of Drought and Salinity on European Larch (Larix decidua Mill. Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana M. Plesa

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Larix decidua, the European larch, is not normally affected by drought or salinity in its natural habitats, but it may be when grown as an ornamental tree, by the widespread practice of winter de-icing of mountain roads with NaCl, and because of global warming-induced environmental changes. The responses of two-month-old larch seedlings to 30 days water deficit (withholding irrigation or salt stress (150 mM NaCl treatments were studied by determining stress-induced changes in several growth parameters and biochemical markers (ion and osmolyte contents, level of oxidative stress, activation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems. Both treatments caused the inhibition of growth, degradation of photosynthetic pigments, a small increase in malondialdehyde (MDA, an oxidative stress biomarker, and the activation of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and glutathione reductase (GR. In all cases, salinity appeared to have stronger effects on the seedlings than water deficit. The presence of relatively high concentrations of glycine betaine, both in control and stressed plants, may represent a constitutive mechanism of defence against stress in European larch. Additionally, other responses were specific for salt stress and included the activation of K+ transport from roots to shoots and the accumulation of Pro as an osmoprotectant.

  1. FINANCING REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH EUROPEAN FUNDS. A REVIEW OF THE EFFECTS IN ROMANIA (2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina DORNEAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at creating an area of understanding regional development in Romania in the broader context of community regional development, given the impact that the implementation of this policy has on the reduction of economic and social disparities between regions in the case of Romania. The paper is structured on three chapters: firstly it tackles the need for a regional development policy in Romania taking into account the EU adherence goal (after 1990 and the disparities existing between regions across Romania. Secondly, we present the European funding instruments and mechanisms of regional development in Romania, mainly the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF within the Regional Operational Program (ROP. Thirdly, we analyze the impact of financing regional development policy in terms of reducing economic disparities between the Romanian regions for the period 2007-2013 and highlighting the importance and effects of regional development financing. To this aim, we analyzed the evolution of the following indicators with an impact on regional development: the GDP per capita evolution, the evolution of foreign investments, the unemployment rate and evolution of the number of small and medium enterprises. The end is reserved for the conclusions of the research. When conducting this paper, the main research instruments used were the study and analysis of documents, analysis of official reports and the literature on regional development as well as the interpretation and analysis of statistical data provided by the National Institute of Statistics of Romania.

  2. Asymmetry Effects in Volatility on the Major European Stock Markets: the EGARCH Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Olbrys

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to investigate the asymmetric impact of innovations on volatility in the case of the largest European stock markets in the United Kingdom, France and Germany by using the EGARCH based approach. The sample period begins in January 2003 and ends in December 2016, and it includes the 2007 U.S. subprime crisis. The robustness analysis of empirical results is provided with respect to the whole sample and three adjacent subsamples, each of equal size: 1 the pre-crisis, 2 the Global Financial Crisis (GFC and 3 the post-crisis periods. The GFC periods are formally detected by using a statistical method of dividing market states into bullish and bearish markets. Moreover, the common trading window procedure is employed to avoid the nonsynchronous trading problem in the group of investigated markets and to get the overlapping information set. We estimate univariate EGARCH models based on daily percentage logarithmic returns of major stock market indexes: FTSE100 (London, CAC40 (Paris, and DAX (Frankfurt. Pronounced negative asymmetry effects in volatility are presented in the case of all markets and are rather robust to the choice of the period. Our findings are consistent with the literature and suggest that the major European stock markets are more sensitive to ’bad’ than ‘good’ news.

  3. Policy Guidelines for Effective Inclusion and Reintegration of People with Chronic Diseases in the Workplace: National and European Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, Anastasia; Stavroussi, Panayiota; Roka, Olga; Vasilou, Evdokia; Papadimitriou, Dimitra; Scaratti, Chiara; Kadyrbaeva, Asel; Fheodoroff, Klemens; Brecelj, Valentina; Svestkova, Olga; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Finnvold, Jon Erik; Gruber, Sonja; Leonardi, Matilde

    2018-03-11

    The increasing prevalence of chronic diseases among the European working age population, as well as the implications for the individual and societal level, underline the need for policy guidelines targeting the effective inclusion of persons with chronic diseases in the workplace. The aim of the present paper was to explore the perspectives of European and National-level stakeholders on existing strategies for work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases, and to provide policy guidelines. A highly-structured interview protocol was distributed to 58 National level stakeholders (policy makers, professionals and employers) from seven European countries. Additionally, 20 European organizations concerned with health-related issues and employment completed an online survey. The findings reveal that employment-related challenges remain largely unaddressed. Both national and European stakeholders considered the existing legislative frameworks inadequate and appraised the co-ordination for the implementation of employment re-integration policies as ineffective. Policies targeting at work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases at European and national level should focus on consistent cooperation among all key stakeholders, awareness raising to staff and management, dissemination of effective strategies, developing research and evaluation standards and establishing monitoring systems on inclusive labour markets.

  4. Policy Guidelines for Effective Inclusion and Reintegration of People with Chronic Diseases in the Workplace: National and European Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Vlachou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of chronic diseases among the European working age population, as well as the implications for the individual and societal level, underline the need for policy guidelines targeting the effective inclusion of persons with chronic diseases in the workplace. The aim of the present paper was to explore the perspectives of European and National-level stakeholders on existing strategies for work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases, and to provide policy guidelines. A highly-structured interview protocol was distributed to 58 National level stakeholders (policy makers, professionals and employers from seven European countries. Additionally, 20 European organizations concerned with health-related issues and employment completed an online survey. The findings reveal that employment-related challenges remain largely unaddressed. Both national and European stakeholders considered the existing legislative frameworks inadequate and appraised the co-ordination for the implementation of employment re-integration policies as ineffective. Policies targeting at work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases at European and national level should focus on consistent cooperation among all key stakeholders, awareness raising to staff and management, dissemination of effective strategies, developing research and evaluation standards and establishing monitoring systems on inclusive labour markets.

  5. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation (note). A new European integrated project, 2006-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, S.; Wright, E.G.; Hildebrandt, G.; Kadhim, M.; Little, M.P.; Prise, K.M.; Belyakov, O.V.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The general objectives of the NOTE project are: (1) to investigate the mechanisms of nontargeted effects, in particular, bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response; (2) to investigate if and how non-targeted effects modulate the cancer risk in the low dose region, and whether they relate to protective or harmful functions; (3) to investigate if ionising radiation can cause non-cancer diseases or beneficial effects at low and intermediate doses; (4) to investigate individual susceptibility and other factors modifying non-targeted responses; (5) to assess the relevance of non-targeted effects for radiation protection and to set the scientific basis for a modern, more realistic, radiation safety system; (6) to contribute to the conceptualisation of a new paradigm in radiation biology that would cover both the classical direct (DNA-targeted) and non-targeted (indirect) effects. The NOTE brings together 19 major European and Canadian groups involved in the discovery, characterisation and mechanistic investigation of non-targeted effects of ionising radiation in cellular, tissue and animal models. The NOTE research activities are organised in six work packages. Four work packages (WPs 2-5) are problem-oriented, focussing on major questions relevant for the scientific basis of the system of radiation protection: WP2 Mechanisms of non-targeted effects, WP3 Non-cancer diseases, WP4 Factors modifying non-targeted responses, WP5 Modelling of non-targeted effects. The integration activities provided by WP6 strengthen the collaboration by supporting the access to infrastructures, mobility and training. WP7 provides dissemination and exploitation activities in the form of workshops and a public website. Managerial activities (WP1) ensure the organisation and structures for decision making, monitoring of progress, knowledge management and efficient flow of information and financing. Coordinator of the NOTE project is Prof

  6. Jack-of-all-trades effects drive biodiversity–ecosystem multifunctionality relationships in European forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Peter; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A.; Hector, Andy; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Berthold, Felix; Bonal, Damien; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Carnol, Monique; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Charbonnier, Yohan; Coomes, David; Coppi, Andrea; Bastias, Cristina C.; Muhie Dawud, Seid; De Wandeler, Hans; Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Grossiord, Charlotte; Guyot, Virginie; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Joly, François-Xavier; Jucker, Tommaso; Koricheva, Julia; Milligan, Harriet; Müller, Sandra; Muys, Bart; Nguyen, Diem; Pollastrini, Martina; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Selvi, Federico; Stenlid, Jan; Valladares, Fernando; Vesterdal, Lars; Zielínski, Dawid; Fischer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, ‘complementarity' and ‘selection', we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the ‘jack-of-all-trades' effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity–multifunctionality relationships in many of the world's ecosystems. PMID:27010076

  7. Investigating the effects of ICT on innovation and performance of European hospitals: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Spyros; Loukis, Euripidis N

    2016-05-01

    Hospitals are making big investments in various types of ICT, so it is important to investigate their effects on innovation and performance. This paper presents an empirical study in this direction, based on data for 743 hospitals from 18 European countries. We specified and estimated econometrically five equations: one for product innovation, one for process innovation and three equations for the three different dimensions of (ICT-enabled) hospital performance. All five equations included various ICT-related variables reflecting ICT infrastructure and a series of important ICT applications, some of them hospital-specific, and some others of general business use, and also ICT personnel (viewed as a kind of 'soft' ICT investment), while the performance equations also included the two innovation measures.

  8. Management effects on net ecosystem carbon and GHG budgets at European crop sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceschia, Eric; Bêziat, P; Dejoux, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The greenhouse gas budgets of 15 European crop sites covering a large climatic gradient and corresponding to 41 site-years were estimated. The sites included a wide range of management practices (organic and/or mineral fertilisation, tillage or ploughing, with or without straw removal....... The variability of the different terms and their relative contributions to the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) were analysed for all site-years, and the effect of management on NECB was assessed. To account for greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes that were not directly measured on site, we estimated the emissions...... caused by field operations (EFO) for each site using emission factors from the literature. The EFO were added to the NECB to calculate the total GHG budget (GHGB) for a range of cropping systems and management regimes. N2O emissions were calculated following the IPCC (2007) guidelines, and CH4 emissions...

  9. Effects of salt stress on phosphorus uptake by european rape sheiaralle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guihua; Zhang Jianfeng; Wei Dongpu; Yang Juncheng; Mei Yong

    2007-01-01

    The effects of different salinity on phosphorus uptake by European rape Sheiaralle were studied under hydroponics and sand culture conditions. The results showed that above ground uptake of instant P increased with the salinity increased, the uptake of 32 P by roots firstly decreased and then increased with the increase salinity. Instant P uptake by Brassica napus was lower under different salinity treatment than in non-saline condition (P - , but the biomass yield decreased much faster than P uptake, so P relatively condensed, and uptake of P by Brassica napus increased as the salinity (including non-saline treatment) was increased (P<0.05). Fresh weight of Brassica napus decreased significantly with the salinity increased (P<0.05). (authors)

  10. Effects of internalising external production costs in a North European power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, J.; Ramskov, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of integrating national power markets is to improve the overall efficiency thereby making a potential for reducing electricity prices. However, efficiency is not necessarily improved if external environmental protection costs are neglected. In this paper, we analyse the effects of regulating an integrated power market by using environmental producer taxes based on external production costs. The analysis is based on an empirical equilibrium model for the North European power market. The results show that internalising costs will increase electricity producer prices by 40-50% in the period from 1995 to 2020. Further, demand for electricity will be reduced by 10%. We conclude, however, that in order to achieve the national Kyoto targets of reducing CO 2 emissions, further regulation is needed, such as national CO 2 taxes or cost efficient mechanisms like tradeable permits and joint implementation. (author)

  11. The Conflicting Aims of the European Neighborhood Policy and its Secondary Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castan Pinos, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    to guarantee the security of Europe’s borders. The European Neighborhood Policy has played a pivotal role in ensuring that the neighbors complied with the EU’s interest by offering political and economic rewards. Compliance is also enhanced through the “Seville Doctrine.” The paper challenges the idea...... that the “war on migrants” is a common shared interest for the EU and North African states, arguing that it is rather an EU security interest which does not necessarily correspond with the neighbors priorities. Finally, the paper focuses on the implementation of externalization in Morocco and critically...... analyzes the non-desired secondary effects generated by the adoption of EU-made migration policies....

  12. Temporal variation in population size of European bird species: effects of latitude and marginality of distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J Cuervo

    Full Text Available In the Northern Hemisphere, global warming has been shown to affect animal populations in different ways, with southern populations in general suffering more from increased temperatures than northern populations of the same species. However, southern populations are also often marginal populations relative to the entire breeding range, and marginality may also have negative effects on populations. To disentangle the effects of latitude (possibly due to global warming and marginality on temporal variation in population size, we investigated European breeding bird species across a latitudinal gradient. Population size estimates were regressed on years, and from these regressions we obtained the slope (a proxy for population trend and the standard error of the estimate (SEE (a proxy for population fluctuations. The possible relationships between marginality or latitude on one hand and slopes or SEE on the other were tested among populations within species. Potentially confounding factors such as census method, sampling effort, density-dependence, habitat fragmentation and number of sampling years were controlled statistically. Population latitude was positively related to regression slopes independent of marginality, with more positive slopes (i.e., trends in northern than in southern populations. The degree of marginality was positively related to SEE independent of latitude, with marginal populations showing larger SEE (i.e., fluctuations than central ones. Regression slopes were also significantly related to our estimate of density-dependence and SEE was significantly affected by the census method. These results are consistent with a scenario in which southern and northern populations of European bird species are negatively affected by marginality, with southern populations benefitting less from global warming than northern populations, thus potentially making southern populations more vulnerable to extinction.

  13. Testing the Effectiveness of Environmental Variables to Explain European Terrestrial Vertebrate Species Richness across Biogeographical Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Mouchet

    Full Text Available We compared the effectiveness of environmental variables, and in particular of land-use indicators, to explain species richness patterns across taxonomic groups and biogeographical scales (i.e. overall pan-Europe and ecoregions within pan-Europe. Using boosted regression trees that handle non-linear relationships, we compared the relative influence (as a measure of effectiveness of environmental variables related to climate, landscape (or habitat heterogeneity, land-use intensity or energy availability to explain European vertebrate species richness (birds, amphibians, and mammals at the continental and ecoregion scales. We found that dominant land cover and actual evapotranspiration that relate to energy availability were the main correlates of vertebrate species richness over Europe. At the ecoregion scale, we identified four distinct groups of ecoregions where species richness was essentially associated to (i seasonality of temperature, (ii actual evapotranspiration and/or mean annual temperature, (iii seasonality of precipitation, actual evapotranspiration and land cover and (iv and an even combination of the environmental variables. This typology of ecoregions remained valid for total vertebrate richness and the three vertebrate groups taken separately. Despite the overwhelming influence of land cover and actual evapotranspiration to explain vertebrate species richness patterns at European scale, the ranking of the main correlates of species richness varied between regions. Interestingly, landscape and land-use indicators did not stand out at the continental scale but their influence greatly increased in southern ecoregions, revealing the long-lasting human footprint on land-use-land-cover changes. Our study provides one of the first multi-scale descriptions of the variability in the ranking of correlates across several taxa.

  14. Is Door-to-Door Canvassing Effective in Europe? Evidence from a Meta-study across Six European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Dahlgaard, Jens Olav; Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    in the two Danish experiments. The article discusses why the effects seem to be different in Europe compared to the United States, and stresses the need for further experiments in Europe as there is still considerable uncertainty regarding the European effects. While one possible explanation...

  15. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro, E-mail: alejandro.gallegoschmid@manchester.ac.uk; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F.; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%–44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%–109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (< 1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%–21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%–20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should

  16. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F.; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%–44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%–109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (< 1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%–21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%–20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should

  17. Management Effectiveness and Land Cover Change in Dynamic Cultural Landscapes - Assessing a Central European Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Ohnesorge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are a central pillar of efforts to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services, but their contribution to the conservation and management of European cultural landscapes that have complex spatial-temporal dynamics is unclear. The conservation strategy of biosphere reserves aims at integrating biodiversity and ecosystem service conservation with economic development by designating zones of differing protection and use intensities. It is applied worldwide to protect and manage valuable cultural landscapes. Using the example of a German biosphere reserve, we developed a framework to assess the effectiveness of Central European reserves in meeting their land cover related management goals. Based on digital biotope maps, we defined and assessed land cover change processes that were relevant to the reserve management's goals over a period of 13 years. We then compared these changes in the reserve's core, buffer, and transition zones and in a surrounding reference area by means of a geographical information system. (Un-desirable key processes related to management aims were defined and compared for the various zones. We found that - despite an overall land cover persistence of approximately 85% across all zones - differences in land cover changes can be more prominent across zones inside the reserve than between the areas inside and outside of it. The reserve as a whole performed better than the surrounding reference area when using land cover related management goals as a benchmark. However, some highly desirable targets, such as the conversion of coniferous plantations into seminatural forests or the gain of valuable biotope types, affected larger areas in the nonprotected reference area than in the transition zone.

  18. A modelling approach to evaluating the effectiveness of Ecological Focus Areas: the case of the European brown hare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhammer, Maria; Grimm, Volker; Putz, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    and Man Simulation System (ALMaSS), an established simulation system that has been used to simulate a wide range of farmland species relevant to biodiversity. We analysed the benefits of seven greening scenarios for the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus), which has been in widespread decline throughout......With the current implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) for 2014–2020, the European Commission wants to move towards “greener” farming practices in the European Union. Therefore, the EU funds both obligatory measures, such as Ecological Focus Areas (EFAs) through the Green Direct...... of each type was increased separately up to 5% of the area in three Danish landscapes, which are characterised by low hare densities. The effects on female and yearling abundance were observed over a period of 30 years. All greening scenarios had significant positive effects on hare populations...

  19. Price effects of changing quantities supplied at the integrated european fish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Smit, Jos; Guillen, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    to be −1.1. This implies that price flexibilities previously estimated for single European countries underestimate price changes at the European level caused by quantity changes. Results indicate that changing quantities can increase revenues from individual species with large own-price flexibilities...

  20. European Bank Efficiency and Performance : The effects of supranational versus national bank supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, R.J.; Koetter, M.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores European bank efficiency and performance. First, the authors provide an overview of the key estimation methods for efficiency and discuss selected applications to the European banking sector. Second, they apply stochastic frontier analysis to investigate the extent to which the

  1. The European smoking prevention framework approach (ESFA): short-term effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, H. de; Mudde, A.; Kremers, S.; Wetzels, J.; Uiters, E.; Ariza, C.; Duarte Vitoria, P.; Fielder, A.; Holm, K.; Janssen, L.H.M.; Lehtuvuori, R.; Candel, M.

    2003-01-01

    The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) resulted in a smoking prevention project for six European countries. It included activities on four levels: adolescents, schools, parents and out-of-school activities. Common goals and objectives were developed, but countries were also able

  2. Tax Shift by Economic Functions and Its Effect on Economic Growth in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Szarowská

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine effects of tax shift on economic growth and provide a direct empirical evidence in the European Union (EU. It is used the Eurostat’s definition to categorize tax burden by economic functions and implicit tax rates of consumption, labour and capital are investigated. First, paper summarizes main development of tax shift in a whole EU till 2014 and followed empirical analysis is based on annual panel data of 22 EU Member States in years 1995–2012 (time span is divided into a pre-crisis and a post-crisis period. Explanatory variables are not examined in individual regressions, but the study uses Generalized Method of Moments applied on dynamic panel data and estimations are based on Arellan-Bond estimator (1991. Results confirm positive and statistically significant impact of consumption taxes and weaker but negative effect of labour taxation on economic growth. In a post-crisis period, findings report raising labour taxes as the strongest and the only significant variable. It suggests that harmful effect of labour taxation is enlarging in a time of unfavorable economic conditions. A tax shift on capital taxation has negative but often statistically insignificant impact on economic growth.

  3. THE IMPACT OF MACROECONOMIC FACTORS ON COMPETITION POLICY EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoi Ionut

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, more and more countries have enacted competition laws, understanding the importance of this process in providing a normal functioning of the economy. Analyzing competition policy effectiveness is important not only because of the recent extent of the phenomenon, but also because of the impact of competition policy effectiveness on economic development and, in the current economic climate, on the economic recovery process. For this reason, quantitative evaluation for competition policy effectiveness became very useful as data handling and understanding the whole phenomenon are easier this way and an international perspective is provided. This was made possible by various international institutions that have created a system of aggregated indicators for the evaluation of competition law enforcement and competition advocacy (perceived effectiveness. The purpose of our research is to identify the macroeconomic factors that influence the effectiveness of competition law implementation within the European Union Member States. We have tasted the influence of 13 macroeconomic, using panel data methodology and data from the last four years. We obtained ß coefficients statistically significant only for 11 of them. The results are consistent with prior analyzed studies and economic logic: positive influence from market division, intensity of local competition, ethical behavior of firms, strength of auditing and reporting standards, efficiency of legal framework in settling disputes, protection of minority shareholders’ interests, public trust of politicians, economic dimension and market size and negative influence from corruption level and diversion of public funds. Based on the achieved results we can perform an analysis of principal components leading to causal space reduction with minimal information loss and without informational redundancy, creating the premises for building a model that explains competition policy

  4. The Evolution of the Integration Process as Effect of the Treaties Signed between Republic of Moldova and European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie MĂMĂLIGĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the evolutive aspect of the political, economic and commercial development of Moldova’s relations with the European Union and the de jure and de facto adhesion to this European Forum. Thus, it argues and testifies that after 2024 Republic of Moldova will become a titular member of the European Union, also, it counts those 4 evolutive stages of the development of this process. In this way, it is specified the 3rd evolutive stage (2014-2020/24, particularly 2014, of the European integration process of Moldova in comparison with Romania and Bulgaria in 2001. It is demonstrated that the European integration of Moldova represents a perpetual process, which depends on and coincides with the process of the transnistrian conflict solving, and the signing the Republic of Moldova- EU Association Agreement and Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement represents the effect of advancing to a new evolutive phase. These agreements substantiate on vertical and horizontal dimension of the economic relations with the European Union. So, it is noticed that the success of this progress represents the new agreements with favorable clauses for Moldova in comparison with the previous ones, stipulated in the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement. As a consequence, it appears the passage to new phase of relation development with EU in comparison with the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement signed in 1994. Consequently, in a different hypothesis, it is put forward the idea of the accelerated advancement of the adhesion process of Moldova to the European Union after 2020, provided the resolution of the transnistrian conflict till that period, the gain of new market places of national products, the independent development of an economy based on renewable energy resources, such as eolian and solar energy etc. The liberalization of viza regime in 2014 represents the sine qua non condition of the intensification of Moldova

  5. A multi-sites analysis on the ozone effects on Gross Primary Production of European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proietti, C. [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anav, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Exeter (United Kingdom); De Marco, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Sicard, P. [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard BP234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis-cedex (France); Vitale, M., E-mail: marcello.vitale@uniroma1.it [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) is both a greenhouse gas and a secondary air pollutant causing adverse impacts on forests ecosystems at different scales, from cellular to ecosystem level. Specifically, the phytotoxic nature of O{sub 3} can impair CO{sub 2} assimilation that, in turn affects forest productivity. This study aims to evaluate the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} on Gross Primary Production (GPP) at 37 European forest sites during the time period 2000–2010. Due to the lack of carbon assimilation data at O{sub 3} monitoring stations (and vice-versa) this study makes a first attempt to combine high resolution MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP) estimates and O{sub 3} measurement data. Partial Correlations, Anomalies Analysis and the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) were used to quantify the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} concentration and its uptake on GPP and to evaluate the most important factors affecting inter-annual GPP changes. Our results showed, along a North-West/South-East European transect, a negative impact of O{sub 3} on GPP ranging from 0.4% to 30%, although a key role of meteorological parameters respect to pollutant variables in affecting GPP was found. In particular, meteorological parameters, namely air temperature (T), soil water content (SWC) and relative humidity (RH) are the most important predictors at 81% of test sites. Moreover, it is interesting to highlight a key role of SWC in the Mediterranean areas (Spanish, Italian and French test sites) confirming that, soil moisture and soil water availability affect vegetation growth and photosynthesis especially in arid or semi-arid ecosystems such as the Mediterranean climate regions. Considering the pivotal role of GPP in the global carbon balance and the O{sub 3} ability to reduce primary productivity of the forests, this study can help in assessing the O{sub 3} impacts on ecosystem services, including wood production and carbon sequestration. - Highlights: • Assessment of the surface O{sub 3

  6. Who benefits from cooperation? A numerical analysis of redistribution effects resulting from cooperation in European RES-E support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unteutsch, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    This paper numerically analyzes redistribution effects resulting from cooperation among European countries in achieving the 2020 targets for electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E). The quanti cation of redistribution effects builds on the theoretical analysis by Unteutsch (2014), who shows that cooperation in RES-E support increases overall welfare but is not beneficial for all groups. In this paper, we use a dynamic investment and dispatch optimization model of the European electricity system to investigate which groups potentially benefit from cooperation and which groups would be worse off compared to a situation in which national RES-E targets are reached solely by domestic RES-E production. In the analysis, cooperation in RES-E support is implemented as a European-wide green certificate trading scheme. Main findings of the analysis include that in the European electricity system, effects of the change in the certificate price in most countries would overcompensate for the effects of the change in the wholesale electricity price. Thus, in most countries with comparatively high (low) generation costs for renewable energies, consumer rents increase (decrease) due to cooperation and producers yield lower (higher) profits. In addition, it is found that the magnitude of redistribution effects between the individual groups is quite large: In some countries, the change in consumer rents or producer profits resulting from cooperation is nearly twice as high as the overall welfare effect of cooperation in the whole European electricity system. Moreover, we find that the sign, but not always the magnitude, of redistribution effects is quite robust to different developments of interconnector extensions, the CO 2 price and RES-E investment costs.

  7. Who benefits from cooperation? A numerical analysis of redistribution effects resulting from cooperation in European RES-E support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unteutsch, Michaela

    2014-01-15

    This paper numerically analyzes redistribution effects resulting from cooperation among European countries in achieving the 2020 targets for electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E). The quanti cation of redistribution effects builds on the theoretical analysis by Unteutsch (2014), who shows that cooperation in RES-E support increases overall welfare but is not beneficial for all groups. In this paper, we use a dynamic investment and dispatch optimization model of the European electricity system to investigate which groups potentially benefit from cooperation and which groups would be worse off compared to a situation in which national RES-E targets are reached solely by domestic RES-E production. In the analysis, cooperation in RES-E support is implemented as a European-wide green certificate trading scheme. Main findings of the analysis include that in the European electricity system, effects of the change in the certificate price in most countries would overcompensate for the effects of the change in the wholesale electricity price. Thus, in most countries with comparatively high (low) generation costs for renewable energies, consumer rents increase (decrease) due to cooperation and producers yield lower (higher) profits. In addition, it is found that the magnitude of redistribution effects between the individual groups is quite large: In some countries, the change in consumer rents or producer profits resulting from cooperation is nearly twice as high as the overall welfare effect of cooperation in the whole European electricity system. Moreover, we find that the sign, but not always the magnitude, of redistribution effects is quite robust to different developments of interconnector extensions, the CO{sub 2} price and RES-E investment costs.

  8. Cosmetics Europe Guidelines on the Management of Undesirable Effects and Reporting of Serious Undesirable Effects from Cosmetics in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Renner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU Cosmetics Regulation (EC No. 1223/2009 requires companies to collect and assess reports of adverse health effects from the cosmetic products (undesirable effects they market. Furthermore, undesirable effects that are considered as serious need to be reported to the national competent authorities. Cosmetics Europe, representing the European cosmetics industry, has developed these guidelines to promote a consistent practical approach for the management of undesirable effects and the notification of serious undesirable effects. Following these guidelines allows companies concerned to demonstrate due diligence and compliance with the legal requirements.

  9. Direct containment heating integral effects tests in geometries of European nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Leonhard; Albrecht, Giancarlo; Caroli, Cataldo; Ivanov, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    The DISCO test facility at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) has been used to perform experiments to investigate direct containment heating (DCH) effects during a severe accident in European nuclear power plants, comprising the EPR, the French 1300 MWe plant P'4, the VVER-1000 and the German Konvoi plant. A high-temperature iron-alumina melt is ejected by steam into scaled models of the respective reactor cavities and the containment vessel. Both heat transfer from dispersed melt and combustion of hydrogen lead to containment pressurization. The main experimental findings are presented and critical parameters are identified. The consequences of DCH are limited in reactors with no direct pathway between the cavity and the containment dome (closed pit). The situation is more severe for reactors which do have a direct pathway between the cavity and the containment (open pit). The experiments showed that substantial fractions of corium may be dispersed into the containment in such cases, if the pressure in the reactor coolant system is elevated at the time of RPV failure. Primary system pressures of 1 or 2 MPa are sufficient to lead to full scale DCH effects. Combustion of the hydrogen produced by oxidation as well as the hydrogen initially present appears to be the crucial phenomenon for containment pressurization.

  10. Direct containment heating integral effects tests in geometries of European nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Leonhard [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: meyer@iket.fzk.de; Albrecht, Giancarlo [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Caroli, Cataldo [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Ivanov, Ivan [Technical University of Sofia, BG-1797 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-10-15

    The DISCO test facility at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) has been used to perform experiments to investigate direct containment heating (DCH) effects during a severe accident in European nuclear power plants, comprising the EPR, the French 1300 MWe plant P'4, the VVER-1000 and the German Konvoi plant. A high-temperature iron-alumina melt is ejected by steam into scaled models of the respective reactor cavities and the containment vessel. Both heat transfer from dispersed melt and combustion of hydrogen lead to containment pressurization. The main experimental findings are presented and critical parameters are identified. The consequences of DCH are limited in reactors with no direct pathway between the cavity and the containment dome (closed pit). The situation is more severe for reactors which do have a direct pathway between the cavity and the containment (open pit). The experiments showed that substantial fractions of corium may be dispersed into the containment in such cases, if the pressure in the reactor coolant system is elevated at the time of RPV failure. Primary system pressures of 1 or 2 MPa are sufficient to lead to full scale DCH effects. Combustion of the hydrogen produced by oxidation as well as the hydrogen initially present appears to be the crucial phenomenon for containment pressurization.

  11. Analysing the effectiveness of renewable energy supporting policies in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmelink, Mirjam [Ecofys BV, P.O. Box 8404, NL-3503 RK Utrecht (Netherlands)] e-mail: m.harmelink@ecofys.nl; Voogt, Monique [Ecofys BV, P.O. Box 8404, NL-3503 RK Utrecht (Netherlands); Cremer, Clemens [Fraunhofer ISI, Breslauer Str. 48, 76139 Karlsruhe (Germany)] e-mail: Cremer@isi.fhg.de

    2006-02-01

    With several mid-term policies in place to support the development of renewables, the European Union (EU) seems on its way to increasing the share of renewable energy to the targeted 12% by the year 2010. It is however, yet unclear how effective these policies are, which technologies will see the largest growth and which countries will indeed be able to meet their targets. This article discusses a monitoring protocol that was developed to monitor this effectiveness and judge whether targets will be met. In a step-wise approach policy instruments are characterised and analysed, leading to a quantitative assessment of the likely growth in renewable energy production for each individual technology and country in case no policy changes occur. Applying this monitoring protocol at the EU-level we show that with the current policies in place renewable energy production will reach a share of 8-10% in 2010, and the share of electricity production will reach a level of 15-18% of total electricity consumption, whereas the target is 22.5%. Additional policies are clearly needed to achieve the ambitious targets set.

  12. Analysing the effectiveness of renewable energy supporting policies in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmelink, Mirjam; Voogt, Monique; Cremer, Clemens

    2006-01-01

    With several mid-term policies in place to support the development of renewables, the European Union (EU) seems on its way to increasing the share of renewable energy to the targeted 12% by the year 2010. It is however, yet unclear how effective these policies are, which technologies will see the largest growth and which countries will indeed be able to meet their targets. This article discusses a monitoring protocol that was developed to monitor this effectiveness and judge whether targets will be met. In a step-wise approach policy instruments are characterised and analysed, leading to a quantitative assessment of the likely growth in renewable energy production for each individual technology and country in case no policy changes occur. Applying this monitoring protocol at the EU-level we show that with the current policies in place renewable energy production will reach a share of 8-10% in 2010, and the share of electricity production will reach a level of 15-18% of total electricity consumption, whereas the target is 22.5%. Additional policies are clearly needed to achieve the ambitious targets set

  13. The static welfare effects of the accession to the European Union on the Finnish agricultural markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. NIEMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Finland’s entry into the European Union in 1995 and the application of the Common Agricultural Policy have had major repercussions on Finland’s agriculture, which faces the major disadvantages of an unfavourable climate and farm structure. This paper attempts to measure the direct static welfare effects associated with the opening of Finnish agricultural markets for more competition. Using a standard comparative static partial equilibrium analysis in the Marshallian economic surplus framework, the welfare effects are calculated for eight major cereal and livestock commodities produced in Finland for the year 2003. The results suggest that farmers, despite the growth in direct payments, have incurred large annual welfare losses ranging from EUR 570 to EUR 600 million. Consumers, on the other hand, have gained from the accession between EUR 815 and 875 million annually. The taxpayers’ have gained – as a result of the decrease in the direct subsidies and export restitutions paid by the national budget – between EUR 470 and EUR 580 million. The net welfare benefit in Finland, in terms agricultural sector only, was a welfare benefit of EUR 500–700 million in 2003.;

  14. Effects of microplastics on European flat oysters, Ostrea edulis and their associated benthic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dannielle Senga

    2016-09-01

    Plastic pollution is recognised as an emerging threat to aquatic ecosystems, with microplastics now the most abundant type of marine debris. Health effects caused by microplastics have been demonstrated at the species level, but impacts on ecological communities remain unknown. In this study, impacts of microplastics on the health and biological functioning of European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) and on the structure of associated macrofaunal assemblages were assessed in an outdoor mesocosm experiment using intact sediment cores. Biodegradable and conventional microplastics were added at low (0.8 μg L(-1)) and high (80 μg L(-1)) doses in the water column repeatedly for 60 days. Effects on the oysters were minimal, but benthic assemblage structures differed and species richness and the total number of organisms were ∼1.2 and 1.5 times greater in control mesocosms than in those exposed to high doses of microplastics. Notably, abundances of juvenile Littorina sp. (periwinkles) and Idotea balthica (an isopod) were ∼2 and 8 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of either type of microplastic. In addition, the biomass of Scrobicularia plana (peppery furrow shell clam) was ∼1.5 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of microplastics. This work indicates that repeated exposure to high concentrations of microplastics could alter assemblages in an important marine habitat by reducing the abundance of benthic fauna. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The relative age effect in European professional soccer: did ten years of research make any difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, Werner F; Baker, Joseph; Michiels, Stijn; Schorer, Joerg; Van Winckel, Jan; Williams, A Mark

    2012-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) refers to an asymmetry in the birth-date distribution favouring players born early in the selection year and discriminating against participants born later in the year. While the RAE effect was initially reported in sport more than two decades ago, there have been few attempts to examine whether player selection strategies have changed over time in light of our improved understanding of the phenomenon. We compared the birth-date distributions of professional soccer players in ten European countries over a 10-year period involving the 2000-2001 and 2010-2011 competitive seasons, respectively. Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests were used to compare differences between the observed and expected birth-date distributions across selection years. Generally, results indicated no change in the RAE over the past 10 years in professional soccer, emphasizing the robust nature of this phenomenon. We propose a change in the structure of youth involvement in soccer to reduce the impact of the RAE on talent identification and selection.

  16. Application of biomarkers for exposure and effect of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in naturally exposed european otters (Lutra lutra)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murk, A.J.; Leonards, P.E.G.; van Hattum, A.G.M.; Luit, R.; Vanderweiden, M.E.J.; Smit, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the serious decline of European otters (Lutra lutra) over the last decades, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are considered to be one of the major factors. As no experiments can be conducted with otters, an eco-epidemiological study was performed to derive no observed effect concentrations

  17. A cost-effectiveness analysis of fixed-combination therapies in patients with open-angle glaucoma: a European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommer, A.; Wickstrom, J.; Friis, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    inclusive of value-added tax, and visit costs were priced using official physician fees. Cost-effectiveness analyses were carried out in five European countries: Spain, Italy, United Kingdom, Norway and Sweden. The time horizon for the analyses was 3 months. RESULTS: The analysis showed that fixed...

  18. Climate change effects on shallow lakes: design and preliminary results of a cross-European climate gradient mesocosm experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landkildehus, F.; Søndergaard, M.; Beklioglu, M.; Adrian, R.; Angeler, D.G.; Hejzlar, Josef; Papastergiadou, E.; Zingel, P.; Çakiroğlu, A.I.; Scharfenberger, U.; Drakare, S.; Nõges, T.; Šorf, Michal; Stefanidis, K.; Tavşanoğlu, Ü.N.; Trigal, C.; Mahdy, A.; Papadaki, C.; Tuvikene, L.; Larsen, S.E.; Kernan, M.; Jeppesen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2014), s. 71-89 ISSN 1736-602X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 244121 - REFRESH Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : climate change * nutrient enrichment * water level effects * macroecology * REFRESH project * macrophytes * metabolism Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  19. Disentangling the effects of land-use change, climate and CO2 on projected future European habitat types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehsten, V; Sykes, M.T.; Scott, A.V.; Tzanopoulis, A.; Kallimanis, A.; Verburg, P.H.; Schulp, C.J.E.; Potts, S.G.; Vogiatzakis, I.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To project the potential European distribution of seven broad habitat categories (needle-leaved, broad-leaved, mixed and mediterranean forest, urban, grassland and cropland) in order to assess effects of land use, climate change and increase in CO2 on predicted habitat changes up to

  20. AMES, NESC and ENIQ: European networks in the field of structural integrity involving NDE and inspection effectiveness assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, S.; Hurst, R.; Debarberis, L.; Lemaitre, P.; Eriksen, B.

    1999-01-01

    Three European networks on structural integrity aspects of ageing nuclear components are presently managed by the Institute for Advanced Materials of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission: AMES (Ageing Materials Evaluation and Studies), ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) and NESC (Network for Evaluating Steel Components). All three networks involve actions, which aim at the effectiveness and reliability assessment of NDE techniques and of inspection procedures: Either for materials damage detection and characterisation or for defect detection and evaluation. This paper is describing very generally the objectives of the three networks and is then concentrating on the results obtained in ENIQ, which are relevant with ISI and regulatory issues. (orig./DGE)

  1. The effects of UV-B radiation on European heathland species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Björn, L.O.; Callaghan, T.V.; Johnsen, I.; Lee, J.A.; Manetas, Y.; Paul, N.D.; Sonesson, M.; Wellburn, A.R.; Coop, D.; Heide-Jørgensen, H.S.; Gehrke, C.; Gwynn-Jones, D.; Johanson, U.; Kyparissis, A.; Levizou, E.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Petropoulou, Y.; Stephanou, M.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on three examples of European shrub-dominated vegetation were studied in situ. The experiments were in High Arctic Greenland, northern Sweden and Greece, and at all sites investigated the interaction of enhanced UV-B radiation (simulating a 15% reduction in the ozone layer) with artificially increased precipitation. The Swedish experiment also involved a study of the interaction between enhanced UV-B radiation and elevated CO 2 (600 ppm). These field studies were supported by an outdoor controlled environment study in the United Kingdom involving modulated enhancement of UV-B radiation in combination with elevated CO 2 (700 ppm). Effects of the treatments on plant growth, morphology, phenology and physiology were measured. The effects observed were species specific, and included both positive and negative responses to the treatments. In general the negative responses to UV-B treatments of up to three growing seasons were small, but included reductions in shoot growth and premature leaf senescence. Positive responses included a marked increase in flowering in some species and a stimulation of some photosynthetic processes. UV-B treatment enhanced the drought tolerance of Pinus pinea and Pinus halepensis by increasing leaf cuticle thickness. In general, there were few interactions between the elevated CO 2 and enhanced UV-B treatments. There was evidence to suggest that although the negative responses to the treatments were small, damage may be increasing with time in some long-lived woody perennials. There was also evidence in the third year of treatments for effects of UV-B on insect herbivory in Vaccinium species. The experiments point to the necessity for long-term field investigations to predict the likely ecological consequences of increasing UV-B radiation. (author)

  2. Assessing the strength and effectiveness of renewable electricity feed-in tariffs in European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenner, Steffen; Groba, Felix; Indvik, Joe

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades, feed-in tariffs (FIT) have emerged as one of the most popular policies for supporting renewable electricity (RES-E) generation. A few studies have assessed the effectiveness of RES-E policies, but most ignore policy design features and market characteristics (e.g. electricity price and production cost) that influence policy strength. We employ 1992–2008 panel data to conduct the first econometric analysis of the effectiveness of FIT policies in promoting solar photovoltaic (PV) and onshore wind power development in 26 European Union countries. We develop a new indicator for FIT strength that captures variability in tariff size, contract duration, digression rate, and electricity price and production cost to estimate the resulting return on investment. We regress this indicator on added RES-E capacity using a fixed effects specification and find that FIT policies have driven solar PV development in the EU. However, this effect is overstated without controlling for country characteristics and is concealed without accounting for policy design. We do not find robust evidence that FIT policies have driven wind power development. Overall, we show that the interaction of policy design, electricity price, and electricity production cost is a more important determinant of RES-E development than policy enactment alone. - Highlights: ► This is the first econometric study of feed-in tariff (FIT) efficacy in Europe. ► We test the impact of FIT's on photovoltaic (PV) and wind power from 1992 to 2008. ► We calculate country- and year-specific return on investment provided by each FIT. ► FIT policies increased PV installations by ∼0.5% per ROI percentage point. ► Policy design, market traits, and ROI are more important factors than policy alone.

  3. Low dose radiation effects: an integrative european approach (Risc-Rad Project) coordinated by the Cea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatier, L.

    2006-01-01

    RISC-RAD (Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by ionizing Radiations) is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission under 6. Framework Programme / EURATOM. RISC-RAD started on 1. January 2004 for a duration of four years. Coordinated by Cea (Dr Laure Sabatier), it involves 11 European countries (Austria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom) and 29 research institutions. Objectives: Exposures to low and protracted doses of ionizing radiation are very frequent in normal living environment, at work places, in industry and in medicine. Effects of these exposures on human health cannot be reliably assessed by epidemiological methods, nor is thoroughly understood by biologists. RISC-RAD project proposes to help bridging the gap of scientific knowledge about these effects. To achieve this goal, a necessary key step is to understand the basic mechanisms by which radiation induces cancer. Studying this multistage process in an integrated way, the project offers a new biological approach characterised by and clear-cut and objective-driven scientific policy: the project is focused on the effects of low doses (less than 100 mSv) and protracted doses of radiation. It aims at identifying new parameters that take into account the differences in radiation responses between individuals. A group of modelers works closely with the experimental teams in order to better quantify the risks associated with low and protracted doses. Research work is divided into five work packages interacting closely with each other. WP1 is dedicated to DNA damage. Ionizing Radiation (IR) produce a broad spectrum of base modifications and DNA strand breaks of different kinds, among which double-strand breaks and 'clustered damage' which is thought to be a major feature in biological effectiveness of IR. The aim of Work Package 1 is to improve understanding of the initial DNA damage induced by

  4. The lock-in effect and the greening of automotive cooling systems in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnåvold, Amalie; Van Passel, Steven

    2017-12-01

    As of 2017, the sale and use of the refrigerants most commonly used in automotive cooling systems - hydrofluorocarbons - are entirely banned in all new vehicles placed on the market in the European Union. These refrigerants have been recognised as potent greenhouse gases and, therefore, direct contributors to climate change. It is within this regulation-driven market that the technologies for a sustainable solution have been developed. However, this paper argues that the market for automotive cooling systems has been 'locked-in', which means that competing technologies, operating under dynamic increasing returns, will allow for one - potentially inferior technology - to dominate the market. Whilst such a situation is not uncommon, this paper discusses the way that regulation has reinforced a patented monopoly in 'picking winners': to the advantage of a synthetic chemical, R-1234yf, as opposed to the natural solution, which is CO 2 . By developing a generic conceptual framework of path dependence and lock-in, the presented evidence seeks to show how a snowballing effect has led to the intensification of differences in market share. We also argue that the automotive industry is potentially promoting short-term fixes, rather than long-term, sustainable and economically viable solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. How effective are the 6 European Society of Immunodeficiency warning signs for primary immunodeficiency disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Sevket; Ucar, Ramazan; Caliskaner, Ahmet Zafer; Reisli, Ismail; Guner, Sukru Nail; Sayar, Esra Hazar; Baloglu, Ismail

    2016-02-01

    The European Society of Immunodeficiency (ESID) developed 6 warning signs to promote the awareness of adult primary immunodeficiency disease (PID). To screen adult patients for the presence of PID using these 6 warning signs to determine the effectiveness of this protocol. Questions related to the ESID warning signs for adult PID were added to the standard outpatient clinic file system and asked of 3,510 patients who were admitted to our clinic for any reason. Patients with signs and/or suspicion of PID based on their medical history underwent immunologic investigation. In total, 24 patients were diagnosed as having a PID. The most common reason that patients with PID were admitted was frequent infection (n=18 [75%]), and the most common PID subgroup was common variable immunodeficiency (n=12 [50%]). Twenty patients with PID had at least one positive finding according to the ESID warning signs. Two patients with gastrointestinal concerns and 2 with dermatologic symptoms were also diagnosed as having a PID, although they did not have any of the ESID warning signs. The ESID warning signs do not specify the need for symptoms to diagnose a PIDs and do not include a comprehensive list of all signs and symptoms of PIDs. As a result, more than infection-centric questions are needed to identify adult patients with immunodeficiencies. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of invasive European fire ants (Myrmica rubra on herring gull (Larus argentatus reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke E DeFisher

    Full Text Available Various invasive ant species have negatively affected reproductive success in birds by disrupting nest site selection, incubation patterns, food supply, and by direct predation on nestlings. Impacts can be particularly severe when non-native ants colonize seabird nesting islands where thousands of birds may nest in high densities on the ground or in burrows or crevices. Here we report on the first documented effects of Myrmica rubra, the European fire ant, on the reproduction of birds in its non-native range. We documented herring gulls (Larus argentatus on Appledore Island, Maine, engaging in more erratic incubation behaviors at nests infested by the ants. Newly-hatched chicks in some nests were swarmed by ants, leading to rapid chick death. Due to high overall rates of chick mortality, survival probabilities did not vary between nests with and without ant activity, however chick growth rates were slower at nests with ants than at ant-free nests. Ant infestation likely leads to longer-term fitness consequences because slower growth rates early in life may ultimately lead to lower post-fledging survival probabilities.

  7. European Union International Cooperation to Improve Regulatory Effectiveness in Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockmann, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The European Union (EU) promotes a high level of nuclear safety worldwide, through the ''Instrument for Nuclear Safety Cooperation'' (INSC) since 2007. The INSC builds on the experience gained under the completed ''Technical Assistance to the Commonwealth of Independent States'' Programme (TACIS) from 1991. Development and strengthening of national Regulatory Authorities’ capabilities is a key activity in achieving the INSC goals, in particular in countries with or embarking on nuclear power. Specific partner countries under INSC include countries of all types of maturity in the nuclear technology, with mature countries such as Brazil, Mexico and Ukraine, countries with waste and mining issues, but no direct intention of embarking on nuclear power such as Georgia, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tanzania and countries planning to embark on nuclear power such as Belarus, Egypt, Jordan and Vietnam. For new projects, the main focus is on the neighbourhood of the EU. The EU cooperation within INSC encompasses measures to support the promotion of high standards in radiation protection, radioactive waste management, decommissioning, remediation of contaminated sites, and efficient and effective safeguards of nuclear material. The INSC regulatory support is aimed at continuous assistance to Nuclear Regulatory Authorities (NRAs), including their technical support organisations (TSOs), in order to reinforce the regulatory framework, notably concerning licensing activities.

  8. Turkey’s Current Account Deficit Problem and Its Effects on the European Union Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Zekayi Orhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, long-term current account deficits may cause serious problems in the economy. Turkey's current account deficit and the financing of this deficit is one of the most widely debated issues in recent years. There are two different views about the emergence of the current account deficit. According to the first view, the current account deficit is due to the increase in demand created by economic growth after the 2001 crisis. According to the other opinion, this deficit is a result of an overvalued domestic currency, which is created by high interest rates accelerating the flow of short-term speculative capital. Since the current account deficit is financed with debt, the increasing external debt of the country is threatening the future of the economy. In this study, firstly the current account deficit problem in Turkey and the factors affecting the current operations which play an important role in financing the short-term capital movements are explained. Secondly, the policies to ensure the current account balance are defined. Finally the effects of the current account deficit problem on the European Union accession is discussed.

  9. Men’s Fertility in Second Unions in Three European Countries: The Effect of Parenthood Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murinkó, Lívia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we investigate how fatherhood influences childbirth in the second union of men in three European countries. We use data from the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey for France (2005, Norway (2007/8 and Hungary (2004/5 and we apply piecewise exponential event history models. The analysis complements earlier literature by focusing on men, taking a comparative perspective, looking at change over time, considering both cohabiting and marital unions, and also differentiating between the effects of non-residential and (part- or full-time residential fatherhood. Findings show that the probability of childbearing in the second union is the lowest if both partners already have child(ren and highest if neither of them are parents. However we found different results if only one of the partners has pre-union children in the three countries. Findings are discussed in view of demographic trends, family and gender role attitudes, and relevant family policies.

  10. Effects of dietary tannin on growth, feed utilization and digestibility, and carcass composition in juvenile European seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Omnes, Marie-Hélène; Le Goasduff, Julien; Le Delliou, Hervé; Le Bayon, Nicolas; Quazuguel, Patrick; Robin, Jean H.

    2017-01-01

    Plant-based products in fish diets are valuable protein alternatives to fishmeal for the aquafeed industry. Many plant feed ingredients contain polyphenolic compounds, including tannins, which can have beneficial or adverse effects. The tolerable threshold of ingested tannins is unknown for marine carnivorous fishes. We studied the effects of tannic acid (TA) supplementation to the diet of juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) by measuring growth, feed utilization and digestibility...

  11. THE CURRENT INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE FINANCIAL SUPERVISION INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS EFFECTIVENESS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    STOICA Ovidiu; CAPRARU Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    The international financial turmoil rise challenges in evaluating and choosing the optimal financial supervision institutional arrangements in many countries. Our study focuses on the financial supervision institutional architecture and its effectiveness in the European Union during the international financial crisis.We evaluated the effectiveness of the financial supervisory framework by groups of countries, categorised according to the supervisory model. Our analysis demonstrates that the p...

  12. Long-term effects of chronic light pollution on seasonal functions of European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominoni, Davide M; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-01-01

    Light pollution is known to affect important biological functions of wild animals, including daily and annual cycles. However, knowledge about long-term effects of chronic exposure to artificial light at night is still very limited. Here we present data on reproductive physiology, molt and locomotor activity during two-year cycles of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) exposed to either dark nights or 0.3 lux at night. As expected, control birds kept under dark nights exhibited two regular testicular and testosterone cycles during the two-year experiment. Control urban birds developed testes faster than their control rural conspecifics. Conversely, while in the first year blackbirds exposed to light at night showed a normal but earlier gonadal cycle compared to control birds, during the second year the reproductive system did not develop at all: both testicular size and testosterone concentration were at baseline levels in all birds. In addition, molt sequence in light-treated birds was more irregular than in control birds in both years. Analysis of locomotor activity showed that birds were still synchronized to the underlying light-dark cycle. We suggest that the lack of reproductive activity and irregular molt progression were possibly the results of i) birds being stuck in a photorefractory state and/or ii) chronic stress. Our data show that chronic low intensities of light at night can dramatically affect the reproductive system. Future studies are needed in order to investigate if and how urban animals avoid such negative impact and to elucidate the physiological mechanisms behind these profound long-term effects of artificial light at night. Finally we call for collaboration between scientists and policy makers to limit the impact of light pollution on animals and ecosystems.

  13. Abstract legal effect of juridical acts in European and Serbian law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudaš Atila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author gives an overview of the development from abstract to causal juridical acts and explains the abstract legal effect of juridical acts in present-day European civil law (in the law of Germany, Austria, Switzerland and France. He concludes that in contemporary law juridical acts cannot have full abstract legal effect, as in archaic legal orders, because modern legal orders do not allow the creation of claims and debts in a way that entirely excludes the possibility to scrutinize whether a juridical act is null and void for the infringement of public order by its aim. In relation to the law of Serbia, the author refers to the difference between juridical acts that create obligations, that is claims and debts, and acts by which the parties merely dispose of the claims and debts already imposed. This division of juridical acts has its origins in the German legal culture, but it is fairly applicable to the Serbian law, as well. The author points out that the requirement of the Law on obligations, that all juridical acts must have a valid cause, applies without exception to juridical acts imposing an obligation (the so-called Verpflichtungsgeschäfte, regardless of whether they are concluded in the form of an abstract of causal act, i.e. whether the purpose of the transaction is determinable from their content. In this context he refers to the standpoint adopted in the doctrine that the cause of juridical acts gains relevance by three means: by the agreement of the parties, objection of the respondent and when the court determines ex officio whether the contract is contrary to public order. The author supports the point of view that in Serbian law juridical acts aimed merely to disposing of claims and debts already imposed (the so-called Verfügungsgeschäfte may have a legal effect, which is independent from their cause. For these reasons, the author is of the opinion that in present-day legal orders, hence in Serbian law too

  14. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  15. What will be the effect of European Internal Market on interpretation of German nuclear law?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schattke, H.

    1991-01-01

    A case study of community law comes to the following results: 1) The Single European Act is to improve, and not impair, the state of integration in the EC achieved so far. 2) National limitations of transboundary, free service transactions are only allowed on national territories in the interest of protecting the population against health hazards. 3) True to say, there are no properly formulated European basic rights, but there is an unwritten, by the European Court of Justice accepted European basic rights catalogue, which resembles German basic rights. 4) Primary and secondary EC community law has priority over corresponding national law. 5) Prior-ranking of European law does not mean voidness of corresponding national law, but lower priority, always related to individual cases. 6) Prior-ranking of EC community law commits those in Federal Government and Laender authorities and in the courts who are concerned with the application of law, to interprete German law in a way conform with Community law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. Effects of European energy policy on German nuclear phase-out policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buedenbender, Martin

    2009-01-01

    After the election of the new German government on September 27th, 2009, the nuclear power phase-out decision appears back on top of the political agenda. Hence, an up to date survey of all relevant arguments seems absolutely necessary. In that matter, the scope should not remain national but should also take the European dimension into account. On the European level, a position in favour of nuclear power becomes apparent. Recent political decisions among the 27 member states show a renaissance of atomic energy. EU-Parliament, EU-Commission and EU-Council have all voted for the extensive, long term use of nuclear power in Europe. With its phase-out decision still valid, Germany is part of a minority in Europe. Germany is part of a European market for electricity whose national barriers will blur more and more in the future to form a fully integrated pan-European market in the end. Since nuclear power will provide a major share of the European electricity generation mix, Germany will always be supplied with atomic energy in the long term. This is imperative, regardless of nuclear power plants operating within the borders of Germany or not. Shutting down these facilities in Germany will hence not make the risks associated with atomic energy disappear. It will only add energy-technical challenges to assure long-term supply security. Thus, the new German government should withdraw the phase-out decision. (orig.)

  17. Russian natural gas policy and its possible effects on European gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quast, O.; Locatelli, C.

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing perception among Western European gas experts that Russia has developed a considerable gas surplus - the Russian gas bubble. Thus, the question clearly arises how much gas is available for export and how much gas, over the next 15 to 20 years, can the Russian quasi-monopolist Gazprom market in Western Europe. We consider that Gazprom's export strategy mirrors the approach of Russia's natural gas policy towards the Western European market. In this paper, we will focus on the characteristics of Gazprom's export strategy, its underlying logic, and its impact on Western European gas markets. As a consequence of Gazprom's export strategy, the Russian gas company faces today a price quantity dilemma. Gazprom's problem is to place as much gas as possible in the growing Western European gas market, without destroying downstream gas prices. We argue that Gazprom has adopted a market share expansion and downstream vertical integration strategy, aimed at capturing a part of the downstream gas rent. Although this strategy appears to have initiated a form of gas to gas competition in a number of European consumer markets, this strategy is not based on an aggressive price policy. However, in order to live up to its ambitions, there is a chance that Gazprom will have to somewhat relax traditional contract clauses, such as contract length, indexation terms and take or pay conditions. (author)

  18. The effect of growth rate and ageing on colour variation of European pond turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Martín, José; Marzal, Alfonso; Bertolero, Albert

    2017-06-01

    Many chelonians have colourful dots, patches and stripes throughout their body that are made up, at least in part, of carotenoids. Therefore, turtles are very suitable models to study the evolution and functionality of carotenoid-based colouration. Recent studies suggested a close link between colouration and immune system in these taxa. However, more research is needed to understand the role of these colourful stripes and patches in turtle visual signalling. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between growth rate and colouration in European pond turtles. In particular, we wanted to answer the question of whether there is a trade-off between growth and colour expression. We also aimed to explore the effect of body size and age on colour variation. Turtles from a reintroduction-breeding program were recaptured, weighed and measured over an 8-year period to estimate their growth rates and age. We also measured with a spectrometer the reflectance of colour patches in two different body parts: shell and forelimb. We found that turtles with a faster growth rate had brighter limb stripes independently of their age. On the other hand, shell colouration was related to body size with larger turtles having brighter shell stripes and higher values of carotenoid chroma. Our results suggest that fast-growers may afford to express intense colourful limb stripes likely due to their higher intake of carotenoids that would modulate both growth and colour expression. However, shell colouration was related to body size probably due to ontogenetic differences in the diet, as juveniles are strictly carnivorous while adults are omnivorous. Alternatively, shell colouration might be involved in crypsis as the shell is visually exposed to predators.

  19. The effect of growth rate and ageing on colour variation of European pond turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Martín, José; Marzal, Alfonso; Bertolero, Albert

    2017-06-01

    Many chelonians have colourful dots, patches and stripes throughout their body that are made up, at least in part, of carotenoids. Therefore, turtles are very suitable models to study the evolution and functionality of carotenoid-based colouration. Recent studies suggested a close link between colouration and immune system in these taxa. However, more research is needed to understand the role of these colourful stripes and patches in turtle visual signalling. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between growth rate and colouration in European pond turtles. In particular, we wanted to answer the question of whether there is a trade-off between growth and colour expression. We also aimed to explore the effect of body size and age on colour variation. Turtles from a reintroduction-breeding program were recaptured, weighed and measured over an 8-year period to estimate their growth rates and age. We also measured with a spectrometer the reflectance of colour patches in two different body parts: shell and forelimb. We found that turtles with a faster growth rate had brighter limb stripes independently of their age. On the other hand, shell colouration was related to body size with larger turtles having brighter shell stripes and higher values of carotenoid chroma. Our results suggest that fast-growers may afford to express intense colourful limb stripes likely due to their higher intake of carotenoids that would modulate both growth and colour expression. However, shell colouration was related to body size probably due to ontogenetic differences in the diet, as juveniles are strictly carnivorous while adults are omnivorous. Alternatively, shell colouration might be involved in crypsis as the shell is visually exposed to predators.

  20. Effect of fructose and sucralose on flow-mediated vasodilatation in healthy, white European males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, M. Q.; Simpson, E. J.; Macdonald, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess how acute consumption of fructose affects flow-mediated dilatation in brachial artery. Methods: The randomised cross-over study was conducted at the University of Nottingham's Medical School, Nottingham, United Kingdom in July 2009. Ten healthy, white European males visited the laboratory twice, on separate mornings. On each visit, the volunteers consumed water (3ml/kg body weight) and rested semi-supine on the bed. After 30 minutes, baseline diastolic brachial artery diameter and blood velocity was measured. At 60 minutes, blood velocity and five scans of brachial artery diameter were recorded before a blood pressure cuff was inflated on the forearm for 5 minutes and at 50-60-70-80 and 90 sec after cuff deflation. Fifteen minutes later, the volunteers consumed 500ml of test-drink containing either fructose (0.75 g/kg body weight) or sucralose (sweetness-matched with fructose drink); 45 minutes later, baseline and flow-mediated dilatation was re-measured. Results: Pre-drink and post-drink baseline values were similar on two occasions (p> 0.05). Brachial artery diameter increased (p < 0.05) by 7+-3% pre-fructose and by 6. 3% above baseline values post-fructose with no significant difference in these responses (p < 0.15). It increased (p < 0.05) by 5.9+-3% above baseline before and by 6.7+-2% (p < 0.01) after sucralose; a significant difference was noted in these flow-mediated dilatation responses (p < 0.02). Responses before and after sucralose were not different from those before and after fructose (p < 0.294). Conclusion: Acute ingestion of fructose or sucralose had no effect on flow-mediated dilatation measured at brachial artery. (author)

  1. Environmental assessment of microwaves and the effect of European energy efficiency and waste management legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-03-15

    More than 130 million microwaves are affected by European Union (EU) legislation which is aimed at reducing the consumption of electricity in the standby mode ('Standby Regulation') and at more sustainable management of end-of-life electrical and electronic waste ('WEEE Directive'). While legislation focuses on these two life cycle stages, there is little information on the environmental impacts of the entire life cycle of microwaves. To address this gap, this paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment of microwaves and assesses the environmental implications of the Standby Regulation and the WEEE Directive at the EU level. The impacts are first considered at the level of individual appliances and then at the EU level, with the aim of evaluating the potential environmental implications of the full implementation of the above two EU regulations by 2020. The effects of the electricity decarbonisation and the expected increase in the number of microwaves in use have also been considered. The results suggest that implementation of the EU regulation by 2020 will reduce the environmental impacts considered by 4%-9% compared to the current situation. The majority of these reductions is due to the Standby Regulation, with the contribution of the WEEE Directive being small (~0.3%). However, the expected decarbonisation of electricity will result in much higher reductions (6%-24%) for most impact categories. The results also show that the materials used to manufacture the microwaves, the manufacturing process and end-of-life disposal are environmental hot-spots for several impacts, including depletion of abiotic elements. Therefore, efforts to reduce the environmental impacts of a future electricity mix should be combined with the development of specific eco-design regulations for microwaves that stipulate optimisation of resource consumption. Possible future trends, such as shorter lifetimes and limited availability of some resources, make the development of such

  2. Temperature effects on gene expression and morphological development of European eel, Anguilla anguilla larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Mazurais, David; Servili, Arianna

    2017-01-01

    °C as the optimal temperature for offspring of European eel. Furthermore, our results suggest that the still enigmatic early life history stages of European eel may inhabit the deeper layer of the Sargasso Sea and indicate vulnerability of this critically endangered species to increasing ocean......Temperature is important for optimization of rearing conditions in aquaculture, especially during the critical early life history stages of fish. Here, we experimentally investigated the impact of temperature (16, 18, 20, 22 and 24°C) on thermally induced phenotypic variability, from larval hatch...

  3. IAS 40 : The effects of the implementation of IAS 40 for listed investment property companies within the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Aronsson, Robert; Högberg, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Background: The increased globalization and trade over domestic borders within the European Union (EU) has lead to the implementation of new international accounting standards. This is necessary to create an effective capital market, where comparisons between companies located in different countries can be made, due to a more harmonized accounting. Obstacles to overcome when establish a more harmonized accounting in the EU is for example different accounting backgrounds and valuation methods....

  4. Interconnections between economic subsystems and the IT innovation in avoiding unpredictable effects of finance reforms in East-European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The tax measures are rapidly changing in East-European countries. The permanence is a concept rarely put in practice. The changes of fiscal policy are usually important, affecting the whole finance system and the investors need to adapt to these various changes. Under such circumstances, the management of information of any kind regarding the activity of investors becomes very important, the information gathered represent a statistic proof of the effects of the economic and finance reforms.

  5. ANALYSIS OF DWARF MISTLETOE ARCEUTHOBIUM OXYCEDRI (DC. M. BIEB. AND ITS PRINCIPAL HOST EASTERN PRICKLY JUNIPER JUNIPERUS DELTOIDES R. P. ADAMS DISTRIBUTION IN CRIMEA USING GIS TECHOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kukushkin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study highlights the distribution pattern of juniper dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium oxycedri, a semi-parasite of the Eastern prickly juniper (Juniperus deltoides, in Crimea. A. oxycedri has considerably narrower range in Crimea as compared to its principal host and its ubiquitous distribution is rather sporadic. Nature observations characterize A. oxycedri as a thermophilic and mezo-хerophytic species confined to the low-mountain terrains with mild sub-Mediterranean climate. Significant sites of permanent infection have been discovered at the Crimean coast and in the warmest southwestern part of the Crimean Mountains to the south from the Belbek River valley. Greek juniper (J. excelsa is a codominant species growing side by side with J. deltoids in the majority of localities examined that have the high infection rate. Generally, J. excelsa is an insusceptible species in relation to the parasite; nevertheless, it is affected by A. oxycedri at several sites. Birds feeding habit to consume J. excelsa and J. deltoides fleshy berry-like cones helps to maintain the high infection rate and to disseminate mistletoe seeds at the distance of approximately 4 km. Modeling ecological niche and creating maps of potential range of the parasite and its principal host using MaxEnt 3.3.3k software have demonstrated that A. oxycedri distribution in Crimea at present may be wider than it has been currently observed. It is noteworthy that while modeling such bioclimatic indicators as the minimum winter temperatures and the elevation above sea level were irrelevant for establishing the distribution range of the parasite. Presumably the limited distribution of A. oxycedri can be attributed to the history of forming J. deltoides range in the late Pleistocene – Holocene, alongside with a low speed of the parasite dissemination from Quaternary refugia in the southernmost part of the Crimean Peninsula.

  6. European Union's research related to the health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desaintes, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The European Union (EU) has played a leading role in fostering cooperative research in Europe through successive multi-annual framework programmes (FP). FP6 (2002-2006), like FP5 (1998-2002), includes a programme on radiation protection. Its main objective is to better understand and quantify the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation at low doses and low dose rates. In this area during FP5, the EU has funded 24 research projects with a mean number of 7 institutes. The approach has combined 7 epidemiological, 15 basic biological and 1 mechanistic modelling studies to gain more insight into the risks of developing cancer after exposure to radiation. The programme in basic radiation biology aims at providing a sound biological basis for radiation protection. The research areas being covered include DNA damage response processes, mechanisms of- and genetic susceptibility to- induced cancer, and treatment of radiation injury. The nature and extent of damage to DNA and the consequences of its repair are being examined in eight projects as a function of various factors. These include the dose, dose rate, radiation quality, cell metabolism, nuclear architecture, chromatin structure, telomeres, as well as genetic factors or developmental stages of animals. Four projects look at the mechanisms and cellular consequences of genomic instability and bystander effects. Experimental animals are being used to examine variations in individual sensitivity to radiation-induced cancers and to understand mechanisms of cancer induction. The programme is supporting five projects on leukaemia and solid tumours of the lung, bone, thyroid, breast, and skin. These studies are being complemented by three investigations in humans aimed at identifying the mechanisms of- and susceptibility to- secondary cancers after radiotherapy and thyroid cancers induced by the Chernobyl accident. The genetic susceptibility to acute and chronic effects of radiation is also being investigated. Two

  7. The effect of children on men's and women's chances of repartnering in a European context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, K.; Kalmijn, M.; Uunk, W.

    2013-01-01

    This work examines what role children play in the re-partnering process in five European countries (Norway, France, Germany, Romania, and the Russian Federation) by addressing the following research questions: (1) To what extent do men and women differ in their re-partnering chances?; (2) Can gender

  8. Popular Explanations of Poverty in Europe: Effects of Contextual and Individual Characteristics across 28 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepianka, D.; Gelissen, J.; van Oorschot, W.

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we describe and explain the differences in popular poverty attributions that exist within and between 28 European countries. On the basis of the existing literature we distinguish five predictors: awareness of the existence of poverty, personal experience of disadvantage,

  9. The European Union and Crisis Management: Will the Lisbon Treaty Make the EU More Effective?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ramses A.; Blockmans, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The European Union's security and defence policy (ESDP) was invented 10 years ago and has been operational for more than five years. During this period the EU has launched over 20 ESDP missions allowing the organization to be engaged in international crisis management in various ways. The coming

  10. Effects of climate change on yield potential of wheat and maize crops in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Diepen, van C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Yields of winter wheat, silage maize and grain maize in the main arable areas of the European Union (EU) were calculated with a simulation model, WOFOST, using historical weather data and average soil characteristics. The sensitivity of the model to individual weather variables was determined.

  11. Hazardous substances in electronics: the effects of European Union risk regulation on China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biedenkopf, K.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that European Union (EU) risk regulation of hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) was both a trigger and formative factor in the development of similar Chinese regulation. The attractiveness and global interdependence of the EU market in EEE impelled a

  12. The Effect of Union Type on Work-Life Conflict in Five European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasearu, Kairi

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the strategies for reconciling family and work in different union types. The focus here is on investigating how cohabiting and married individuals perceive the work-life conflict in different European countries. To test the union type impact on work-life balance in the context of different societal conditions, this paper draws…

  13. Effect of the economic recession on pharmaceutical policy and medicine sales in eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, Christine; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Vogler, Sabine; Valkova, Silvia; de Joncheere, Kees; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Wagner, Anita K; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Laing, Richard

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify pharmaceutical policy changes during the economic recession in eight European countries and to determine whether policy measures resulted in lower sales of, and less expenditure on, pharmaceuticals. METHODS: Information on pharmaceutical policy changes between 2008 and 2011 in

  14. Resolution concerning the preconditions of an effective energy policy with in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The resolution of the European Parliament of March 11sup(th), 1983 deals with all problems of energy policy. It will be transmitted to the Parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany (Deutscher Bundestag) and to the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesregierung). (HSCH) [de

  15. Indirect effects of grassland extensification schemes on pollinators in two contrasting European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohler, F.; Verhulst, J.; Knop, E.; Herzog, F.; Kleijn, D.

    2007-01-01

    Flower-visiting insects play a crucial role in ecosystem processes by providing essential services such as pollination. During the last decades, agricultural intensification has caused a widespread decline of insect diversity. Agri-environment schemes (AES) have been implemented in many European

  16. Effects of simulated historical tree litter raking on the understorey vegetation in a central European forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vild, Ondřej; Kalwij, Jesse; Hédl, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2015), s. 569-578 ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : conservation management * litter raking * species diversity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.308, year: 2015

  17. Increasing carbon sinks in European forests: effect of afforestation and changes in mean growing stock volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilén, T.; Cienciala, E.; Schelhaas, M.; Verkerk, P.J.; Lindner, M.; Peltola, H.

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, both forest area and growing stock have increased since the 1950s, and European forests have acted as a carbon sink during the last six decades. However, the contribution of different factors affecting the sink is not yet clear. In this study, historical inventory data were combined with

  18. Effects of the economic recession on the European coal mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamme, H P; Dach, G

    1976-03-01

    The sharp decline of trade cycles in the European Community, especially in the iron and steel industry; the very mild climate; and the more energy-conscious behavior of the consumer since the oil crisis caused in 1975 a further decrease in the comsumption of primary energy. (tr-auth)

  19. Assessing climate change effects on European crop yields using the Crop Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supit, I.; Diepen, van C.A.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Wolf, J.; Kabat, P.; Baruth, B.; Ludwig, F.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change impacts on potential and rainfed crop yields on the European continent were studied using output of three General Circulation Models and the Crop Growth Monitoring System in combination with a weather generator. Climate change impacts differ per crop type and per CO2 emission

  20. Improving the definition of fishing effort for important European fleets by accounting for the skipper effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchal, P.; Andersen, B.; Bromley, E.H.C.; Iriondo, A.; Mahevas, S.; Quirijns, F.J.; Tien, N.S.H.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to quantify, for a wide selection of European fisheries, fishing tactics and strategies and to evaluate the benefits of adjusting the definition of. fishing effort using these elements. Fishing tactics and strategies were identified by metiers choices and a series of

  1. Improving the definition of fishing effort for important European fleets by accounting for the skipper effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, P.; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard; Bromley, D.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to quantify, for a wide selection of European fisheries, fishing tactics and strategies and to evaluate the benefits of adjusting the definition of. fishing effort using these elements. Fishing tactics and strategies were identified by metiers choices and a series...

  2. Are EMS environmentally effective? The link between environmental management systems and environmental performance in European companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertin, J.; Berkhout, F.G.H.; Wagner, M.; Tyteca, D.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of a large dataset on the environmental performance of European companies in five industrial sectors, this paper examines the question of whether the presence of an environmental management system (EMS) has a positive impact on the eco-efficiency of companies. It begins with a

  3. Short-term effects of particulate air pollution on cardiovascular diseases in eight European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Tertre, A; Medina, S; Samoli, E; Forsberg, B; Michelozzi, P; Boumghar, A; Vonk, JM; Bellini, A; Atkinson, R; Ayres, JG; Sunyer, J; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: As part of the APHEA project this study examined the association between airborne particles and hospital admissions for cardiac causes (ICD9 390-429) in eight European cities (Barcelona, Birmingham, London, Milan, the Netherlands, Paris, Rome, and Stockholm). All admissions were

  4. The European Union strategy for the Danube – Preliminaries, mechanisms, positions, priorities and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian M. DOBRESCU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Strategy for the Danube is an internal EU strategy where all river-side countries are invited to take part, complying with the three principles applied also in the case of the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region.The three pillars proposed by the European Commission and which the Strategy centers round are: connectivity (transport, energy, telecommunication, environmental protection and water management, as well as the socio-economic development (culture, education, tourism, rural development. The European Commission proposed to launch and organize a public debate in all river-side countries, conferences, seminars and round tables. The outcome of these debates will lie in the European Commission working out and bringing up, together with the river states, a paper on the theme of the EU Strategy for the Danube Region, and also a Plan of Action. This will comprise the detailed analysis of the present state and will propose a list of strategic projects. The implementation of the Plan of Action will be monitored by the European Commission and will be periodically up-dated, according to the economic conditions and the social trends in the region. Classification-JEL:N5; N7; Q4; R4Keywords:strategy, connectivity, environmental protection, water management, socio-economic development, sustainable developmentJournal:Romanian Journal of EconomicsPages:169-190Volume:32Issue:1(41Year:2011(XXIMonth: JuneFile-URL: http://www.revecon.ro/articles/2011-1/2011-1-10.pdfFile-Format: Application/pdfHandle: RePEc:ine:journl:v:1:y:2011:i:41:p:169-190

  5. Health effects of supplemental work from home in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlinghaus, Anna; Nachreiner, Friedhelm

    2014-12-01

    Internationalization and technological developments have changed the work organization in developed and developing industrial economies. Information and communication technologies, such as computers and smartphones, are increasingly used, allowing more temporal and spatial flexibility of work. This may lead to an increase in supplemental work, i.e. constant availability or working in addition to contractually agreed work hours. This in turn extends work hours and leads to work hours in evenings and weekends, causing interferences of work hours with biological and social rhythms for sleep, recovery and social interaction. However, empirical findings on the effects of supplemental work and work hours on occupational health are rather scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between (1) work-related contacts outside of regular work hours and (2) working in the free time with self-reported work-related health impairments in the fourth and fifth European Working Conditions Surveys (EWCS 2005, EWCS 2010). Out of these cross-sectional, large-scale surveys, data on n = 22 836 and n = 34 399 employed workers were used for weighted logistic regression analyses. About half of the sample reported at least occasional supplemental work. The results showed an increased risk of reporting at least one health problem for employees who had been contacted by their employer (EWCS 2005), or worked in their free time to meet work demands (EWCS 2010) in the last 12 months, compared to those reporting no supplemental work or work-related contacts during free time. These results were controlled for demographic variables, physical and mental work load, worker autonomy, and several work hours characteristics (e.g. hours per week, unusual and variable hours). The risk of reporting health problems was increased by being contacted both sometimes (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.26, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.14-1.39) and often (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1

  6. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  7. (In)direct framing effects: the effects of news media framing on public support for Turkish membership in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; Semetko, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    News framing can exert a strong influence on public opinion. Following a media content analysis, this article investigates the effects of news framing on support for membership of Turkey in the European Union. A first experimental study (n = 304) showed a significant difference in the level of

  8. The effect of land use intensity on soil organic carbon stocks of European croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, Rene; Gebbert, Sören; Franko, Uwe; Kätterer, Thomas; Kolbe, Hartmut

    2013-04-01

    Croplands cover about one third of Europe and are assumed to be the biggest source of greenhouse gas emissions of the European biosphere with the degradation of soil organic carbon (SOC) being a major contributor of this source. Soil carbon stocks of croplands are subjected to ranges of natural and anthropogenic influences that control the release or uptake of CO2. The separation of drivers is essential for assessing recent and prospective GHG mitigation potentials by cropland management. Within the last decades the management of European croplands is characterized by an ongoing intensification. The increasing influence of the global market on farmers' decision and the establishment of industrialized farming practise in Europe had significant impact on the shift of crop rotations during the last decades. Due to the high spatial variability and the dominating fraction of slowly degradable carbon it needs at least decades to detect changes while agricultural management is characterized by short term system interventions. Long term observations representing time intervals of decades to hundreds of years are therefore essential to make reliable suggestions about the sensitivity of soil carbon turnover against external impacts because the temporal scale of these experiments corresponds to the temporal scale of soil C turnover. A data set of about 32 European long-term experiments (380 variants) was used to quantify the uncertainty of the RothC soil carbon model. The parameters of the model were adapted to represent the sensitivity of SOC on weather conditions and crop types found in the data set by applying an Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm. Integrated in a GIS environment the modified model was used to run scenarios that vary in terms of climate conditions and crop rotations within the time period 1970-2010 on a European scale. Regionalized sensitivities of SOC on natural drivers and crop rotations will be presented.

  9. From European Union to World Union: Building Effective and Democratic Global Governance

    OpenAIRE

    John McClintock

    2012-01-01

    Sovereignty-sharing has placed European countries in a position to resolve their common problems through law, not war. As a result, the EU member states now live in peace together and take peace, justice and order for granted. The system of global governance is dysfunctional – some states are failing and the Security Council lacks legitimacy. Humanity does not have a mechanism to resolve its global problems through law, making it difficult – if not impossible – to resolve global problems such...

  10. Measuring the effect of ethnic and non-ethnic discrimination on Europeans' self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier

    2016-04-01

    The study of perceived discrimination based on race and ethnic traits belongs to a long-held tradition in this field, but recent studies have found that non-ethnic discrimination based on factors such as gender, disability or age is also a crucial predictor of health outcomes. Using data from the European Social Survey (2010), and applying Boolean Factor Analysis and Ordered Logistic Regression models, this study is aimed to compare how ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination might affect self-rated health in the European context. We found that non-ethnic types of discrimination produce stronger differences on health outcomes. This result indicates that the probabilities of presenting a poor state of health are significantly higher when individuals feel they are being discriminated against for social or demographic conditions (gender, age, sexuality or disability) rather than for ethnic reasons (nationality, race, ethnicity, language or religiosity). This study offers a clear comparison of health inequalities based on ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination in the European context, overcoming analytical based on binary indicators and simple measures of discrimination.

  11. Safety effects of road design standards : a study commissioned by the European Commission DG VII of the situation in the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruyters, H.G.J.C.M. Slop, M. & Wegman, F.C.M. (eds.)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study carried out for the European Union. The report uses the safety principle that: (i) proper road design is crucial to prevent human errors in traffic; and (ii) less human errors will result in less accidents. The study contains the following parts: (1)

  12. The political economy of energy use and pollution: the environmental effects of East-European transition to market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midttun, A.; Chander, I. [Norwegian School of Management, Sandvicka (Norway)

    1998-11-01

    The transition of Eastern Europe to Western-type liberal capitalism has been interpreted as an important step towards a more ecologically sustainable Europe. The main argument has been that the energy efficiency of the West-European economy will be imported to Eastern Europe and lead to lower energy consumption and lower pollution. This line of argumentation seems sound as far as the industrial sector is concerned. However, it does not take into consideration the energy and pollution bill of the lavish lifestyle of modern consumer-oriented societies. A shift away from the moderate private consumption of East-European Communism, towards the Western consumerist lifestyle may diminish or even abolish the positive ecological effects of the East-European transition to a competitive market economy. The article explores energy consumption and pollution patterns of Eastern and Western Europe both as far as industrial and domestic end-user consumption is concerned. The article argues that these patterns are related to basic characteristics of the communist and capitalist systems and that pollution and energy use are fundamentally conditioned by the overall political economy. 18 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab., 1 app.

  13. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  14. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  15. The effect of warming and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds from European aspen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maja, Mengistu M., E-mail: mengistu.maja@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Holopainen, Jarmo K. [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-03-15

    Different environmental stress factors often occur together but their combined effects on plant secondary metabolism are seldom considered. We studied the effect of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) (31% increase) radiation and temperature (ambient + 2 °C) singly and in combination on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 2-year-old clones of European aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plants grew in 36 experimental plots (6 replicates for Control, UV-A, UV-B, T, UV-A + T and UV-B + T treatments), in an experimental field. VOCs emitted from shoots were sampled from two (1 male and 1 female) randomly selected saplings (total of 72 saplings), per plot on two sampling occasions (June and July) in 2014. There was a significant UV-B × temperature interaction effect on emission rates of different VOCs. Isoprene emission rate was increased due to warming, but warming also modified VOC responses to both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-A increased isoprene emissions without warming, whereas UV-B increased emissions only in combination with warming. Warming-modified UV-A and UV-B responses were also seen in monoterpenes (MTs), sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs). MTs showed also a UV × gender interaction effect as females had higher emission rates under UV-A and UV-B than males. UV × gender and T × gender interactions caused significant differences in VOC blend as there was more variation (more GLVs and trans-β-caryophyllene) in VOCs from female saplings compared to male saplings. VOCs from the rhizosphere were also collected from each plot in two exposure seasons, but no significant treatment effects were observed. Our results suggest that simultaneous warming and elevated-UV-radiation increase the emission of VOCs from aspen. Thus the contribution of combined environmental factors on VOC emissions may have a greater impact to the photochemical reactions in the atmosphere compared to the impact of individual factors acting alone

  16. The effect of warming and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds from European aspen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maja, Mengistu M.; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-01-01

    Different environmental stress factors often occur together but their combined effects on plant secondary metabolism are seldom considered. We studied the effect of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) (31% increase) radiation and temperature (ambient + 2 °C) singly and in combination on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 2-year-old clones of European aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plants grew in 36 experimental plots (6 replicates for Control, UV-A, UV-B, T, UV-A + T and UV-B + T treatments), in an experimental field. VOCs emitted from shoots were sampled from two (1 male and 1 female) randomly selected saplings (total of 72 saplings), per plot on two sampling occasions (June and July) in 2014. There was a significant UV-B × temperature interaction effect on emission rates of different VOCs. Isoprene emission rate was increased due to warming, but warming also modified VOC responses to both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-A increased isoprene emissions without warming, whereas UV-B increased emissions only in combination with warming. Warming-modified UV-A and UV-B responses were also seen in monoterpenes (MTs), sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs). MTs showed also a UV × gender interaction effect as females had higher emission rates under UV-A and UV-B than males. UV × gender and T × gender interactions caused significant differences in VOC blend as there was more variation (more GLVs and trans-β-caryophyllene) in VOCs from female saplings compared to male saplings. VOCs from the rhizosphere were also collected from each plot in two exposure seasons, but no significant treatment effects were observed. Our results suggest that simultaneous warming and elevated-UV-radiation increase the emission of VOCs from aspen. Thus the contribution of combined environmental factors on VOC emissions may have a greater impact to the photochemical reactions in the atmosphere compared to the impact of individual factors acting alone

  17. Income inequality, life expectancy and cause-specific mortality in 43 European countries, 1987-2008: a fixed effects study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-08-01

    Whether income inequality is related to population health is still open to debate. We aimed to critically assess the relationship between income inequality and mortality in 43 European countries using comparable data between 1987 and 2008, controlling for time-invariant and time-variant country-level confounding factors. Annual data on income inequality, expressed as Gini index based on net household income, were extracted from the Standardizing the World Income Inequality Database. Data on life expectancy at birth and age-standardized mortality by cause of death were obtained from the Human Lifetable Database and the World Health Organization European Health for All Database. Data on infant mortality were obtained from the United Nations World Population Prospects Database. The relationships between income inequality and mortality indicators were studied using country fixed effects models, adjusted for time trends and country characteristics. Significant associations between income inequality and many mortality indicators were found in pooled cross-sectional regressions, indicating higher mortality in countries with larger income inequalities. Once the country fixed effects were added, all associations between income inequality and mortality indicators became insignificant, except for mortality from external causes and homicide among men, and cancers among women. The significant results for homicide and cancers disappeared after further adjustment for indicators of democracy, education, transition to national independence, armed conflicts, and economic freedom. Cross-sectional associations between income inequality and mortality seem to reflect the confounding effects of other country characteristics. In a European context, national levels of income inequality do not have an independent effect on mortality.

  18. Effect of the addition of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii on the gut microbiota composition and contribution to the well-being of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silvi, Stefania; Nardi, Miria; Sulpizio, Roberto; Orpianesi, Carla; Caggiano, Massimo; Carnevali, Oliana; Cresci, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to test the effects of probiotic treatment on gut microbiota and the contribution to the well-being of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.). A bacterial strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii (AS13B), isolated from adult European sea bass gut, was administered during sea bass development using Brachionus plicatilis and/or Artemia salina as carriers. The effective strain colonization and modulation of the gut microbiota, the mortality and the cor...

  19. Effect of the European directive on medical exposure on patients doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, P.; Heaton, B. [Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In 2000 the European Directive on medical exposures was incorporated into United Kingdom law. Whilst the primary aim was to ensure that all uses of ionising radiation in medical practice were justified and a benefit to the patient or volunteer was identified, there was an understanding that patient doses would be controlled and collective doses reduced. The Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 made a lot of new demands on radiology and Nuclear Medicine departments. No department is too small or specialized to ignore these regulations and the impact can be major. The Aberdeen Radiation Protection Service advises a number of users of ionising radiation on the implementation of these regulations ranging from single person dental practices to large radiology departments in busy regional hospitals. The particular problems and issues affecting different departments will be discussed. The regulations identified new key roles with Employers, Referrers, Practitioners and Operators all having specific responsibilities. Each of these groups needs to be identified, informed of their responsibilities and trained as necessary. The problems this has raised for the various staff groups will be discussed. A large number of procedures had to be written from how a patient is uniquely identified to how incidents are reported and investigated. There is much emphasis on optimising the use of equipment and techniques used, paying particular attention to women of child bearing age and children. Again there are problems in implementing this in practice and these issues will be discussed. A formal procedure for reporting 'near misses' and actual incidents of overexposure, were introduced. Each reported event is reviewed to identify issues and lessons which can be learnt by others. There is often a lateral thinking exercise involved to reduce the probability of an incident happening again and some novel solutions have been

  20. Effect of the European directive on medical exposure on patients doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, P.; Heaton, B.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In 2000 the European Directive on medical exposures was incorporated into United Kingdom law. Whilst the primary aim was to ensure that all uses of ionising radiation in medical practice were justified and a benefit to the patient or volunteer was identified, there was an understanding that patient doses would be controlled and collective doses reduced. The Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 made a lot of new demands on radiology and Nuclear Medicine departments. No department is too small or specialized to ignore these regulations and the impact can be major. The Aberdeen Radiation Protection Service advises a number of users of ionising radiation on the implementation of these regulations ranging from single person dental practices to large radiology departments in busy regional hospitals. The particular problems and issues affecting different departments will be discussed. The regulations identified new key roles with Employers, Referrers, Practitioners and Operators all having specific responsibilities. Each of these groups needs to be identified, informed of their responsibilities and trained as necessary. The problems this has raised for the various staff groups will be discussed. A large number of procedures had to be written from how a patient is uniquely identified to how incidents are reported and investigated. There is much emphasis on optimising the use of equipment and techniques used, paying particular attention to women of child bearing age and children. Again there are problems in implementing this in practice and these issues will be discussed. A formal procedure for reporting 'near misses' and actual incidents of overexposure, were introduced. Each reported event is reviewed to identify issues and lessons which can be learnt by others. There is often a lateral thinking exercise involved to reduce the probability of an incident happening again and some novel solutions have been implemented

  1. TradeWind Deliverable 5.1: Effects of increasing wind power penetration on the power flows in European grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemström, Bettina; Uski-Joutsenvuo, Sanna; Holttinen, Hannele

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the main activities and results of Work Package 5 – Effects of increasing wind power penetration on the power flows in European grids in the TradeWind project. VTT is the leader of Work Package 5 and carries the overall responsibility of this report. The work is based on power...... flow simulations with a grid and market model developed in TradeWind Work Package 3, led by Sintef Energy Research. VTT, Sintef Energy Research and Risø have carried out the simulations of the different scenarios, analysed the results and written Chapter 4 about the impact of wind power on cross...

  2. RE-Shaping. Shaping an effective and efficient European renewable energy market. D23 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmann, M.; Klessmann, C.; Nabe, C.; De Jager, D.; De Lovinfosse, I. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ragwitz, M.; Steinhilber, S.; Breitschopf, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Burgers, J.; Boots, M. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands); Weoeres, B. [EnergoBanking, Budapest (Hungary); Resch, G.; Panzer, C.; Ortner, A.; Busch, S. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Energy Systems and Electric Drives, Energy Economics Group EEG, Vienna (Austria); Neuhoff, K.; Boyd, R. [Climate Policy Initiative, German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Berlin (Germany); Junginger, M.; Hoefnagels, R. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Cusumano, N.; Lorenzoni, A. [Bocconi University, Milan (Italy); Konstantinaviciute, I. [Lithuanian Energy Institute LEI, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-02-15

    The core objective of the RE-Shaping project is to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC (on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) and to guide a European policy for RES (renewable energy sources) in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The core content of this collaborative research activity comprises: Developing a comprehensive policy background for RES support instruments; Providing the European Commission and Member States with scientifically based and statistically robust indicators to measure the success of currently implemented RES policies; Proposing innovative financing schemes for lower costs and better capital availability in RES financing; Initiation of National Policy Processes which attempt to stimulate debate and offer key stakeholders a meeting place to set and implement RES targets as well as options to improve the national policies fostering RES market penetration; Assessing options to coordinate or even gradually harmonize national RES policy approaches. This report marks the end of the research project RE-Shaping and summarizes its research activities, results, and recommendations.

  3. Effects of Drought and Rewetting on Growth and Gas Exchange of Minor European Broadleaved Tree Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Kunz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Widespread and economically important European tree species such as Norway spruce, Scots pine, and European beech are projected to be negatively affected by the increasing intensity and frequency of dry and hot conditions in a future climate. Hence, there is an increasing need to investigate the suitability of presumably more drought tolerant species to ensure future ecological stability, biodiversity, and productivity of forests. Based on their distribution patterns and climatic envelopes, the rare, minor broadleaved tree species Sorbus torminalis ((L. CRANTZ, S. domestica (L., Acer campestre (L., and A. platanoides (L. are assumed to be drought tolerant, however, there is only limited experimental basis to support that notion. This study aimed at quantifying growth and gas exchange of seedlings of these species during drought conditions, and their capacity to recover following drought. For that purpose, they were compared to the common companion species Quercus petraea ((MATTUSCHKA LIEBL. and Fagus sylvatica (L.. Here, potted seedlings of these species were exposed to water limitation followed by rewetting cycles in a greenhouse experiment. Photosynthesis and transpiration rates, stomatal conductance as well as root and shoot growth rates indicated a high drought resistance of A. campestre and A. platanoides. Sorbus domestica showed a marked ability to recover after drought stress. Therefore, we conclude that these minor tree species have the potential to enrich forests on drought-prone sites. Results from this pot experiment need to be complemented by field studies, in which the drought response of the species is not influenced by restrictions to root development.

  4. Spatio-temporal trends of nitrogen deposition and climate effects on Sphagnum productivity in European peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granath, Gustaf; Limpens, Juul; Posch, Maximilian; Mücher, Sander; de Vries, Wim

    2014-04-01

    To quantify potential nitrogen (N) deposition impacts on peatland carbon (C) uptake, we explored temporal and spatial trends in N deposition and climate impacts on the production of the key peat forming functional group (Sphagnum mosses) across European peatlands for the period 1900-2050. Using a modelling approach we estimated that between 1900 and 1950 N deposition impacts remained limited irrespective of geographical position. Between 1950 and 2000 N deposition depressed production between 0 and 25% relative to 1900, particularly in temperate regions. Future scenarios indicate this trend will continue and become more pronounced with climate warming. At the European scale, the consequences for Sphagnum net C-uptake remained small relative to 1900 due to the low peatland cover in high-N areas. The predicted impacts of likely changes in N deposition on Sphagnum productivity appeared to be less than those of climate. Nevertheless, current critical loads for peatlands are likely to hold under a future climate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Government Effectiveness and Value Creation: The Case of Emerging European Listed Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca MUNTEANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study adds to the field of public administration by focusing on the nexus between government decision and bank performance scores highlighting the administrative regulatory dimensions of improvements. To this end, this research paper covers a unique database comprising all listed banks that operate on emerging European markets in the period 2005-2011. Country specific characteristics are presented in the light of public administration quality which includes the dimension of governance quality on the one side, andthe quality and administrative burden on business environment on the other.Bank performance is defined under two different approaches (accounting vs. market based taking into account different stakeholders interest (state and central bank authority vs. investors.We account for profit persistency by using a Prais-Winsten regression that allows for both autocorrelation and heteroskedasticity in data. The results call attention to the fact that in emerging European markets regulatory glitches have a positive impact upon bank performance. Market imperfections are a source of profitability as they generate a reliable supply of market share appropriation and thus monopoly power. Also, administrative commitment towards increasing the quality of public services and policies endorsed by diminishing the level of corruption will accelerate private development and thus banking profitability.

  6. Ikastolen Elkartea, Example of Effective Transfrontier Cooperation Under the European Language Charter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihintza Palacín Mariscal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Basque language subsists in a transfrontier situation. Indeed, this minority or regional language lives between France and Spain. Under en European Legal Framework, the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages provides tools to protect this minority language. Facing different legal regimes of protection and different legal structures Euskara (Basque language receives support from education. Through the realisation of ethnography of the Basque schooling system (Ikastolen Elkartea I am going to analyse the transfrontier cooperation established under Art.14 of the Charter using the example of education in Basque.La lengua vasca subsiste en una situación transfronteriza, ya que esta lengua minoritaria o regional existe tanto en Francia como en España. Dentro del marco normativo europeo, la Carta Europea de las Lenguas Minoritarias o Regionales proporciona herramientas para proteger esta lengua minoritaria. Así pues, el euskera, al que se aplican diferentes regímenes de protección jurídica y diferentes estructuras legales, recibe apoyo educativo. A través de una etnografía del sistema de escolarización vasco (Ikastolen Elkartea, me propongo analizar la cooperación transfronteriza tejida bajo los auspicios del artículo 14 de la Carta, utilizando el ejemplo de la educación en euskera.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3074342

  7. Acute Myocardial Infarction, Use of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, and Mortality: A Comparative Effectiveness Analysis Covering Seven European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Terje P; Häkkinen, Unto; Belicza, Eva; Fatore, Giovanni; Goude, Fanny

    2015-12-01

    Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients have increased substantially in the last 12-15 years because of its clinical effectiveness. The expansion of PCI treatment for AMI patients raises two questions: How did PCI utilization rates vary across European regions, and which healthcare system and regional characteristic variables correlated with the utilization rate? Were the differences in use of PCI associated with differences in outcome, operationalized as 30-day mortality? We obtained our results from a dataset based on the administrative information systems of the populations of seven European countries. PCI rates were highest in the Netherlands, followed by Sweden and Hungary. The probability of receiving PCI was highest in regions with their own PCI facilities and in healthcare systems with activity-based reimbursement systems. Thirty-day mortality rates differed considerably between the countries with the highest rates in Hungary, Scotland, and Finland. Mortality was lowest in Sweden and Norway. The associations between PCI and mortality were remarkable in all age groups and across most countries. Despite extensive risk adjustment, we interpret the associations both as effects of selection and treatments. We observed a lower effect of PCI in the higher age groups in Hungary. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. An exposure study with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris): Toxicokinetics and reproductive effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, Evi van den; Eens, Marcel; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C.; Jaspers, Veerle L.B.; Neels, Hugo; Pinxten, Rianne

    2009-01-01

    We exposed female European starlings to a pentabromodiphenyl ether (Penta-BDE) mixture through subcutaneous implants, and examined levels and profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) together with reproductive effects. Sum PBDE levels increased significantly in the serum of the exposed females from 218 ± 43 to 23,400 ± 2035 pg/ml. Sum PBDE concentrations in the eggs of the exposed group ranged from 130 ± 12 to 220 ± 37 ng/g wet weight (ww). The profile in serum after egg laying was very similar to that in eggs. There were no detectable levels of HO-PBDEs in both serum and eggs. Fewer females of the exposed group initiated egg laying compared to the control group, although the difference was not significant. In addition, egg weight and volume were significantly higher in the exposed group. These results suggest that, at the investigated exposure levels (150 μg sum PBDEs/bird), PBDEs may have a negative effect on reproductive performance. - Exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of PBDEs may result in adverse reproductive effects in a terrestrial songbird species, the European starling

  9. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  10. Effects of reconstruction of a pre-European vertebrate assemblage on ground-dwelling arachnids in arid Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Colin J; Hayward, Matthew W; Gibb, Heloise

    2015-06-01

    Species loss can result in changes in assemblage structure and ecosystem function through ecological cascades. Australian vertebrate assemblages changed significantly following European colonisation, which resulted in the establishment of invasive vertebrates and the loss of native marsupials, many of which consume invertebrates. Conservation focusses on the removal of invasive carnivores and the reintroduction of regionally extinct species to fenced sites, resulting in what could be considered a reconstruction of pre-European vertebrate assemblages. In semi-arid Australian spinifex mallee ecosystems, we asked: (1) what is the effect of reconstructed pre-European vertebrate assemblages on native arachnid assemblages? and (2) what direct or indirect mechanisms (predation, disturbance and/or competition) could plausibly be responsible for these effects? We compared sites with reconstructed vertebrate assemblages with paired control sites. Arachnids were sampled using pitfall trapping and direct searching. Hypotheses regarding mechanisms were tested using scat analysis (predation) and by comparing burrow depth (disturbance) and scorpion mass (competition) between control and reconstructed sites. The dominant dune scorpion, Urodacus yaschenkoi, was less abundant and a wolf spider (Lycosa gibsoni species group) more abundant in reconstructed sites. Differences in spider assemblage composition were marginally non-significant. Scat analysis confirmed native vertebrate predation on scorpions and we found no evidence that competition or disturbance affected scorpions. We, thus, suggest that changes in spider assemblages may have resulted from ecological cascades via decreases in dune scorpions. The loss of omnivorous mammals and other changes associated with the invasion of carnivores may, therefore, have had broad-reaching consequences for native arachnid assemblages in Australian ecosystems.

  11. Mistletoe Extracts (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH). NIH is the federal government’s center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent ... NCCIH) are sponsoring a number of clinical trials (research studies) at medical centers to test CAM therapies for use in cancer. Conventional approaches to cancer ...

  12. Effects of diet composition on intake by adult wild European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, K A

    1989-12-01

    The voluntary dry matter intake (DMI) of several grass and legume diets, and the amount of dry matter (DM), nitrogen, fibre, and energy assimilated from each diet (i.e. the digestibility coefficients) are presented for the wild European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus. The DMI may be predicted from DM% and percentage of total nitrogen (on a DM basis) for a high DM diet (90-95%) but the general relationship may stand for fresh forage also. The metabolizable energy of a diet is correlated with DMI through the DM% and the percentage of nitrogen and fibre in the diet on a DM basis. The DM digestibility coefficient is correlated with fibre content. The wild rabbit's high efficiency of protein digestibility and low fibre digestibility compared with ruminants is also a characteristic of the domestic rabbit. It is suggested that the proportions of different nutrients required by wild rabbits are similar to those required by domestic animals.

  13. The hydrological modeling in terms of determining the potential European beaver effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szostak Marta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was the hydrological analysis, in terms of categorizing main watercourses (based on coupled catchments and marking areas covered by potential impact of the occurrence and activities of the European beaver Castor fiber. At the analysed area – the Forest District Głogów Małopolski there is a population of about 200 beavers in that Forest District. Damage inflicted by beavers was detected on 33.0 ha of the Forest District, while in the area of 13.9 ha the damage was small (below 10%. The monitoring of the beavers’ behaviour and the analysis of their influence on hydrology of the area became an important element of using geoinformationtools in the management of forest areas.

  14. From European Union to World Union: Building Effective and Democratic Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McClintock

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sovereignty-sharing has placed European countries in a position to resolve their common problems through law, not war. As a result, the EU member states now live in peace together and take peace, justice and order for granted. The system of global governance is dysfunctional – some states are failing and the Security Council lacks legitimacy. Humanity does not have a mechanism to resolve its global problems through law, making it difficult – if not impossible – to resolve global problems such as famine, hunger, climate change, war and terrorism, nuclear proliferation, regulation of corporations – including banks, destruction of fish stocks, and population. Sharing of sovereignty at the global level can address these problems, starting in the area of food security, then proceeding to climate management and other fields. Shared sovereignty can eliminate famine and hunger globally.

  15. The effectiveness of the European agricultural quality policy: a price analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardaji, I.; Iraizoz, B.; Rapun, M.

    2009-07-01

    The European rural development policy, the second pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy, is currently playing an increasing role. One of its key instruments is the support for quality standards through Protected Geographical Indications (PGI). The analysis presented in this article investigates prices for two varieties of beef (PGI and non- PGI). The research setting is a specific area in northern Spain, where Ternera de Navarra (Navarra beef) is produced. The results show that quality production systems achieve higher and more stable prices in the long term. Another major point emerging from the analysis, given the nature of the beef production sector, is that the PGI product is better able to stand up to consumer confidence crises, such as that triggered by the bovine spongiform encephalopathy outbreak. Additional key words: prices, protected geographical indication, rural development. (Author) 40 refs.

  16. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  17. Metabolism of carbaryl, chloropyrifos, DDT, and parathion in the European corn borer: effects of microsporidiosis on toxicity and detoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetreault, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of microsporidiosis on an insect's response to insecticide intoxication. Healthy European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, larvae and those heavily infected with the microsporidian pathogen, Nosema pyrausta, were bioassayed with ten insecticides. The compounds used were carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, DDT, diazinon, fonofos, methomyl, parathion, permethrin, and terbufos. Third instar larvae were used for topical bioassays. The compounds carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, methomyl and terbufos were found to be significantly more toxic to diseased insects than healthy insects at the 0.05 probability level. To examine the effect of Nosema pyrausta infection on the European corn borer's ability to detoxify insecticides, 14 C ring-labeled carbaryl, chlorophrifos, DDT, and parathion were topically applied to fourth instar larvae. Qualitative differences between healthy and diseased insects were found in the metabolic pathways of carbaryl, DDT, and parathion. The degradative fate of chlorophrifos was the same in both groups. Quantitatively, each insecticide penetrated diseased larvae faster. This resulted in larger amounts of the applied dose of parent compound and metabolites being found in the feces from diseased insects. Conversely, healthy insects had more of these materials present in the body and associated with the cuticle

  18. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  19. Innovation subject to sustainability: the European policy on biofuels and its effects on innovation in the Brazilian bioethanol industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pacini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are a suitable complement for fossil energy in the transport sector and bioethanol is the main biofuel traded worldwide. Based on the assumption that innovation can be influenced by regulation, the Brazilian bioethanol industry is facing new requirements from external actors while reaching for international markets. Until 2010, national environmental laws were the main sustainability instrument that the biofuel industry faced. With the introduction of sustainability criteria for biofuels in the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD and Renewable Energy Directive (RED of 2009, bioethanol producers have been pressured to innovate in respect of the requirements of future markets. Here, the aim is to analyse the case of Brazil, given the potential exports of sugarcane-based ethanol from this country to the EU. Brazil provides an interesting overview of how a bioethanol industry innovated while facing sustainability requirements in the past. A comparison between the European requirements and the industry´s status quo is then explored. The EU criteria are likely to have effects on the Brazilian bioethanol industry and incremental improvements in sustainability levels might take place based on the sustainability requirements. In addition, the industry could follow two other paths, namely risk diversification by engaging in multi-output models; and market leakage towards less-regulated markets. At the same time, an environmental overregulation of the biofuel market may make it more difficult for emerging biofuel industries in other countries, especially in Africa, by creating a barrier rather than contributing to its expansion. The results of this analysis show the main challenges to be addressed and the potential positive and negative impacts of the European Union biofuels policy on the Brazilian bioethanol industry.

  20. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2015-04-01

    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe

  1. The effect of prior walking on coronary heart disease risk markers in South Asian and European men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Saravana Pillai; Deighton, Kevin; Bishop, Nicolette C; King, James; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Rogan, Alice; Sedgwick, Matthew; Thackray, Alice E; Webb, David; Stensel, David J

    2015-12-01

    Heart disease risk is elevated in South Asians possibly due to impaired postprandial metabolism. Running has been shown to induce greater reductions in postprandial lipaemia in South Asian than European men, but the effect of walking in South Asians is unknown. Fifteen South Asian and 14 white European men aged 19-30 years completed two, 2-day trials in a randomised crossover design. On day 1, participants rested (control) or walked for 60 min at approximately 50 % maximum oxygen uptake (exercise). On day 2, participants rested and consumed two high-fat meals over a 9-h period during which 14 venous blood samples were collected. South Asians exhibited higher postprandial triacylglycerol [geometric mean (95 % confidence interval) 2.29 (1.82 to 2.89) vs. 1.54 (1.21 to 1.96) mmol L(-1) h(-1)], glucose [5.49 (5.21 to 5.79) vs. 5.05 (4.78 to 5.33) mmol L(-1) h(-1)], insulin [32.9 (25.7 to 42.1) vs. 18.3 (14.2 to 23.7) µU mL(-1) h(-1)] and interleukin-6 [2.44 (1.61 to 3.67) vs. 1.04 (0.68 to 1.59) pg mL(-1) h(-1)] than Europeans (all ES ≥ 0.72, P ≤ 0.03). Between-group differences in triacylglycerol, glucose and insulin were not significant after controlling for age and percentage body fat. Walking reduced postprandial triacylglycerol [1.79 (1.52 to 2.12) vs. 1.97 (1.67 to 2.33) mmol L(-1) h(-1)] and insulin [21.0 (17.0 to 26.0) vs. 28.7 (23.2 to 35.4) µU mL(-1) h(-1)] (all ES ≥ 0.23. P ≤ 0.01), but group differences were not significant. Healthy South Asians exhibited impaired postprandial metabolism compared with white Europeans, but these differences were diminished after controlling for potential confounders. The small-moderate reduction in postprandial triacylglycerol and insulin after brisk walking was not different between the ethnicities.

  2. Later-borns Don't Give Up: The Temporary Effects of Birth Order on European Earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Marco; Brunello, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    The existing empirical evidence on the effects of birth order on wages does not distinguish between temporary and permanent effects. Using data from 11 European countries for males born between 1935 and 1956, we show that firstborns enjoy on average a 13.7% premium in their entry wage compared with later-borns. This advantage, however, is short-lived and disappears 10 years after labor market entry. Although firstborns start with a better job, partially because of their higher education, later-borns quickly catch up by switching earlier and more frequently to better-paying jobs. We argue that a key factor driving our findings is that later-borns have lower risk aversion than firstborns.

  3. A FRAMEWORK FOR THE TREATMENT OF FINANCIAL CONTAGION EFFECTS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ACTUAL EUROPEAN TURBULENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscoianu Mircea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There is still a debate regarding a possible restoring of the confidence in European financial markets because there are still underlying problems from the super-sized finance that actually worsened. Anti crisis strategy efficiency and future costs of real reform make analysts more prudent in forecasts. In addition, a possible reduction risk appetite and the loss of confidence will fuel a negative perspective regarding the recovery of emerging economies, extreme fragile to regional or global contagion effects. In modern financial crises, the events spiral out of control, panic and contagion come very fast. Greek debt crisis is the most serious extreme financial event in the Eurozone, with severe contagion features. An analysis of Eurocontagion effects in the context of Greece crisis by using a dynamic version of the Hawkes jump-diffusion model is suggested.

  4. The influence of socioeconomic environment on the effectiveness of alcohol prevention among European students: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faggiano Fabrizio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although social environments may influence alcohol-related behaviours in youth, the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic context and effectiveness of school-based prevention against underage drinking has been insufficiently investigated. We study whether the social environment affects the impact of a new school-based prevention programme on alcohol use among European students. Methods During the school year 2004-2005, 7079 students 12-14 years of age from 143 schools in nine European centres participated in this cluster randomised controlled trial. Schools were randomly assigned to either control or a 12-session standardised curriculum based on the comprehensive social influence model. Randomisation was blocked within socioeconomic levels of the school environment. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problem behaviours were investigated through a self-completed anonymous questionnaire at baseline and 18 months thereafter. Data were analysed using multilevel models, separately by socioeconomic level. Results At baseline, adolescents in schools of low socioeconomic level were more likely to report problem drinking than other students. Participation in the programme was associated in this group with a decreased odds of reporting episodes of drunkenness (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.44-0.83, intention to get drunk (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.45-0.79, and marginally alcohol-related problem behaviours (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.46-1.06. No significant programme's effects emerged for students in schools of medium or high socioeconomic level. Effects on frequency of alcohol consumption were also stronger among students in disadvantaged schools, although the estimates did not attain statistical significance in any subgroup. Conclusions It is plausible that comprehensive social influence programmes have a more favourable effect on problematic drinking among students in underprivileged social environments. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN

  5. Effects of hybridization and evolutionary constraints on secondary metabolites: the genetic architecture of phenylpropanoids in European populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseys, Celine; Stritt, Christoph; Glauser, Gaetan; Blanchard, Thierry; Lexer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the origin, maintenance and evolution of plant secondary metabolite diversity remain largely unknown. Decades of phenotypic studies suggest hybridization as a key player in generating chemical diversity in plants. Knowledge of the genetic architecture and selective constraints of phytochemical traits is key to understanding the effects of hybridization on plant chemical diversity and ecological interactions. Using the European Populus species P. alba (White poplar) and P. tremula (European aspen) and their hybrids as a model, we examined levels of inter- and intraspecific variation, heritabilities, phenotypic correlations, and the genetic architecture of 38 compounds of the phenylpropanoid pathway measured by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). We detected 41 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for chlorogenic acids, salicinoids and flavonoids by genetic mapping in natural hybrid crosses. We show that these three branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway exhibit different geographic patterns of variation, heritabilities, and genetic architectures, and that they are affected differently by hybridization and evolutionary constraints. Flavonoid abundances present high species specificity, clear geographic structure, and strong genetic determination, contrary to salicinoids and chlorogenic acids. Salicinoids, which represent important defence compounds in Salicaceae, exhibited pronounced genetic correlations on the QTL map. Our results suggest that interspecific phytochemical differentiation is concentrated in downstream sections of the phenylpropanoid pathway. In particular, our data point to glycosyltransferase enzymes as likely targets of rapid evolution and interspecific differentiation in the 'model forest tree' Populus.

  6. Effects of hybridization and evolutionary constraints on secondary metabolites: the genetic architecture of phenylpropanoids in European populus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Caseys

    Full Text Available The mechanisms responsible for the origin, maintenance and evolution of plant secondary metabolite diversity remain largely unknown. Decades of phenotypic studies suggest hybridization as a key player in generating chemical diversity in plants. Knowledge of the genetic architecture and selective constraints of phytochemical traits is key to understanding the effects of hybridization on plant chemical diversity and ecological interactions. Using the European Populus species P. alba (White poplar and P. tremula (European aspen and their hybrids as a model, we examined levels of inter- and intraspecific variation, heritabilities, phenotypic correlations, and the genetic architecture of 38 compounds of the phenylpropanoid pathway measured by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS. We detected 41 quantitative trait loci (QTL for chlorogenic acids, salicinoids and flavonoids by genetic mapping in natural hybrid crosses. We show that these three branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway exhibit different geographic patterns of variation, heritabilities, and genetic architectures, and that they are affected differently by hybridization and evolutionary constraints. Flavonoid abundances present high species specificity, clear geographic structure, and strong genetic determination, contrary to salicinoids and chlorogenic acids. Salicinoids, which represent important defence compounds in Salicaceae, exhibited pronounced genetic correlations on the QTL map. Our results suggest that interspecific phytochemical differentiation is concentrated in downstream sections of the phenylpropanoid pathway. In particular, our data point to glycosyltransferase enzymes as likely targets of rapid evolution and interspecific differentiation in the 'model forest tree' Populus.

  7. The individual and societal effects of the European education systems. How does structure influence the tasks of education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morena Cuconato

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Across European countries, the expansion of education has increased during the 20th century the opportunities of young people’s access to and within schooling, but it has not reduced socioeconomic and cultural inequality both in term of labour market’s entry and participation to the democratic public life. This paper proposes an analysis of the ways in which education systems are institutionalised in Europe and the effects of this institutionalisation on educational inequality, young people’ labor market entry and the promotion of their active citizenship: three hot topics in the EU agenda framing the implementation of the European knowledge societies. Educational inequality becomes particularly evident at the transition point from lower to upper secondary education as this passage confronts young people with new (adult expectations, status and practices and contributes to their positioning in a segmented labor market and an unequal society. Therefore, our special focus is set on the kinds of transitions foreseen in the education systems of the eight countries participating to an EU-funded research project on the Governance of Educational Trajectories in Europe (GOETE. The aim is to highlight how different the tasks of education are interpreted through the systemic structure of the different national education systems.

  8. STRUCTURAL EFFECTS AND MUTATIONS CAUSED BY THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON FURNITURE TRADE AT THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Marginean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available he global economic crisis had most negative effects on the entire economic sphere and especially in what the consuming industry is concerned, which may be considered “luxurious”, the way in which we may talk about the furniture industry. Along times of economic crisis at social level, a decrease in financial power at microeconomic, individual level is felt. Under conditions of social decrease in buying capacity, the request for commercial furniture is in rapid fall and thus the industry as such suffers serious structural mutations. Analyzing a series of macroeconomic indices from the European furniture industry led to the result that during the late years there has been a positive trend within the furniture industry in matters of production, however, with concern to trading, the situation is more complicated. There is a behaviour difference in the furniture industry between emergent countries and EU developed states and based on the performed analysis, a SWOT analysis at sectorial level crystallized, in which we propose ways of growth in the European furniture industry.

  9. Effect of summer fire on cursorial spider (Aranei and beetle (Coleoptera assemblages in meadow steppes of Central European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polchaninova Nina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fire is an important structuring force for grassland ecosystems. Despite increased incidents of fire in European steppes, their impact on arthropod communities is still poorly studied. We assessed short-term changes in cursorial beetle and spider assemblages after a summer fire in the meadow steppe in Central European Russia. The responses of spider and beetle assemblages to the fire event were different. In the first post-fire year, the same beetle species dominated burnt and unburnt plots, the alpha-diversity of beetle assemblages was similar, and there were no pronounced changes in the proportions of trophic groups. Beetle species richness and activity density increased in the second post-fire year, while that of the spiders decreased. The spider alpha-diversity was lowest in the first post-fire year, and the main dominants were pioneer species. In the second year, the differences in spider species composition and activity density diminished. The main conclusion of our study is that the large-scale intensive summer fire caused no profound changes in cursorial beetle and spider assemblages of this steppe plot. Mitigation of the fire effect is explained by the small plot area, its location at the edge of the fire site and the presence of adjacent undisturbed habitats with herbaceous vegetation.

  10. Effect of global warming on willingness to pay for uninterrupted electricity supply in European nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jed; Moeltner, Klaus; Reichl, Johannes; Schmidthaler, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Predicted changes in temperature and other weather events may damage the electricity grid and cause power outages. Understanding the costs of power outages and how these costs change over time with global warming can inform outage-mitigation-investment decisions. Here we show that across 19 EU nations the value of uninterrupted electricity supply is strongly related to local temperatures, and will increase as the climate warms. Bayesian hierarchical modelling of data from a choice experiment and respondent-specific temperature measures reveals estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid an hour of power outage between €0.32 and €1.86 per household. WTP varies on the basis of season and is heterogeneous between European nations. Winter outages currently cause larger per household welfare losses than summer outages per hour of outage. However, this dynamic will begin to shift under plausible future climates, with summer outages becoming substantially more costly and winter outages becoming slightly less costly on a per-household, per-hour basis.

  11. The hydrological modeling in terms of determining the potential European beaver effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Marta; Jagodzińska, Jadwiga

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the paper was the hydrological analysis, in terms of categorizing main watercourses (based on coupled catchments) and marking areas covered by potential impact of the occurrence and activities of the European beaver Castor fiber. At the analysed area - the Forest District Głogów Małopolski there is a population of about 200 beavers in that Forest District. Damage inflicted by beavers was detected on 33.0 ha of the Forest District, while in the area of 13.9 ha the damage was small (below 10%). The monitoring of the beavers' behaviour and the analysis of their influence on hydrology of the area became an important element of using geoinformationtools in the management of forest areas. ArcHydro ArcGIS Esri module was applied, as an integrated set of tools for hydrographical analysis and modelling. Further steps of the procedure are hydrologic analyses such as: marking river networks on the DTM, filling holes, making maps of the flow direction, making the map of the accumulation flow, defining and segmentation of streams, marking elementary basins, marking coupled basins, making dams in the places, where beavers occur and localization of the area with a visible impact of damming. The result of the study includes maps prepared for the Forest District: the map of main rivers and their basins, categories of watercourses and compartments particularly threatened by beaver's foraging.

  12. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  13. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality......Discourse analysis as a methodology is perhaps not readily associated with substantive causality claims. At the same time the study of discourses is very much the study of conceptions of causal relations among a set, or sets, of agents. Within Europeanization research we have seen endeavours......, it suggests that discourse analysis and the study of causality are by no means opposites. The study of Europeanization discourses may even be seen as an essential step in the move towards claims of causality in Europeanization research. This chapter deals with the question of how we may move from the study...

  14. Total Phenol Content and In Vitro Antioxidant Potential of Helicanthus elastica (Desr. Danser-A Less-explored Indian Mango Mistletoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppala Narayana Sunil Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are an important source of antioxidant molecules like tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, etc., Helicanthus elastica (Desr. Danser (Loranthaceae is one such plant belonging to the category of mistletoe, and grows commonly on the mango trees in India. In the present study, an attempt has been made to assess the antioxidant properties of the plant. Ethanol extract of H. elastica growing on mango tree was studied using different in vitro models. Shade-dried whole plant material was extracted with ethanol by cold percolation. Fifty milligrams of the alcohol extract of H. elastica was weighed and dissolved in 10 ml of methanol. The resultant 5 mg/ml solution was suitably diluted to obtain different concentrations. Total phenol content, reducing power assay, and scavenging of free radicals like nitric oxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl were studied by standardized in vitro chemical methods using ascorbic acid as the standard. The total phenol content of the plant was found to be 1.89% w/w. The extract showed good reducing power as well as scavenging of free radicals (nitric oxide, hydroxyl, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide at concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 μg/ml. The study revealed the antioxidant potential of H. elastica.

  15. European hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The European Hadron Facility (EHF) is a project for particle and nuclear physics in the 1990s which would consist of a fast cycling high intensity proton synchrotron of about 30 GeV primary energy and providing a varied spectrum of intense high quality secondary beams (polarized protons, pions, muons, kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos). The physics case of this project has been studied over the last two years by a European group of particle and nuclear physicists (EHF Study Group), whilst the conceptual design for the accelerator complex was worked out (and is still being worked on) by an international group of machine experts (EHF Design Study Group). Both aspects have been discussed in recent years in a series of working parties, topical seminars, and workshops held in Freiburg, Trieste, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Les Rasses and Villigen. This long series of meetings culminated in the International Conference on a European Hadron Facility held in Mainz from 10-14 March

  16. How campaigns enhance European issues voting during European Parliament elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Møller Hansen, Kasper; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2017-01-01

    Based on findings from the literature on campaign effects on the one hand, and the literature on European Parliament elections on the other, we propose a model of European Parliamentary elections in which the campaign shift the calculus of electoral support, making differences in national political...... allegiances less important and attitudes about the European project more important by informing voters of and getting them interested in European politics. In effect, we argue that the political campaign leading up to the election makes European Parliament elections less second-order. While previous studies...... have demonstrated that EU attitudes can matter for voting behavior in European Parliament elections, existing research has drawn on post-election surveys that do not enable us to capture campaign effects. Our contribution is to assess the impact of a campaign by utilizing a rolling cross sectional...

  17. The cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination: Comparative analyses for five European countries and transferability in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Bilcke, Joke; Mangen, Marie-Josée J; Salo, Heini; Melliez, Hugues; Edmunds, W John; Yazdan, Yazdanpanah; Beutels, Philippe

    2009-10-19

    Cost-effectiveness analyses are usually not directly comparable between countries because of differences in analytical and modelling assumptions. We investigated the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in five European Union countries (Belgium, England and Wales, Finland, France and the Netherlands) using a single model, burden of disease estimates supplied by national public health agencies and a subset of common assumptions. Under base case assumptions (vaccination with Rotarix, 3% discount rate, health care provider perspective, no herd immunity and quality of life of one caregiver affected by a rotavirus episode) and a cost-effectiveness threshold of euro30,000, vaccination is likely to be cost effective in Finland only. However, single changes to assumptions may make it cost effective in Belgium and the Netherlands. The estimated threshold price per dose for Rotarix (excluding administration costs) to be cost effective was euro41 in Belgium, euro28 in England and Wales, euro51 in Finland, euro36 in France and euro46 in the Netherlands.

  18. Quantifying the erosion effect on current carbon budget of European agricultural soils at high spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugato, Emanuele; Paustian, Keith; Panagos, Panos; Jones, Arwyn; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    The idea of offsetting anthropogenic CO2 emissions by increasing global soil organic carbon (SOC), as recently proposed by French authorities ahead of COP21 in the 'four per mil' initiative, is notable. However, a high uncertainty still exits on land C balance components. In particular, the role of erosion in the global C cycle is not totally disentangled, leading to disagreement whether this process induces lands to be a source or sink of CO2. To investigate this issue, we coupled soil erosion into a biogeochemistry model, running at 1 km(2) resolution across the agricultural soils of the European Union (EU). Based on data-driven assumptions, the simulation took into account also soil deposition within grid cells and the potential C export to riverine systems, in a way to be conservative in a mass balance. We estimated that 143 of 187 Mha have C erosion rates 0.45 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1). In comparison with a baseline without erosion, the model suggested an erosion-induced sink of atmospheric C consistent with previous empirical-based studies. Integrating all C fluxes for the EU agricultural soils, we estimated a net C loss or gain of -2.28 and +0.79 Tg yr(-1) of CO2 eq, respectively, depending on the value for the short-term enhancement of soil C mineralization due to soil disruption and displacement/transport with erosion. We concluded that erosion fluxes were in the same order of current carbon gains from improved management. Even if erosion could potentially induce a sink for atmospheric CO2, strong agricultural policies are needed to prevent or reduce soil erosion, in order to maintain soil health and productivity. © 2015 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Long-term patterns in European brown hare population dynamics in Denmark: effects of agriculture, predation and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asferg Tommy

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Denmark and many other European countries, harvest records suggest a marked decline in European brown hare numbers, a decline often attributed to the agricultural practice. In the present study, we analyse the association between agricultural land-use, predator abundance and winter severity on the number of European brown hares harvested in Denmark in the years 1955 through 2000. Results Winter cereals had a significant negative association with European brown hare numbers. In contrast to this, root crop area was positively related to their numbers. Remaining crop categories were not significantly associated with the European brown hare numbers, though grass out of rotation tended to be positively related. The areas of root crop production and of grass out of rotation have been reduced by approximately 80% and 50%, respectively, while the area of winter cereals has increased markedly (>70%. However, European brown hare numbers were primarily negatively associated with the number of red fox. Finally, we also found a positive association between mild winters and European brown hare numbers. Conclusion The decline of Danish European brown hare populations can mainly be attributed to predation by red fox, but the development in agricultural land-use during the last 45 years have also affected the European brown hare numbers negatively. Additionally, though mild winters were beneficial to European brown hares, the increasing frequency of mild winters during the study period was insufficient to reverse the negative population trend.

  20. Effects of recent warm and cold spells on European plant phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, A.; Estrella, N.; Seifert, H.

    2009-04-01

    Numerous studies have concurrently documented a progressively earlier start for vegetation activity in spring and a lengthening of the growing season during the last 2 to 5 decades in the temperate northern hemisphere. In contrast to climatic factors influencing autumn phenology, the climate signal controlling spring and summer phenology is fairly well understood: nearly all phenophases correlate with temperatures in the preceding 1 to 3 months. The changes currently experienced by emergence of vegetation may reach 6 to 8 d per °C. But how will this well-known, often linearly described relationship change in case of more frequent and more stronger temperature extremes? We thus studied the temperature response of European phenological records to cold and warm spells using the COST725 data base (www.cost725.org). We restricted our analysis to the time period 1951-2006 due to the relatively better coverage of Europe by phenological records. Up to now, 20 European countries contributed more than 7 Mio. phenological observations to this data base including 64 species and 22 different phases. The phenological observations compiled originated from different sources and phenological networks. Unfortunately there is no entire coverage and the data are very lumped. Cold and warm spells were identified using daily mean temperature data (1951-2006) on a 0.5° grid for Europe provided by the EU-FP6 project ENSEMBLES (http://www.ensembles-eu.org, http://eca.knmi.nl). The study area covered Europe and was limited to 40°E. For the whole study period, mean monthly and seasonal mean temperatures well as the corresponding standard deviations were calculated for each grid point. The annual monthly or seasonal temperature at a grid point was defined as cold (very cold, warm, very warm) by its deviation from the long-term average (more than 1.5 or 3sd, respectively). Warm and cold spells were selected when either the percentages of crossing 1.5sd were greater than 50% for the total

  1. Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community. Regulations, practices, effectiveness. Proceedings of a seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Under the Euratom Treaty it is the task of the Commission of the European Community to ensure the health protection of workers and the general public against the dangers of ionizing radiation. Dose limits and the principals of radiation protection were first laid down in a Council Directive of 1959, and have since been repeatedly adapted. The specific problems of radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment are the subject of a separate Council Directive of 3 September 1984. This directive specifies that 'all medical exposures must be medically justified and kept as low as reasonably achievable'. The concept of justification is particularly critical in the case of mass-screening activities. For some diseases with low prevalence the radiological detriment to the population resulting from radiological mass-screening procedures might be greater than the individual benefit of the diagnosis. In addition the costs of public health care are rising in all Member States of the European Community and the effectiveness of public health care programmes like mass-screening must be carefully examined. A technical workshop on practices and regulations in the field of radiological mass-screening within the Member States (Luxembourg, 4-5 December 1984) and a seminar on the same subject (Luxembourg, 3-4 December 1985) were therefore organized by the Commission of the European Communities in cooperation with the Commissariat a l'energie Atomique, CEA, and the Centre d'etude sur l'evaluation de la protection dans le domaine nucleaire, CEPN (France). The workshop provided up-to-date information on effectiveness and cost of radiological mass-screening programmes in the Member States. The seminar provided the representatives of the national authorities responsible for radiation protection, public health and occupational medicine with an opportunity to discuss mass-screening practices with experts. This publication contains the papers presented at the

  2. Effects of vaccination against viral haemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis on long-term mortality rates of European wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Lucientes, J; Osacar, J J; Villafuerte, R

    2004-09-25

    The effects of vaccination against myxomatosis and viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) on long-term mortality rates in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were studied from 1993 to 1996 by radiotracking a free-living population of wild rabbits. During the three months after immunisation, unvaccinated young rabbits weighing between 180 and 600 g were 13.6 times more likely to die than vaccinated young rabbits. In adult rabbits, vaccination did not significantly decrease mortality, mainly owing to the high proportion of rabbits which had previously been exposed to the antigens of both diseases. Compared with adult rabbits with natural antibodies to VHD, rabbits without these antibodies were 5.2 times more likely to die of VHD during annual outbreaks.

  3. Effect of African- and European-American maternal attitudes and limit-setting strategies on children's self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCuyer, Elizabeth A; Swanson, Dena P; Cole, Robert; Kitzman, Harriet

    2011-12-01

    The effect of maternal attitudes and limit-setting strategies on children's self-regulation (measured as committed compliance) was compared in 151 African-American (AA) and 108 European-American (EA) mothers and their 3-year-old children. There were no ethnic differences in children's compliance, however ethnicity moderated the relationship between maternal authoritarian attitudes and children's compliance. Higher authoritarian attitudes predicted less children's compliance in the EA sample, but greater compliance in the AA sample. Observational limit-setting data revealed that in both ethnic groups, maternal authoritarian attitudes influenced children's self-regulation through maternal use of lower-power (gentle) verbal strategies, fewer physical strategies, and judicious use of higher-power verbal strategies. The findings indicate that the meaning and purpose of authoritarian attitudes varies across these mothers' socio-cultural contexts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effect of dietary fat level on carcass traits and flesh quality of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax from mariculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the effect of the reduction of dietary fat on juvenile European sea bass nutritional value and quality traits. Fish were reared in floating cages (Trieste Gulf, Italy from July (11 to October (10. Two isoproteic diets were compared: LF (low fat, EE = 19.4% vs. HF (high fat, EE = 24.6%. No significantly different growth performance was observed. LF diet-fed fish were characterized by the reduction of celomatic fat (not edible fraction and by the increase in dressing percentage. The tested dietary fat level also affected both fillet and epiaxial white muscle proximate composition, resulting in a significantly lower fillet lipid concentration in LF diet-fed fish. Dietary treatment influenced cooked fillet colour and texture probably as a consequence of the different intramuscular fat deposition. Fillet from HF-fed fish, in fact, presented higher lightness (L* value and lower instrumental strengthness.

  5. The effects of habitat degradation on metacommunity structure of wood-inhabiting fungi in European beech forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Ódor, Péter; Christensen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Intensive forest management creates habitat degradation by reducing the variation of forest stands in general, and by removing old trees and dead wood in particular. Non-intervention forest reserves are commonly believed to be the most efficient tool to counteract the negative effects...... with different management histories. For this purpose, we used a large data set of wood-inhabiting fungi collected from dead beech trees in European beech-dominated forest reserves. The structure of fungal assemblages showed high beta diversity, while nestedness and similarity was low. During the decomposition...... extirpated specialized species from the local species pools in managed sites, and resulted in more homogeneous communities in managed sites. It is alarming that community structure is affected the most in the latest decay stages where the decay process turns the dead wood into litter, and which is thus...

  6. Educational expansion and inequalities in mortality-A fixed-effects analysis using longitudinal data from 18 European populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Östergren

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to empirically evaluate whether widening educational inequalities in mortality are related to the substantive shifts that have occurred in the educational distribution.Data on education and mortality from 18 European populations across several decades were collected and harmonized as part of the Demetriq project. Using a fixed-effects approach to account for time trends and national variation in mortality, we formally test whether the magnitude of relative inequalities in mortality by education is associated with the gender and age-group specific proportion of high and low educated respectively.The results suggest that in populations with larger proportions of high educated and smaller proportions of low educated, the excess mortality among intermediate and low educated is larger, all other things being equal.We conclude that the widening educational inequalities in mortality being observed in recent decades may in part be attributed to educational expansion.

  7. Untangling the effects of multiple human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages in European running waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinegger, Rafaela; Palt, Martin; Segurado, Pedro; Schmutz, Stefan

    2016-12-15

    This work addresses human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages at pan-European scale by analysing single and multiple stressors and their interactions. Based on an extensive dataset with 3105 fish sampling sites, patterns of stressors, their combination and nature of interactions, i.e. synergistic, antagonistic and additive were investigated. Geographical distribution and patterns of seven human stressor variables, belonging to four stressor groups (hydrological-, morphological-, water quality- and connectivity stressors), were examined, considering both single and multiple stressor combinations. To quantify the stressors' ecological impact, a set of 22 fish metrics for various fish assemblage types (headwaters, medium gradient rivers, lowland rivers and Mediterranean streams) was analysed by comparing their observed and expected response to different stressors, both acting individually and in combination. Overall, investigated fish sampling sites are affected by 15 different stressor combinations, including 4 stressors acting individually and 11 combinations of two or more stressors; up to 4 stressor groups per fish sampling site occur. Stressor-response analysis shows divergent results among different stressor categories, even though a general trend of decreasing ecological integrity with increasing stressor quantity can be observed. Fish metrics based on density of species 'intolerant to water quality degradation' and 'intolerant to oxygen depletion" responded best to single and multiple stressors and their interactions. Interactions of stressors were additive (40%), synergistic (30%) or antagonistic (30%), emphasizing the importance to consider interactions in multi-stressor analyses. While antagonistic effects are only observed in headwaters and medium-gradient rivers, synergistic effects increase from headwaters over medium gradient rivers and Mediterranean streams to large lowland rivers. The knowledge gained in this work provides a basis for

  8. Effect of transmitted drug resistance on virological and immunological response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV (EuroCoord-CHAIN joint project): a European multicohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittkop, Linda; Günthard, Huldrych F; de Wolf, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The effect of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) on first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV-1 needs further study to inform choice of optimum drug regimens. We investigated the effect of TDR on outcome in the first year of cART within a large European collaboration....

  9. Effectiveness of Peer Education Interventions for HIV Prevention, Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention and Sexual Health Promotion for Young People: A Systematic Review of European Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolli, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    Peer education remains a popular strategy for health promotion and prevention, but evidence of its effectiveness is still limited. This article presents a systematic review of peer education interventions in the European Union that were published between January 1999 and May 2010. The objective of the review is to determine the effectiveness of…

  10. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  11. Genetic Architecture of Main Effect QTL for Heading Date in European Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eZanke

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A genome-wide association study (GWAS for heading date (HD was performed with a panel of 358 European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties and 14 spring wheat varieties through the phenotypic evaluation of HD in field tests in eight environments. Genotyping data consisted of 770 mapped microsatellite loci and 7934 mapped SNP markers derived from the 90K iSelect wheat chip. Best linear unbiased estimations (BLUEs were calculated across all trials and ranged from 142.5 to 159.6 days after the 1st of January with an average value of 151.4 days. Considering only associations with a –log10 (P-value ≥3.0, a total of 340 SSR and 2983 SNP marker-trait associations (MTAs were detected. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, a total of 72 SSR and 438 SNP marker-trait associations remained significant. Highly significant MTAs were detected for the photoperiodism gene Ppd-D1, which was genotyped in all varieties. Consistent associations were found on all chromosomes with the highest number of MTAs on chromosome 5B. Linear regression showed a clear dependence of the HD score BLUEs on the number of favourable alleles (decreasing HD and unfavourable alleles (increasing HD per variety meaning that genotypes with a higher number of favourable or a low number of unfavourable alleles showed lower HD and therefore flowered earlier. For the vernalization gene Vrn-A2 co-locating MTAs on chromosome 5A, as well as for the photoperiodism genes Ppd-A1 and Ppd-B1 on chromosomes 2A and 2B were detected. After the construction of an integrated map of the SSR and SNP markers and by exploiting the synteny to sequenced species, such as rice and Brachypodium distachyon, we were able to demonstrate that a marker locus on wheat chromosome 5BL with homology to the rice photoperiodism gene Hd6 played a significant role in the determination of the heading date in wheat.

  12. Prospective Effects of Parenting on Substance Use and Problems Across Asian/Pacific Islander and European American Youth: Tests of Moderated Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; McCauley, Elizabeth; Vander Stoep, Ann

    2017-07-01

    Parental warmth and knowledge are protective factors against substance use, whereas parental psychological control is a risk factor. However, the interpretation of parenting and its effects on developmental outcomes may vary cross-culturally. This study examined direct and indirect effects of three parenting dimensions on substance use across Asian/Pacific Islander (API) and European Americans. A community sample of 97 API and 255 European Americans were followed from Grades 6 to 12. Participants reported on parenting in Grade 7, academic achievement and externalizing behaviors in Grades 7 and 8, and substance use behaviors in Grades 7, 9, and 12. Direct effects of parenting were not moderated by race. Overall, mother psychological control was a risk factor for substance use problems in Grade 9, whereas father knowledge was protective against alcohol use in Grade 9, substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12, and alcohol dependence in Grade 12. Moderated mediation analyses indicated significant mediational links among European Americans only: Mother knowledge predicted fewer externalizing problems in Grade 8, which in turn predicted fewer substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12. Father warmth predicted better academic achievement in Grade 8, which in turn predicted fewer substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12, as well as alcohol and marijuana dependence in Grade 12. Better academic achievement and fewer externalizing behaviors explain how positive parenting reduces substance use risk among European Americans. Promoting father knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts can reduce substance use risk among both European and API Americans.

  13. The effects of childbirth on women’s activity change and occupational mobility in Europe: Evidence from the European Community Household Panel.

    OpenAIRE

    Chzhen, Yekaterina

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses comparable longitudinal data from the European Community Household Panel from 1994 to 2001 to examine the effects of recent childbirth on the relative risks of switching to part-time, inactivity or unemployment for full-time women, as well as the effect of switching from full-time time to part-time work on the risk of occupational downgrading, in 13 European countries. Once important human capital and workplace characteristics are controlled for, full-time female workers who g...

  14. Cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gases mitigation measures in the European agro-forestry sector: a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povellato, Andrea; Bosello, Francesco; Giupponi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, climate change has become an increasing concern for scientists, public opinions and policy makers. Due to the pervasive nature of its impacts for many important aspects of human life, climate change is likely to influence and be influenced by the most diverse policy or management choices. This is particularly true for those interventions affecting agriculture and forestry: they are strongly dependent on climate phenomena, but also contribute to climate evolution being sources of and sinks for greenhouse gases (GHG). This paper offers a survey of the existing literature assessing cost-effectiveness and efficiency of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies or the effects of broader economic reforms in the agricultural and forestry sectors. The focus is mainly on European countries. Different methodological approaches, research questions addressed and results are examined. The main findings are that agriculture can potentially provide emissions reduction at a competitive cost, mainly with methane abatement, while carbon sequestration seems more cost-effective with appropriate forest management measures. Afforestation, cropland management and bioenergy are less economically viable measures due to competition with other land use. Mitigation policies should be carefully designed either to balance costs with expected benefits in terms of social welfare. Regional variability is one of the main drawbacks to fully assess the cost-effectiveness of different measures. Integration of models to take into account both social welfare and spatial heterogeneity seems to be the frontier of the next model generation

  15. Leaders And Followers In The Effectiveness Of Public Safety Services In European States – A Spatial Frontier Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żółtaszek Agata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public safety is an important factor in both public and private life. Simultaneously it is one of the most regionally diverse sectors, due to historical, cultural, social, legal, and financial differences.Therefore, it is very difficult to compare public safety policies and facilities directly. However, assessment and comparison are crucial factors for defining the best practices and implementing the “learning-from-the-best” policy, which is important in the process of regional development and globalization. Fortunately some quantitative methods, such as DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis enable this kind of research. DEA allows for analyzing relative effectiveness based on inputs and outputs, without incorporating procedural specifics of public safety. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to perform a regional analysis of the technical effectiveness of public safety systems in European states in 2003 and 2012 by utilizing an optimization method of DEA. Based on the results of this research countries are divided into two groups - effective and ineffective. Countries with effective systems are considered leaders. They present best practices which should be treated as benchmarks for the countries with ineffective systems, i.e. followers.

  16. Swimming physiology of European silver eels (Anguilla anguilla L.): energetic costs and effects on sexual maturation and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, Arjan P; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M

    2010-09-01

    The European eel migrates 5,000-6,000 km to the Sargasso Sea to reproduce. Because they venture into the ocean in a pre-pubertal state and reproduce after swimming for months, a strong interaction between swimming and sexual maturation is expected. Many swimming trials have been performed in 22 swim tunnels to elucidate their performance and the impact on maturation. European eels are able to swim long distances at a cost of 10-12 mg fat/km which is 4-6 times more efficient than salmonids. The total energy costs of reproduction correspond to 67% of the fat stores. During long distance swimming, the body composition stays the same showing that energy consumption calculations cannot be based on fat alone but need to be compensated for protein oxidation. The optimal swimming speed is 0.61-0.67 m s(-1), which is approximately 60% higher than the generally assumed cruise speed of 0.4 m s(-1) and implies that female eels may reach the Sargasso Sea within 3.5 months instead of the assumed 6 months. Swimming trials showed lipid deposition and oocyte growth, which are the first steps of sexual maturation. To investigate effects of oceanic migration on maturation, we simulated group-wise migration in a large swim-gutter with seawater. These trials showed suppressed gonadotropin expression and vitellogenesis in females, while in contrast continued sexual maturation was observed in silver males. The induction of lipid deposition in the oocytes and the inhibition of vitellogenesis by swimming in females suggest a natural sequence of events quite different from artificial maturation protocols.

  17. Climate Change Policy in European Countries and its effects on industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proost, S.; Van Regemorter, D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the effects of different climate change policies on industrial activity and on welfare. We compare the effects of carbon taxes and grandfathered permits and the effects of exemptions for energy-intensive industries. We survey first the insights from economic theory and from model experiments for the US. Next we use a general equilibrium model to assess the effect of different climate change policies on industrial activity per sector and per member country in the EU. We pay particular attention to the effects of policies where one EU member state exempts its energy-intensive sectors from abatement efforts. The main findings are that, in the EU, the effects on industrial activity and the welfare costs of tradable permits or carbon taxes are small when no industrial sectors are exempted. When one member country exempts its energy intensive sector, this will reduce somewhat the impact on its activity level but will generate an extra welfare cost for the EU

  18. A cost-effectiveness analysis of fixed-combination therapies in patients with open-angle glaucoma: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommer, A; Wickstrøm, J; Friis, M M; Steeds, C; Thygesen, J; Ferreras, A; Gouws, P; Buchholz, P

    2008-04-01

    To compare the efficacy and cost implications of the use of the intraocular pressure-lowering prostaglandin analogues bimatoprost, travoprost, and latanoprost as fixed-combination therapies with timolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. A decision analytic cost-effectiveness model was constructed. Since no head-to-head studies comparing the three treatment options exist, the analysis was based on an indirect comparison. Hence, the model was based on efficacy data from five randomized, controlled, clinical studies. The studies were comparable with respect to study design, time horizon, patient population and type of end point presented. The measure of effectiveness was the percentage reduction of the intraocular pressure level from baseline. The cost evaluated was the cost of medication and clinical visits to the ophthalmologist. All drug costs were market prices inclusive of value-added tax, and visit costs were priced using official physician fees. Cost-effectiveness analyses were carried out in five European countries: Spain, Italy, United Kingdom, Norway and Sweden. The time horizon for the analyses was 3 months. The analysis showed that fixed-combination bimatoprost/timolol was more effective and less costly than fixed-combination travoprost/timolol and fixed-combination latanoprost/timolol in three out of the five countries analyzed. In two countries, bimatoprost/timolol was less costly than latanoprost/timolol, and cost the same as travoprost/timolol. This cost-effectiveness analysis showed that the fixed combination of bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% administered once daily was a cost-effective treatment option for patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. This study was limited by available clinical data: without a head-to-head trial, indirect comparisons were necessary. In the United Kingdom, Sweden, Norway, Italy, and Spain, from a health service viewpoint, bimatoprost/timolol was a slightly more effective as well as less costly treatment strategy

  19. Effects of in vitro lactoferricin and lactoferrin on the head kidney cells of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Morgane A; Alexis, Maria N

    2009-08-15

    Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of lactoferrin have been demonstrated in mammals and in fish. However, in vivo, lactoferrin is digested by gastric pepsin treatment into the N-terminal derived peptide named lactoferricin. This has been so far overlooked in fish in vitro studies. The aim of the present study was to assess in vitro the effects of both lactoferricin and lactoferrin on the head kidney cells of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) in order to determine their potential as dietary additives and to get some insight into their mode of action. In vitro lactoferricin decreased significantly the chemiluminescent response of head kidney cells but did not affect the zymosan-triggered chemiluminescence activity. On the other hand, a high concentration of lactoferrin directly stimulated chemiluminescence but reduced the zymosan-triggered chemiluminescence. The bactericidal activity of head kidney cells was also significantly diminished by pre-incubation with lactoferrin in a dose-dependent manner. Although no significant effect of lactoferricin or lactoferrin was evidenced on head kidney cellular viability, absent or negative effect on the priming of respiratory burst activity suggested that care should be taken when using lactoferrin in the diet of sea bass and high doses should be avoided. Hypotheses about the mechanisms of action of lactoferricin and lactoferrin are presented.

  20. Effect of CO2-related acidification on aspects of the larval development of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Boothroyd

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 results in a reduction in pH termed "Ocean Acidification" (OA. Comparatively little attention has been given to the effect of OA on the early life history stages of marine animals. Consequently, we investigated the effect of culture in CO2-acidified sea water (approx. 1200 ppm, i.e. average values predicted using IPCC 2007 A1F1 emissions scenarios for year 2100 on early larval stages of an economically important crustacean, the European lobster Homarus gammarus. Culture in CO2-acidified sea water did not significantly affect carapace length of H. gammarus. However, there was a reduction in carapace mass during the final stage of larval development in CO2-acidified sea water. This co-occurred with a reduction in exoskeletal mineral (calcium and magnesium content of the carapace. As the control and high CO2 treatments were not undersaturated with respect to any of the calcium carbonate polymorphs measured, the physiological alterations we record are most likely the result of acidosis or hypercapnia interfering with normal homeostatic function, and not a direct impact on the carbonate supply-side of calcification per se. Thus despite there being no observed effect on survival, carapace length, or zoeal progression, OA related (indirect disruption of calcification and carapace mass might still adversely affect the competitive fitness and recruitment success of larval lobsters with serious consequences for population dynamics and marine ecosystem function.

  1. Mortality selection during the 2003 European heat wave in three-spined sticklebacks: effects of parasites and MHC genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinski Manfred

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological interaction strength may increase under environmental stress including temperature. How such stress enhances and interacts with parasite selection is almost unknown. We studied the importance of resistance genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II in 14 families of three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus exposed to their natural macroparasites in field enclosures in the extreme summer of 2003. Results After a mass die-off during the 2003-European heat wave killing 78% of 277 experimental fish, we found strong differences in survival among and within families. In families with higher average parasite load fewer individuals survived. Multivariate analysis revealed that the composition of the infecting parasite fauna was family specific. Within families, individuals with an intermediate number of MHC class IIB sequence variants survived best and had the lowest parasite load among survivors, suggesting a direct functional link between MHC diversity and fitness. The within family MHC effects were, however, small compared to between family effects, suggesting that other genetic components or non-genetic effects were also important. Conclusion The correlation between parasite load and mortality that we found at both individual and family level might have appeared only in the extraordinary heatwave of 2003. Due to global warming the frequency of extreme climatic events is predicted to increase, which might intensify costs of parasitism and enhance selection on immune genes.

  2. Hard times and European youth. The effect of economic insecurity on human values, social attitudes and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeskens, Tim; Vandecasteele, Leen

    2017-02-01

    While economic downturns have adverse effects on young people's life chances, empirical studies examining whether and to what extent human values, social attitudes and well-being indicators respond to sudden economic shocks are scarce. To assess the claim that human values are less affected by economic shocks than social attitudes and well-being, two distinct yet related studies based on the European Social Survey (ESS) are conducted. The first employs a fixed effects pseudo-panel analysis of the 2008-2014 ESS-waves to detect whether changes over time in the socio-demographic group's unemployment risk and national youth unemployment affect individual dispositions to varying degrees. The second study captures micro- and cross-national effects in the 2010 ESS cross-section. Unique for this set-up is that we can test whether the findings hold for over-time changes in youth unemployment within countries (pseudo-panel), as well as for cross-country differences in youth unemployment (multilevel). Both studies indicate that political trust, satisfaction with the economy and subjective well-being are lowered by economic risk and hardship, while social trust and self-rated health are less affected by changes in youth unemployment. Secondly, human values are immune to economic risk, underscoring that values transcend specific situations and are therefore resistant against sudden economic shocks. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. European benchmark on the ASTRID-like low-void-effect core characterization: neutronic parameters and safety coefficients - 15361

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortot, S.; Mikityuk, K.; Panadero, A.L.; Pelloni, S.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Lopez, D.; Fridman, E.; Cruzado, I.G.; Herranz, N.G.; Ponomarev, A.; Sciora, P.; Vasile, A.; Seubert, A.; Tsige-Tamirat, H.

    2015-01-01

    A neutronic benchmark was launched with the participation of 8 European institutions using 10 codes and 4 data libraries, in order to study the main characteristics of a low-void-effect sodium-cooled fast spectrum core similar to the one of ASTRID at End-Of-Cycle conditions. The first results of this exercise are presented in this paper. As a major outcome of the study, the negative reactivity effect ensuing from the total voiding of the core was unanimously confirmed. Moreover, the code-to-code comparison allowed identifying a number of issues that require further clarifications and improvements. Some of them are mentioned here. The power generation in the non-fuel regions of the core was calculated by only 2 codes and the resulting result discrepancies reach 100%. Unexpected large discrepancies (up to 100 pcm) were observed in the Doppler constants predictions. The deviation of the Doppler effect's temperature dependence from a logarithmic law is also worth additional analysis. A discrepancy between nuclear data libraries (particularly between JEFF 3.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0) was observed in particular for the prediction of the CR worth

  4. The electoral feedback effects of welfare reform in mature European welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The electoral hazard of welfare state reforms in mature welfare states has been a widely acknowledged feedback effect in the literature. However, the literature does typically no distinct between party families when it comes to the electoral consequences of welfare state reforms and treats...... electorates as unity. This paper analysis the feedback effects of social policy retrenchment under Third Way social democracy since 1994. The paper argues that Third Way reforms resulted in lasting electoral setback for social democracy since these reforms went against the social policy preferences of social....... The restructuring of mature Western welfare states thus accounts for changing patterns of political behaviour as a consequence of policy feedback....

  5. What do we learn from the EMC [European Muon Collaboration] effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1987-06-01

    The present theoretical understanding of the EMC effect is reviewed and questions for experiment are posed. The empirical status of rescaling is discussed and the author shows how it can make statements about the static properties of bound nucleons; in particular that sup(g)A/sup(g)V and μ of bound nucleons are unchanged from their free values once pion exchange contributions are taken into account. This suggests that the increased correlation length for quarks is due to exchange effects, not due to physical swelling of nucleons. (author)

  6. Cost-effectiveness of Campylobacter interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Horne, van P.L.M.; Sommer, H.M.; Nauta, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter infections, one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide. Therefore, it is relevant to control Campylobacter on broiler farms. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness ratios of eight Campylobacter

  7. Effects of External Agentification in Local Government: A European Comparison of Municipal Waste Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torsteinsen, H.; Genugten, M.L. van; Mikuła, Ł.; Puiggròs Mussons, C.; Pano, E.; Koprić, I.; Wollmann, H.; Marcou, G.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter explores the economic, political, and organisational effects of external agentification in the municipal waste service in four countries: Poland, the Netherlands, Norway and Spain (Catalonia). Using Van Thiel´s typology of agentification, it turns out that the four countries have all

  8. Cross-Border Electronic Commerce : Distance Effects and Express Delivery in European Union Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.Y. Kim (Thai Young); R. Dekker (Rommert); C. Heij (Christiaan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis empirical study examines distance effects on cross-border electronic commerce and in particular the importance of express delivery in reducing the time dimension of distance. E-commerce provides suppliers with a range of opportunities to reduce distance as perceived by online

  9. Effects of nutrients and fish on periphyton and plant biomass across a European latitudinal gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bécares, E.; Gomá, J.; Fernández-Aláez, M.; Fernández-Aláez, C.; Romo, S.; Rosa Miracle, M.; Ståhl-Delbanco, A.; Hansson, L-A.; Gyllström, M.; van de Bund, W.; Van Donk, E.; Kairesalo, T.; Hietala, J.; Stephen, D.; Balayla, D.; Moss, B.

    2008-01-01

    Replicated, factorial mesocosm experiments were conducted across Europe to study the effects of nutrient enrichment and fish density on macrophytes and on periphyton chlorophyll a (chl-a) with regard to latitude. Periphyton chl-a densities and plant decline were significantly related to nutrient

  10. How to Enforce European Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the well known saga of the European Court of Justice’s introduction of direct effect of Council directives on basis of new comprehensive archival research. The expansion of the doctrine of direct effect to include directives was part of a drive of the Legal Service of the Eu......This article explores the well known saga of the European Court of Justice’s introduction of direct effect of Council directives on basis of new comprehensive archival research. The expansion of the doctrine of direct effect to include directives was part of a drive of the Legal Service...... of the European Commission and the ECJ to strengthen the enforcement of European law. This threatened the deeper balance of competences between the European Community and its member states and consequently led to a sharp response from the national parliaments and courts. The force of these responses and the deep...

  11. EFFECTIVENESS AND LIMITATIONS OF MONETARY POLICY INSTRUMENTS IN ROMANIA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina CIORAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the monetary phenomenon as well as the effects that it induces in the social and economic life of the countries around the world have represented and still represent the subject of much controversy and dispute. The current forms of the monetary circulation organization in different countries, internationally as well, represent the result of a continuous process of changes and innovations in the monetary area. The purpose of this article is to present aspects of the monetary policy and its instruments which have evolved according to the historical conditions of each period. The paper is also a presentation of effectiveness and limits of the monetary policy instruments and their role in solving the current economic problems for which the governments seek solutions. As a consequence to the analysis, it can be seen that in most cases it uses a mixture of monetary policy instruments because, when acting in a complementary way, they have a higher efficiency.

  12. Social media effects on opinion polarization and political participation during the 2015 European immigration movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob

    The selective exposure to likeminded political viewpoints on algorithmic social media platforms is seen as a potential source for opinion polarization. But so far, little is known about how realistic this proposed mechanism is. It is furthermore an open question, what effects a potential opinion...... polarization invoked by social media use has on citizens’ democratic behavior, especially in a non-electoral context. Focusing on the issue of immigration during the refugee influx to Europe in autumn 2015, this study investigates the effects of social media usage on attitude polarization and connects...... it to political participation in refugee-related activities. A panel study conducted among Danish citizens (n=847) reveals that frequent social media usage contributes to a reinforcement of existing attitudes and at the same time mobilizes political participation. However, citizens who become more extreme...

  13. Effects of Imidacloprid and Varroa destructor on survival and health of European honey bees, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbo, Pendo M; Kawasaki, Joshua K; Hamilton, Michele; Cook, Steven C; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Li, Wen Feng; Liu, Jie; Chen, Yan Ping

    2017-06-01

    There has been growing concern over declines in populations of honey bees and other pollinators which are a vital part to our food security. It is imperative to identify factors responsible for accelerated declines in bee populations and develop solutions for reversing bee losses. While exact causes of colony losses remain elusive, risk factors thought to play key roles are ectoparasitic mites Varroa destructor and neonicotinoid pesticides. The present study aims to investigate effects of a neonicotinoid pesticide Imidacloprid and Varroa mites individually on survivorship, growth, physiology, virus dynamics and immunity of honey bee workers. Our study provides clear evidence that the exposure to sublethal doses of Imidacloprid could exert a significantly negative effect on health and survival of honey bees. We observed a significant reduction in the titer of vitellogenin (Vg), an egg yolk precursor that regulates the honey bees development and behavior and often are linked to energy homeostasis, in bees exposed to Imidacloprid. This result indicates that sublethal exposure to neonicotinoid could lead to increased energy usage in honey bees as detoxification is a energy-consuming metabolic process and suggests that Vg could be a useful biomarker for measuring levels of energy stress and sublethal effects of pesticides on honey bees. Measurement of the quantitative effects of different levels of Varroa mite infestation on the replication dynamic of Deformed wing virus (DWV), an RNA virus associated with Varroa infestation, and expression level of immune genes yields unique insights into how honey bees respond to stressors under laboratory conditions. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Effects of Imidacloprid and Varroa destructor on survival and health of European honey bees, Apis mellifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pendo M.Abbo; Joshua K.Kawasaki; Michele Hamilton; Steven C.Cook; Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman; Wen Feng Li; Jie Liu; Yan Ping Chen

    2017-01-01

    There has been growing concern over declines in populations of honey bees and other pollinators which are a vital part to our food security.It is imperative to identify factors responsible for accelerated declines in bee populations and develop solutions for reversing bee losses.While exact causes of colony losses remain elusive,risk factors thought to play key roles are ectoparasitic mites Varroa destructor and neonicotinoid pesticides.The present study aims to investigate effects of a neonicotinoid pesticide Imidacloprid and Varroa mites individually on survivorship,growth,physiology,virus dynamics and immunity of honey bee workers.Our study provides clear evidence that the exposure to sublethal doses of Imidacloprid could exert a significantly negative effect on health and survival of honey bees.We observed a significant reduction in the titer ofvitellogenin (Vg),an egg yolk precursor that regulates the honey bees development and behavior and often are linked to energy homeostasis,in bees exposed to Imidacloprid.This result indicates that sublethal exposure to neonicotinoid could lead to increased energy usage in honey bees as detoxification is a energy-consuming metabolic process and suggests that Vg could be a useful biomarker for measuring levels of energy stress and sublethal effects of pesticideson honey bees.Measurement of the quantitative effects of different levels of Varroa mite infestation on the replication dynamic of Deformed wing virus (DWV),an RNA virus associated with Varroa infestation,and expression level of immune genes yields unique insights into how honey bees respond to stressors under laboratory conditions.

  15. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles in European countries using integrated modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seixas, J.; Simões, S.; Dias, L.; Kanudia, A.; Fortes, P.; Gargiulo, M.

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are considered alternatives to internal combustion engines due to their energy efficiency and contribution to CO 2 mitigation. The adoption of EVs depends on consumer preferences, including cost, social status and driving habits, although it is agreed that current and expected costs play a major role. We use a partial equilibrium model that minimizes total energy system costs to assess whether EVs can be a cost-effective option for the consumers of each EU27 member state up to 2050, focusing on the impact of different vehicle investment costs and CO 2 mitigation targets. We found that for an EU-wide greenhouse gas emission reduction cap of 40% and 70% by 2050 vis-à-vis 1990 emissions, battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are cost-effective in the EU only by 2030 and only if their costs are 30% lower than currently expected. At the EU level, vehicle costs and the capability to deliver both short- and long-distance mobility are the main drivers of BEV deployment. Other drivers include each state’s national mobility patterns and the cost-effectiveness of alternative mitigation options, both in the transport sector, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) or biofuels, and in other sectors, such as renewable electricity. - Highlights: • Electric vehicles were assessed through the minimization of the total energy systems costs. • EU climate policy targets could act as a major driver for PHEV adoption. • Battery EV is an option before 2030 if costs will drop by 30% from expected costs. • EV deployment varies per country depending on each energy system configuration. • Incentives at the country level should consider specific cost-effectiveness factors

  16. Cross-Border Electronic Commerce: Distance Effects and Express Delivery in European Union Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Thai Young; Dekker, Rommert; Heij, Christiaan

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis empirical study examines distance effects on cross-border electronic commerce and in particular the importance of express delivery in reducing the time dimension of distance. E-commerce provides suppliers with a range of opportunities to reduce distance as perceived by online buyers. They can reduce psychological barriers to cross-border demand by designing websites that simplify the search for and comparison of products and suppliers across countries. They can reduce cost ba...

  17. The Effects of Real Exchange Rates and Income on International Tourism Demand for the USA from Some European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Ongan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of real exchange rates and income on inbound tourism demand (tourist arrivals from Germany, France, the UK, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, and Sweden to the USA over the period 1996Q3–2015Q1. To achieve this aim, the Harmonized Index of Consumer Prices (HICP for Restaurants and Hotels was used for the first time—instead of using the general Consumer Price Index (CPI—to transform the nominal exchange rate into the real exchange rate as an independent variable in tourism demand analysis models. Panel co-integration analysis under the cross-sectional dependence (CD test and common correlated effects (CCE approach was applied. Empirical results show that tourists visiting the USA are more sensitive to changes in the real exchange rate than changes in GDP. While French tourists respond highly to the GDP, British tourists respond highly to the real exchange rate. It should also be noted that the UK, having the highest responsiveness to the real exchange rate, is a country outside the Eurozone and also intends to leave the European Union.

  18. Effects of feed composition on life history developments in feed intake, metabolism, growth and body composition of European eel, Anguilla anguilla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Hooff, P.L.A.; Swinkels, W.; Tanck, M.W.T.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effect of feed composition on changes in feed intake and subsequent feed utilization with age, five populations of European eel, with an average initial body weight of 5 g each fed a different diet, were monitored for 302 d. The five feeds differed in their content of crude protein

  19. The Effects of Ethnicity, SES, and Crime Status on Juror Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Examination of European American and Mexican American Mock Jurors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Cynthia Willis; Espinoza, Russ K. E.; Culhane, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, a defendant's ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and crime status were varied for effects on verdict decisions, sentencing recommendations, culpability assignments, and trait assessments. In Study 1, European Americans (N = 221) provided a low SES Mexican American defendant with more guilt verdicts, a lengthier sentence, and…

  20. The effects of variable renewable electricity on energy efficiency and full load hours of fossil-fired power plants in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Mats; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Harmsen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the effects of variable renewable electricity (VRE) on full load hours and energy efficiency of fossil-fired power generation in the European Union from 1990-2014. Member states were aggregated into three groups based on the level of VRE penetration. Average full load hours are

  1. Common market but divergent regulatory practices: exploring European regulation and the effect on regulatory uncertainty in the marketing authorization of medical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhury, Nupur

    2013-01-01

    The medical product sector is characterised by a regulatory patchwork of European and national laws and guidelines operating concurrently with each other. Each of these sectors are characterised by different levels of regulatory uncertainty that may undermine the effectiveness of the regulatory

  2. Subjective Evaluation of Media Content as a Moderator of Media Effects on European Identity: Mere Exposure and the Hostile Media Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Ejaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper posits that the concept of European identity is an important indicator of the legitimacy of the European Union (EU. It further assumes that the exposure to EU related media content can influence the feeling of European identity. In order to verify this assumption, we combined the mere-exposure-theory and the hostile media phenomenon. We assume that these theoretical concepts could help to understand the influence of media on people’s levels of attachment to the EU. Regression analyses are performed on secondary data that were collected in a Eurobarometer survey in 2013. Our findings revealed that media exposure affected the respondents’ identification with Europe, as well as the modifications of this effect based on their assessments of EU media coverage. The results of the current study not only validate assumptions about the mere-exposure effects on identity but also confirm the theoretical assumption that perceived hostility reduces such effects, whereas exposure to information that is perceived as neutral promotes the effects of media exposure on the feeling of European identity.

  3. The impact of quality-of-life data in relative effectiveness assessments of new anti-cancer drugs in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, Sarah; Meneses Leonardo Alves, Teresa; Meijboom, Kim; Lipska, Iga; De Boer, Anthonius; Leufkens, Hubertus G; Goettsch, Wim G

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the role of health-related quality-of-life (QoL) data in relative effectiveness assessments (REAs) of new anti-cancer drugs across European jurisdictions, during health technology assessment procedures. METHODS: Comparative analysis of guidelines and

  4. Quantitative cytochemical analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in living isolated hepatocytes of European flounder for rapid analysis of xenobiotic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winzer, K.; van Noorden, C. J.; Köhler, A.

    2001-01-01

    There is a great need for rapid but reliable assays to determine quantitatively effects of xenobiotics on biological systems in environmental research. Hepatocytes of European flounder are sensitive to low-dose toxic stress. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) is the major source of NADPH in

  5. 10th European Conference on Radiation and Its Effects on Components and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, P; Brown, D; Poivey, C; Pease, R; Girard, S; Reed, R; RADECS 2009; RADECS 09

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive radio is the exciting new paradigm for wireless communication. Devices and networks constantly interact in real-time, and adapt to environments, missions, and user actions in order to communicate more effectively, avoid or manage interference, mitigate stressing conditions, and save energy. This area is one of the most exciting emerging fields in communications technology, as well as a compelling application of information theory, decision theory, network science, and formal methods. Taking an integrated development approach, this cutting-edge book provides clear methods for performi

  6. Marginal Effects of a Gross Income Increase for a Single Parent Family in Six European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Marie

    the contributions to the combined marginal rate, the marginal effective tax rate, METR, using the OECD term, from taxation, payment for childcare, tapering of housing benefits and sometimes child benefits, when the income varies from a low level to a high level for a single parent family. Six countries are included......High marginal tax rates constitute an issue in several countries because they are supposed to create barriers for increased labour supply. It is, however, often the case that relatively low income families with children face substantially higher combined marginal rates than even the highest...

  7. Temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirttioja, N; Carter, T.; Fronzek, S

    2015-01-01

    his study explored the utility of the impact response surface (IRS) approach for investigating model ensemble crop yield responses under a large range of changes in climate. IRSs of spring and winter wheat Triticum aestivum yields were constructed from a 26-member ensemble of process-based crop s...... additional insights into sensitivities to inter-model and inter-annual variability. Taken together, these sensitivities may help to pinpoint processes such as heat stress, vernalisation or drought effects requiring refinement in future model development....

  8. Effect of the full implementation of the European Working Time Directive on operative training in adult cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Balakrishnan; Sharples, Linda; Codispoti, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Surgical specialties rely on practice and apprenticeship to acquire technical skills. In 2009, the final reduction in working hours to 48 per week, in accordance with the European Working Time Directive (EWTD), has also led to an expansion in the number of trainees. We examined the effect of these changes on operative training in a single high-volume [>1500 procedures/year] adult cardiac surgical center. Setting: A single high-volume [>1500 procedures/year] adult cardiac surgical center. Design: Consecutive data were prospectively collected into a database and retrospectively analyzed. Procedures and Main Outcome Measures: Between January 2006 and August 2010, 6688 consecutive adult cardiac surgical procedures were analyzed. The proportion of cases offered for surgical training were compared for 2 non-overlapping consecutive time periods: 4504 procedures were performed before the final implementation of the EWTD (Phase 1: January 2006-December 2008) and 2184 procedures after the final implementation of the EWTD (Phase 2: January 2009-August 2010). Other predictors of training considered in the analysis were grade of trainee, logistic European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE), type of surgical procedure, weekend or late procedure, and consultant. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of training cases (procedure performed by trainee) and to evaluate the effect of the EWTD on operative surgical training after correcting for confounding factors. Proportion of training cases rose from 34.6% (1558/4504) during Phase 1 to 43.6% (953/2184) in Phase 2 (p hours [153 (3.4) during Phase 1 vs 116 (5.3) during Phase 2, p hours' procedures, and surgery other than coronary artery bypass grafts. Implementation of the final phase of EWTD has not decreased training in a high-volume center. The positive adjustment of trainers' attitudes and efforts to match trainees' needs allow maintenance of adequate training, despite reduction in

  9. Effectiveness of Azadirachtin (NeemAzal-T/S in Controlling Pear Psylla (Cacopsylla pyri and European Red Mite (Panonychus ulmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Marčić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the results of field trials conducted in Serbia to evaluate the effectiveness of a neem-based product, NeemAzal-T/S (containing azadirachtin-A as its active ingredient in the form of an emulsifiable concentrate against pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyri and European red mite (Panonychus ulmi. Efficacy evaluation against C. pyri was carried out in a commercial pear orchard of the Williams pear cultivar, located at Borkovac (Ruma. The insecticides were applied at BBCH 09 pear growth stage, several days before the beginning of hatching of the first generation larvae. The efficacy of azadirachtin was compared to that of mineral oil, abamectin and diflubenzuron. Efficacy evaluation 18 DAT showed total termination of egg laying by C. pyri after treatments with azadirachtin and abamectin, while some new (white eggs were found after treatment with mineral oil. Diflubenzuron treatment failed to fully stop egg laying, but the number of white eggs was significantly lower than it was in the control. Azadirachtin and abamectin achieved 100% efficacy, while the effectiveness of mineral oil was 97.4%, and that of diflubenzuron a mere 59%. All four insecticides significantly reduced the number of older (yellow eggs and larvae, the efficacy being 80.5-92.6% (yellow eggs, 69.8-79.3% (larvae I-III instar and 94.3-100% (larvae IV-V instar. In evaluation 38 DAT, azadirachtin,abamectin and mineral oil achieved 100% efficacy against white and yellow eggs, while diflubenzuron achieved 93% and 86.9% efficacy. All four insecticides were found to demonstrate high efficacy against I-III instar larvae (99.2-100%, but mineral oil treatmentalone achieved high efficacy against IV-V instar larvae (92.4% as well. Efficacy evaluation against P. ulmi was carried out in a commercial orchard of the Red Chief apple cultivar located at Morović (Šid. Azadirachtin efficacy in controlling a summerpopulation of European red mite was compared to a mineral oil, clofentezine and

  10. The effect of vegetation height and biomass on the sediment budget of a European saltmarsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reef, Ruth; Schuerch, Mark; Christie, Elizabeth K.; Möller, Iris; Spencer, Tom

    2018-03-01

    Sediment retention in saltmarshes is often attributed to the presence of vegetation, which enhances accretion by slowing water flow, reduces erosion by attenuating wave energy and increases surface stability through the presence of organic matter. Saltmarsh vegetation morphology varies considerably on a range of spatial and temporal scales, but the effect of different above ground morphologies on sediment retention is not well characterised. Understanding the biophysical interaction between the canopy and sediment trapping in situ is important for improving numerical shoreline models. In a novel field flume study, we measured the effect of vegetation height and biomass on sediment trapping using a mass balance approach. Suspended sediment profilers were placed at both openings of a field flume built across-shore on the seaward boundary of an intertidal saltmarsh in the Dengie Peninsula, UK. Sequential removal of plant material from within the flume resulted in incremental loss of vegetation height and biomass. The difference between the concentration of suspended sediment measured at each profiler was used to determine the sediment budget within the flume. Deposition of material on the plant/soil surfaces within the flume occurred during flood tides, while ebb flow resulted in erosion (to a lesser degree) from the flume area, with a positive sediment budget of on average 6.5 g m-2 tide-1 with no significant relationship between sediment trapping efficiency and canopy morphology. Deposition (and erosion) rates were positively correlated to maximum inundation depth. Our results suggest that during periods of calm conditions, changes to canopy morphology do not result in significant changes in sediment budgets in marshes.

  11. A toolbox for European judges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    The forthcoming instrument on European contract law, be it in the shape of an optional code for cross-border contracts or as an official toolbox for the European legislator, is likely to have a spill-over effect on private law adjudication in Europe. Judges will have no great difficulty in finding

  12. Land-cover effects on soil organic carbon stocks in a European city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Davies, Zoe G; McCormack, Sarah A; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2014-02-15

    Soil is the vital foundation of terrestrial ecosystems storing water, nutrients, and almost three-quarters of the organic carbon stocks of the Earth's biomes. Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks vary with land-cover and land-use change, with significant losses occurring through disturbance and cultivation. Although urbanisation is a growing contributor to land-use change globally, the effects of urban land-cover types on SOC stocks have not been studied for densely built cities. Additionally, there is a need to resolve the direction and extent to which greenspace management such as tree planting impacts on SOC concentrations. Here, we analyse the effect of land-cover (herbaceous, shrub or tree cover), on SOC stocks in domestic gardens and non-domestic greenspaces across a typical mid-sized U.K. city (Leicester, 73 km(2), 56% greenspace), and map citywide distribution of this ecosystem service. SOC was measured in topsoil and compared to surrounding extra-urban agricultural land. Average SOC storage in the city's greenspace was 9.9 kg m(-2), to 21 cm depth. SOC concentrations under trees and shrubs in domestic gardens were greater than all other land-covers, with total median storage of 13.5 kg m(-2) to 21 cm depth, more than 3 kg m(-2) greater than any other land-cover class in domestic and non-domestic greenspace and 5 kg m(-2) greater than in arable land. Land-cover did not significantly affect SOC concentrations in non-domestic greenspace, but values beneath trees were higher than under both pasture and arable land, whereas concentrations under shrub and herbaceous land-covers were only higher than arable fields. We conclude that although differences in greenspace management affect SOC stocks, trees only marginally increase these stocks in non-domestic greenspaces, but may enhance them in domestic gardens, and greenspace topsoils hold substantial SOC stores that require protection from further expansion of artificial surfaces e.g. patios and driveways. Copyright

  13. The long-run effect of maternity leave benefits on mental health: Evidence from European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendano, Mauricio; Berkman, Lisa F.; Brugiavini, Agar; Pasini, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines whether maternity leave policies have an effect on women's mental health in older age. We link data for women aged 50 years and above from countries in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) to data on maternity leave legislation from 1960 onwards. We use a difference-in-differences approach that exploits changes over time within countries in the duration and compensation of maternity leave benefits, linked to the year women were giving birth to their first child at age 16 to 25. We compare late-life depressive symptom scores (measured with a 12-item version of the Euro-D scale) of mothers who were in employment in the period around the birth of their first child to depression scores of mothers who were not in employment in the period surrounding the birth of a first child, and therefore did not benefit directly from maternity leave benefits. Our findings suggest that a more generous maternity leave during the birth of a first child is associated with a reduced score of 0.38 points in the Euro-D depressive symptom scale in old age. PMID:25792339

  14. The long-run effect of maternity leave benefits on mental health: evidence from European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendano, Mauricio; Berkman, Lisa F; Brugiavini, Agar; Pasini, Giacomo

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines whether maternity leave policies have an effect on women's mental health in older age. We link data for women aged 50 years and above from countries in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) to data on maternity leave legislation from 1960 onwards. We use a difference-in-differences approach that exploits changes over time within countries in the duration and compensation of maternity leave benefits, linked to the year women were giving birth to their first child at age 16 to 25. We compare late-life depressive symptom scores (measured with a 12-item version of the Euro-D scale) of mothers who were in employment in the period around the birth of their first child to depression scores of mothers who were not in employment in the period surrounding the birth of a first child, and therefore did not benefit directly from maternity leave benefits. Our findings suggest that a more generous maternity leave during the birth of a first child is associated with a reduced score of 0.38 points in the Euro-D depressive symptom scale in old age. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Green infrastructure development at European Union's eastern border: Effects of road infrastructure and forest habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Khaulyak, Olha; Yamelynets, Taras; Mozgeris, Gintautas; Naumov, Vladimir; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J; Elbakidze, Marine; Manton, Michael; Prots, Bohdan; Valasiuk, Sviataslau

    2017-05-15

    The functionality of forest patches and networks as green infrastructure may be affected negatively both by expanding road networks and forestry intensification. We assessed the effects of (1) the current and planned road infrastructure, and (2) forest loss and gain, on the remaining large forest landscape massifs as green infrastructure at the EU's eastern border region in post-socialistic transition. First, habitat patch and network functionality in 1996-98 was assessed using habitat suitability index modelling. Second, we made expert interviews about road development with planners in 10 administrative regions in Poland, Belarus and Ukraine. Third, forest loss and gain inside the forest massifs, and gain outside them during the period 2001-14 were measured. This EU cross-border region hosts four remaining forest massifs as regional green infrastructure hotspots. While Poland's road network is developing fast in terms of new freeways, city bypasses and upgrades of road quality, in Belarus and Ukraine the focus is on maintenance of existing roads, and no new corridors. We conclude that economic support from the EU, and thus rapid development of roads in Poland, is likely to reduce the permeability for wildlife of the urban and agricultural matrix around existing forest massifs. However, the four identified forest massifs themselves, forming the forest landscape green infrastructure at the EU's east border, were little affected by road development plans. In contrast, forest loss inside massifs was high, especially in Ukraine. Only in Poland forest loss was balanced by gain. Forest gain outside forest massifs was low. To conclude, pro-active and collaborative spatial planning across different sectors and countries is needed to secure functional forest green infrastructure as base for biodiversity conservation and human well-being. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Short-term effects of forest disturbances on soil nematode communities in European mountain spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čerevková, A; Renčo, M; Cagáň, L

    2013-09-01

    The nematode communities in spruce forests were compared with the short-term effects of forest damage, caused by windstorm, wildfire and management practices of forest soils. Soil samples were collected in June and October from 2006 to 2008 in four different sites: (1) forest unaffected by the wind (REF); (2) storm-felled forest with salvaged timber (EXT); (3) modified forest affected by timber salvage (wood removal) and forest fire (FIR); and (4) storm-felled forest where timber had been left unsalvaged (NEX). Nematode analysis showed that the dominant species in all four investigated sites were Acrobeloides nanus and Eudorylaimus silvaticus. An increase of A. nanus (35% of the total nematode abundance) in the first year in the FIR site led to the highest total abundance of nematodes compared with other sites, where nematode abundance reached the same level in the third year. In the FIR site bacterial feeders appeared to be the most representative trophic group, although in the second and third year, after disturbance, the abundance of this trophic group gradually decreased. In the NEX site, the number of nematode species, population densities and Maturity Index were similar to that recorded for the FIR site. In EXT and NEX sites, the other dominant species was the plant parasitic nematode Paratylenchus microdorus. Analyses of nematodes extracted from different forest soil samples showed that the highest number of species and diversity index for species (H'spp) were in the REF site. Differences between the nematode fauna in REF and other localities were clearly depicted by cluster analysis. The greatest Structure Index and Enrichment Index values were also in REF. In the EXT site, the number of nematode species, their abundance, H'spp and Maturity Index were not significantly different from those recorded in the reference site.

  17. EFFECTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION ON GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS: REVIEWS IN RELATION WITH EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AND THE MIDDLE EAST COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HILAL YILDIRIR KESER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigate the effects of higher education on global competitiveness One of the most widely accepted definition of global competitiveness is in the form of " efficiency level encompassing all of the institutions that will ensure sustainable growth in a country, policies and factors of production". Therefore the competitiveness of a country depends on the factors such as; The level of development of R & D activities and productivity, performance of various sectors, the country's trade surplus, producing goods hosting high-tech in their nature, availability of expert and skilled labor force. But one of the main points in the realization of these factors is the quality of the higher education. Higher education has an important role in the formation of qualified labour. And the qualified labour carries the competitiveness firstly of the sector and then of the country up to higher ranks by increasing the performance and productivity of the companies. The study will be discussed in the following way: firstly the context of the global competitiveness will be mentioned, secondly, the role and importance of higher education will be put forth by explaining the basic determinants of competitivenes particularly within the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Index. Finally, assessments will be made in relation with the situation of higher education in global competitiveness in European countries and Middle Eastern countries.

  18. Pharmaceutical pricing, price controls, and their effects on pharmaceutical sales and research and development expenditures in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ronald J

    2004-08-01

    Each country in the European Union (EU) currently employs direct price controls or permutations of direct price controls, such as reference pricing or limitations on returns to capital. Some countries also use volume controls. A new proposal that is being discussed would have all of the countries in the EU adopt uniform pricing for each pharmaceutical. This paper analyzes the economic effects of free-market pricing individual-country price controls, and uniform EU price controls. Microeconomic and mathematical models were used to simulate and predict probable economic outcomes in a comparative static setting. Price controls may be in the form of price ceilings or price floors. Both forms of price control generate deadweight economic losses in the short run and long run. A uniform EU price for each pharmaceutical sold there would have elements of a price ceiling in some of the countries and of a price floor in other countries. The deadweight loss incurred would be a function of the level at which the uniform price was set by the EU and the price elasticity of demand for each pharmaceutical in each country. Economic efficiency is maximized in both the short run and long run when prices are set in freely competitive markets. An additional important dimension of Ramsey pricing within a competitive context is that it generates funds for investment in pharmaceutical research and development, which enhances economic efficiency in the long run.

  19. The Effects of Detritus Input on Soil Organic Matter Content and Carbon Dioxide Emission in a Central European Deciduous Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEKETE, István

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major objective of our research was to survey soil biological activity and organic mattercontent reduction in a Central European oak forest during treatments of various detritus inputs within theSíkfkút DIRT (Detritus Input and Removal Treatments Project. Beside the control, three detritusremoval and two detritus duplication treatments were applied. Our examinations have proven that soilorganic matter content declined relatively fast in detritus removal treatments. The reduction wasespecially remarkable in root detritus removal treatments, where – due to the lack of transpiration – soilswere moister during the whole year than in the other treatments. The higher moisture content, despite ofthe reduction of detritus input, produced an intense soil respiration. This can be explained by the fact thatdecomposing organisms have increased the use of soil organic matter. Detritus input reduction had asignificantly greater effect on soil respiration and organic matter content than detritus input duplicationof the same extent. The latter did not cause any significant change compared to the control.

  20. Effects of climatic changes on carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes in boreal forest ecosystems of European part of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olchev, A; Kurbatova, J; Novenko, E; Desherevskaya, O; Krasnorutskaya, K

    2009-01-01

    Effects of possible climatic and vegetation changes on H 2 O and CO 2 fluxes in boreal forest ecosystems of the central part of European Russia were quantified using modeling and experimental data. The future pattern of climatic conditions for the period up to 2100 was derived using the global climatic model ECHAM5 (Roeckner et al 2003 The Atmospheric General Circulation Model ECHAM 5. PART I: Model Description, Report 349 (Hamburg: Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology) p 127) with the A1B emission scenario. The possible trends of future vegetation changes were obtained by reconstructions of vegetation cover and paleoclimatic conditions in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, as provided from pollen and plant macrofossil analysis of profiles in the Central Forest State Natural Biosphere Reserve (CFSNBR). Applying the method of paleoanalogues demonstrates that increasing the mean annual temperature, even by 1-2 deg. C, could result in reducing the proportion of spruce in boreal forest stands by up to 40%. Modeling experiments, carried out using a process-based Mixfor-SVAT model, show that the expected future climatic and vegetation changes lead to a significant increase of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and gross primary productivity (GPP) of the boreal forests. Despite the expected warming and moistening of the climate, the modeling experiments indicate a relatively weak increase of annual evapotranspiration (ET) and even a reduction of transpiration (TR) rates of forest ecosystems compared to present conditions.

  1. The effect of social relationships on survival in elderly residents of a Southern European community: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero Angel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative evidence regarding the effects of social relationships on mortality in Mediterranean communities will increase our knowledge of their strengths and the ways in which they influence longevity across cultures. Men and women may benefit differently from social relationships because of cultural differences in gender roles. Psychosocial mechanisms such as social support, which may explain the effects of social networks, may also vary by culture. Methods Detailed information on the social relationships of a representative sample of 1,174 community-dwelling older adults was collected in Leganés, a city in central Spain. Mortality over a 6-year follow-up period was ascertained. Information on socio-demographic, health and disability variables was also collected. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted separately for men and women and for the combined sample. Results Having a confidant was associated with a 25% (95% CI 5–40% reduction in the mortality risk. The hazard ratio for lack of social participation was 1.5 (95% CI 1.3–1.7. Being engaged in meaningful roles protected against mortality, while receipt of emotional support did not affect survival. These results were comparable for men and women. Having contact with all family ties was associated with reduced mortality only in men. Structural aspects of social networks make a unique contribution to survival, independently of emotional support and the role played in the lives of significant others. Conclusion In this elderly Southern European population, the beneficial effects of social networks, social participation, engagement in the life of significant others and having a confidant call for public policies that foster intergenerational and community exchanges.

  2. The effect of social relationships on survival in elderly residents of a Southern European community: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Laso, Angel; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Otero, Angel

    2007-01-01

    Background Comparative evidence regarding the effects of social relationships on mortality in Mediterranean communities will increase our knowledge of their strengths and the ways in which they influence longevity across cultures. Men and women may benefit differently from social relationships because of cultural differences in gender roles. Psychosocial mechanisms such as social support, which may explain the effects of social networks, may also vary by culture. Methods Detailed information on the social relationships of a representative sample of 1,174 community-dwelling older adults was collected in Leganés, a city in central Spain. Mortality over a 6-year follow-up period was ascertained. Information on socio-demographic, health and disability variables was also collected. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted separately for men and women and for the combined sample. Results Having a confidant was associated with a 25% (95% CI 5–40%) reduction in the mortality risk. The hazard ratio for lack of social participation was 1.5 (95% CI 1.3–1.7). Being engaged in meaningful roles protected against mortality, while receipt of emotional support did not affect survival. These results were comparable for men and women. Having contact with all family ties was associated with reduced mortality only in men. Structural aspects of social networks make a unique contribution to survival, independently of emotional support and the role played in the lives of significant others. Conclusion In this elderly Southern European population, the beneficial effects of social networks, social participation, engagement in the life of significant others and having a confidant call for public policies that foster intergenerational and community exchanges. PMID:17678536

  3. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  4. "EUROPART". Airborne particles in the indoor environment. A European interdisciplinary review of scientific evidence on associations between exposure to particles in buildings and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, T.; Sundell, Jan; Bischof, W.

    2003-01-01

    The relevance of particle mass, surface area or number concentration as risk indicators for health effects in non-industrial buildings has been assessed by a European interdisciplinary group of researchers (called EUROPART) by reviewing papers identified in Medline, Toxline, and OSH. Studies...... or number concentrations can be used as generally applicable risk indicators of health effects in non-industrial buildings and consequently that there is inadequate scientific evidence for establishing limit values or guidelines for particulate mass or number concentrations....

  5. Tree- and Stand-Level Thinning Effects on Growth of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. on a Northeast- and a Southwest-Facing Slope in Southwest Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Diaconu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anticipated changes in climate and research findings on the drought sensitivity of beech have triggered controversial discussions about the future of European beech. We investigated the growth response of beech on the tree- and stand-level in mature stands to three different thinning intensities (no thinning, strong thinning, very strong thinning on a northeast- and southwest-facing slope in Southwest Germany. Linear mixed-effects models were formulated to describe effects on growth parameters on the tree- and stand-level (diameter, height, basal area, volume. At the stand-level, the stand basal area increment and stand volume increment were lower on the thinned plots. At the tree-level, the basal area increment significantly increased with increasing thinning intensity. The growth of individual trees was also influenced by initial tree size, the size-related rank of the tree within a stand, and by the aspect of the site. Our data indicate that growth of European beech is impaired on the southwest-facing slope with a warmer and drier climate and that a very strong thinning regime applied at advanced age can accelerate growth of European beech trees even on the warmer and drier site. Our findings, therefore, imply that in a warmer climate intensive thinning may also represent an important adaptive forest management measure in European beech stands.

  6. Views of parents in four European countries about the effect of food on the mental performance of primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, H; Egan, B; Williams, P; Györei, E; Brands, B; López-Robles, J-C; Campoy, C; Koletzko, B; Decsi, T; Raats, M

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affect the mental performance of children. The importance that parents attribute to food-related determinants, compared with genetic, socio-economic and school environment, was investigated. Parents of school children (aged 4-11) were recruited through state primary schools in four European countries. Interviews were conducted in which participants were asked to sort 18 cards representing possible determinants of four elements of mental performance (attention, learning, mood and behaviour) according to perceived strength of effect. Determinants were identified from the literature and grouped in six categories: food-related, school environment, physical, social, psychological and biological. Effects were scored: 0=none; 1=moderate; and 2=strong. Views were compared between and within countries. Two hundred parents took part (England: 53; Germany: 45; Hungary: 52; Spain: 50). Differences existed between countries in the proportions reporting university education and being in employment. Taking all countries together, parents consider the food category (mean 1.33) to have a lower impact on a child's mental performance than physical (activity and sleep, 1.77), psychological (mood and behaviour, 1.69) and school environment (1.57). Social (1.12) and biological (0.91) determinants were ranked lower than food. Of determinants in the food category, parents thought regularity of meals had more influence on mental performance (1.58) than what a child eats now (1.36), food at school (1.35), nutrition as a baby/infant (1.02). Scope exists to improve parental awareness of the repercussions of their dietary choices for the mental performance of their children.

  7. Effects of dietary tannin on growth, feed utilization and digestibility, and carcass composition in juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Omnes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based products in fish diets are valuable protein alternatives to fishmeal for the aquafeed industry. Many plant feed ingredients contain polyphenolic compounds, including tannins, which can have beneficial or adverse effects. The tolerable threshold of ingested tannins is unknown for marine carnivorous fishes. We studied the effects of tannic acid (TA supplementation to the diet of juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax by measuring growth, feed utilization and digestibility, and carcass composition. We randomly allocated groups of fish (initial mean body weight of 10.2 ± 0.7 g; n = 40 fish per tank to 12 replicate cylindrical-conical tanks (three per treatment. The fish were assigned to one of four dietary treatments for five weeks: control diet (C with tannin-free protein sources (mostly fishmeal as the base diet, containing 55.7% dry matter (DM crude protein, gross energy 22.3 kJ g−1 DM and three experimental diets supplemented with 10, 20, or 30 g TA kg−1 (called TA1, TA2, and TA3, respectively. Tannin ingestion resulted in significantly decreased cumulative feed intake, growth, feed and protein efficiencies, apparent digestibility coefficients, hepatosomatic index, and carcass lipids. The protein digestibility in fish fed the 10 g kg−1 tannin-containing diet was significantly lower than that in fish fed the control diet. This threshold should be taken into account when using novel terrestrial and aquatic plant ingredients for temperate marine fishes.

  8. Cardiovascular side effects of cancer therapies: a position statement from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenhagen, Thomas; Force, Thomas; Ewer, Michael S; de Keulenaer, Gilles W; Suter, Thomas M; Anker, Stefan D; Avkiran, Metin; de Azambuja, Evandro; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Brutsaert, Dirk L; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Hansen, Arne; Heymans, Stephane; Hill, Joseph A; Hirsch, Emilio; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Janssens, Stefan; de Jong, Steven; Neubauer, Gitte; Pieske, Burkert; Ponikowski, Piotr; Pirmohamed, Munir; Rauchhaus, Mathias; Sawyer, Douglas; Sugden, Peter H; Wojta, Johann; Zannad, Faiez; Shah, Ajay M

    2011-01-01

    The reductions in mortality and morbidity being achieved among cancer patients with current therapies represent a major achievement. However, given their mechanisms of action, many anti-cancer agents may have significant potential for cardiovascular side effects, including the induction of heart failure. The magnitude of this problem remains unclear and is not readily apparent from current clinical trials of emerging targeted agents, which generally under-represent older patients and those with significant co-morbidities. The risk of adverse events may also increase when novel agents, which frequently modulate survival pathways, are used in combination with each other or with other conventional cytotoxic chemotherapeutics. The extent to which survival and growth pathways in the tumour cell (which we seek to inhibit) coincide with those in cardiovascular cells (which we seek to preserve) is an open question but one that will become ever more important with the development of new cancer therapies that target intracellular signalling pathways. It remains unclear whether potential cardiovascular problems can be predicted from analyses of such basic signalling mechanisms and what pre-clinical evaluation should be undertaken. The screening of patients, optimization of therapeutic schemes, monitoring of cardiovascular function during treatment, and the management of cardiovascular side effects are likely to become increasingly important in cancer patients. This paper summarizes the deliberations of a cross-disciplinary workshop organized by the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology (held in Brussels in May 2009), which brought together clinicians working in cardiology and oncology and those involved in basic, translational, and pharmaceutical science.

  9. Effects of sponsorship disclosure timing on the processing of sponsored content: a study on the effectiveness of European disclosure regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Neijens, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether the timing of sponsorship disclosure affects viewers’ processing of sponsored content, and whether a disclosure influences the persuasive effect of the sponsored content. A model is proposed in which sponsorship disclosure enhances the recognition of sponsored

  10. The European electricity market. What are the effects of market power on prices and the environment? Keywords: Electricity market; liberalisation; market power; game theory; environmental impacts; Northwestern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lise, W.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a static computational game theoretic COMPETES model. This model is used to study the economic and environmental effects of the liberalisation of the European electricity market. The COMPETES model takes strategic interaction into account. The model is calibrated to four European countries: Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands. To analyse the impact of emission trading, a fixed permit price per tonne CO2 emissions is introduced. The effects are studied under different market structures depending on the ability of firms to exercise market power. The results indicate that the effects of liberalisation depend on the resulting market structure, while a reduction in market power of large producers may be beneficial for the consumer (i.e. lower prices), this is not necessarily true for the environment (i.e. lower reduction in CO2 emissions)

  11. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF THE CURRENCY REGIME CHANGE SHOCK ON THE EXTERNAL EQUILIBRIUM OF SOME NEW EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA MILEA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization and regionalization, we consider to be important an analysis of the asymmetries from the balances of payments of the member states of the European Union (EU. The propagation of a shock determines different effects in the member states of the European Union, due to the existence of some heterogeneous elements in the structure of these economies. Such a situation implies the risk of occurrence of divergences between the member states regarding the joint decisions with impact on the economic development and the external equilibrium. The article aims at providing a theoretical analysis of the way a shock considered by the authors as being representative affects the current account balance of some countries with different economic characteristics, at least in terms of the foreign exchange regime. The theoretical analysis is followed by an empirical analysis of two European Union countries that have undergone the shock of the exchange rate regime shift generated by the entry into ERM II (Exchange Rate Mechanism II. Our research aims at showing the way in which this shock has been reflected upon the balance of the current account, and if the change of the exchange rate regime has been beneficial or not for the economies analysed. The article is based on wider research studies concerning the matters of external equilibrium, asymmetric shocks and European integration, and which have been developed by the authors during the last three years.

  12. Volumizing effects of a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid volumizing filler: prospective European study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial volume loss contributes significantly to facial aging. The 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid (HA formulation used in this study is a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, fully reversible, volumizing filler indicated to restore facial volume. This first prospective study evaluated use in current aesthetic clinical practice. Methods A pan-European evaluation conducted under guidelines of the World Association of Opinion and Marketing Research, the trial comprised a baseline visit (visit 1 and a follow-up (visit 2 at 14 ± 7 days posttreatment. Physicians photographed patients at each visit. Each patient was treated with the 20-mg/mL HA volumizing filler as supplied in standard packaging. Procedural details, aesthetic outcomes, safety, and physician and patient ratings of their experience were recorded. Results Fifteen physicians and 70 patients (91% female; mean age: 50 years participated. Mean volume loss at baseline was 3.7 (moderate on the Facial Volume Loss Scale. Local anesthesia was used in 64.3% of cases. Most injections (85% were administered with needles rather than cannulas. Of the 208 injections, 59% were in the malar region, primarily above the periosteum. Subcutaneous injections were most common for other sites. The mean total injection volume per patient was 4.6 mL. The mean volume loss score declined significantly (P Conclusion The 20-mg/mL smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, volumizing HA filler was effective, well tolerated, and easy to use in current clinical practice. Participants were very likely to recommend this product to colleagues and friends, and patients would be very or quite likely to request this product for future treatments.

  13. Effects of pinealectomy on the neuroendocrine reproductive system and locomotor activity in male European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Mairi; Paullada-Salmerón, José A; López-Olmeda, José Fernando; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Muñoz-Cueto, José A

    2017-05-01

    The seasonally changing photoperiod controls the timing of reproduction in most fish species, however, the transduction of this photoperiodic information to the reproductive axis is still unclear. This study explored the potential role of two candidate neuropeptide systems, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (Gnih) and kisspeptin, as mediators between the pineal organ (a principle transducer of photoperiodic information) and reproductive axis in male European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Two seven-day experiments of pinealectomy (Px) were performed, in March (end of reproductive season) and August (resting season). Effects of Px and season on the brain expression of gnih (sbgnih) and its receptor (sbgnihr), kisspeptins (kiss1, kiss2) and their receptors (kissr2, kissr3) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh1, gnrh2, gnrh3) and the main brain receptor (gnrhr-II-2b) genes, plasma melatonin levels and locomotor activity rhythms were examined. Results showed that Px reduced night-time plasma melatonin levels. Gene expression analyses demonstrated a sensitivity of the Gnih system to Px in March, with a reduction in sbgnih in the mid-hindbrain, a region with bilateral connections to the pineal organ. In August, kiss2 levels increased in Px animals but not in controls. Significant differences in expression were observed for diencephalic sbgnih, sbgnihr, kissr3 and tegmental gnrh2 between seasons. Recordings of locomotor activity following surgery revealed a change from light-synchronised to free-running rhythmic behavior. Altogether, the Gnih and Kiss2 sensitivity to Px and seasonal differences observed for Gnih and its receptor, Gnrh2, and the receptor for Kiss2 (Kissr3), suggested they could be mediators involved in the relay between environment and seasonal reproduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Harmful effect of arbitration dispute settlement EU intra bits to the legal order of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Radovan D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of interpreting and applying intra BITs, especially in cases where their solutions conflict with EU law or international law, are a reflection of the still unresolved relationship between EU law and international law. Despite the exceptional theoretical significance, the issue of hierarchy is, first and foremost, a political issue. The answer to it defines the legal nature of the EU and the direction of its further development: as a sui generis federal community or a regional community of a confederal type. In the legal theory, the opinion on sui generis and the autonomous legal order of the EU is prevalent. This was also confirmed by the Court of Justice in a series of cases. However, the analyzed decisions of investment arbitrations engaged on the basis of the ISDS mechanism call into question such a position. Arbiters believe that the rights and obligations of the BIT should be interpreted in accordance with the rules of international law and that, in the event of a conflict with EU law, priority should be given to the rules of international public law. For this reason, the European Commission and the Court of Justice only see the existence of ISDS clauses in the BITs as a threat to the preservation of the unity and autonomy of the EU legal order, because their activation is jeopardized by the 'interpretative monopoly' of the Court of Justice entrusted with the decision of previous issues to ensure unity of rights EU. The fact that the question of the effect of the ISDS mechanism is not only of theoretical importance is testified by the fact that the EU negotiations on a new generation of trade and investment agreements are examining proposals to establish a more democratic and transparent multilateral international judicial mechanism in place of the existing mechanism.

  15. Projected effects of climate change on the carbon stocks of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. forests in Zala County, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somogyi Zoltán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that climate change will lead to the local extinction of many tree species from large areas during this century, affecting the functioning and ecosystem services of many forests. This study reports on projected carbon losses due to the assumed local climate change-driven extinction of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Zala County, South-Western Hungary, where the species grows at the xeric limit of its distribution. The losses were calculated as a difference between carbon stocks in climate change scenarios assuming an exponentially increasing forest decline over time, and those in a baseline scenario assuming no climate change. In the climate change scenarios, three different sets of forest management adaptation measures were studied: (1 only harvesting damaged stands, (2 additionally salvaging dead trees that died due to climate change, and (3 replacing, at an increasing rate over time, beech with sessile oak (Quercus petraea Matt. Lieb. after final harvest. Projections were made using the open access carbon accounting model CASMOFOR based on modeling or assuming effects of climate change on mortality, tree growth, root-to-shoot ratio and decomposition rates. Results demonstrate that, if beech disappears from the region as projected by the end of the century, over 80% of above-ground biomass carbon, and over 60% of the carbon stocks of all pools (excluding soils of the forests will be lost by 2100. Such emission rates on large areas may have a discernible positive feedback on climate change, and can only partially be offset by the forest management adaptation measures.

  16. Effects of Syn-pandemic Fire Reduction and Reforestation in the Tropical Americas on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide During European Conquest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevle, R. J.; Bird, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    2000 BP correlate with expanding indigenous population, agriculture, and fire use in the tropical Americas. The rise in inter-site variability in charcoal accumulation after 2000 BP is consistent with a demographic shift toward sedentary agrarian communities and localized increases in charcoal accumulation in densely populated centers. Declines in regional charcoal accumulation and inter-site variability after 500 BP suggest a correlative cause related to reduction in anthropogenic biomass burning resulting from pandemic-driven population collapse. Published reconstructions of Pre-Columbian demography indicate that during European conquest, pandemics killed ~90% of the indigenous American population (~60 million), estimated to represent ~20% of the 16th century global population. Our predictive calculations suggest that fire reduction in the tropical Americas is associated with massive forest regeneration on ~5 x 105 km2 of land and sequestration of 5-10 Gt C into the terrestrial biosphere, which can account for 13- 50% of the ~2% global reduction in atmospheric CO2 levels and the 0.1‰ increase in δ13C of atmospheric CO2 from 1500 to 1700 CE recorded in Antarctic ice cores and tropical sponges. New archeological discoveries revealing extensive networks of geoglyphs and urban polities in Pre-Columbian Amazonia suggest that our estimates of reforestation, and consequent effects on atmospheric CO2, may be conservative.

  17. The European Union: Challenges and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botescu Ion

    2017-01-01

    If to all these we add the protectionist measures that the new president of the United States wishes to implement, as well as some deterioration in the European Union credibility generated by Brexit, the bureaucratic aspects that characterize the European institutions, etc., we can outline the context of the European Union, which requires a series of measures to ensure the progress of the European Union as a whole and, in particular, the effective integration of each Community country.

  18. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested: The conditional variance of e.g. the unexpected German stock return is divided into separate effects from the contemporaneous idiosyncratic variance of US bonds, US stocks, European bonds, European stocks, German...

  19. Effective promotion of healthy nutrition and physical activity in Europe requires skilled and competent people; European Master's Programme in Public Health Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yngve, A; Sjöström, M; Warm, D; Margetts, B; Rodrigo, C P; Nissinen, A

    1999-09-01

    Scientists in basic research and epidemiology deliver messages to policy makers. Effective population based strategies then require people trained and competent in the discipline of Public Health Nutrition (PHN). Since 1997, a European Master's Programme in PHN has been undergoing planning and implementation with the aid of funding from the European Commission (DGV). PHN is used as a broad term covering Nutrition and Physical Activity as well as Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. The partners in this project are academic departments from 17 countries. The students will undertake core modules and electives for a year and a half, followed by a research project for six months. In order to set up formalised procedures for the evaluation of the quality assurance of individual modules from across Europe, a quality assurance system has been set up. The academic year 1999-2000 will allow an opportunity for Universities and Institutes to start new modules, to develop other modules, assess the movement of students between modules, tackle funding issues and allow further marketing of the programme. Future activities include strengthening of the European Network for Public Health Nutrition (ENPHN), the establishment of a consortium with universities, the co-ordination of programme activities with other European Master's Programmes in Public Health, and the incorporation of new Member States from Eastern Europe. We can look forward to a new brand of professionals, who are truly European in their training, but who also have an integrated view of nutrition and physical activity, health promotion and disease prevention and who are prepared for policy making, action planning, implementation and evaluation.

  20. Systematic review of cost-effectiveness of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in patients with ischaemic heart disease: A report from the cardiovascular committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. Endorsed by the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trägårdh, Elin; Tan, Siok Swan; Bucerius, Jan; Gimelli, Alessia; Gaemperli, Oliver; Lindner, Oliver; Agostini, Denis; Übleis, Christopher; Sciagrà, Roberto; Slart, Riemer H; Underwood, S Richard; Hyafil, Fabien; Hacker, Marcus; Verberne, Hein J

    2017-05-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of death and disability. Several diagnostic tests, such as myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS), are accurate for the detection of CAD, as well as having prognostic value for the prediction of cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, the diagnostic and prognostic value of these tests should be cost-effective and should lead to improved clinical outcome. We have reviewed the literature on the cost-effectiveness of MPS in different circumstances: (i) the diagnosis and management of CAD; (ii) comparison with exercise electrocardiography (ECG) and other imaging tests; (iii) as gatekeeper to invasive coronary angiography (ICA), (iv) the impact of appropriate use criteria; (v) acute chest pain, and (vi) screening of asymptomatic patients with type-2 diabetes. In total 57 reports were included. Although most non-invasive imaging tests are cost-effective compared with alternatives, the data conflict on which non-invasive strategy is the most cost-effective. Different definitions of cost-effectiveness further confound the subject. Computer simulations of clinical diagnosis and management are influenced by the assumptions made. For instance, diagnostic accuracy is often defined against an anatomical standard that is wrongly assumed to be perfect. Conflicting data arise most commonly from these incorrect or differing assumptions. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Unintended Side Effects of the Digital Transition: European Scientists’ Messages from a Proposition-Based Expert Round Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland W. Scholz

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the main messages of a European Expert Round Table (ERT on the unintended side effects (unseens of the digital transition. Seventeen experts provided 42 propositions from ten different perspectives as input for the ERT. A full-day ERT deliberated communalities and relationships among these unseens and provided suggestions on (i what the major unseens are; (ii how rebound effects of digital transitioning may become the subject of overarching research; and (iii what unseens should become subjects of transdisciplinary theory and practice processes for developing socially robust orientations. With respect to the latter, the experts suggested that the “ownership, economic value, use and access of data” and, related to this, algorithmic decision-making call for transdisciplinary processes that may provide guidelines for key stakeholder groups on how the responsible use of digital data can be developed. A cluster-based content analysis of the propositions, the discussion and inputs of the ERT, and a theoretical analysis of major changes to levels of human systems and the human–environment relationship resulted in the following greater picture: The digital transition calls for redefining economy, labor, democracy, and humanity. Artificial Intelligence (AI-based machines may take over major domains of human labor, reorganize supply chains, induce platform economics, and reshape the participation of economic actors in the value chain. (Digital Knowledge and data supplement capital, labor, and natural resources as major economic variables. Digital data and technologies lead to a post-fuel industry (post- capitalism. Traditional democratic processes can be (intentionally or unintentionally altered by digital technologies. The unseens in this field call for special attention, research and management. Related to the conditions of ontogenetic and phylogenetic development (humanity, the ubiquitous, global, increasingly AI-shaped interlinkage of

  2. The effect of children on men's and women's chances of re-partnering in a European context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, K.; Kalmijn, M.; Uunk, W.

    2013-01-01

    This work examines what role children play in the re-partnering process in five European countries (Norway, France, Germany, Romania, and the Russian Federation) by addressing the following research questions: (1) To what extent do men and women differ in their re-partnering chances?; (2) Can gender

  3. Effectiveness of daytime motorcycle headlights in the European Union. On behalf of KeyMed Medican and Industrial Equipment Ltd.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, F.D.

    1997-01-01

    In this report a synthesis is given of the state of the art of the (obligatory) use of Daytime Running Lights (DRL) by motorcycles in the European Union. In particular, attention is given to Austria. In this country a new law was introduced in 1982. Using a generalised linear model, it has been

  4. Reduced European emissions of S and N - Effects on air concentrations, deposition and soil water chemistry in Swedish forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla, E-mail: gunilla.pihl.karlsson@ivl.se [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 5302, SE-400 14 Gothenburg (Sweden); Akselsson, Cecilia, E-mail: cecilia.akselsson@nateko.lu.se [Department of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, Lund University, Soelvegatan 12, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Hellsten, Sofie, E-mail: sofie.hellsten@ivl.se [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 5302, SE-400 14 Gothenburg (Sweden); Karlsson, Per Erik, E-mail: pererik.karlsson@ivl.se [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 5302, SE-400 14 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    Changes in sulphur and nitrogen pollution in Swedish forests have been assessed in relation to European emission reductions, based on measurements in the Swedish Throughfall Monitoring Network. Measurements were analysed over 20 years with a focus on the 12-year period 1996 to 2008. Air concentrations of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, have decreased. The SO{sub 4}-deposition has decreased in parallel with the European emission reductions. Soil water SO{sub 4}-concentrations have decreased at most sites but the pH, ANC and inorganic Al-concentrations indicated acidification recovery only at some of the sites. No changes in the bulk deposition of inorganic nitrogen could be demonstrated. Elevated NO{sub 3}-concentrations in the soil water occurred at irregular occasions at some southern sites. Despite considerable air pollution emission reductions in Europe, acidification recovery in Swedish forests soils is slow. Nitrogen deposition to Swedish forests continues at elevated levels that may lead to leaching of nitrate to surface waters. - Highlights: > S deposition to Swedish forests has decreased in parallel with European emissions. > Soil water pH, ANC and inorganic Al-concentrations indicated a slow recovery. > The bulk deposition of inorganic nitrogen over Sweden has not decreased. > Continued N deposition to Swedish forests may cause leaching of N to surface waters. - Reduced European emissions have led to decreased acidic deposition and a slow recovery of soil water but nitrogen deposition remains the same in Swedish forests.

  5. Effects of water temperature on summer periphyton biomass in shallow lakes: a pan-European mesocosm experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahdy, A.; Hilt, S.; Filiz, N.; Beklioglu, M.; Hejzlar, Josef; Özkundakci, D.; Papastergiadou, E.; Scharfenberger, U.; Šorf, Michal; Stefanidis, K.; Tuvikene, L.; Zingel, P.; Sondergaard, M.; Jeppesen, E.; Adrian, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 3 (2015), s. 499-510 ISSN 1015-1621 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11059 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 244121 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : climate change * eutrophication * epiphyton * grazing * top-down control Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.398, year: 2015

  6. Effect of medication-related factors on adherence in people with schizophrenia: a European multi-centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, Johanna; Becker, Thomas; Patel, Anita; Robson, Debbie; Schene, Aart; Kikkert, Martijn; Barbui, Corrado; Burti, Lorenzo; Puschner, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relation between medication-related factors and adherence in people with schizophrenia in outpatient treatment. The sample comprised 409 outpatients (ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia) with clinician-rated instability in four European cities (Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Verona,

  7. The effect of room acoustics on the measured speech privacy in two typical European open plan offices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenmaekers, R.H.C.; Hout, van N.H.A.M.; Luxemburg, van L.C.J.; Hak, C.C.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The reverberation time and the background noise level are often used as the most important design parameters in European open plan offices to achieve a comfortable acoustic climate and to control speech intelligibility. Good speech intelligibility is desired for people working together, but bad

  8. Argumentative patterns in the European Union directives : An effective tool to foster compliance by the Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andone, C.; Coman-Kund, F.

    This paper provides an account of the arguments advanced by the European Union (EU) legislator in the preamble of directives adopted for harmonization in the internal market, and assesses them as to their potential at convincing the Member States to implement the directive at issue. We show what

  9. Effect of nationwide tobacco control policies on smoking cessation in high and low educated groups in 18 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, M. M.; Kunst, A. E.; Leinsalu, M.; Regidor, E.; Ekholm, O.; Dzurova, D.; Helmert, U.; Klumbiene, J.; Santana, P.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently a scale was introduced to quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies at country level. Our study used this scale to examine the potential impact of these policies on quit ratios in European countries. Special attention was given to smoking cessation among lower

  10. Income inequality, life expectancy and cause-specific mortality in 43 European countries, 1987–2008: a fixed effects study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Hu (Yannan); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWhether income inequality is related to population health is still open to debate. We aimed to critically assess the relationship between income inequality and mortality in 43 European countries using comparable data between 1987 and 2008, controlling for time-invariant and time-variant

  11. European feelings of deprivation amidst the financial crisis : Effects of welfare state effort and informal social relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeskens, T.; van Oorschot, W.J.H.

    As European governments have embraced the credo of austerity, the perennial discussion whether welfare states erode the quality of social networks has taken on a more prominent position on political and social science research agendas. While non-believers of this so-called ‘crowding out’ thesis

  12. The effect of certification and accreditation on quality management in 4 clinical services in 73 European hospitals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaw, C.D.; Groene, O.; Botje, D.; Suñol, R.; Kutryba, B.; Klazinga, N.; Bruneau, C.; Hammer, A.; Wang, A.; Arah, O.A.; Wagner, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between ISO 9001 certification, healthcare accreditation and quality management in European hospitals. Design: A mixed method multi-level cross-sectional design in seven countries. External teams assessed clinical services on the use of quality management

  13. Effect of spatial sampling from European flux towers for estimating carbon and water fluxes with artificial neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papale, D.; Black, T Andrew; Carvalhais, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    -output relationships, while prediction for conditions outside the training domain is generally uncertain. In this work, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used for the prediction of gross primary production (GPP) and latent heat flux (LE) on local and European scales with the aim to assess the portion...

  14. Transnational activism of social movement organizations: The effect of European Union funding on local groups in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Císař, O.; Vráblíková, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2013), s. 140-160 ISSN 1465-1165 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Comparative politics * European Commission * international relations Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences Impact factor: 2.036, year: 2013 http://eup.sagepub.com/content/14/1/140.full.pdf+html

  15. The Mandatory Introduction of IFRS as a Single Accounting Standard in the European Union and the Effect on Earnings Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.W. Lippens (Mark)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary In this study, it was investigated whether the mandatory adoption of IFRS from 1 January 2005 by all listed companies in the European Union led to significantly lower levels of earnings management. I found that, despite the stricter character of IFRS compared to

  16. Modelling the effect of support practices (P-factor) on the reduction of soil erosion by water at European Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagos, P.; Borrelli, P.; Meusburger, K.; van der Zanden, E.H.; Poesen, J.; Alewell, C.

    2015-01-01

    The USLE/RUSLE support practice factor (P-factor) is rarely taken into account in soil erosion risk modelling at sub-continental scale, as it is difficult to estimate for large areas. This study attempts to model the P-factor in the European Union. For this, it considers the latest policy

  17. Gastrointestinal and metabolic effects of feeding schedule on voluntary feed intake and growth of European eel, Anguilla anguilla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Goedegebuur, B.J.; Bloemhof, G.; Flach, R.B.; Jong, de G.D.C.

    2008-01-01

    Gastrointestinal and metabolic influences on short- and medium-term control of voluntary feed intake of European eel were investigated for groups of fish fed at different feeding schedules: 1 meal 2 days(-1), 1 meal day(-1), 2 meals day(-1) and continuous feeding for 12 h and 24 h daily. For fish

  18. Species-specific effects of Asian and European earthworms on microbial communities in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworm species with different feeding, burrowing, and/or casting behaviors can lead to distinct microbial communities through complex direct and indirect processes. European earthworm invasion into temperate deciduous forests in North America has been shown to alter microbial biomass in the soil ...

  19. The European Union in International Financial Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh Moloney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the role of the European Union in international financial governance after the institutional reforms it undertook in connection with the global financial crisis. It suggests that the new administrative actors that support the governance of the European Union's single financial market, notably the European Supervisory Authorities, have the potential to reshape how the European Union engages with international financial governance. It finds that the European Union’s effectiveness in influencing international financial governance—and the effectiveness of international financial governance more generally—is likely to strengthen as a result.

  20. A time series study on the effects of heat on mortality and evaluation of heterogeneity into European and Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities: results of EU CIRCE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Michela; D'Ippoliti, Daniela; De Sario, Manuela; Analitis, Antonis; Menne, Bettina; Katsouyanni, Klea; De' Donato, Francesca K; Basagana, Xavier; Salah, Afif Ben; Casimiro, Elsa; Dörtbudak, Zeynep; Iñiguez, Carmen; Peretz, Chava; Wolf, Tanja; Michelozzi, Paola

    2013-07-03

    The Mediterranean region is particularly vulnerable to the effect of summer temperature.Within the CIRCE project this time-series study aims to quantify for the first time the effect of summer temperature in Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities and compared it with European cities around the Mediterranean basin, evaluating city characteristics that explain between-city heterogeneity. The city-specific effect of maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax) was assessed by Generalized Estimation Equations, assuming a linear threshold model. Then, city-specific estimates were included in a random effect meta-regression analysis to investigate the effect modification by several city characteristics. Heterogeneity in the temperature-mortality relationship was observed among cities. Thresholds recorded higher values in the warmest cities of Tunis (35.5°C) and Tel-Aviv (32.8°C) while the effect of Tappmax above threshold was greater in the European cities. In Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities a higher effect was observed among younger age groups (0-14 in Tunis and 15-64 in Tel-Aviv and Istanbul) in contrast with the European cities where the elderly population was more vulnerable. Climate conditions explained most of the observed heterogeneity and among socio-demographic and economic characteristics only health expenditure and unemployment rate were identified as effect modifiers. The high vulnerability observed in the young populations in Eastern-Southern Mediterranean cities represent a major public health problem. Considering the large political and economic changes occurring in this region as well future temperature increase due to climate change, it is important to strengthen research and public health efforts in these Mediterranean countries.

  1. The effect of urban geometry on mean radiant temperature under future climate change: a study of three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Lindberg, Fredrik; Rayner, David; Thorsson, Sofia

    2015-07-01

    Future anthropogenic climate change is likely to increase the air temperature (T(a)) across Europe and increase the frequency, duration and magnitude of severe heat stress events. Heat stress events are generally associated with clear-sky conditions and high T(a), which give rise to high radiant heat load, i.e. mean radiant temperature (T(mrt)). In urban environments, T mrt is strongly influenced by urban geometry. The present study examines the effect of urban geometry on daytime heat stress in three European cities (Gothenburg in Sweden, Frankfurt in Germany and Porto in Portugal) under present and future climates, using T(mrt) as an indicator of heat stress. It is found that severe heat stress occurs in all three cities. Similar maximum daytime T(mrt) is found in open areas in all three cities despite of the latitudinal differences in average daytime T(mrt). In contrast, dense urban structures like narrow street canyons are able to mitigate heat stress in the summer, without causing substantial changes in T(mrt) in the winter. Although the T(mrt) averages are similar for the north-south and east-west street canyons in each city, the number of hours when T(mrt) exceeds the threshold values of 55.5 and 59.4 °C-used as indicators of moderate and severe heat stress-in the north-south canyons is much higher than that in the east-west canyons. Using statistically downscaled data from a regional climate model, it is found that the study sites were generally warmer in the future scenario, especially Porto, which would further exacerbate heat stress in urban areas. However, a decrease in solar radiation in Gothenburg and Frankfurt reduces T(mrt) in the spring, while the reduction in T(mrt) is somewhat offset by increasing T(a) in other seasons. It suggests that changes in the T(mrt) under the future scenario are dominated by variations in T(a). Nonetheless, the intra-urban differences remain relatively stable in the future. These findings suggest that dense urban

  2. Opposite Effects of Early-Life Competition and Developmental Telomere Attrition on Cognitive Biases in Juvenile European Starlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bateson

    Full Text Available Moods are enduring affective states that we hypothesise should be affected by an individual's developmental experience and its current somatic state. We tested whether early-life adversity, induced by manipulating brood size, subsequently altered juvenile European starlings' (Sturnus vulgaris decisions in a judgment bias task designed to provide a cognitive measure of mood. We predicted that starlings from larger broods, specifically those that had experienced more nest competitors larger than themselves would exhibit reduced expectation of reward, indicative of a 'pessimistic', depression-like mood. We used a go/no-go task, in which 30 starlings were trained to probe a grey card disc associated with a palatable mealworm hidden underneath and avoid a different shade of grey card disc associated with a noxious quinine-injected mealworm hidden underneath. Birds' response latencies to the trained stimuli and also to novel, ambiguous stimuli intermediate between these were subsequently tested. Birds that had experienced greater competition in the nest were faster to probe trained stimuli, and it was therefore necessary to control statistically for this difference in subsequent analyses of the birds' responses to the ambiguous stimuli. As predicted, birds with more, larger nest competitors showed relatively longer latencies to probe ambiguous stimuli, suggesting reduced expectation of reward and a 'pessimistic', depression-like mood. However, birds with greater developmental telomere attrition--a measure of cellular aging associated with increased morbidity and reduced life-expectancy that we argue could be used as a measure of somatic state--showed shorter latencies to probe ambiguous stimuli. This would usually be interpreted as evidence for a more positive or 'optimistic' affective state. Thus, increased competition in the nest and poor current somatic state appear to have opposite effects on cognitive biases. Our results lead us to question

  3. The “New” Environmental Policy of the European Union: A Path to Development of a Circular Economy and Mitigation of the Negative Effects of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysokińska Zofia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the evolution of the new environmental policy of the European Union in the context of the efforts undertaken to moderate the negative effects of climate change. It describes all the activities in the European Union designed to implement new tools of the EU environmental policy, such as low carbon economy technologies, tools that improve the efficiency of managing the limited natural resources, the environmentally friendly transport package, etc. All of them are aimed at laying the foundations of the circular economy, which may also be referred to as a closed-loop economy, i.e., an economy that does not generate excessive waste and whereby any waste becomes a resource.

  4. Feeling close and doing well: the prevalence and motivational effects of interpersonally engaging emotions in Mexican and European American cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Krishna; Alvarez, Ayme; Mesquita, Batja; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigate whether interpersonally engaging emotions--those that bring the self closer to others (e.g., affection, shame)--are central to the model of self and relationships prevalent in Mexican cultural contexts. Study 1 demonstrated that compared to people in European American contexts, people in Mexican contexts were more likely to report experiencing interpersonally engaging emotions and less likely to report experiencing interpersonally disengaging emotions. Study 2 found that interpersonally engaging emotions had a substantial influence on performance motivation in Mexican contexts--Mexican participants solved more word search puzzles after recalling instances in which they experienced positive interpersonally engaging emotions, and fewer after recalling negative interpersonally disengaging emotions; in contrast, there were no differences by condition for European Americans. These findings significantly extend previous research by documenting the implications of relational concerns (e.g., simpatia, personalismo) for emotion and motivation in Mexican contexts, and are the first to demonstrate the motivational effects of interpersonally engaging emotions.

  5. The European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The creation of a single European market also will have its effects on the power and electricity sector. Expectations tied to this abandonment of borders on the electricity market are different: some hope for a reduction of energy costs, others fear safeguarded supplies to be at risk. It cannot be fully judged at present what the situation will be on a strongly integrated, European power and electricity market, and the brochure in hand is intended to present a first survey of the situation from the perspective of the power industry and energy policy, concentrating on main aspects. The survey is compiled in the form of reprints of journal articles written on this topic by a number of well-known German experts in the field. (orig./HP) [de

  6. A multi actor multi criteria approach to evaluate the effectiveness of European policies on buildings energy retrofit. The Italian context.

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Bonifaci; Sergio Copiello

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the traditional models and tools used by the public sector to attract private capital into urban regeneration are in crisis, partly due to the economic situation.At the same time, new paradigms able to capture the interest of private subjects in regeneration are emerging. One of these, and perhaps the most interesting for its potential and the growing interest from the European Union, is the energy retrofit of existing buildings.According to some studies carried out at Europea...

  7. The unavoidable increase in electricity prices in France: should the effects of the European market integration be corrected?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.; Glachant, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The competitive reform will unavoidably generate a price increase for French consumers when the regulated price is removed. That increase is due to the competitive hourly rate formation system in the continental market. The system allows existing nuclear equipment of all European producers to generate a rarity income, without this triggering nuclear investment decisions due to political obstacles. The sacrifice of French consumers does not imply later price decreases failing such investments. The benefit sought by the integration of the market for European consumer benefit cannot be achieved. The rarity income from existing equipment only benefits the shareholders of companies holding existing low combustible cost equipment, including the historical French operator. This article details this nuclear rarity income analysis and reviews several compensation approaches to reconcile French consumers with the construction dynamics of a competitive European market. Such re-allotment systems need to be both simple and perceived as a compensation for potential price increase, and not alter drastically the operation of the new markets. (authors)

  8. Europart - Airborne particles in the indoor environment. A European interdisciplinary review of scientific evidence on associations between exposure to particles in buildings and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, T.; Sundell, Jan; Bischof, W.

    2002-01-01

    The relevance of particle mass, surface area or number concentration as risk indicators for health effects in non-industrial buildings has been assessed by a European interdisciplinary group of researchers by reviewing papers identified in Medline, Toxline, and OSH. Studies dealing with dermal...... studies, and a longitudinal study among elderly with cardiovascular conditions. Given the limited and inconclusive scientific evidence, the group concluded that indoor particulate mass or number concentrations cannot be used as generally applicable risk indicators of health effects in non-industrial...

  9. Differential effects of antipsychotic drugs on insight in first episode schizophrenia: Data from the European First-Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijnenborg, G H M; Timmerman, M E; Derks, E M; Fleischhacker, W W; Kahn, R S; Aleman, A

    2015-06-01

    Although antipsychotics are widely prescribed, their effect of on improving poor illness insight in schizophrenia has seldom been investigated and therefore remains uncertain. This paper examines the effects of low dose haloperidol, amisulpride, olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone on insight in first-episode schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophreniform disorder. The effects of five antipsychotic drugs in first episode psychosis on insight were compared in a large scale open randomized controlled trial conducted in 14 European countries: the European First-Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST). Patients with at least minimal impairments in insight were included in the present study (n=455). Insight was assessed with item G12 of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), administered at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after randomization. The use of antipsychotics was associated with clear improvements in insight over and above improvements in other symptoms. This effect was most pronounced in the first three months of treatment, with quetiapine being significantly less effective than other drugs. Effects of spontaneous improvement cannot be ruled out due to the lack of a placebo control group, although such a large spontaneous improvement of insight would seem unlikely. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  10. Gendering European welfare states and citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Borchorst, Anette

    2017-01-01

    on gender, class, ethnicity or race, and nationality. One issue is what has been the effect of the European emphasis on women’s wage work and gender equality policies for women in different European countries? Another issue concerns how multiple discrimination is tackled and institutionalized in European......The chapter revisits the feminist scholarship on gendering of European welfare states and European citizenship, and reflects on the effects of globalization, Europeanization and migration. It first presents feminist perspectives on the liberal, the conservative and the social democratic welfare...... welfare states. A third issue is to what extent the Nordic welfare states still represent an attractive alternative model of social and gender equality to neo-liberalism. The final part discusses feminist approaches to reframe gender equality and gender justice from the transnational European contexts....

  11. Quantifying the effects of European beach grass on aeolian sand transport over the last century: Bodega Marine Reserve, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesmat, R.; Werner, S.; Smith, M. E.; Riedel, T.; Best, R.; Olyarnik, S.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction of European beach grass (Ammophila arenaria) to coastal dune systems of western North America induced significant changes to the transport and storage of sediment, and consequently the nesting habitat of the western snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus). At the Bodega Marine Reserve and Sonoma Coast State Park, Ammophila was introduced within the ~0.5 km2 dune area in the 1920's to limit the flux of sand through Bodega Harbor and agricultural land. To assess the potential impact of restoration efforts (Ammophila removal) on aeolian sediment flux, we measured sediment flux as a function of wind speeds and ground cover, and used these measurements to parameterize a spatial model for historical sand deposition Fine- to coarse-grained lithic to sub-lithic sand is delivered to the Bodega dune system from Salmon Creek beach, the down-shore terminus of a littoral system fed by the 3846 km2 Russian River catchment, several small (Gaffney ridge) at the edge of the planted region. An average accumulation rate of ~4,000 m3/yr is indicated within the study swath by the preserved sediment volumes. Within the modern dune system, unvegetated areas exhibit 2-3 meter wavelength, ~1/2 meter amplitude mega-ripples, and the uppermost 2-10 cm consists of coarse-sand to granule-sized armor layer. In contrast, grain-sizes in vegetated areas are largely vertically homogenous. Open areas are typically 2-8 meters lower than adjacent vegetated areas, and show evidence for net lowering of the land surface (i.e., exposed fence posts, roots). Conversely, vegetated areas appear prone to sediment accumulation, particularly downwind of unvegetated areas. We measured sand transport using 0.5 m high traps deployed at 18 sites throughout the dune field, and used a linear mixed effects model to predict transport rate as a function of wind and ground cover class, taking into account random effects of sampling date and repeated measurements at each site. The analysis indicates up

  12. Effects of deltamethrin, dimethoate, and chlorpyrifos on survival and reproduction of the collembolan Folsomia candida and the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer in two African and two European soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaabiri Kamoun, Ikram; Jegede, Olukayode O; Owojori, Olugbenga J; Bouzid, Jalel; Gargouri, Radhia; Römbke, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides is rampant in most parts of Africa, but only scanty ecotoxicological data exist for the protection of soil organisms-and these data were usually obtained under temperate conditions, including the use of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) standard test protocols. In order to assess the effects of 3 commonly used pesticides (deltamethrin, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos) on soil fauna in Africa, noncontaminated natural soils were collected from Nigeria and Tunisia. In addition, 2 common test soils, OECD artificial soil and European (Landwirtschaftliche Untersichungs- und Forschungsanstalt [LUFA]) 2.3 soil, were used in OECD standard reproduction tests. Two microarthropod species, the springtail Folsomia candida and the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer, were exposed in these 4 soils spiked individually with the 3 insecticides. Results show that the collembolan F. candida was more sensitive than the mite H. aculeifer for all 3 insecticides. The toxicity of each insecticide in the 4 soils differed, with few exceptions, by less than an order of magnitude. However, the pattern of toxicity was not consistent, that is, the lowest toxicity was often but not always found in OECD artificial soil. Soil- and pesticide-specific patterns of toxicity to F. candida and H. aculeifer might be related to the physicochemical properties of the soils and thus the availability of the 3 pesticides. Following the rules laid down in the European Union for the registration of pesticides and using standard European exposure scenarios, neither an acute nor a chronic risk of dimethoate and chlorpyrifos can be excluded (with few exceptions) in all 4 soils. Lower risks were identified for deltamethrin. For pesticide used in Africa, an environmental risk assessment based on data gained in tests with at least 1 additional natural field soil, preferably of African origin, should be performed using the same risk assessment principles as in the

  13. Assessment of spatial discordance of primary and effective seed dispersal of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) by ecological and genetic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millerón, M; López de Heredia, U; Lorenzo, Z; Alonso, J; Dounavi, A; Gil, L; Nanos, N

    2013-03-01

    Spatial discordance between primary and effective dispersal in plant populations indicates that postdispersal processes erase the seed rain signal in recruitment patterns. Five different models were used to test the spatial concordance of the primary and effective dispersal patterns in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica) population from central Spain. An ecological method was based on classical inverse modelling (SSS), using the number of seed/seedlings as input data. Genetic models were based on direct kernel fitting of mother-to-offspring distances estimated by a parentage analysis or were spatially explicit models based on the genotype frequencies of offspring (competing sources model and Moran-Clark's Model). A fully integrated mixed model was based on inverse modelling, but used the number of genotypes as input data (gene shadow model). The potential sources of error and limitations of each seed dispersal estimation method are discussed. The mean dispersal distances for seeds and saplings estimated with these five methods were higher than those obtained by previous estimations for European beech forests. All the methods show strong discordance between primary and effective dispersal kernel parameters, and for dispersal directionality. While seed rain was released mostly under the canopy, saplings were established far from mother trees. This discordant pattern may be the result of the action of secondary dispersal by animals or density-dependent effects; that is, the Janzen-Connell effect. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. European industry outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.

    1991-01-01

    Europe's offshore oil and gas industry is estimated to spend around Pound 14bn per year out of a world total of some Pound 43bn, showing that despite its maturity the North West European Continental Shelf remains a dominant segment of the world's offshore business. Especially in the U.K. sector, expenditure is booming and 1991 is expected to be a record year. This activity level is likely to continue into 1992, but there are factors which could limit activity later in the 1990s. This volume lists some 225 undeveloped discoveries and fields under development in the U.K. sector, 80 each in Norway and the Netherlands, and 17 in Denmark. New technologies, particularly subsea separation and multiphase flow will be prominent factors in ensuring that the numerous small oilfields within this inventory of discoveries will eventually achieve commercial development. The effects of likely European Community legislation continue to concern many in the industry, with a more open and regulated purchasing regime for major contracts becoming more certain. A major step has been taken towards open access rights, and if this policy is pursued it could open the European gas industry to a new era of free competition, especially if a U.K.-Continental transmission link were to be realised. The long term implications of the increased share of natural gas in the total energy mix to virtually all companies engaged in offshore activities (and many not so engaged) are likely to be fundamental and far-reaching. (author)

  15. Effects of dietary fatty acid composition on metabolic rate and responses to hypoxia in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Piraccini, G.; Piccolella, M.

    2000-01-01

    European eels (Anguilla anguilla, L.) were fed on a commercial diet supplemented either with 15% by dry feed weight of menhaden oil (MO), an oil rich in highly unsaturated fatty acids of the n-3 series (n-3 HUFA), or with 15% by dry feed weight of coconut oil (CO), an oil composed primarily...... of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Following 90 days of feeding, the mean final masses of eels fed the two different oil supplements were similar, and higher than the mean final mass of a group fed the commercial diet alone. The diets created two distinct phenotypes of eels, distinguished by the fatty acid (FA...

  16. The effect of oral vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG on the development of tuberculosis in captive European badgers (Meles meles)

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, MA; Aldwell, F; Williams, GA; Palmer, S; Gowtage, S; Ashford, R; Dalley, D; Davé, D; Weyer, U; Salguero Bodes, FJ; Nunez, A; Nadian, A; Crawshaw, T; Corner, LAL; Lesellier, S

    2017-01-01

    The European badger (Meles meles) is a reservoir host of Mycobacterium bovis and responsible for a proportion of the tuberculosis (TB) cases seen in cattle in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. An injectable preparation of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is licensed for use in badgers in the UK and its use forms part of the bovine TB eradication plans of England and Wales. However, there are practical limitations to the widespread application of an injectable vaccine for b...

  17. Trade agreements with side-effects? : European Union and United States to negotiate Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Mildner, Stormy-Annika; Schmucker, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    "At the G8 summit in Northern Ireland on June 17, the European Union and the United States kicked off the negotiations for a comprehensive Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) to reduce tariffs and non-tariff trade barriers. While the expected economic benefits for both sides would be more than welcome in an era of gloomy growth forecasts, a TTIP is not entirely without risks for global trade and the multilateral trading system. The talks could tie up a considerable portion o...

  18. Cost-effectiveness evaluation of clobetasol propionate shampoo (CPS) maintenance in patients with moderate scalp psoriasis: a Pan-European analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, K; Poulin, Y; Barber, K; Lynde, C; Prinz, J C; Berg, M; Kerrouche, N; Rives, V P

    2012-11-01

    Scalp psoriasis is a difficult to treat and usually chronic manifestation of psoriasis. The CalePso study showed that CPS (Clobex(®) Shampoo) in maintenance therapy of scalp psoriasis (twice weekly) significantly increases the probability of keeping patient under remission during 6 months, compared with vehicle (40.3% relapses vs. 11.6% relapses, ITT). The objective of the study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a maintenance therapy with CPS vs. its vehicle in nine European countries. A 24-week decision tree model was developed with 4-weekly time steps. The considered population has moderate scalp psoriasis successfully treated with a daily application of CPS up to 4 weeks. Data were taken from the CalePso study and from national experts' recommendations for alternative treatment choices, with their probabilities of success taken from literature to develop country-specific models. Health benefits are measured in disease-free days (DFD). The economic analysis includes drug and physician costs. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PrSA) assesses the uncertainty of the model. Depending on the country, the mean total number of DFDs per patient is 21-42% higher with CPS compared with vehicle, and the mean total cost is 11-31% lower. The mean costs per DFD are 30-46% lower with CPS compared with the vehicle. The PrSA showed in 1000 simulations that CPS is more effective vs. vehicle in 100% of the cases and less expensive than its vehicle in 80-99% of the cases. This model suggests that CPS is cost-effective in maintaining the success achieved in moderate scalp psoriasis patients. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. Single and combined effects of microplastics and mercury on juveniles of the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Changes in behavioural responses and reduction of swimming velocity and resistance time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Luís Gabriel Antão; Vieira, Luís Russo; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2018-05-01

    Microplastics and mercury are environmental pollutants of great concern. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of these pollutants, both individually and in binary mixtures, on the swimming performance of juvenile European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Microplastics alone, mercury alone and all the mixtures caused significant reduction of the swimming velocity and resistance time of fish. Moreover, changes in behavioural responses including lethargic and erratic swimming behaviour were observed. These results highlight that fish behavioural responses can be used as sensitive endpoint to establish the effects of contamination by microplastics and also emphasizes the need to assess the combined effects of microplastics and other environmental contaminants, with special attention to the effects on behavioural responses in fish and other aquatic species. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H.; Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R.

    2004-01-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  1. Changes in the Effect of Heat on Mortality in the Last 20 Years in Nine European Cities. Results from the PHASE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de' Donato, Francesca K; Leone, Michela; Scortichini, Matteo; De Sario, Manuela; Katsouyanni, Klea; Lanki, Timo; Basagaña, Xavier; Ballester, Ferran; Åström, Christofer; Paldy, Anna; Pascal, Mathilde; Gasparrini, Antonio; Menne, Bettina; Michelozzi, Paola

    2015-12-08

    The European project PHASE aims to evaluate patterns of change in the temperature-mortality relationship and in the number of deaths attributable to heat in nine European cities in two periods, before and after summer 2003 (1996-2002 and 2004-2010). We performed age-specific Poisson regression models separately in the two periods, controlling for seasonality, air pollution and time trends. Distributed lag non-linear models were used to estimate the Relative Risks of daily mortality for increases in mean temperature from the 75th to 99th percentile of the summer distribution for each city. In the recent period, a reduction in the mortality risk associated to heat was observed only in Athens, Rome and Paris, especially among the elderly. Furthermore, in terms of heat-attributable mortality, 985, 787 and 623 fewer deaths were estimated, respectively, in the three cities. In Helsinki and Stockholm, there is a suggestion of increased heat effect. Noteworthy is that an effect of heat was still present in the recent years in all cities, ranging from +11% to +35%. In Europe, considering the warming observed in recent decades and population ageing, effective intervention measures should be promoted across countries, especially targeting vulnerable subgroups of the population with lower adaptive resources.

  2. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H. [University of Freiburg, Inst. of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Freiburg (Germany); Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R. [Technische Universitat Munchen, Dept. of Ecology and Ecophysiology of Plants, Freising (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  3. A EUropean study on effectiveness and sustainability of current Cardiac Rehabilitation programmes in the Elderly: Design of the EU-CaRE randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Eva; Meindersma, Esther P; van der Velde, Astrid E; Gonzalez-Juanatey, Jose R; Iliou, Marie Christine; Ardissino, Diego; Zoccai, Giuseppe Biondi; Zeymer, Uwe; Prins, Leonie F; Van't Hof, Arnoud Wj; Wilhelm, Matthias; de Kluiver, Ed P

    2016-10-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an evidence-based intervention to increase survival and quality of life. Yet studies consistently show that elderly patients are less frequently referred to CR, show less uptake and more often drop out of CR programmes. The European study on effectiveness and sustainability of current cardiac rehabilitation programmes in the elderly (EU-CaRE) project consists of an observational study and an open prospective, investigator-initiated multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) involving mobile telemonitoring guided CR (mCR). The aim of EU-CaRE is to map the efficiency of current CR of the elderly in Europe, and to investigate whether mCR is an effective alternative in terms of efficacy, adherence and sustainability. The EU-CaRE study includes patients aged 65 years or older with ischaemic heart disease or who have undergone heart valve surgery. A total of 1760 patients participating in existing CR programmes in eight regions of Europe will be included. Of patients declining regular CR, 238 will be included in the RCT and randomised in two study arms. The experimental group (mCR) will receive a personalised home-based programme while the control group will receive no advice or coaching throughout the study period. Outcomes will be assessed after the end of CR and at 12 months follow-up. The primary outcome is VO 2peak and secondary outcomes include variables describing CR uptake, adherence, efficacy and sustainability. The study will provide important information to improve CR in the elderly. The EU-CaRE RCT is the first European multicentre study of mCR as an alternative for elderly patients not attending usual CR. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  4. Características del establecimiento e historia de vida de Misodendrum punctulatum (Misodendraceae un muérdago de Sudamérica austral Establishment and life history characteristics of the southern South American mistletoe Misodendrum punctulatum (Misodendraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlan Tercero-Bucardo

    2004-09-01

    formation and synchronic embedding of the mistletoe haustorial system within the host xylem, we analyzed age-dependent life history traits and establishment conditions of Misodendrum punctulatum (Misodendraceae infecting two deciduous species of Nothofagus in northern Patagonia, Argentina. Absolute determination of infection ages was performed by examining the number of host tree rings traversed by deepest haustoria in slices/cross-sections of parasitized branches/main trunks. Concomitantly, the number of branching events and basal stem diameters were taken from emerging aerial parts of the mistletoes. Host rings preceding the infection were used to determine branch trunk ages-1 during infection. Relationships between haustorial and aerial age indices indicate that: (1 branching events are good non-destructive estimators of mistletoe age while basal diameters were poor estimators of age, (2 early development of M. punctulatum includes a multiyear holotrophic incubation period before producing aerial shoots, (3 the incubation period span is site and/or specie dependent being longer (4-6 yr on the subalpine Nothofagus pumilio, and shorter (2 yr on the lower altitude shrub N. Antarctica, (4 Mistletoes infecting subalpine trees of Nothofagus pumilio in the harsher sites grew slower and were longer-lived than mistletoes infecting lower altitude shrubs of N. antarctica. M. punctulatum infected only young host branches (< 4 yr suggesting strong limitations of mechanically penetrating thicker bark. When M. punctulatum shoots were present on Nothofagus trunks, absolute aging of haustorial systems in cross-sections revealed non-vegetative infections when trees were saplings. Multiple discrete events of renewal of the endophytic system spanning each about 24 yr are probably related to the maintenance of appropriate connections with functional host xylem

  5. Holiday Plants with Toxic Misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabrina N. Evens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several plants are used for their decorative effect during winter holidays. This review explores the toxic reputation and proposed management for exposures to several of those, namely poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima, English holly (Ilex aquifolium, American holly (Ilex opaca,bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara, Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum, Americanmistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum, and European mistletoe (Viscum album.

  6. Management effectiveness and land cover change in dynamic cultural landscapes-assessing a central European biosphere reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohnesorge, B.; Plieninger, Tobias; Hostert, P.

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas are a central pillar of efforts to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services, but their contribution to the conservation and management of European cultural landscapes that have complex spatial-temporal dynamics is unclear. The conservation strategy of biosphere reserves aims...... at integrating biodiversity and ecosystem service conservation with economic development by designating zones of differing protection and use intensities. It is applied worldwide to protect and manage valuable cultural landscapes. Using the example of a German biosphere reserve, we developed a framework...... in the reserve's core, buffer, and transition zones and in a surrounding reference area by means of a geographical information system. (Un-)desirable key processes related to management aims were defined and compared for the various zones. We found that-despite an overall land cover persistence of approximately...

  7. First production of larvae using cryopreserved sperm: Effects of preservation temperature and cryopreservation on European eel sperm fertilization capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asturiano, J.F.; Sørensen, Sune Riis; Perez, L.

    2016-01-01

    Sperm cryopreservation is a useful tool in captive fish reproduction management, that is to synchronize gamete production, especially in the case of species as the European eel, where the time of female spawning readiness is unpredictable. Several protocols to cryopreserve sperm of this species....... Fertilization of two egg batches was attempted. Diluted sperm caused a similar percentage of fertilized eggs and a similar number of embryos and larvae, independently of storage temperature (4 or 20°C). The cryopreserved sperm resulted in a lower percentage of fertilized eggs, but embryos developed and a few...... larvae ('cryolarvae') were obtained 55 h after fertilization in one of the two egg batches. This result evidences that the tested cryopreservation protocol is applicable for eel reproduction management, although improvements will be required to enhance fertilization success...

  8. The Social and Economic Effects of Deterioration in Health: ‘Naked-eye’ Evidence from a European Panel Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigone Lyberaki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the mobilization of social reserves in action in a large European sample survey. The longitudinal dataset of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE is used to identify individuals whose health underwent a major deterioration. The objective is to give a characterization of the problems faced by individuals in different parts of Europe when confronted by similar problems. Though the prevalence of health deterioration was roughly uniform across countries, men’s health impact rises sharply with age, while women appear to accept deterioration as a natural part of ageing. Health deterioration is instrumental in driving individuals out of employment, especially in the South. Treatment styles are very different, with emphasis on hospitals in central Europe, and Doctor visits more common in the South.

  9. Commodity futures markets: are they an effective price risk management tool for the European wheat supply chain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Revoredo-Giha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The instability of commodity prices and the hypothesis that speculative behaviour was one of its causes has brought renewed interest in futures markets. The paper analyses the European wheat futures markets (feed and milling and the Chicago Board of Trade’s wheat contract as a comparison. Although the main purpose of the paper is to analyse whether futures markets are still useful for hedging (considering the demands from different market participants, implicitly this can be seen as testing whether the increasing presence of speculation has made futures markets divorced from physical markets. The results indicate that hedging with futures markets is still a viable alternative for dealing with price risk. This is particularly true in short period hedges (e.g. merchants and processors, where the basis seems to have been affected by the observed price instability.

  10. Effect of human disturbance on long-term habitat use and breeding success of the European Nightjar, Caprimulgus europaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lowe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land managers often respond to declining numbers of target species by creating additional areas of habitat. If these habitats are also subject to human disturbance, then their efforts may be wasted. The European Nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus is a ground-nesting bird that is listed as a species of European Conservation Concern. It appears to be susceptible to human disturbance during the breeding season. We examined habitat use and reproductive success over 10 years in a breeding population on 1335 ha of managed land in Nottinghamshire, England. The study site was divided into a heavily disturbed section and a less disturbed section of equal habitat availability, forming a natural long-term experiment. The site is open to the public, and visitor numbers approximately doubled during the study. We found that overall Nightjar density was significantly lower and there were significantly fewer breeding pairs in the heavily disturbed habitat compared with the less disturbed habitat. However, average breeding success per pair, in terms of eggs and fledglings produced, was not significantly different between the two sections across years. Our findings suggest that human recreational disturbance may drastically alter settlement patterns and nest site selection of arriving females in some migratory ground-nesting species and may reduce the utility of apparently suitable patches of remnant and created habitat. Land managers should bear this in mind when creating new areas of habitat that will also be accessible to the public. Our study also highlights the value of long-term population monitoring, which can detect trends that short-term studies may miss.

  11. A European Master's Programme in Public Health Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yngve, A; Warm, D; Landman, J; Sjöström, M

    2001-12-01

    Effective population-based strategies require people trained and competent in the discipline of Public Health Nutrition. Since 1997, a European Master's Programme in Public Health Nutrition has been undergoing planning and implementation, by establishing initial quality assurance systems with the aid of funding from the European Commission (DG SANCO/F3). Partners from 17 European countries have been involved in the process. A European Network of Public Health Nutrition has been developed and accredited by the European Commission.

  12. Trans-European transport networks and urban systems in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2003-01-01

    The trans-European transport network has different effects at interregional macro-regional and mezzo-regional level, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. In that respect the brief review of survies, strategic framework and policies in European Union has been given. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and f...

  13. The newsletter 'European Research in Radiological Sciences'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihet, P.; D'Errico, F.; Doerr, W.; Gruenberger, M.; Schofield, P.

    2004-01-01

    The newsletter 'European Research in Radiological Sciences' is jointly published by the European Late Effects Project Group and the European Radiation Dosimetry Group to disseminate information about research projects and activities carried out under the EURATOM Framework Programme. Since May 2003, the Newsletter is operated interactively from the Internet. The new site uses a dedicated database that automatically generates HTML pages. This system developed at the Univ. of Cambridge provides an innovative approach to improve the dissemination of project information. (authors)

  14. Adverse Effects of Plant Food Supplements Self-Reported by Consumers in the PlantLIBRA Survey Involving Six European Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Restani

    Full Text Available The use of food supplements containing botanicals is increasing in European markets. Although intended to maintain the health status, several cases of adverse effects to Plant Food Supplements (PFS have been described.To describe the self-reported adverse effects collected during the European PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey 2011-2012, with a critical evaluation of the plausibility of the symptomatology reported using data from the literature and from the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey.From the total sample of 2359 consumers involved in the consumers' survey, 82 subjects reported adverse effects due to a total of 87 PFS.Cases were self-reported, therefore causality was not classified on the basis of clinical evidence, but by using the frequency/strength of adverse effects described in scientific papers: 52 out of 87 cases were defined as possible (59.8% and 4 as probable (4.6%. Considering the most frequently cited botanicals, eight cases were due to Valeriana officinalis (garden valerian; seven to Camellia sinensis (tea; six to Ginkgo biloba (Maidenhair tree and Paullinia cupana (guarana. Most adverse events related to the gastrointestinal tract, nervous and cardiovascular systems.Comparing the data from this study with those published in scientific papers and obtained by the PlantLIBRA Poisons Centers' survey, some important conclusions can be drawn: severe adverse effects to PFS are quite rare, although mild or moderate adverse symptoms can be present. Data reported in this paper can help health professionals (and in particular family doctors to become aware of possible new problems associated with the increasing use of food supplements containing botanicals.

  15. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  16. Predicted effect size of lisdexamfetamine treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in European adults: Estimates based on indirect analysis using a systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, M; Hodgkins, P S; Kahle, J S; Erder, M H

    2015-06-01

    There are few approved therapies for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Europe. Lisdexamfetamine (LDX) is an effective treatment for ADHD; however, no clinical trials examining the efficacy of LDX specifically in European adults have been conducted. Therefore, to estimate the efficacy of LDX in European adults we performed a meta-regression of existing clinical data. A systematic review identified US- and Europe-based randomized efficacy trials of LDX, atomoxetine (ATX), or osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in children/adolescents and adults. A meta-regression model was then fitted to the published/calculated effect sizes (Cohen's d) using medication, geographical location, and age group as predictors. The LDX effect size in European adults was extrapolated from the fitted model. Sensitivity analyses performed included using adult-only studies and adding studies with placebo designs other than a standard pill-placebo design. Twenty-two of 2832 identified articles met inclusion criteria. The model-estimated effect size of LDX for European adults was 1.070 (95% confidence interval: 0.738, 1.401), larger than the 0.8 threshold for large effect sizes. The overall model fit was adequate (80%) and stable in the sensitivity analyses. This model predicts that LDX may have a large treatment effect size in European adults with ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. No effect or no information? Comments on a nested case-control study of lung cancer among European rock and slag wool production workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Eva S

    2002-01-01

    The author considers the validity of a recent study of lung cancer among European rock and slag wool workers. The study failed to demonstrate an association between lung cancer and exposure to man-made vitreous fibers and also did not manage to demonstrate a relationship between lung cancer...... and asbestos exposure, an odd finding that casts doubt on its validity. This article deals with bias towards the null and other aspects of the reviewed study that may explain its failure to demonstrate an effect of asbestos, concluding that the study does not add to knowledge about a possible carcinogenic...... effect of rock and slag wool fibers, the apparent null results simply being non-informative because of the study's poor ability to detect existing associations....

  18. Overview of 71 European community-based initiatives against childhood obesity starting between 2005 and 2011: general characteristics and reported effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemelmans, Wanda Jose Erika; Wijnhoven, Trudy Maria Arnoldina; Verschuuren, Marieke; Breda, João

    2014-07-28

    Community-based initiatives (CBIs) on childhood obesity are considered a good practice approach against childhood obesity. The European Commission called for an overview of CBIs implemented from 2005-2011. A survey was executed by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment of the Netherlands, in collaboration with the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the European CBIs, as identified in the survey, presenting their general characteristics, applied strategies (separately for actions targeting the environment and/or directly the children's behaviour) and the reported effects on weight indicators. Potentially eligible CBIs were identified by informants in 27 European Union countries, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland, and through desk research. School based approaches could be included if they complied with criteria related to being 'community-based'. In total, 278 potential eligible CBIs were identified and of these, 260 projects were approached. For 88 an electronic questionnaire was completed; of these 71 met all criteria. The included projects were reported by 15 countries. 66% of the 71 CBIs implemented actions in more than one setting or throughout the neighbourhood. Most frequently reported environmental actions were professional training (78%), actions for parents (70%), and changing the social (62%) and physical (52%) environment. Most frequently reported educational activities were group education (92%), general educational information (90%), and counselling sessions (58%). The vast majority (96%) implemented both environmental and individual strategies and about half of the CBIs reported a public-private partnership. Eight CBIs provided evidence supporting positive effects on weight indicators and/or overweight prevalence in a general population of children (aged 6 to 12 yrs), and one CBI did not support this. Two of those CBIs were also conducted

  19. Histopathological effects of chronic aqueous exposure to bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) to environmentally relevant concentrations reveal thymus atrophy in European flounder (Platichthys flesus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinwis, G.C.M., E-mail: g.c.m.grinwis@uu.n [Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Utrecht, P.O. Box 80.158, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Wester, P.W. [Laboratory for Toxicology, Pathology and Genetics, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Vethaak, A.D. [Deltares, Unit Coastal and Marine Systems, P.O. Box 177, 2600 MH Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    Although the use of tributyltin in antifouling paints has been banned, this compound is still a serious pollutant of the marine environment. This paper describes a unique study in which European flounder (Platichthys flesus) were chronically (8 months) exposed to bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) in the water under controlled laboratory conditions. Residue levels in selected tissues (liver, muscle) and general health status indices were measured and the effects on several organs (gills, liver, mesonephros, ovary/testis, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract) were examined histopathologically. Additionally, morphometric analysis of the thymus was performed. The major finding is that exposure of flounder to 5 mug TBTO/l over a period of 8 months, resulting in body burdens comparable to high field levels, induced significant reduction of thymus volume, possibly affecting immunocompetence of the animals. Chronic exposure of European flounder to tributyltin is therefore likely to affect the general health status of this species in heavily polluted aquatic environments. - Current levels of tributyltin antifouling contamination are still likely to affect the general health status of estuarine flatfish in heavily polluted environments.

  20. Histopathological effects of chronic aqueous exposure to bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) to environmentally relevant concentrations reveal thymus atrophy in European flounder (Platichthys flesus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinwis, G.C.M.; Wester, P.W.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Although the use of tributyltin in antifouling paints has been banned, this compound is still a serious pollutant of the marine environment. This paper describes a unique study in which European flounder (Platichthys flesus) were chronically (8 months) exposed to bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) in the water under controlled laboratory conditions. Residue levels in selected tissues (liver, muscle) and general health status indices were measured and the effects on several organs (gills, liver, mesonephros, ovary/testis, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract) were examined histopathologically. Additionally, morphometric analysis of the thymus was performed. The major finding is that exposure of flounder to 5 μg TBTO/l over a period of 8 months, resulting in body burdens comparable to high field levels, induced significant reduction of thymus volume, possibly affecting immunocompetence of the animals. Chronic exposure of European flounder to tributyltin is therefore likely to affect the general health status of this species in heavily polluted aquatic environments. - Current levels of tributyltin antifouling contamination are still likely to affect the general health status of estuarine flatfish in heavily polluted environments.

  1. Temporal and seasonal variations of black carbon in a highly polluted European city: Apportionment of potential sources and the effect of meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucbel, Marek; Corsaro, Agnieszka; Švédová, Barbora; Raclavská, Helena; Raclavský, Konstantin; Juchelková, Dagmar

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon - a primary component of particulate matter emitted from an incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biomass, and biofuels - has been found to have a detrimental effect on human health and the environment. Since black carbon emissions data are not readily available, no measures are implemented to reduce black carbon emissions. The temporal and seasonal variations of black carbon concentrations were evaluated during 2012-2014. The data were collected in the highly polluted European city - Ostrava, Czech Republic, surrounded by major highways and large industries. Significantly higher black carbon concentrations were obtained in Ostrava, relative to other European cities and the magnitude was equivalent to the magnitude of black carbon concentrations measured in Poland and China. The data were categorized to heating and non-heating seasons based on the periodic pattern of daily and monthly average concentrations of black carbon. A higher black carbon concentration was obtained during heating season than non-heating season and was primarily associated with an increase in residential coal burning and meteorological parameters. The concentration of black carbon was found to be negatively correlated with temperature and wind speed, and positively correlated with the relative humidity. Other black carbon sources potentially included emissions from vehicle exhaust and the local steel-producing industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolving African attitudes to European education: Resistance, pervert effects of the single system paradox, and the ubuntu framework for renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assié-Lumumba, N'Dri Thérèse

    2016-02-01

    This paper is a reflection that critically examines the dynamics of education and the struggle by African people for freedom, control of the mind, self-definition and the right to determine their own destiny from the start of colonial rule to the present. The primary methodological approach is historical structuralism, which stipulates that social reality and facts are determined and created by social agents within structural and historical contingencies. It addresses some of the most powerful challenges and contradictions that explain the ineffectiveness of numerous post-independence reforms, and presents the arguments for relevance and use of African languages, for instance, that have been made since the 1960s. The first section of the paper deals with the colonial imperatives for setting new education systems in the colonised societies of Africa and the initial attitudes of the Africans towards colonial education. The second section critically examines the evolving meanings of Western education in Europeanising African societies, the articulation of their rationale and the mechanism for resistance. It analyses the turning point when Africans began to embrace European education and demand it in the colonial and post-independence era. The third section addresses the roots of the inadequacies of received post-colonial education and the imperative of deconstruction and re-appropriation of African education using an ubuntu framework for an African renewal.

  3. European Capitals of Culture and the limits of the urban effects in Luxembourg and Sibiu 2007 Capitais europeias da cultura e os limites dos efeitos urbanos em Luxemburgo e Sibiu 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Palonen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A mega-event is a replicant: local copy of a global model. The European Capitals of Culture (ECC is an annual mega-event, currently usually held in two European cities. This paper argues it has three particular dimensions, recognisable from the European Union’s policy. First designed to articulate a European identity, it has been a mover for local urban transformation and city-branding, and later participation. The policy projects Europe as “family of cultures”, which suggests attention for a particular ECC year, when the old Saxon fortress town of Luxembourg hosted the title together with the former Saxon fortress town Sibiu of Romania, which joined the European Union only the same year: 2007. The article asks, what are the limits of the urban effects of the three dimensions of the European Capitals of Culture, using as a method urban art interventions for investigating the limits and potential spatial effects of the ECCs and the extent of the diffusion of institutional elements.

  4. A European Research Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a summary of the presentation of the European Commissioner, Philippe Busquen, to the European Parliament (beginning of year 2000) with the proposal and method for a revival of the Research and Development in this wider sense in the European Union. The starting point of his thesis is that Europe performs less, and more disorderly, activities in this field that her main competitors. USA and Japan. His basic proposal is a larger coordination among the european research projects, with a previous phase of informatics intoxicator among the european research centres and the cross-linked participation, real of virtual in the experiments and projects. (Author)

  5. A qualitative interview study on effects of diet on children's mental state and performance. Evaluation of perceptions, attitudes and beliefs of parents in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Brigitte; Egan, Bernadette; Györei, Eszter; López-Robles, Juan Carlos; Gage, Heather; Campoy, Cristina; Decsi, Tamás; Koletzko, Berthold; Raats, Monique M

    2012-04-01

    Nutrition is one of the many factors that influence a child's cognitive development and performance. Understanding the relationship between nutrition and mental performance in children is important in terms of their attainment and productivity both in school and later life. Since parents are seen as nutritional gatekeepers for their children's diets, their views and beliefs are of crucial importance. The present study aims to qualitatively examine parents' perceptions of the relationship between diet and mental performance of children. The study was conducted with a total of 124 parents in four European countries using a semi-structured interview schedule. Parents speak of the effects of diet at two levels; the nature of the effects of diet and the characteristics of the foods responsible for these effects. Mental outcomes are related to diet, with the effects perceived to be associated with attention and concentration, often mediated by effects on children's mood and behaviour. Parents categorise foods as 'good' or 'bad' with positive effects related generally to a healthy balanced diet while negative effects are perceived to be associated with sugary and fatty foods. Understanding parental perceptions is important for many purposes including the targeting of dietary advice and prioritising of public health issues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determinants of European air traffic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav MIHETEC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborates main determinants of the strategic development as well as the key factors, which influence European air traffic dynamics. The problem of European airspace fragmentation should be solved by the comprehensive dynamic harmonization programmes, which can contribute to effective increase of airspace capacity and increase of air transport efficiency. The main objective of development strategy refers to the implementation of reformation processes of the European air traffic management system through functional ATM regionalization and adoption of Single European Sky legislation.

  7. The effects of public health policies on population health and health inequalities in European welfare states: protocol for an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Katie; Bambra, Clare; McNamara, Courtney; Huijts, Tim; Todd, Adam

    2016-04-08

    The welfare state is potentially an important macro-level determinant of health that also moderates the extent, and impact, of socio-economic inequalities in exposure to the social determinants of health. The welfare state has three main policy domains: health care, social policy (e.g. social transfers and education) and public health policy. This is the protocol for an umbrella review to examine the latter; its aim is to assess how European welfare states influence the social determinants of health inequalities institutionally through public health policies. A systematic review methodology will be used to identify systematic reviews from high-income countries (including additional EU-28 members) that describe the health and health equity effects of upstream public health interventions. Interventions will focus on primary and secondary prevention policies including fiscal measures, regulation, education, preventative treatment and screening across ten public health domains (tobacco; alcohol; food and nutrition; reproductive health services; the control of infectious diseases; screening; mental health; road traffic injuries; air, land and water pollution; and workplace regulations). Twenty databases will be searched using a pre-determined search strategy to evaluate population-level public health interventions. Understanding the impact of specific public health policy interventions will help to establish causality in terms of the effects of welfare states on population health and health inequalities. The review will document contextual information on how population-level public health interventions are organised, implemented and delivered. This information can be used to identify effective interventions that could be implemented to reduce health inequalities between and within European countries. PROSPERO CRD42016025283.

  8. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2007-01-01

    This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD...

  9. Effect of production management on semen quality during long-term storage in different European boar studs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Kuster, C; Schäfer, J; Jung, M; Grossfeld, R

    2018-03-01

    The processing of ejaculates is a fundamental step for the fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa. The aim of the present study was to identify factors that affect quality of boar semen doses. The production process during 1 day of semen processing in 26 European boar studs was monitored. In each boar stud, nine to 19 randomly selected ejaculates from 372 Pietrain boars were analyzed for sperm motility, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and thermo-resistance (TRT). Each ejaculate was monitored for production time and temperature for each step in semen processing using the special programmed software SEQU (version 1.7, Minitüb, Tiefenbach, Germany). The dilution of ejaculates with a short-term extender was completed in one step in 10 AI centers (n = 135 ejaculates), in two steps in 11 AI centers (n = 158 ejaculates) and in three steps in five AI centers (n = 79 ejaculates). Results indicated there was a greater semen quality with one-step isothermal dilution compared with the multi-step dilution of AI semen doses (total motility TRT d7: 71.1 ± 19.2%, 64.6 ± 20.0%, 47.1 ± 27.1%; one-step compared with two-step compared with the three-step dilution; P < .05). There was a marked advantage when using the one-step isothermal dilution regarding time management, preservation suitability, stability and stress resistance. One-step dilution caused significant lower holding times of raw ejaculates and reduced the possible risk of making mistakes due to a lower number of processing steps. These results lead to refined recommendations for boar semen processing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Phenotypic divergence among west European populations of Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus: the effects of migratory and foraging behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio M Neto

    Full Text Available Divergent selection and local adaptation are responsible for many phenotypic differences between populations, potentially leading to speciation through the evolution of reproductive barriers. Here we evaluated the morphometric divergence among west European populations of Reed Bunting in order to determine the extent of local adaptation relative to two important selection pressures often associated with speciation in birds: migration and diet. We show that, as expected by theory, migratory E. s. schoeniclus had longer and more pointed wings and a slightly smaller body mass than the resident subspecies, with the exception of E. s. lusitanica, which despite having rounder wings was the smallest of all subspecies. Tail length, however, did not vary according to the expectation (shorter tails in migrants probably because it is strongly correlated with wing length and might take longer to evolve. E. s. witherbyi, which feed on insects hiding inside reed stems during the winter, had a very thick, stubby bill. In contrast, northern populations, which feed on seeds, had thinner bills. Despite being much smaller, the southern E. s. lusitanica had a significantly thicker, longer bill than migratory E. s. schoeniclus, whereas birds from the UK population had significantly shorter, thinner bills. Geometric morphometric analyses revealed that the southern subspecies have a more convex culmen than E. s. schoeniclus, and E. s. lusitanica differs from the nominate subspecies in bill shape to a greater extent than in linear bill measurements, especially in males. Birds with a more convex culmen are thought to exert a greater strength at the bill tip, which is in agreement with their feeding technique. Overall, the three subspecies occurring in Western Europe differ in a variety of traits following the patterns predicted from their migratory and foraging behaviours, strongly suggesting that these birds have became locally adapted through natural selection.

  11. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the prepectoral breast reconstruction with Braxon dermal matrix: First multicenter European report on 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidya, Raghavan; Masià, Jaume; Cawthorn, Simon; Berna, Giorgio; Bozza, Fernando; Gardetto, Alexander; Kołacińska, Agnieszka; Dell'Antonia, Francesco; Tiengo, Cesare; Bassetto, Franco; Caputo, Glenda G; Governa, Maurizio

    2017-11-01

    We report the outcomes of the European prospective study on prepectoral breast reconstruction using preshaped acellular dermal matrix for complete breast implant coverage. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled between April 2014 and August 2015 all over Europe using a single protocol for patient selection and surgical procedure, according to the Association of Breast Surgery and British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons joint guidelines for the use of acellular dermal matrix in breast surgery. The preshaped matrix completely wraps the breast implant, which is placed above the pectoralis major, without detaching the muscle. A total of 100 prepectoral breast reconstructions with complete implant coverage were performed. This series, with mean follow-up of 17.9 months, had two cases of implant loss (2.0%) including one necrosis of the nipple and one wound breakdown (1.0% respectively). No implant rotations were observed. Good cosmetic outcomes were obtained with natural movement of the breasts and softness to the touch; none of the patients reported experiencing pain or reduction in the movements of the pectoralis major muscle postoperatively. The use of preshaped acellular dermal matrix for a complete breast implant coverage in selected patients is safe and gives satisfactory results, both from the aesthetic view point and the low postoperative complication rates. Further studies reporting long-term outcomes are planned. © 2017 Crown copyright. The Breast Journal © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  12. Interest Organisations and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    This paper examines the influence of European integration on the relationship between state administration and private interests in the four Nordic countries - Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. By private interests I mean interest organizations, private corporations and independent experts....... The paper focuses exclusively on the national policy processes that are involved with managing European Union (EU) issues. More specifically, this paper discusses two aspects of multi-level governance. First is the important role of private interests in the coordination of decision making at the national...... level preceding their government's representation of national interests in the European Council of Ministers and other EU organizations. Second is the effect of all this on national democratic systems....

  13. 4th European Turbulence Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The European Turbulence Conferences have been organized under the auspices of the European Mechanics Committee (Euromech) to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of recent and new results in the field of turbulence. The first conference was organized in Lyon in 1986 with 152 participants. The second and third conferences were held in Berlin (1988) and Stockholm (1990) with 165 and 172 participants respectively. The fourth was organized in Delft from 30 June to 3 July 1992 by the J.M. Burgers Centre. There were 214 participants from 22 countries. This steadily growing number of participants demonstrates both the success and need for this type of conference. The main topics of the Fourth European Turbulence Conference were: Dynamical Systems and Transition; Statistical Physics and Turbulence; Experiments and Novel Experimental Techniques; Particles and Bubbles in Turbulence; Simulation Methods; Coherent Structures; Turbulence Modelling and Compressibility Effects. In addition a special session was held o...

  14. Soil conditions and land use intensification effects on soil microbial communities across a range of European field sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, Bruce C.; Tisserant, Emilie; Plassart, Pierre; Uroz, Stéphane; Griffiths, Rob I.; Hannula, S. Emilia; Buée, Marc; Mougel, Christophe; Ranjard, Lionel; Van Veen, Johannes A.; Martin, Francis; Bailey, Mark J.; Lemanceau, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intensive land use practices necessary for providing food and raw materials are known to have a deleterious effect on soil. However, the effects such practices have on soil microbes are less well understood. To investigate the effects of land use intensification on soil microbial

  15. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and traffic noise and incident hypertension in seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuks, Kateryna B; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Basagaña, Xavier; Gruzieva, Olena; Hampel, Regina; Oftedal, Bente; Sørensen, Mette; Wolf, Kathrin; Aamodt, Geir; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Becker, Thomas; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Caracciolo, Barbara; Cyrys, Josef; Elosua, Roberto; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Foraster, Maria; Fratiglioni, Laura; Hilding, Agneta; Houthuijs, Danny; Korek, Michal; Künzli, Nino; Marrugat, Jaume; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Penell, Johanna; Pershagen, Göran; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Swart, Wim J R; Peters, Annette; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    We investigated whether traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with incident hypertension in European cohorts. We included seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE). We modelled concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10), >2.5, and ≤10 µm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), and nitrogen oxides at the addresses of participants with land use regression. Residential exposure to traffic noise was modelled at the facade according to the EU Directive 2002/49/EC. We assessed hypertension as (i) self-reported and (ii) measured (systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg or intake of BP lowering medication (BPLM). We used Poisson regression with robust variance estimation to analyse associations of traffic-related exposures with incidence of hypertension, controlling for relevant confounders, and combined the results from individual studies with random-effects meta-analysis. Among 41 072 participants free of self-reported hypertension at baseline, 6207 (15.1%) incident cases occurred within 5-9 years of follow-up. Incidence of self-reported hypertension was positively associated with PM2.5 (relative risk (RR) 1.22 [95%-confidence interval (CI):1.08; 1.37] per 5 µg/m³) and PM2.5 absorbance (RR 1.13 [95% CI:1.02; 1.24] per 10 - 5m - 1). These estimates decreased slightly upon adjustment for road traffic noise. Road traffic noise was weakly positively associated with the incidence of self-reported hypertension. Among 10 896 participants at risk, 3549 new cases of measured hypertension occurred. We found no clear associations with measured hypertension. Long-term residential exposures to air pollution and noise are associated with increased incidence of self-reported hypertension. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effect of interaction between dynapenic component of the European working group on sarcopenia in older people sarcopenia criteria and obesity on activities of daily living in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Pyo; Kim, Sun; Joh, Ju-Youn; Hwang, Hwan-Sik

    2014-05-01

    To examine the effects of interaction between dynapenic component of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) sarcopenia and obesity (dynapenia × obesity) on activities of daily living (ADL) in older participants. Cross-sectional analysis of the Validity and Reliability of Korean Frailty Index and the Validity and Reliability of the Kaigo-Yobo Checklist in Korean Elderly studies. Six welfare facilities operated by government in South Korea. Four hundred eighty-seven community-dwelling individuals (157 males, 330 females) >65 years of age. Dynapenic component of the EWGSOP sarcopenia was defined as usual gait speed sarcopenia and obesity in the elderly is associated with multiplicative interactions rather than additive interactions in ADL. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Intestinal Tapeworm Clestobothrium crassiceps on Concentrations of Toxic Elements and Selenium in European Hake Merluccius merluccius from the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Miquel, Jordi; Ferrer-Maza, Dolors; Delgado, Eulàlia; Casadevall, Margarida

    2015-10-28

    The capacity for heavy metal bioaccumulation by some fish parasites has been demonstrated, and their contribution to decreasing metal concentrations in tissues of parasitized fish has been hypothesized. The present study evaluated the effect of the cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps on the accumulation of trace elements in 30 European hake, Merluccius merluccius, in Spain (half of them infested by C. crassiceps). Tissue samples from all M. merluccius and specimens of C. crassiceps from the infected hakes were collected and stored until element analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic, mercury, and selenium were generally present in lower levels in the cestode than in all hake tissues. The mean value of the muscular Se:Hg molar ratio in the infested subsample was higher than that in hakes without cestodes. Values indicate that the edible part of infested hakes presents a lower amount of Cd and Pb in relation to noninfested hakes.

  18. A review of employment effects of European Union policies and measures for CO{sub 2}-emission reductions. Report of a study for WWF Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, R.; Schleich, J.; Betz, R.; Nathani, C.

    1999-05-01

    This paper aims at providing a rough review of the likely employment effects of European Union policies and measures for CO{sub 2}-emission reductions. This review concentrates mainly on the so-called common and coordinated policies and measures. Furthermore, the analysis is restricted to presenting and systemising existing results on the effects of a CO{sub 2}/energy tax and putting forward a rather qualitative evaluation of the various sectoral policies discussed. The paper is organised as follows. In section 2, the economic impact mechanisms of climate protection policies are discussed. This allows the different arguments brought forward in the debate on the employment effects of CO{sub 2}-reduction policies to be systemised and evaluated. Section 3 presents some of the latest results on the macroeconomic effects of a CO{sub 2}/energy tax. The likely effects of the sectoral policies on the different economic impact categories are discussed in section 4. Conclusions are presented in section 5. (orig.)

  19. Population and life-stage-specific effects of two herbicide formulations on the aquatic development of European common frogs (Rana temporaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Norman; Veith, Michael; Lötters, Stefan; Viertel, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contamination is suggested to contribute to amphibian population declines. However, the effects of a contaminant on a particular amphibian species can differ among populations. The authors investigated the toxic effects of 2 herbicide formulations on different populations and on representative developmental stages of the European common frog (Rana temporaria). Larvae from forest populations were more sensitive to a commonly used glyphosate-based herbicide compared with individuals from agrarian land. Median lethal concentrations correlated with measured glyphosate levels in the breeding ponds, which may be a sign of evolved tolerances. The reverse result was observed for a less commonly used cycloxydim-based herbicide. Effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide were stronger for earlier larval stages compared with later larval stages. Hence, applications in early spring (when early larvae are present in breeding ponds) pose greater risk concerning acute toxic effects on R. temporaria. With regard to late larval stages, short exposure (96 h) of prometamorphic larvae prolonged time to metamorphosis, but only at the highest test concentration that did not significantly induce mortality. This could be due to impairment of the thyroid axis. Notably, nearly all test concentrations of the 2 herbicides provoked growth retardation. Further research on how evolved or induced tolerances are acquired, actual contamination levels of amphibian habitats, and potential endocrine effects of glyphosate-based herbicides is necessary. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:190-200. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  20. The role of efficiency improvements vs. price effects for modeling passenger car transport demand and energy demand—Lessons from European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanovic, Amela; Haas, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of changes in fuel prices and fuel intensity (i.e. liters of fuel used per 100 kilometers) on overall fuel (gasoline and diesel) consumption and on the demand for vehicle km driven in car passenger transport. This is important for deriving effective policy portfolios consisting of fuel taxes and technical standards such as fuel intensity mandates or specific CO 2 emission limits. To extract these impacts, we apply cointegration analyses to six European countries and their aggregate over the period 1970–2007. We consider the impact of fuel prices, household income and fuel intensity on fuel consumption. Furthermore, we investigate how changes in fuel prices and fuel intensity interact, analyzing the rebound effect due to lower fuel intensity and due to the switch to diesel. Because we find a high rebound effect with 44% more km driven if fuel intensity is improved 100%, the major conclusion of our analysis for policy makers is that technical standards as the only policy instrument will have limited success. Rather we recommend increased fuel taxes along with fuel intensity standards so that the taxes compensate for the rebound due to the standards. - Highlights: ► We find a high rebound effect with 44% more km driven if fuel intensity is improved. ► Technical standards as the only policy instrument will have limited success. ► Fuel taxes accompanied to fuel intensity standards may compensate the rebound effect.

  1. The Effect of Oral Vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG on the Development of Tuberculosis in Captive European Badgers (Meles meles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Mark A; Aldwell, Frank; Williams, Gareth A; Palmer, Si; Gowtage, Sonya; Ashford, Roland; Dalley, Deanna J; Davé, Dipesh; Weyer, Ute; Salguero, Francisco J; Nunez, Alejandro; Nadian, Allan K; Crawshaw, Timothy; Corner, Leigh A L; Lesellier, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    The European badger ( Meles meles ) is a reservoir host of Mycobacterium bovis and responsible for a proportion of the tuberculosis (TB) cases seen in cattle in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. An injectable preparation of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is licensed for use in badgers in the UK and its use forms part of the bovine TB eradication plans of England and Wales. However, there are practical limitations to the widespread application of an injectable vaccine for badgers and a research priority is the development of an oral vaccine deliverable to badgers in bait. Previous studies reported the successful vaccination of badgers with oral preparations of 10 8 colony forming units (CFU) of both Pasteur and Danish strains of BCG contained within a lipid matrix composed of triglycerides of fatty acids. Protection against TB in these studies was expressed as a reduction in the number and apparent progression of visible lesions, and reductions in the bacterial load and dissemination of infection. To reduce the cost of an oral vaccine and reduce the potential for environmental contamination with BCG, it is necessary to define the minimal efficacious dose of oral BCG for badgers. The objectives of the two studies reported here were to compare the efficacy of BCG Danish strain in a lipid matrix with unformulated BCG given orally, and to evaluate the efficacy of BCG Danish in a lipid matrix at a 10-fold lower dose than previously evaluated in badgers. In the first study, both BCG unformulated and in a lipid matrix reduced the number and apparent progression of visible lesions and the dissemination of infection from the lung. In the second study, vaccination with BCG in the lipid matrix at a 10-fold lower dose produced a similar outcome, but with greater intra-group variability than seen with the higher dose in the first study. Further research is needed before we are able to recommend a final dose of BCG for oral vaccination of badgers against TB

  2. Effects of forest cover changes in European Russia on regional weather conditions: results of numerical experiments with the COSMO-CLM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchev, Alexander; Kuzmina, Ekaterina; Rozinkina, Inna; Nikitin, Mikhail; Rivin, Gdaly S.

    2017-04-01

    The forests have a significant effect on the climatic system. They capture CO2 from the atmosphere, regulate the surface evaporation and runoff, and influence the radiation and thermal conditions of the land surface. It is obvious, that their influence depends on many different factors including regional climate conditions, land use and vegetation structure, surface topography, etc. The main goal of the study is to assess the possible influence of forest cover changes (under deforestation and/or afforestation) on regional weather conditions in the central part of European Russia using the results of modeling experiments provided by the meso-scale COSMO-CLM model. The need of the study lies in a lack of the experimental and modeling data characterizing the influence of the forest and land-use changes on regional weather conditions in European part of Russia. The forest ecosystems in the study region play a very important biosphere role that is significantly increased in the last decades due to considerable strengthening of anthropogenic activity in the area of European Russia. The area selected for the study is located in the central part of European Russia between 55 and 59N and 28 and 37E. It comprises several geographical zones including dark-coniferous forests of the South-European taiga in the north, the mixed forests in the central part and the broad-leaved forests in the south. The forests within the study area are very heterogeneous. The total area covered by forests according to recent remote sensing data is about 50%. The numerical experiments were provided using the COSMO-CLM model with the spatial resolution 13.2 km. As initial and boundary conditions for the numerical experiments the global reanalysis ERA Interim (with the 6-hour resolution in time and 0.75° × 0.75° in space) were used. The weather conditions were simulated in a continuous cycle for several months for the entire area of European Russia using the results of global reanalysis on

  3. Local and landscape-level floral resources explain effects of wildflower strips on wild bees across four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, J.A.; Bommarco, R.; Holzschuh, A.; Potts, S.G.; Riedinger, V.; Roberts, S.P.M.; Rundlöf, M.; Smith, H.G.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Wickens, J.B.; Wickens, V.J.; Kleijn, D.

    2015-01-01

    1.Growing evidence for declines in wild bees calls for the development and implementation of effective mitigation measures. Enhancing floral resources is a widely accepted measure for promoting bees in agricultural landscapes, but effectiveness varies considerably between landscapes and regions. We

  4. Local and landscape-level floral resources explain effects of wildflower strips on wild bees across four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, J.A.; Bommarco, R.; Holzschuh, A.; Potts, S.G.; Riedinger, V.; Roberts, S.P.M.; Rundlöf, M.; Smith, H.G.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Wickens, J.B.; Wickens, V.J.; Kleijn, D.

    2015-01-01

    1. Growing evidence for declines in wild bees calls for the development and implementation of effective mitigation measures. Enhancing floral resources is a widely accepted measure for promoting bees in agricultural landscapes, but effectiveness varies considerably between landscapes and regions. We

  5. Modelling projections for the uptake of edoxaban in an European population to 2050: effects on stroke, thromboembolism, and health economics perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blann, Andrew D; Boriani, Giuseppe; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-10-01

    In the coming decades, the number of Europeans with atrial fibrillation (AF) is set to rise as the population ages, and so with it will the number of strokes. The risk of thromboembolism (principally stroke and systemic embolism) and death can be reduced by the use of the vitamin K antagonists (VKA, e.g. warfarin) and more so by non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) such as edoxaban. We modelled the effect of the increasing use of edoxaban in preference to warfarin in a European AF population from both clinical and economic perspectives. We estimate that the introduction of NOACs in 2010 eliminated over 88 000 thromboembolisms and deaths annually, of which over 17 000 were ischaemic strokes. At a 1-year cost of €30k per ischaemic stroke, this strategy saved €510 million annually. Should the use of edoxaban increase from 11% in 2013 to 75% by 2030, we expect that rate of thromboembolism and death will fall from 5.67 to 5.42 total events per million patients per year, which will further eliminate over 12 000 of these events annually. At an inflation-adjusted 1-year cost of approximately €35k per ischaemic stroke, this will save €44.5 million each year. At a conservative rate of increase in the AF population of 2.2-fold from 2005, in 2050 there will be around 180 000 AF-related ischaemic strokes that, at an inflation-adjusted cost of around €62k per stroke, sums to €11 116 million. Should the rate of AF rise 2.6-fold from 2005, then in 2050 there will be 214 500 ischaemic strokes that will cost around €13 300 million. Our data point to a substantial increase in the human and economic cost burden of AF and so emphasize the need to reduce this burden. This may be achieved by the increased use of oral anticoagulants, particularly with the NOACs such as edoxaban. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Using a novel "Integrated Biomarker Proteomic" index to assess the effects of freshwater pollutants in European eel peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Kathleen; Kestemont, Patrick; Dieu, Marc; Raes, Martine; Silvestre, Frédéric

    2016-03-30

    Using proteomic data as biomarkers of environmental pollution has the potential to be of a great interest in ecological risk assessment as they constitute early warning indicators of ecologically relevant effects on biological systems. To develop such specific and sensitive biomarkers, the use of a set of proteins is required and the identification of protein expression signatures (PES) may reflect the exposure to specific classes of pollutants. Using 2D-DIGE (Differential in Gel Electrophoresis) methodology, this study aimed at identifying specific PES on European eel (Anguilla anguilla) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after 48 h in vitro exposure to two sublethal concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) (10 μg/L and 1mg/L) or cadmium (Cd) (1 μg/L and 100 μg/L). The present results have been supplemented with data of a first in vitro study on cells exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (10 μg/L and 1mg/L). A total of thirty-four protein spots, belonging to 18 different identified proteins found in all conditions, have been selected as possible biomarkers to develop a synthetic Integrated Biomarker Proteomic (IBP) index. IBP follows a dose-response relationship with higher values at the highest tested concentration for each pollutant (Cd: 9.96; DDT: 7.44; PFOS: 7.94) compared to the lowest tested concentration (Cd: 3.81; DDT: 2.91; PFOS: 2.06). In a second step, star plot graphs have been applied to proteomic data in order to allow visual integration of a set of early warning responses measured with protein biomarkers. Such star plots permit to discriminate the type of pollutant inducing a proteomic response. We conclude that using IBP is relevant in environmental risk assessment, giving to this index the potential to be applied as a global index of proteome alteration in endangered species such as the European eel. In this study, 34 protein spots have been selected as possible biomarkers to develop a synthetic Integrated

  7. Searching for the best modeling specification for assessing the effects of temperature and humidity on health: a time series analysis in three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodopoulou, Sophia; Samoli, Evangelia; Analitis, Antonis; Atkinson, Richard W; de'Donato, Francesca K; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological time series studies suggest daily temperature and humidity are associated with adverse health effects including increased mortality and hospital admissions. However, there is no consensus over which metric or lag best describes the relationships. We investigated which temperature and humidity model specification most adequately predicted mortality in three large European cities. Daily counts of all-cause mortality, minimum, maximum and mean temperature and relative humidity and apparent temperature (a composite measure of ambient and dew point temperature) were assembled for Athens, London, and Rome for 6 years between 1999 and 2005. City-specific Poisson regression models were fitted separately for warm (April-September) and cold (October-March) periods adjusting for seasonality, air pollution, and public holidays. We investigated goodness of model fit for each metric for delayed effects up to 13 days using three model fit criteria: sum of the partial autocorrelation function, AIC, and GCV. No uniformly best index for all cities and seasonal periods was observed. The effects of temperature were uniformly shown to be more prolonged during cold periods and the majority of models suggested separate temperature and humidity variables performed better than apparent temperature in predicting mortality. Our study suggests that the nature of the effects of temperature and humidity on mortality vary between cities for unknown reasons which require further investigation but may relate to city-specific population, socioeconomic, and environmental characteristics. This may have consequences on epidemiological studies and local temperature-related warning systems.

  8. European nuclear education network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.; Moons, F.; Safieh, J.

    2005-01-01

    In most countries within the European Union that rely to a significant extent on nuclear power, neither undergraduate nor PhD education is producing a sufficient number of engineers and doctors to fill the needs of the industry. As a result of an EU-supported project, a new education organisation, European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN), has recently been established, with the aim to establish a European master's degree of nuclear engineering. Recently, a new EU project, Nuclear European Platform of Training and University Organisations (NEPTUNO), has been launched, aiming at the practical implementation of ENEN and harmonisation of training activities. (author)

  9. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  10. Mixing Effects in Norway Spruce—European Beech Stands Are Modulated by Site Quality, Stand Age and Moisture Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Houpert

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although mixing tree species is considered an efficient risk-reduction strategy in the face of climate change, the conditions where mixtures are more productive than monocultures are under ongoing debate. Generalizations have been difficult because of the variety of methods used and due to contradictory findings regarding the effects of the species investigated, mixing proportions, and many site and stand conditions. Using data from 960 plots of the Swiss National Forest Inventory data, we assessed whether Picea abies (L. Karst–Fagus sylvatica L. mixed stands are more productive than pure stands, and whether the mixing effect depends on site- or stand-characteristics. The species proportions were estimated using species proportion by area, which depends on the maximum stand basal area of an unmanaged stand (BAmax. Four different alternatives were used to estimate BAmax and to investigate the effect of these differing alternatives on the estimated mixture effect. On average, the mixture had a negative effect on the growth of Picea abies. However, this effect decreased as moisture availability increased. Fagus sylvatica grew better in mixtures and this effect increased with site quality. A significant interaction between species proportions and quadratic mean diameter, a proxy for stand age, was found for both species: the older the stand, the better the growth of Fagus sylvatica and the lower the growth of Picea abies. Overyielding was predicted for 80% of the investigated sites. The alternative to estimate BAmax weakly modulated the estimated mixture effect, but it did not affect the way mixing effects changed with site characteristics.

  11. The Effect of Pleistocene Climate Fluctuations on Distribution of European Abalone (Haliotis tuberculata), Revealed by Combined Mitochondrial and Nuclear Marker Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Valérie; Van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2017-04-01

    The genetic differentiation among the populations of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata was investigated using different markers to better understand the evolutionary history and exchanges between populations. Three markers were used: mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), the sperm lysin nuclear gene, and eight nuclear microsatellites. These markers present different characteristics concerning mutation rate and inheritance, which provided complementary information about abalone history and gene diversity. Genetic diversity and relationships among subspecies were calculated from a sample of approximately 500 individuals, collected from 17 different locations in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean, Macaronesia, and Mediterranean Sea. COI marker was used to explore the phylogeny of the species with a network analysis and two phylogenetic methods. The analysis revealed 18 major haplotypes grouped into two distinct clades with a pairwise sequence divergence up to 3.5 %. These clades do not correspond to subspecies but revealed many contacts along Atlantic coast during the Pleistocene interglaciations. The sperm lysin gene analysis separated two different subtaxa: one associated to Macaronesian islands, and the other to all other populations. Moreover, a small population of the northern subtaxon was isolated in the Adriatic Sea-probably before the separation of the two lineages-and evolved independently. Microsatellites were analyzed by different genetics methods, including the Bayesian clustering method and migration patterns analysis. It revealed genetically distinct microsatellite patterns among populations from Mediterranean Sea, Brittany and Normandy, Morocco, and Canary and Balearic islands. Gene flow is asymmetric among the regions; the Azores and the Canary Islands are particularly isolated and have low effective population sizes. Our results support the hypothesis that climate changes since the Pleistocene glaciations have played a major role in the

  12. An update to "The cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination: comparative analyses for five European countries and transferability in Europe".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Mangen, Marie-Josée J; Melliez, Hugues; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Bilcke, Joke; Salo, Heini; Edmunds, W John; Beutels, Philippe

    2010-11-03

    A cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination in Belgium, England and Wales, Finland, France and the Netherlands published in 2009 was updated based on recent studies on rotavirus burden of disease and vaccine efficacy. All the qualitative conclusions in the previous study were found to remain valid. Vaccination remains cost-effective in Finland only when using plausible tender prices. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. THE MANIFESTATION OF THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK’S LEGAL PERSONALITY AT NATIONAL, EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA ŞAGUNA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Central Bank is one of the world’ s most important central banks, responsible for the monetary policy covering the 17 member States of the Eurozone. Established by the European Union in 1998, it was given the exclusive right to authorize the issue of banknotes within the European Union. The European Central Bank has legal personality under public international law. As article 282, paragraph 3 of the Treaty on functioning of the European Union and article 9, paragraph 1 of the Statute of the European System of Central Banks and of the European Central Bank states, the European Central Bank and the National Central Banks enjoy their own legal personality. The European Central Bank, given its important role in the economic integration, is the single institution of the European Union which has legal personality. This is a premise for it to fulfill its objectives. In this framework, the purpose of my paper is to analyze the effects of the European Central Bank’s legal personality from a complete perspective: at national, European and international level. Therefore the objectives of my study are: an introspection in the concept of legal personality, the identification of the reason why it was entrusted to a single institution of the European Union and a detailed analyze of the effects of the European Central Bank’ s legal personality.

  14. Effect of European Clinical Trials Directive on academic drug trials in Denmark: retrospective study of applications to the Danish Medicines Agency 1993-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Louise; Hakansson, Cecilia; Bach, Karin Ursula Friis

    2008-01-01

    To determine the impact of the European Union's Clinical Trials Directive on the number of academic drug trials carried out in Denmark.......To determine the impact of the European Union's Clinical Trials Directive on the number of academic drug trials carried out in Denmark....

  15. Separating climate change signals into thermodynamic, lapse-rate and circulation effects: theory and application to the European summer climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner, Nico; Kotlarski, Sven; Fischer, Erich; Lüthi, Daniel; Zubler, Elias; Schär, Christoph

    2017-05-01

    Climate models robustly project a strong overall summer warming across Europe showing a characteristic north-south gradient with enhanced warming and drying in southern Europe. However, the processes that are responsible for this pattern are not fully understood. We here employ an extended surrogate or pseudo-warming approach to disentangle the contribution of different mechanisms to this response pattern. The basic idea of the surrogate technique is to use a regional climate model and apply a large-scale warming to the lateral boundary conditions of a present-day reference simulation, while maintaining the relative humidity (and thus implicitly increasing the specific moisture content). In comparison to previous studies, our approach includes two important extensions: first, different vertical warming profiles are applied in order to separate the effects of a mean warming from lapse-rate effects. Second, a twin-design is used, in which the climate change signals are not only added to present-day conditions, but also subtracted from a scenario experiment. We demonstrate that these extensions provide an elegant way to separate the full climate change signal into contributions from large-scale thermodynamic (TD), lapse-rate (LR), and circulation and other remaining effects (CO). The latter in particular include changes in land-ocean contrast and spatial variations of the SST warming patterns. We find that the TD effect yields a large-scale warming across Europe with no distinct latitudinal gradient. The LR effect, which is quantified for the first time in our study, leads to a stronger warming and some drying in southern Europe. It explains about 50 % of the warming amplification over the Iberian Peninsula, thus demonstrating the important role of lapse-rate changes. The effect is linked to an extending Hadley circulation. The CO effect as inherited from the driving GCM is shown to further amplify the north-south temperature change gradient. In terms of mean summer

  16. Good jobs, good pay, better health? The effects of job quality on health among older European workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henseke, Golo

    2018-01-01

    Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, this study presents new evidence on the effects of job quality on the occurrence of severe acute conditions, the level of cardiovascular risk factors, musculoskeletal disorders, mental health, functional disabilities and self-assessed health among workers aged 50+. By combining intrinsic job quality with job insecurity and pay the study maps out multiple potential pathways through which work may affect health and well-being. Levering longitudinal data and external information on early retirement ages allows for accounting of unobserved heterogeneity, selection bias and reverse causality. The empirical findings suggest that inequities in health correlate with inequities in job quality, though a substantial fraction of these associations reflect time-constant unobserved heterogeneity. Still, there is evidence for genuine protective effects of better jobs on musculoskeletal disorders, mental health and general health. The effect could contribute to a substantial number of avoidable disorders among older workers, despite relatively modest effect sizes at the level of individuals. Mental health, in particular, responds to changes in job quality. Selection bias such as the healthy worker effect does not alter the results. But the influence of job quality on health may be transitional among older workers. An in-depth analysis of health dynamics reveals no evidence for persistence.

  17. Globalization and Europeanization. A Projection on a European Model of Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Matei

    2008-04-01

    , also by standards. These assertions, to which we can add also others, are leading to a new model of public administration, whose area overlaps with the space of European Union, incorporating the effects of globalization under its European expression, Europeanization. Consequently, the proposed model, emphasizing the process of European Union construction will comprise transparency, accountability and participation of the interested parties to public decision. The new public administration aims to use efficiently the resources in order to create favourable conditions for its citizens to become more competitive on the world market and to reduce the gap between the poorest and the richest inhabitants of the world. The current paper aims to conceptualize and to describe a model of public administration. The architecture of this model will be that of a complex system, with a mixed architecture, emphasizing connections with different intensities among its various levels: European, regional, national etc. The feedback mechanisms will be different and specific for each level and they will be ensured by different institutions on compatible normative grounds(1.

  18. Effects of oestradiol-enriched diet and of feeding with porcine testicular tissue on macroscopic gonadal sex in European eels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, D.; Boetius, I.; Larsen, L.O.

    1996-01-01

    days there were 44% with female-gonads, 40% with male+female-gonads and 16% with male-gonads. Oestradiol thus had a feminizing effect, not only on morphologically undifferentiated gonads but also on morphologically differentiated male-gonads. The presence of sex steroid hormones or their precursors...... and 78% of oestradiol-treated eels developed female-gonads. Minced porcine testicular tissue fed to 2-g eels for up to 371 days had effects similar to oestradiol-enriched food (68% with female-gonads), whereas feeding for only 91 days had no effect during the next 8 months. Oestradiol-enriched food...... in porcine testicular tissue may also exert a feminizing influence. In all experiments the hormone-fed groups showed a tendency (not significant) towards increased growth rate. In small eels early rapid growth and differentiation of female-gonads were clearly correlated, both in hormone treated...

  19. Competitiveness effects of environmental tax reforms (COMETR). Final report to the European Commission, DG Research and DG TAXUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, M.; Speck, S. (Univ. of Aarhus, National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Policy Analysis (Denmark)); Barker, T.; Junankar, S.; Pollitt, H. (Cambridge Econometrics (United Kingdom)); Fitz Gerald, J.; Scott, S. (Economic and Social Research Institute (Ireland)); Jilkova, J. (Univ. of Economics Prague, Institute for Economic and Environmental Policy (Czech Republic)); Salmons, R.; Ekins, P. (Policy Studies Institute (United Kingdom)); Christie, E.; Michael Landesmann, M. (Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (Austria))

    2007-12-15

    COMETR provides an ex-post assessment of experiences and competitiveness impacts of using carbon-energy taxes as an instrument of an Environmental Tax Reform (ETR), which shifts the tax burden and helps reduce the carbon emissions that cause global warming. COMETR: reviews the experience in ETR in seven EU Member States (Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Finland, Slovenia, Sweden and UK); analyses world market conditions for a set of energy-intensive sectors, as a framework for considering competitiveness effects; analyses the effects of ETR on sector-specific energy usage and carbon emissions in Member States with carbon-energy taxes introduced on industry; presents a macroeconomic analysis of the competitiveness effects of ETR for individual Member States as well as for the EU as a whole; provides ex-post figures for environmental decoupling and assesses carbon leakage; reviews mitigation and compensation mechanisms for energy-intensive industries. (au)

  20. Fundamental Flaws in the Architecture of the European Central Bank: The Possible End of the Euro Zone and its Effects to East African Community (EAC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothando Moyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available European countries embarked on a European integration programme that saw the formation of the Euro, which has emerged as a major currency (Blair, 1999 that was introduced in 1998. With the Euro, came the establishment of the European Central Bank. Thus this study seeks to investigate the flaws in the formation of the European Central Bank that surfaced during the major economic crisis in Europe. The crisis revealing the gaps in the formation and structure of the European central bank have created major challenges for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. Through an extant review of literature the study will examine the East African Community Countries, investigating the ties they have to the euro zone to analyse how the crisis has affected them. Furthermore, the study will analyse what would happen to the growth patterns of the East African Countries and the various prospects they may have should the Eurozone come to an end.